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  1. ALMA News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T.

    2005-06-01

    SCIENCE ADVISORY COMMITTEE REPORT The European ALMA Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) met on 23 February 2005 at ESO in Garching. On the two following days, the ALMA Science Advisory Committee (ASAC) met. In both meetings the discussions were mostly concerned with a request by the ALMA Board to consider the impact of ‘rebaselining' proposals on the science that can be done with ALMA. Much of the need for rebaselining is caused by the large increases in commodity prices, such as those of steel and oil. These have led to large cost increases for ALMA. A number of possible options for savings were proposed.

  2. ALMA News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T.

    2005-12-01

    An independent international Cost Review of the ALMA project was held in Garmisch- Partenkirchen on October 13-16. The general response of the Cost Review Committee was positive. The three ALMA Project Managers (Tony Beasley, Joint ALMA Office; Adrian Russell, North America; Hans Rykaczewski, Europe) wrote that “The response from the committee is pretty much as good as it could be ...” Massimo Tarenghi, the ALMA Director, added “This excellent outcome reflects the very hard work of many people in the ALMA project, and the conscientious way in which the review was carried out.” More details of the review will follow when the final report becomes available.

  3. The ALMA Request Handler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N.; Jenkins, D.; Damian, A.; Gaudet, S.; Wicenec, A.; Williams, S.

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA Archive Group is an international collaboration with contributions from various institutions from four continents including the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). One of the deliverables of this group is the ALMA Science Archive (ASA) which will allow the astronomical community to browse and access the complex raw and processed data sets stored in the ALMA front-end archive (AFA). ALMA data will be available through the ASA without restrictions after a nominal proprietary period of one year. Here we describe the design and functionality of the ALMA Request Handler, the component of the ALMA Science Archive which will manage user requests and provide user access to both publicly available and proprietary ALMA data. The Request Handler is designed with portability in mind, and may also be deployed at the CADC and the European Southern Observatory (ESO).

  4. ALMA science operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Lars-Åke; Andreani, Paola; Hibbard, John; Okumura, Sachiko K.

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) project is an international collaboration between Europe, East Asia and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The ALMA Array Operations Site (AOS) is located at Chajnantor, a plateau at an altitude of 5000 m in the Atacama desert in Chile, and the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF) is located near the AOS at an altitude of 2900 m. ALMA will consist of an array of 66 antennas, with baselines up to 16 km and state-of-the-art receivers that cover all the atmospheric windows up to 1 THz. An important component of ALMA is the compact array of twelwe 7-m and four 12-m antennas (the Atacama Compact Array, ACA), which will greatly enhance ALMA's ability to image extended sources. Construction of ALMA started in 2003 and will be completed in 2013. Commissioning started in January 2010 and Early Science Operations is expected to start during the second half of 2011. ALMA science operations is provided by the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) in Chile, and the three ALMA Regional Centers (ARCs) located in each ALMA region - Europe, North America and East Asia. ALMA observations will take place 24h per day, interrupted by maintenance periods, and will be done in service observing mode with flexible (dynamic) scheduling. The observations are executed in the form of scheduling blocks (SBs), each of which contains all information necessary to schedule and execute the observations. The default output to the astronomer will be pipeline-reduced images calibrated according to the calibration plan. The JAO is responsible for the data product quality. All science and calibration raw data are captured and archived in the ALMA archive, a distributed system with nodes at the OSF, the Santiago central office and the ARCs. Observation preparation will follow a Phase 1/Phase 2 process. During Phase 1, observation proposals will be created using software tools provided by the JAO and submitted for scientific and

  5. ALMA's long look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morata, Oscar; Huang, Ted

    2017-06-01

    ALMA's Band 1 receivers will open up the 7 mm window to the 66 antennas on Chajnantor Plateau. Oscar Morata and Ted Huang relate the expected delivery schedule and science goals for these instruments.

  6. The ALMA Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoehr, F.; Manning, A.; Moins, C.; Jenkins, D.; Lacy, M.; Leon, S.; Muller, E.; Nakanishi, K.; Matthews, B.; Gaudet, S.; Murphy, E.; Ashitagawa, K.; Kawamura, A.

    2017-03-01

    Science archives help to maximise the scientific return of astronomical facilities. After placing science archives into a slightly larger context, we describe the current status and capabilities of the ALMA Science Archive. We present the design principles and technology employed for three main contexts: query; result set display; and data download. A summary of the ALMA data flow is also presented as are access statistics to date.

  7. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  8. ALMA software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Raffi, Gianni

    2002-12-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project involving astronomical organizations in Europe and North America. ALMA will consist of at least 64 12-meter antennas operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter range. It will be located at an altitude of about 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. The primary challenge to the development of the software architecture is the fact that both its development and runtime environments will be distributed. Groups at different institutes will develop the key elements such as Proposal Preparation tools, Instrument operation, On-line calibration and reduction, and Archiving. The Proposal Preparation software will be used primarily at scientists' home institutions (or on their laptops), while Instrument Operations will execute on a set of networked computers at the ALMA Operations Support Facility. The ALMA Science Archive, itself to be replicated at several sites, will serve astronomers worldwide. Building upon the existing ALMA Common Software (ACS), the system architects will prepare a robust framework that will use XML-encoded entity objects to provide an effective solution to the persistence needs of this system, while remaining largely independent of any underlying DBMS technology. Independence of distributed subsystems will be facilitated by an XML- and CORBA-based pass-by-value mechanism for exchange of objects. Proof of concept (as well as a guide to subsystem developers) will come from a prototype whose details will be presented.

  9. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  10. A Roof for ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    On 10 March, an official ceremony took place on the 2,900m high site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Operations Support Facility, from where the ALMA antennas will be remotely controlled. The ceremony marked the completion of the structural works, while the building itself will be finished by the end of the year. This will become the operational centre of one of the most important ground-based astronomical facilities on Earth. ESO PR Photo 13a/07 ESO PR Photo 13a/07 Cutting the Red Ribbon The ceremony, known as 'Tijerales' in Chile, is the equivalent to the 'roof-topping ceremony' that takes place worldwide, in one form or another, to celebrate reaching the highest level of a construction. It this case, the construction is the unique ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF), located near the town of San Pedro de Atacama. "The end of this first stage represents an historic moment for ALMA," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Once completed in December 2007, this monumental building of 7,000 square metres will be one of the largest and most important astronomical operation centres in the world." ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. The OSF buildings are designed to suit the requirements of this exceptional observatory in a remote, desert location. The facility, which will host about 100 people during operations, consists of three main buildings: the technical building, hosting the control centre of the observatory, the antenna assembly building, including four antenna foundations for testing and maintenance purposes, and the warehouse building, including mechanical workshops. Further secondary buildings are

  11. ALMA Extended Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameno, S.; Nakai, N.; Honma, M.

    2013-10-01

    We propose to append five 12-m antennas within 300-km from ALMA to realize high angular resolution of < 1 mas and sensitivity to detect Tb < 1000 K. This ALMA extended array offers a new parameter space of "Thermal universe with VLBI resolution". Proposed science case includes black-hole formation in sub-mm galaxies, mass accretion processes onto protostars, imaging stellar photospheres, distance measurements of stars, and so on. The array also functions as a part of sub-mm VLBI that targets black-hole imaging.

  12. The ALMA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, L.-Å.

    2009-05-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an international millimeter-wavelength radio telescope under construction in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. ALMA will be situated on a high-altitude site at 5000 m elevation which provides excellent atmospheric transmission over the instrument wavelength range of 0.3 to 9 mm. ALMA will be comprised of two key observing components a main array of fifty 12 m diameter antennas arranged in a multiple configurations ranging in size from 0.15 to 18 km, and a set of four 12 m and twelve 7 m antennas operating in a compact array 50 m in diameter (known as the Atacama Compact Array, or ACA), providing both interferometric and total-power astronomical information. High-sensitivity dual-polarization 8 GHz-bandwidth spectral-line and continuum measurements between all antennas will be available from two flexible digital correlators. At the shortest planned wavelength and largest configuration, the angular resolution of ALMA will be 0.005 arcsec. The instrument will use superconducting (SIS) mixers to provide the lowest possible receiver noise contribution, and special-purpose water vapor radiometers to assist in calibration of atmospheric phase distortions. Early science observations are expected in 2010, with full operations in 2012.

  13. Solar ALMA predictions: tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2017-10-01

    I have proposed that long Hα fibrils are caused by heating events of which the tracks are afterwards outlined by contrails of cooling gas with extraordinary Hα opacity and yet larger opacity at the ALMA wavelengths. Here I detail the radiative transfer background.

  14. The ALMA antenna procurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, S.; Zivick, Jeff; Inatani, Junji

    2009-10-01

    Visitors who come to the OSF at regular intervals find a growing population of antennas at various stages of assembly and testing. The long path from the start of the definition of antenna specifications to the start of science operations with the antennas was and still is a formidable endeavor. When completed, ALMA will comprise a 12-meter diameter antennas array, the bilateral interferometer array, of a minimum of fifty antennas and in addition, the ACA (Atacama Compact Array), composed of four 12-meter diameter antennas and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas. Out of the fifty antennas of the bilateral interferometer array, one-half are provided by the North American partners of ALMA, the other half by the European partners. The sixteen antennas that will comprise the ACA are provided by the East Asian Partners of ALMA. Here we review some key points of this challenging process and we provide a brief history and status of the ALMA antennas. Because of the length of the description, we will present this in a series of two articles. In this first part we concentrate mostly on the bilateral antenna procurement. A detailed description of the ACA will be presented in the next newsletter.

  15. The ALMA Science Archive: Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-Vela, J.; Bauhofer, M.; Meuss, H.; Stoehr, F.; Manning, A.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) radio interferometer has started Early Science observations, providing a copious stream of new, high-quality astronomical datasets of unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. We present here how the ALMA Science Archive (ASA) is being implemented, leveraging existing Virtual Observatory (VO) technologies and software packages, together with Web 2.0 techniques, to provide scientists with an easy to use, multi-parameter discovery tool for ALMA data, integrated with the VO.

  16. Alma Data Mining Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, Marc W.; Rauch, Kevin P.; Mundy, Lee; Harris, Robert J.; Xu, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) is a Python based pipeline toolkit for the creation and analysis of new science products from ALMA data. ADMIT quickly provides users with a detailed overview of their science products, for example: line identifications, line 'cutout' cubes, moment maps, and emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection). Users can download the small ADMIT pipeline product (< 20MB), analyze the results, then fine-tune and re-run the ADMIT pipeline (or any part thereof) on their own machines and interactively inspect the results. ADMIT has both a web browser and command line interface available for this purpose. By analyzing multiple data cubes simultaneously, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions are possible. Users are also able to enhance the capabilities of ADMIT by creating customized ADMIT tasks satisfying any special processing needs. We will present some of the salient features of ADMIT and example use cases.

  17. ALMA correlator computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Jim; Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus

    2004-09-01

    We present a design for the computer systems which control, configure, and monitor the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) correlator and process its output. Two distinct computer systems implement this functionality: a rack- mounted PC controls and monitors the correlator, and a cluster of 17 PCs process the correlator output into raw spectral results. The correlator computer systems interface to other ALMA computers via gigabit Ethernet networks utilizing CORBA and raw socket connections. ALMA Common Software provides the software infrastructure for this distributed computer environment. The control computer interfaces to the correlator via multiple CAN busses and the data processing computer cluster interfaces to the correlator via sixteen dedicated high speed data ports. An independent array-wide hardware timing bus connects to the computer systems and the correlator hardware ensuring synchronous behavior and imposing hard deadlines on the control and data processor computers. An aggregate correlator output of 1 gigabyte per second with 16 millisecond periods and computational data rates of approximately 1 billion floating point operations per second define other hard deadlines for the data processing computer cluster.

  18. ALMA Observations of TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Bryan J.; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    Some of the most fundamental properties of TNOs are still quite poorly constrained, including diameter and density. Observations at long thermal wavelengths, in the millimeter and submillimeter, hold promise for determining these quantities, at least for the largest of these bodies (and notably for those with companions). Knowing this information can then yield clues as to the formation mechanism of these bodies, allowing us to distinguish between pairwise accretion and other formation scenarios.We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe Orcus, Quaoar, Salacia, and 2002 UX25 at wavelengths of 1.3 and 0.8 mm, in order to constrain the sizes of these bodies. We have also used ALMA to make astrometric observations of the Eris-Dysnomia system, in an attempt to measure the wobble of Eris and hence accurately determine its density. Dysnomia should also be directly detectable in those data, separate from Eris (ALMA has sufficient resolution in the configuration in which the observations were made). Results from these observations will be presented and discussed.

  19. The ALMA Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.; Sommer, H.; Farris, A.

    2004-07-01

    Prospective users, instrumentation and location of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) all present its software developers with major challenges. The development of this software will be distributed among many institutes on two continents, mimicking the software itself, which will have to function in a distributed environment, spanning the 0.5-10 km baselines between antennas, as well as the much larger distances that will separate the array site at the 5000m-high Llano de Chajnantor, the Operations Support Facility in San Pedro de Atacama, the Santiago Central Office, and the ALMA Regional Centers in North America and Europe. To make distributed development successful, we have defined interfaces that allow separated groups to work independently of their counterparts at other locations as much as possible. We have defined a common architecture and infrastructure, so that work done at one location is not unnecessarily duplicated at another, and that similar tasks are done in a similar way throughout the project. A single, integrated Archive attends to the needs of all subsystems for persistent storage, and hides details of the underlying database technology. The separation of functional from technical concerns is built into the system architecture through the use of the Container-Component model: application developers can concentrate on implementing functionality in runtime-deployable components, which in turn depend on Containers to provide them with services such as access to remote resources, transparent serialization of value objects to XML, logging, error-handling and security. The resulting middleware, which forms part of the ALMA Common Software (ACS), is based on CORBA and XML.

  20. Lupus Alma Disk Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, Megan

    2016-07-01

    We present the first unbiased ALMA survey of both dust and gas in a large sample of protoplanetary disks. We surveyed 100 sources in the nearby (150-200 pc), young (1-2 Myr) Lupus region to constrain M_dust to 2 M_Mars and M_gas to 1 M_Jup. Most disks have masses < MMSN and gas-to-dust ratios < ISM. Such rapid gas depletion may explain the prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  1. The ALMA software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Farris, Allen; Sommer, Heiko

    2004-09-01

    The software for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is being developed by many institutes on two continents. The software itself will function in a distributed environment, from the 0.5-14 kmbaselines that separate antennas to the larger distances that separate the array site at the Llano de Chajnantor in Chile from the operations and user support facilities in Chile, North America and Europe. Distributed development demands 1) interfaces that allow separated groups to work with minimal dependence on their counterparts at other locations; and 2) a common architecture to minimize duplication and ensure that developers can always perform similar tasks in a similar way. The Container/Component model provides a blueprint for the separation of functional from technical concerns: application developers concentrate on implementing functionality in Components, which depend on Containers to provide them with services such as access to remote resources, transparent serialization of entity objects to XML, logging, error handling and security. Early system integrations have verified that this architecture is sound and that developers can successfully exploit its features. The Containers and their services are provided by a system-orienteddevelopment team as part of the ALMA Common Software (ACS), middleware that is based on CORBA.

  2. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  3. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Lightfoot, J.; Kosugi, G.; Wilson, C.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array / Atacama Compact Array (ALMA / ACA) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes such as single fields, mosaics or on-the-fly maps. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts using as the data processing engines the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA[PY]) libraries and the ATNF Spectral Analysis Package (ASAP). The interferometry heuristics scripts currently provide an end-to-end process for the single field mode comprising flagging, initial calibration, re-flagging, re-calibration, and imaging of the target data. A Java browser provides user-friendly access to the heuristics results. The initial single-dish heuristics scripts implement automatic spectral line detection, baseline fitting and image gridding. The resulting data cubes are analyzed to detect source emission spectrally and spatially in order to calculate signal-to-noise ratios for comparison against the science goals specified by the observer.

  4. The ALMA Frontier Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Franz E.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Laporte, Nicolas; Muñoz Arancibia, Alejandra; Villard, Eric; Kneissl, Ruediger; Kim, Sam; ALMA Frontier Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    The Frontier Fields Legacy Program targets six strong lensing clusters with deep HST and Spitzer imaging to detect and characterize the faint background galaxy population, particularly the first galaxies at z~6-10. We initiated an ALMA survey to produce “shallow” ~2'x2' maps of the Frontier Field cluster fields at 1.1mm to study intrinsically faint dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and place constraints on the star formation from a variety of interesting extragalactic source populations. Five of the six clusters have now been completed, yielding relatively uniform maps that pinpoint cool dust emission from powerful DSFGs at z>1. I will present a census of the detected objects thus far, as well as some stacking constraints on the average emission from undetected source populations.

  5. ALMA from the Users' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2010-05-01

    After decades of dreaming and preparation, the call for early science with ALMA is just around the corner. The goal of this talk is to illustrate the process of preparing and carrying out a research program with ALMA. This presentation will step through the user interface for proposal preparation, proposal review, project tracking, data acquisition, and post-processing. Examples of the software tools, including the simulator and spectral line catalog, will be included.

  6. From Virgil to Alma Mater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Ellen Handler

    2007-01-01

    For a college to become an alma mater in the hearts of its students, it must show, true to the Latin meaning, the wisdom and comfort of a good foster mother. Since "alma mater" is Latin, and since the study of Latin has waned on all educational levels in both pious and secular milieus, the author wonders whether folks who use that term really know…

  7. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions

  8. ADMIT: ALMA Data Mining Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Douglas N.; Xu, Lisa; Looney, Leslie; Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, Marc W.; Rauch, Kevin P.; Mundy, Lee G.; Kern, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) is a toolkit for the creation and analysis of new science products from ALMA data. ADMIT is an ALMA Development Project written purely in Python. While specifically targeted for ALMA science and production use after the ALMA pipeline, it is designed to be generally applicable to radio-astronomical data. ADMIT quickly provides users with a detailed overview of their science products: line identifications, line 'cutout' cubes, moment maps, emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection), etc. Users can download the small ADMIT pipeline product (< 20MB), analyze the results, then fine-tune and re-run the ADMIT pipeline (or any part thereof) on their own machines and interactively inspect the results. ADMIT will have both a GUI and command line interface available for this purpose. By analyzing multiple data cubes simultaneously, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions will be possible. Users will also be able to enhance the capabilities of ADMIT by creating customized ADMIT tasks satisfying any special processing needs. Future implementations of ADMIT may include EVLA and other instruments.

  9. Admit: Alma Data Mining Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Xu, Lisa; Pound, Marc W.; Teuben, Peter J.; Rauch, Kevin P.; Mundy, Lee; Kern, Jeffrey S.

    2015-06-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) is a toolkit for the creation and analysis of new science products from ALMA data. ADMIT is an ALMA Development Project written purely in Python. While specifically targeted for ALMA science and production use after the ALMA pipeline, it is designed to be generally applicable to radio-astronomical data. ADMIT quickly provides users with a detailed overview of their science products: line identifications, line 'cutout' cubes, moment maps, emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection), etc. Users can download the small ADMIT pipeline product (<20MB), analyze the results, then fine-tune and re-run the ADMIT pipeline (or any part thereof) on their own machines and interactively inspect the results. ADMIT will have both a GUI and command line interface available for this purpose. By analyzing multiple data cubes simultaneously, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions will be possible. Users will also be able to enhance the capabilities of ADMIT by creating customized ADMIT tasks satisfying any special processing needs. Future implementations of ADMIT may include EVLA and other instruments.

  10. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory took another step forward and upward, as one of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to Chile's 16,500-foot-high plateau of Chajnantor on the back of a giant, custom-built transporter. The 40-foot-diameter antenna, weighing about 100 tons, was moved to ALMA's high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for observing the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only about half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 9,500-foot altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF). It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "The successful transport of the first ALMA Antenna to the high site marks the start of the next phase of the project. Now that we are starting to move the ALMA antennas to the high site, the real work begins and the exciting part is just beginning," said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Manager. The antenna's trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters lifted the antenna onto its back, carrying its heavy load along the 17-mile road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 8 miles per hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas use state-of-the-art technology, and are the most advanced submillimeter-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site, to survive strong winds and extreme temperatures, to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf

  11. The North American ALMA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hibbard, J. E.; Staff, NAASC

    2010-01-01

    The North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, in Charlottesville, Virginia, in partnership with the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, will support the North American community in their observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA. Our goal is to promote successful observations with ALMA for both novice users, with no experience in either interferometry or millimeter astronomy, and experts alike. We will describe the services that the Science Center will provide for the community, from education about the capabilities of ALMA, though proposal preparation to data analysis. The Science Center will host a website with a Helpdesk that includes FAQs and a growing knowledgebase of ALMA expertise, and will support extensive demos and tutorials on observation preparation and data reduction with ALMA. The Science Center also promotes science-themed meetings. The staff of the Science Center will provide expert assistance for observers at all stages of development and execution of their program. There are visitor and postdoc opportunities at the Science Center. The North American ALMA Science Center is one of three regional centers around the globe that will support ALMA observations. Our partners are the European ALMA Regional Center at ESO in Garching, Germany, and the East Asian ALMA Region Center in Tokyo, Japan.

  12. Observing the Sun with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Brajsa, R.; Shimojo, M.; Karlicky, M.; Testi, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is in the commissioning phase for solar observations. A filter reduces the solar radiation to a level suitable for solar observations. First observations with one antenna have mapped the Sun by scanning. The results look promising. The image of the quiet chromosphere shows large spatial variations in emissivity. Interferometry is much more demanding and not yet achieved. The current state and problems will be summarized. It is clear that solar ALMA observations will take more developing time, but will eventually be possible. The goal is subarcsecond resolution of the quiet and active submillimeter continuum radiation originating in the chromosphere and possibly in the flaring corona. A limiting factor will be the temporal variability of the solar emission.

  13. ALMA Band 5 Science Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, L.; Biggs, A.; Immer, K.; Laing, R.; Liu, H. B.; Marconi, G.; Mroczkowski, T.; Testi, L.; Yagoubov, P.

    2017-03-01

    ALMA Band 5 (163–211 GHz) was recently commissioned and Science Verification (SV) observations were obtained in the latter half of 2016. A primary scientific focus of this band is the H2O line at 183.3 GHz, which can be observed around 15% of the time when the precipitable water vapour is sufficiently low (< 0.5 mm). Many more lines are covered in Band 5 and can be observed for over 70% of the time on Chajnantor, requiring similar restrictions to those for ALMA Bands 4 and 6. Examples include the H218O line at 203 GHz, some of the bright (3–2) lines of singly and doubly deuterated forms of formaldehyde, the (2–1) lines of HCO+, HCN, HNC, N2H+ and several of their isotopologues. A young star-forming region near the centre of the Milky Way, an evolved star also in our Galaxy, and a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) were observed as part of the SV process and the data are briefly described. The reduced data, along with imaged data products, are now public and demonstrate the power of ALMA for high-resolution studies of H2O and other molecules in a variety of astronomical targets.

  14. A Look Inside Hurricane Alma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane season in the eastern Pacific started off with a whimper late last month as Alma, a Category 2 hurricane, slowly made its way up the coast of Baja California, packing sustained winds of 110 miles per hour and gusts of 135 miles per hour. The above image of the hurricane was acquired on May 29, 2002, and displays the rainfall rates occurring within the storm. Click the image above to see an animated data visualization (3.8 MB) of the interior of Hurricane Alma. The images of the clouds seen at the beginning of the movie were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's (NOAA's) Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) network. As the movie continues, the clouds are peeled away to reveal an image of rainfall levels in the hurricane. The rainfall data were obtained by the Precipitation Radar aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The Precipitation Radar bounces radio waves off of clouds to retrieve a reading of the number of large, rain-sized droplets within the clouds. Using these data, scientists can tell how much precipitation is occurring within and beneath a hurricane. In the movie, yellow denotes areas where 0.5 inches of rain is falling per hour, green denotes 1 inch per hour, and red denotes over 2 inches per hour. (Please note that high resolution still images of Hurricane Alma are available in the NASA Visible Earth in TIFF format.) Image and animation courtesy Lori Perkins, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  15. A Look Inside Hurricane Alma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane season in the eastern Pacific started off with a whimper late last month as Alma, a Category 2 hurricane, slowly made its way up the coast of Baja California, packing sustained winds of 110 miles per hour and gusts of 135 miles per hour. The above image of the hurricane was acquired on May 29, 2002, and displays the rainfall rates occurring within the storm. Click the image above to see an animated data visualization (3.8 MB) of the interior of Hurricane Alma. The images of the clouds seen at the beginning of the movie were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's (NOAA's) Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) network. As the movie continues, the clouds are peeled away to reveal an image of rainfall levels in the hurricane. The rainfall data were obtained by the Precipitation Radar aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The Precipitation Radar bounces radio waves off of clouds to retrieve a reading of the number of large, rain-sized droplets within the clouds. Using these data, scientists can tell how much precipitation is occurring within and beneath a hurricane. In the movie, yellow denotes areas where 0.5 inches of rain is falling per hour, green denotes 1 inch per hour, and red denotes over 2 inches per hour. (Please note that high resolution still images of Hurricane Alma are available in the NASA Visible Earth in TIFF format.) Image and animation courtesy Lori Perkins, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  16. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  17. ALMA Debuts High-Resolution Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    The exciting results of the highest-resolution test campaign yet attempted by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are detailed in a recent set of four papers. Animation (click to watch) of the asteroid Juno as seen in mm wavelengths by ALMA's Long Baseline Campaign. Image credit: ALMA (NRAO/ESO/NAOJ) ALMA's array of antennas can be configured so that the baseline of the simulated telescope is as small as 150 m or as large as 15 km across. In its smaller configurations, ALMA studies the large-scale structure of cold objects in the Universe — and this is how the array has been used since it began its first operations in 2011. But now ALMA has begun to test its long-baseline configuration, in which it is able to make its highest-resolution observations and study the small-scale structure of objects in detail. The Targets ALMA's Long Baseline Campaign, run in late 2014, observed five science targets using 22-36 antennas arranged with a baseline of up to the full 15 km. The targets were selected to push the limits of ALMA's capabilities: each target has a small angular size (less than two arcseconds) with fine-scale structure that is largely unresolved in previous observations. Two of the targets, the variable star Mira and the active galaxy 3C138, were primarily used for calibration and comparisons of ALMA data to those of other telescopes. The remaining three targets not only demonstrated ALMA's capabilities, but also resulted in new science discoveries. ALMA's highest resolution observation yet, of the gravitationally lensed galaxy SDP.81. The maximum resolution of this image is 23 milliarcseconds. Image credit: ALMA (NRAO/ESO/NAOJ); B. Saxton NRAO/AUI/NSF Juno is one of the largest asteroids in our solar system's main asteroid belt. ALMA's observations of Juno were made when the asteroid was approximately 295 million km from Earth, and the ten images ALMA took have been stitched together into a brief animation that show the asteroid tumbling

  18. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  19. ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogerheijde, Michiel

    2015-08-01

    The Universe is filled with planetary systems, as recent detections of exo-planets have shown. Such systems grow out of disks of gas and dust that surround newly formed stars. The ground work for our understanding of the structure, composition, and evolution of such disks has been laid with infrared telescopes in the 1980's, 1990's, and 2000's, as well as with millimeter interferometers operating in the United States, France, and Japan. With the construction of the Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array, a new era of studying planet-forming disks has started. The unprecedented leap in sensitivity and angular resolution that ALMA offers, has truely revolutionized our understanding of disks. No longer featureless objects consisting of gas and smalll dust, they are now seen to harbor a rich structure and chemistry. The ongoing planet-formation process sculpts many disks into systems of rings and arcs; grains grown to millimeter-sizes collect in high-pressure areas where they could grow out to asteroids or comets or further generations of planets. This wealth of new information directly addresses bottlenecks in our theoretical understanding of planet formation, such as the question how grains can grow past the 'meter-sized' barrier or overcome the 'drift barrier', and how gas and ice evolve together and ultimately determine the elemental compositions of both giant and terrestrial planets. I will review the recent ALMA results on protoplanetary disks, presenting results on individual objects and from the first populations studies. I will conclude with a forward look, on what we might expect from ALMA in this area for the years and decades to come.

  20. Probing Cometary Chemistry with ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Comets are considered to bear the record of the primitive Solar nebula as remnants of planetesimals that formed the outer planets. To date there are just over two dozen known cometary species compared to the >150 known interstellar molecules. This is likely due to the challenges posed when attempting to measure the composition of these small bodies. With the significant improvement in sensitivity, ALMA will likely enable the detection of new molecules to help us gain better understanding of the chemical complexity found in comets. This advancement in sensitivity will also assist in the measurement of isotope ratios in various species. These values are imperative for determining the conditions during cometary formation as well as provide insight into ongoing speculations of parent species, the possible delivery of H2O to Earth, and a direct comparison to protostellar disk chemistry. The high angular resolution obtained with ALMA will be capable of resolving any compact distributions or density enhancements in the more extended distribution that may lead to a better understanding of the formation of these species in the outer coma. By studying comet compositions we gain insight into the composition of the early Solar System as well as their astrobiological implications.

  1. Probing Cometary Chemistry with ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Comets are considered to bear the record of the primitive Solar nebula as remnants of planetesimals that formed the outer planets. To date there are just over two dozen known cometary species compared to the >150 known interstellar molecules. This is likely due to the challenges posed when attempting to measure the composition of these small bodies. With the significant improvement in sensitivity, ALMA will likely enable the detection of new molecules to help us gain better understanding of the chemical complexity found in comets. This advancement in sensitivity will also assist in the measurement of isotope ratios in various species. These values are imperative for determining the conditions during cometary formation as well as provide insight into ongoing speculations of parent species, the possible delivery of H2O to Earth, and a direct comparison to protostellar disk chemistry. The high angular resolution obtained with ALMA will be capable of resolving any compact distributions or density enhancements in the more extended distribution that may lead to a better understanding of the formation of these species in the outer coma. By studying comet compositions we gain insight into the composition of the early Solar System as well as their astrobiological implications.

  2. ADMIT: The ALMA Data Mining Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, P.; Pound, M.; Mundy, L.; Rauch, K.; Friedel, D.; Looney, L.; Xu, L.; Kern, J.

    2015-09-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining ToolkiT), a toolkit for the creation of new science products from ALMA data, is being developed as an ALMA Development Project. It is written in Python and, while specifically targeted for a uniform analysis of the ALMA science products that come out of the ALMA pipeline, it is designed to be generally applicable to (radio) astronomical data. It first provides users with a detailed view of their science products created by ADMIT inside the ALMA pipeline: line identifications, line ‘cutout' cubes, moment maps, emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection). Using descriptor vectors the ALMA data archive is enriched with useful information to make archive data mining possible. Users can also opt to download the (small) ADMIT pipeline product, then fine-tune and re-run the pipeline and inspect their hopefully improved data. By running many projects in a parallel fashion, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions will also be possible. Future implementations of ADMIT may include EVLA and other instruments.

  3. ALMA observatory equipped with its first antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    High in the Atacama region in northern Chile, one of the world's most advanced telescopes has just passed a major milestone. The first of many state-of-the-art antennas has just been handed over to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA is under construction on the plateau of Chajnantor, at an altitude of 5000 m. The telescope is being built by a global partnership, including ESO as the European partner. ALMA ESO PR Photo 49a/08 ALMA antenna ALMA will initially comprise 66 high precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12-metre antennas, acting together as a single giant telescope, and a compact array composed of 7-metre and 12-metre diameter antennas. With ALMA, astronomers will study the cool Universe -- the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies and even life are formed. ALMA will provide new, much-needed insights into the formation of stars and planets, and will reveal distant galaxies in the early Universe, which we see as they were over ten billion years ago. The first 12-metre diameter antenna, built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, one of the ALMA partners, has just been handed over to the observatory. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. "Our Japanese colleagues have produced this state-of-the-art antenna to exacting specifications. We are very excited about the handover because now we can fully equip this antenna for scientific observations," said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Antennas arriving at the ALMA site undergo a series of tests to ensure that they meet the strict requirements of the telescope. The antennas have surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km. "ALMA is very important to European astronomers and to ESO, the European partner in

  4. First two ALMA antennas successfully linked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Scientists and engineers working on the world's largest ground-based astronomical project, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), have achieved another milestone -- the successful linking of two ALMA astronomical antennas, synchronised with a precision of one millionth of a millionth of a second -- to observe the planet Mars. ALMA is under construction by an international partnership in the Chilean Andes. ESO PR Photo 18a/09 The two ALMA antennas On 30 April, the team observed the first "interferometric fringes" of an astronomical source by linking two 12-metre diameter ALMA antennas, together with the other critical parts of the system. Mars was chosen as a suitable target for the observations, which demonstrate ALMA's full hardware functionality and connectivity. This important milestone was achieved at the ALMA Operations Support Facility, high in Chile's Atacama region, at an altitude of 2900 metres. "We're very proud and excited to have made this crucial observation, as it proves that the various hardware components work smoothly together. This brings us another step closer to full operations for ALMA as an astronomical observatory," says Wolfgang Wild, the European ALMA Project Manager. The two antennas used in this test will be part of ALMA's array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas that will observe in unison as a single giant telescope, under construction on the Chajnantor plateau above the Operations Support Facility, at an altitude of 5000 metres. ALMA will operate as an interferometer, capturing millimetre and submillimetre wavelength signals from the sky with multiple antennas, and combining them to create extremely high resolution images, similar to those that would be obtained by a single, giant antenna with a diameter equal to the distance between the antennas used. "This can only be achieved with the perfect synchronisation of the antennas and the electronic equipment: a precision much better than one millionth of

  5. ALMA quality assurance: concepts, procedures, and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, A. M.; Tanne, S. L.; Akiyama, E.; Kurowski, R.; Randall, S.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Villard, E.

    2016-07-01

    Data produced by ALMA for the community undergoes a rigorous quality assurance (QA) process, from the initial observation ("QA0") to the final science-ready data products ("QA2"), to the QA feedback given by the Principal Investigators (PIs) when they receive the data products ("QA3"). Calibration data is analyzed to measure the performance of the observatory and predict the trend of its evolution ("QA1"). The procedure develops over different steps and involves several actors across all ALMA locations; it is made possible by the support given by dedicated software tools and a complex database of science data, meta-data and operational parameters. The life-cycle of each involved entity is well-defined, and it prevents for instance that "bad" data (that is, data not meeting the minimum quality standards) is ever processed by the ALMA pipeline. This paper describes ALMA's quality assurance concepts and procedures, including the main enabling software components.

  6. High-redshift Universe Science with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Andrew

    ALMA is the largest ground-based astrophysics facility to date, being build by three major international partners: East Asia, Europe and North America. Within a year it should be de-livering data to the worldwide scientific community, and will offer a greatly enhanced capability to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. I will describe some of the unique capabilities of the telescope, and its likely impact on the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. ALMA will provide unprecedented 100-parcsec-scale images of the earliest galaxies, including systems that are currently 100-1000 times too faint to be detected with existing facilities. It is likely that the commissioning of ALMA will provide the greatest increase in observational capability ever seen for a wide range of different disciplines, and ALMA primary and archived data will be as prized and provide as rich a heritage as that from the great space observatories Hubble, Spitzer and Chandra.

  7. ALMA Test Sharpens Vision of New Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has passed a key milestone crucial to producing the high-quality images that will be the trademark of this revolutionary new tool for astronomy. A team of ALMA astronomers and engineers successfully linked three of the observatory's advanced antennas at the 16,500-foot-elevation observing site in northern Chile. Linking three antennas to work in unison for the first time allowed the ALMA team to correct errors that can arise when only two antennas are used, thus paving the way for precise, high-resolution imaging. The three-antenna linkup was a key test of the full electronic and software system now being installed at ALMA. Its success shows that the completed ALMA system of 66 high-tech antennas will be capable of producing astronomical images of unprecedented quality at its designed observing wavelengths. "This successful test shows that we are well on the way to providing the clear, sharp ALMA images that will open a whole new window for observing the Universe. We look forward to imaging stars and planets as well as galaxies in their formation processes," said Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which leads North America's participation in the ALMA project. A multi-antenna imaging system such as ALMA uses its antennas in pairs, with each antenna working with every other antenna. Each pair contributes a unique piece of information about the region of sky under observation. The contributions of all the pairs are collected and computer-processed into a completed image following the observation. Earlier ALMA tests, at the ALMA Test Facility in New Mexico, at ALMA's lower-elevation Operations Support Facility, and at the high observing site, had successfully linked pairs of antennas. This demonstrated the proper functioning of the antennas and electronic systems as what scientists and engineers call interferometer pairs. However, the information from one pair of antennas may be

  8. Two years of ALMA bibliography: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meankins, Silvia; Grothkopf, Uta; Bishop, Marsha J.; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  9. Interstellar Isotopes: Prospects with ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Cold molecular clouds are natural environments for the enrichment of interstellar molecules in the heavy isotopes of H, C, N and O. Anomalously fractionated isotopic material is found in many primitive Solar System objects, such as meteorites and comets, that may trace interstellar matter that was incorporated into the Solar Nebula without undergoing significant processing. Models of the fractionation chemistry of H, C, N and O in dense molecular clouds, particularly in cores where substantial freeze-out of molecules on to dust has occurred, make several predictions that can be tested in the near future by molecular line observations. The range of fractionation ratios expected in different interstellar molecules will be discussed and the capabilities of ALMA for testing these models (e.g. in observing doubly-substituted isotopologues) will be outlined.

  10. Interstellar Isotopes: Prospects with ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Cold molecular clouds are natural environments for the enrichment of interstellar molecules in the heavy isotopes of H, C, N and O. Anomalously fractionated isotopic material is found in many primitive Solar System objects, such as meteorites and comets, that may trace interstellar matter that was incorporated into the Solar Nebula without undergoing significant processing. Models of the fractionation chemistry of H, C, N and O in dense molecular clouds, particularly in cores where substantial freeze-out of molecules on to dust has occurred, make several predictions that can be tested in the near future by molecular line observations. The range of fractionation ratios expected in different interstellar molecules will be discussed and the capabilities of ALMA for testing these models (e.g. in observing doubly-substituted isotopologues) will be outlined.

  11. ALMA and the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, P. R.

    1999-10-01

    The 100 m Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT is the most ambitious, single radio telescope ever constructed. It has a large number of unique design and performance features including an offset feed (clear aperture), an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface figure and telescope pointing control, a feed turret for ready selection of numerous receivers, and a multi-input, 256k-channel spectrometer. The GBT will operate over a frequency range of 100 MHz to 115 GHz. The GBT and ALMA have great potential for complementary observations. The GBT will cover millimeter wavelengths longward of 2.6 mm and thus has a significant overlap with ALMA. The total physical collecting areas of 7854 m2 for the GBT and 7238 m2 for the 64x12-m ALMA configuration will give the facilities comparable flux sensitivities. The GBT has a wide field of view at its Gregorian focus that extends > 5 arcmin at 90 GHz with minimal aberrations. When equipped with focal plane array receivers, the GBT will be able to image large fields with high sensitivity very quickly. Such images will provide the astrophysical context of regions studied at high angular resolution with ALMA. The clean beam response and accurate absolute calibration of GBT data will make it ideal for combination with ALMA images. These, and other areas in which the GBT and ALMA will work in concert will be described in this poster.

  12. ALMA Observatory Equipped with its First Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    High in the Atacama region of northern Chile one of the world’s most advanced telescopes has just passed a major milestone. The first of many state-of-the-art antennas has been handed over to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA is being built by a global partnership whose North American partners are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). With ALMA, astronomers will study the cool Universe, the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies and even life are formed. ALMA will provide new, much-needed insights into the formation of stars and planets, and will reveal distant galaxies in the early Universe, which we see as they were over ten billion years ago. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high-precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12-meter diameter antennas, acting together as a single giant telescope, and a compact array composed of 7-meter and 12-meter antennas. The first 12-meter antenna to be handed over to the observatory was built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, one of the ALMA partners. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. “Our Japanese colleagues have produced this state-of-the-art antenna to exacting specifications. We are very excited about the handover because now we can fully equip this antenna for scientific observations,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Antennas arriving at the ALMA site undergo a series of tests to ensure that they meet the strict requirements of the telescope. The antennas have surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick out a golf ball at a distance of 9 miles. “The handover of the first Japanese antenna is the crowning achievement of the ALMA Project to date,” said Adrian Russell, the North American ALMA Project Director at NRAO. The

  13. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on.

  14. ALMA high performance nutating subreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasho, Victor L.; Radford, Simon J. E.; Kingsley, Jeffrey S.

    2003-02-01

    For the international ALMA project"s prototype antennas, we have developed a high performance, reactionless nutating subreflector (chopping secondary mirror). This single axis mechanism can switch the antenna"s optical axis by +/-1.5" within 10 ms or +/-5" within 20 ms and maintains pointing stability within the antenna"s 0.6" error budget. The light weight 75 cm diameter subreflector is made of carbon fiber composite to achieve a low moment of inertia, <0.25 kg m2. Its reflecting surface was formed in a compression mold. Carbon fiber is also used together with Invar in the supporting structure for thermal stability. Both the subreflector and the moving coil motors are mounted on flex pivots and the motor magnets counter rotate to absorb the nutation reaction force. Auxiliary motors provide active damping of external disturbances, such as wind gusts. Non contacting optical sensors measure the positions of the subreflector and the motor rocker. The principle mechanical resonance around 20 Hz is compensated with a digital PID servo loop that provides a closed loop bandwidth near 100 Hz. Shaped transitions are used to avoid overstressing mechanical links.

  15. Solar Observations In Cycle 4 Of ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, Masumi; ALMA Solar Development Team

    2016-07-01

    The Sun is one of scientific targets of the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). However, solar observations had not been offered until Cycle 3, because of a lot of difficulties for observing the Sun with the radio interferometer for night astronomy. We have been developing observing schemes for the Sun since 2010, and the joint ALMA observatory started to offer solar observations from Cycle 4 at last. Since the special treatments are needed for solar observations, there are some limitations for observing the Sun in comparison with the observations of other celestial targets. We held the commissioning campaign in December 2015 for verifying the observing modes, and the images synthesized from the commissioning data show us new sights of solar physics. The data obtained with the ALMA will bring about great scientific achievements.

  16. Setting new cosmology constraints with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messias, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    I make a short revision of Cosmology questions which ALMA was built to address. Without diving into much detail, I point out the ALMA specifications and strategies which are expected to provide a better handle of: the temperature evolution of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the properties of its secondary anisotropies (such as the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and the Ostriker-Vishniac effects); variability of dimensionless fundamental constants; Ho and galaxy initial mass function by means of strong gravitational lensing; black hole science with the greatly expected Event Horizon Telescope.

  17. ALMA Polarization Science Verification: 3C 286

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Paladino, R.; Moellenbrock, G.; Fomalont, E.; Amigano, A.; Vlahakis, C.; Remijan, A.; ALMA Polarization Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA polarization science verification results on 3C 286 are presented. The measured polarization percentage and polarization position angle of the continuum emission at 1.3 mm are about 16% and 39 degrees, respectively. They are quite similar to those at longer wavelength, but seem to increase slightly. Similar trends were also found in the previous measurement using the IRAM 30-m telescope (Agudo et al. 2012). The final image rms on the polarization image is better than 0.1% of the total intensity, demonstrating the very high polarization sensitivity of ALMA.

  18. TELCAL: The On-line Calibration Software for ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broguière, D.; Lucas, R.; Pardo, J.; Roche, J.-C.

    2011-07-01

    The ALMA on-line calibration regroups all the operations needed to maintain the ALMA interferometer optimally tuned to successfully execute the planned observations. The results of the calibrations are used in quasi-real time by the ALMA Control System. Since the first ALMA antennas were put into operation in 2009, TELCAL has been used for all the basic calibration operations and is still being improved following the project advancement. We describe here the calibrations done by TELCAL, its relationships with the other ALMA software subsystems and, briefly, the architecture of the software based on CORBA.

  19. The European ALMA Regional Centre: a model of user support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, P.; Stoehr, F.; Zwaan, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Biggs, A.; Diaz-Trigo, M.; Humphreys, E.; Petry, D.; Randall, S.; Stanke, T.; van Kampen, E.; Bárta, M.; Brand, J.; Gueth, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Muxlow, T.; Richards, A.; Vlemmings, W.

    2014-08-01

    The ALMA Regional Centres (ARCs) form the interface between the ALMA observatory and the user community from the proposal preparation stage to the delivery of data and their subsequent analysis. The ARCs provide critical services to both the ALMA operations in Chile and to the user community. These services were split by the ALMA project into core and additional services. The core services are financed by the ALMA operations budget and are critical to the successful operation of ALMA. They are contractual obligations and must be delivered to the ALMA project. The additional services are not funded by the ALMA project and are not contractual obligations, but are critical to achieve ALMA full scientific potential. A distributed network of ARC nodes (with ESO being the central ARC) has been set up throughout Europe at the following seven locations: Bologna, Bonn-Cologne, Grenoble, Leiden, Manchester, Ondrejov, Onsala. These ARC nodes are working together with the central node at ESO and provide both core and additional services to the ALMA user community. This paper presents the European ARC, and how it operates in Europe to support the ALMA community. This model, although complex in nature, is turning into a very successful one, providing a service to the scientific community that has been so far highly appreciated. The ARC could become a reference support model in an age where very large collaborations are required to build large facilities, and support is needed for geographically and culturally diverse communities.

  20. Prospects for ALMA Studies of the Solar-Stellar Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    ALMA provides a splendid opportunity to observe a wide range of star types at millimeter wavelengths to investigate the solar-stellar connection. I will compare the sensitivities and wavelength coverages of ALMA and the JVLA to highlight the discovery space that ALMA has for stellar astronomy. At millimeter wavelengths, ALMA will be able to detect thermal and gyroresonance emission from nearby stellar chromospheres and transition regions. Comparison of millimeter fluxes from ALMA with centimeter fluxes from JVLA may be able to separate thermal from gyrosynchrotron emission from stellar coronae and thereby measure magnetic field strengths in stellar coronae. Measurements of stellar wind mass-loss rates are feasible with ALMA for giants but will be difficult for main sequence stars. The study of stellar flares should be an active area of research with ALMA.

  1. First ALMA Transporter Ready for Challenging Duty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    The first of two ALMA transporters -- unique vehicles designed to move high-tech radio-telescope antennas in the harsh, high-altitude environment of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array -- has been completed and passed its initial operational tests. The 130-ton machine moves on 28 wheels and will be able to transport a 115-ton antenna and set it down on a concrete pad within millimeters of a prescribed position. ALMA Transporter The ALMA Transporter on a Test Run CREDIT: ESO Click on image for high-resolution file (244 KB) The ALMA transporter rolled out of its hangar and underwent the tests at the Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik company site near Nuremberg, Germany. The machine is scheduled for delivery at the ALMA site in Chile by the end of 2007, and a second vehicle will follow about three months later. ALMA is a giant, international observatory under construction in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile at an elevation of 16,500 feet. Using at least 66 high-precision antennas, with the possibility of increasing the number in the future, ALMA will provide astronomers with an unprecedented ability to explore the Universe as seen at wavelengths of a few millimeters to less than a millimeter. By moving the antennas from configurations as compact as 150 meters to as wide as 15 kilometers, the system will provide a zoom-lens ability for scientists. "The ability to move antennas to reconfigure the array is vital to fulfilling ALMA's scientific mission. The operations plan calls for moving antennas on a daily basis to provide the flexibility that will be such a big part of ALMA's scientific value. That's why the transporters are so important and why this is such a significant milestone," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. "The ALMA antennas will be assembled and their functionality will be verified at a base camp, located at an altitude of 2900 meters (9500 feet) and the transporters will in a first step bring the telescopes up to the

  2. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  3. Alma Flor Ada: Writer, Translator, Storyteller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of children's author Alma Flor Ada, a Cuban native who has won awards honoring Latino writers and illustrators. Includes part of an interview that explores her background, describes activity ideas, and presents a bibliography of works written by her (several title published in both English and Spanish) as well as sources of…

  4. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  5. The ALMA Level One Science Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, H. A.

    2006-06-01

    The highest level document governing the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Project is the Bilateral Agreement. Annex B of this agreement details ALMA's three highest level science goals:• The ability to detect spectral line emission from CO or C+ in a normal galaxy like the Milky Way at a redshift of z = 3, in less than 24 hours of observation.• The ability to image the gas kinematics in a solar-mass protostellar/ protoplanetary disk at a distance of 150 pc (roughly, the distance of the star-forming clouds in Ophiuchus or Corona Australis), enabling one to study the physical, chemical, and magnetic field structure of the disk and to detect the tidal gaps created by planets undergoing formation.• The ability to provide precise images at an angular resolution of 0.1". Here the term precise image means accurately representing the sky brightness at all points where the brightness is greater than 0.1% of the peak image brightness. This requirement applies to all sources visible to ALMA that transit at an elevation greater than 20 degrees. These requirements drive the technical specifications of ALMA.This presentation discusses some details of how these goals will be achieved.

  6. ALMA release management: a practical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Ruben; Shen, Tzu; Saez, Norman; Ibsen, Jorge; Schmid, Erich; Chavan, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The ALMA software is a large collection of modules for implementing all the functionality needed by the observatory's day-to-day operations from proposal preparation to the scientific data delivery. ALMA software subsystems include among many others: array/antenna control, correlator, telescope calibration, submission and processing of science proposals and data archiving. The implementation of new features and improvements for each software subsystem must be in close coordination with observatory milestones, the need to rapidly respond to operational issues, regular maintenance activities and testing resources available to verify and validate new and improved software capabilities. This paper describes the main issues detected managing all these factors together and the different approaches used by the observatory in the search of an optimal solution. In this paper, we describe the software delivery process adopted by ALMA during the construction phase and its further evolution in early operations. We also present the acceptance process implemented by the observatory for the validation of the software before it can be used for science observations. We provide details of the main roles and responsibilities during software verification and validation as well as their participation in the process for reviewing and approving changes into the accepted software versions. Finally, we present ideas on how these processes should evolve in the near future, considering the operational reality of the ALMA observatory as it moves into full operations, and summarize the progress implementing some of these ideas and lessons learnt.

  7. The ALMA Commissioning and Science Verification Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, A.; Sheth, K.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of Commissioning is to take ALMA from the stage reached at the end of AIV, that is, a system that functions at an engineering level to an instrument that meets the science / astronomy requirements. Science Verification is the quantitative confirmation that the data produced by the instrument is valid and has the required characteristics in terms of sensitivity, image quality and accuracy.

  8. ALMA: Exploring the Outer Limits of Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, A.

    2007-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a large international telescope project under construction in northern Chile on a site at Chajnantor of 5 km elevation. The excellent atmospheric transmission at that site in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges will allow ALMA to provide detailed images of the sources of the the cosmic microwave background and the cosmic far-infrared background radiation, near the wavelengths of the two strongest peaks in the spectral energy distribution of the universe. ALMA's images will contain all of the flux in the imaged field through the use of two parts: (1) the ``12 m Array'', composed of up to 64 12 m antennas that can be placed on 186 different stations for baselines up to 18 km (see Table~1), and (2) the ``Atacama Compact Array'' (ACA), which consists of 12 7 m telescopes placed in compact configurations and four 12 m telescopes for measuring source total power. At the shortest planned wavelength (λ =0.3 mm) and longest baseline, the angular resolution will be 0.004 arcsec. The receivers use superconducting (SIS) mixers, which-- in combination with the excellent site transparency and the large array collecting area-- will provide sensitivity at 1 mm wavelength of 1 mJy in a few seconds for average atmospheric conditions; this is more than two orders of magnitude better than any array operating today. At first light for the ALMA project, the six highest priority receiver bands will be installed, each observing both polarizations with a bandwidth of 8 GHz. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. In the bilateral project, ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO

  9. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  10. The ALMA computing project: initial commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, B. E.; Raffi, G.

    2008-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a large radio interferometric telescope consisting of 66 antennas with variable positions, to be located at the Chajnantor 5000mat a high site (5000m) in Chile. ALMA commissioning has now started with the arrival of several antennas in Chile and will continue for the next 4 years. The ALMA Software was from the beginning has been developed as an end-to-end system including: proposal preparation, dynamic scheduling, instrument control, data handling and formatting, data archiving and retrieval, automatic and manual data processing systems, and support for observatory operations. This presentation will expand mostly on ALMA software aspects issues on which we are concentrating in this phase: management, procedures, testing and validation. While software development was based on a common software infrastructure (ALMA Common Software - ACS) from the beginning, end-to-end testing was limited by the hardware available, and was possible for years until recently only on computer models. Although the control software was available early in prototype stand-alone form to support testing of prototypes antennas, it was only recently that dynamic interferometry was reached and software could be tested end to end with a somewhat stable hardware platform. The lessons learned so far will be explained, in particular the need for a realistic validation environment, the balance to be achieved between incremental development and the needed for stability and usability, and the way to achieve all the above with a development team distributed over three four continents. Some general lessons can be drown drawn on the potential conflicts between software and system (hardware) testing, or in other words on the danger in taking short-cuts in software testing and validation.

  11. ALMA band 3 cartridge maintenance plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Keith; Seifried, Kerry; Randolph, William

    2012-09-01

    Under the "Memorandum of Understanding between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)/Associated Universities Incorporated (AUI), Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (HIA) and the University of Calgary related to Canadian ALMA Construction Phase Work Packages", HIA is committed to deliver a suite of seventy-three Band 3 100 GHz receiver cartridges to the ALMA Project. After the acceptance of each cartridge at the Front End Integration Centers, HIA is responsible to perform any post-delivery maintenance, repair or rework of the cartridges for a warranty period of up to one year. This paper defines a framework for the maintenance and repair services for the Band 3 cartridges after the post-delivery warranty period has expired.

  12. Status of the ALMA Antenna Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Stefano

    2007-12-01

    The design of the ALMA antennas began in 1999 with a prototyping phase. Two antenna prototypes were built, extensively tested at the VLA site in New Mexico and evaluated in 2003. It was decided to proceed to procurement with two parallel calls for tenders based on the two prototypes. In 2005 contracts were placed with the US VertexRSI and the European AEM Consortium for 25 antennas each. An update on the two designs and the production progress is presented. The Japanese antennas (both 7 and 12 m) are being built by Mitsubishi, which also built an additional antenna prototype. The first antennas have recently arrived at the integration facility at the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF).

  13. Alma Observations Of The Gq Lup System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Meredith

    2016-07-01

    We present ALMA band 7 line and continuum observations of the GQ Lup system, a young Sun-like star with a substellar mass companion at 100 AU separation. We characterize the disk around the primary, constrain the stellar mass using the disk Keplerian rotation, and place an upper limit on the mass of a disk around the companion. We discuss possible formation mechanisms for the companion.

  14. The ALMA Data Mining Toolkit II: Using ADMIT on Data Mined from the ALMA Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, D. N.; Looney, L.; Mundy, L.; Pound, M.; Teuben, P.

    2014-05-01

    Following the accompanying ADMIT (the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) paper by Teuben et al. (2013), we explore the power of the ADMIT schema. ADMIT could be used to data mine across multiple ALMA datasets, projects, or sources, adding value to the ALMA archive. ADMIT will be capable of defining a set of sources in a local virtual project. This project could have the ADMIT analyses recomputed in a common fashion, or to a common level, and add new data products. The sources in the virtual project could also be grouped based on similarities, either by the user or due to decisions made by ADMIT, and have their data abstracted for further analysis and visualization inside or outside of ADMIT in a native Python environment. In this paper we describe the design and techniques of this capability.

  15. Application development using the ALMA common software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, G.; Caproni, A.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Wang, V.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.; Zagar, K.; Fugate, D. W.; Harrington, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.

    2006-06-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides the software infrastructure used by ALMA and by several other telescope projects, thanks also to the choice of adopting the LGPL public license. ACS is a set of application frameworks providing the basic services needed for object oriented distributed computing. Among these are transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location based on a container/component model, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. ACS is based on CORBA and built on top of free CORBA implementations. Free software is extensively used wherever possible. The general architecture of ACS was presented at SPIE 2002. ACS has been under development for 6 years and it is midway through its development life. Many applications have been written using ACS; the ALMA test facility, APEX and other telescopes are running systems based on ACS. This is therefore a good time to look back and see what have been until now the strong and the weak points of ACS in terms of architecture and implementation. In this perspective, it is very important to analyze the applications based on ACS, the feedback received by the users and the impact that this feedback has had on the development of ACS itself, by favoring the development of some features with respect to others. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of this analysis and discuss what we would like to do in order to extend and improve ACS in the coming years, in particular to make application development easier and more efficient.

  16. ALMA: Exploring the Outer Limits of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, A.

    2006-06-01

    This contribution reviews the science goals of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), particularly the `Level One' goals. ALMA is a large international telescope project which is being built in northern Chile on a site at 5km elevation. The site, Chajnantor, provides excellent atmospheric transmission in the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength ranges. The project consists of two components: (a) the ``12m Array'' composed of up to sixty four 12-meter antennas that can be placed on 175 different stations for baselines up to 18 km and (b) the ``Atacama Compact Array'', or ACA, that consists of twelve 7-meter antennas and four 12-meter antennas placed in compact configurations adjacent to the 12m Array for measuring source total power. Thus, ALMA will provide images of high sensitivity, over complete frequency coverage and at high dynamic range which accurately portray the distribution of the total flux toward a particular source from millimeter and submillimeter photons, the most abundant photons in the Universe. At the shortest planned wavelength, λ=0.3mm, and longest baseline, the angular resolution will be 0.004 arcseconds. The six highest frequency receiver bands will be available at the end of construction, each observing both polarizations with a bandwidth of 8 GHz.

  17. Performance highlights of the ALMA correlators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudry, Alain; Lacasse, Richard; Escoffier, Ray; Webber, John; Greenberg, Joseph; Platt, Laurence; Treacy, Robert; Saez, Alejandro F.; Cais, Philippe; Comoretto, Giovanni; Quertier, Benjamin; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Chikada, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Okuda, Takeshi; Kurono, Yasutake; Iguchi, Satoru

    2012-09-01

    Two large correlators have been constructed to combine the signals captured by the ALMA antennas deployed on the Atacama Desert in Chile at an elevation of 5050 meters. The Baseline correlator was fabricated by a NRAO/European team to process up to 64 antennas for 16 GHz bandwidth in two polarizations and another correlator, the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) correlator, was fabricated by a Japanese team to process up to 16 antennas. Both correlators meet the same specifications except for the number of processed antennas. The main architectural differences between these two large machines will be underlined. Selected features of the Baseline and ACA correlators as well as the main technical challenges met by the designers will be briefly discussed. The Baseline correlator is the largest correlator ever built for radio astronomy. Its digital hybrid architecture provides a wide variety of observing modes including the ability to divide each input baseband into 32 frequency-mobile sub-bands for high spectral resolution and to be operated as a conventional 'lag' correlator for high time resolution. The various observing modes offered by the ALMA correlators to the science community for 'Early Science' are presented, as well as future observing modes. Coherently phasing the array to provide VLBI maps of extremely compact sources is another feature of the ALMA correlators. Finally, the status and availability of these large machines will be presented.

  18. Probing Massive Star Cluster Formation with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2015-08-01

    Observationally constraining the physical conditions that give rise to massive star clusters has been a long-standing challenge. Now with the ALMA Observatory coming on-line, we can finally begin to probe the birth environments of massive clusters in a variety of galaxies with sufficient angular resolution. In this talk I will give an overview of ALMA observations of galaxies in which candidate proto-super star cluster molecular clouds have been identified. These new data probe the physical conditions that give rise to super star clusters, providing information on their densities, pressures, and temperatures. In particular, the observations indicate that these clouds may be subject to external pressures of P/k > 108 K cm-3, which is consistent with the prevalence of optically observed adolescent super star clusters in interacting galaxy systems and other high pressure environments. ALMA observations also enable an assessement of the molecular cloud chemical abundances in the regions surrounding super star clusters. Molecular clouds associated with existing super star clusters are strongly correlated with HCO+ emission, but appear to have relatively low ratio of CO/HCO+ emission compared to other clouds, indicating that the super star clusters are impacting the molecular abundances in their vicinity.

  19. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is the new name [2] for a giant millimeter-wavelength telescope project. As described in the accompanying joint press release by ESO and the U.S. National Science Foundation , the present design and development phase is now a Europe-U.S. collaboration, and may soon include Japan. ALMA may become the largest ground-based astronomy project of the next decade after VLT/VLTI, and one of the major new facilities for world astronomy. ALMA will make it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. As presently envisaged, ALMA will be comprised of up to 64 12-meter diameter antennas distributed over an area 10 km across. ESO PR Photo 24a/99 shows an artist's concept of a portion of the array in a compact configuration. ESO PR Video Clip 03/99 illustrates how all the antennas will move in unison to point to a single astronomical object and follow it as it traverses the sky. In this way the combined telescope will produce astronomical images of great sharpness and sensitivity [3]. An exceptional site For such observations to be possible the atmosphere above the telescope must be transparent at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This requires a site that is high and dry, and a high plateau in the Atacama desert of Chile, probably the world's driest, is ideal - the next best thing to outer space for these observations. ESO PR Photo 24b/99 shows the location of the chosen site at Chajnantor, at 5000 meters altitude and 60 kilometers east of the village of San Pedro de Atacama, as seen from the Space Shuttle during a servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope. ESO PR Photo 24c/99 and ESO PR Photo 24d/99 show a satellite image of the immediate vicinity and the site marked on a map of northern Chile. ALMA will be the highest continuously operated observatory in the world. The stark nature of this extreme site is well illustrated by the panoramic view in ESO PR Photo 24e/99. High sensitivity and sharp images ALMA

  20. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  1. The ALMA Snooping Project Interface (SnooPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevin, Alexandros; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Chavan, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide ALMA users with a comprehensive view of their observing projects, we developed the ALMA Snooping Project Interface (SnooPI) application. The simple and intuitive interface allows scientists to follow the status of their projects, broken down into observing unit sets and scheduling blocks. The application itself contains two separate parts: a Java back-end server and a JavaScript front-end client application. The application interacts with REST interfaces of other ALMA software components to get the necessary project reports, certain details describing the observations and to access statistics of the user's ALMA Helpdesk tickets. All this information allows to successfully trace all stages of observations, processing and delivery of the ALMA science projects.

  2. ALMA Achieves Major Milestone With Antenna-Link Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project, reached a major milestone on March 2, when two ALMA prototype antennas were first linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object. The milestone achievement, technically termed "First Fringes," came at the ALMA Test Facility (ATF) on the grounds of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation (NSF), managed by Associated Universities, Incorporated (AUI). AUI also is designated by NSF as the North American Executive for ALMA. ALMA Test Facility ALMA Test Facility, New Mexico: VertexRSI antenna, left; AEC antenna, right. CREDIT: Drew Medlin, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Saturn were collected by the two ALMA antennas, then processed by new, state-of-the-art electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of multi-antenna imaging systems such as ALMA and the VLA. In such a system, each antenna is combined electronically with every other antenna to form a multitude of pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly-detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed in 2012, ALMA will have 66 antennas. The successful Saturn observation began at 7:13 p.m., U.S. Mountain Time Friday (0213 UTC Saturday). The planet's radio emissions at a frequency of 104 GigaHertz (GHz) were tracked by the ALMA system for more than an hour. "Our congratulations go to the dedicated team of scientists, engineers and technicians who produced this groundbreaking achievement for ALMA. Much hard work and many long hours went into this effort, and we appreciate it all. This team should be very proud today," said NRAO

  3. World-Wide Effort Bringing ALMA Telescope Into Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    In the thin, dry air of northern Chile's Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 16,500 feet, an amazing new telescope system is taking shape, on schedule to provide the world's astronomers with unprecedented views of the origins of stars, galaxies, and planets. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will open an entirely new "window" on the Universe, allowing scientists to unravel longstanding and important astronomical mysteries. ALMA Artist's Concept Artist's Concept of Completed ALMA CREDIT: ALMA/ESO/NRAO/NAOJ Click on image for high-resolution file (182 KB) "Most of the photons in the Universe are in the wavelength range that ALMA will receive, and ALMA will give us our first high-resolution views at these wavelengths. This will be a tremendous advancement for astronomy and open one of our science's last frontiers," Anneila Sargent, a Caltech professor and ALMA Board member, told the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in Boston, Mass. The millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared waves. ALMA, a system using up to 66 high-precision dish antennas working together, will provide astronomers with dramatically greater sensitivity, the ability to detect faint objects, and resolving power, the ability to see fine detail, than has ever before been available in this range. "This ambitious project is the product of an international collaboration that spans the globe," Sargent said. "ALMA truly will enable transformational science and providing this capability has required a massive, world-wide effort," she added. The ALMA project is a partnership between Europe, Japan and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by ESO, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the

  4. ALMA Studies of the Disk-Jet-Outflow Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougados, Catherine; Louvet, F.; Mardones, D.; Cabrit, S.

    2017-06-01

    I will describe in this contribution recent results obtained with ALMA on the origin of the disk/jet/outflow connexion in T Tauri stars. I will first present ALMA observations of the disk associated with the jet source Th 28, which question previous jet rotation measurements in this source and the implications drawn from them. I will then discuss Cycle 2 ALMA observations of the disk and small scale CO outflow associated with the prototypical edge-on HH 30 source. The unprecedented angular resolution of this dataset brings new constraints on the origin of the CO outflows in young stars.

  5. Solar Commissioning Observations of the Sun with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Stephen M.; Shimojo, Masumi; Bastian, Timothy S.; Iwai, Kazumasa; Hales, Antonio; Brajsa, Roman; Skokic, Ivica; Kim, Sujin; Hudson, Hugh S.; Loukitcheva, Maria; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2017-08-01

    PI-led science observations have commenced with the Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA) following an extensive commissioning effort. This talk will summarize that effort and discuss some of the scientific results derived from the commissioning data. As the solar cycle declines, ALMA observations will mainly address chromospheric science topics. Examples of data obtained during commissioning, both from the interferometer and from single-dish observations, will be presented. The temperatures of the layers that ALMA is most sensitive to have been determined for the two frequency bands currently used for solar observations. Curious behavior in a sunspot umbra and an observations of a small chromospheric ejection will be discussed.

  6. ALMA Partners Break Ground on World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from North America, Europe, and Chile broke ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths. ALMA - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located on the Chajnantor plain of the Chilean Andes in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, 16,500 feet (5,000 meters) above sea level. ALMA's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimeter portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site The Atacama Large Millimeter Array is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. "The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare for a spectacular new instrument," said Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation. "The Atacama Large Millimeter Array will expand our vision of the Universe with "eyes" that pierce the shrouded mantles of

  7. ALMA Correlator Real-Time Data Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, J.; Amestica, R.; Perez, J.

    2005-10-01

    The design of a real-time Linux application utilizing Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI) to process real-time data from the radio astronomy correlator for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is described. The correlator is a custom-built digital signal processor which computes the cross-correlation function of two digitized signal streams. ALMA will have 64 antennas with 2080 signal streams each with a sample rate of 4 giga-samples per second. The correlator's aggregate data output will be 1 gigabyte per second. The software is defined by hard deadlines with high input and processing data rates, while requiring interfaces to non real-time external computers. The designed computer system - the Correlator Data Processor or CDP, consists of a cluster of 17 SMP computers, 16 of which are compute nodes plus a master controller node all running real-time Linux kernels. Each compute node uses an RTAI kernel module to interface to a 32-bit parallel interface which accepts raw data at 64 megabytes per second in 1 megabyte chunks every 16 milliseconds. These data are transferred to tasks running on multiple CPUs in hard real-time using RTAI's LXRT facility to perform quantization corrections, data windowing, FFTs, and phase corrections for a processing rate of approximately 1 GFLOPS. Highly accurate timing signals are distributed to all seventeen computer nodes in order to synchronize them to other time-dependent devices in the observatory array. RTAI kernel tasks interface to the timing signals providing sub-millisecond timing resolution. The CDP interfaces, via the master node, to other computer systems on an external intra-net for command and control, data storage, and further data (image) processing. The master node accesses these external systems utilizing ALMA Common Software (ACS), a CORBA-based client-server software infrastructure providing logging, monitoring, data delivery, and intra-computer function invocation. The software is being developed in tandem

  8. Estimating Circumnuclear Disk temperatures using ALMA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gima, Kevin; Mills, Elisabeth A.; Rosero, Viviana A.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Harada, Nanase; Requena Torres, Miguel A.; Morris, Mark; Riquelme, Denise; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Moser, Lydia; Martin, Sergio; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ginsburg, Adam; Wardle, M.; Guesten, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The Circumnuclear Disk(CND) is a gas disk with an inner radius of approximately 1.5-2 pc surrounding Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Observations of the CND were made using the ALMA telescope in bands 3 and 6 with a spatial resolution of 1-3 km/s. Two noteworthy clumps of molecular gas were detected. These clumps possess high abundances of CH3CCH but no CH3CN was detected. Via the population diagram method we derived CH3CCH column densities and temperatures for both sources. We then discuss the physical and chemical nature of the gas clumps. Future work will constrain temperature values across the entire CND. Along with HC3N observations, this work will yield refined values of the gas density and mass of the CND. This is essential for finding its future impact on star formation and black hole accretion.

  9. ALMA Examines a Distant Quasar Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    The dust continuum (top) and the [CII] emission (bottom) maps for the region around J1120+0641. [Adapted from Venemans et al. 2017]A team of scientists has used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to explore the host galaxy of the most distant quasar known. Their observations may help us to build a picture of how the first supermassive black holes in the universe formed and evolved.Faraway Monsters and Their GalaxiesWe know that quasars the incredibly luminous and active centers of some distant galaxies are powered by accreting, supermassive black holes. These monstrous powerhouses have been detected out to redshifts of z 7, when the universe was younger than a billion years old.Though weve observed over a hundred quasars at high redshift, we still dont understand how these early supermassive black holes formed, or whether the black holes and the galaxies that host them co-evolved. In order to answer questions like these, however, we first need to gather information about the properties and behavior of various supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.A team of scientists led by Bram Venemans (Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Germany) recently used the unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of ALMA as well as the Very Large Array and the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to examine the most distant quasar currently known, J1120+0641, located at a redshift of z = 7.1.A High-Resolution LookThe teams observations of the dust and gas emission from the quasars host galaxy revealed a number of intriguing things:The red and blue sides of the [CII] emission line are shown here as contours, demonstrating that theres no ordered rotational motion of the gas on kpc scales. [Adapted from Venemans et al. 2017]The majority of the galaxys emission is very compact. Around 80% of the observed flux came from a region of only 11.5 kpc in diameter.Despite the fact that the 2.4-billion-solar-mass black hole at the galaxys center is accreting at

  10. Artificial calibration source for ALMA radio interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Hills, Richard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Asayama, Shinichiro; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Iguchi, Satoru; Corder, Stuartt A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) radio interferometer has some different types of antennas which have a variation of gain and leakages across the primary beam of an individual antenna. We have been developing an artificial calibration source which is used for compensation of individual difference of antennas. In a high-frequency antenna, using astronomical sources to do calibration measurement would be extremely time consuming, whereas with the artificial calibration source becomes a realistic possibility. Photonic techniques are considered to be superior to conventional techniques based on electronic devices in terms of wide bandwidth and high-frequency signals. Conversion from an optical signal to a millimeter/sub-millimeter wave signal is done by a photo-mixer.

  11. Probing Sagittarius A* accretion with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchikova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The submm Hydrogen recombination line technique can be used as a probe of the Galactic Center. We present the results of our H30α observations of ionized gas from within 0.015 pc around SgrA*. The observations were obtained on ALMA in cycle 3. The line was not detected, but we were able to set a limit on the mass of the cool gas (T~ 104 K) at 2 × 10-3 M ⊙. This is the unique probe of gas cooler than T ~106 K traced by X-ray emission. The total amount of gas near SgrA* gives us clues to understanding the accretion rate of SgrA*.

  12. Astrochemical Modeling In the ALMA Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Interstellar chemistry provides a natural laboratory for studying exotic species and processes at densities, temperatures, and reaction rates, that are difficult or impractical to address in the laboratory. Thus, many chemical reactions considered too slow by the standards of terrestrial chemistry, can be observed' and modeled. Various proposals concerning the nature and chemistry of complex interstellar organic molecules will be described. Catalytic reactions on grain surfaces can, in principle, lead to a large variety of species and this has motivated many laboratory and theoretical studies. Gas phase processes may also build large species in molecular clouds. Future laboratory data and computational tools needed to construct accurate chemical models of various sources to be observed by ALMA will be outlined.

  13. ALMA Presents a Transformational View of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, Al

    2015-01-01

    ALMA Early Science results began transforming astronomy in 2011. Construction has recently ended as scheduled and on budget.* Seven receiver bands achieve wavelength coverage sweeping from 3mm to 0.3mm across a decade of nearly complete frequency access, broken only by the atmospheric limitations of its spectacular site. With access to nearly any line redshifted within that range, ALMA's sensitivity allows it to address the questions of how the first stars and galaxies in the Universe were born, to measure the abundances of the first metals and to chronicle the development of isotopic diversity among the elements.* As this is written, the longest baselines are being commissioned for ALMA, enabling resolutions down to 0.01". Very long baseline capability, also currently under initial testing, can tie other antennas' collecting area in with ALMA's to create a global telescope capable of delineating detail as fine as ten microarcseconds, allowing imaging of the black hole at the center of our galaxy.Already ALMA has changed paradigms for objects both distant and near. Oxygen and carbon, the most abundant metals produced by the first stars, and CO all have lines detectable by ALMA in its wavelength range. The 157 micron [C II] line has already been detected out to z~7 in ALMA Early Science observations. ALMA's sensitivity and resolution have revolutionized the study of circumstellar planet-forming disks. Molecular imaging has revealed CO 'snow lines' in those disks, delineating where in a disk mid plane where ice grains may form as the temperature drops. ALMA has also imaged highly asymmetric distribution of gas and particularly of dust in evolved disks, revealing 'dust traps' where new planets may form from agglomerated material.ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI

  14. ALMA observations of the Orion proplyds

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Rita K.; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda C.; Andrews, Sean M.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bally, John; Ricci, Luca; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2014-03-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of protoplanetary disks ('proplyds') in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We imaged five individual fields at 856 μm containing 22 Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-identified proplyds and detected 21 of them. Eight of those disks were detected for the first time at submillimeter wavelengths, including the most prominent, well-known proplyd in the entire Orion Nebula, 114-426. Thermal dust emission in excess of any free-free component was measured in all but one of the detected disks, and ranged between 1 and 163 mJy, with resulting disk masses of 0.3-79 M {sub jup}. An additional 26 stars with no prior evidence of associated disks in HST observations were also imaged within the 5 fields, but only 2 were detected. The disk mass upper limits for the undetected targets, which include OB stars, θ{sup 1} Ori C, and θ{sup 1} Ori F, range from 0.1 to 0.6 M {sub jup}. Combining these ALMA data with previous Submillimeter Array observations, we find a lack of massive (≳3 M {sub jup}) disks in the extreme-UV-dominated region of Orion, within 0.03 pc of θ{sup 1} Ori C. At larger separations from θ{sup 1} Ori C, in the far-UV-dominated region, there is a wide range of disk masses, similar to what is found in low-mass star forming regions. Taken together, these results suggest that a rapid dissipation of disk masses likely inhibits potential planet formation in the extreme-UV-dominated regions of OB associations, but leaves disks in the far-UV-dominated regions relatively unaffected.

  15. Observación de lentes gravitatorias con ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, A.; Toloza, O.; Fuentes, I.; Motta, V.

    Gravitational lensing is a fundamental tool for cosmology. A recent instru- ment which will provide more information for models of these objects is ALMA. Our goal is to select lens candidates to observe with ALMA and then model them using GravLens Software. We had selected 12 quadruple images systems from the CASTLES database, which show a high probabil- ity of observing extended sources in the submillimetric range. These new data will allow us to improve existing models. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. ALMA On the Move - ESO Awards Important Contract for the ALMA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    Only two weeks after awarding its largest-ever contract for the procurement of antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array project (ALMA), ESO has signed a contract with Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik GmbH, a world-leader in the design and production of custom-built heavy-duty transporters, for the provision of two antenna transporting vehicles. These vehicles are of crucial importance for ALMA. ESO PR Photo 41a/05 ESO PR Photo 41a/05 The ALMA Transporter (Artist's Impression) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 756 pix - 234k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1512 pix - 700k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1768 x 3265 pix - 2.3M] Caption: Each of the ALMA transporters will be 10 m wide, 4.5 m high and 16 m long. "The timely awarding of this contract is most important to ensure that science operations can commence as planned," said ESO Director General Catherine Cesarsky. "This contract thus marks a further step towards the realization of the ALMA project." "These vehicles will operate in a most unusual environment and must live up to very strict demands regarding performance, reliability and safety. Meeting these requirements is a challenge for us, and we are proud to have been selected by ESO for this task," commented Hans-Jörg Habernegg, President of Scheuerle GmbH. ESO PR Photo 41b/05 ESO PR Photo 41b/05 Signing the Contract [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 572 pix - 234k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1143 pix - 700k] [HiRes - JPEG: 4368 x 3056 pix - 2.3M] Caption: (left to right) Mr Thomas Riek, Vice-President of Scheuerle GmbH, Dr Catherine Cesarsky, ESO Director General and Mr Hans-Jörg Habernegg, President of Scheuerle GmbH. When completed on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile, ALMA is expected to comprise more than 60 antennas, which can be placed in different locations on the plateau but which work together as one giant telescope. Changing the relative positions of the antennas and thus also the configuration of the array allows for different observing modes, comparable to using a zoom lens, offering

  17. ALMA and RATIR observations of GRB 131030A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuiyun; Urata, Yuji; Takahashi, Satoko; Im, Myungshin; Yu, Po-Chieh; Choi, Changsu; Butler, Nathaniel; Watson, Alan M.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lee, William H.; Klein, Chris; Fox, Ori D.; Littlejohns, Owen; Cucchiara, Nino; Troja, Eleonora; González, Jesús; Richer, Michael G.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Bloom, Josh; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Gehrels, Neil; Moseley, Harvey; Georgiev, Leonid; de Diego, José A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    We report on the first open-use based Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) 345 GHz observation for the late afterglow phase of GRB 131030A. The ALMA observation constrained a deep limit at 17.1 d for the afterglow and host galaxy. We also identified a faint submillimeter source (ALMA J2300-0522) near the GRB 131030A position. The deep limit at 345 GHz and multifrequency observations obtained using Swift and RATIR yielded forward-shock modeling with a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation and described X-ray excess in the afterglow. The excess was inconsistent with the synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from the forward shock. The host galaxy of GRB 131030A and optical counterpart of ALMA J2300-0522 were also identified in the Subaru image. Based on the deep ALMA limit for the host galaxy, the 3σ upper limits of IR luminosity and the star formation rate (SFR) are estimated as LIR < 1.11 × 1011 L⊙ and SFR <18.7 (M⊙ yr-1), respectively. Although the separation angle from the burst location (3{^''.}5) was rather large, ALMA J2300-0522 may be one component of the GRB 131030A host galaxy, according to previous host galaxy cases.

  18. Constraining the orbits of young binary systems with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Natasha; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Akeson, Rachel L.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the orbits of young binary systems can provide the stars' individual stellar masses as well as insight into the dynamical effects they should have on each others' protoplanetary disks. As a byproduct of our ALMA observations of disks in young binary systems, we are able to measure precise relative separations of binaries with separations of 0.22--0.35 arcsec (~ 30--50 AU at the distance of the Taurus star-forming region). Most of these systems were first resolved in the early 1990s, so our epoch 2015 observations add an additional point in the orbit that is 20--25 years after the discovery epoch. While this coverage does not yet yield a definitive orbit, the extended coverage allows improved constraints on the binary orbital parameters. We present updated orbital constraints on a number of young binary systems, including XZ Tau, GH Tau, GN Tau, IS Tau, V955 Tau, and JH 112.This work makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00150.S. and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00105.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  19. ALMA and RATIR observations of GRB 131030A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuiyun; Urata, Yuji; Takahashi, Satoko; Im, Myungshin; Yu, Po-Chieh; Choi, Changsu; Butler, Nathaniel; Watson, Alan M.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lee, William H.; Klein, Chris; Fox, Ori D.; Littlejohns, Owen; Cucchiara, Nino; Troja, Eleonora; González, Jesús; Richer, Michael G.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Bloom, Josh; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Gehrels, Neil; Moseley, Harvey; Georgiev, Leonid; de Diego, José A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    We report on the first open-use based Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) 345 GHz observation for the late afterglow phase of GRB 131030A. The ALMA observation constrained a deep limit at 17.1 d for the afterglow and host galaxy. We also identified a faint submillimeter source (ALMA J2300-0522) near the GRB 131030A position. The deep limit at 345 GHz and multifrequency observations obtained using Swift and RATIR yielded forward-shock modeling with a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation and described X-ray excess in the afterglow. The excess was inconsistent with the synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from the forward shock. The host galaxy of GRB 131030A and optical counterpart of ALMA J2300-0522 were also identified in the Subaru image. Based on the deep ALMA limit for the host galaxy, the 3σ upper limits of IR luminosity and the star formation rate (SFR) are estimated as LIR < 1.11 × 1011 L⊙ and SFR <18.7 (M⊙ yr-1), respectively. Although the separation angle from the burst location (3{^''.}5) was rather large, ALMA J2300-0522 may be one component of the GRB 131030A host galaxy, according to previous host galaxy cases.

  20. Solar Prominence Modelling and Plasma Diagnostics at ALMA Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, Andrew; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Our aim is to test potential solar prominence plasma diagnostics as obtained with the new solar capability of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We investigate the thermal and plasma diagnostic potential of ALMA for solar prominences through the computation of brightness temperatures at ALMA wavelengths. The brightness temperature, for a chosen line of sight, is calculated using the densities of electrons, hydrogen, and helium obtained from a radiative transfer code under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) conditions, as well as the input internal parameters of the prominence model in consideration. Two distinct sets of prominence models were used: isothermal-isobaric fine-structure threads, and large-scale structures with radially increasing temperature distributions representing the prominence-to-corona transition region. We compute brightness temperatures over the range of wavelengths in which ALMA is capable of observing (0.32 - 9.6 mm), however, we particularly focus on the bands available to solar observers in ALMA cycles 4 and 5, namely 2.6 - 3.6 mm (Band 3) and 1.1 - 1.4 mm (Band 6). We show how the computed brightness temperatures and optical thicknesses in our models vary with the plasma parameters (temperature and pressure) and the wavelength of observation. We then study how ALMA observables such as the ratio of brightness temperatures at two frequencies can be used to estimate the optical thickness and the emission measure for isothermal and non-isothermal prominences. From this study we conclude that for both sets of models, ALMA presents a strong thermal diagnostic capability, provided that the interpretation of observations is supported by the use of non-LTE simulation results.

  1. ALMA Telescope Passes Major Milestone with Successful Antenna Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an immense international telescope project under construction in northern Chile, reached a major milestone on April 30, when two ALMA antennas were linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object for the first time. The milestone achievement, technically termed "First Fringes," came at ALMA’s Operations Support Facility, 9,500 feet above sea level. Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Mars were collected by the two 12-meter diameter ALMA antennas, then processed by state-of-the-art electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of imaging systems that enable radio telescopes to deliver pictures that approach or even exceed the resolving power of visible light telescopes. In such a system, each antenna is combined electronically with every other antenna to form a multitude of antenna pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly-detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed early in the next decade, ALMA’s 66 antennas will provide over a thousand such antenna pairings, with distances between antennas exceeding ten miles. This will enable ALMA to see with a sharpness surpassing that of the best space telescopes. The antennas will operate at an altitude of 16,500 feet, high above the OSF, in one of the best locations on Earth for millimeter-wavelength astronomy, the Chajnantor Plateau in Chile’s Atacama Desert. Last week’s successful Mars observation was conducted at an observing frequency of 104.2 GHz. Astronomers measured the distinctive varying “fringes” detected by the interferometer as the planet moved across the sky. “This is a great success,” said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Director at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), “not because we observed a

  2. The transition from construction to operations on the ALMA control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marson, Ralph; Hiriart, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a set of 66 millimeter wave antenna in the Andes in Northern Chile. All antennas are connected and operate as an interferometer making ALMA the most powerful millimeter telescope in the world. In 2013 ALMA formally marked the end of construction and the beginning of operations. This paper will focus on the impact, on the ALMA control software, of this transition from construction to operations.

  3. Ground-water resources of the Alma area, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanlier, Kenneth E.

    1963-01-01

    The Alma area consists of 30 square miles in the northwestern part of Gratiot County, Mich. It is an area of slight relief gently rolling hills and level plains and is an important agricultural center in the State.The Saginaw formation, which forms the bedrock surface in part of the area, is of relatively low permeability and yields water containing objectionable amounts of chloride. Formations below the Saginaw are tapped for brine in and near the Alma area.The consolidated rocks of the Alma area are mantled by Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are as much as 550 feet thick where preglacial valleys were eroded into the bedrock. The glacial deposits consist of till, glacial-lake deposits, and outwash. Till deposits are at the surface along the south-trending moraines that cross the area, and they underlie other types of glacial deposits at depth throughout the area. The till deposits are of low permeability and are not a source of water to wells, though locally they include small lenses of permeable sand and gravel.In the western part of the area, including much of the city of Alma, the glacial-lake deposits consist primarily of sand and are a source of small supplies of water. In the northeastern part of the area the lake deposits are predominantly clayey and of low permeability.Sand and gravel outwash yields moderate and large supplies of water within the area. Outwash is present at the surface along the West Branch of the Pine River. A more extensive deposit of outwash buried by the lake deposits is the source of most of the ground water pumped at Alma. The presence of an additional deposit of buried outwash west and southwest of the city is inferred from the glacial history of the area. Additional water supplies that may be developed from these deposits are probably adequate for anticipated population and industrial growth.Water levels have declined generally in the vicinity of the city of Alma since 1920 in response to pumping for municipal and industrial

  4. ALMA: Millimeter/submillimeter Astronomy at high sensitivity and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, Alwyn; Corder, Stuartt Alan; Iono, Daisuke; Testi, Leonardo

    2015-08-01

    Vigorous and transformative investigation of the millimeter/submillimeter sky at high sensitivity and high resolution has benefitted from the recent completion of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an effort of 22 countries. ALMA, a versatile interferometric telescope at 5000m elevation in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, is comprised of sixty-six precision telescopes which may be arrayed over a 16 km extent on the high Chajnantor plain. Owing to its large collecting area of over 6600m^2 and its commodious spectral grasp of 8 GHz of spectrum in dual polarizations within an 84-950 GHz range, ALMA provides astronomers with vastly improved spectroscopic sensitivity. Spatial resolutions of 30 milliarcsec were demonstrated recently, revealing rings within the HL Tau protoplanetary disk, the rotating structure of the asteroid Juno and the molecular structure of the z~3 lensed galaxy SDP.81. The astrometric accuracy even at this early stage of deployment is better than 3 milliarcsec, providing improved ephemerides for the encounter of the New Horizons spacecraft with the Pluto-Charon system. Very long baseline capability is expected to bring microarcsecond imaging to a worldwide array anchored by ALMA with potential for imaging nearby Black Holes on the scales of their Event Horizons.ALMA's huge collecting area has enabled detection of lines of C, N and CO and continuum for characterization of massive complexes near the Era of Recombination. ALMA's sensitivity and resolution have enabledmeasurement of molecular emission through cosmic time from numerous molecules characterizing galactic star-forming regions and tracing their kinematics near active nuclei, starbursts, interacting clouds and quiescent disks. ALMA's sensitivity, resolution and spectral grasp have enabled it to image molecules and dust characterizing circumstellar disks and embedded bodies in protostellar, transition and debris stages of development.ALMA is a partnership of ESO

  5. Automating engineering verification in ALMA subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, José; Castillo, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is an interferometer comprising 66 individual high precision antennas located over 5000 meters altitude in the north of Chile. Several complex electronic subsystems need to be meticulously tested at different stages of an antenna commissioning, both independently and when integrated together. First subsystem integration takes place at the Operations Support Facilities (OSF), at an altitude of 3000 meters. Second integration occurs at the high altitude Array Operations Site (AOS), where also combined performance with Central Local Oscillator (CLO) and Correlator is assessed. In addition, there are several other events requiring complete or partial verification of instrument specifications compliance, such as parts replacements, calibration, relocation within AOS, preventive maintenance and troubleshooting due to poor performance in scientific observations. Restricted engineering time allocation and the constant pressure of minimizing downtime in a 24/7 astronomical observatory, impose the need to complete (and report) the aforementioned verifications in the least possible time. Array-wide disturbances, such as global power interruptions and following recovery, generate the added challenge of executing this checkout on multiple antenna elements at once. This paper presents the outcome of the automation of engineering verification setup, execution, notification and reporting in ALMA and how these efforts have resulted in a dramatic reduction of both time and operator training required. Signal Path Connectivity (SPC) checkout is introduced as a notable case of such automation.

  6. ALMA band 2 optics: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, Sivasankaran; Gonzalez, Alvaro

    2015-05-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is currently developing the ALMA Band 2 cartridge, to be completed by mid-2016. The receiver will cover the 67-90 GHz band, with dual linear polarization. An orthomode transducer (OMT) based on turnstile junction has been developed and measured. The measured input return loss is better than 20dB. The optics comprises of a linear taper corrugated horn and a bi-hyperbolic lens that matches the waist of the horn to that of the telescope. The lens mounts on the 300K plate and serves as the vacuum barrier for the cryostat. The window for band 2 is offset from the center of the cryostat by 255mm, which results in a feed/ lens tilt of 2.48° to the cryostat axis. The feed is cooled to 15K, while the lens is at 300K. The minimum distance between the lens and the feed aperture is 83 mm and the maximum size of the lens is 92mm.

  7. Exploring remote operation for ALMA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Ovando, Nicolás.; Velez, Gaston; Fuica, Soledad; Schemrl, Anton; Robles, Andres; Ibsen, Jorge; Filippi, Giorgio; Pietriga, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. The observatory has another office located in Santiago of Chile, 1600 km from the Chajnantor plain. In the Atacama desert, the wonderful observing conditions imply precarious living conditions and extremely high operation costs: i.e: flight tickets, hospitality, infrastructure, water, electricity, etc. It is clear that a purely remote operational model is impossible, but we believe that a mixture of remote and local operation scheme would be beneficial to the observatory, not only in reducing the cost but also in increasing the observatory overall efficiency. This paper describes the challenges and experience gained in such experimental proof of the concept. The experiment was performed over the existing 100 Mbps bandwidth, which connects both sites through a third party telecommunication infrastructure. During the experiment, all of the existent capacities of the observing software were validated successfully, although room for improvement was clearly detected. Network virtualization, MPLS configuration, L2TPv3 tunneling, NFS adjustment, operational workstations design are part of the experiment.

  8. Observing baryonic dark matter with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Hideyuki; Silk, Joseph

    2002-09-01

    It has recently been argued that the unidentified SCUBA objects (USOs) are a thick disc population of free-floating dense, compact galactic gas clumps at a temperature of about 7 K. The characteristic mass-scale is constrained to be on the order of a Jupiter mass, and the size is about 10 au. A typical Galactic USO is located at a distance from the Sun of about 300 pc. We have calculated the molecular emission lines from these low-temperature clouds. We consider three molecules: HD, LiH, and CO. HD is optically thin in the cloud, LiH is a molecule with a large electric dipole moment, and CO is an abundant molecule that is observed in dusty clouds. Our estimate for the typical object shows that LiH may be detectable by the future submillimetre (submm) array project, ALMA; its expected flux is at the mJy level and the linewidth is about 105 Hz. Although typical galactic USOs are chemically and dynamically transient, the younger USOs will be recognizable via LiH emission if about a hundred USOs are observed. If USOs are confirmed to be of galactic origin, the total baryonic budget will need to be reevaluated.

  9. Solving the polarization problem in ALMA-VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti-Vidal, I.; Conway, J.; Lindqvist, M.; Roy, A. L.; Alef, W.; Zensus, A. J.

    The Atacama Large mm-submm Array (ALMA) is, by far, the most sensitive mm/submm telescope in the World. The ALMA Phasing Project (APP) will allow us to phase-up all the ALMA antennas and use them as one single VLBI station. This will be a key component of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a Global VLBI array at millimeter wavelengths. A problem in the APP is the calibration and conversion of the polarization channels. Most VLBI stations record their signals in a circular basis, but the ALMA receivers record in a linear basis. The strategy that will be followed in the phased-ALMA VLBI observations will be to correlate in a "mixed" basis (i.e., linear versus circular) and convert the visibilities to a pure circular basis after the correlation. We have developed an algorithm to perform such a polarization conversion of the VLBI visibilities. In these proceedings, we present the basics of this algorithm and discuss on the polarization conversion in the general case where single dishes (besides phased arrays) record with linear receivers in VLBI observations. We show some results of our algorithm applied to realistic simulations, as well as a test with real VLBI observations at 86 GHz between the Onsala radiotelescope (recording in linear basis) and the Effelsberg radiotelescope (recording in circular basis).

  10. Serendipitous ALMA detections of faint submm galaxies in SERVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Pallavi; Lacy, Mark; Nyland, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    We present a preliminary ALMA study of faint (<1mJy) submm galaxies with counterparts in the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). SERVS provides post-cryogenic IRAC imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 microns over an 18 deg2 area of the sky over five famous deep fields. The depth of the survey is ~ 2 µJy, and it provides a complete census of galaxies up to z ~ 5. While it is known that bright submm galaxies are associated with dusty, ultra-luminous starforming galaxies at z ~ 2, the sub-mJy population is still not well understood. A key missing piece of information is their morphologies at rest-frame optical wavelengths, which for high-redshift submm galaxies is only accessible through ALMA observations. The high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and positional accuracy of ALMA have enabled us to probe the nature of the sub-mJy population by resolving their spatial extents and improving constraints on their SEDS and photometric redshifts. We are building a catalog of sources by searching the ALMA archive for moderate to deep observations in the area covered by SERVS. This study will help us begin to understand the contribution of obscured star formation to the total star formation rate at high redshift and guide future wide-area surveys of submm galaxies with ALMA.

  11. Dust observations with the new ALMA Band 1 receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morata, O.; Di Francesco, J.; Kemper, C.; ALMA Band 1 Science Team

    The ALMA Band 1 project will expand the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) access to frequencies between 35 and 52 GHz for high angular resolution and sensitivity observations from the southern hemisphere. The main dust related science case for ALMA Band 1 is also an ALMA Level One Science Case: the study of the evolution of grains in protoplanetary disks. ALMA Band 1 will be able to resolve protoplanetary disks at the distance of the nearest star-forming regions and will allow us to follow the dust grain growth from mm-sized to cm-sized pebbles in protoplanetary disks and hopefully show where and when dust coagulation occurs. Observations of debris disks will also be possible, although more challenging than those for protoplanetary disks. The high sensitivity and angular resolution of Band 1 will also allow us to study the spinning dust emission that it is related to the very small grain (VSG) population in the interstellar medium under conditions not possible to observe using mid-IR emission.

  12. The Soul of Lupus with ALMA (SOLA) Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; de Gregorio, I.; Team SOLA

    2015-12-01

    The SOLA (Soul of Lupus with ALMA) project is conducting comprehensive studies of the Lupus Molecular Clouds and their star formation processes. Our goal is to exploit ALMA and other facilities over a wide wavelength range to establish a prototypical low-mass star forming scenario based on the Lupus region. We focus mainly on 10-104 au scale physics, kinematics, density, and temperature, together with detailed modelling of radiative transfer. Our unique source catalog so far contains more than 700 sources at various evolutionary stages and we have obtained complementary data with Mopra, APEX, etc. In the poster, we will report the latest status of SOLA and the expected outcome in observing runs in the near future, including ALMA Cycle 3.

  13. A Deep ALMA Image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Although primarily designed as a high-resolution imaging spectrometer at submillimetre/millimetre wavelengths, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has a vital role to play in producing the key deep, unconfused, submillimetre/millimetre continuum surveys required to bridge the current gap in our understanding of visible and dust-obscured star formation in the young Universe. The first such survey has now been completed, comprising a mosaic of 45 ALMA pointings at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, covering the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). This deep, homogeneous ALMA survey, combined with the wealth of existing data in the HUDF, has already provided new clarity on the nature of dusty star-forming galaxies, and the relative evolution of dust-obscured and unobscured star formation over cosmic time.

  14. New Eyes on the Sun — Solar Science with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer, S.

    2016-03-01

    In Cycle 4, which starts in October 2016, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be open for regular observations of the Sun for the first time. ALMA’s impressive capabilities have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of our host star, with far-reaching implications for our knowledge about stars in general. The radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere — a complex and dynamic layer between the photosphere and the corona that is prominent during solar eclipses. Despite decades of intensive research, the chromosphere is still elusive due to its complex nature and the resulting challenges to its observation. ALMA will change the scene substantially by opening up a new window on the Sun, promising answers to long-standing questions.

  15. HST, ALMA, and revealing the throes of planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Aaron C.

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, I will highlight some of the synergy between HST and ALMA. In particular, I will focus on the impact of these observatories in shaping our understanding of debris systems and planet-forming discs. Both HST and ALMA can resolve gas and dust distributions at very high resolution, but they each, e.g., probe very different dust grain sizes and gas line transitions. The observatories can thus provide complementary views of the dynamics, composition, and morphologies of discs during planet building and its aftermath. As examples, I will discuss new ALMA results for HD141569 and Fomalhaut, as well as discuss work from other groups on systems such as Beta Pic.

  16. [Contemplation of the alma mater song of Hoshi University].

    PubMed

    Misawa, Miwa; Iijima, Ayako

    2006-01-01

    Respective alma mater songs (school songs) are a spiritual symbol of each school. The alma mater song of Hoshi Commercial School was composed in 1923, and strongly reflected the spirit of Hajime Hoshi, the founder of the school. The alma mater song of present day Hoshi University was poeticized by Yoshio Katsu, and composed by Kosaku Yamada in 1941. The two famous artists produced a lovely song rich in artistic flavor. This study analyzes the words and music from various viewpoints for the first time after its production. Cultivating a better understanding of the present song is a valuable asset for educating the mind, and creating a meaningfulness for those students and graduates singing it.

  17. Human Computer Interaction in the ALMA Control Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, M.; Primet, R.; Pietriga, E.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-09-01

    The article describes the ALMA Operations Monitoring and Control (OMC) software and its next generation user interfaces, used by operators and astronomers to monitor and control the observing facility. These user interfaces bring state-of-the-art Human Computer Interaction (HCI) techniques to the ALMA Control Room: map visualisation, semantic zooming, navigation gestures, multiple coordinated views, and decrease of time-to-point. They enable users to stay in control of dozens of antennas, hundreds of devices, and thousands of baselines. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international radio-astronomy facility, is a partnership of North America, Europe and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. It is located at the Altiplano de Chajnantor and is being operated from the Operations Support Facilities (OSF) near San Pedro de Atacama.

  18. ALMA capabilities for observations of spectral line emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, Alwyn

    2008-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (The Enhanced Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (known as ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is a partnership between North America, Europe, and Japan/Taiwan, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain, in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Japan/Taiwan by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO) combines large collecting area and location on a high dry site to provide it with unparalleled potential for sensitive millimeter/submillimeter spectral line observations. Its wide frequency coverage, superb receivers and flexible spectrometer will ensure that its potential is met. Since the 1999 meeting on ALMA Science (Wootten, ASP Conf. Ser. 235, 2001), the ALMA team has substantially enhanced its capability for line observations. ALMA’s sensitivity increased when Japan joined the project, bringing the 16 antennas of the Atacama Compcat Array (ACA), equivalent to eight additional 12 m telescopes. The first four receiver cartridges for the baseline ALMA (Japan’s entry has brought two additional bands to ALMA’s receiver retinue) have been accepted, with performance above the already-challenging specifications. ALMA’s flexibility has increased with the enhancement of the baseline correlator with additional channels and flexibility, and with the addition of a separate correlator for the ACA. As an example of the increased flexibility, ALMA is now capable of multi

  19. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  20. ALMA Explorations of Warm Dense Molecular Gas in Nearby LIRGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. Kevin

    2015-02-01

    We present results of ALMA (Cycle-0) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435μm continuum of two nearby luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) NGC 34 (a major merger with an AGN) and NGC 1614 (a minor merger with a circum-nuclear starburst). Using receivers in the highest frequency ALMA band available (Band-9), these observations achieved the best angular resolutions (~0''.25) for ALMA Cycle-0 observations and resolved for the first time distributions of warm dense molecular gas (n > 105 cm-3, T > 100 K) in LIRGs with spatial resolutions better than 100 pc. Our ALMA data show a very tight correlation between the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435μm dust continuum emission, suggesting the warm dense molecular gas dominates the ISM in the central kpc of LIRGs, and gas heating and dust heating in the warm dense gas cores are strongly coupled. On the other hand, we saw very different spatial distributions and kinematic properties of warm dense gas in the two LIRGs, indicating that physical conditions in the ISM can be very different in different LIRGs.

  1. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Partnership, ALMA; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Hills, R. E.; Richards, A. M. S.; Broguiere, D.; and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  2. Development of ALMA Band 4 (125-163 GHz) receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asayama, Shin'ichiro; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Kubo, Kouichi; Ito, Tetsuya; Inata, Motoko; Suzuki, Takakiyo; Wada, Toru; Soga, Tomio; Kamada, Chiyoshi; Karatsu, Miki; Fujii, Yumi; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Kawashima, Susumu; Iwashita, Hiroyuki; Uzawa, Yoshinori

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a dual-polarization receiver for Band 4 of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Band 4, which covers the 125 to 163 GHz spectral window, is one of the ten bands that form the ALMA Front End. The Band 4 receiver consists of three elements: a warm optics, a cold cartridge assembly, and a warm cartridge assembly. The cold cartridge includes a feed horn, an orthomode transducer, sideband-separating (2SB) superconductor-insulator-superconductor mixers, cold intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers, IF isolators, bias-protection circuit boards, and component interconnections. The IF bandwidth is 4-8 GHz. The first eight receivers manufactured as preproduction models have demonstrated excellent performance within the stringent ALMA requirements. Stable astronomical fringes and closure phase have been successfully achieved during field performance tests of the Band 4 receivers installed in the ALMA antennas. Our well-established Band 4 receivers will contribute to various fields of astronomical research, such as the detection of high-redshift galaxies, characterization of cold molecular medium in normal field galaxies, and astrochemistry including observations of deuterated species.

  3. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  4. Modeling Protostar Envelopes and Disks Seen With ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebey, Susan; Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra; Willacy, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Thermal continuum emission from protostars comes from both the envelope and circumstellar disk. The dust emits on a variety of spatial scales, ranging from sub-arcseconds for disks to roughly 10 arcseconds for envelopes for nearby protostars. We present models of what ALMA should detect that incorporate a self-consistent collapse solution, radiative transfer, and realistic dust properties.

  5. The Labour Market Effects of "Alma Mater": Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio; Cappellari, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    We use data from a nationally representative survey of Italian graduates to study whether "Alma Mater" matters for employment and earnings 3 years after graduation. We find that the attended college matters, and that there are important college-related differences, both among and within regions of the country. These differences, however,…

  6. Circumnuclear molecular gas in M87 detected with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of circumnuclear molecular gas residing within 100 pc of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the galaxy M87 (3C 274), using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to image the gas on spatial scales from 100 to 10 pc. The proximity of M87, the archetypical giant elliptical radio galaxy at the centre of the Virgo galaxy cluster, presents a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the circumnuclear molecular gas revealed first by single-dish observations and recently imaged for the first time with ALMA (Vlahakis et al., in prep). ALMA's unique long baseline capability now allows us to make the first detailed investigation of the properties of the interstellar medium around the galaxy's SMBH on scales down to 10 pc (0.1 arcsec). Here, we present results of ALMA Band 3 CO J=1-0 observations obtained at different angular resolutions. With this data we are able to trace the bulk of the molecular gas as well as the continuum emission, providing the deepest and highest spatial resolution images yet of the molecular gas content of this giant elliptical galaxy. The highest resolution data allow us to unambiguously resolve the molecular gas structures for the first time and investigate, in unprecedented detail, the nature and origin of molecular gas that resides within the sphere of influence of the SMBH.

  7. An ALMA detection of circumnuclear molecular gas in M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Catherine E.; Leon, Stephane; Martin, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We present the detection of circumnuclear molecular gas in M87 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).M87 (3C 274) is an archetypal giant elliptical galaxy at the centre of the Virgo cluster and is a unique object in which to study the origin and properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a radio galaxy located in a dense environment. While a very well-known object across most of the electromagnetic spectrum, M87 has long lacked a detailed study in the (sub)millimeter range, requiring the advance in both sensitivity and angular resolution only now made possible by ALMA.Molecular gas in the inner part of M87 has previously been detected in single-dish observations, suggesting that the molecular gas likely resides in a circumnuclear disk-like structure. However, the unique ALMA capabilities now allow us to make the first detailed, interferometric, investigation of the properties of the ISM around the galaxy's supermassive black hole.Here, we present results of ALMA band 3 and 7 data which we have used to map the CO J=1-0 and CO J=3-2 lines, respectively. With this data we are able to trace the bulk of the molecular gas, the warmer denser gas, and the continuum emission, at an angular resolution of 1 arcsecond (~80 pc), providing the deepest and highest spatial resolution image yet of the molecular gas content of this giant elliptical galaxy.

  8. ALMA fast switching phase calibration on long baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaki, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Satoki; Kawabe, Ryohei; Fomalont, Ed; Barkats, Denis; Corder, Stuartt

    2014-07-01

    We present results of feasibility studies of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) interferom- eter phase calibration scheme combined with the Fast Switching (FS) phase referencing and the Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) phase correction (FS+WVR phase correction). With FS scheme, ALMA antennas observe a scientific target source and a nearby calibrator by turn very quickly. Because interferometer phase errors of the target due to the water vapor contents commonly exist in those of the calibrator, the target phase is corrected with the calibrator phase. We have demonstrated the FS+WVR phase correction for ALMA with baselines up to 2.7 km for various switching cycle times and separations between sources. For instance, in the case of sources with the 1° separation, root-mean-square phases of the target were reduced from 300 to 40 microns in path length for 1 km baselines, and the target interferometer phases could be stabilized to an ALMA specification requirement level for the interferometer phase stability. We also analytically evaluated the root-mean-square phase corrected with the FS+WVR phase correction to predict the performance as a function of the separation and switching cycle time.

  9. ALMA observation of Ceres' Surface Temperature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, T. N.; Li, J. Y.; Sykes, M. V.; Ip, W. H.; Lai, I.; Moullet, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt, has been mapped by the Dawn spacecraft. The mapping includes measuring surface temperatures using the Visible and Infrared (VIR) spectrometer at high spatial resolution. However, the VIR instrument has a long wavelength cutoff at 5 μm, which prevents the accurate measurement of surface temperatures below 180 K. This restricts temperature determinations to low and mid-latitudes at mid-day. Observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [1], while having lower spatial resolution, are sensitive to the full range of surface temperatures that are expected at Ceres. Forty reconstructed images at 75 km/beam resolution were acquired of Ceres that were consistent with a low thermal inertia surface. The diurnal temperature profiles were compared to the KRC thermal model [2, 3], which has been extensively used for Mars [e.g. 4, 5]. Variations in temperature as a function of local time are observed and are compared to predictions from the KRC model. The model temperatures are converted to radiance (Jy/Steradian) and are corrected for near-surface thermal gradients and limb effects for comparison to observations. Initial analysis is consistent with the presence of near-surface water ice in the north polar region. The edge of the ice table is between 50° and 70° North Latitude, consistent with the enhanced detection of hydrogen by the Dawn GRaND instrument [6]. Further analysis will be presented. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program. References: [1] Wootten A. et al. (2015) IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, #2237199 [2] Kieffer, H. H., et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 4249-4291. [3] Kieffer, Hugh H., (2013) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 118(3), 451-470. [4] Titus, T. N., H. H. Kieffer, and P. N. Christensen (2003) Science, 299, 1048-1051. [5] Fergason, R. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev, 170, 739-773[6] Prettyman, T. et al. (2016) LPSC 47, #2228.

  10. ALMA: Exploring the Outer Limits of the Millimeter Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a billion-dollar, international telescope project under construction in northern Chile on a 5-km elevation site at Chajnantor. The excellent atmospheric transmission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges at that site will allow ALMA to provide detailed images of the sources of the cosmic microwave background and the cosmic far-infrared background radiation near the wavelengths of the two strongest peaks in the spectral energy distribution of the Universe. ALMA's images will contain all of the flux in the imaged field through the use of two parts: (1) the ``12-m Array,'' composed of up to sixty-four 12-m antennas that can be placed on 186 different stations for baselines up to 18 km; and (2) the ``Atacama Compact Array,'' or ACA, that consists of twelve 7-m telescopes placed in compact configurations and four 12-m telescopes for measuring source total power. The angular resolution will be 0.005 arcsec at the shortest planned wavelength of 0.3mm and on the longest baseline. The receivers use superconducting (SIS) mixers that, in combination with the excellent site transparency and the large collecting area, will provide sensitivity at 1mm wavelength of 1 mJy in a few seconds for average atmospheric conditions. This sensitivity is more than two orders of magnitude better than any array operating today. At first light for the ALMA project, the 6 highest priority receiver bands will be installed, each observing both polarizations with bandwidths of 8 GHz. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC-C), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. In the bilateral project, ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory

  11. The High Redshift Universe Seen Through the Eyes of ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklind, Tommy

    2012-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) is an interferometric telescope currently under construction on the Chajnantor Plateau in northern Chile. It is situated at an altitude of 5000m, in one of the driest places in the world. The combination of the meteorological conditions, increased total collecting area and the use of state-of-the-art receivers means that the fully operational ALMA is a factor 10-1000 more sensitive than existing facilities, depending on the wavelength. When completed in 2013, ALMA will consists of 66 antennas, with maximum baselines of up to 15 km and it will be able to observe at wavelengths from 10 millimeter to ~350micron. ALMA will be able to provide an angular resolution of ~0.05 arcseconds. ALMA is still under construction, but has started producing science in an 'Early Science' phase. The goal with ALMA has from the beginning been to provide very high sensitivity as well as an angular resolution matching that of space based optical observatories such as the HST. One of three main drivers when designing ALMA has been the ability to study the high redshift universe. The main reason behind this is that almost half of the integrated background radiation comes from the far-infrared wavelength regime. This emission is interpreted as originating from dust re-radiated stellar emission in high redshift galaxies. Interstellar dust is almost invariably associated with molecular gas, that can be studied using molecular rotational transitions. The shape of the dust spectral energy distribution ensures that the observed flux at a fixed wavelength long-ward of the far-infrared peak (about 100micron) remains more or less constant over a redshift range z=1-10. This aspect makes dust continuum emission extraordinarily important for studying galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at high redshift. Through observations of line emission from molecular transitions it is possible to study the associated molecular gas distribution and its kinematics. The

  12. Growth of carbon chains in IRC +10216 mapped with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Marcelino, N.; Guélin, M.; Joblin, C.; Martín-Gago, J. A.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Patel, N. A.; McCarthy, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    Linear carbon chains are common in various types of astronomical molecular sources. Possible formation mechanisms involve both bottom-up and top-down routes. We have carried out a combined observational and modeling study of the formation of carbon chains in the C-star envelope IRC +10216, where the polymerization of acetylene and hydrogen cyanide induced by ultraviolet photons can drive the formation of linear carbon chains of increasing length. We have used ALMA to map the emission of λ 3 mm rotational lines of the hydrocarbon radicals C2H, C4H, and C6H, and the CN-containing species CN, C3N, HC3N, and HC5N with an angular resolution of 1''. The spatial distribution of all these species is a hollow 5-10'' wide spherical shell located at a radius of 10-20'' from the star, with no appreciable emission close to the star. Our observations resolve the broad shell of carbon chains into thinner subshells that are 1-2'' wide and not fully concentric, indicating that the mass-loss process has been discontinuous and not fully isotropic. The radial distributions of the species mapped reveal subtle differences: while the hydrocarbon radicals have very similar radial distributions, the CN-containing species show more diverse distributions, with HC3N appearing earlier in the expansion and the radical CN extending later than the rest of the species. The observed morphology can be rationalized by a chemical model in which the growth of polyynes is mainly produced by rapid gas-phase chemical reactions of C2H and C4H radicals with unsaturated hydrocarbons, while cyanopolyynes are mainly formed from polyynes in gas-phase reactions with CN and C3N radicals. Based on observations carried out with ALMA and the IRAM 30 m Telescope. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ

  13. U.S., European ALMA Partners Award Prototype Antenna Contracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. and European partners in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project have awarded contracts to U.S. and Italian firms, respectively, for two prototype antennas. ALMA is a planned telescope array, expected to consist of 64 millimeter-wave antennas with 12-meter diameter dishes. The array will be built at a high-altitude, extremely dry mountain site in Chile's Atacama desert, and is scheduled to be completed sometime in this decade. On February 22, 2000, Associated Universities Inc. (AUI) signed an approximately $6.2 million contract with Vertex Antenna Systems, of Santa Clara, Calif., for construction of one prototype ALMA antenna. AUI operates the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the National Science Foundation under a cooperative agreement. The European partners contracted with the consortium of European Industrial Engineering and Costamasnaga, of Mestre, Italy, on February 21, 2000, for the production of another prototype. (Mestre is located on the inland side of Venice.) The two antennas must meet identical specifications, but will inherently be of different designs. This will ensure that the best possible technologies are incorporated into the final production antennas. Only one of the designs will be selected for final production. Several technical challenges must be met for the antennas to perform to ALMA specifications. Each antenna must have extremely high surface accuracy (25 micrometers, or one-third the diameter of a human hair, over the entire 12-meter diameter). This means that, when completed, the surface accuracy of the ALMA dishes will be 20 times greater than that of the Very Large Array (VLA) antennas, and about 50 times greater than dish antennas for communications or radar. The ALMA antennas must also have extremely high pointing accuracy (0.6 arcseconds). An additional challenge is that the antennas, when installed at the ALMA site in Chile, will be exposed to the ravages of weather at 16,500 feet (5000 meters

  14. ALMA software releases versus quality management: and the winner is...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaert, Erik; Pasquato, Moreno; Soto, Rubén.

    2016-08-01

    After its inauguration and the formal completion of the construction phase, the software development effort at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) continues at roughly the same level as during construction - gradually adding capabilities as required by and offered to the scientific community. In the run-up to a new yearly Observing Cycle several software releases have to be prepared, incorporating this new functionality. However, the ALMA observatory is used on a daily basis to produce scientific data for the approved projects within the current Observing Cycle, and also by engineering teams to extend existing capabilities or to diagnose and fix problems - so the preparation of new software releases up to their deployment competes for resources with all other activities. Testing a new release and ensuring its quality is of course fundamental, but can on the other hand not monopolize the observatory's resources or jeopardize its commitments to the scientific community.

  15. ALMA Measurements of Circumstellar Material in the GQ Lup System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilner, David J.; MacGregor, Meredith A.; Czekala, Ian; Andrews, Sean M.; Dai, Yu Sophia; Herczeg, Gregory; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Ricci, Luca; Testi, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the GQ Lup system, a young Sun-like star with a substellar mass companion in a wide-separation orbit. These observations of 870 micron continuum and CO J=3-2 line emission with beam 0.3 arcsec (45 AU) resolve the disk of dust and gas surrounding the primary star, GQ Lup A, and provide deep limits on any circumplanetary disk surrounding the companion, GQ Lup b. The 3 sigma upper limit on the 870 micron flux density of < 0.15 mJy implies an upper limit on the GQ Lup b disk mass of about 0.04 solar masses for standard assumptions about optically thin dust emission. Given the non-detection of a circumplanetary disk around GQ Lup b, and other similar systems observed by ALMA, we discuss implications for formation mechanisms of wide-separation substellar companions.

  16. ALMA's High-Cadence Imaging Capabilities for Solar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer, S.; Parmer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array offers an unprecedented view of our Sun at sub-/millimeter wavelengths. The high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution facilitates the measurement of gas temperatures and magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere with high precision. The anticipated results will revolutionize our understanding of the solar atmosphere and may in particular result in major steps towards solving the coronal heating problem. Based on state-of-the-art 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we calculate the emergent continuum intensity (and thus brightness temperature maps) in the wavelength range accessed by ALMA and simulate instrumental effects for different array configurations. First results show that the local gas temperature can be closely mapped with ALMA and that much of the complex small-scale chromospheric pattern can be resolved.

  17. Development of ALMA Band 8 (385-500 GHz) Cartridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Y.; Iizuko, Y.; Satou, N.; Ito, T.; Kumagai, K.; Kamikura, M.; Naruse, M.; Shan, W. L.

    2008-04-01

    We have developed a cartridge-type receiver covering from 385 to 500 GHz for pre-production of ALMA Band 8. It receives two orthogonal polarizations and down-converts the sideband-separated signals to intermediate frequencies (IF) between 4 and 8 GHz. The cartridge-type receiver consists of a cold optics, a feed horn, an OMT, two sideband-separating SIS mixers, cryogenic multipliers of local oscillator (LO). These components were individually tested and then the cartridge was integrated and tested as a complete assembly. We have also developed equipment to test both components and the integrated receiver. The single sideband (SSB) noise temperature of this receiver is 130 K at the band center and 180 K at the band edges. The beam pattern and cross-polarization pattern are consistent with physical optical calculation. These results are promising for receiver production to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).

  18. ALMA Observations of Starless Core Substructure in Ophiuchus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Dunham, M. M.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Offner, S. S. R.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Tobin, J. J.; Arce, H. G.; Bourke, T. L.; Mairs, S.; Myers, P. C.; Pineda, J. E.; Schnee, S.; Shirley, Y. L.

    2017-04-01

    Compact substructure is expected to arise in a starless core as mass becomes concentrated in the central region likely to form a protostar. Additionally, multiple peaks may form if fragmentation occurs. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 2 observations of 60 starless and protostellar cores in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. We detect eight compact substructures which are > 15\\prime\\prime from the nearest Spitzer young stellar object. Only one of these has strong evidence for being truly starless after considering ancillary data, e.g., from Herschel and X-ray telescopes. An additional extended emission structure has tentative evidence for starlessness. The number of our detections is consistent with estimates from a combination of synthetic observations of numerical simulations and analytical arguments. This result suggests that a similar ALMA study in the Chamaeleon I cloud, which detected no compact substructure in starless cores, may be due to the peculiar evolutionary state of cores in that cloud.

  19. ALMA specifications and results: report at mid-cycle 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, W. R. F.

    2016-07-01

    ALMA is now nearing the end of its third cycle of operations, and is transitioning from `early science' to regular PI-driven observing. The array has been operated over the complete range of available baseline lengths, from <10m with the ACA out to the maximum of 16km in the long-baseline configuration. Typically 40 12m-diameter antennas are now used at any one time. In this paper, we summarise the advertised capabilities and how they have evolved in the first 5 years, the proposal pressure and `hot spots', and describe some of the issues with the real measured system performance. We also outline the observing statistics, project completion rates, and papers from ALMA. Finally we highlight some of the new transformational science coming from this facility.

  20. National Academy of Sciences Recommends Continued Support of ALMA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    A distinguished panel of scientists today announced their support for the continued funding of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Project at a press conference given by the National Academy of Sciences. The ALMA Project is an international partnership between U.S. and European astronomy organizations to build a complete imaging telescope that will produce astronomical images at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The U.S. partner is the National Science Foundation, through Associated Universities, Inc., (AUI), led by Dr. Riccardo Giacconi, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "We are delighted at this show of continued support from our peers in the scientific community," said Dr. Robert Brown, ALMA U.S. Project Director and Deputy Director of NRAO. "The endorsement adds momentum to the recent strides we've made toward the building of this important telescope." In 1998, the National Research Council, the working arm of the National Academy of Sciences, charged the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee to "survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics" and to "recommend priorities for the most important new initiatives of the decade 2000-2010." In a report released today, the committee wrote that it "re-affirms the recommendations of the 1991 Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee by endorsing the completion of . . . the Millimeter Array (MMA, now part of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array)." In the 1991 report "The Decade of Discovery," a previous committee chose the Millimeter Array as one of the most important projects of the decade 1990-2000. Early last year, the National Science Foundation signed a Memorandum of Understanding with a consortium of European organizations that effectively merged the MMA Project with the European Large Southern Array project. The combined project was christened the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. ALMA, expected to consist of 64 antennas with 12-meter diameter dishes

  1. Data products of the ALMA and NRAO archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Radio astronomy archives present particular challenges due to the complexity of the data processing. New radio telescopes such as the Jansky-VLA and ALMA also have much larger data volumes than the previous generation of instruments, requiring large amounts of storage and processing. Here we describe the approach taken by NRAO towards making the data products of the VLA and ALMA available to our users. This includes traditional approaches of pipelining and imaging, and also on-demand server side processing, visualization and analysis. We discuss how the size of the image products is related to that of the visibility data, and how this places variable demands on the data flow from the telescope and its data center as configurations are changed throughout the year. Finally, we look ahead to the next generation of radio telescopes such as the SKA and ngVLA.

  2. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  3. Component development for ALMA Band 1 (31-45 GHz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Doug; Claude, Stéphane; Jiang, Frank; Dousset, David; Rossi, Fillipo

    2010-07-01

    ALMA Band 1, covering 31-45 GHz, is the lowest signal frequency band of the ALMA telescope and development of the technology to be used for the front-end cartridge is currently in a research phase. We have made progress on various key components designed for use in the ALMA Band 1 cartridge, including the orthomode transducer (OMT), low-noise amplifier (LNA), lens, and down-converting mixer. Since the layout of the ALMA cartridges within the antenna is not optimized for the lowest band, a dielectric lens is required to avoid blocking other bands. Using a lens necessitates careful characterization of the dielectric properties controlling focal length and dielectric loss. It is also important to match the index of refraction of the lens to minimize reflection while still providing equal performance for both linear polarizations and not introducing any cross-polarization effects. Different anti-reflection techniques will be shown; for example, a hole array, as an anti-reflection layer, has been used for a vacuum window and measured results are compared with simulation. A test cryostat has been constructed by adding an extension to a commercial liquid helium cryostat. Initial sensitivity measurements of a simplified prototype receiver will be given, incorporating an HDPE window, commercial conical feedhorn, 3-stage LNA, and warm amplification stage. An overview of the system losses, receiver noise budget, and system alignment tolerances will also be shown. Furthermore, there is interest in either extending or shifting the existing frequency towards 50 GHz, and the impact on each component will be considered.

  4. The ALMA assembly, integration, and verification project: a retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, B.; Knee, L. B. G.; Jager, H.; Whyborn, N.; McMullin, J.; Murowinski, R.; Peck, A.; Corder, S.

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA consists of 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. Assembly, Integration, and Verification (AIV) of the antennas was completed at the end of the year 2013, while the final optimization and complete expansion to validate all planned observing modes will continue. This paper compares the actually obtained results of the period 2008-2013 with the baselines that had been laid out in the early project-planning phase (2005-2007). First plans made for ALMA AIV had already established a two-phased project life-cycle: phase 1 for setting up necessary infrastructure and common facilities, and taking the first three antennas to the start of commissioning; and phase 2 focused on the steady state processing of the remaining units. Throughout the execution of the project this lifecycle was refined and two additional phases were added, namely a transition phase between phases 1 and 2, and a closing phase to address the project ramp-down. A sub-project called Accelerated Commissioning and Science Verification (ACSV) was carried out during the year 2009 in order to provide focus to the whole ALMA organization, and to accomplish the start-of-commissioning milestone. Early phases of CSV focused on validating the basic performance and calibration. Over time additional observing modes have been validated as capabilities expanded both in hardware and software. This retrospective analysis describes the originally presented project staffing plans and schedules, the underlying assumptions, identified risks and operational models, among others. For comparison actual data on staffing levels, the resultant schedule, additional risks identified and those that actually materialized, are presented. The

  5. Towards a dynamical scheduler for ALMA: a science - software collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarias, Jorge; Toledo, Ignacio; Espada, Daniel; Hibbard, John; Nyman, Lars-Ake; Hiriart, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    State-of-the art astronomical facilities are costly to build and operate, hence it is essential that these facilities must be operated as much efficiently as possible, trying to maximize the scientific output and at the same time minimizing overhead times. Over the latest decades the scheduling problem has drawn attention of research because new facilities have been demonstrated that is unfeasible to try to schedule observations manually, due the complexity to satisfy the astronomical and instrumental constraints and the number of scientific proposals to be reviewed and evaluated in near real-time. In addition, the dynamic nature of some constraints make this problem even more difficult. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a major collaboration effort between European (ESO), North American (NRAO) and East Asian countries (NAOJ), under operations on the Chilean Chajnantor plateau, at 5.000 meters of altitude. During normal operations at least two independent arrays are available, aiming to achieve different types of science. Since ALMA does not observe in the visible spectrum, observations are not limited to night time only, thus a 24/7 operation with little downtime as possible is expected when full operations state will have been reached. However, during preliminary operations (early-science) ALMA has been operated on tied schedules using around half of the whole day-time to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this paper is to explain how the observation scheduling and its optimization is done within ALMA, giving details about the problem complexity, its similarities and differences with traditional scheduling problems found in the literature. The paper delves into the current recommendation system implementation and the difficulties found during the road to its deployment in production.

  6. Complementarity of NGST, ALMA, and far IR Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) will both start operations long before a new far IR observatory in space can be launched. What will be unknown even after they are operational, and what will a far IR space observatory be able to add? I will compare the telescope design concepts and capabilities and the advertised scientific programs for the projects and attempt to forecast the research topics that will be at the forefront in 2010.

  7. Simbol-X: Synergies with JWST, ALMA and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolino, R.

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the synergies between Simbol-X and three among the major astronomical facilities that, in the next decade, will be operative in the infrared-millimeter spectral range, namely JWST, Herschel and ALMA. I first provide a brief overview of the main features and observing capabilities offered by these facilities. Then I will discuss a few research fields (mostly extragalactic) that will geatly benefit of the joint exploitation of Simbol-X and these IR-mm observatories.

  8. ALMA Binary Data Transport Mechanism using VOTable Headers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicenec, A.; Meuss, H.; Pisano, J.

    2006-07-01

    ALMA will produce very large data rates and volumes. In full operation the correlator will generate up to 60 MB/s of visibility data. These data have to be transported from the correlator on the high site (5000 m) to the ALMA archive, the telescope calibration and the quick-look subsystems, which are all located at the low site (2500 m) some 40 km away. A dedicated fiber connection between the sites is under construction and the interfaces between the subsystems are under development. The actual transport format produced by the correlator has been defined and implemented and is described in this paper in more detail. The format is derived from the SOAP with attachments [1], but instead of the SOAP XML envelope it is using a slightly modified VOTable [2] to keep the description of the binary data. The VOTable uses content ID pointers (CID, RFC2111 [3]) to refer to the binary parts contained in the same Multipart/Related (RFC2387 [4]) container. Such Multipart/Related containers are constructed for each ALMA integration and sent through a multimedia streaming connection implemented in CORBA (TAO[5, 6]).

  9. Evaluation of ALMA Band 8 S/N01 Cartridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Y.; Iizuka, Y.; Ito, T.; Kumagai, K.; Satou, N.; Kamikura, M.; Serizawa, Y.; Naruse, N.; Niizeki, Y.; Fujimoto, Y.; Shan, W. L.

    2009-04-01

    ALMA Band 8 (385 - 500 GHz) is one of frequency bands which cover atmospheric windows on the Atacama desert in the northern Chile. We have developed a cartridge-type receiver which receives two orthogonal polarizations and down-converts the sideband separated signals to intermediate frequencies (IF) between 4 and 8 GHz. A waveguide polarization splitter or ortho-mode transducer (OMT) has been developed, which enables the cryogenic optics quite simple. It achieved low loss of ~0.4 dB at 4 K and polarization isolation of -25 dB in 385 - 500 GHz [1]. A sideband separating mixer consists of two SB Nb-based SIS mixers and waveguide quadrature coupler [2]. The receiver noise temperature was less than 8 hf/k or 196 K in SSB and the image rejection ratio of > 10 dB in the 90 % of ALMA Band 8 frequency. Gain compression of this receiver was measured. The amplitude and phase stabilities were confirmed to comply the ALMA specifications. The co-polar and cross polar beam patterns of this receiver were measured in five frequencies [3]. Test results of S/N 01 cartridge will be presented.

  10. ALMA: status report on construction and early results from commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Richard E.; Kurz, Richard J.; Peck, Alison B.

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an international facility at an advanced stage of construction in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA will consist of two arrays of high-precision antennas: one made up of twelve 7-meter diameter antennas operating in closely-packed configurations of about 50m in diameter, and the other of up to sixty-four 12-meter antennas arranged in configurations with diameters ranging from about 150 meters to 15 km. There will be four more 12-meter antennas to provide the "zero-spacing" information, which is critical for making accurate images of extended objects. The antennas will be equipped with sensitive millimeter-wave receivers covering most of the frequency range 84 to 950 GHz. State-of-the-art microwave, digital, photonic and software systems will capture the signals, transfer them to the central building and correlate them, while maintaining accurate synchronization. ALMA will provide images of a wide range of astronomical objects with great sensitivity and very high spectral resolution. The images will have much higher "fidelity" than those from existing mm/submm telescopes. This paper gives an update on the status of construction and on progress with the testing and scientific commissioning.

  11. ALMA test interferometer control system: past experiences and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marson, Ralph G.; Pokorny, Martin; Kern, Jeff; Stauffer, Fritz; Perrigouard, Alain; Gustafsson, Birger; Ramey, Ken

    2004-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) will, when it is completed in 2012, be the world's largest millimeter & sub-millimeter radio telescope. It will consist of 64 antennas, each one 12 meters in diameter, connected as an interferometer. The ALMA Test Interferometer Control System (TICS) was developed as a prototype for the ALMA control system. Its initial task was to provide sufficient functionality for the evaluation of the prototype antennas. The main antenna evaluation tasks include surface measurements via holography and pointing accuracy, measured at both optical and millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we will present the design of TICS, which is a distributed computing environment. In the test facility there are four computers: three real-time computers running VxWorks (one on each antenna and a central one) and a master computer running Linux. These computers communicate via Ethernet, and each of the real-time computers is connected to the hardware devices via an extension of the CAN bus. We will also discuss our experience with this system and outline changes we are making in light of our experiences.

  12. First ALMA Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the first ALMA measurement of a galaxy cluster merger shock, observed at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at redshift z 0.9. Located at about half the current age of the Universe, this is also the most distant example of a directly measured astrophysical shock. ALMA Band 3 was utilised to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature that confirms a small-scale change in pressure as expected from the passage of a shock in the intracluster medium. The results support a previous radio-based estimate of the shock Mach number and display similarities, and also some mild tensions, with the X-ray based results. Most importantly, these results show the potential of ALMA to detect galaxy cluster shocks, observations that will advance our knowledge of cluster formation, non-thermal particle acceleration and amplification of magnetic fields across the entire observable Universe where such relic shocks can be found.

  13. ALMA Observations of the Gravitational Lens SDP.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth C.; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Yoichi; Suyu, Sherry H.; Oguri, Masamune; Matsushita, Satoki

    2017-07-01

    We present long-baseline ALMA observations of the strong gravitational lens H-ATLAS J090740.0-004200 (SDP.9), which consists of an elliptical galaxy at {z}{{L}}=0.6129 lensing a background submillimeter galaxy into two extended arcs. The data include Band 6 continuum observations, as well as CO J = 6-5 molecular line observations, from which we measure an updated source redshift of {z}{{S}}=1.5747. The image morphology in the ALMA data is different from that of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, indicating a spatial offset between the stellar, gas, and dust component of the source galaxy. We model the lens as an elliptical power law density profile with external shear using a combination of archival HST data and conjugate points identified in the ALMA data. Our best model has an Einstein radius of {θ }{{E}}=0.66+/- 0.01 and a slightly steeper than isothermal mass profile slope. We search for the central image of the lens, which can be used constrain the inner mass distribution of the lens galaxy including the central supermassive black hole, but do not detect it in the integrated CO image at a 3σ rms level of 0.0471 Jy km s-1.

  14. Final tests and performances verification of the European ALMA antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is under erection in Northern Chile. The array consists of a large number (up to 64) of 12 m diameter antennas and a number of smaller antennas, to be operated on the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude. The antennas will operate up to 950 GHz so that their mechanical performances, in terms of surface accuracy, pointing precision and dimensional stability, are very tight. The AEM consortium constituted by Thales Alenia Space France, Thales Alenia Space Italy, European Industrial Engineering (EIE GROUP), and MT Mechatronics is assembling and testing the 25 antennas. As of today, the first set of antennas have been delivered to ALMA for science. During the test phase with ESO and ALMA, the European antennas have shown excellent performances ensuring the specification requirements widely. The purpose of this paper is to present the different results obtained during the test campaign: surface accuracy, pointing error, fast motion capability and residual delay. Very important was also the test phases that led to the validation of the FE model showing that the antenna is working with a good margin than predicted at design level thanks also to the assembly and integration techniques.

  15. ALMA resolves SN 1987A's dust factory and particle accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indebetouw, Remy; SN1987A ALMA Cycle 0 Team

    2014-01-01

    SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is the closest supernova to earth to be observed since 1604, making it a unique laboratory to study supernova physics in real time. Among SN87A's remarkable properties are a very large mass of new dust forming in the supernova ejecta. This dust was inferred from Herschel data, but its location not proven since Herschel could not resolve the 1.8" diameter remnant. Another mystery is whether the explosion left behind a neutron star - neither pulsar nor pulsar wind nebula has been detected so far. Excess emission from a PWN should be easiest to detect at millimeter wavelengths, if it can be spatially resolved from the synchrotron-emitting supernova shock. We present the first spatially resolved images of SN1987A at 450um, 870um, and 1.4mm, observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). ALMA resolves emission from the newly formed dust, unambiguously locating it within the ejecta, interior to the reverse shock. The shocked ring is also well-resolved, and separated spatially from the ejecta. The ring shows no spectral break compared to centimeter wavelengths, and no free-free or PWN emission is required to explain the data. We discuss physical properties of the components of the remnant determined from these high resolution ALMA images.

  16. Experience with the operation of the European ALMA antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Laing, Robert; Rossi, Silvio; Wild, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The 25 European antennas of ALMA were delivered by ESO to the ALMA project in Chile between April 2011 and September 2013. Their combined time of operation is already significant and allows us to draw conclusions regarding their ability to fulfil the original specification, in terms of both scientific performance and operational availability. In this paper, we will summarize the experience gained during the past five years of operation. We will characterize the performance of the antennas in routine operation and compare with the data obtained during acceptance testing. We will also describe the few technical issues experienced while operating at 5000m and the way in which these were treated during these first years of operation. We will evaluate the effective reliability obtained in service based on field data and draw some conclusions as to the way in which reliability and maintainability aspects were covered during the process which led to the final design of the antenna. We will discuss the smart use of software to handle redundancy in a flexible way and to exclude failed components without affecting overall antenna operability. The use of low-level diagnostics enabled by remote access allows us to shorten the trouble-shooting cycle and to optimise physical interventions on the antennas. Finally, the paper will cover Antenna maintenance manuals edited using an industrial interactive standard. It will be explained why this advanced and innovative concept has not achieved the success that was expected, and why the traditional form is preferred at the ALMA Observatory.

  17. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) astronomical project will not only enlarge our knowledge of the vast Universe beyond the imaginable. It will also help scientists learn more about the human body. Located 5000m above sea level, in the Chilean Atacama desert, ALMA is the highest site for ground-based astronomy. This property will be put to good use for academic institutions in Chile and in Europe in order to study the human response to extreme altitude conditions. During a ceremony held on 2 April in Antofagasta, the largest town close to ESO's Very Large Telescope, representatives from ALMA, ESO and the University of Antofagasta have officially launched a collaborative agreement that also involves the University of Chile and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). The newly established cooperation aims at contributing to the promotion of teaching, scientific research, and the expansion of altitude physiology and medicine or other related areas considered appropriate. ESO PR Photo 20/07 ESO PR Photo 20/07 Working at 5000 metres "An increasing number of people are periodically exposed to brisk changes in altitude, and not only for astronomical research," said Jacques Lassalle, the ALMA Safety Manager. "Short stays at high altitude alternate with short stays at sea level but the corresponding shifts are very often established by agreement, and not based on scientific arguments. With this project, we aim at improving our knowledge and procedures in order to protect the long term health of the operators, engineers, and scientists as well as ALMA visitors of all ages and all physical conditions," he added. Around the world, a large number of people systematically commute between sea level and high altitude, for example when working in mountainous mines. This poses stringent conditions that may affect health, wellbeing and working performance. Some of the factors in question are the shift work regime, the perturbation of circadian rhythms, fatigue

  18. Alternative Learning Methodologies through Academics (Project ALMA). 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Public Schools' Alternative Learning Methodologies through Academics Program (Project ALMA) for Spanish-speaking students. Project ALMA served 407 9th and 10th graders at 2 sites (Queens and the Bronx). All of the students spoke Spanish, and 75.7 percent of them were eligible for the Free Lunch Program. The…

  19. The ALMA common software: dispatch from the trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J.; Sommer, H.; Jeram, B.; Sekoranja, M.; Chiozzi, G.; Grimstrup, A.; Caproni, A.; Paredes, C.; Allaert, E.; Harrington, S.; Turolla, S.; Cirami, R.

    2008-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides both an application framework and CORBA-based middleware for the distributed software system of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. Building upon open-source tools such as the JacORB, TAO and OmniORB ORBs, ACS supports the development of component-based software in any of three languages: Java, C++ and Python. Now in its seventh major release, ACS has matured, both in its feature set as well as in its reliability and performance. However, it is only recently that the ALMA observatory's hardware and application software has reached a level at which it can exploit and challenge the infrastructure that ACS provides. In particular, the availability of an Antenna Test Facility(ATF) at the site of the Very Large Array in New Mexico has enabled us to exercise and test the still evolving end-to-end ALMA software under realistic conditions. The major focus of ACS, consequently, has shifted from the development of new features to consideration of how best to use those that already exist. Configuration details which could be neglected for the purpose of running unit tests or skeletal end-to-end simulations have turned out to be sensitive levers for achieving satisfactory performance in a real-world environment. Surprising behavior in some open-source tools has required us to choose between patching code that we did not write or addressing its deficiencies by implementing workarounds in our own software. We will discuss these and other aspects of our recent experience at the ATF and in simulation.

  20. Operational logs analysis at ALMA observatory based on ELK stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Juan P.; Reveco, Johnny; Shen, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-07-01

    During operations, the ALMA observatory generates a huge amount of logs which contain not only valuable information related to specific failures but also for long term performance analysis. We implemented a big data solution based on Elasticsearch, Logstash and Kibana. They are configured as decoupled system which causes zero impact on the existent operations. It is able to keep more than six months of operation logs online. In this paper, we'll describe this infrastructure, applications built on top of it, and the problems that we faced during its implementation.

  1. ALMA Observations of a Young Disc in Corona Australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, J. E.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Brinch, C.; Haugbolle, T.; Bergin, E. A.; Harsono, D.; Persson, M. V.; Visser, R.; Yamamoto, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present high-resolution ALMA observations towards the deeply embedded young stellar object IRS7B. This protostar is heavily affected by external irradiation from the nearby Herbig Be star R CrA. We identify a young Keplerian disc around IRS7B, and find that the inner envelope shows only faint CH3OH line emission. This can either be explained by the irradiation history of the source, which may affect the chemistry in the region, or it is a result of the very young protoplanetary disc.

  2. 12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN MESA, THE LOCATION AT WHICH THE PECK, PINE AND WALLACE FEEDERS FORMERLY JOINED TO FORM THE WESTERN CANAL. THE PECK AND PINE FEEDERS, NOW KNOWN AS LATERAL 9 AND LATERAL 10, AND ALMOST ENTIRELY PIPED, STILL JOIN THE WESTERN CANAL AT THIS POINT, BUT AN EQUALLY IMPORTANT SOURCE OF SUPPLY IS THE NUMEROUS GROUNDWATER PUMPS LOCATED ON THE SYSTEM. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Complementarity of NGST, ALMA, and Far IR Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) will both start operations long before a new far IR observatory to follow SIRTF into space can be launched. What will be unknown even after they are operational, and what will a far IR space observatory be able to add? I will compare the telescope design concepts and capabilities and the advertised scientific programs for the projects and attempt to forecast the research topics that will be at the forefront in 2010.

  4. ACS (Alma Common Software) operating a set of robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhues, C.; Ramolla, M.; Lemke, R.; Haas, M.; Drass, H.; Chini, R.

    2014-07-01

    We use the ALMA Common Software (ACS) to establish a unified middleware for robotic observations with the 40cm Optical, 80cm Infrared and 1.5m Hexapod telescopes located at OCA (Observatorio Cerro Armazones) and the ESO 1-m located at La Silla. ACS permits to hide from the observer the technical specifications, like mount-type or camera-model. Furthermore ACS provides a uniform interface to the different telescopes, allowing us to run the same planning program for each telescope. Observations are carried out for long-term monitoring campaigns to study the variability of stars and AGN. We present here the specific implementation to the different telescopes.

  5. Model-based fault detection and diagnosis in ALMA subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, José; Carrasco, Rodrigo A.

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory, with its 66 individual telescopes and other central equipment, generates a massive set of monitoring data every day, collecting information on the performance of a variety of critical and complex electrical, electronic and mechanical components. This data is crucial for most troubleshooting efforts performed by engineering teams. More than 5 years of accumulated data and expertise allow for a more systematic approach to fault detection and diagnosis. This paper presents model-based fault detection and diagnosis techniques to support corrective and predictive maintenance in a 24/7 minimum-downtime observatory.

  6. Behavior driven testing in ALMA telescope calibration software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Juan P.; Garces, Mario; Broguiere, Dominique; Shen, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-07-01

    ALMA software development cycle includes well defined testing stages that involves developers, testers and scientists. We adapted Behavior Driven Development (BDD) to testing activities applied to Telescope Calibration (TELCAL) software. BDD is an agile technique that encourages communication between roles by defining test cases using natural language to specify features and scenarios, what allows participants to share a common language and provides a high level set of automated tests. This work describes how we implemented and maintain BDD testing for TELCAL, the infrastructure needed to support it and proposals to expand this technique to other subsystems.

  7. The evolution of the simulation environment in the ALMA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Saez, Norman; Velez, Gaston; Staig, Tomas; Sepulveda, Jorge; Saez, Alejandro; Ovando, Nicolas; Ibsen, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) has entered into operation phase since 2013. This transition changed the priorities within the observatory, in which, most of the available time will be dedicated to science observations at the expense of technical time. Therefore, it was planned to design and implement a new simulation environment, which must be comparable - or at least- be representative of the production environment. Concepts of model in the loop and hardware in the loop were explored. In this paper we review experiences gained and lessons learnt during the design and implementation of the new simulation environment.

  8. Evaluation of Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma (ALMA): a pilot promotora intervention focused on stress and coping among immigrant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh N; Ornelas, India J; Perez, Georgina; Green, Melissa A; Lyn, Michelle; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2014-04-01

    Recent immigrant Latinas are at increased risk of poor mental health due to stressors associated with adapting to life in the United States. This study evaluated Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma, a promotora intervention to reduce stress and promote health and coping among recent immigrant Latinas. Using a pre- and post-test design, we evaluated mental health outcomes, specifically, in promotoras. Promotoras' knowledge levels related to role of promotora and stress management increased, depressive symptoms and stress levels decreased, and coping responses and perceived social support increased as well. Results suggest that promotora programs may be an effective way to improve mental health in recent immigrant Latinas.

  9. Deep data: discovery and visualization Application to hyperspectral ALMA imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merényi, Erzsébet; Taylor, Joshua; Isella, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Leading-edge telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter and sub-millimeter Array (ALMA), and near-future ones, are capable of imaging the same sky area at hundreds-to-thousands of frequencies with both high spectral and spatial resolution. This provides unprecedented opportunities for discovery about the spatial, kinematical and compositional structure of sources such as molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks, and more. However, in addition to enormous volume, the data also exhibit unprecedented complexity, mandating new approaches for extracting and summarizing relevant information. Traditional techniques such as examining images at selected frequencies become intractable while tools that integrate data across frequencies or pixels (like moment maps) can no longer fully exploit and visualize the rich information. We present a neural map-based machine learning approach that can handle all spectral channels simultaneously, utilizing the full depth of these data for discovery and visualization of spectrally homogeneous spatial regions (spectral clusters) that characterize distinct kinematic behaviors. We demonstrate the effectiveness on an ALMA image cube of the protoplanetary disk HD142527. The tools we collectively name ``NeuroScope'' are efficient for ``Big Data'' due to intelligent data summarization that results in significant sparsity and noise reduction. We also demonstrate a new approach to automate our clustering for fast distillation of large data cubes.

  10. Container-component model and XML in ALMA ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zagar, Klemen; Voelter, Markus

    2004-09-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. To meet the challenges of developing distributed software in distributed teams, ACS offers a container/component model that integrates the use of XML transfer objects. ACS containers are built on top of CORBA and are available for C++, Java, and Python, so that ALMA software can be written as components in any of these languages. The containers perform technical aspects of the software system, while components can focus on the implementation of functional requirements. Like Web services, components can use XML to exchange structured data by value. For Java components, the container seamlessly integrates the use of XML binding classes, which are Java classes that encapsulate access to XML data through type-safe methods. Binding classes are generated from XML schemas, allowing the Java compiler to enforce compliance of application code with the XML schemas. This presentation will explain the capabilities of the ACS container/component model, and how it relates to other middleware technologies that are popular in industry.

  11. An overview of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Caproni, A.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Harrington, S.; Zagar, K.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is an application framework designed to provide a common and homogeneous software architecture and infrastructure, spanning the end to end needs of an Astronomical observatory, from the Telescope Control system to high-level data flow management. ACS offers, at the lower level, several basic services needed for object-oriented distributed computing like transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. On top of this it provides an application architecture based on the Component/Container paradigm that fosters sharing and reusing of software components. Although developed for the ALMA project, ACS is now used by several other projects worldwide, among which the Italian Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). Besides, there is an active community that shares ideas, concepts and actual software components. Major drivers for this diffusion were the choice of adopting the LGPL public license and the adoption of CORBA, a free but reliable and widely used middleware software. In this paper we present an overview of the main features of ACS, emphasizing in particular the role of INAF-OAT in this project.

  12. A CORBA event system for ALMA common software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugate, David W.

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software notification channel framework provides developers with an easy to use, high-performance, event-driven system supported across multiple programming languages and operating systems. It sits on top of the CORBA notification service and hides nearly all CORBA from developers. The system is based on a push event channel model where suppliers push events onto the channel and consumers process these asynchronously. This is a many-to-many publishing model whereby multiple suppliers send events to multiple consumers on the same channel. Furthermore, these event suppliers and consumers can be coded in C++, Java, or Python on any platform supported by ACS. There are only two classes developers need to be concerned with: SimpleSupplier and Consumer. SimpleSupplier was designed so that ALMA events (defined as IDL structures) could be published in the simplest manner possible without exposing any CORBA to the developer. Essentially all that needs to be known is the channel's name and the IDL structure being published. The API takes care of everything else. With the Consumer class, the developer is responsible for providing the channel's name as well as associating event types with functions that will handle them.

  13. ALMA software scalability experience with growing number of antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Matias; Avarias, Jorge; Tejeda, Alexis; Gil, Juan Pablo; Sommer, Heiko

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA Observatory is a challenging project in many ways. The hardware and software pieces were often designed specifically for ALMA, based on overall scientific requirements. The observatory is still in its construction phase, but already started Early Science observations with 16 antennas in September 2011, and has currently (June 2012) 39 accepted antennas, with 1 or 2 new antennas delivered every month. The finished array will integrate up to 66 antennas in 2014. The on-line software is a critical part of the operations: it controls everything from the low level real-time hardware and data processing up to the observations scheduler and data storage. Many pieces of the software are eventually affected by a growing number of antennas, as more processes are integrated into the distributed system, and more data flows to the Correlator and Database. Although some early scalability tests were performed in a simulated environment, the system proved to be very dependent on real deployment conditions and several unforeseen scalability issues have been found in the last year, starting with a critical number of about 15 antennas. Processes that grow with the number of antennas tend to quickly demand more powerful machines, unless alternatives are implemented. This paper describes the practical experience of dealing with (and hopefully preventing) blocking scalability issues during the construction phase, while the expectant users push the system to its limits. This may also be a very useful example for other upcoming radio-telescopes with a large number of receivers.

  14. The Molecular Gas Outflow of NGC 1068 Imaged by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have used the ALMA array to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) in the central r˜2 kpc of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions ˜0.3″-0.5″ (˜20-35 pc). The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give a detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas. The gas kinematics from r˜50 pc out to r˜400 pc reveal a massive outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, M/dt˜63+21-37 M⊙ yr-1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii. The molecular outflow could quench star formation in the inner r˜400 pc of the galaxy on short timescales of ≤1 Myr and regulate gas accretion in the CND.

  15. The SPT+ALMA CO Redshift Survey of Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Joaquin

    2017-06-01

    In a 2500 square degree cosmological survey, the South Pole Telescope has systematically identified a large number (100) of high-redshift strongly gravitationally lensed sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs). We are conducting a unique spectroscopic redshift survey with ALMA, targeting carbon monoxide (CO) line emission in these sources, across the 3mm spectral window. To date, we have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for 54 sources from 1.84 and extends into the epoch of re-ionization. Once we determine the redshift for these sources, we are able to obtain high-resolution CO, [CII], [NII], H_2O, OH, and HCN for these sources with ALMA, making this the largest and most well-studied samples of high-redshift starburst galaxies. We are undertaking a comprehensive and systematic followup campaign to use these ``cosmic magnifying glasses'' to study the physical conditions and chemical evolution of the dust-obscured universe in unprecedented detail. I will describe our team's method for obtaining and confirming spectroscopic redshifts, detail our current knowledge of the redshifts distribution of SMGs, present a method for selecting the highest redshift SMGs, describe our high-resolution imaging of molecular lines, and discuss future directions for obtaining large samples of mm-wave spectra.

  16. UNVEILING THE DUST NUCLEATION ZONE OF IRC+10216 WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Guélin, M.; Agundez, M.; Marcelino, N.; Joblin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We report the detection in IRC+10216 of lines of HNC J = 3 – 2 pertaining to nine excited vibrational states with energies up to ∼5300 K. The spectrum, observed with ALMA, also shows a surprising large number of narrow, unidentified lines that arise in the vicinity of the star. The HNC data are interpreted through a 1D-spherical non-local radiative transfer model, coupled to a chemical model that includes chemistry at thermochemical equilibrium for the innermost regions and reaction kinetics for the external envelope. Although unresolved by the current early ALMA data, the radius inferred for the emitting region is ∼0.''06 (i.e., ≅ 3 stellar radii), similar to the size of the dusty clumps reported by IR studies of the innermost region (r < 0.''3). The derived abundance of HNC relative to H{sub 2} is 10{sup –8} < χ(HNC) <10{sup –6}, and drops quickly where the gas density decreases and the gas chemistry is dominated by reaction kinetics. Merging HNC data with that of molecular species present throughout the inner envelope, such as vibrationally excited HCN, SiS, CS, or SiO, should allow us to characterize the physical and chemical conditions in the dust formation zone.

  17. ALMA Band 8 Continuum Emission from Orion Source I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A.; Honma, Mareki

    2016-12-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  18. Measuring Protoplanetary Disk Gas Surface Density Profiles with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McPartland, Conor

    2016-10-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, M gas = 0.048 M ⊙, and accretion disk characteristic size R c = 213 au and gradient γ = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2-1 image and indicate an abundance ratio [12CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2-1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 M Jup at 150 pc, ALMA observations with a resolution of 0.″2-0.″3 and integration times of ˜20 minutes allow reliable estimates of R c to within about 10 au and γ to within about 0.2. Economic gas imaging surveys are therefore feasible and offer the opportunity to open up a new dimension for studying disk structure and its evolution toward planet formation.

  19. Business Intelligence Applied to the ALMA Software Integration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, M.; Recabarren, C.; González, V.; Hoffstadt, A.; Soto, R.; Shen, T.-C.

    2012-09-01

    Software quality assurance and planning of an astronomy project is a complex task, specially if it is a distributed collaborative project such as ALMA, where the development centers are spread across the globe. When you execute a software project there is much valuable information about this process itself that you might be able to collect. One of the ways you can receive this input is via an issue tracking system that will gather the problem reports relative to software bugs captured during the testing of the software, during the integration of the different components or even worst, problems occurred during production time. Usually, there is little time spent on analyzing them but with some multidimensional processing you can extract valuable information from them and it might help you on the long term planning and resources allocation. We present an analysis of the information collected at ALMA from a collection of key unbiased indicators. We describe here the extraction, transformation and load process and how the data was processed. The main goal is to assess a software process and get insights from this information.

  20. Molecules from Clouds to Planets: Sweet Results from Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2017-06-01

    One of the most exciting developments in astronomy is the discovery of thousands of planets around stars other than our Sun. But how do these exo-planets form, and which chemical ingredients are available to build them? Thanks to powerful new telescopes, especially the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), astronomers are starting to address these age-old questions scientifically. Stars and planets are born in the cold and tenuous clouds between the stars in the Milky Way. In spite of the extremely low temperatures and densities, a surprisingly rich and interesting chemistry occurs in these interstellar clouds, as evidenced by the detection of more than 180 different molecules. Highly accurate spectroscopic data are key to their identification, and examples of the continued need and close interaction between laboratory work and astronomical observations will be given. ALMA now allows us to zoom in on solar system construction for the first time. Spectral scans of the birth sites of young stars contain tens of thousands of rotational lines. Water and a surprisingly rich variety of organic materials are found, including simple sugars and high abundances of deuterated species. How are these molecules formed? Can these pre-biotic molecules end up on new planets and form the basis for life elsewhere in the universe? Stay tuned for the latest analyses and also a comparison with recent results from the Rosetta mission to comet 67 P/C-G in our own Solar System.

  1. Strongly Misaligned Triple System in SR 24 Revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-López, M.; Zapata, L. A.; Gabbasov, R.

    2017-08-01

    We report the detection of the 1.3 mm continuum and the molecular emission of the disks of the young triple system SR24 by analyzing ALMA (The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimter Array) subarcsecond archival observations. We estimate the mass of the disks (0.025 M ⊙ and 4 × 10-5 M ⊕ for SR24S and SR24N, respectively) and the dynamical mass of the protostars (1.5 M ⊙ and 1.1 M ⊙). A kinematic model of the SR24S disk to fit its C18O (2-1) emission allows us to develop an observational method to determine the tilt of a rotating and accreting disk. We derive the size, inclination, position angle, and sense of rotation of each disk, finding that they are strongly misaligned (108^\\circ ) and possibly rotate in opposite directions as seen from Earth, in projection. We compare the ALMA observations with 12CO SMA archival observations, which are more sensitive to extended structures. We find three extended structures and estimate their masses: a molecular bridge joining the disks of the system, a molecular gas reservoir associated with SR24N, and a gas streamer associated with SR24S. Finally, we discuss the possible origin of the misaligned SR24 system, concluding that a closer inspection of the northern gas reservoir is needed to better understand it.

  2. Isotopic Ratios in Nitrile Species on Titan using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molter, Edward; Nixon, Conor; Cordiner, Martin; Serigano, Joseph; Irwin, Patrick; Teanby, Nicholas; Charnley, Steven; Lindeberg, Johan

    2016-06-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is primarily composed of molecular nitrogen (N2, ˜98%) and methane (CH4, ˜2%), but also hosts a myriad of trace organic species. Two of the simplest and most abundant of these are hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and cyanoacetylene (HC3N). The advent of ALMA provides the opportunity to observe rotational transitions in these molecules and their isotopologues with unprecendented sensitivity and spatial resolution. We searched through the ALMA archive for publicly available high-resolution observations of Titan as a flux calibrator source taken between April and July 2014; each integration lasted around 160 seconds. Using spectra of HCN and HC3N isotopologues found in these data, we derive vertical abundance profiles and determine the isotopic ratios 14N/15N and 12C/13C in these molecules. We also report the detection of a new HCN isotopologue on Titan, H13C6 15N, and use a high signal-to-noise spectrum of DCN to determine the D/H ratio in HCN on Titan for the first time. These isotopic ratios are leveraged to constrain the physical and chemical processes occurring in Titan's atmosphere.

  3. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  4. OPTICAL–INFRARED PROPERTIES OF FAINT 1.3 mm SOURCES DETECTED WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Ohta, Kouji; Seko, Akifumi; Makiya, Ryu; Akiyama, Masayuki

    2015-09-10

    We report optical-infrared (IR) properties of faint 1.3 mm sources (S{sub 1.3mm} = 0.2–1.0 mJy) detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field. We searched for optical/IR counterparts of eight ALMA-detected sources (≥4.0σ, the sum of the probability of spurious source contamination is ∼1) in a K-band source catalog. Four ALMA sources have K-band counterpart candidates within a 0.″4 radius. Comparison between ALMA-detected and undetected K-band sources in the same observing fields shows that ALMA-detected sources tend to be brighter, more massive, and more actively forming stars. While many of the ALMA-identified submillimeter-bright galaxies (SMGs) in previous studies lie above the sequence of star-forming galaxies in the stellar mass–star formation rate plane, our ALMA sources are located in the sequence, suggesting that the ALMA-detected faint sources are more like “normal” star-forming galaxies rather than “classical” SMGs. We found a region where multiple ALMA sources and K-band sources reside in a narrow photometric redshift range (z ∼ 1.3–1.6) within a radius of 5″ (42 kpc if we assume z = 1.45). This is possibly a pre-merging system and we may be witnessing the early phase of formation of a massive elliptical galaxy.

  5. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R.; Longmore, Steven N.; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Falcke, Heino

    2016-09-01

    Aims: Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz. This frequency, well into the submillimeter bump where the emission is supposed to become optically thin, allows us to see down to the event horizon. Hence the reported observations contain potentially vital information on black hole properties. We have compared our measurements with previous, lower frequency observations, which provides information in the time domain. Methods: We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz, based on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from the central fields of our ALMA mosaic observations. We used calibration observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan and the observations of Ci line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. Results: The flux density of 3.6 ± 0.72 Jy which we measured during our run is consistent with extrapolations from previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle can be explained by a constant polarization position angle of ~158°± 3°. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14% ± 1.2%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed on the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9% ± 0.9% polarization at position angle PA = 14°± 4.2°. Conclusions: The observed polarization percentage and polarization position angle in the present work appear consistent with those expected from longer wavelength observations in the period of 1999-2005. In particular, the polarization position angle at 492 GHz expected from the previously fitted 167°± 7° intrinsic

  6. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Biggs, A. D.; Geach, J. E.; Michałowski, M. J.; Ivison, R. J.; Rujopakarn, W.; van Kampen, E.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Pope, A.; Scott, D.; Swinbank, A. M.; Targett, T. A.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Best, P. N.; Bruce, V. A.; Chapin, E. L.; Charlot, S.; Cirasuolo, M.; Coppin, K.; Ellis, R. S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hayward, C. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Jagannathan, P.; Khochfar, S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Narayanan, D.; Nyland, K.; Papovich, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Robertson, B.; Vernstrom, T.; Werf, P. P. van der; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of the first, deep Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) imaging covering the full ≃4.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) imaged with Wide Field Camera 3/IR on HST. Using a 45-pointing mosaic, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3-mm image reaching σ1.3 ≃ 35 μJy, at a resolution of ≃0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ≃50 > 3.5σ peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with S1.3 > 120 μJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts ( = 2.15). Due to the unparalleled supporting data, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-redshift Universe; indeed at z ≥ 2 our ALMA sample contains seven of the nine galaxies in the HUDF with M* ≥ 2 × 1010 M⊙, and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, reflecting the rapid drop-off of high-mass galaxies with increasing redshift. The detections, coupled with stacking, allow us to probe the redshift/mass distribution of the 1.3-mm background down to S1.3 ≃ 10 μJy. We find strong evidence for a steep star-forming 'main sequence' at z ≃ 2, with SFR ∝M* and a mean specific SFR ≃ 2.2 Gyr-1. Moreover, we find that ≃85 per cent of total star formation at z ≃ 2 is enshrouded in dust, with ≃65 per cent of all star formation at this epoch occurring in high-mass galaxies (M* > 2 × 1010 M⊙), for which the average obscured:unobscured SF ratio is ≃200. Finally, we revisit the cosmic evolution of SFR density; we find this peaks at z ≃ 2.5, and that the star-forming Universe transits from primarily unobscured to primarily obscured at z ≃ 4.

  7. ALMA long baseline phase calibration using phase referencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaki, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Satoki; Fomalont, Edward B.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Nyman, Lars-Åke; Dent, William R. F.; Philips, Neil M.; Hirota, Akihiko; Takahashi, Satoko; Vila-Vilaro, Baltasar; Nikolic, Bojan; Hunter, Todd R.; Remijan, Anthony; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is the world's largest millimeter/submillimeter telescope and provides unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolutions. To achieve the highest imaging capabilities, interferometric phase calibration for the long baselines is one of the most important subjects: The longer the baselines, the worse the phase stability becomes because of turbulent motions of the Earth's atmosphere, especially, the water vapor in the troposphere. To overcome this subject, ALMA adopts a phase correction scheme using a Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) to estimate the amount of water vapor content along the antenna line of sight. An additional technique is phase referencing, in which a science target and a nearby calibrator are observed by turn by quickly changing the antenna pointing. We conducted feasibility studies of the hybrid technique with the WVR phase correction and the antenna Fast Switching (FS) phase referencing (WVR+FS phase correction) for the ALMA 16 km longest baselines in cases that (1) the same observing frequency both for a target and calibrator is used, and (2) higher and lower frequencies for a target and calibrator, respectively, with a typical switching cycle time of 20 s. It was found that the phase correction performance of the hybrid technique is promising where a nearby calibrator is located within roughly 3◦ from a science target, and that the phase correction with 20 s switching cycle time significantly improves the performance with the above separation angle criterion comparing to the 120 s switching cycle time. The currently trial phase calibration method shows the same performance independent of the observing frequencies. This result is especially important for the higher frequency observations because it becomes difficult to find a bright calibrator close to an arbitrary sky position. In the series of our experiments, it is also found that phase errors affecting the image quality come from not only

  8. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J.; Rathborne, J.; Jackson, J.; Longmore, S.; Whitaker, S.; Hoq, S.

    2013-10-01

    ALMA will revolutionize our understanding of star formation within our galaxy, but before we can use ALMA we need to know where to look. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey is a large international project to map the molecular line emission of over 2,000 dense clumps in the Galactic plane. MALT90 serves as a pathfinder mission for ALMA, providing a large public database of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. In this proceedings, we describe the survey parameters and share early science highlights from the survey, including (1) a comparison between galactic and extragalactic star formation relations, (2) chemical trends in MALT90 clumps, (3) the distribution of high-mass star formation in the Milky Way, and (4) a discussion of the “Brick”, the target of successful ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 proposals.

  9. The dusty and molecular universe: a prelude to Herschel and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Contents: General overviews. Potential Herschel/ALMA impact. ISM and global star formation. Galaxies and cosmology. Planetary systems. Local star formation and ISM. Stars and dust production. Synthesis and strategy.

  10. Oskar Kokoschka and Alma Mahler: art as diary and as therapy.

    PubMed

    Blum, Harold P

    2011-01-01

    The Austrian artist, Oskar Kokoschka, had an affair with Alma Mahler, widow of the composer Gustav Mahler, 1912-1914. This affair profoundly influenced his life and art. His palette at first brightened, with thick brush strokes and flashes of light and dark, indicating his psychological and emotional lability. Painting what he did not or could not express in words, his art of this period can be understood as an intimate visual diary of the vicissitudes of his relationship with Alma Mahler. For Kokoschka his work became a form of art therapy, following the crushing loss of Alma Mahler and near fatal physical injuries sustained in World War I. His gradual recovery was associated with his extraordinary attachment to and destruction of a lifelike effigy of Alma Mahler, thereby working through childhood trauma.

  11. The ALMA Front-end Archive Setup and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicenec, A.; Chen, A.; Checcucci, A.; Jeram, B.; Meuss, H.; Persson, A.; Burgos, P.; Cirami, R.

    2010-12-01

    The ALMA front-end archive system has to capture up to 64 MB/s for a period of several days plus the data of about 100,000 monitor points from all 66 antennas and the correlators. The main science data is delivered through corba based audio/video streams and finally stored on SATA disk arrays hosted on 6 computers and controlled by 12 daemons. All data is collected by software components running on computers in the antennas and then sent through dedicated fiber links to the Array Operations Site at 5000 m and from there to the Operations Support Facility (OSF) at 3000 m elevation. The various hardware and software components have been tuned and tested to be able to meet the performance requirements. This paper describes the setup and the various components in more detail and gives results of various test runs.

  12. EMoCA: Exploring Molecular Complexity with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Garrod, R. T.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key sites to search for complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium has turned out to be the hot core Sgr B2(N). We present the project EMoCA, a spectral line survey conducted toward this source with ALMA. We aim at deciphering the molecular content of Sgr B2(N) in order to test predictions of state-of-the-art astrochemical numerical simulations and improve our understanding of interstellar chemistry. An initial result of EMoCA is the first detection in space of a branched alkyl molecule. This detection establishes a further link between interstellar chemistry and meteorites and bodes well for the presence of amino acids in the interstellar medium.

  13. Hardware Device Simulation Framework in the ALMA Control Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, M.; Reyes, C.; Ibsen, J.; Kern, J.; Juerges, T.; Farris, A.; Araya, R.; Troncoso, N.; González, V.

    2009-09-01

    Hardware device simulation development is a fundamental task which has to be addressed when writing control software. Simulations are used to decouple the software from the hardware layer, and provide a powerful tool to ensure the correct functionality of a control system before integrating real devices. This paper presents the design of the ALMA hardware device simulation framework as part of the Control subsystem. This framework provides basic code generation, allows simulation of devices through an external process connected to a real-time FIFO (as the real hardware), and provides an alternative, direct and more flexible simulation. This has simplified development and testing as developers can now focus on the non-trivial aspects of a simulation.

  14. ALMA Reveals Internal Structure of Molecular Clouds in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Koda, J.

    2015-12-01

    We carried out high-resolution (0.7 pc) CO J=1-0 mosaic observations of five giant molecular clouds, which cover a wide range of evolutionary stages based on their associations to recent star formation, in the Large Magellanic Cloud with ALMA. The observations revealed a variety of spatial structures of the gas, from faint and diffuse emission to bright and compact structures. The variation of structures, which is similar to that seen in the Milky Way, is quantified by the brightness distribution function (BDF) and brightness distribution index (BDI) established in our prior studies. The structured molecular gas may indicate the readiness for, rather than the outcome of, star formation.

  15. ALMA Explores How Supermassive Black Holes Talk to Their Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    We believe that supermassive black holes evolve in tandem with their host galaxies but how do the two communicate? Observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have revealed new clues about how a monster black hole talks to its galaxy.A Hubble image of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster. [Adapted from Russell et al. 2017]Observing FeedbackActive galactic nuclei (AGN), the highly luminous centers of some galaxies, are thought to radiate due to active accretion onto the supermassive black hole at their center.Its long been suspected that the radiation and outflowing material which often takes the form of enormous bipolar radio jets emitted into the surroundings influence the AGNs host galaxy, affecting star formation rates and the evolution of the galaxy. This AGN feedback has been alternately suggested to trigger star formation, quench it, and truncate the growth of massive galaxies.The details of this feedback process, however, have yet to be thoroughly understood in part because its difficult to obtain detailed observations of how AGN outflows interact with the galactic gas surrounding them. Now, a team of scientists led by Helen Russell (Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, UK) has published the results of a new, high-resolution look at the gas in a massive galaxy in the center of the Phoenix cluster.Many Uses for FuelThe Phoenix cluster, a nearby (z = 0.596) group of star-forming galaxies, is the most luminous X-ray cluster known. The central galaxy in the cluster is especially active: it hosts a starburst of 500800 solar masses per year, the largest starburst found in any galaxy below a redshift of z= 1.The star formation in this galaxy is sustained by an enormous reservoir of cold molecular gas roughly 20 billion solar masses worth. This reservoir also powers the galaxys central black hole, fueling powerful radio jets that extend into the hot atmosphere of the galaxy and blow a giant bubble into the hot gas at each pole.ALMA

  16. Tiers of the maintenance concept at ALMA in operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabanus, David

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array finds itself in the transition into full operations. Previous construction activities are being wrapped up, and regular, repetitive maintenance and upkeep will dominate the daily life, which asks for a consolidation and streamlining of the activities at the observatory. Especially the shifting focus to the high site of the observatory deserves more attention, since assembly, integration and verification activities at the base camp have ceased by now. In parallel, adjustments in the host country's labor legislation for operations at high geographic altitudes demand a review of the way things are done. This talk outlines the underlying operational concepts, lists the limiting constraints, describes the implementation of our reactions to those, and outlines our future intentions, which will be one in a number of steps towards optimization of the productivity of the observatory. The latter is the top level goal, which the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) has signed up for.

  17. A Complete ALMA Map of the Fomalhaut Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Matrà, Luca; Kalas, Paul; Wilner, David J.; Pan, Margaret; Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Duchene, Gaspard; Hughes, A. Meredith; Rieke, George H.; Clampin, Mark; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Holland, Wayne S.; Panić, Olja; Shannon, Andrew; Su, Kate

    2017-06-01

    We present ALMA mosaic observations at 1.3 mm (223 GHz) of the Fomalhaut system with a sensitivity of 14 μJy/beam. These observations provide the first millimeter map of the continuum dust emission from the complete outer debris disk with uniform sensitivity, enabling the first conclusive detection of apocenter glow. We adopt an MCMC modeling approach that accounts for the eccentric orbital parameters of a collection of particles within the disk. The outer belt is radially confined with an inner edge of 136.3 ± 0.9 au and width of 13.5 ± 1.8 au. We determine a best-fit eccentricity of 0.12 ± 0.01. Assuming a size distribution power-law index of q = 3.46 ± 0.09, we constrain the dust absorptivity power-law index β to be 0.9 < β < 1.5. The geometry of the disk is robustly constrained with inclination 65.°6 ± 0.°3, position angle 337.°9 ± 0.°3, and argument of periastron 22.°5 ± 4.°3. Our observations do not confirm any of the azimuthal features found in previous imaging studies of the disk with Hubble Space Telescope, SCUBA, and ALMA. However, we cannot rule out structures ≤10 au in size or that only affect smaller grains. The central star is clearly detected with a flux density of 0.75 ± 0.02 mJy, significantly lower than predicted by current photospheric models. We discuss the implications of these observations for the directly imaged Fomalhaut b and the inner dust belt detected at infrared wavelengths.

  18. Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Burillo, S.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC1068, a nearby Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We have used ALMA to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers and their underlying continuum emission in the central r=2 kpc of NGC1068 with spatial resolutions 0.3"-0.5" (20-35 pc). Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r=200 pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6 kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r=1.3 kpc starburst (SB) ring. We used the dust continuum fluxes measured by ALMA together with NIR/MIR data to constrain the properties of the putative torus using CLUMPY models and found a torus radius of 20(6,-10)pc. The gas kinematics from r=50 pc out to r=400 pc reveal a massive outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN-driven. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, dM/dt=63(21,-37)M(sun)/yr, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii, confirming that the outflow is AGN-driven. The power of the AGN is able to account for the estimated momentum and kinetic luminosity of the outflow. The CND mass load rate of the CND outflow implies a very short gas depletion time scale of 1 Myr.

  19. Submillimeter mapping of mesospheric minor species on Venus with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Therese; Moreno, Raphael; Moullet, Arielle; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Fouchet, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    ALMA offers a unique opportunity to map mesospheric species on Venus. During Cycle 0, we have observed Venus on November 14 and 15, 2011, using the compact configuration of ALMA. The diameter of Venus was 11 arcsec and the illumination factor was about 90 percent. Maps of CO, SO, SO2, and HDO have been built from transitions recorded in the 335-347 GHz frequency range. The mesospheric thermal profile has been inferred using the CO transition at 345.795 GHz. From the integrated spectrum of SO recorded on Nov. 14 at 346.528 GHz, we find that the best fit is obtained with a cut-off in the SO vertical distribution at about 88 km and a mean mixing ratio of about 8.0 ppb above this level. In the case of SO2, as for SO, we find that the best fit is obtained with a cut-off at about 88 km; the SO2 mixing ratio above this level is about 12 ppb. The map of HDO is retrieved from the 335.395 GHz transition. Assuming a typical D/H ratio of 200 times the terrestrial value in the mesosphere of Venus, we find that the disk averaged HDO spectrum is consistent with a H2O mixing ratio of about 2.5 ppm, constant with altitude. Our results are in good agreement with previous single dish submillimeter observations (Sandor and Clancy, Icarus 177, 129, 2005; Gurwell et al. Icarus 188, 288, 2007; Sandor et al. Icarus 208, 49, 2010; Icarus 217, 836, 2012), as well as with the predictions of photochemical models (Zhang et al. Icarus 217, 714, 2012).

  20. JCMT in the Post-Herschel ERA of Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Doug

    2013-07-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), with a 15m dish, is the largest single-dish astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the sub-mm wavelength regime. The JCMT is located close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. The most recent addition to the JCMT's suite of instruments is the 10,000 bolometer sub-mm continuum instrument: SCUBA-2. SCUBA-2 operates simultaneously with 7' x7' foot print sub-arrays at both 450 and 850-microns. SCUBA-2's wide field surveying potential, combined with a 65% shared view of the sky from both sites, makes it the ideal instrument to provide complementary data for the ALMA Project. Furthermore, the SCUBA-2 sub-millimetre wavelength coverage and angular resolution complement existing Herschel observations. A set of comprehensive surveys of the submillimetre sky is underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using SCUBA-2 and HARP, a heterodyne array receiver operating between 325 and 375 GHz. The JCMT Legacy Survey (JLS) is comprised of seven survey projects, and ranges in scope from the study of nearby debris disk systems, the study of star formation in nearby molecular cloud systems and more distant structures in our Galactic Plane, to the structure and composition of galaxies in our local neighbourhood and the number and evolution of submillimetre galaxies at high redshifts in the early Universe. In addition to the JLS, the COHR survey is imaging the Galactic plane in CO (3-2) and a JAC Staff-led project is using SCUBA-2 to survey the Galactic Centre. This poster highlights the significant survey capabilities of SCUBA-2 and HARP and reveals the continuing importance of the JCMT in a post-Herschel, ALMA world.

  1. Demonstration of a Data Distribution System for ALMA Data Cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, S.; Kawasaki, W.; Shirasaki, Y.; Komiya, Y.; Kosugi, G.; Ohishi, M.; Mizumoto, Y.; Kobayashi, T.

    2014-05-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array (ALMA) is the world's largest radio telescope in Chile. As a part of Japanese Virtual Observatory (JVO) system, we have been constructing a prototype of data service to distribute ALMA data, which are three or four dimensional cubes and expected to exceed 2 TB in total size, corresponding to 75 days at world-averaged Internet bandwidth of 2.6 Mbps, in the next three years. To utilize the limited bandwidth, our system adopts a higher dimensional version of so-called "deep zoom": the system generates and stores lower resolution FITS data cubes with various binning parameters in directions of both space and frequency. Users of our portal site can easily visualize and cut out those data cubes by using ALMAWebQL, which is a web application built on customized GWT. Once the FITS files are downloaded via ALMAWebQL, one can visualize them in more detail using Vissage, a Java-based FITS cube browser. We exhibited our web and desktop viewer “fresh from the oven” at the last ADASS conference (Shirasaki et al. 2013). Improvement of their performance and functionality after that made the system nearly to a practical level. The performance problem of ALMAWebQL reported last year (Eguchi et al. 2013) was overcome by optimizing the network topology and applying the just-in-time endian conversion algorithm; the latest ALMAWebQL can follow up any user actions almost in real time for files smaller than 5 GB. It also enables users to define either a sub-region or sub-frequency range and move it freely on the graphical user interface, providing more detailed information of the FITS file. In addition, the latest Vissage now supports data from other telescopes including HST, Subaru, Chandra, etc. and overlaying two images. In this paper, we introduce the latest version of our VO system.

  2. 67-116 GHz optics development for ALMA band 2-3 receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoubov, Pavel; Gonzalez, A.; Tapia, V.; Reyes, N.; Mena, F. P.; Nesti, R.; Cuttaia, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Villa, F.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report the first results of the optical components development and the overall optical design for a wideband receiver to simultaneously cover ALMA bands 2 and 3. Two types of feed horns and OMTs have been designed to couple to the ALMA telescope beam using a modified Fresnel lens. Both types of hardware have been manufactured and tested in a near field beam scanner. The measured beam patterns and optical efficiencies are in good agreement with simulations.

  3. Observing the Sun with ALMA: A New Window into Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.; Shimojo, Masumi; Wedemeyer-Bohm, Sven; ALMA North American Solar Development Team

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian interferometric array that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high resolution imaging in frequency bands. Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA, thereby offering a new window into solar physics. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of energy and matter and the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of intensive research, an understanding of the chromosphere is still elusive, and challenging to observe owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics. ALMA will change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes.Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.This presentations introduces ALMA to the solar physcis community and motivates the science that can be addressed by ALMA using a number of examples based on 3D MHD simulations. In addition, the means by which ALMA is used to acquire and calibrate solar observations will be discussed. Finally, we encourage potential users to join us in further defining and articulating the exciting science to be explored with this fundamentally new instrument.

  4. Software Development for ALMA in Chile: The ACS-UTFSM Group.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brand, H. H.

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a common software framework for ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile. ACS is a collection of well-documented patterns for controlling systems and a set of components written to those patterns. In its core, ACS is a distributed, object-oriented system, written on top of CORBA. The ACS-UTFSM Group started as some students of informatics did summer jobs at the La Silla Observatory of ESO, where they became acquainted with ACS. Their interest led them to continue working on ACS on their own, and they eventually became official developers of the package. Now the group is being funded by project ALMA-CONICYT 31060008 ``Software Development for ALMA: Building Up Expertise to Meet ALMA Software Requirements within a Chilean University''. Several members of the original group are now working for ALMA, which fullfills one of the goals of the project. Some parts of ACS developed by the ACS-UTFSM Group include H3E (Hardware End-to-End Example), a Lego model of a telescope and its controlling software for training and demonstration purposes; and CDBChecker, a tool to verify the consistency of the configuration database for a ACS deployment. Currently we are working towards a general framework for telescope control using ACS, in order to simplify the deployment of new instruments; and repackaging ACS so it is easier to install and use. A master's thesis is exploring the real-time requirements of ACS.

  5. A comparison of solar ALMA maps with solar images obtained at other wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajsa, Roman; Sudar, Davor; Skokic, Ivica; Benz, Arnold; Kuhar, Matej; White, Stephen M.

    2017-08-01

    We use recently released Commissioning and Science Verification data of the Sun from the observing campaigns perfomed with the ALMA radio telescope in December 2014 and in December 2015. The dataset consists of calibrated maps of the Sun recorded in ALMA observing band 3 (corresponding to a wavelength of 3 mm) and band 6 (1.2 mm) which show both bright and dark areas and a background of highly structured pattern. Solar ALMA maps are compared with images in EUV (SDO/AIA), H-alpha (NISP, Cerro Tololo) and He 1083 nm (NSO/SOLIS), as well as with magnetograms (SDO/HMI) recorded at times closest to the ALMA observations. With a special software the images are overlapped and a correspondence of identified structures is checked in both ways. The visibility of active regions, sunspots, inversion lines of global magnetic field, prominences on the disc, coronal holes and coronal bright points is investigated in ALMA images at mm wavelengths. Single-dish ALMA images of the Sun reveal large-scale structures in the solar atmosphere, while high resolution interferometric images are used to analyse the fine-scale chromospheric structure. The intensities (the brightness temperatures) of identified structures were determined and compared with selected model-based predictions.

  6. ALMA Band 1 Optics (35-50 GHz): Tolerance Analysis, Effect of Cryostat Infrared Filters and Cold Beam Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Tapia, V.; Finger, R.; Huang, C.-D.; Asayama, S.; Huang, Y.-D.

    2017-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) is currently the largest (sub-)mm wave telescope in the world and will be used for astronomical observations in all atmospheric windows from 35 to 950 GHz when completed. The ALMA band 1 (35-50 GHz) receiver will be used for the longest wavelength observations with ALMA. Because of the longer wavelength, the size of optics and waveguide components will be larger than for other ALMA bands. In addition, all components will be placed inside the ALMA cryostat in each antenna, which will impose severe mechanical constraints on the size and position of receiver optics components. Due to these constraints, the designs of the corrugated feed horn and lens optics are highly optimized to comply with the stringent ALMA optical requirements. In this paper, we perform several tolerance analyses to check the impact of fabrication errors in such an optimized design. Secondly, we analyze the effects of operating this optics inside the ALMA cryostat, in particular the effects of having the cryostat IR filters placed next to the band 1 feed horn aperture, with the consequent near-field effects. Finally, we report on beam measurements performed on the first three ALMA band 1 receivers inside test cryostats, which satisfy ALMA specifications. In these measurements, we can clearly observe the effects of fabrication tolerances and IR filter effects on prototype receiver performance.

  7. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.

    2015-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian project that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high-resolution imaging in frequency bands currently ranging from 84 GHz to 950 GHz (300 microns to 3 mm). Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of matter and energy, and the in heating the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of research, the solar chromosphere remains a significant challenge: both to observe, owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics; and to understand, as a result of the complex nature of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere. ALMA has the potential to change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.In this paper we describe recent efforts to ensure that ALMA can be usefully exploited by the scientific community to address outstanding questions in solar physics. We summarize activities by the ALMA solar development team comprised of scientists from the East Asia, North America, and Europe. These activities include instrument testing, development of calibration and imaging strategies, software requirements development, and science simulations. Opportunities for the wider community to contribute to these efforts will be highlighted.

  8. Molecular disks in radio galaxies. The pathway to ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandoni, I.; Laing, R. A.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.

    2010-11-01

    Context. It has recently been proposed that the jets of low-luminosity radio galaxies are powered by direct accretion of the hot phase of the IGM onto the central black hole. Cold gas remains a plausible alternative fuel supply, however. The most compelling evidence that cold gas plays a role in fueling radio galaxies is that dust is detected more commonly and/or in larger quantities in (elliptical) radio galaxies compared with radio-quiet elliptical galaxies. On the other hand, only small numbers of radio galaxies have yet been detected in CO (and even fewer imaged), and whether or not all radio galaxies have enough cold gas to fuel their jets remains an open question. If so, then the dynamics of the cold gas in the nuclei of radio galaxies may provide important clues to the fuelling mechanism. Aims: The only instrument capable of imaging the molecular component on scales relevant to the accretion process is ALMA, but very little is yet known about CO in southern radio galaxies. Our aim is to measure the CO content in a complete volume-limited sample of southern radio galaxies, in order to create a well-defined list of nearby targets to be imaged in the near future with ALMA. Methods: APEX [This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.] has recently been equipped with a receiver (APEX-1) able to observe the 230 GHz waveband. This allows us to search for CO(2-1) line emission in our target galaxies. Results: Here we present the results for our first three southern targets, proposed for APEX-1 spectroscopy during science verification: NGC 3557, IC 4296 and NGC 1399. The experiment was successful with two targets detected, and possible indications for a double-horned CO line profile, consistent with ordered rotation. These early results are encouraging, demonstrating that APEX can

  9. Exploring Molecular Complexity in the Interstellar Medium with Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, Arnaud

    2017-06-01

    The search for complex organic molecules (COMs) in the interstellar medium (ISM) relies heavily on the progress made in the laboratory to record and characterize the rotational spectra of these molecules. Almost 200 different molecules have been identified in the ISM so far, in particular thanks to millimeter-wavelength observations of the star-forming molecular cloud core Sgr B2(N) in the Galactic Center region. The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has recently opened a new door to explore the molecular complexity of the ISM. Thanks to its high angular resolution, the spectral confusion of star-forming cores can be reduced, and its tremendous sensitivity allows astronomers to detect molecules of low abundance that could not be probed by previous generations of telescopes. I will present results of the EMoCA survey conducted toward Sgr B2(N) with ALMA. The main goal of this spectral line survey is to decipher the molecular content of Sgr B2(N) in order to test the predictions of astrochemical numerical simulations and gain insight into the chemical processes at work in the ISM. I will in particular report on the tentative detection of N-methylformamide, on the deuterium fractionation of COMs, and on the detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the ISM. The latter detection has unveiled a new domain in the structures available to the chemistry of star-forming regions and established a further connection to the COMs found in meteorites. A. Belloche, A. A. Meshcheryakov, R. T. Garrod et al. 2017, A&A, in press, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629724 A. Belloche, H. S. P. Müller, R. T. Garrod, and K. M. Menten 2016, A&A, 587, A91 A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, and K. M. Menten 2014, Science, 345, 1584 R. T. Garrod, A. Belloche, H. S. P. Müller, and K. M. Menten 2017, A&A, in press, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201630254.

  10. Detection of Atmospheric CO on Pluto with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, Mark; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Butler, Bryan; Moullet, Arielle; Moreno, Raphael; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Biver, Nicolas; Fouchet, Thierry; Lis, Darek; Stern, Alan; Young, Leslie; Young, Eliot; Weaver, Hal; Boissier, Jeremie; Stansberry, John

    2015-11-01

    We observed Pluto and Charon using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) interferometer in Northern Chile on June 12.2 and June 13.15, 2015, just one month prior to the New Horizons flyby of the system. The configuration of ALMA at the time provided ~0.3" resolution, allowing separation of emission from Pluto and Charon. This project targeted multiple science goals, including a search for HCN in Pluto's atmosphere [1] and high precision measurements of the individual brightness temperatures of Pluto and Charon [2], also presented at this meeting. Here we report the high SNR detection of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Pluto. The CO(3-2) rotational line, at 345.796 GHz (867 μm), was observed with 117 kHz spectral resolution for 45 min (on-source) on each date, providing ~3.5mJy/channel RMS. CO emission was clearly detected on both days, with a contrast of ~65 mJy above the Pluto continuum, and ~1.8 MHz FWHM linewidth, with the combined integrated line SNR >50. The presence of CO in Pluto's atmosphere is expected due to it's presence as ice on the surface in vapor pressure equilibrium with the atmosphere (e.g. [3],[4]), and it was previously detected at modest SNR in the near-IR using the VLT [5]. A preliminary assessment based upon the CO line wings shows the fractional abundance of CO is 500-750 ppm, consistent with that found in [5]. Further, the shape of the line core emission (assuming a constant CO mixing ratio), suggests that the atmospheric temperature rises quickly from the surface to ~100-110 K in the altitude range 20-70 km but decreases above that, falling to about 70 K by 200 km altitude. A detailed line inversion analysis will be performed and results presented.[1] Lellouch et al, this meeting. [2] Butler et al., this meeting. [3] Owen et al (1993), Science, 261, pp. 745-748. [4] Spencer et al (1993), In Pluto and Charon, pp. 435-473. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson. [5] Lellouch et al (2011), A&A, 530, L4.

  11. First North American Antenna Enables Next Phase in Joint ALMA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    Astronomers celebrated today the formal acceptance of the first North American antenna by the Joint ALMA Observatory. ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is a gathering armada of short-wavelength radio telescopes whose combined power will enable astronomers to probe with unprecedented sharpness phenomena and regions that are beyond the reach of visible-light telescopes. The observatory is being assembled high in the Chilean Andes by a global partnership. The 12-meter-diameter antenna delivered today is the first of twenty-five being provided by North America’s ALMA partners, whose efforts are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada and the National Science Council of Taiwan. The antenna was manufactured by General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies. The acceptance comes just weeks after the first ALMA antenna, produced under the direction of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan on behalf of ALMA’s East Asian partners, was handed over to the observatory. “These ALMA antennas are technological marvels,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. “They are more precise and more capable than any ever made. Their performance in the harsh winds and temperatures of our high-altitude site bodes well for the observatory’s future.” A single 12-meter antenna’s dish is bigger than the largest optical telescope’s reflective mirror, but to match the sharpness achieved by an optical telescope, a millimeter-wavelength dish would have to be impossibly large, miles across. ALMA will combine signals from dozens of antennas spread across miles of desert to synthesize the effective sharpness of such a single, gigantic antenna. The process involves analysis of the ways in which the signals coming from each antenna interfere with one another, and is called interferometry. “This is a major milestone for the ALMA

  12. New architectures support for ALMA common software: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menay, Camilo E.; Zamora, Gabriel A.; Tobar, Rodrigo J.; Avarias, Jorge A.; Dahl-skog, Kevin R.; von Brand, Horst H.; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a distributed control framework based on CORBA that provides communication between distributed pieces of software. Because of its size and complexity it provides its own compilation system, a mix of several technologies. The current ACS compilation process depends on specific tools, compilers, code generation, and a strict dependency model induced by the large number of software components. This document presents a summary of several porting and compatibility attempts at using ACS on platforms other than the officially supported one. A porting of ACS to the Microsoft Windows Platform and to the ARM processor architecture were attempted, with different grades of success. Also, support for LINUX-PREEMPT (a set of real-time patches for the Linux kernel) using a new design for real-time services was implemented. These efforts were integrated with the ACS building and compilation system, while others were included in its design. Lessons learned in this process are presented, and a general approach is extracted from them.

  13. A code generation framework for the ALMA common software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncoso, Nicolás; von Brand, Horst H.; Ibsen, Jorge; Mora, Matias; Gonzalez, Victor; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Zamora, Gabriel; Tejeda, Alexis

    2010-07-01

    Code generation helps in smoothing the learning curve of a complex application framework and in reducing the number of Lines Of Code (LOC) that a developer needs to craft. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) has adopted code generation in specific areas, but we are now exploiting the more comprehensive approach of Model Driven code generation to transform directly an UML Model into a full implementation in the ACS framework. This approach makes it easier for newcomers to grasp the principles of the framework. Moreover, a lower handcrafted LOC reduces the error rate. Additional benefits achieved by model driven code generation are: software reuse, implicit application of design patterns and automatic tests generation. A model driven approach to design makes it also possible using the same model with different frameworks, by generating for different targets. The generation framework presented in this paper uses openArchitectureWare1 as the model to text translator. OpenArchitectureWare provides a powerful functional language that makes this easier to implement the correct mapping of data types, the main difficulty encountered in the translation process. The output is an ACS application readily usable by the developer, including the necessary deployment configuration, thus minimizing any configuration burden during testing. The specific application code is implemented by extending generated classes. Therefore, generated and manually crafted code are kept apart, simplifying the code generation process and aiding the developers by keeping a clean logical separation between the two. Our first results show that code generation improves dramatically the code productivity.

  14. ALMA observations of TiO2 around VY CMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beck, Elvire; Vlemmings, Wouter; Muller, Sébastien; Black, John H.; O'Gorman, Eamon; Richards, Anita M. S.; Baudry, Alain; Maercker, Matthias; Decin, Leen; Humphreys, Elizabeth M.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide, TiO2, is a refractory species that could play a crucial role in the dust-condensation sequence around oxygen-rich evolved stars. We present and discuss the detections of 15 emission lines of TiO2 with ALMA in the complex environment of the red supergiant VY CMa. The observations reveal a highly clumpy, anisotropic outflow in which the TiO2 emission likely traces gas exposed to the stellar radiation field. We find evidence for a roughly east-west oriented, accelerating bipolar-like structure, of which the blue component runs into and breaks up around a solid continuum component. We see a distinct tail to the south-west for some transitions, consistent with features seen in the optical and near-infrared. We find that a significant fraction of TiO2 remains in the gas phase outside the dust-formation zone and suggest that this species might play only a minor role in the dust-condensation process around extreme oxygen-rich evolved stars like VY CMa.

  15. Alma Observations of HCN and its Isotopologues on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molter, Edward M.; Nixon, C. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Serigano, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Lindberg, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    We present sub-millimeter spectra of HCN isotopologues on Titan, derived from publicly available ALMA flux calibration observations of Titan taken in early 2014. We report the detection of a new HCN isotopologue on Titan, H13C15N, and confirm an earlier report of detection of DCN. We model high signal-to-noise observations of HCN, H13CN, HC15N, DCN, and H13C15N to derive abundances and infer the following isotopic ratios: 12C/13C = 89.8 +/- 2.8, 14N/15N = 72.3 +/- 2.2, D/H = (2.5 +/- 0.2) × 10-4, and HCN/H13C15N = 5800 +/- 270 (1sigma errors). The carbon and nitrogen ratios are consistent with and improve on the precision of previous results, confirming a factor of approximately 2.3 elevation in 14N/15N in HCN compared to N2 and a lack of fractionation in 12C/13C from the protosolar value. This is the first published measurement of D/H in a nitrile species on Titan, and we find evidence for a factor of approximately 2 deuterium enrichment in hydrogen cyanide compared to methane. The isotopic ratios we derive may be used as constraints for future models to better understand the fractionation processes occurring in Titan's atmosphere.

  16. Unveiling ALMA software behavior using a decoupled log analysis framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Juan Pablo; Tejeda, Alexis; Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Saez, Norman

    2014-07-01

    ALMA Software is a complex distributed system installed in more than one hundred of computers, which interacts with more than one thousand of hardware device components. A normal observation follows a flow that interacts with almost that entire infrastructure in a coordinated way. The Software Operation Support team (SOFTOPS) comprises specialized engineers, which analyze the generated software log messages in daily basis to detect bugs, failures and predict eventual failures. These log message can reach up to 30 GB per day. We describe a decoupled and non-intrusive log analysis framework and implemented tools to identify well known problems, measure times taken by specific tasks and detect abnormal behaviors in the system in order to alert the engineers to take corrective actions. The main advantage of this approach among others is that the analysis itself does not interfere with the performance of the production system, allowing to run multiple analyzers in parallel. In this paper we'll describe the selected framework and show the result of some of the implemented tools.

  17. Alma Observations of HCN and its Isotopologues on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molter, Edward M.; Nixon, C. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Serigano, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Lindberg, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    We present sub-millimeter spectra of HCN isotopologues on Titan, derived from publicly available ALMA flux calibration observations of Titan taken in early 2014. We report the detection of a new HCN isotopologue on Titan, H13C15N, and confirm an earlier report of detection of DCN. We model high signal-to-noise observations of HCN, H13CN, HC15N, DCN, and H13C15N to derive abundances and infer the following isotopic ratios: 12C/13C = 89.8 +/- 2.8, 14N/15N = 72.3 +/- 2.2, D/H = (2.5 +/- 0.2) × 10-4, and HCN/H13C15N = 5800 +/- 270 (1sigma errors). The carbon and nitrogen ratios are consistent with and improve on the precision of previous results, confirming a factor of approximately 2.3 elevation in 14N/15N in HCN compared to N2 and a lack of fractionation in 12C/13C from the protosolar value. This is the first published measurement of D/H in a nitrile species on Titan, and we find evidence for a factor of approximately 2 deuterium enrichment in hydrogen cyanide compared to methane. The isotopic ratios we derive may be used as constraints for future models to better understand the fractionation processes occurring in Titan's atmosphere.

  18. ALMA Observations of HCN and Its Isotopologues on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molter, Edward M.; Nixon, C. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Serigano, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Lindberg, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    We present sub-millimeter spectra of HCN isotopologues on Titan, derived from publicly available ALMA flux calibration observations of Titan taken in early 2014. We report the detection of a new HCN isotopologue on Titan, H13C15N, and confirm an earlier report of detection of DCN. We model high signal-to-noise observations of HCN, H13CN, HC15N, DCN, and H13C15N to derive abundances and infer the following isotopic ratios: 12C/13C = 89.8 ± 2.8, 14N/15N = 72.3 ± 2.2, D/H = (2.5 ± 0.2) × 10-4, and HCN/H13C15N = 5800 ± 270 (1σ errors). The carbon and nitrogen ratios are consistent with and improve on the precision of previous results, confirming a factor of ˜2.3 elevation in 14N/15N in HCN compared to N2 and a lack of fractionation in 12C/13C from the protosolar value. This is the first published measurement of D/H in a nitrile species on Titan, and we find evidence for a factor of ˜2 deuterium enrichment in hydrogen cyanide compared to methane. The isotopic ratios we derive may be used as constraints for future models to better understand the fractionation processes occurring in Titan’s atmosphere.

  19. ALMA Images of the Orion Hot Core at 349 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, M. C. H.; Plambeck, R. L.

    2017-07-01

    We present ALMA images of the dust and molecular line emission in the Orion Hot Core at 349 GHz. At 0.″2 angular resolution the images reveal multiple clumps in an arc ˜1″ east of Orion Source I, the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann-Low Nebula, and another chain of peaks from IRc7 toward the southwest. The molecular line images show narrow filamentary structures at velocities >10 km s-1 away from the heavily resolved ambient cloud velocity ˜5 km s-1. Many of these filaments trace the SiO outflow from Source I, and lie along the edges of the dust emission. Molecular line emission at excitation temperatures 300-2000 K, and velocities >10 km s-1 from the ambient cloud, suggest that the Hot Core may be heated in shocks by the outflow from Source I or from the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN)/SrcI explosion. The spectral line observations also reveal a remarkable molecular ring, ˜2″ south of SrcI, with a diameter ˜600 au. The ring is seen in high-excitation transitions of HC3N, HCN v2 = 1, and SO2. An impact of ejecta from the BN/SrcI explosion with a dense dust clump could result in the observed ring of shocked material.

  20. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Corder, Stuartt A.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2013-09-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion.

  1. Exploring No-SQL alternatives for ALMA monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Merino, Patricio; Peña, Leonel; Bartsch, Marcelo; Aguirre, Alvaro; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. This paper describes the experience gained after several years working with the monitoring system, which has a strong requirement of collecting and storing up to 150K variables with a highest sampling rate of 20.8 kHz. The original design was built on top of a cluster of relational database server and network attached storage with fiber channel interface. As the number of monitoring points increases with the number of antennas included in the array, the current monitoring system demonstrated to be able to handle the increased data rate in the collection and storage area (only one month of data), but the data query interface showed serious performance degradation. A solution based on no-SQL platform was explored as an alternative to the current long-term storage system. Among several alternatives, mongoDB has been selected. In the data flow, intermediate cache servers based on Redis were introduced to allow faster streaming of the most recently acquired data to web based charts and applications for online data analysis.

  2. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  3. An ALMA Survey of Planet Forming Disks in Rho Ophiuchus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilfoil Cox, Erin; Looney, Leslie; Harris, Robert J.; Dong, Jiayin; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Tobin, John J.; Sadavoy, Sarah; Li, Zhi-Yun; Dunham, Michael; Perez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Melis, Carl; Chiang, Hsin-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Relatively evolved (~ 1 Myr old) protostars with little residual natal envelope, but massive disks, are commonly assumed to be the sites of ongoing planet formation. Critical to our study of these objects is information about the available mass reservior and dust structure, as they directly tie in to how much mass is available for planets as well as the modes of planet formation that occur (i.e., core-accretion vs. gravitational instability). Millimeter-wave observations provide this critical information as continuum emission is relatively optically thin, allowing for mass estimates, and the availability of high-resolution interferometry, allowing structure constraints. We present high-resolution observations of the population of Class II protostars in the Rho-Ophiuchus cloud (d ~ 130 pc). Our survey observed ~50 of these older protostars at 870µm, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Out of these sources, there are ~10 transition disks, where we see a ring of dust emission surrounding the central protostar -- indicative of ongoing planet formation -- as well as many binary systems. Both of these stages have implications for star and planet formation. We present results from both 1-D and 2-D disk modeling, where we try to understand disk substructure that might indicate on-going planet formation, in particular, transition disk cavities, disk gaps, and asymmetries in the dust emission.

  4. Fast Single-Dish Scans of the Sun Using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, N.; Hills, R.; Bastian, T.; Hudson, H.; Marson, R.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have implemented control and data-taking software that makes it possible to scan the beams of individual ALMA antennas to perform quite complex patterns while recording the signals at high rates. We conducted test observations of the Sun in September and December, 2014. The data returned have excellent quality; in particular they allow us to characterize the noise and signal fluctuations present in this kind of observation. The fast-scan experiments included both Lissajous patterns covering rectangular areas, and “double-circle” patterns of the whole disk of the Sun and smaller repeated maps of specific disk-shaped targets. With the latter we find that we can achieve roughly Nyquist sampling of the Band 6 (230 GHz) beam in 60 s over a region 300” in diameter. These maps show a peak-to-peak brightness-temperature range of up to 1000 K, while the time-series variability at any given point appears to be of order 0.5% RMS over times of a few minutes. We thus expect to be able to separate the noise contributions due to transparency fluctuations from variations in the Sun itself. Such timeseries have many advantages, in spite of the non-interferometric observations. In particular such data should make it possible to observe microflares in active regions and nanoflares in any part of the solar disk and low corona.

  5. Primary health care: making Alma-Ata a reality.

    PubMed

    Walley, John; Lawn, Joy E; Tinker, Anne; de Francisco, Andres; Chopra, Mickey; Rudan, Igor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Robert E

    2008-09-13

    The principles agreed at Alma-Ata 30 years ago apply just as much now as they did then. "Health for all" by the year 2000 was not achieved, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015 will not be met in most low-income countries without substantial acceleration of primary health care. Factors have included insufficient political prioritisation of health, structural adjustment policies, poor governance, population growth, inadequate health systems, and scarce research and assessment on primary health care. We propose the following priorities for revitalising primary health care. Health-service infrastructure, including human resources and essential drugs, needs strengthening, and user fees should be removed for primary health-care services to improve use. A continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health services, including family planning, is needed. Evidence-based, integrated packages of community and primary curative and preventive care should be adapted to country contexts, assessed, and scaled up. Community participation and community health workers linked to strengthened primary-care facilities and first-referral services are needed. Furthermore, intersectoral action linking health and development is necessary, including that for better water, sanitation, nutrition, food security, and HIV control. Chronic diseases, mental health, and child development should be addressed. Progress should be measured and accountability assured. We prioritise research questions and suggest actions and measures for stakeholders both locally and globally, which are required to revitalise primary health care.

  6. Performance of the ALMA Band 10 SIS Receiver Prototype Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasunori; Kroug, Matthias; Kaneko, Keiko; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Kojima, Takafumi; Kuroiwa, Koich; Miyachi, Akihira; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen; Shan, Wenlei

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a dual polarization prototype model of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers. The front-end optics comprises a pair of ellipsoidal mirrors, a wire grid, and two corrugated feed horns. A waveguide mixer block is attached to each feed horn in which a mixer chip employing Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions and NbTiN/SiO2/Al microstrip tuning circuits is mounted to a WR-1.2 full-height waveguide. A local oscillator (LO) signal receiving horn and a waveguide 10-dB LO coupler are integrated in the block to provide the LO signal to the mixer chip. A fixed-tuned multiplier with a diagonal horn located at the 110-K stage is used to transmit the LO power. The LO signal is then quasi-optically coupled to the mixer receiving horn. A very wide intermediate frequency (IF) system with a bandwidth of 4-12 GHz is employed. The receiver demonstrated double sideband (DSB) noise temperatures of about 160 K (4h /kB) without any correctin for loss in front of the receiver at the LO frequency of 834 GHz at an operating physical temperature of 4 K.

  7. The ALMA view of the Antennae galaxy collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Cinthya N.; Boulanger, Francois; Falgarone, Edith G.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago; Iono, Daisuke; Guillard, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The Antennae galaxies are a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies, being an ideal source to understand how the dynamics of galaxy mergers trigger the star formation. Most of the newly formed stars are observed in massive clusters, potentially the progenitors of globular clusters. In the Antennae, their formation must involve a complex interplay of merger-driven gas dynamics, turbulence fed by galaxy interaction and dissipation of the gas kinetic energy.We will present archive ALMA CO(3-2) and new 13CO(2-1) and C18O(2-1) Cycle 2 observations, at 50 pc resolution, and VLT near-IR H2 spectro-imaging observations. We will show an analysis of the excitation of the CO gas in the region where the two galaxies collide, and demonstrate that most of the H2 emission associated with this gas is shock-excited. We will focus on a compact, bright H2 source, associated with cold molecular gas and dust continuum emission, located where the velocity gradient in the interaction region is observed to be the largest. The characteristics of this source suggest that we are witnessing the formation, initiated by turbulent dissipation, of a cloud massive enough to form a super star cluster within 1 Myr.

  8. ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Maureen Y.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Mumma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent simulations have indicated that vinyl cyanide is the best candidate molecule for the formation of cell membranes/vesicle structures in Titan’s hydrocarbon-rich lakes and seas. Although the existence of vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN) on Titan was previously inferred using Cassini mass spectrometry, a definitive detection has been lacking until now. We report the first spectroscopic detection of vinyl cyanide in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using archival data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), collected from February to May 2014. We detect the three strongest rotational lines of C2H3CN in the frequency range of 230 to 232 GHz, each with >4σ confidence. Radiative transfer modeling suggests that most of the C2H3CN emission originates at altitudes of ≳200 km, in agreement with recent photochemical models. The vertical column densities implied by our best-fitting models lie in the range of 3.7 × 1013 to 1.4 × 1014 cm−2. The corresponding production rate of vinyl cyanide and its saturation mole fraction imply the availability of sufficient dissolved material to form ~107 cell membranes/cm3 in Titan’s sea Ligeia Mare. PMID:28782019

  9. ALMA and VLA Observations of Proplyd Candidates near Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Cotton, William D.; Royster, Marc; Kunneriath, Devaky; Wardle, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, Al; Schoedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows. To confirm this interpretation, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We determine the mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  10. The ALMA View of Dense Molecular Gas in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Indebetouw, Remy; Brogan, Crystal L.; Hunter, Todd R.; Leroy, Adam

    2017-01-01

    At a distance of 50 kpc, the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts several sites of star formation including R136, a starburst region home to dozens of evolved O stars. The intense radiation from R136 creates an extreme environment for nearby star formation in such a low-metallicity, low mass galaxy. We have targeted a star-forming region ~15 pc away from R136 within 30 Doradus using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to map the molecular gas to study the sites of star formation. We are conducting a clump-by-clump analysis of the intensities and line ratios of dense gas (HCO+, HCN, CS, H13CO+, H13CN) and diffuse gas (CO, 13CO, C18O) tracers at sub-parsec resolution. We identify and characterize ~100 molecular clumps within the region. With the observed molecular species, we aim to determine the physical conditions of each clump (e.g. size, internal turbulence, molecular abundance). We compare the intensities and line ratios to non-LTE Radex model grids of the excitation temperature, molecular column density, and volume density of the H2 collider to determine the physical excitation conditions within the clumps. We compare these properties of each clump to both associated and embedded star formation properties to quantify the relative importance of internal feedback from the star formation itself versus external feedback processes from R136 and determine which process dominates in this region.

  11. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelski, A.; ALMA Solar Development Team

    2016-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian project that opens the mm-sub mm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high-resolution imaging in frequency bands currently ranging from 84 GHz to 950 GHz (300 microns to 3 mm). It is located in the Atacama desert in northern Chile at an elevation of 5000 m. Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of matter and energy, and the in heating the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of research, the solar chromosphere remains a significant challenge: both to observe, owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics; and to understand, as a result of the complex nature of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere. ALMA has the potential to change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.

  12. Shocks and Cool Cores: An ALMA View of Massive Galaxy Cluster Formation at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaustuv

    2017-07-01

    These slides present some recent results on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect imaging of galaxy cluster substructures. The advantage of SZ imaging at high redshifts or in the low density cluster outskirts is already well-known. Now with ALMA a combination of superior angular resolution and high sensitivity is available. One example is the first ALMA measurement of a merger shock at z=0.9 in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster. Here comparison between SZ, X-ray and radio data enabled us to put constraints on the shock Mach number and magnetic field strength for a high-z radio relic. Second example is the ALMA SZ imaging of the core region of z=1.4 galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.2-2557. Here ALMA data provide an accurate measurement of the thermal pressure near the cluster center, and from a joint SZ/X-ray analysis we find clear evidence for a reduced core temperature. This result indicate that a cool core establishes itself early enough in the cluster formation history while the gas accumulation is still continuing. The above two ALMA measurements are among several other recent SZ results that shed light on the formation process of massive clusters at high redshifts.

  13. The Database for Astronomical Spectroscopy - Updates, Additions and Plans for Splatalogue for Alma Full Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remijan, Anthony; Seifert, Nathan A.; McGuire, Brett A.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 10 years, Splatalogue has been constantly updated, modified and enhanced in order to make molecular spectroscopy data readily available to the astronomical community. Splatalogue is fully integrated into the ALMA Observing Tool, the ALMA data reduction and analysis package (CASA) and several enhanced tools being developed through the ALMA development program including the next generation CASA viewer (CARTA) and the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit (ADMIT). In anticipation for ALMA full science operations, a number of improvements have taken place over the past year to the Splatalogue database including, but not limited too, additions to Splatalogue from the JPL and CDMS line lists, improvements and reconciliation of the Lovas/NIST Catalog assigning NRAO recommended rest frequencies to every astronomically detected transition, including recent astronomical surveys to the list of transitions detected in space and finally, improved search and display features as requested by the astronomical community. Splatalogue is planning for the next 10 years of development and welcomes any and all contributions to improving the data integrity and availability to the scientific community.

  14. Millimeter and Sub-millimeter High Resolution Spectroscopy: New Frontiers with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that new laboratory data will be critical for the next decade of observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The high spatial resolution offered by ALMA will probe new regions of molecular complexity, including the inner envelopes of evolved stars, regions dominated by UV radiation, and the densest cores of molecular clouds. New molecular lines will be discovered in the wide wavelength range covered by the ALMA bands, and high resolution, gas-phase spectroscopy are needed to provide crucial “rest frequencies.” In particular, highly accurate methods that measure millimeter and sub-millimeter rotational transitions, such as direct absorption and Fourier transform mm-wave techniques, are important, especially when coupled to exotic molecular production schemes. Recent ALMA studies of SH+ and larger organic species have already demonstrated the need for laboratory measurements. New laboratory work will likely be required for circumstellar refractory molecules, radicals and ions generated near photon-dominated regions (PDRs), and large, organic-type species. This talk will give an overview of current contributions of laboratory spectroscopy to ALMA observations, summarize relevant spectroscopic techniques, and provide input into future prospects and directions.

  15. The Cultural Implications of Primary Health Care and the Declaration of Alma-Ata: The Health District of Kedougou, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanas, Demetri A.

    2008-01-01

    In 1978, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the international health community convoked a conference in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, to address global inequalities in health. The conference resulted in the publication of the "Declaration of Alma-Ata," which made the ambitious call "for urgent action by all governments, all health and…

  16. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary discs: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrang, G. H.-M.; Flock, M.; Wolf, S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary discs and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary discs, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high-angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disc regions.

  17. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, E.; Zwaan, M.; Andreani, P.; Barta, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Brand, J.; Gueth, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Maercker, M.; Massardi, M.; Muehle, S.; Muxlow, Th.; Richards, A.; Schilke, P.; Tilanus, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Afonso, J.; Messias, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  18. Protoplanetary disks in Taurus: Probing the role of multiplicity with ALMA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laos, Stefan; Akeson, Rachel L.; Jensen, Eric L. N.

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an ALMA survey of single and multiple young systems in Taurus designed to probe how protoplanetary disk mass depends on both stellar mass and multiplicity. In observations taken in Cycles 0 and 2, we detect over 25 new disks. These detections include disks around stars in both single and multiple systems and are predominantly around lower mass stars with spectral types from M0 to M6. Combined with previous detections, these observations reveal a wide range of disk mass around both primary and companion stars, and allow us to test if the relation previously seen between disk and stellar mass continues at lower stellar masses. We find that within multiple systems the ratio of primary to secondary stellar mass is not correlated with the ratio of primary to secondary disk mass. In some cases, the secondary star hosts the more massive disk, contrary to theoretical predictions. We will discuss the implications of these results for the process of planet formation in multiple systems.This work makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00150.S. and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00105.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  19. ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: Source Catalog and Number Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, Hideki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kato, Yuta; Ikarashi, Soh; Matsuda, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Seiji; Iono, Daisuke; Lee, Minju; Steidel, Charles C.; Saito, Tomoki; Alexander, D. M.; Yun, Min S.; Kubo, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    We present results from a deep 2‧ × 3‧ (comoving scale of 3.7 Mpc × 5.5 Mpc at z = 3) survey at 1.1 mm, taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the SSA22 field. We observe the core region of a z = 3.09 protocluster, achieving a typical rms sensitivity of 60 μJy beam-1 at a spatial resolution of 0.″7. We detect 18 robust ALMA sources at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 5. Comparison between the ALMA map and a 1.1 mm map, taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), indicates that three submillimeter sources discovered by the AzTEC/ASTE survey are resolved into eight individual submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) by ALMA. At least 10 of our 18 ALMA SMGs have spectroscopic redshifts of z ≃ 3.09, placing them in the protocluster. This shows that a number of dusty starburst galaxies are forming simultaneously in the core of the protocluster. The nine brightest ALMA SMGs with S/N > 10 have a median intrinsic angular size of 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} {32}-0.06+0.13 ({2.4}-0.4+1.0 physical kpc at z = 3.09), which is consistent with previous size measurements of SMGs in other fields. As expected, the source counts show a possible excess compared to the counts in the general fields at S1.1mm ≥ 1.0 mJy, due to the protocluster. Our contiguous mm mapping highlights the importance of large-scale structures on the formation of dusty starburst galaxies.

  20. Submillimeter mapping of mesospheric minor species on Venus with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Moreno, R.; Moullet, A.; Lellouch, E.; Fouchet, T.

    2015-08-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter heterodyne spectroscopy offers the possibility of probing the mesosphere of Venus and monitoring minor species and winds. ALMA presents a unique opportunity to map mesospheric species of Venus. During Cycle 0, we have observed Venus on November 14 and 15, 2011, using the compact configuration of ALMA. The diameter of Venus was 11″ and the illumination factor was about 90%. Maps of CO, SO, SO2 and HDO have been built from transitions recorded in the 335-347 GHz frequency range. A mean mesospheric thermal profile has been inferred from the analysis of the CO transition at the disk center, to be used in support of minor species retrieval. Maps of SO and SO2 abundance show significant local variations over the disk and contrast variations by as much as a factor 4. In the case of SO2, the spatial distribution appears more "patchy", i.e. shows short-scale structures apparently disconnected from day-side and latitudinal variations. For both molecules, significant changes occur over a timescale of one day. From the disk averaged spectrum of SO recorded on November 14 at 346.528 GHz, we find that the best fit is obtained with a cutoff in the SO vertical distribution at 88±2 km and a uniform mixing ratio of 8.0±2.0 ppb above this level. The SO2 map of November 14, derived from the weaker transition at 346.652 GHz, shows a clear maximum in the morning side at low latitudes, which is less visible in the map of November 15. We find that the best fit for SO2 is obtained for a cutoff in the vertical distribution at 88±3 km and a uniform mixing ratio of 12.0±3.5 ppb above this level. The HDO maps retrieved from the 335.395 GHz show some enhancement in the northern hemisphere, but less contrasted variations than for the sulfur species maps, with little change between November 14 and 15. Assuming a typical D/H ratio of 200 times the terrestrial value in the mesosphere of Venus, we find that the disk averaged HDO spectrum is best fitted with a

  1. A web-based dashboard for the high-level monitoring of ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Filippi, Giorgio; Véliz, Luis; del Campo, Fernando; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope's operations depend on the availability of high-level, easy-to-understand status information about all of its components. The ALMA Dashboard aims at providing an all-in-one-place near-real-time overview of the observatory's key elements and figures to both line and senior management. The Dashboard covers a wide range of elements beyond antennas, such as pads, correlator and central local oscillator. Data can be displayed in multiple ways, including: a table view, a compact view fitting on a single screen, a timeline showing detailed information over time, a logbook, a geographical map.

  2. The SOLA Team: A Star Formation Project To Study the Soul of Lupus with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Saito, M.; Rodon, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2017-06-01

    The SOLA team is a multi-national and multi-wavelength collaboration composed by scientists with technical expertise in ALMA and in infrared and optical techniques. The aim of the team is to establish a low-mass star formation scenario based on the Lupus molecular clouds. In this talk I will present our unique catalog of pre-stellar and proto-stellar cores toward Lupus molecular clouds, the results on our latest studies in protoplanetary disks, as well as our ALMA Cycle 3 data aiming at testing the formation mechanism of sub-stellar objects in Lupus molecular clouds.

  3. An ultra-broadband optical system for ALMA Band 2+3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, V.; Nesti, R.; González, A.; Barrueto, I.; Mena, F. P.; Reyes, N.; Villa, F.; Cuttaia, F.; Yagoubov, P.

    2016-07-01

    ALMA is the largest radio astronomical facility in the world providing high sensitivity between 35 and 950 GHz, divided in 10 bands with fractional bandwidths between 19 and 36%. Having a lifespan of at least 30 years, ALMA carries out a permanent upgrading plan which, for the receivers, is focused on achieving better sensitivity and larger bandwidths. As result, an international consortium works on demonstrating a prototype receiver covering currents Bands 2 and 3 (67 to 116 GHz) which corresponds to a fractional bandwidth of 54%. Here we present the preliminary design, implementation and characterization of suitable refractive optics. Results indicate an excellent performance in good agreement with simulations.

  4. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; De Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2015-10-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the limited spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870 μm 0.″45 resolution imaging obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs that have far-infrared (FIR) flux densities that lie between the brightest of sources found by Herschel and fainter DSFGs found via ground-based surveys in the submillimeter region. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5σ point-source sensitivity limit in our ALMA sample; σ ≈ 0.2 {mJy}). Optical or near-infrared imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (μ \\gt 1.1), but only six are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general-purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility-plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for DSFGs with a break near 8 {mJy} at 880 μ {{m}} and a steep fall-off at higher flux densities. Nearly 70% of the Herschel sources break down into multiple ALMA counterparts, consistent with previous research indicating that the multiplicity rate is high in bright sources discovered in single-dish submillimeter or FIR surveys. The ALMA counterparts to our Herschel targets are located significantly closer to each other than ALMA counterparts to sources found in the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. Theoretical models underpredict the excess number of sources with small separations seen in our ALMA sample. The high multiplicity rate and small projected separations between sources seen in our sample argue in favor of interactions

  5. Primary health care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: from Alma-Ata to Doha.

    PubMed

    Shawky, S

    2012-12-04

    The celebration in Doha of the 30th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration at the International Conference on Primary Health Care renewed the commitment of the Eastern Mediterranean Region to primary health care as the tool for better health. The principles agreed at Alma-Ata in 1978 apply as much now as they did before. The event provided an opportunity for the Eastern Mediterranean countries to define future directions to steer the health systems to integrate primary health care and harness the intersectoral approach.

  6. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Kisiel, Z.; Wang, K.-S.

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  7. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398-3559, and IRAS 16253-2429 at resolutions of ˜100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398-3559 and IRAS 16253-2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398-3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253-2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398-3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253-2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  8. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, Nick; Murchikova, Lena; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Vanden Bout, Paul; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C.; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at λ =2.6 {mm}. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well resolved for the first time. In the west nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends out to 0.″2 radius (74 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor of 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ({τ }2.6{mm}˜ 1) at λ =2.6 {mm} with a dust brightness temperature of ˜147 K. The column of interstellar matter at this nucleus is {N}{{H}2}≥slant 2× {10}26 cm-2, corresponding to ˜900 gr cm-2. The east nucleus is more elongated with radial extent 0.″3 or ˜111 pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves, and velocity dispersions. In the west nucleus, there is evidence of a central Keplerian component requiring a central mass of 8 × 108 {M}⊙ . The intrinsic widths of the emission lines are {{Δ }}v({FWHM})=250 (west) and 120 (east) km s-1. Given the very short dissipation timescales for turbulence (≲105 years), we suggest that the line widths may be due to semicoherent motions within the nuclear disks. The symmetry of the nuclear disk structures is impressive, implying the merger timescale is significantly longer than the rotation period of the disks.

  9. The ALMA View of the OMC1 Explosion in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Arce, Hector; Eisner, Josh; Youngblood, Allison; Zapata, Luis; Zinnecker, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Most massive stars form in dense clusters where gravitational interactions with other stars may be common. The two nearest forming massive stars, the BN object and Source I, located behind the Orion Nebula, were ejected with velocities of ∼29 and ∼13 km s‑1 about 500 years ago by such interactions. This event generated an explosion in the gas. New ALMA observations show in unprecedented detail, a roughly spherically symmetric distribution of over a hundred 12CO J = 2‑1 streamers with velocities extending from V LSR = ‑150 to +145 km s‑1. The streamer radial velocities increase (or decrease) linearly with projected distance from the explosion center, forming a “Hubble Flow” confined to within 50″ of the explosion center. They point toward the high proper-motion, shock-excited H2 and [Fe ii] “fingertips” and lower-velocity CO in the H2 wakes comprising Orion's “fingers.” In some directions, the H2 “fingers” extend more than a factor of two farther from the ejection center than the CO streamers. Such deviations from spherical symmetry may be caused by ejecta running into dense gas or the dynamics of the N-body interaction that ejected the stars and produced the explosion. This ∼1048 erg event may have been powered by the release of gravitational potential energy associated with the formation of a compact binary or a protostellar merger. Orion may be the prototype for a new class of stellar explosiozn responsible for luminous infrared transients in nearby galaxies.

  10. The Dynamics of Massive Starless Cores with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan C.; Kong, Shuo; Butler, Michael J.; Caselli, Paola; Fontani, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    How do stars that are more massive than the Sun form, and thus how is the stellar initial mass function (IMF) established? Such intermediate- and high-mass stars may be born from relatively massive pre-stellar gas cores, which are more massive than the thermal Jeans mass. The turbulent core accretion model invokes such cores as being in approximate virial equilibrium and in approximate pressure equilibrium with their surrounding clump medium. Their internal pressure is provided by a combination of turbulence and magnetic fields. Alternatively, the competitive accretion model requires strongly sub-virial initial conditions that then lead to extensive fragmentation to the thermal Jeans scale, with intermediate- and high-mass stars later forming by competitive Bondi-Hoyle accretion. To test these models, we have identified four prime examples of massive (~100 M ⊙) clumps from mid-infrared extinction mapping of infrared dark clouds. Fontani et al. found high deuteration fractions of N2H+ in these objects, which are consistent with them being starless. Here we present ALMA observations of these four clumps that probe the N2D+ (3-2) line at 2.''3 resolution. We find six N2D+ cores and determine their dynamical state. Their observed velocity dispersions and sizes are broadly consistent with the predictions of the turbulent core model of self-gravitating, magnetized (with Alfvén Mach number mA ~ 1) and virialized cores that are bounded by the high pressures of their surrounding clumps. However, in the most massive cores, with masses up to ~60 M ⊙, our results suggest that moderately enhanced magnetic fields (so that mA ~= 0.3) may be needed for the structures to be in virial and pressure equilibrium. Magnetically regulated core formation may thus be important in controlling the formation of massive cores, inhibiting their fragmentation, and thus helping to establish the stellar IMF.

  11. Senegal moves nearer the goals of Alma-Ata.

    PubMed

    Unger, J P; Daveloose, P; Bâ, A; Toure-Sene, N N; Mercenier, P

    1989-01-01

    In Senegal, the Thies project adopted a new approach to defining and putting health development strategies in effect for each district. This is in response to the Alma-Ata Conference which advocated comprehensive primary health care (PHC) in a development spirit. Health administration follows territorial divisions. 30 medical division cover the 30 departments and form 10 medical regions. The 1st level is the health post. In villages far from health posts, health huts have been set up. About 15 health posts are administered by a health center under a physician. A medical district is made up of many health posts, a health center, and the administrative structure. By 1984, the Ministry of Health wanted to improve the service quality and integrate the services into PHC, District medical officers (DMO) were trained in public health and health districts were organized. The teaching methods were based on the doctor's observations of local health services. The district chief medical officer is the only supervisor. But there is too much for 1 person to do. So, it was suggested that he should be the head of a coordinating team. After 2 years of the project, 25 of the 47 medical districts have a trained medical officer; 8 of the 10 regions do also. 6 of the 19 districts begun to take shape as an integrated system. There have been pilot projects which should serve as a model for the nation. However, general application of results has been slow. Training given an entry point into the health system. The project cost US$ 632,000 over 2 years, and gains have been made in basic PHC.

  12. Generic Abstraction of Hardware Control Based on the ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeram, B.; Chiozzi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Cirami, R.; Pokorny, M.; Muders, D.; Wischolek, D.

    2004-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a CORBA-based framework that provides a common and homogeneous infrastructure for the whole ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control (Schwarz et al., 2004). This paper focuses on ACS support for the development of Control System applications. In this domain, ACS provides a generic abstraction of hardware control and monitor points that is independent of the software underneath. This abstraction layer is coupled to the hardware using the DevIO (Device Input/Output) interface, based on the Bridge design pattern. Application developers have to implement DevIO classes that handle the details of the communication with the hardware. ACS itself provides a default DevIO implementation which simply writes and reads into/from a memory location. Currently there are two other major DevIO implementations available: a CAN bus communication, used by ALMA, and a socket based implementation used by the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) project. In spite of using different hardware and control electronics, the DevIO abstraction allows the ALMA and APEX projects to have the same device architecture down to the level of the DevIO implementation.

  13. Design Of Dual Polarisation Sideband Separation Mixer For ALMA Band 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billade, Bhushan

    2009-09-01

    This licentiate is focused on the design and development of Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) junction mixer for ALMA Band 5, one of the ten frequency bands of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA Band 5 is a dual polarisation sideband separation heterodyne receiver covering radio frequencies (RF) from 163 GHz to 211 GHz, with 4-8 GHz intermediate frequency (IF). Amongst the other ALMA bands, Band 5 is the lowest frequency band, which uses all-cold optics. That puts strong constrains on the dimensions of all the receiver components. For the SIS mixer, we employ a MMIC-like approach where most of the DSB mixer components, including LO injection circuitry with novel directional coupler, are integrated on the same crystal quartz substrate. The mixer uses a lumped filter technique to extract the IF frequencies, which is non-traditional for SIS mixers. A custom made superconducting Lange coupler with suspended air bridges to connect the fingers of Lange coupler is used. Experimental measurements of the double sideband mixer show state of the art performance with the receiver noise temperature below 30 Kelvin across the entire band. The noise temperature for sideband separation mixer is below 60 Kelvin with sideband rejection better than 12 dB over most of the band.

  14. High-resolution observations in T Cha: the ATCA and ALMA view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar

    2016-05-01

    We present high-resolution observations with the ATCA interferometer at 7 mm and 1.7 cm, as well as with ALMA at 870 microns to characterize the physical parameters of the outer disk and gap in the transitional disk T Cha, as well as the thermal dust emission at submillimeter and centimeter wavelengths. We also compare our results with models predictions.

  15. Resolving The Extended Atmosphere And The Inner Wind of Mira (ω Cet) With Long ALMA Baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka Tat; Kamiński, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M.; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    This is the presentation file of the talk in the Cool Stars 19 conference about the imaging and radiative transfer modelling results of the SiO and H2O data of the AGB star Mira (o Cet) observed in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign.

  16. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  17. Solar ALMA observations - A revolutionizing new view at our host star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Brajsa, Roman; Bastian, Timothy S.; Barta, Miroslav; Hales, Antonio; Yagoubov, Pavel; Hudson, Hugh; Loukitcheva, Maria; Fleishman, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Observations of the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have a large potential for revolutionizing our understanding of our host star with far reaching implications for stars in general. The radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere - a complex and dynamic layer between the photosphere and the corona, which plays an important role in the transport of energy and matter and the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere.Despite decades of intensive research, the chromosphere is still elusive and challenging to observe owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics. ALMA will change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Furthermore, radio recombination and molecular lines may have great diagnostic potential but need to be investigated first. These unprecedented capabilities promise important new findings for a large range of topics in solar physics including the structure, dynamics and energy balance of quiet Sun regions, active regions and sunspots, flares and prominences. As a part of ongoing development studies, an international network has been initiated, which aims at defining and preparing key solar science with ALMA through simulation studies: SSALMON -- Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (http://ssalmon.uio.no). Here, we give an overview of potential science cases.

  18. Some Space Weather Disturbances By Data of Alma-ata High Altitude Neutron Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryakunova, O. N.; Aushev, V. M.; Dryn, E. A.; Nikolaevskyi, N. F.

    This work is directed toward the experimental study of the ground level solar cosmic ray enhancements (GLE) and last large Forbush effects registered by means of Alma- Ata high-altitude neutron monitor. We analyze GLE registered by means of Alma-Ata high-altitude neutron monitor during 1976-2001 years. This includes the observation at Earth of high-energy protons, generated during powerful solar flares. It is presented the table of these events. Using these experimental data we calculated the upper energy limits of these events, because Alma-Ata high altitude neutron monitor has a favorable location (3340 m above sea level) and very good statistics (about 1200 counts per second). The analysis of ground level enhancements and solar sources of these events connected with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are carried out. We have analyzed the data of P78-1/SOLWIND, SMM C/P, SOHO/LASCO and Alma-Ata monitor data. It is shown that the solar activity

  19. The ALMA archive and its place in the astronomy of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoehr, Felix; Lacy, Mark; Leon, Stephane; Muller, Erik; Manning, Alisdair; Moins, Christophe; Jenkins, Dustin

    2014-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, is the largest astronomical project in existence. While ALMA's capabilities are ramping up, Early Science observations have started. The ALMA Archive is at the center of the operations of the telescope array and is designed to manage the 200 TB of data that will be taken each year, once the observatory is in full operations. We briefly describe design principles. The second part of this paper focuses on how astronomy is likely to evolve as the amount and complexity of data taken grows. We argue that in the future observatories will compete for astronomers to work with their data, that observatories will have to reorient themselves to from providing good data only to providing an excellent end-to-end user-experience with all its implications, that science-grade data-reduction pipelines will become an integral part of the design of a new observatory or instrument and that all this evolution will have a deep impact on how astronomers will do science. We show how ALMA's design principles are in line with this paradigm.

  20. The ALMA Data Mining Toolkit I: Archive Setup and User Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, P.; Pound, M.; Mundy, L.; Looney, L.; Friedel, D. N.

    2014-05-01

    We report on an ALMA development study and project where we employ a novel approach to add data and data descriptors to ALMA archive data and allowing further flexible data mining on retrieved data. We call our toolkit ADMIT (the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) that works within the Python based CASA environment. What is described here is a design study, with some exiting toy code to prove the concept. After ingestion of science ready datacubes, ADMIT will compute a number of basic and advanced data products, and their descriptors. Examples of such data products are cube statistics, line identification tables, line cubes, moment maps, an integrated spectrum, overlap integrals and feature extraction tables. Together with a descriptive XML file, a small number of visual aids are added to a ZIP file that is deposited into the archive. Large datasets (such as line cubes) will have to be rederived by the user once they have also downloaded the actual ALMA Data Products, or via VO services if available. ADMIT enables the user to rederive all its products with different methods and parameters, and compare archive product with their own.

  1. What's New in CASA: 'tclean' and the Cycle 4 ALMA Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; CASA Development Team; ALMA Pipeline Working Group; NAASC Software Support Team

    2017-01-01

    CASA, the Common Astronomy Software Applications package, undergoes continuous development to support calibration and imaging of astronomical data at radio wavelengths for both single dish and interferometric telescopes. It is largely focused on supporting the post-processing needs of the next generation of radio telescopes such as ALMA and the JVLA. The most recent release of CASA, version 4.7, includes major upgrades in its imaging capabilities via the implementation of a task called 'tclean', which will eventually replace the current imaging task 'clean'. It has a new, more straightforward interface, allows more combinations of imaging algorithms, has a more flexible outlier approach, and includes algorithms for autoboxing. Further, the new 'tclean' task has been implemented in the Cycle 4 ALMA Interferometric Pipeline with great success; this pipeline software can be obtained bundled with CASA 4.7 at https://casa.nrao.edu/. A major goal of the ALMA project [and the National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO)] is to provide Science-Ready Data Products to our user community, and the ALMA Cycle 4 Pipeline is a major step forward in that direction.

  2. The Latin Grammys and the ALMAs: Awards Programs, Cultural Epideictic, and Intercultural Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Alberto; Heuman, Amy N.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the Latin Grammy Awards and the ALMA Awards as media texts that can be used as course content on Latino people and cultures in an intercultural communication course. Outlines a critical reformulation of epideictic rhetoric, provides background on the two programs, and interprets their import as epideictic discourse. (Contains 25…

  3. Equilibrium chemical reaction of supersonic hydrogen-air jets (the ALMA computer program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elghobashi, S.

    1977-01-01

    The ALMA (axi-symmetrical lateral momentum analyzer) program is concerned with the computation of two dimensional coaxial jets with large lateral pressure gradients. The jets may be free or confined, laminar or turbulent, reacting or non-reacting. Reaction chemistry is equilibrium.

  4. Further ALMA observations and detailed modeling of the Red Rectangle

    PubMed Central

    Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.; Santander-García, M.; Van Winckel, H.; Sánchez Contreras, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We aim to study the rotating and expanding gas in the Red Rectangle, which is a well known object that recently left the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. We analyze the properties of both components and the relation between them. Rotating disks have been very elusive in post-AGB nebulae, in which gas is almost always found to be in expansion. Methods We present new high-quality ALMA observations of C17O J=6−5 and H13CN J=4−3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published 13CO J=3−2 data. A detailed model fitting of all the molecular line data, including previous maps and single-dish observations of lines of CO, CII, and CI, was performed using a sophisticated code that includes an accurate nonlocal treatment of radiative transfer in 2D. These observations (of low- and high-opacity lines requiring various degrees of excitation) and the corresponding modeling allowed us to deepen the analysis of the nebular properties. We also stress the uncertainties, particularly in the determination of the boundaries of the CO-rich gas and some properties of the outflow. Results We confirm the presence of a rotating equatorial disk and an outflow, which is mainly formed of gas leaving the disk. The mass of the disk is ~ 0.01 M⊙, and that of the CO-rich outflow is around ten times smaller. High temperatures of ≳ 100 K are derived for most components. From comparison of the mass values, we roughly estimate the lifetime of the rotating disk, which is found to be of about 10000 yr. Taking data of a few other post-AGB composite nebulae into account, we find that the lifetimes of disks around post-AGB stars typically range between 5000 and more than 20000 yr. The angular momentum of the disk is found to be high, ~ 9 M⊙ AU km s−1, which is comparable to that of the stellar system at present. Our observations of H13CN show a particularly wide velocity dispersion and indicate that this molecule is only abundant in the inner Keplerian disk, at

  5. Water Vapor Radiometer for ALMA: Optical Design and Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherednichenko, S.; Emrich, A.; Peacocke, T.

    2010-03-01

    Atacama Large Millimeter wave Array (ALMA) is being built at a high altitude Atacama Desert in Chile. It will consist of 50 12m telescopes with heterodyne instruments to cover a large frequency range from about 30GHz to nearly 1THz. In order to facilitate the interferometer mode of operation all receivers have to be phase synchronized. It will be accomplished by phase locking of all local oscillators from a single reference source. However, a noticeable part of the phase error is caused as the signal propagates through the Earth atmosphere. Since this effect originates from the fluctuations of water vapors, it can be accounted for by carefully measuring the spectral width of one of water vapor resonance absorption lines. This will be done with a submillimeter heterodyne radiometer, Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR). WVR will measure the sky brightness temperature in the beam path of every telescope across the 183GHz water line with a spectral resolution of about 1GHz. Accuracy of the calculated optical delay is determined by the combination of the radiometric accuracy of the WVR and of the errors originated in the WVR illumination of the telescope. We will describe major challenges in the design of the WVR to comply with the stringent requirements set to the WVR. Several approaches to simulate the quasioptical waveguide which brings the signal from the telescope's subreflector to the mixer horn, were used: fundamental mode Gaussian beam propagation, combined ray tracing with diffraction effects (using package ZEMAX), and a full vector electromagnetic simulations (using GRASP). The computational time increases rapidly from the first method to the last one. We have found that ZEMAX results are quite close to the one from GRASP, however obtained with nearly instant computation, which allows multiple iterations during system optimization. The beam pattern of the WVR and of WVR with the optical Relay (used to bring the signal from the telescope's main axis to the WVR input

  6. ALMA multiline observations toward the central region of NGC 613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakai, Naomasa; Seta, Masumichi; Salak, Dragan; Nagai, Makoto; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    We report ALMA observations of molecular gas and continuum emission in the 90 and 350 GHz bands toward a nearby Seyfert galaxy, NGC 613. Radio continuum emissions were detected at 95 and 350 GHz from both the circumnuclear disk (CND) (r ≲ 90 pc) and a star-forming ring (250 ≲ r ≲ 340 pc), and the 95 GHz continuum was observed to extend from the center at a position angle of 20° ± 8°. The archival 4.9 GHz data and our 95 GHz data show spectral indices of α ≲ -0.6 and -0.2 along the jets and in the star-forming ring; these can be produced by synchrotron emission and free-free emission, respectively. In addition, we detected the emission of CO(3-2), HCN(1-0), HCN(4-3), HCO+(1-0), HCO+(4-3), CS(2-1), and CS(7-6) in both the CND and the ring. The rotational temperatures and column densities of molecules derived from J = 1-0 and 4-3 lines of HCN and HCO+ and J = 2-1 and 7-6 of CS in the CND and ring were derived. Furthermore, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model revealed that the kinetic temperature of Tk = 350-550 K in the CND is higher than Tk = 80-300 K in the ring, utilizing the intensity ratios of HCN, HCO+, and CS. The star-formation efficiency in the CND is almost an order of magnitude lower than those at the spots in the star-forming ring, while the dominant activity of the central region is star formation rather than active galactic nuclei. We determined that the large velocity dispersion of CO extending towards the north side of the CND and decomposing into blueshifted and redshifted features is probably explained by the effect of the radio jets. These results strongly suggest that the jets heat the gas in the CND, in which the feedback prevents star formation.

  7. ALMA finds dew drops in the dusty spider's web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullberg, Bitten; Lehnert, Matthew D.; De Breuck, Carlos; Branchu, Steve; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Guillard, Pierre; Hatch, Nina; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Omont, Alain; Seymour, Nick; Vernet, Joël

    2016-06-01

    We present 0.̋5 resolution ALMA detections of the observed 246 GHz continuum, [CI] 3P2→3P1 fine structure line ([CI]2-1), CO(7-6), and H2O lines in the z = 2.161 radio galaxy MRC1138-262, the so-called Spiderweb galaxy. We detect strong [CI]2-1 emission both at the position of the radio core, and in a second component ~4 kpc away from it. The 1100 km s-1 broad [CI]2-1 line in this latter component, combined with its H2 mass of 1.6 × 1010 M⊙, implies that this emission must come from a compact region <60 pc, possibly containing a second active galactic nucleus (AGN). The combined H2 mass derived for both objects, using the [CI]2-1 emission, is 3.3 × 1010 M⊙. The total CO(7-6)/[CI]2-1 line flux ratio of 0.2 suggests a low excitation molecular gas reservoir and/or enhanced atomic carbon in cosmic ray dominated regions. We detect spatially-resolved H2O 211-202 emission - for the first time in a high-z unlensed galaxy - near the outer radio lobe to the east, and near the bend of the radio jet to the west of the radio galaxy. No underlying 246 GHz continuum emission is seen at either position. We suggest that the H2O emission is excited in the cooling region behind slow (10-40 km s-1) shocks in dense molecular gas (103-5 cm-3). The extended water emission is likely evidence of the radio jet's impact on cooling and forming molecules in the post-shocked gas in the halo and inter-cluster gas, similar to what is seen in low-z clusters and other high-z radio galaxies. These observations imply that the passage of the radio jet in the interstellar and inter-cluster medium not only heats gas to high temperatures, as is commonly assumed or found in simulations, but also induces cooling and dissipation, which can lead to substantial amounts of cold dense molecular gas. The formation of molecules and strong dissipation in the halo gas of MRC1138-262 may explain both the extended diffuse molecular gas and the young stars observed around MRC1138-262. The reduced data cubes

  8. The dynamics of massive starless cores with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jonathan C.; Kong, Shuo; Butler, Michael J.; Caselli, Paola; Fontani, Francesco

    2013-12-20

    How do stars that are more massive than the Sun form, and thus how is the stellar initial mass function (IMF) established? Such intermediate- and high-mass stars may be born from relatively massive pre-stellar gas cores, which are more massive than the thermal Jeans mass. The turbulent core accretion model invokes such cores as being in approximate virial equilibrium and in approximate pressure equilibrium with their surrounding clump medium. Their internal pressure is provided by a combination of turbulence and magnetic fields. Alternatively, the competitive accretion model requires strongly sub-virial initial conditions that then lead to extensive fragmentation to the thermal Jeans scale, with intermediate- and high-mass stars later forming by competitive Bondi-Hoyle accretion. To test these models, we have identified four prime examples of massive (∼100 M {sub ☉}) clumps from mid-infrared extinction mapping of infrared dark clouds. Fontani et al. found high deuteration fractions of N{sub 2}H{sup +} in these objects, which are consistent with them being starless. Here we present ALMA observations of these four clumps that probe the N{sub 2}D{sup +} (3-2) line at 2.''3 resolution. We find six N{sub 2}D{sup +} cores and determine their dynamical state. Their observed velocity dispersions and sizes are broadly consistent with the predictions of the turbulent core model of self-gravitating, magnetized (with Alfvén Mach number m{sub A} ∼ 1) and virialized cores that are bounded by the high pressures of their surrounding clumps. However, in the most massive cores, with masses up to ∼60 M {sub ☉}, our results suggest that moderately enhanced magnetic fields (so that m{sub A} ≅ 0.3) may be needed for the structures to be in virial and pressure equilibrium. Magnetically regulated core formation may thus be important in controlling the formation of massive cores, inhibiting their fragmentation, and thus helping to establish the stellar IMF.

  9. Further ALMA observations and detailed modeling of the Red Rectangle.

    PubMed

    Bujarrabal, V; Castro-Carrizo, A; Alcolea, J; Santander-García, M; Van Winckel, H; Sánchez Contreras, C

    2016-09-01

    We aim to study the rotating and expanding gas in the Red Rectangle, which is a well known object that recently left the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. We analyze the properties of both components and the relation between them. Rotating disks have been very elusive in post-AGB nebulae, in which gas is almost always found to be in expansion. We present new high-quality ALMA observations of C(17)O J=6-5 and H(13)CN J=4-3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published (13)CO J=3-2 data. A detailed model fitting of all the molecular line data, including previous maps and single-dish observations of lines of CO, CII, and CI, was performed using a sophisticated code that includes an accurate nonlocal treatment of radiative transfer in 2D. These observations (of low- and high-opacity lines requiring various degrees of excitation) and the corresponding modeling allowed us to deepen the analysis of the nebular properties. We also stress the uncertainties, particularly in the determination of the boundaries of the CO-rich gas and some properties of the outflow. We confirm the presence of a rotating equatorial disk and an outflow, which is mainly formed of gas leaving the disk. The mass of the disk is ~ 0.01 M⊙, and that of the CO-rich outflow is around ten times smaller. High temperatures of ≳ 100 K are derived for most components. From comparison of the mass values, we roughly estimate the lifetime of the rotating disk, which is found to be of about 10000 yr. Taking data of a few other post-AGB composite nebulae into account, we find that the lifetimes of disks around post-AGB stars typically range between 5000 and more than 20000 yr. The angular momentum of the disk is found to be high, ~ 9 M⊙ AU km s(-1), which is comparable to that of the stellar system at present. Our observations of H(13)CN show a particularly wide velocity dispersion and indicate that this molecule is only abundant in the inner Keplerian disk, at ≲ 60 AU from the

  10. Probing the final stages of protoplanetary disk evolution with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, A.; Caceres, C.; Schreiber, M. R.; Cieza, L.; Alexander, R. D.; Canovas, H.; Williams, J. P.; Wahhaj, Z.; Menard, F.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The evolution of a circumstellar disk from its gas-rich protoplanetary stage to its gas-poor debris stage is not understood well. It is apparent that disk clearing progresses from the inside-out on a short time scale and models of photoevaporation are frequently used to explain this. However, the photoevaporation rates predicted by recent models differ by up to two orders of magnitude, resulting in uncertain time scales for the final stages of disk clearing. Aims: Photoevaporation theories predict that the final stages of disk-clearing progress in objects that have ceased accretion but still posses considerable material at radii far from the star. Weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS) with infrared emission in excess of what is expected from the stellar photosphere are likely in this configuration. We aim to provide observational constraints on theories of disk-clearing by measuring the dust masses and CO content of a sample of young (1.8-26.3 Myr) WTTS. Methods: We used ALMA Band 6 to obtain continuum and 12CO(2-1) line fluxes for a sample of 24 WTTS stars with known infrared excess. For these WTTS, we inferred the dust mass from the continuum observations and derived disk luminosities and ages to allow comparison with previously detected WTTS. Results: We detect continuum emission in only four of 24 WTTS, and no 12CO(2-1) emission in any of them. For those WTTS where no continuum was detected, their ages and derived upper limits suggest they are debris disks, which makes them some of the youngest debris disks known. Of those where continuum was detected, three are possible photoevaporating disks, although the lack of CO detection suggests a severely reduced gas-to-dust ratio. Conclusions: The low fraction of continuum detections implies that, once accretion onto the star stops, the clearing of the majority of dust progresses very rapidly. Most WTTS with infrared excess are likely not in transition but are instead young debris disks, whose dust is either

  11. Water around IRAS 15398-3359 observed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Bergin, E. A.; Frimann, S.; Harsono, D.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Lindberg, J. E.; Persson, M.; Sakai, N.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Yamamoto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Understanding how protostars accrete their mass is one of the fundamental problems of star formation. High dust column densities and complex kinematical structures make direct observations challenging. Moreover, direct observations only provide a snapshot. Chemical tracers provide an interesting alternative to characterise the infall histories of protostars. Aims: We aim to map the distribution and kinematics of gaseous water towards the low-mass embedded protostar IRAS 15398-3359. Previous observations of H13CO+ showed a depression in the abundance towards IRAS 15398-3359. This is a sign of destruction of HCO+ by an enhanced presence of gaseous water in an extended region, possibly related to a recent burst in the accretion. Direct observations of water vapour can determine the exact extent of the emission and confirm the hypothesis that HCO+ is indeed a good tracer of the water snow-line. Methods: IRAS 15398-3359 was observed using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 0.5″ resolution in two setups at 390 and 460 GHz. Maps of HDO (101-000) and were taken simultaneously with observations of the CS (8-7) and N2H+ (5-4) lines and continuum at 0.65 and 0.75 mm. The maps were interpreted using dust radiative transfer calculations of the protostellar infalling envelope with an outflow cavity. Results: HDO is clearly detected and extended over the scales of the H13CO+ depression, although it is displaced by 500 AU in the direction of the outflow. HO is tentatively detected towards the red-shifted outflow lobe, but otherwise it is absent from the mapped region, which suggests that temperatures are low. Although we cannot entirely exclude a shock origin, this indicates that another process is responsible for the water emission. Conclusions: Based on the temperature structure obtained from dust radiative transfer models, we conclude that the water was most likely released from the grains in an extended hour-glass configuration during a

  12. Measuring turbulence in TW Hydrae with ALMA: methods and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, R.; Guilloteau, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Dutrey, A.; Piétu, V.; Birnstiel, T.; Chapillon, E.; Hollenbach, D.; Gorti, U.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We aim to obtain a spatially resolved measurement of velocity dispersions in the disk of TW Hya. Methods: We obtained images with high spatial and spectral resolution of the CO J = 2-1, CN N = 2-1 and CS J = 5-4 emission with ALMA in Cycle 2. The radial distribution of the turbulent broadening was derived with two direct methods and one modelling approach. The first method requires a single transition and derives Tex directly from the line profile, yielding a vturb. The second method assumes that two different molecules are co-spatial, which allows using their relative line widths for calculating Tkin and vturb. Finally we fitted a parametric disk model in which the physical properties of the disk are described by power laws, to compare our direct methods with previous values. Results: The two direct methods were limited to the outer r > 40 au disk because of beam smear. The direct method found vturb to range from ≈130 m s-1 at 40 au, and to drop to ≈50 m s-1 in the outer disk, which is qualitatively recovered with the parametric model fitting. This corresponds to roughly 0.2-0.4 cs. CN was found to exhibit strong non-local thermal equilibrium effects outside r ≈ 140 au, so that vturb was limited to within this radius. The assumption that CN and CS are co-spatial is consistent with observed line widths only within r ≲ 100 au, within which vturb was found to drop from 100 m s-1 (≈0.4 cs) to zero at 100 au. The parametric model yielded a nearly constant 50 m s-1 for CS (0.2-0.4 cs). We demonstrate that absolute flux calibration is and will be the limiting factor in all studies of turbulence using a single molecule. Conclusions: The magnitude of the dispersion is comparable with or below that predicted by the magneto-rotational instability theory. A more precise comparison would require reaching an absolute calibration precision of about 3%, or finding a suitable combination of light and heavy molecules that are co-located in the disk. The reduced

  13. Multimolecule ALMA observations toward the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, S.; Kohno, K.; Izumi, T.; Krips, M.; Meier, D. S.; Aladro, R.; Matsushita, S.; Takano, S.; Turner, J. L.; Espada, D.; Nakajima, T.; Terashima, Y.; Fathi, K.; Hsieh, P.-Y.; Imanishi, M.; Lundgren, A.; Nakai, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.; Wiklind, T.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The nearby Sy 1 galaxy NGC 1097 represents an ideal laboratory for exploring the molecular chemistry in the surroundings of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: Exploring the distribution of different molecular species allows us to understand the physical processes affecting the interstellar medium both in the AGN vicinity and in the outer star forming molecular ring. Methods: We carried out 3 mm ALMA observations that include seven different molecular species, namely HCN, HCO+, CCH, CS, HNCO, SiO, HC3N, and SO, as well as the 13C isotopologues of the first two. Spectra were extracted from selected positions and all species were imaged over the central 2 kpc (~30'') of the galaxy at a resolution of ~2.2'' × 1.5'' (150 pc × 100 pc). Results: HCO+ and CS appear to be slightly enhanced in the star forming ring. CCH shows the largest variations across NGC 1097 and is suggested to be a good tracer of both obscured and early stage star formation. HNCO, SiO, and HC3N are significantly enhanced in the inner circumnuclear disk surrounding the AGN. Conclusions: Differences in the molecular abundances are observed between the star forming ring and the inner circumnuclear disk. We conclude that the HCN/HCO+ and HCN/CS differences observed between AGN-dominated and starburst (SB) galaxies are not due to a HCN enhancement due to X-rays, but rather this enhancement is produced by shocked material at distances of 200 pc from the AGN. Additionally, we claim that lower HCN/CS is a combination of a small underabundance of CS in AGNs, together with excitation effects, where a high density gas component (~106 cm-3) may be more prominent in SB galaxies. However, the most promising are the differences found among the dense gas tracers that, at our modest spatial resolution, seem to outline the physical structure of the molecular disk around the AGN. In this picture, HNCO probes the well-shielded gas in the disk, surrounding the dense material moderately exposed to the X

  14. The ALMA common software: a developer-friendly CORBA-based framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Caproni, Alessandro; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Zagar, Klemen; Fugate, David W.; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. It provides a common software infrastructure to all partners in the ALMA collaboration. The usage of ACS extends from high-level applications such as the Observation Preparation Tool [7] that will run on the desk of astronomers, down to the Control Software [6] domain. The purpose of ACS is twofold: from a system perspective, it provides the implementation of a coherent set of design patterns and services that will make the whole ALMA software [1] uniform and maintainable; from the perspective of an ALMA developer, it provides a friendly programming environment in which the complexity of the CORBA middleware and other libraries is hidden and coding is drastically reduced. The evolution of ACS is driven by a long term development plan, however on the 6-months release cycle the plan is adjusted based on incoming requests from ALMA subsystem development teams. ACS was presented at SPIE 2002[2]. In the two years since then, the core services provided by ACS have been extended, while the coverage of the application framework has been increased to satisfy the needs of high-level and data flow applications. ACS is available under the LGPL public license. The patterns implemented and the services provided can be of use also outside the astronomical community; several projects have already shown their interest in ACS. This paper presents the status of ACS and the progress over the last two years. Emphasis is placed on showing how requests from ACS users have driven the selection of new features.

  15. Bulk data transfer distributer: a high performance multicast model in ALMA ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.

    2006-06-01

    A high performance multicast model for the bulk data transfer mechanism in the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Common Software (ACS) is presented. The ALMA astronomical interferometer will consist of at least 50 12-m antennas operating at millimeter wavelength. The whole software infrastructure for ALMA is based on ACS, which is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. To cope with the very strong requirements for the amount of data that needs to be transported by the software communication channels of the ALMA subsystems (a typical output data rate expected from the Correlator is of the order of 64 MB per second) and with the potential CORBA bottleneck due to parameter marshalling/de-marshalling, usage of IIOP protocol, etc., a transfer mechanism based on the ACE/TAO CORBA Audio/Video (A/V) Streaming Service has been developed. The ACS Bulk Data Transfer architecture bypasses the CORBA protocol with an out-of-bound connection for the data streams (transmitting data directly in TCP or UDP format), using at the same time CORBA for handshaking and leveraging the benefits of ACS middleware. Such a mechanism has proven to be capable of high performances, of the order of 800 Mbits per second on a 1Gbit Ethernet network. Besides a point-to-point communication model, the ACS Bulk Data Transfer provides a multicast model. Since the TCP protocol does not support multicasting and all the data must be correctly delivered to all ALMA subsystems, a distributer mechanism has been developed. This paper focuses on the ACS Bulk Data Distributer, which mimics a multicast behaviour managing data dispatching to all receivers willing to get data from the same sender.

  16. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  17. Dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at z > 6 detected by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chen; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hou, Kuan-Chou

    2017-03-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at z > 6. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at z > 6 by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high-condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta (fin ≳ 0.5), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby galaxies. If we assume a condensation efficiency expected from theoretical calculations (fin ≲ 0.1), strong dust growth (even stronger than assumed for nearby galaxies if they are metal-poor galaxies) is required. These results indicate that the normal galaxies detected by ALMA at z > 6 are biased to objects (i) with high dust condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta, (ii) with strong dust growth in very dense molecular clouds or (iii) with efficient dust growth because of fast metal enrichment up to solar metallicity. A measurement of metallicity is crucial to distinguish among these possibilities.

  18. Dusty Starbursts within a z=3 Large Scale Structure revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, Hideki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a series of ALMA observations in the SSA22 field. In this field a remarkable large-scale structure (across ~1 deg) has been found at z=3.09, which makes the field an unique laboratory to investigate galaxy formation and evolution at biased fields in the early universe. First we have conducted a 1.1 mm continuum follow-up of 45 SMGs discovered by the 1.1 mm AzTEC/ASTE survey with ALMA in its Cycle 1 (PI. Umehata). We have achieved 1σ sensitivity of 0.07 - 0.16 mJy/beam and angular resolution of 0.6″ to find 64 discrete sources with S/N ≥ 4.5. Second in ALMA Cycle 2 we have carried out a contiguous 2‧ × 3‧ mapping observation at 1.1 mm (PI. Umehata) achieved by 103 point mosaic. This ‘ALMA deep field’ reaches 1σ sensitivity of 0.066 - 0.070 mJy/beam for an entire field and have angular resolution of 0.5″, which allows us to detect dusty star-forming galaxies with SFRIR ~ 60 M⊙yr-1 (if we assume β=1.5, Tdust=40 K, and Chablier IMF) at z=3.09. On the basis of comparison with the results from general fields, it is suggested that SMGs preferentially reside in the most dense environment at z~3. Furthermore we find a rich cluster of X-ray luminous ALMA sources at the core of the proto-cluster composed of seven objects with spec-z/photo-z = 3.09. Our results indicate that environment can be a key factor on the formation of dusty starbursts and the growth of SMBHs within them.

  19. ALMA Partners Award Prototype Antenna Contracts in Europe and the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    The European and U.S. partners in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project have awarded contracts to firms in Italy and the USA, respectively, for two prototype antennas. ALMA is a planned telescope array, expected to consist of 64 millimeter-wave antennas with 12-meter diameter dishes, cf. ESO Press Release 09/99 and ESO PR Video Clip 08/99. The array will be built at a high-altitude, extremely dry mountain site in Chile's Atacama desert, and is scheduled to be completed sometime in this decade. The European partners contracted with the consortium of European Industrial Engineering and Costamasnaga (Mestre, Italy), on February 21, 2000, for the production of one prototype ALMA antenna. On February 22, 2000, Associated Universities Inc. signed a contract with Vertex Antenna Systems (Santa Clara, California), for construction of another prototype antenna. The two antennas must meet identical specifications, but will inherently be of different designs. This will ensure that the best possible technologies are incorporated into the final production antennas. Several technical challenges must be met for the antennas to perform to ALMA specifications. Each antenna must have extremely high surface accuracy (25 µm, or one-third the diameter of a human hair, over the entire 12-meter diameter). This means that, when completed, the surface accuracy of the ALMA dishes will be 20 times greater than that of the Very Large Array (VLA) antennas near Socorro (New Mexico, USA), and about 50 times greater than dish antennas for communications or radar. The ALMA antennas must also have extremely high pointing accuracy (0.6 arcseconds). An additional challenge is that the antennas, when installed at the ALMA site in Chile, will be exposed to the ravages of weather at 5000 m elevation. All previous millimeter-wavelength antennas that meet such exacting specifications for surface accuracy and pointing accuracy have been housed within telescope enclosures. The U.S. and European

  20. Diversity of flavin-binding monooxygenase genes (almA) in marine bacteria capable of degradation long-chain alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2012-06-01

    Many bacteria have been reported as degraders of long-chain (LC) n-alkanes, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Flavin-binding monooxygenase (AlmA) was recently found to be involved in LC-alkane degradation in bacteria of the Acinetobacter and Alcanivorax genera. However, the diversity of this gene and the role it plays in other bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we surveyed the diversity of almA in marine bacteria and in bacteria found in oil-enrichment communities. To identify the presence of this gene, a pair of degenerate PCR primers were was designed based on conserved motifs of the almA gene sequences in public databases. Using this approach, we identified diverse almA genes in the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and in bacterial communities from the surface seawater of the Xiamen coastal area, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, almA was positively detected in 35 isolates belonging to four genera, and a total of 39 different almA sequences were obtained. Five isolates were confirmed to harbor two to three almA genes. From the Xiamen coastal area and the Atlantic Ocean oil-enrichment communities, a total of 60 different almA sequences were obtained. These sequences mainly formed two clusters in the phylogenetic tree, named Class I and Class II, and these shared 45-56% identity at the amino acid level. Class I contained 11 sequences from bacteria represented by the Salinisphaera and Parvibaculum genera. Class II was larger and more diverse, and it was composed of 88 sequences from Proteobacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and the enriched bacterial communities. These communities were represented by the Alcanivorax and Marinobacter genera, which are the two most popular genera hosting the almA gene. AlmA was also detected across a wide geographical range, as determined by the origin of the bacterial host. Our results demonstrate the diversity of almA and confirm its high rate of occurrence in hydrocarbon

  1. Further ALMA observations and detailed modeling of the Red Rectangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.; Santander-García, M.; van Winckel, H.; Sánchez Contreras, C.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: We aim to study the rotating and expanding gas in the Red Rectangle, which is a well known bipolar nebula surrounding a double stellar system whose primary is a post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star. We analyze the properties of both components and the relation between them. Rotating disks have been very elusive in post-AGB nebulae, in which gas is almost always found to be in expansion. Methods: We present new high-quality ALMA observations of this source in C17O J = 6-5 and H13CN J = 4-3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published 13CO J = 3-2 data. A detailed model fitting of all the molecular line data, also discussing previous maps and single-dish observations of lines of CO, CII, and CI, was performed using a sophisticated code that includes an accurate nonlocal treatment of radiative transfer in 2D (assuming axial symmetry). These observations (of low- and high-opacity lines requiring various degrees of excitation) and the corresponding modeling allowed us to deepen the analysis of the nebular properties. We also stress the uncertainties, particularly in the determination of the boundaries of the CO-rich gas and some properties of the outflow. Results: We confirm the presence of a rotating equatorial disk and an outflow, which is mainly formed of gas leaving the disk. The mass of the disk is ~0.01 M⊙, and that of the CO-rich outflow is around ten times smaller. High temperatures of ≳100 K are derived for most components. From comparison of the mass values, we roughly estimate the lifetime of the rotating disk, which is found to be of about 10 000 yr. Taking data of a few other post-AGB composite nebulae into account, we find that the lifetimes of disks around post-AGB stars typically range between about 5000 and more than 20 000 yr. The angular momentum of the disk is found to be high, ~9 M⊙ AU km s-1, which is comparable to that of the stellar system at present. Our observations of H13CN show a particularly wide

  2. Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto's atmosphere with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lellouch, E.; Gurwell, M.; Butler, B.; Fouchet, T.; Lavvas, P.; Strobel, D. F.; Sicardy, B.; Moullet, A.; Moreno, R.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Young, L.; Lis, D.; Stansberry, J.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H.; Young, E.; Zhu, X.; Boissier, J.

    2017-04-01

    Observations of the Pluto-Charon system, acquired with the ALMA interferometer on June 12-13, 2015, have led to the detection of the CO(3-2) and HCN(4-3) rotational transitions from Pluto (including the hyperfine structure of HCN), providing a strong confirmation of the presence of CO, and the first observation of HCN in Pluto's atmosphere. The CO and HCN lines probe Pluto's atmosphere up to ∼450 km and ∼900 km altitude, respectively, with a large contribution due to limb emission. The CO detection yields (i) a much improved determination of the CO mole fraction, as 515 ± 40 ppm for a 12 μbar surface pressure (ii) strong constraints on Pluto's mean atmospheric dayside temperature profile over ∼50-400 km, with clear evidence for a well-marked temperature decrease (i.e., mesosphere) above the 30-50 km stratopause and a best-determined temperature of 70 ± 2 K at 300 km, somewhat lower than previously estimated from stellar occultations (81 ± 6 K), and in agreement with recent inferences from New Horizons / Alice solar occultation data. The HCN line shape implies a high abundance of this species in the upper atmosphere, with a mole fraction >1.5 × 10-5 above 450 km and a value of 4 × 10-5 near 800 km. Assuming HCN at saturation, this would require a warm (>92 K) upper atmosphere layer; while this is not ruled out by the CO emission, it is inconsistent with the Alice-measured CH4 and N2 line-of-sight column densities. Taken together, the large HCN abundance and the cold upper atmosphere imply supersaturation of HCN to a degree (7-8 orders of magnitude) hitherto unseen in planetary atmospheres, probably due to a lack of condensation nuclei above the haze region and the slow kinetics of condensation at the low pressure and temperature conditions of Pluto's upper atmosphere. HCN is also present in the bottom ∼100 km of the atmosphere, with a 10-8-10-7 mole fraction; this implies either HCN saturation or undersaturation there, depending on the precise

  3. Testing protostellar disk formation models with ALMA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsono, D.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.; Li, Z.-Y.; Jørgensen, J. K.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Recent simulations have explored different ways to form accretion disks around low-mass stars. However, it has been difficult to differentiate between the proposed mechanisms because of a lack of observable predictions from these numerical studies. Aims: We aim to present observables that can differentiate a rotationally supported disk from an infalling rotating envelope toward deeply embedded young stellar objects (Menv>Mdisk) and infer their masses and sizes. Methods: Two 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) formation simulations are studied with a rotationally supported disk (RSD) forming in one but not the other (where a pseudo-disk is formed instead), together with the 2D semi-analytical model. We determine the dust temperature structure through continuum radiative transfer RADMC3D modeling. A simple temperature-dependent CO abundance structure is adopted and synthetic spectrally resolved submm rotational molecular lines up to Ju = 10 are compared with existing data to provide predictions for future ALMA observations. Results: The 3D MHD simulations and 2D semi-analytical model predict similar compact components in continuum if observed at the spatial resolutions of 0.5-1″ (70-140 AU) typical of the observations to date. A spatial resolution of ~14 AU and high dynamic range (>1000) are required in order to differentiate between RSD and pseudo-disk formation scenarios in the continuum. The first moment maps of the molecular lines show a blue- to red-shifted velocity gradient along the major axis of the flattened structure in the case of RSD formation, as expected, whereas it is along the minor axis in the case of a pseudo-disk. The peak position-velocity diagrams indicate that the pseudo-disk shows a flatter velocity profile with radius than does an RSD. On larger scales, the CO isotopolog line profiles within large (>9″) beams are similar and are narrower than the observed line widths of low-J (2-1 and 3-2) lines, indicating significant turbulence in the

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SgrB2 ALMA continuum and spectral index (Sanchez-Monge+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Monge, A.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Lis, D. C.; Qin, S.-L.; Mueller, H. S. P.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Moeller, T.

    2017-04-01

    ALMA 1.3mm (242GHz) continuum maps of the high-mass star-forming regions SgrB2(M) and SgrB2(N). The angular resolution of the images is 0.4-arcsec, and were obtained after combining different continuum images obtained from the ALMA spectral line survey in band 6 (from 211GHz to 275GHz). The different continuum images are used to produce the spectral index maps of both regions. (2 data files).

  5. The Peculiar Distribution of CH3CN in IRC +10216 Seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Guélin, M.

    2015-12-01

    IRC +10216 is a circumstellar envelope around a carbon-rich evolved star which contains a large variety of molecules. According to interferometric observations, molecules are distributed either concentrated around the central star or as a hollow shell with a radius of ˜15″. We present ALMA Cycle 0 band 6 observations of the J = 14 - 13 rotational transition of CH3CN in IRC +10216, obtained with an angular resolution of 0.″76 × 0.″61. The bulk of the emission is distributed as a hollow shell located at just ˜2″ from the star, with a void of emission in the central region up to a radius of ˜1″. This spatial distribution is markedly different from those found to date in this source for other molecules. Our analysis indicates that methyl cyanide is not formed in either the stellar photosphere or far in the outer envelope, but at radial distances as short as 1″-2″, reaching a maximum abundance of ˜0.02 molecules cm-3 at 2″ from the star. Standard chemical models of IRC +10216 predict that the bulk of CH3CN molecules should be present at a radius of ˜15″ where other species such as polyyne radicals and cyanopolyynes are observed, with an additional inner component within 1″ from the star. The non-uniform structure of the circumstellar envelope and grain surface processes are discussed as possible causes of the peculiar distribution of methyl cyanide in IRC +10216. Based on observations carried out with ALMA and the IRAM 30 m Telescope. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00229.S.

  6. The ALMA Band 9 receiver. Design, construction, characterization, and first light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Klapwijk, T. M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jackson, B. D.; Adema, J.; Gerlofsma, G. J.; Bekema, M. E.; Barkhof, J.; de Haan-Stijkel, L. H. R.; van den Bemt, M.; Koops, A.; Keizer, K.; Pieters, C.; Koops van het Jagt, J.; Schaeffer, H. H. A.; Zijlstra, T.; Kroug, M.; Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Wielinga, K.; Boland, W.; de Graauw, M. W. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jager, H.; Wild, W.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We describe the design, construction, and characterization of the Band 9 heterodyne receivers (600-720 GHz) for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). First-light Band 9 data, obtained during ALMA commissioning and science verification phases, are presented as well. Methods: The ALMA Band 9 receiver units (so-called "cartridges"), which are installed in the telescope's front end, have been designed to detect and down-convert two orthogonal linear polarization components of the light collected by the ALMA antennas. The light entering the front end is refocused with a compact arrangement of mirrors, which is fully contained within the cartridge. The arrangement contains a grid to separate the polarizations and two beam splitters to combine each resulting beam with a local oscillator signal. The combined beams are fed into independent double-sideband mixers, each with a corrugated feedhorn coupling the radiation by way of a waveguide with backshort cavity into an impedance-tuned superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction that performs the heterodyne down-conversion. Finally, the generated intermediate frequency (IF) signals are amplified by cryogenic and room-temperature HEMT amplifiers and exported to the telescope's IF back end for further processing and, finally, correlation. Results: The receivers have been constructed and tested in the laboratory and they show an excellent performance, complying with ALMA requirements. Performance statistics on all 73 Band 9 receivers are reported. Importantly, two different tunnel-barrier technologies (necessitating different tuning circuits) for the SIS junctions have been used, namely conventional AlOx barriers and the more recent high-current-density AlN barriers. On-sky characterization and tests of the performance of the Band 9 cartridges are presented using commissioning data. Continuum and line images of the low-mass protobinary IRAS 16293-2422 are presented which were obtained as part

  7. ALMA, a new tool for the management of asthma patients in clinical practice: development, validation and initial clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Kiotseridis, Hampus; Bjermer, Leif; Pilman, Eva; Ställberg, Björn; Romberg, Kerstin; Tunsäter, Alf

    2012-06-01

    Several instruments have been developed for measuring asthma control, but there is still a need to provide a structure for primary care asthma reviews. The Active Life with Asthma (ALMA) tool was developed with the aim of structuring patient visits and assessing asthma treatment in primary care. The ability of ALMA to map out the care of asthma patients was evaluated and validated. ALMA was developed with patient and clinical expert input. Questions were generated in focus groups and the resulting tool was subsequently validated by factor analysis in 1779 patients (1116 females) of mean age 51 years (range 18-89) in primary care. The ALMA tool includes 19 questions, 14 of which belong to a subset assessing asthma control. In this subset, factor analysis revealed three domains (factors): physical, psychological, and environmental triggers. Correlation with the Asthma Control Questionnaire was 0.72 and the Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The test-retest reliability was 0.93. Of the 1779 patients tested with ALMA in primary care, 62% reported chest tightness, 30% nightly awakenings and 45% asthma breakthrough despite medication. The ALMA tool is useful as a follow-up instrument in clinical practice to structure patient visits and assess asthma treatment in primary care. The breadth of the questions and the pragmatic use in clinical practice also make it useful as an outcome measure.

  8. Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): High-Resolution Interferometric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, M.; Bastian, T. S.; Hales, A. S.; White, S. M.; Iwai, K.; Hills, R. E.; Hirota, A.; Phillips, N. M.; Sawada, T.; Yagoubov, P.; Siringo, G.; Asayama, S.; Sugimoto, M.; Brajša, R.; Skokić, I.; Bárta, M.; Kim, S.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Corder, S. A.; Hudson, H. S.; Wedemeyer, S.; Gary, D. E.; De Pontieu, B.; Loukitcheva, M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Chen, B.; Kobelski, A.; Yan, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Observations of the Sun at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths offer a unique probe into the structure, dynamics, and heating of the chromosphere; the structure of sunspots; the formation and eruption of prominences and filaments; and energetic phenomena such as jets and flares. High-resolution observations of the Sun at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths are challenging due to the intense, extended, low-contrast, and dynamic nature of emission from the quiet Sun, and the extremely intense and variable nature of emissions associated with energetic phenomena. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was designed with solar observations in mind. The requirements for solar observations are significantly different from observations of sidereal sources and special measures are necessary to successfully carry out this type of observations. We describe the commissioning efforts that enable the use of two frequency bands, the 3-mm band (Band 3) and the 1.25-mm band (Band 6), for continuum interferometric-imaging observations of the Sun with ALMA. Examples of high-resolution synthesized images obtained using the newly commissioned modes during the solar-commissioning campaign held in December 2015 are presented. Although only 30 of the eventual 66 ALMA antennas were used for the campaign, the solar images synthesized from the ALMA commissioning data reveal new features of the solar atmosphere that demonstrate the potential power of ALMA solar observations. The ongoing expansion of ALMA and solar-commissioning efforts will continue to enable new and unique solar observing capabilities.

  9. Transparent XML Binding using the ALMA Common Software (ACS) Container/Component Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H.; Chiozzi, G.; Fugate, D.; Sekoranja, M.

    2004-07-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. The common architecture and infrastructure used for the whole ALMA software is presented at this conference in (Schwarz, Farris, & Sommer 2004). ACS offers a CORBA-based container/component model and supports the exchange and persistence of XML data. For the Java programming language, the container integrates transparently the use of type-safe Java binding classes to let applications conveniently work with XML transfer objects without having to parse or serialize them. This paper will show how the ACS container/component architecture serves to pass complex data structures, such as observation meta-data, between heterogeneous applications.

  10. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  11. A Measurement of the Black-Hole Mass in NGC 1097 using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, K.; Iguchi, S.; Sheth, K.; Kohno, K.

    2015-12-01

    We present a supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass measurement in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 using ALMA observations of dense gas kinematics traced with HCN (J=1-0) emission line. Assuming a host galaxy inclination of 46°, we derive a SMBH mass, MBH=1.40+0.27-0.32×108M⊙, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be 5.14+0.03-0.04. The measured SMBH mass is in good agreement with the SMBH mass and bulge velocity dispersion relationship. Our result showcases ALMA's potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses in larger number of samples, that will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole and host galaxy properties to constrain the coevolutionary growth of galaxies and black holes.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VY CMa ALMA NaCl images (Decin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decin, L.; Richards, A. M. S.; Millar, T. J.; Baudry, A.; de Beck, E.; Homan, W.; Smith, N.; van de Sande, M.; Walsh, C.

    2016-07-01

    VY CMa was observed for ALMA Science Verification on 2013 16-19 August using 16-20 12-m antennas on baselines from 0.014-2.7km. The main objective was to map the H2O maser lines at 321 and 325GHz (Band 7) and 658GHz (Band 9), but several thermal lines identified with various rotational transitions of NaCl, TiO2, SO2, and SiO were also present in the spectral setting in addition to the continuum data. Four NaCl lines in the ground or first vibrational state are covered in the ALMA band 7 data. All of them are detected, albeit only two are unblended (see Table 1). (3 data files).

  13. Feeding and Feedback in the Starbust Galaxy NGC 1808 Revealed with ALMA and ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salak, D.; Nakai, N.; Miyamoto, Y.

    2015-12-01

    NGC 1808 is a nearby (10 Mpc) starburst galaxy with a superwind detected as a dust outflow from the nuclear region. In order to study the evolution of molecular clouds in the feeding and feedback processes related to the starburst activity, we have carried out observations with ALMA and ASTE telescopes. We present preliminary results of cycle 1 (12-m array) large-field CO (1-0) imaging with ALMA and 1-mm line observations with ASTE. Molecular gas was detected and resolved at a resolution of 2” (˜100 pc) throughout the galactic disk. This first high-resolution CO image of NGC 1808 reveals: a circumnuclear disk in the center, 500-pc starburst ring, indication of inflow and outflow motion, giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and associations (GMAs) in the spiral arms and bar.

  14. De Herschel à Alma. Les galaxies dévoilent enfin leurs secrets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-08-01

    With deep surveys, one can measure the amount of stars born in slices of the Universe and infer a "cosmic rate of star formation." The latest estimates from the Herschel satellite show a rapid drop of star formation in galaxies since ten billion years. To understand the cause of this fall, we can now measure the interstellar reservoirs of galaxies by combining observations from Herschel and the millimeter interferometer ALMA. Early results suggest that this fall comes from the rapid consumption of interstellar matter which served as reservoir to galaxies. Thanks to the technique of interferometry, ALMA can map interstellar dust within galaxies observed at the time of the peak of cosmic star formation, ten billion years ago. We discover that the stars of the most massive galaxies are born not only at very high rates but also with an extreme concentration.

  15. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  16. Design and performance of mass-produced sideband separating SIS mixers for ALMA band 4 receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takafumi; Kuroiwa, Koichi; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Fujii, Yumi; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Asayama, Shin'ichiro; Noguchi, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    We have designed and mass-produced low-noise sideband separating superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) band 4 over the frequency range of 125-163 GHz. An integrated design was adopted for the band 4 sideband separating (2SB) mixer block because of the advantages it offers in terms of compactness, reduced testing time and lower cost. The mixer chip was designed to be robust for handling errors to avoid performance degradation caused by generation of the higher order mode in the mixer chip slot. Detailed analyses revealed its robustness and ability to ensure mass production of the 2SB mixers. Using the robust mixer design in addition to well-established waveguide technologies, all of the 2SB mixers met ALMA specifications for noise temperature and image rejection ratio.

  17. The Declaration of Alma Ata on its 30th anniversary: relevance for family medicine today.

    PubMed

    Hixon, Allen L; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2008-09-01

    The Declaration of Alma Ata, issued on September 12, 1978, provides a moral vision for primary care that remains valuable today at a time of transformation of the specialty of family medicine. The Declaration asserts a comprehensive definition of health that recognizes health as a fundamental human right, argues persuasively that gross inequalities in health status are politically, socially, and economically unacceptable, and identifies primary health care as the key to improving health and reducing health status inequalities. The values of Alma Ata can guide the specialty of family medicine to lead positive health system change through renewed collaboration, addressing inequalities, efficient use of resources and appropriate technology, and advocacy in the spirit of social justice.

  18. New detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems toward ALMA calibrator sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Ryo; Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Izumi, Takuma; Umehata, Hideki; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    We report on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) detections of molecular absorption lines in Bands 3, 6, and 7 toward four radio-loud quasars, which were observed as the bandpass and complex gain calibrators. The absorption systems, three of which are newly detected, are found to be Galactic origin. Moreover, HCO absorption lines toward two objects are detected, which almost doubles the number of HCO absorption samples in the Galactic diffuse medium. In addition, high HCO-to-H13CO+ column density ratios are found, suggesting that the interstellar media (ISM) observed toward the two calibrators are in photodissociation regions, which observationally illustrates the chemistry of diffuse ISM driven by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. These results demonstrate that calibrators in the ALMA Archive are potential sources for the quest for new absorption systems and for detailed investigation of the nature of the ISM.

  19. Testing Wave Propagation Properties in the Solar Chromosphere with ALMA and IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, Bernard; Straus, Thomas; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Waves and oscillations are interesting not only from the point of view that they can propagate energy into the chromosphere and dissipate that energy to produce non-radiative heating, they also carry information about the structure of the atmosphere in which they propagate. Since the late 80s there is substantial evidence that the chromospheric wave field is dominated by a non-propagating component, presumably resulting from wave reflection at the transition region. Observations of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca II infrared tripet lines, Ca II K, and He 10830 all show vanishing phase lags (i.e. vanishing travel time differences) between the various lines, in particular also for frequencies above the cut-off frequency. Why is the apparent phase speed of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere so high? Are these results misleading because of complex radiation transfer effects in these optically thick lines? ALMA, which acts as a linear thermometer of the solar chromosphere, will provide measurements of the local plasma conditions that should be, at least in principle, much easier to interpret. Multi-wavelength time series of ALMA observations of the temperature fluctuations of inter-network oscillations should allow travel time measurements between different heights as these disturbances propagate through the chromosphere and thus should finally settle the long-standing question about the propagation characteristics of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere. We plan to combine ALMA mm-observations with high resolution IRIS observations in the Mg II h and k lines, and until ALMA observations are available, will study the expected signals using time series of mm-maps from 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations that are being prepared within the framework of the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON).

  20. Dust properties across the CO snowline in the HD 163296 disk from ALMA and VLA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Chandler, C. J.; Pérez, L.; Isella, A.; Natta, A.; Ortolani, S.; Henning, Th.; Corder, S.; Linz, H.; Andrews, S.; Wilner, D.; Ricci, L.; Carpenter, J.; Sargent, A.; Mundy, L.; Storm, S.; Calvet, N.; Dullemond, C.; Greaves, J.; Lazio, J.; Deller, A.; Kwon, W.

    2016-04-01

    Context. To characterize the mechanisms of planet formation it is crucial to investigate the properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks around young stars, where the initial conditions for the growth of planets are set. The high spatial resolution of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations now allows the study of radial variations of dust properties in nearby resolved disks and the investigation of the early stages of grain growth in disk midplanes. Aims: Our goal is to study grain growth in the well-studied disk of the young, intermediate-mass star HD 163296 where dust processing has already been observed and to look for evidence of growth by ice condensation across the CO snowline, which has already been identified in this disk with ALMA. Methods: Under the hypothesis of optically thin emission, we compare images at different wavelengths from ALMA and VLA to measure the opacity spectral index across the disk and thus the maximum grain size. We also use a Bayesian tool based on a two-layer disk model to fit the observations and constrain the dust surface density. Results: The measurements of the opacity spectral index indicate the presence of large grains and pebbles (≥1 cm) in the inner regions of the disk (inside ~50 AU) and smaller grains, consistent with ISM sizes, in the outer disk (beyond 150 AU). Re-analyzing ALMA Band 7 science verification data, we find (radially) unresolved excess continuum emission centered near the location of the CO snowline at ~90 AU. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests a grain size distribution consistent with an enhanced production of large grains at the CO snowline and consequent transport to the inner regions. Our results combined with the excess in infrared scattered light suggests there is a structure at 90 AU involving the whole vertical extent of the disk. This could be evidence of small scale processing of dust at the CO snowline.

  1. The ALMA Band 3 (84-116 GHz) receiver production plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Keith; Claude, Stéphane; Loop, David

    2008-07-01

    The NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (NRC-HIA) is currently responsible to contribute Band 3 (84-116 GHz) receivers to the international ALMA project - a partnership involving North America, Europe and, now, Asia. Not only are the technical requirements for these receivers far more stringent than those for any existing radio astronomy receivers operating at these frequencies, but the delivery schedule for these receivers is equally challenging. Since the Asian partnership joined the ALMA project in 2006, NRC-HIA has been asked to deliver an additional 11 cartridges, for a total of 73 units. Some of these new cartridges will be used for the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and others as spares. Moreover, the project has also requested that these additional cartridges be delivered in the same time period as the original 62 units. To meet this requirement, production must increase from the existing rate of one unit every four weeks to one every two, taxing the existing production infrastructure at NRC-HIA. Additional test facilities and human resources must be planned to sustain the required production rate over the next several years. Industrial involvement is one of the important elements in our production plan. In order to supplement the existing human resources at NRC-HIA, we are planning to outsource a number of low-risk and labor-intensive tasks to industry. However, NRC-HIA will retain overall project management responsibility and will conduct all the cartridge integration and acceptance test activities in-house. This paper focuses on the resource estimation, planning and project management required to deliver the Band 3 receivers to the ALMA project on time and on budget.

  2. Detection of Lensing Substructure Using Alma Observations of the Dusty Galaxy SDP.81

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Dalal, Neal; Marrone, Daniel P.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Wen, Di; Blandford, Roger D.; Carlstrom, John E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Kemball, Athol; Marshall, Philip J.; Murray, Norman; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-05-19

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 108.96±0.12 M subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ~ 2 × 107 M, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Finally, observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.

  3. Detection and mapping of organic molecules in Titan's atmosphere using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Titan's atmospheric photochemistry results in the production of a wide range of organic molecules, including hydrocarbons, nitriles, aromatics and other complex species of possible pre-biotic relevance. Studies of Titan's atmospheric chemistry thus provide a unique opportunity to explore the origin and evolution of organic matter in primitive (terrestrial) planetary atmospheres. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a powerful new facility, well suited to the study of molecular emission from Titan's upper and middle-atmosphere. Results will be presented from our ongoing studies of Titan using ALMA data obtained during the period 2012-2014 [1,2], including detection and mapping of emission from C2H5CN, HNC, HC3N, CH3CN and CH3CCH. In addition, combining data from multiple ALMA Band 6 observations, we obtained high-resolution spectra with unprecedented sensitivity, enabling the first detection of C2H3CN (vinyl cyanide) on Titan, and derived a mean C2H3CN C2H5CN abundance ratio above 300 km of 0.3. Vinyl cyanide has recently been investigated as a possible constituent of (pre-biotic) vesicle membranes in Titan's liquid CH4 oceans [3]. Radiative transfer models and possible chemical formation pathways for the detected molecules will be discussed. ALMA observations provide instantaneous snapshot mapping of Titan's entire Earth-facing hemisphere for gases inaccessible to previous studies, and therefore provide new insights into photochemical production and transport, particularly at higher altitudes. Our maps show spatially resolved peaks in Titan's northern and southern hemispheres, consistent with the molecular distributions found in previous studies at infrared wavelengths by Voyager and Cassini, but high-altitude longitudinal asymmetries in our nitrile data indicate that the mesosphere may be more spatially variable than previously thought.

  4. Detection of Lensing Substructure Using Alma Observations of the Dusty Galaxy SDP.81

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Dalal, Neal; Marrone, Daniel P.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Wen, Di; Blandford, Roger D.; Carlstrom, John E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Kemball, Athol; Marshall, Philip J.; Murray, Norman; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-05-19

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 108.96±0.12 M subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ~ 2 × 107 M, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Finally, observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.

  5. Poster 9: Isotopic Ratios of Carbon and Oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serigano, Joseph; Nixion, Conor A.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Teanby, Nick A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Lindberg, Johan E.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided a new and powerful facility for probing the atmospheres of solar system targets at long wavelengths (84-720 GHz) where the rotational lines of small, polar molecules are prominent. In the complex atmosphere of Titan, photochemical processes dissociate and ionize molecular nitrogen and methane in the upper atmosphere, creating a complex inventory of trace hydrocarbons and nitriles. Additionally, the existence of oxygen on Titan facilitates the synthesis of molecules of potential astrobiological importance. Utilization of ground-based submillimeter observations of Titan has proven to be a powerful tool to complement results from spacecraft observations. ALMA provides the ability to probe this region in greater detail with unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution at high sensitivity, allowing for the derivation of vertical mixing profiles, molecular detections, and observations of latitudinal and seasonal variations. Recent ALMA studies of Titan have presented spectrally and spatially-resolved maps of HNC and HC3N emission (Cordiner et al. 2014), as well as the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) in Titan's atmosphere (Cordiner et al. 2015). This poster will focus on ALMA observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues 13CO, C18O, and C 17O in Titan's atmosphere. Molecular abundances and the vertical atmospheric temperature profile were derived by modeling the observed emission line profiles using NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code (Irwin et al. 2008). This study reports the first spectroscopic detection of 17O in the outer solar system with C17O detected at >8σ confidence. The abundances of these molecules and isotopic ratios of 12C/13C, 16O/18O, and 16O/17O will be presented. General implications for the history of Titan from these measurements will be discussed.

  6. Detection of Lensing Substructure Using Alma Observations of the Dusty Galaxy SDP.81

    DOE PAGES

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Dalal, Neal; Marrone, Daniel P.; ...

    2016-05-19

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 108.96±0.12 M⊙ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance ofmore » 6.9σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ~ 2 × 107 M⊙, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Finally, observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.« less

  7. High-Frequency Local Oscillator Transmission for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillue, B.

    2005-07-01

    The Atacama large millimeter array (ALMA) is an international radio astronomical facility currently under construction in Chile [Wootten, A. et al., 2005]. Due to the unprecedented combination of high frequency and long baselines, and the requirement that it operate as an interferometer, the array requires Local Oscillators (LO) and LO references with extremely low phase-noise and phase drift. The LO requirements, design implementation, and preliminary results are presented.

  8. Alma Observations Of Circumstellar Disks In The Upper Scorpius Ob Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenfeld, Scott

    2016-07-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the total dust masses of these disks. We find that disk dust masses in Upper Scorpius are a factor of 4.5 times lower than those in the younger Taurus star forming region, clear evidence of disk evolution between 1-2 Myr and 5-10 Myr.

  9. Performance and Uniformity of Mass-Produced SIS Mixers for ALMA Band 8 Receiver Cartridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomura, Tomonuri; Noguchi, Takashi; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Shan, Wenlei; Sato, Naohisa; Iizuka, Yoshizo; Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Niizeki, Yasuaki; Iwakuni, Mikio; Ito, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA), which was jointly built in Chile by Europe, North America and East Asia, has an observational band from 30 to 950 GHz [1], [2]. We developed receiver cartridges for ALMA Band 8 (385-500 GHz) [3]-[5] which is one of ALMA 10 frequency bands. The Band 8 receiver cartridges were produced as 73 cartridges, and 292 SIS mixers were installed in their cartridges. Also, their all cartridges were required to meet following ALMA specifications: 1. The noise temperature is less than 196 K over 80% of the frequency range and less than 292 K at any frequency from 385 to 500 GHz. 2. The image rejection ratio is larger than 10 dB over 90% of the frequency range. 3. The IF output power variation is less than 7.0 dB peak-to-peak in the 4-8 GHz band. 4. The gain compression to RF load temperatures between 77 and 373 K is less than 5%. 5. The Allan variance of the IF output power is less than 4.0×10-7 in the time scale of 0.05 s≤T≤100 s and 3.0×10-6 at 300 s. To meet these specifications, the performance and uniformity of the SIS mixers are crucial. The SIS mixers with Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions were fabricated in a clean room of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and over 1000 mixer chips were mass-produced. After screening these mixers, 73 Band 8 receivers were assembled and tested. We report the test results of the mass-produced mixers and the receiver cartridges in detail from a statistical point of view.

  10. First year of ALMA site software deployment: where everything comes together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Víctor; Mora, Matias; Araya, Rodrigo; Arredondo, Diego; Bartsch, Marcelo; Burgos, Pablo; Ibsen, Jorge; Reveco, Johnny; Sáez, Norman; Schemrl, Anton; Sepulveda, Jorge; Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Rubén; Troncoso, Nicolás; Zambrano, Mauricio; Barriga, Nicolás; Glendenning, Brian; Raffi, Gianni; Kern, Jeff

    2010-07-01

    Starting 2009, the ALMA project initiated one of its most exciting phases within construction: the first antenna from one of the vendors was delivered to the Assembly, Integration and Verification team. With this milestone and the closure of the ALMA Test Facility in New Mexico, the JAO Computing Group in Chile found itself in the front line of the project's software deployment and integration effort. Among the group's main responsibilities are the deployment, configuration and support of the observation systems, in addition to infrastructure administration, all of which needs to be done in close coordination with the development groups in Europe, North America and Japan. Software support has been the primary interaction key with the current users (mainly scientists, operators and hardware engineers), as the software is normally the most visible part of the system. During this first year of work with the production hardware, three consecutive software releases have been deployed and commissioned. Also, the first three antennas have been moved to the Array Operations Site, at 5.000 meters elevation, and the complete end-to-end system has been successfully tested. This paper shares the experience of this 15-people group as part of the construction team at the ALMA site, and working together with Computing IPT, on the achievements and problems overcomed during this period. It explores the excellent results of teamwork, and also some of the troubles that such a complex and geographically distributed project can run into. Finally, it approaches the challenges still to come, with the transition to the ALMA operations plan.

  11. ALMA Observations of Lyα Blob 1: Halo Substructure Illuminated from Within

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, J. E.; Narayanan, D.; Matsuda, Y.; Hayes, M.; Mas-Ribas, Ll.; Dijkstra, M.; Steidel, C. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Feldmann, R.; Avison, A.; Agertz, O.; Ao, Y.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bremer, M. N.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, C. M.; Kubo, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, D. J. B.; Spaans, M.; Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Taniguchi, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Verma, A.; Yamada, T.

    2016-11-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850 μm continuum observations of the original Lyα Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z = 3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with a total flux density of S 850 = 1.68 ± 0.06 mJy, corresponding to a star-formation rate of ˜150 M ⊙ yr-1. The submillimeter sources are associated with several faint (m ≈ 27 mag) rest-frame ultraviolet sources identified in Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) clear filter imaging (λ ≈ 5850 Å). One of these companions is spectroscopically confirmed with the Keck Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration to lie within 20 projected kpc and 250 km s-1 of one of the ALMA components. We postulate that some of these STIS sources represent a population of low-mass star-forming satellites surrounding the central submillimeter sources, potentially contributing to their growth and activity through accretion. Using a high-resolution cosmological zoom simulation of a 1013 M ⊙ halo at z = 3, including stellar, dust, and Lyα radiative transfer, we can model the ALMA+STIS observations and demonstrate that Lyα photons escaping from the central submillimeter sources are expected to resonantly scatter in neutral hydrogen, the majority of which is predicted to be associated with halo substructure. We show how this process gives rise to extended Lyα emission with similar surface brightness and morphology to observed giant LABs.

  12. Reflections on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Debabar

    2003-01-01

    The Alma-Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care of 1978-based on the World Health Assembly's resolution of 1977 on Health for All by the Year 2000--was a watershed in the concepts and practices of public health as a scientific discipline; it was endorsed by every country in the world, rich and poor. According to the Declaration, health is a fundamental right, to be guaranteed by the state; people should be the prime movers in shaping their health services, using and enlarging upon the capacities developed in their societies; health services should operate as an integral whole, with promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative components; and any western medical technology used in non-western societies must conform to the cultural, social, economic, and epidemiological conditions of the individual countries. Since Alma-Ata, a syndicate of the rich countries and the ruling elites of the poor countries, aided by the WHO, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and other international institutions, has done much to overturn the Declaration's primary health care initiatives. The WHO's recent attempt to regain some credibility, its Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, ignored the primary health care principles of the Alma-Ata Declaration. A struggle for these principles will have to be part of the larger struggle, by like-minded individuals working in individual countries, for a just world order.

  13. Centralized operations and maintenance planning at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Guniat, Serge; Hernandez, Octavio; Gairing, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA consists of 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. Since the inauguration of the observatory back in March 2013 there has been a continuous effort to establish solid operations processes for effective and efficient management of technical and administrative tasks on site. Here a key aspect had been the centralized maintenance and operations planning: input is collected from science stakeholders, the computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) and from the technical teams spread around the world, then this information is analyzed and consolidated based on the established maintenance strategy, the observatory long-term plan and the short-term priorities definitions. This paper presents the high-level process that has been developed for the planning and scheduling of planned- and unplanned maintenance tasks, and for site operations like the telescope array reconfiguration campaigns. We focus on the centralized planning approach by presenting its genesis, its current implementation for the observatory operations including related planning products, and we explore the necessary next steps in order to fully achieve a comprehensive centralized planning approach for ALMA in steady-state operations.

  14. Spatial Variations of Chemical Abundances in Titan's Atmosphere as Revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Alexander E.; Nixon, Conor; Chanover, Nancy J.; Molter, Edward; Serigano, Joseph; Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, Steven B.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Complex organic molecules in Titan's atmosphere - formed through the dissociation of N2 and CH4 - exhibit latitudinal variations in abundance as observed by Cassini. Chemical species including hydrocarbons - such as CH3CCH - and nitriles - HCN, HC3N, CH3CN, and C2H5CN - may show spatial abundance variations as a result of atmospheric circulation, photochemical production and subsequent destruction throughout Titan's seasonal cycle. Recent calibration images of Titan taken by the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) with beam sizes of ~0.3'' allow for measurements of rotational transition lines of these species in spatially resolved regions of Titan's disk. We present abundance profiles obtained from public ALMA data taken in 2014, as Titan transitioned into northern summer. Abundance profiles in Titan's lower/middle atmosphere were retrieved by modeling high resolution ALMA spectra using the Non-linear Optimal Estimator for MultivariatE Spectral analySIS (NEMESIS) radiative transfer code. These retrievals were performed using spatial temperature profiles obtained by modeling strong CO lines from datasets taken in similar times with comparable resolution. We compare the abundance variations of chemical species to measurements made using Cassini data. Comparisons of chemical species with strong abundance enhancements over the poles will inform our knowledge of chemical lifetimes in Titan's atmosphere, and allow us to observe the important changes in production and circulation of numerous organic molecules which are attributed to Titan's seasons.

  15. Prototype Implementation of Web and Desktop Applications for ALMA Science Verification Data and the Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, S.; Kawasaki, W.; Shirasaki, Y.; Komiya, Y.; Kosugi, G.; Ohishi, M.; Mizumoto, Y.

    2013-10-01

    ALMA is estimated to generate TB scale data during only one observation; astronomers need to identify which part of the data they are really interested in. We have been developing new GUI software for this purpose utilizing the VO interface: ALMA Web Quick Look System (ALMAWebQL) and ALMA Desktop Application (Vissage). The former is written in JavaScript and HTML5 generated from Java code by the Google Web Toolkit, and the latter is in pure Java. An essential point of our approach is how to reduce network traffic: we prepare, in advance, “compressed” FITS files of 2x2x1 (horizontal, vertical, and spectral directions, respectively) binning, 2 x 2 x 2 binning, 4 x 4 x 2 binning data, and so on. These files are hidden from users, and Web QL automatically chooses the proper one for each user operation. Through this work, we find that network traffic in our system is still a bottleneck towards TB scale data distribution. Hence we have to develop alternative data containers for much faster data processing. In this paper, we introduce our data analysis systems, and describe what we learned through the development.

  16. Virtualization in network and servers infrastructure to support dynamic system reconfiguration in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Ovando, Nicolás.; Bartsch, Marcelo; Simmond, Max; Vélez, Gastón; Robles, Manuel; Soto, Rubén.; Ibsen, Jorge; Saldias, Christian

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is the first astronomical project being constructed and operated under industrial approach due to the huge amount of elements involved. In order to achieve the maximum through put during the engineering and scientific commissioning phase, several production lines have been established to work in parallel. This decision required modification in the original system architecture in which all the elements are controlled and operated within a unique Standard Test Environment (STE). The advance in the network industry and together with the maturity of virtualization paradigm allows us to provide a solution which can replicate the STE infrastructure without changing their network address definition. This is only possible with Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) and Virtual LAN (VLAN) concepts. The solution allows dynamic reconfiguration of antennas and other hardware across the production lines with minimum time and zero human intervention in the cabling. We also push the virtualization even further, classical rack mount servers are being replaced and consolidated by blade servers. On top of them virtualized server are centrally administrated with VMWare ESX. Hardware costs and system administration effort will be reduced considerably. This mechanism has been established and operated successfully during the last two years. This experience gave us confident to propose a solution to divide the main operation array into subarrays using the same concept which will introduce huge flexibility and efficiency for ALMA operation and eventually may simplify the complexity of ALMA core observing software since there will be no need to deal with subarrays complexity at software level.

  17. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A.; Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Asayama, S.

    2013-11-01

    The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787-950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO2/Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/kBTC ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/kB for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation.

  18. Organic molecules in protoplanetary disks: new insights and directions with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    The current era of exoplanet detection and characterisation has revealed the ubiquity and diversity of (exo)planetary systems around stars in the solar neighbourhood. Protoplanetary disks around young stars contain the matter - dust, gas, and ice - which will go into forming new (exo)planetary systems. One open question regarding this planet-building material is the degree of chemical complexity inherited and/or attained in the protoplanetary disk prior to planet formation. Is it possible that our chemical origins lie as far back as the molecular cloud from which the sun formed? The superior sensitivity and resolution of ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is allowing us, for the first time, to detect and resolve emission from complex organic molecules (> 5 atoms) in protoplanetary disks around nearby young stars. In this talk, I will review recent exciting detections of chemical complexity in disks with ALMA, and discuss the implications of these observations on our understanding of chemistry (in the gas and solid phase) in the planet- and comet-forming zones. I will also speculate on the potential for ALMA to observe molecules on higher 'rungs' on the 'ladder' of complexity in nearby planet-forming disks, and describe how such detections can provide insight on the importance of interstellar chemistry on our origins.

  19. Status of ALMA offline software in the transition from construction to full operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espada, Daniel; Saito, Masao; Nyman, Lars-Åke; Cortes, Juan; Biggs, Andy; Stoehr, Felix; de Gregorio, Itziar; Leon, Stephane; Kneissl, Ruediger; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Barrios, Emilio; Mathys, Gautier; Wiklind, Thomas; Brogan, Crystal; Lonsdale, Carol; Remijan, Anthony; Vila-Vilaro, Baltasar; Villard, Eric; Lundgren, Andreas; Andreani, Paola M.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Hibbard, John E.

    2014-08-01

    The transition from construction to full operations of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) brings the challenge to have not only software subsystems that are functional and stable but also to develop a system that works flawlessly as a single entity from proposal preparation to the delivery of the final data products to ALMA users. This is especially challenging as the different subsystems have to be constantly updated and improved to accommodate new observing modes and increasing capabilities. We present recent progress and future initiatives in the different offline subsystems that are currently being developed and used in ALMA operations: proposal preparation, submission and observation preparation (Observing Tool and submission server), proposal review process (Ph1M), project tracking (Project Tracker, Life Cycle), observation bookkeeping (Shift Log Tool), calibrator database (Source Catalogue), monitor and control of observations (Operations Monitoring and Control tool), dynamic scheduler, data reduction pipeline, quality assurance and trend analysis (AQUA), archive, as well as additional user support systems such as the Science Portal.

  20. SXDF-UDS-CANDELS-ALMA 1.5 arcmin2 deep survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tamura, Y.; Tadaki, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Ikarashi, S.; Caputi, K. I.; Rujopakarn, W.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Motohara, K.; Umehata, H.; Yabe, K.; Wang, W. H.; Kodama, T.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Hughes, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Ohta, K.; Akiyama, M.; Kawabe, R.; Iono, D.; Nakanishi, K.; Lee, M.; Makiya, R.

    We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105'' × 50'' or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with L IR ~6×1011 L ⊙ (if T dust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4 they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S 1.1mm = 0.84 +/- 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.

  1. Observing the Circumstellar Environment of the Eruptive FUor/EXor Protostar V1647 Ori with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, David; Cieza, Lucas A.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fu Ori (FUor) and EXor objects represent a short-lived stage of protostellar evolution characterized by intense mass accretion events which cause extreme variability in the form of outbursts. While it is well demonstrated that these objects exhibit sudden outbursts (ΔV~2-6), the mechanism causing such variability is not well understood. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the circumstellar environment of these objects are essential to distinguish between different outbursting mechanisms. We present ALMA observations of the FUor/EXor object V1647 Ori as part of an ALMA campaign, which has observed a combined eight FUor and EXor type objects. Deeply embedded in the dark cloud LDN 1630 (L1630), V1647 Ori is one of a few FUor/EXor objects to have been extensively studied at multiple wavelengths before, during and after an outburst. We present preliminary results derived from ALMA 12CO, 13CO, C18O and continuum observations of the circumstellar environment of V1647 Ori. By measuring gas/dust masses and gas kinematics of the circumstellar disk, we investigate the potential mechanisms producing variability in these eruptive protostars during an essential, yet rarely observed, stage of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

  2. The First ALMA Observation of a Solar Plasmoid Ejection from an X-Ray Bright Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, Masumi; Hudson, Hugh S.; White, Stephen M.; Bastian, Timothy S.; Iwai, Kazumasa

    2017-05-01

    Eruptive phenomena such as plasmoid ejections or jets are important features of solar activity and have the potential to improve our understanding of the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Such ejections are often thought to be signatures of the outflows expected in regions of fast magnetic reconnection. The 304 Å EUV line of helium, formed at around 105 K, is found to be a reliable tracer of such phenomena, but the determination of physical parameters from such observations is not straightforward. We have observed a plasmoid ejection from an X-ray bright point simultaneously at millimeter wavelengths with ALMA, at EUV wavelengths with SDO/AIA, and in soft X-rays with Hinode/XRT. This paper reports the physical parameters of the plasmoid obtained by combining the radio, EUV, and X-ray data. As a result, we conclude that the plasmoid can consist either of (approximately) isothermal ˜105 K plasma that is optically thin at 100 GHz, or a ˜104 K core with a hot envelope. The analysis demonstrates the value of the additional temperature and density constraints that ALMA provides, and future science observations with ALMA will be able to match the spatial resolution of space-borne and other high-resolution telescopes.

  3. Primary health care and England: the coming of age of Alma Ata?

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew; Ross, Duncan; Mirzoev, Tolib

    2007-01-01

    The Alma Ata Declaration is now 28 years old. This article uses its framework to assess the changes that have occurred in recent years in the English health system. It summarises the health reform changes that have occurred internationally and those in the English health system in two eras, pre- and post-1997 - when the Labour Party came to power. It concludes that linked forces of managerialism and consumerism have had an impact on the health system which has undergone a number of structural changes in recent years. It suggests that the original Alma Ata focus on equity is being modified by the concept of choice. The tensions between central priorities, often reflected in targets, and local accountability and needs are explored. There appears to be a greater interest in seeking genuine health (rather than solely health care) change, with attendant public health and partnership policies, however the gap between policy and practice still needs to be bridged, and questions as to the appropriate locus and leadership for health promotion activities addressed. However there have been numerous institutional changes which carry the danger of distracting from the purpose of achieving health change, and which continue to raise questions as to the appropriateness of a market model for health. Finally the paper argues that the PHC framework of Alma Ata remains a useful framework for assessing health systems, but needs to be tailored to, and prioritised within, a political dynamic.

  4. ALMA CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF A 30 Myr OLD GASEOUS DEBRIS DISK AROUND HD 21997

    SciTech Connect

    Moór, A.; Ábrahám, P.; Kiss, Cs.; Gabányi, K.; Juhász, A.; Schmalzl, M.; Kóspál, Á.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C.; Henning, Th.; Hughes, A. M.

    2013-11-10

    Circumstellar disks around stars older than 10 Myr are expected to be gas-poor. There are, however, two examples of old (30-40 Myr) debris-like disks containing a detectable amount of cold CO gas. Here we present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Herschel Space Observatory observations of one of these disks, around HD 21997, and study the distribution and origin of the dust and its connection to the gas. Our ALMA continuum images at 886 μm clearly resolve a broad ring of emission within a diameter of ∼4.''5, adding HD 21997 to the dozen debris disks resolved at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. Modeling the morphology of the ALMA image with a radiative transfer code suggests inner and outer radii of ∼55 and ∼150 AU, and a dust mass of 0.09 M {sub ⊕}. Our data and modeling hints at an extended cold outskirt of the ring. Comparison with the morphology of the CO gas in the disk reveals an inner dust-free hole where gas nevertheless can be detected. Based on dust grain lifetimes, we propose that the dust content of this gaseous disk is of secondary origin and is produced by planetesimals. Since the gas component is probably primordial, HD 21997 is one of the first known examples of a hybrid circumstellar disk, a thus-far little studied late phase of circumstellar disk evolution.

  5. SXDF-UDS-CANDELS-ALMA 1.5 arcmin2 deep survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Umehata, Hideki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Lee, Minju; Motohara, Kentaro; Makiya, Ryu; Izumi, Takuma; Ivison, Rob; Ikarashi, Soh; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hayashi, Masao; Iono, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S.; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina; Dunlop, James

    2015-08-01

    We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105″ × 50″ or 1.5 arcmin2 window (achieved by 19 point mosaic) in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6 × 1011 L⊙ (if Tdust = 40 K) or SFR ~100 M⊙ yr-1 up to z~10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detect 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5 > S/N > 4; they may contain spurious detections, though) in the field. We find that these discrete sources are responsible for a faint filamentary emission seen in low-resolution (~30″) heavily confused AzTEC 1.1mm and SPIRE 0.5mm images. One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources is very dark in deep WFC3 and HAWK-I NIR images as well as VLA 1.4 GHz images, demonstrating that deep ALMA imaging can unveil new obscured star-forming galaxy population.

  6. Isotopic Ratios in Nitriles from Submillimeter Spectroscopy Using SMA and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Moreno, Raphael; Vinatier, Sandrine; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Butler, Bryan J.; Moullet, Arielle; Lara, Luisa; Hidayat, Taufiq

    2016-10-01

    We present submillimeter spectroscopic observations of Titan obtained using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in 2011, and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) in 2012, some of which have previously been presented but not fully analyzed (1, 2, 3). The SMA observations were obtained at low spatial resolution, providing disk average spectra, but the ALMA observations provide low resolution mapping of Titan (~0.4"-0.6" when Titan was 0.77" surface diameter). We will present detailed radiative transfer analysis of detected spectral lines to derive isotopic ratios in two nitriles: HCN (D/H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N) and HC3N (15N/14N). The analysis makes use of nearly concurrent CIRS temperature profiles as important constraints for the vertical profiles of these species, allowing high precision measurements of the ratios. Finally, we will highlight current and future ALMA observations that will allow monitoring of non-symmetric molecular species in Titan's upper atmosphere from Earth, beyond the end of the Cassini mission.(1) Gurwell et al (2011) EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, p270. (2) Moreno et al (2014) EPSC 2014 Abstracts, Vol. 9, id. EPSC2014-438. (3) Moreno etal (2014), DPS meeting #46, id.211.19

  7. Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Iwai, K.; Phillips, N. M.; Hills, R. E.; Hirota, A.; Yagoubov, P.; Siringo, G.; Shimojo, M.; Bastian, T. S.; Hales, A. S.; Sawada, T.; Asayama, S.; Sugimoto, M.; Marson, R. G.; Kawasaki, W.; Muller, E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Brajša, R.; Skokić, I.; Bárta, M.; Kim, S.; Remijan, A. J.; de Gregorio, I.; Corder, S. A.; Hudson, H. S.; Loukitcheva, M.; Chen, B.; De Pontieu, B.; Fleishmann, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kobelski, A.; Wedemeyer, S.; Yan, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope has commenced science observations of the Sun starting in late 2016. Since the Sun is much larger than the field of view of individual ALMA dishes, the ALMA interferometer is unable to measure the background level of solar emission when observing the solar disk. The absolute temperature scale is a critical measurement for much of ALMA solar science, including the understanding of energy transfer through the solar atmosphere, the properties of prominences, and the study of shock heating in the chromosphere. In order to provide an absolute temperature scale, ALMA solar observing will take advantage of the remarkable fast-scanning capabilities of the ALMA 12 m dishes to make single-dish maps of the full Sun. This article reports on the results of an extensive commissioning effort to optimize the mapping procedure, and it describes the nature of the resulting data. Amplitude calibration is discussed in detail: a path that uses the two loads in the ALMA calibration system as well as sky measurements is described and applied to commissioning data. Inspection of a large number of single-dish datasets shows significant variation in the resulting temperatures, and based on the temperature distributions, we derive quiet-Sun values at disk center of 7300 K at λ = 3 mm and 5900 K at λ = 1.3 mm. These values have statistical uncertainties of about 100 K, but systematic uncertainties in the temperature scale that may be significantly larger. Example images are presented from two periods with very different levels of solar activity. At a resolution of about 25'', the 1.3 mm wavelength images show temperatures on the disk that vary over about a 2000 K range. Active regions and plages are among the hotter features, while a large sunspot umbra shows up as a depression, and filament channels are relatively cool. Prominences above the solar limb are a common feature of the single-dish images.

  8. The complexity of Orion: an ALMA view. I. Data and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Favre, C.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Bergin, E. A.; Snell, R.; Melnick, G.

    2017-07-01

    Context. We wish to improve our understanding of the Orion central star formation region (Orion-KL) and disentangle its complexity. Aims: We collected data with ALMA during cycle 2 in 16 GHz of total bandwidth spread between 215.1 and 252.0 GHz with a typical sensitivity of 5 mJy/beam (2.3 mJy/beam from 233.4 to 234.4 GHz) and a typical beam size of 1.̋7 × 1.̋0 (average position angle of 89°). We produced a continuum map and studied the emission lines in nine remarkable infrared spots in the region including the hot core and the compact ridge, plus the recently discovered ethylene glycol peak. Methods: We present the data, and report the detection of several species not previously seen in Orion, including n- and i-propyl cyanide (C3H7CN), and the tentative detection of a number of other species including glycolaldehyde (CH2(OH)CHO). The first detections of gGg' ethylene glycol (gGg' (CH2OH)2) and of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in Orion are presented in a companion paper. We also report the possible detection of several vibrationally excited states of cyanoacetylene (HC3N), and of its 13C isotopologues. We were not able to detect the 16O18O line predicted by our detection of O2 with Herschel, due to blending with a nearby line of vibrationally excited ethyl cyanide. We do not confirm the tentative detection of hexatriynyl (C6H) and cyanohexatriyne (HC7N) reported previously, or of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) emission. Results: We report a complex velocity structure only partially revealed before. Components as extreme as -7 and +19 km s-1 are detected inside the hot region. Thanks to different opacities of various velocity components, in some cases we can position these components along the line of sight. We propose that the systematically redshifted and blueshifted wings of several species observed in the northern part of the region are linked to the explosion that occurred 500 yr ago. The compact ridge, noticeably farther south displays extremely narrow lines ( 1 km s

  9. Quiescent Prominences in the Era of ALMA: Simulated Observations Using the 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr; Mackay, Duncan H.; Anzer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence-corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  10. The Alma-Bacon County Story: A Model for Rural America. Committee Print, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session, July 24, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nipp, Robert E.

    Designed to illustrate the revitalization process of a small rural community via use of the Model Cities Program, this case study of Alma-Bacon County, Georgia traces Alma-Bacon's: (1) historical background; (2) community development beginnings; (3) political development; (4) outstanding problems; and (5) development plans and accomplishments…

  11. Effects of cryostat infrared filters on the performance of ALMA band 1 (35-52 GHz) receiver optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Asayama, S.; Tapia, V.; Finger, R.; Monasterio, D.; Reyes, N.

    2016-10-01

    The ALMA telescope is one of the largest on-ground astronomical projects in the world. It will perform astronomical observations in all the atmospheric windows from 35 to 950 GHz when completed. The ALMA band 1 (35-52 GHz) receiver is in an advanced development state and production may start soon. As for other bands, the receiver is enclosed in a cryostat, where electronics are cooled down for minimum noise temperature operation. However, in the case of band 1, components are large in comparison with cryostat dimensions and aperture sizes. This makes that the best receiver optics designs have the corrugated feed horn very close to the cryostat infrared (IR) filters. This paper discusses the effects of the IR filters on the performance of the ALMA band 1 receiver optics.

  12. Thirty years of Alma Ata pledges: is devolution in Pakistan an opportunity for rekindling primary health care?

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Babar T; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Pappas, Gregory

    2007-05-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata Conference presented the manifesto to attain global health for the next century by providing basic health care aimed at the urban and rural poor of the developing world. While the goals of Alma Ata were noble, they were untenable. Today, developing countries face serious issues of equity in health care delivery and fairness in health care management with even a greater need to transform the management systems and practice. Primary health care remains a cornerstone of building the capacity of health systems. Devolution in health sector in Pakistan seems like a chance to re-exert Alma Ata agenda. To achieve the millennium development goals by 2015, revitalization and effective implementation of primary health care will be a vital reform.

  13. The ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S). I. The massive end of the z = 4 main sequence of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, C.; Pannella, M.; Leiton, R.; Elbaz, D.; Wang, T.; Okumura, K.; Labbé, I.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce the ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S), a systematic ALMA survey of all the known galaxies with stellar mass (M∗) larger than 5 × 1010M⊙ at 3.5 ALMA at 890 μm (180 μm rest-frame) with an on-source integration time of 1.3 min per galaxy. We detected 32% of the sample at more than 3σ significance. Using the stacked ALMA and Herschel photometry, we derived an average dust temperature of 40 ± 2 K for the whole sample, and extrapolate the LIR and SFR for all our galaxies based on their ALMA flux. We then used a forward modeling approach to estimate their intrinsic sSFR distribution, deconvolved of measurement errors and selection effects: we find a linear relation between SFR and M∗, with a median sSFR = 2.8 ± 0.8 Gyr and a dispersion around that relation of 0.28 ± 0.13 dex. This latter value is consistent with that measured at lower redshifts, which is proof that the main sequence of star-forming galaxies was already in place at z = 4, at least among massive galaxies. These new constraints on the properties of the main sequence are in good agreement with the latest predictions from numerical simulations, and suggest that the bulk of star formation in galaxies is driven by the same mechanism from z = 4 to the present day, that is, over at least 90% of the cosmic history. We also discuss the consequences of our results on the population of early quiescent galaxies. This paper is part of a series that will employ these new ALMA observations to explore the star formation and dust properties of the massive end of the z = 4 galaxy population.

  14. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND THE YOUNG SOLAR ANALOG HD 107146

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Carpenter, J. M.; Fu, B.; Hughes, A. M.; Corder, S.; Isella, A.

    2015-01-10

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) continuum observations at a wavelength of 1.25 mm of the debris disk surrounding the ∼100 Myr old solar analog HD 107146. The continuum emission extends from about 30 to 150 AU from the central star with a decrease in the surface brightness at intermediate radii. We analyze the ALMA interferometric visibilities using debris disk models with radial profiles for the dust surface density parameterized as (1) a single power law, (2) a single power law with a gap, and (3) a double power law. We find that models with a gap of radial width ∼8 AU at a distance of ∼80 AU from the central star, as well as double power-law models with a dip in the dust surface density at ∼70 AU provide significantly better fits to the ALMA data than single power-law models. We discuss possible scenarios for the origin of the HD 107146 debris disk using models of planetesimal belts in which the formation of Pluto-sized objects trigger disruptive collisions of large bodies, as well as models that consider the interaction of a planetary system with a planetesimal belt and spatial variation of the dust opacity across the disk. If future observations with higher angular resolution and sensitivity confirm the fully depleted gap structure discussed here, a planet with a mass of approximately a few Earth masses in a nearly circular orbit at ∼80 AU from the central star would be a possible explanation for the presence of the gap.

  15. ALMA Resolves the Torus of NGC 1068: Continuum and Molecular Line Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Usero, A.; Krips, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Aalto, S.; Casasola, V.; Hunt, L. K.; Martín, S.; Viti, S.; Colina, L.; Costagliola, F.; Eckart, A.; Fuente, A.; Henkel, C.; Márquez, I.; Neri, R.; Schinnerer, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2016-05-01

    We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 μm continuum emission from the 300 pc sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of ˜4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and, for the first time, image the dust emission, the molecular gas distribution, and the kinematics from a 7-10 pc diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near- and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY torus models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: {M}{{gas}}{{torus}}=(1+/- 0.3)× {10}5 {M}⊙ and R torus = 3.5 ± 0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show strong non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on a surprisingly slow rotation pattern of the disk. By contrast with the nearly edge-on orientation of the H2O megamaser disk, we found evidence suggesting that the molecular torus is less inclined (i = 34°-66°) at larger radii. The lopsided morphology and complex kinematics of the torus could be the signature of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability, long predicted to likely drive the dynamical evolution of active galactic nuclei tori.

  16. Probing turbulent, magnetized star formation with ALMA observations and next-generation AREPO simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley K.; Miquel Girart, Josep; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Cortes, Paulo; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The first polarization data from ALMA have been delivered, and are both expanding and confounding our understanding of the role of magnetic fields in low-mass star formation. Here I will show the highest resolution and highest sensitivity polarization images ever made of a Class 0 protostellar source. These new ALMA observations of the source, known as Ser-emb 8, achieve 140 AU resolution, allowing us to probe polarization -- and thus magnetic field orientation -- in the innermost regions surrounding the protostar. The collapse of strongly magnetized dense gas is predicted to pinch the magnetic field into an hourglass shape that persists down to scales <100 AU. However, in contrast with more than 50 years of theory, the ALMA data definitively rule out an hourglass morphology and instead reveal a chaotic magnetic field that has not been inherited from the field in the interstellar medium surrounding the source. We have simulated the star formation process with cutting-edge, moving-mesh AREPO simulations on scales from a million AU (5 pc) down to 60 AU. We find that only in the case of a very strong magnetic field (~100 microgauss on 5 pc scales) is the field direction preserved from cloud to disk scales. When the field is weak, turbulence in the interstellar gas shapes the field on large scales, and the forming star system re-shapes the field again on small scales, divorcing the field from its history on larger scales. We conclude that this is what has happened in Ser-emb 8. The main distinction from the strong-field star formation model is that in the weak-field case it is turbulence -- not the magnetic field -- that shapes the material that forms the protostar.

  17. The Molecular Gas Properties of M100 as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Catherine; Martin, S.; Zwaan, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Leon, S.; Garcia, D.

    2014-01-01

    M100 is a nearby "grand-design" barred spiral galaxy in the Virgo cluster. It has abundant molecular gas in its centre, long spiral arms dominating its optical disk and has a relatively face-on inclination ( 30 degrees). Due to its proximity 16 Mpc) and relatively face-on inclination, M100 is an ideal target for molecular gas studies, and has been the subject of a number of previous interferometric studies in CO with, for example, the Nobeyama mm-wave Array (Sakamoto et al. 1995, 1999), the IRAM interferometer (Garcia-Burillo et al. 1998), and the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) millimeter interferometer array (Regan et al. 2001, Helfer et al. 2003). Over the last two to three years, the new Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA), located on the Chajnantor plateau in northern Chile, has been carrying out a process of Science Verification (SV) as part of its commissioning, and one of the targets was M100, observed in the CO J=1-0 line (ALMA Band 3). This data, as with other SV data, is publicly available. Here, we compare the molecular gas properties of M100, as traced with the ALMA CO J=1-0 data, at a native spatial resolution of ~200 pc, with HI data taken with the Very Large Array (VLA). We describe the integrated intensity maps and compare them to other data from the literature to investigate the variation of the molecular gas, atomic gas and star formation properties - in particular, presenting a spatially resolved star formation law and gas depletion timescale - as a function of distance along the spiral structure.

  18. The ALMA CONOPS project: the impact of funding decisions on observatory performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Jorge; Hibbard, John; Filippi, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    In time when every penny counts, many organizations are facing the question of how much scientific impact a budget cut can have or, putting it in more general terms, which is the science impact of alternative (less costly) operational modes. In reply to such question posted by the governing bodies, the ALMA project had to develop a methodology (ALMA Concepts for Operations, CONOPS) that attempts to measure the impact that alternative operational scenarios may have on the overall scientific production of the Observatory. Although the analysis and the results are ALMA specific, the developed approach is rather general and provides a methodology for a cost-performance analysis of alternatives before any radical alterations to the operations model are adopted. This paper describes the key aspects of the methodology: a) the definition of the Figures of Merit (FoMs) for the assessment of quantitative science performance impacts as well as qualitative impacts, and presents a methodology using these FoMs to evaluate the cost and impact of the different operational scenarios; b) the definition of a REFERENCE operational baseline; c) the identification of Alternative Scenarios each replacing one or more concepts in the REFERENCE by a different concept that has a lower cost and some level of scientific and/or operational impact; d) the use of a Cost-Performance plane to graphically combine the effects that the alternative scenarios can have in terms of cost reduction and affected performance. Although is a firstorder assessment, we believe this approach is useful for comparing different operational models and to understand the cost performance impact of these choices. This can be used to take decision to meet budget cuts as well as in evaluating possible new emergent opportunities.

  19. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF SPT-DISCOVERED, STRONGLY LENSED, DUSTY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Y. D.; Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Bothwell, M.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Vieira, J. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; De Breuck, C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Brodwin, M.; Chapman, S. C.; and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 860 {mu}m imaging of four high-redshift (z = 2.8-5.7) dusty sources that were detected using the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at 1.4 mm and are not seen in existing radio to far-infrared catalogs. At 1.''5 resolution, the ALMA data reveal multiple images of each submillimeter source, separated by 1''-3'', consistent with strong lensing by intervening galaxies visible in near-IR imaging of these sources. We describe a gravitational lens modeling procedure that operates on the measured visibilities and incorporates self-calibration-like antenna phase corrections as part of the model optimization, which we use to interpret the source structure. Lens models indicate that SPT0346-52, located at z = 5.7, is one of the most luminous and intensely star-forming sources in the universe with a lensing corrected FIR luminosity of 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} and star formation surface density of 4200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. We find magnification factors of 5 to 22, with lens Einstein radii of 1.''1-2.''0 and Einstein enclosed masses of 1.6-7.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. These observations confirm the lensing origin of these objects, allow us to measure their intrinsic sizes and luminosities, and demonstrate the important role that ALMA will play in the interpretation of lensed submillimeter sources.

  20. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign: Observations of Asteroid 3 Juno at 60 Kilometer Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALMA Partnership; Hunter, T. R.; Kneissl, R.; Moullet, A.; Brogan, C. L.; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Asaki, Y.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Liuzzo, E.; Lucas, R.; Marcelino, N.; Matsushita, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Pérez, L. M.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cortes, J. R.; Cortes, P. C.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Hales, A. S.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Marconi, G.; Mignano, A.; Nikolic, B.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Remijan, A.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Di Francesco, J.; Mangum, J.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Morales, F.; Plarre, K.; Randall, S.; van kempen, T.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Andreani, P.; Hibbard, J. E.; Tatematsu, K.

    2015-07-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm continuum images of the asteroid 3 Juno obtained with an angular resolution of 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 042 (60 km at 1.97 AU). The data were obtained over a single 4.4 hr interval, which covers 60% of the 7.2 hr rotation period, approximately centered on local transit. A sequence of 10 consecutive images reveals continuous changes in the asteroid's profile and apparent shape, in good agreement with the sky projection of the three-dimensional model of the Database of Asteroid Models from Inversion Techniques. We measure a geometric mean diameter of 259 ± 4 km, in good agreement with past estimates from a variety of techniques and wavelengths. Due to the viewing angle and inclination of the rotational pole, the southern hemisphere dominates all of the images. The median peak brightness temperature is 215 ± 13 K, while the median over the whole surface is 197 ± 15 K. With the unprecedented resolution of ALMA, we find that the brightness temperature varies across the surface with higher values correlated to the subsolar point and afternoon areas and lower values beyond the evening terminator. The dominance of the subsolar point is accentuated in the final four images, suggesting a reduction in the thermal inertia of the regolith at the corresponding longitudes, which are possibly correlated to the location of the putative large impact crater. These results demonstrate ALMA's potential to resolve thermal emission from the surface of main belt asteroids and to measure accurately their position, geometric shape, rotational period, and soil characteristics. .

  1. Alma-Ata 30 years on: revolutionary, relevant, and time to revitalise.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Joy E; Rohde, Jon; Rifkin, Susan; Were, Miriam; Paul, Vinod K; Chopra, Mickey

    2008-09-13

    In this paper, we revisit the revolutionary principles-equity, social justice, and health for all; community participation; health promotion; appropriate use of resources; and intersectoral action-raised by the 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration, a historic event for health and primary health care. Old health challenges remain and new priorities have emerged (eg, HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases, and mental health), ensuring that the tenets of Alma-Ata remain relevant. We examine 30 years of changes in global policy to identify the lessons learned that are of relevance today, particularly for accelerated scale-up of primary health-care services necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, the modern iteration of the "health for all" goals. Health has moved from under-investment, to single disease focus, and now to increased funding and multiple new initiatives. For primary health care, the debate of the past two decades focused on selective (or vertical) versus comprehensive (horizontal) delivery, but is now shifting towards combining the strengths of both approaches in health systems. Debates of community versus facility-based health care are starting to shift towards building integrated health systems. Achievement of high and equitable coverage of integrated primary health-care services requires consistent political and financial commitment, incremental implementation based on local epidemiology, use of data to direct priorities and assess progress, especially at district level, and effective linkages with communities and non-health sectors. Community participation and intersectoral engagement seem to be the weakest strands in primary health care. Burgeoning task lists for primary health-care workers require long-term human resource planning and better training and supportive supervision. Essential drugs policies have made an important contribution to primary health care, but other appropriate technology lags behind. Revitalisng Alma-Ata and learning from three

  2. Report on the ESO Workshop ''Getting Ready for ALMA Band 5 — Synergy with APEX/SEPIA''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Breuck, C.; Testi, L.; Immer, K.

    2017-03-01

    The workshop provided an overview of the wide range of results from the first two years of science operations with the ALMA Band 5 (163–211 GHz) receiver in the Swedish ESO PI Instrument for APEX (SEPIA) ahead of the ALMA Cycle 5 call for proposals, when the Band 5 receivers will be offered for the first time. The frequency range of the Band 5 receiver has never been fully covered by existing receivers; the talks presented at the workshop illustrate the importance of several lines in this frequency range that provide crucial diagnostics of the interstellar medium.

  3. U.S. and European ALMA Partners Sign Agreement Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, director general of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), today signed a historic agreement jointly to construct and operate ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy," said Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and we will be able to study and understand our Universe in ways that have previously been beyond our vision." ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site Dr. Cesarsky also commented, "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward toward wonderful research projects. With ALMA, we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvelous facility." When complete in 2011, ALMA will be an array of 64, 12-meter radio antennas that will work together as one telescope to study millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength light from space. These wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, which cross the critical boundary between infrared and microwave radiation, hold the key to understanding such processes as planet and star formation, the formation of early galaxies and galaxy

  4. Monitoring the thermal structure and minor species of Venus mesosphere with ALMA submm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccialli, Arianna; Moreno, Raphael; Encrenaz, Therese A.; Fouchet, Thierry; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Moullet, Arielle; Widemann, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Submillimeter observations obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) allowed to monitoring the temporal evolution of temperature, sulfur species and water in the upper atmosphere of Venus. We observed the upper atmosphere of Venus with ALMA on November 14, 15, 26 and 27, 2011 during the first ALMA Early Science observation cycle. These observations targeted CO, SO, HDO and SO2 transitions around 345 GHz during four sequences of 30 minutes each. The disk of Venus was about 11" with an illumination factor of 90%, so that mostly the dayside of the planet was mapped.Thanks to the imaging capabilities of ALMA, we could obtain instantaneous maps of temperature, SO and HDO for the four days of observations. Assuming a nominal dayside CO abundance profile adapted from Clancy et al. 2012, we retrieved vertical temperature profiles between 60-100 km of altitude over the entire disk as a function of latitude and local time for the four days of observation. Temperature profiles were later used to derive the abundances of minor species (SO and HDO) in each pixel of the disk in order to study their spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, we plan to analyze the SO2 disk-averaged spectra to study its temporal variability.Temperature profiles show at all latitudes and local times a similar behavior with a constant decrease of temperature up to an altitude of about 80-100 km, depending on the local time, followed by a constant increase of temperature. Up to about 90 km temperatures increase from the morning side towards the evening terminator, this trend is inverted above 90 km. The thermal structure does not show strong temporal variations from one day to another. An exception is the thermal structure of the November 27: compared to the first day of observation, temperatures change of more than 15 K.SO exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability with a mixing ratio ranging from 0 to 15 ppb. It presents also a clear cutoff around 89 km. HDO is detected

  5. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-297-1609, General Telephone Company of Michigan, Alma, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Lichty, P.D.

    1985-07-01

    A health evaluation of the General Telephone Company of Michigan, Alma, Michigan was conducted in May, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the company to investigate an apparent increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes among toll operators that could be linked to the use of video display terminals (VDT). The author concludes that a statistical excess of miscarriages has occurred among toll operators at the facility. Whether this excess is work related or not cannot be determined. No special reproductive policy is recommended. The ergonomic design of the VDT work stations should be improved.

  6. Don't get taken by surprise: planning for software obsolescence management at the ALMA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Erich; Kosugi, George; Ibsen, Jorge; Griffith, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    ALMA is still a young and evolving observatory with a very active software development group that produces new and updated software components regularly. Yet we are coming to realize that - after well over a decade of development - not only our own software, but also technologies and tools we depend upon, as well as the hardware we interface with, are coming of age. Software obsolescence management is needed, but surprisingly is not something we can just borrow from other observatories, or any other comparable organization. Here we present the challenges, our approaches and some early experiences.

  7. ALMA observations of α Centauri. First detection of main-sequence stars at 3 mm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liseau, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Bayo, A.; Bertone, E.; Black, J. H.; del Burgo, C.; Chavez, M.; Danchi, W.; De la Luz, V.; Eiroa, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M. C. W.; Justtanont, K.; Krivov, A.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Nyman, L.-A.; Olofsson, G.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Thébault, P.; White, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The precise mechanisms that provide the non-radiative energy for heating the chromosphere and the corona of the Sun and those of other stars constitute an active field of research. By studying stellar chromospheres one aims at identifying the relevant physical processes. Defining the permittable extent of the parameter space can also serve as a template for the Sun-as-a-star. This feedback will probably also help identify stars that potentially host planetary systems that are reminiscent of our own. Aims: Earlier observations with Herschel and APEX have revealed the temperature minimum of α Cen, but these were unable to spatially resolve the binary into individual components. With the data reported in this Letter, we aim at remedying this shortcoming. Furthermore, these earlier data were limited to the wavelength region between 100 and 870 μm. In the present context, we intend to extend the spectral mapping (SED) to longer wavelengths, where the contrast between stellar photospheric and chromospheric emission becomes increasingly evident. Methods: The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is particularly suited to point sources, such as unresolved stars. ALMA provides the means to achieve our objectives with both its high sensitivity of the collecting area for the detection of weak signals and the high spatial resolving power of its adaptable interferometer for imaging close multiple stars. Results: This is the first detection of main-sequence stars at a wavelength of 3 mm. Furthermore, the individual components of the binary α Cen AB are clearly detected and spatially well resolved at all ALMA wavelengths. The high signal-to-noise ratios of these data permit accurate determination of their relative flux ratios, i.e., SyB / SyA> = 0.54 ± 0.04 at 440 μm, = 0.46 ± 0.01 at 870 μm, and = 0.47 ± 0.006 at 3.1 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The previously obtained flux ratio of 0.44±0.18, which was based on measurements in the optical and

  8. Gaps, rings, and non-axisymmetric structures in protoplanetary disks. From simulations to ALMA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, M.; Ruge, J. P.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Henning, Th.; Klahr, H.; Wolf, S.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: Recent observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of disks around young stars revealed distinct asymmetries in the dust continuum emission. In this work we wish to study axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric structures that are generated by the magneto-rotational instability in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks. We combine the results of state-of-the-art numerical simulations with post-processing radiative transfer (RT) to generate synthetic maps and predictions for ALMA. Methods: We performed non-ideal global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stratified simulations of the dead-zone outer edge using the FARGO MHD code PLUTO. The stellar and disk parameters were taken from a parameterized disk model applied for fitting high-angular resolution multi-wavelength observations of various circumstellar disks. We considered a stellar mass of M∗ = 0.5 M⊙ and a total disk mass of about 0.085 M∗. The 2D initial temperature and density profiles were calculated consistently from a given surface density profile and Monte Carlo radiative transfer. The 2D Ohmic resistivity profile was calculated using a dust chemistry model. We considered two values for the dust-to-gas mass ratio, 10-2 and 10-4, which resulted in two different levels of magnetic coupling. The initial magnetic field was a vertical net flux field. The radiative transfer simulations were performed with the Monte Carlo-based 3D continuum RT code MC3D. The resulting dust reemission provided the basis for the simulation of observations with ALMA. Results: All models quickly turned into a turbulent state. The fiducial model with a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 10-2 developed a large gap followed by a jump in surface density located at the dead-zone outer edge. The jump in density and pressure was strong enough to stop the radial drift of particles at this location. In addition, we observed the generation of vortices by the Rossby wave instability at the jump location close to 60 AU

  9. The ALMA view of the protostellar system HH212. The wind, the cavity, and the disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Gueth, F.; Podio, L.; Leurini, S.; Bachiller, R.; Gusdorf, A.; Lefloch, B.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; Yvart, W.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Because it is viewed simply edge-on, the HH212 protostellar system is an ideal laboratory for studying the interplay of infall, outflow, and rotation in the earliest stages of low-mass star formation. Aims: We wish to exploit the unmatched combination of high angular resolution, high sensitivity, high-imaging fidelity, and spectral coverage provided by ALMA to shed light on the complex kinematics of the innermost central regions of HH212. Methods: We mapped the inner 10″ (4500 AU) of the HH212 system at ≃0.5″ resolution in several molecular tracers and in the 850 μm dust continuum using the ALMA interferometer in band 7 in the extended configuration of the Early Science Cycle 0 operations. Results: Within a single ALMA spectral set-up, we simultaneously identify all the crucial ingredients known to be involved in the star formation recipe: (i) the fast, collimated bipolar SiO jet driven by the protostar; (ii) the large-scale swept-up CO outflow; (iii) the flattened rotating and infalling envelope, with bipolar cavities carved by the outflow (in C17O(3-2)); and (iv) a rotating wide-angle flow that fills the cavities and surrounds the axial jet (in C34S(7-6)). In addition, the compact high-velocity C17O emission (±1.9-3.5 km s-1 from systemic) shows a velocity gradient along the equatorial plane consistent with a rotating disk of ≃0farcs2 = 90 AU around a ≃0.3 ± 0.1 M⊙ source. The rotating disk is possibly Keplerian. Conclusions: HH212 is the third Class 0 protostar with possible signatures of a Keplerian disk of radius ≥30 AU. The warped geometry in our CS data suggests that this large Keplerian disk might result from misaligned magnetic and rotation axes during the collapse phase. The wide-angle CS flow suggests that disk winds may be present in this source. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFinal reduced ALMA cubes (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp

  10. Dusty Starbursts within a z=3 Large Scale Structure revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehata, Hideki

    The role of the large-scale structure is one of the most important theme in studying galaxy formation and evolution. However, it has been still mystery especially at z>2. On the basis of our ALMA 1.1 mm observations in a z ~ 3 protocluster field, it is suggested that submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) preferentially reside in the densest environment at z ~ 3. Furthermore we find a rich cluster of AGN-host SMGs at the core of the protocluster, combining with Chandra X-ray data. Our results indicate the vigorous star-formation and accelerated super massive black hole (SMBH) growth in the node of the cosmic web.

  11. Evolution of molecular clouds in the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salak, D.; Nakai, N.; Miyamoto, Y.

    2015-05-01

    We present large-field CO(1-0) observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 conducted with ALMA. High-resolution (˜100 pc) images reveal a high concentration of molecular gas in the nucleus, 500-pc ring, gas-rich bar, and spiral arms. We derived the bar pattern speed and found an offset between CO and Hα emission peaks in the offset ridges along the bar. The results indicate that the evolution of molecular clouds on the galactic scale is driven by bar dynamics.

  12. The European ALMA production antennas: extended applications of CFRP materials for high scientific performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeyre, P.; Rampini, F.; Pozzobon, M.; Suita, M.; Damiano, O.; Apers, M.

    2008-07-01

    The new astronomical instruments require high-performance structures. Technological innovation and new materials are needed for a structure such as the ALMA radio-telescope in order to guarantee the specifications. The use of Carbon Fibre is highly important. The choice of CFRP helps to control the stiffness of the structure and the thermal behavior of the pieces, but a deep qualification of the material and process is fundamental. Technologies like hand lay-up vacuum bag, compression moulding, and filament winding, identify the ideal solutions for big objects, like Main Reflector Structure, Receiver Cabin, Quadripod Legs and small subassemblies like adjusters system etc.

  13. Alma Ata and health for all by the year 2000. The roles of academic institutions.

    PubMed

    Bryant, J H; Zuberi, R W; Thaver, I H

    1991-06-01

    The title of this article raises a complex set of questions. To begin, what happened at Alma Ata and the goal that emanated from it-Health for All by the Year 2000--are themselves controversial matters. At least there are some who are strongly critical of those events and ideas. Even without linking academic institutions with Alma Ata and HFA/2000, a controversy is spawned when one asks about the roles of such institutions in dealing with societal problems--which problems should a university address, and how deeply does a university become engaged in them, particularly if it carries the university out of the cloister into the trenches of societal conflict? Linking academic institutions with Alma Ata and HFA/2000 deepens the controversy but also provides a framework for examining the basic principles on which each is based, and for testing those principles against the realities of real world problems of health development. This article draws on recent critical assessments of both sides of the equation: a recent Consultative Committee to the Director General of WHO that analyzes the successes and failures of PHC development to date, and lays out conditions for greater effectiveness in the future; and the Technical Discussions of WHO on the Roles of Universities in the Strategy for Health for All that review traditional and progressive arguments about the roles of universities in their societies, and how HFA can be seen as fitting into that debate. The thinking contained in these documents provides ample opportunity to examine whether or not academic institutions should have a role that relates to Alma Ata and Health for All, and, in the end, takes the position that, indeed, this is an appropriate role for those universities prepared to make the commitment. The point is also made that such involvement cannot be effective if the scale of the institutional commitment is marginal--it must be substantial and institution-wide. An example is given of the Aga Khan University

  14. ALMA view of the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Kenta; Tsuboi, Masato; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud (50MC) with ALMA to search for filamentary structures. In the CS J=2-1 emission line channel maps, we succeeded in identifying 27 molecular cloud filaments using the DisPerSE algorithm. This is the first attempt of filament-finding in the Galactic Center Region. These molecular cloud filaments strongly suggest that the molecular cloud filaments are also ubiquitous in the molecular clouds of the Galactic Center Region.

  15. [Can strategy for primary health care be revitalized 30 years after Alma-Ata?].

    PubMed

    Lund, Stine; Probst, Helene Bilsted; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-12-06

    Thirty years ago the Alma-Ata declaration on primary health care was developed. Implementation has been compounded by inadequate financing, changing disease patterns and immature health systems, and there is an ongoing discussion between selective and comprehensive primary health care supporters. Globally, child mortality for under-five-year-olds has been reduced by 50%, but there are still large regional differences. This year the WHO development report is about revitalisation of the primary health care strategy. Recognition of this strategy may be the best instrument to improve health globally.

  16. [Alma Ata 30 years on. Evolution and perspectives of primary health care].

    PubMed

    Maciocco, G

    2008-01-01

    The Alma Ata Declaration (September 1978) was a turning point in the definition of "Primary Health Care". The traditional bio-medical model was based on a paternalistic approach and on the treatment of the individual episodes of disease. The new bio-psycho-social model was based on prevention, continuity of care, integrated health care teams and on a direct role of patients in managing their health. Thirty years on, this approach is still relevant. Actually, it is the only adequate one to answer effectively to the current challenges: epidemiological changes (increasing prevalence of chronic diseases), social changes (increased social inequalities in health), cultural changes (increased patients demand for information and autonomy).

  17. Cross-polarization in quasi-optical receivers: ALMA band 4 and 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.

    2012-09-01

    A careful study about the influence of individual optical components on receiver cross-polarization has been performed. The basic mechanisms of generation of cross-polarization in ellipsoidal mirrors and dielectrics have been reviewed and characterized in terms of higher-order Gaussian beam modes. A simple model considering the phase differences of different Gaussian beam modes is proposed in order to calculate the final system cross-polarization pattern. This model has been successfully used to characterize the total cross-polarization in two cryogenically-cooled receivers for astronomy: ALMA band 4 and band 10.

  18. The VLA/ALMA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John

    2017-06-01

    We present highlights and initial results from the VANDAM II: Orion survey where we have observed 330 protostars (Class 0 and I) with ALMA at 850 micron, and we observed a subset with the VLA at 9 mm (100 Class 0, 48 Class I) all at 30 AU resolution. This survey has greater sensitivity to extended disks than the VANDAM-Perseus survey because of the shorter wavelength (850 micron) and has 4x more sources to substantially improve the multiplicity statistics. The results demonstrate the power and utility of unbiased protostar surveys in the characterization of disk formation and multiplicity.

  19. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  20. Europe, Japan and North America Prepare for Joint Construction of the Giant Radio Telescope "ALMA" in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Caption : PR Photo 14/01 shows how the ALMA facility may look like when it is ready at Chajnantor. Courtesy NAOJ . Representatives from Europe, Japan, and North America met in Tokyo today and signed a Resolution affirming their mutual intent to construct and operate a giant radio telescope in co-operation with the Republic of Chile, where the telescope will be located. The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is conceived as a radio telescope comprised of sixty-four transportable 12-meter diameter antennas distributed over an area 14 km in extent. Japanese participation will allow enhanced imaging and spectroscopy, especially at submillimeter wavelengths. By pointing all the antennas in unison toward a single astronomical object, and combining the signals detected by all the antennas with a super-fast digital signal processor, this gigantic radio telescope achieves an imaging detail 10 times better than that of the Hubble Space Telescope. The combined area of all 64 antennas used to collect signals from celestial objects is more than 40 times larger than that available to astronomers using existing submillimeter telescopes. ALMA will be built on the Andean plateau at 5,000 meters altitude near the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. This site provides the exceptionally dry atmospheric conditions necessary for astronomical observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths (wavelengths between the radio and far-infrared spectral regions). Observations with this telescope will have a profound impact on virtually all fields of astrophysical research. The most important targets include the most distant (i.e., the youngest) galaxies as they emerged in the early Universe. These are expected to have become rapidly enshrouded in the dust produced by the first stars; the dust absorbs much of the starlight making the galaxies difficult to see in the optical wavebands, but these same galaxies shine brightly at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. In

  1. MILLIMETER EMISSION STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST ALMA IMAGE OF THE AU Mic DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Matthews, Brenda; Booth, Mark; Hughes, A. Meredith; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2013-01-10

    We present 1.3 mm ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, {approx}10 Myr old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0.''6 (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU and (2) a newly recognized central peak that remains unresolved. The cold dust belt of mass {approx}1 M{sub Moon} is resolved in the radial direction with a rising emission profile that peaks sharply at the location of the outer edge of the 'birth ring' of planetesimals hypothesized to explain the midplane scattered light gradients. No significant asymmetries are discerned in the structure or position of this dust belt. The central peak identified in the ALMA image is {approx}6 times brighter than the stellar photosphere, which indicates an additional emission process in the inner regions of the system. Emission from a stellar corona or activity may contribute, but the observations show no signs of temporal variations characteristic of radio-wave flares. We suggest that this central component may be dominated by dust emission from an inner planetesimal belt of mass {approx}0.01 M{sub Moon}, consistent with a lack of emission shortward of 25 {mu}m and a location {approx}<3 AU from the star. Future millimeter observations can test this assertion, as an inner dust belt should be readily separated from the central star at higher angular resolution.

  2. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  3. RESOLVED IMAGES OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HD 100546 WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meru, Farzana; Meyer, Michael R.; Avenhaus, Henning; Mulders, Gijs D.; Panić, Olja

    2014-06-20

    The disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 100546 has been extensively studied and it is one of the systems for which there are observational indications of ongoing and/or recent planet formation. However, up until now, no resolved image of the millimeter dust emission or the gas has been published. We present the first resolved images of the disk around HD 100546 obtained in Band 7 with the ALMA observatory. The CO (3-2) image reveals a gas disk that extends out to 350 au radius at the 3σ level. Surprisingly, the 870 μm dust continuum emission is compact (radius <60 au) and asymmetric. The dust emission is well matched by a truncated disk with an outer radius of ≈50 au. The lack of millimeter-sized particles outside 60 au is consistent with radial drift of particles of this size. The protoplanet candidate, identified in previous high-contrast NACO/VLT L' observations, could be related to the sharp outer edge of the millimeter-sized particles. Future higher angular resolution ALMA observations are needed to determine the detailed properties of the millimeter emission and the gas kinematics in the inner region (<2''). Such observations could also reveal the presence of a planet through the detection of circumplanetary disk material.

  4. Development of the control system for the 40m OAN radiotelescope with the Alma Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vicente, P.; Bolaño, R.; Barbas, L.

    2006-07-01

    The Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) is building a 40m radiotelescope in its facilities in Yebes (Spain) which will be delivered in summer 2006. The radiotelescope is an instrument composed of antenna, receivers, backends, and auxiliary equipment connected through a Local Area Network (LAN). The control system has to deal with a distributed environment which needs to be remotely controlled and monitored from external heterogeneous users (astronomers and engineers) and requires multiple processes simultaneously working and being synchronized. We have chosen the Alma Common Software (ACS) framework for the development of the control system. ACS provides an implementation of the component/container paradigm via Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and also provides general purpose utility libraries, hiding the complexity of CORBA to the developer. ACS is supported by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Radioastronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) with a lifetime similar to our radiotelescope. This is an important guarantee for the OAN with a very reduced software team. We present an overview of the planned software architecture of the radiotelescope and the current status of the development of the components.

  5. The End of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: An ALMA Survey of Upper Scorpius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the mass of solids in circumstellar disks is a key factor in determining how planets form. Infrared observations have established that the dust in primordial disks vanishes around the majority of stars by an age of 5-10 Myr. However, how this disappearance proceeds is poorly constrained. Only with longer wavelength observations, where the dust emission is optically thin, is it possible to measure disk dust mass and how it varies as a function of age. To this end, we have obtained ALMA 0.88 mm observations of over 100 sources with suspected circumstellar disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association (Upper Sco). The 5-11 Myr age of Upper Sco suggests that any such disks will be quite evolved, making this association an ideal target to compare to systems of younger disks in order to study evolution. With ALMA, we achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over previous (sub)millimeter surveys of Upper Sco and detect 58 disks in the continuum. We calculate the total dust masses of these disks and compare their masses to those of younger disks in Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon. We find strong evidence for a decline in disk dust mass between these 1-3 Myr old systems and the 5-11 Myr old Upper Sco. Our results represent the first definitive measurement of a decline in disk dust mass with age.

  6. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and its Complementarity to ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, Dave

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a pre-Formulation Phase study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. In each of these science domains, SPIRIT will yield information complementary to that obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and all three observatories could operate contemporaneously. Here we shall emphasize the SPIRIT science goals (1) and (2) and the mission's complementarity with ALMA.

  7. The Northern arc of ɛ Eridani's Debris Ring as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Mark; Dent, William R. F.; Jordán, Andrés; Lestrade, Jean-François; Hales, Antonio S.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Casassus, Simon; Ertel, Steve; Greaves, Jane S.; Kennedy, Grant M.; Matrà, Luca; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Villard, Eric

    2017-08-01

    We present the first Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the closest known extrasolar debris disc. This disc orbits the star ε Eri, a K-type star just 3.2 pc away. Due to the proximity of the star, the entire disc cannot fit within the ALMA field of view. Therefore, the observations have been centred 18″ North of the star, providing us with a clear detection of the Northern arc of the ring, at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. The observed disc emission is found to be narrow with a width of just 11-13 AU. The fractional disc width we find is comparable to that of the Solar system's Kuiper Belt and makes this one of the narrowest debris discs known. If the inner and outer edges are due to resonances with a planet then this planet likely has a semi-major axis of 48 AU. We find tentative evidence for clumps in the ring, although there is a strong chance that at least one is a background galaxy. We confirm, at much higher significance, the previous detection of an unresolved emission at the star that is above the level of the photosphere and attribute this excess to stellar chromospheric emission.

  8. An ALMA Spectral Scan of the Obscured Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 4418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, F.; Sakamoto, K.; Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Martín, S.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, the study of the molecular interstellar medium of galaxies has been mostly focused on a few, relatively abundant, molecular species. Recent attempts at modeling the molecular emission of active galaxies have shown that standard high-density tracers do not provide univocal results and are not able to discriminate between different relevant environments (e.g., star-formation vs AGN). Spectral lines surveys allow us to explore the richness of the molecular spectrum of galaxies, provide tighter constrains to astrochemical models, and find new more sensitive tracers of specific gas properties. What started as a time-consuming pioneering work has become now routinely accessible with the advent of ALMA. Here we report the results of the first ALMA spectral scan of an obscured luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG), NGC 4418. The galaxy has a very compact IR core and narrow emission lines that make it the perfect target for the study of vibrationally excited molecules. More than 300 emission lines from 45 molecular species were identified and modeled via an LTE and NLTE analysis. The molecular excitation and abundances derived offer a unique insight into the chemistry of obscured LIRGs.

  9. An ALMA Search for Substructure, Fragmentation, and Hidden Protostars in Starless Cores in Chamaeleon I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Tobin, John J.; Arce, Héctor G.; Chen, Xuepeng; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Lee, Katherine I.; Myers, Philip C.; Price, Daniel; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Schnee, Scott

    2016-06-01

    We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 106 GHz (Band 3) continuum survey of the complete population of dense cores in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. We detect a total of 24 continuum sources in 19 different target fields. All previously known Class 0 and Class I protostars in Chamaeleon I are detected, whereas all of the 56 starless cores in our sample are undetected. We show that the Spitzer+Herschel census of protostars in Chamaeleon I is complete, with the rate at which protostellar cores have been misclassified as starless cores calculated as <1/56, or <2%. We use synthetic observations to show that starless cores collapsing following the turbulent fragmentation scenario are detectable by our ALMA observations when their central densities exceed ˜108 cm-3, with the exact density dependent on the viewing geometry. Bonnor-Ebert spheres, on the other hand, remain undetected to central densities at least as high as 1010 cm-3. Our starless core non-detections are used to infer that either the star-formation rate is declining in Chamaeleon I and most of the starless cores are not collapsing, matching the findings of previous studies, or that the evolution of starless cores are more accurately described by models that develop less substructure than predicted by the turbulent fragmentation scenario, such as Bonnor-Ebert spheres. We outline future work necessary to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  10. ON THE NATURE OF THE TERTIARY COMPANION TO FW TAU: ALMA CO OBSERVATIONS AND SED MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, Claudio; Hardy, Adam; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Cánovas, Héctor; Cieza, Lucas A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Hales, Antonio; Ménard, Francois

    2015-06-20

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FW Tau system. We present here ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak {sup 12}CO (2–1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with either a brown dwarf embedded in an edge-on disk or a planet embedded in a low inclination disk, which is externally irradiated by the binary companion. Further observations with ALMA, aiming for high SNR detections of non-contaminated gas lines, are required to conclusively unveil the nature of the third object in FW Tau.

  11. Results of reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in parts of the Alma district, Park County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles Thomas; Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1953-01-01

    Pitchblende was discovered in July 1951 in the Alma mining district, Park County, Colo., by the U. S. Geological Survey acting on behalf of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. The pitchblende is associated with Tertiary veins of three different geologic environments: (1) veins in pre-Cambrian rocks, (2) the London vein system in the footwall block of the London fault, and (3) veins in a mineralized area east of the Cooper Gulch fault. Pitchblende is probably not associated with silver-lead replacement deposits in dolomite. Secondary uranium minerals, as yet undetermined, are associated with pitchblende on two London vein system mine dumps and occur in oxidized vein material from dumps of mines in the other environments. Although none of the known occurrences is of commercial importance, the Alma district is considered a moderately favorable area in which to prospect for uranium ore because 24 of the 43 localities examined show anomalous radioactivity; samples from anomalously radioactive localities, which include mine dumps and some underground workings, have uranium contents ranging from 0.001 to 1.66 percent.

  12. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Jazeel H.; Hwang, C.-Y.; Abidin, Zamri Z.; Ibrahim, Zainol A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1–0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the 12CO(J = 1–0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt–Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. PMID:27247251

  13. Remote detection and mapping of organic molecules in Titan's atmosphere using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, Martin; Nixon, Conor A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Palmer, Maureen; Mumma, Michael J.; Molter, Edward; Teanby, Nicholas; Irwin, Patrick GJ; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Serigano, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn, with a thick (1.45 bar) atmosphere composed primarily of molecular nitrogen and methane. Atmospheric photochemistry results in the production of a wide range of complex organic molecules, including hydrocarbons, nitriles, aromatics and species of possible pre-biotic relevance. Studies of Titan's atmospheric chemistry thus provide a unique opportunity to explore the origin and evolution of complex organic matter in a primitive (terrestrial) planetary atmosphere. Underpinned by laboratory measurements, remote and in-situ observations of hydrocarbons, nitriles and oxygen-bearing species provide important new insights in this regard. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a powerful new facility, well suited to the study of molecular emission from Titan's upper and middle-atmosphere. This presentation will focus on results from our ongoing studies of Titan using ALMA during the period 2012-2014, including detection and mapping of rotational emission lines from molecules including HNC, CO, HC3N, CH3CN, C2H3CN and C2H5CN, as well minor isotopologues. Possible chemical formation pathways for these species will be discussed, and the the scope for improved understanding of non-aqueous organic chemistry through laboratory experiments and atmospheric/liquid-phase simulations under Titan-like conditions will be examined.

  14. ALMA observations of a misaligned binary protoplanetary disk system in Orion

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jonathan P.; Mann, Rita K.; Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda; Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca; Hughes, A. Meredith; Bally, John

    2014-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO{sup +} 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. The line-to-continuum ratios are similar for the two disks in each of the lines. From the resolved velocity gradients across each disk, we constrain the masses of the central stars, and show consistency with optical-infrared spectroscopy, both indicative of a high mass ratio ∼9. The small difference between the systemic velocities indicates that the binary orbital plane is close to face-on. The angle between the projected disk rotation axes is very high, ∼72°, showing that the system did not form from a single massive disk or a rigidly rotating cloud core. This finding, which adds to related evidence from disk geometries in other systems, protostellar outflows, stellar rotation, and similar recent ALMA results, demonstrates that turbulence or dynamical interactions act on small scales well below that of molecular cores during the early stages of star formation.

  15. Millimeter Emission Structure in the First ALMA Image of the AU Mic Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Matthews, Brenda; Hughes, A. Meredith; Booth, Mark; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    We present 1.3 mm ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, ~10 Myr old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0.''6 (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU and (2) a newly recognized central peak that remains unresolved. The cold dust belt of mass ~1 M Moon is resolved in the radial direction with a rising emission profile that peaks sharply at the location of the outer edge of the "birth ring" of planetesimals hypothesized to explain the midplane scattered light gradients. No significant asymmetries are discerned in the structure or position of this dust belt. The central peak identified in the ALMA image is ~6 times brighter than the stellar photosphere, which indicates an additional emission process in the inner regions of the system. Emission from a stellar corona or activity may contribute, but the observations show no signs of temporal variations characteristic of radio-wave flares. We suggest that this central component may be dominated by dust emission from an inner planetesimal belt of mass ~0.01 M Moon, consistent with a lack of emission shortward of 25 μm and a location lsim3 AU from the star. Future millimeter observations can test this assertion, as an inner dust belt should be readily separated from the central star at higher angular resolution.

  16. The New ALMA Prototype 12 M Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziurys, Lucy M.; Folkers, Thomas W.; Emerson, Nicholas J.; Freund, Robert; Lauria, Eugene F.; Forbes, David; Reiland, George P.; McColl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) recently acquired the European 12 m prototype antenna of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project from the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The antenna was located at the Very Large Array (VLA) site near Socorro, New Mexico. In November 2013, the 97 ton antenna was transported to Kitt Peak, Arizona in two major parts: the 40 ft. reflector and the base/receiver cabin. The antenna, which replaced the former NRAO 12 m telescope, was reassembled in the dome at Kitt Peak. Recommissioning began in January 2014, and scientific observations commenced in early 2015. The instrument is now fully operational with a measured surface accuracy of 53 microns, rms, and a pointing accuracy of 2 arc seconds. Further antenna improvements are in progress. The new 12 m currently supports a dual polarization, 3 mm receiver (84-116 GHz) with ALMA Band 3 sideband-separating mixers. A multiband receiver also covering the 4 mm (67 - 90 GHz), 2 mm (130-180 GHz) and 1 mm (210-280 GHz) regions with dual polarization, sideband-separating mixers is currently under construction. A new digital backend, the ARO Wideband Spectrometer (AROWS: 4 x 4 GHz total bandwidth ), is also in the development stage.

  17. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Charmandaris, Vassilis; van der Werf, Paul; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Cao, Chen

    2017-08-01

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ˜34 pc) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6-5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6-5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ˜10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa-α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ˜ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ˜34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s-1 (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. Herschel And Alma Observations Of The Ism In Massive High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, John F.; Aguirre, Paula; Baker, Andrew J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Hilton, Matt; Hughes, John P.; Infante, Leopoldo; Lindner, Robert R.; Sifón, Cristóbal

    2017-06-01

    The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) can be used to select samples of galaxy clusters that are essentially mass-limited out to arbitrarily high redshifts. I will present results from an investigation of the star formation properties of galaxies in four massive clusters, extending to z 1, which were selected on the basis of their SZE decrements in the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) survey. All four clusters have been imaged with Herschel/PACS (tracing star formation rate) and two with ALMA (tracing dust and cold gas mass); newly discovered ALMA CO(4-3) and [CI] line detections expand an already large sample of spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. Star formation rate appears to anti-correlate with environmental density, but this trend vanishes after controlling for stellar mass. Elevated star formation and higher CO excitation are seen in "El Gordo," a violent cluster merger, relative to a virialized cluster at a similar high (z 1) redshift. Also exploiting ATCA 2.1 GHz observations to identify radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) in our sample, I will use these data to develop a coherent picture of how environment influences galaxies' ISM properties and evolution in the most massive clusters at early cosmic times.

  19. Alma Observations of Massive Molecular Gas Filaments Encasing Radio Bubbles in the Phoenix Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, H. R.; McDonald, M.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Bayliss, M. B.; Benson, B. A.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Edge, A. C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Marrone, D. P.; Reichardt, C. L.; Vieira, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from the 2.1+/- 0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fueling a vigorous starburst at a rate of 500{--}800 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and powerful black hole activity in the forms of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each 10{--}20 {kpc} long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered molecular gas flows around each bubble, which are inconsistent with gravitational free-fall. The molecular clouds have been lifted directly by the radio bubbles, or formed via thermal instabilities induced in low-entropy gas lifted in the updraft of the bubbles. These new data provide compelling evidence for close coupling between the radio bubbles and the cold gas, which is essential to explain the self-regulation of feedback. The very feedback mechanism that heats hot atmospheres and suppresses star formation may also paradoxically stimulate production of the cold gas required to sustain feedback in massive galaxies.

  20. ALMA Observations of the Archetypal “Hot Core” That Is Not: Orion-KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco-Aguilera, M. T.; Zapata, Luis A.; Hirota, Tomoya; Qin, Sheng-Li; Masqué, Josep M.

    2017-09-01

    We present sensitive high angular resolution (∼0.″1–0.″3) continuum Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the archetypal hot core located in the Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL) region. The observations were made in five different spectral bands (bands 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9) covering a very broad range of frequencies (149–658 GHz). Apart from the well-known millimeter emitting objects located in this region (Orion Source I and BN), we report the first submillimeter detection of three compact continuum sources (ALMA1–3) in the vicinities of the Orion-KL hot molecular core. These three continuum objects have spectral indices between 1.47 and 1.56, and brightness temperatures between 100 and 200 K at 658 GHz, suggesting that we are seeing moderate, optically thick dust emission with possible grain growth. However, as these objects are not associated with warm molecular gas, and some of them are farther out from the molecular core, we thus conclude that they cannot heat the molecular core. This result favors the hypothesis that the hot molecular core in Orion-KL core is heated externally.

  1. Uncovering the Protostars in Serpens South with ALMA: Continuum Sources and Their Outflow Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunkett, Adele; Arce, H.; Corder, S.; Dunham, M.

    2017-06-01

    Serpens South is an appealing protostellar cluster to study due the combination of several factors: (1) a high protostar fraction that shows evidence for very recent and ongoing star formation; (2) iconic clustered star formation along a filamentary structure; (3) its relative proximity within a few hundred parsecs. An effective study requires the sensitivity, angular and spectral resolution, and mapping capabilities recently provided with ALMA. Here we present a multi-faceted data set acquired from Cycles 1 through 3 with ALMA, including maps of continuum sources and molecular outflows throughout the region, as well as a more focused kinematical study of the protostar that is the strongest continuum source at the cluster center. Together these data span spatial scales over several orders of magnitude, allowing us to investigate the outflow-driving sources and the impact of the outflows on the cluster environment. Currently, we focus on the census of protostars in the cluster center, numbering about 20, including low-flux, low-mass sources never before detected in mm-wavelengths and evidence for multiplicity that was previously unresolved.

  2. ALMA and VLA observations of the outflows in IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Chandler, Claire J.; Brogan, Crystal L.; Wilner, David J.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Parise, Bérengère; Hartmann, Lee W.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso

    2013-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the molecular and ionized gas at 0.1-0.3 arcsec resolution in the Class 0 protostellar system IRAS 16293-2422. These data clarify the origins of the protostellar outflows from the deeply embedded sources in this complex region. Source A2 is confirmed to be at the origin of the well-known large-scale north-east-south-west flow. The most recent VLA observations reveal a new ejection from that protostar, demonstrating that it drives an episodic jet. The central compact part of the other known large-scale flow in the system, oriented roughly east-west, is well delineated by the CO(6-5) emission imaged with ALMA and is confirmed to be driven from within component A. Finally, a one-sided blueshifted bubble-like outflow structure is detected here for the first time from source B to the north-west of the system. Its very short dynamical time-scale (˜200 yr), low velocity and moderate collimation support the idea that source B is the youngest object in the system, and possibly one of the youngest protostars known.

  3. SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin2 deep survey: 1.1-mm number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kohno, Kotaro; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J.; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ich; Tamura, Yoichi; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S.

    2016-06-01

    We report 1.1-mm number counts revealed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF). The advent of ALMA enables us to reveal millimeter-wavelength number counts down to the faint end without source confusion. However, previous studies are based on the ensemble of serendipitously detected sources in fields originally targeting different sources and could be biased due to the clustering of sources around the targets. We derive number counts in the flux range of 0.2-2 mJy by using 23 (≥4σ) sources detected in a continuous 2.0-arcmin2 area of the SXDF. The number counts are consistent with previous results within errors, suggesting that the counts derived from serendipitously detected sources are not significantly biased, although there could be field-to-field variation due to the small survey area. By using the best-fitting function of the number counts, we find that ˜40% of the extragalactic background light at 1.1 mm is resolved at S1.1mm > 0.2 mJy.

  4. ALMA Science Verification Data: Millimeter Continuum Polarimetry of the Bright Radio Quasar 3C 286

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Paladino, R.; Hull, C. L. H.; Cortes, P.; Moellenbrock, G.; Fomalont, E.; Asada, K.; Hada, K.

    2016-06-01

    We present full-polarization observations of the compact, steep-spectrum radio quasar 3C 286 made with the Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 1.3 mm. These are the first full-polarization ALMA observations, which were obtained in the framework of Science Verification. A bright core and a south-west component are detected in the total intensity image, similar to previous centimeter images. Polarized emission is also detected toward both components. The fractional polarization of the core is about 17%; this is higher than the fractional polarization at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the magnetic field is even more ordered in the millimeter radio core than it is further downstream in the jet. The observed polarization position angle (or electric vector position angle (EVPA)) in the core is ˜39◦, which confirms the trend that the EVPA slowly increases from centimeter to millimeter wavelengths. With the aid of multi-frequency VLBI observations, we argue that this EVPA change is associated with the frequency-dependent core position. We also report a serendipitous detection of a sub-mJy source in the field of view, which is likely to be a submillimeter galaxy.

  5. ALMA resolves extended star formation in high-z AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Stanley, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Daddi, E.; Mullaney, J. R.; Pannella, M.; Rosario, D. J.; Smail, Ian

    2016-03-01

    We present high-resolution (0.3 arcsec) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm imaging of five z ≈ 1.5-4.5 X-ray detected AGN (with luminosities of L2-8keV > 1042 erg s-1). These data provide a ≳20 times improvement in spatial resolution over single-dish rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) measurements. The sub-millimetre emission is extended on scales of FWHM ≈ 0.2 arcsec-0.5 arcsec, corresponding to physical sizes of 1-3 kpc (median value of 1.8 kpc). These sizes are comparable to the majority of z=1-5 sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) with equivalent ALMA measurements. In combination with spectral energy distribution analyses, we attribute this rest-frame FIR emission to dust heated by star formation. The implied star-formation rate surface densities are ≈20-200 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, which are consistent with SMGs of comparable FIR luminosities (i.e. LIR ≈ [1-5] × 1012 L⊙). Although limited by a small sample of AGN, which all have high-FIR luminosities, our study suggests that the kpc-scale spatial distribution and surface density of star formation in high-redshift star-forming galaxies is the same irrespective of the presence of X-ray detected AGN.

  6. Gas Cavities inside Dust Cavities in Disks Inferred from ALMA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Nienke; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Bruderer, Simon; Pinilla, Paola; van Kempen, Tim; Perez, Laura; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks with cavities in their dust distribution, also named transitional disks, are expected to be in the middle of active evolution and possibly planet formation. In recent years, millimeter-dust rings observed by ALMA have been suggested to have their origin in dust traps, caused by pressure bumps. One of the ways to generate these is by the presence of planets, which lower the gas density along their orbit and create pressure bumps at the edge. We present spatially resolved ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 observations of CO and CO isotopologues of several famous transitional disks. Gas is found to be present inside the dust cavities, but at a reduced level compared with the gas surface density profile of the outer disk. The dust and gas emission are quantified using the physical-chemical modeling code DALI. In the majority of these disks we find clear evidence for a drop in gas density of at least a factor of 10 inside the cavity, whereas the dust density drops by at least a factor 1000. The CO isotopologue observations reveal that the gas cavities are significantly smaller than the dust cavities. These gas structures suggest clearing by one or more planetary-mass companions.

  7. ALMA Reveals a Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A new ALMA observation of the cool core brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597 reveals that a supermassive black hole can act much like a mechanical pump in a water fountain, driving a convective flow of molecular gas that drains into the black hole accretion reservoir, only to be pushed outward again in a jet-driven outflow that then rains back toward the galaxy center from which it came. The ALMA data reveal "shadows" cast by giant molecular clouds falling on ballistic trajectories towards the black hole in the innermost 500 parsecs of the galaxy, manifesting as deep redshifted continuum absorption features. The black hole accretion reservoir, fueled by these infalling cold clouds, powers an AGN that drives a jet-driven molecular outflow in the form of a 10 kpc-scale, billion solar mass expanding molecular bubble or plume. The molecular shell is permeated with young stars, perhaps triggered in situ by the jet. Buoyant X-ray cavities excavated by the propagating radio source may further uplift the molecular filaments, which are observed to fall inward toward the center of the galaxy from which they came, presumably keeping the fountain long-lived. The results show that cold molecular gas can couple to black hole growth via both feedback and feeding, in alignment with "cold chaotic accretion" models for the regulation of star formation in galaxies.

  8. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FROM SOURCE I IN THE ORION-KL REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Menten, Karl M.; Curiel, Salvador

    2012-07-20

    In this Letter, we present sensitive millimeter SiO (J = 5-4; {nu} = 0) line observations of the outflow arising from the enigmatic object Orion Source I made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The observations reveal that at scales of a few thousand AU, the outflow has a marked 'butterfly' morphology along a northeast-southwest axis. However, contrary to what is found in the SiO and H{sub 2}O maser observations at scales of tens of AU, the blueshifted radial velocities of the moving gas are found to the northwest, while the redshifted velocities are in the southeast. The ALMA observations are complemented with SiO (J = 8-7; {nu} = 0) maps (with a similar spatial resolution) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. These observations also show a similar morphology and velocity structure in this outflow. We discuss some possibilities to explain these differences at small and large scales across the flow.

  9. Results of the new metrology system of the European ALMA antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampini, F.; Marchiori, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) consists of a large number of 12m-diameter antennas that will operate up to 950GHz. To guarantee the scientific requirement in terms of pointing stability and residual delay, a dynamic and thermal Metrology System has to be integrated in the antenna. As a matter of fact, the antennas have to work at full performances in free air, in the night and in the day. Consequently, the performances are affected by all the nonrepeatable error sources, such as temperature variations and wind, blowing from different directions. The antenna is a very light and stiff structure, the elevation structure is in carbon fibre with also a very low thermal expansion coefficient, but in order to meet the ALMA specifications, thermal and dynamic corrections have to be applied. The Thermal Metrology is composed by a number of thermal sensors distributed on the antenna that compensate the elevation axis deformation due to temperature variations. The dynamic Metrology is based on two high-accuracy inclinometers with a very short recovery time, opportunely placed on the main structure. This report shows the results of the tests performed on the AEM antennas with both systems. The good performance of the systems, allowing the antenna to meet the specification during all observation condition and mode, is thus evident.

  10. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-06-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  11. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro; Ando, Ryo; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H13CO+ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH3OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the synergy with sensitive mid-infrared spectroscopy, which will be implemented by JWST and SPICA to disentangle the complex nature of heavily obscured galaxies across the cosmic time.

  12. Scientific and technological Challenges in the development of astronomical instrumentation: E-ELT & ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado, David; Gallego, Jesús

    2009-12-01

    The answers to the present astrophysical questions require the development of highly sophisticated instrumentation, which needs long-term scheduling and large assets of human and material resources, managed by consortia of several institutions. Spain has carried in the last years serious efforts in this direction (GTC, ESO, ESA), but there is still a notable offset between astronomical research at the theoretical and observational levels and the development of instrumentation. Now, the incorporation of new countries to ESO (in particular Spain) to ESO and several future big projects (ALMA, E-ELT, Cosmic Vision), raise the level of exigency. The goal of this workshop is to gather the scientific teams and the industries of the sector to expose their needs and projects, and share experiences. The workshop is aimed as well at serving as an echo to convince financing agencies and the astronomical community in general of the need to promote with decision the development of astrophysical instrumentation and the tools for the analysis of related data. The formation and acknowledgement of instrumentation astronomers will be a key factor for Spain to meet the requirements of its position in Astronomy in the next decades. Here, we present the contributions most closely related to the development of E-ELT, ALMA and ESA missions.

  13. New Measurements of the Radio Photosphere of Mira Based on Data from the JVLA and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, L. D.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present new measurements of the millimeter wavelength continuum emission from the long period variable Mira (o Ceti) at frequencies of 46, 96, and 229 GHz (λ ≈ 7, 3, and 1 mm) based on observations obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The measured millimeter flux densities are consistent with a radio photosphere model derived from previous observations, where flux density {S}ν \\propto {ν }1.86. The stellar disk is resolved, and the measurements indicate a decrease in the size of the radio photosphere at higher frequencies, as expected if the opacity decreases at shorter wavelengths. The shape of the radio photosphere is found to be slightly elongated, with a flattening of ˜10%-20%. The data also reveal evidence for brightness non-uniformities on the surface of Mira at radio wavelengths. Mira’s hot companion, Mira B was detected at all three observed wavelengths, and we measure a radius for its radio-emitting surface of ≈ 2.0× {10}13 cm. The data presented here highlight the power of the JVLA and ALMA for the study of the atmospheres of evolved stars.

  14. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira (o Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. T.; Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High angular resolution (sub)millimetre observations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, now possible with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), allow direct imaging of these objects' photospheres. The physical properties of the molecular material around these regions, which until now has only been studied by imaging of maser emission and spatially unresolved absorption spectroscopy, can be probed with radiative transfer modelling and compared to hydrodynamical model predictions. The prototypical Mira variable, o Cet (Mira), was observed as a Science Verification target in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, offering the first opportunity to study these physical conditions in detail. Aims: With the longest baseline of 15 km, ALMA produces clearly resolved images of the continuum and molecular line emission/absorption at an angular resolution of ~30 mas at 220 GHz. Models are constructed for Mira's extended atmosphere to investigate the physics and molecular abundances therein. Methods: We imaged the data of 28SiO ν= 0, 2J = 5-4 and H2O v2 = 1JKa,Kc = 55,0-64,3 transitions and extracted spectra from various lines of sight towards Mira's extended atmosphere. In the course of imaging the emission/absorption, we encountered ambiguities in the resulting images and spectra that appear to be related to the performance of the CLEAN algorithm when applied to a combination of extended emission, and compact emission and absorption. We addressed these issues by a series of tests and simulations. We derived the gas density, kinetic temperature, molecular abundance, and outflow/infall velocities in Mira's extended atmosphere by modelling the SiO and H2O lines. Results: We resolve Mira's millimetre continuum emission and our data are consistent with a radio photosphere with a brightness temperature of 2611 ± 51 K. In agreement with recent results obtained with the Very Large Array, we do not confirm the existence of a compact region (<5 mas) of

  15. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Coutens, A.; Lykke, J. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Calcutt, H.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Garrod, R. T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims: The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods: An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293-2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5'' (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s-1, and a sensitivity of 4-5 mJy beam-1 km s-1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results: More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s-1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or

  16. Not letting the perfect be the enemy of the good: steps toward science-ready ALMA images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Brogan, Crystal; Moullet, Arielle; Hibbard, John; Indebetouw, Remy; Mason, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Historically, radio observatories have placed the onus of calibrating and imaging data on the observer, thus restricting their user base to those already initiated into the mysteries of radio data or those willing to develop these skills. To expand its user base, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has a high- level directive to calibrate users' data and, ultimately, to deliver scientifically usable images or cubes to principle investigators (PIs). Although an ALMA calibration pipeline is in place, all delivered images continue to be produced for the PI by hand. In this talk, I will describe on-going efforts at the Northern American ALMA Science Center to produce more uniform imaging products that more closely meet the PI science goals and provide better archival value. As a first step, the NAASC imaging group produced a simple imaging template designed to help scientific staff produce uniform imaging products. This script allowed the NAASC to maximize the productivity of data analysts with relatively little guidance by the scientific staff by providing a step-by-step guide to best practices for ALMA imaging. Finally, I will describe the role of the manually produced images in verifying the imaging pipeline and the on-going development of said pipeline. The development of the imaging template, while technically simple, shows how small steps toward unifying processes and sharing knowledge can lead to large gains for science data products.

  17. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA Resolves the Bright-end of the Sub-millimeter Number Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Geach, J. E.; Ivison, R. J.; Thomson, A. P.; Aretxaga, I.; Blain, A. W.; Cowley, W. I.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dunlop, J. S.; Edge, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Meijerink, R.; Michałowski, M. J.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2015-07-01

    We present high-resolution 870 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1 degree2 850 μm maps from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median {S}{SCUBA-2} = 8.7 ± 0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4σ significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In {61}-15+19% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of ≥2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with {L}{IR} ≳ 1012 {\\text{}}{L}⊙ . The brightest SMG contributes on average {80}-2+6% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing ≥2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes {25}-5+1% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S870 > 7.5 mJy, and by 60% at S870 > 12 mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the counts are well-described by a double power law with a break at 8.5 ± 0.6 mJy. The break corresponds to a luminosity of ˜6 × 1012 {\\text{}}{L}⊙ or a star formation rate (SFR) of ˜103 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. For the typical sizes of these SMGs, which are resolved in our ALMA data with {R}{{e}} = 1.2 ± 0.1 kpc, this yields a limiting SFR density of ˜100 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 Finally, the number density of S870 ≳ 2 mJy SMGs is 80 ± 30 times higher than that derived from blank-field counts. An over-abundance of faint SMGs is inconsistent with line-of-sight projections dominating multiplicity in the brightest SMGs, and indicates that a significant proportion of these high-redshift ULIRGs are likely to be physically associated.

  18. Formation, Detection and the Distribution of Complex Organic Molecules with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remijan, Anthony John

    2015-08-01

    The formation and distribution of complex organic material in astronomical environments continues to be a focused research area in astrochemistry. For several decades now, emphasis has been placed on the millimeter/submillimeter regime of the radio spectrum for trying to detect new molecular species and to constrain the chemical formation route of complex molecules by comparing and contrasting their relative distributions towards varying astronomical environments. This effort has been extremely laborious as millimeter/submillimeter facilities have been only able to detect and map the distribution of the strongest transition(s) of the simplest organic molecules. Even then, these single transition "chemical maps" have been very low spatial resolution because early millimeter/submillimeter facilities did not have access to broadband spectral coverage or the imaging capabilities to truly ascertain the morphology of the molecular emission. In the era of ALMA, these limitations have been greatly lifted. Broadband spectral line surveys now hold the key to uncovering the full molecular complexity in astronomical environments. In addition, searches for complex organic material is no longer limited to investigating the strongest lines of the simplest molecules toward the strongest sources of emission in the Galaxy. ALMA is issuing a new era of exploration as the search for complex molecules will now be available to an increased suite of sources in the Galaxy and our understanding of the formation of this complex material will be greatly increased as a result. This presentation will highlight the current and future ALMA capabilities in the search for complex molecules towards astronomical environments, highlight the recent searches that ALMA scientists have conducted from the start of ALMA Early Science and provide the motivation for the next suite of astronomical searches to investigate our pre-biotic origins in the universe.

  19. The ALMA high speed optical communication link is here: an essential component for reliable present and future operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, S.; Liello, F.; Ovando, N.; Astudillo, A.; Parra, J.; Saldias, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Announced in 2012, started in 2013 and completed in 2015, the ALMA high bandwidth communication system has become a key factor to achieve the operational and scientific goals of ALMA. This paper summarizes the technical, organizational, and operational goals of the ALMA Optical Link Project, focused in the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Operations Support Facility and Array Operations Site, both located in the Atacama Desert in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence of REUNA in Antofagasta, about 400km away, and from there to the Santiago Central Office in the Chilean capital through the optical infrastructure created by the EC-funded EVALSO project and now an integral part of the REUNA backbone. This new infrastructure completed in 2014 and now operated on behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, uses state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. The paper also reports on the results obtained during the first year and a half testing and operation period, where different operational set ups have been experienced for data transfer, remote collaboration, etc. Finally, the authors will present a forward look of the impact of it to both the future scientific development of the Chajnantor Plateau, where many installations area are (and will be) located, as well as the potential Chilean scientific backbone long term development.

  20. Closing the Loop for ALMA - Three antennas working in unison open new bright year for revolutionary observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has passed a key milestone crucial for the high quality images that will be the trademark of this revolutionary new tool for astronomy. Astronomers and engineers have, for the first time, successfully linked three of the observatory's antennas at the 5000-metre elevation observing site in northern Chile. Having three antennas observing in unison paves the way for precise images of the cool Universe at unprecedented resolution, by providing the missing link to correct errors that arise when only two antennas are used. On 20 November 2009 the third antenna for the ALMA observatory was successfully installed at the Array Operations Site, the observatory's "high site" on the Chajnantor plateau, at an altitude of 5000 metres in the Chilean Andes. Later, after a series of technical tests, astronomers and engineers observed the first signals from an astronomical source making use of all three 12-metre diameter antennas linked together, and are now working around the clock to establish the stability and readiness of the system. "The first signal using just two ALMA antennas, observed in October, can be compared to a baby's first babblings," says Leonardo Testi, the European Project Scientist for ALMA at ESO. "Observing with a third antenna represents the moment when the baby says its very first, meaningful word - not yet a full sentence, but overwhelmingly exciting! The linking of three antennas is indeed the first actual step towards our goal of achieving precise and sharp images at submillimetre wavelengths." The successful linking of the antenna trio was a key test of the full electronic and software system now being installed at ALMA, and its success anticipates the future capabilities of the observatory. When complete, ALMA will have at least 66 high-tech antennas operating together as an "interferometer", working as a single, huge telescope probing the sky in the millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths of light

  1. ALMA reveals the feeding of the Seyfert 1 nucleus in NGC 1566

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.; García-Burillo, S.; Casasola, V.; Hunt, L. K.; Krips, M.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Eckart, A.; Marquez, I.; Neri, R.; Schinnerer, E.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2014-05-01

    We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1566, at a spatial resolution of 25 pc. Our aim is to investigate the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc, and to probe nuclear fueling and feedback phenomena. NGC 1566 has a nuclear bar of 1.7 kpc radius and a conspicuous grand design spiral starting from this radius. The ALMA field of view, of diameter 0.9 kpc, lies well inside the nuclear bar and reveals a molecular trailing spiral structure from 50 to 300 pc in size, which is contributing to fuel the nucleus, according to its negative gravity torques. The spiral starts with a large pitch angle from the center and then winds up in a pseudo-ring at the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) of the nuclear bar. This is the first time that a trailing spiral structure is clearly seen driving the gas inwards inside the ILR ring of the nuclear bar. This phenomenon shows that the massive central black hole has a significant dynamical influence on the gas, triggering its fueling. The gaseous spiral is well correlated with the dusty spiral seen through extinction in HST images, and also with a spiral feature emitting 0.87 mm continuum. This continuum emission must come essentially from cold dust heated by the interstellar radiation field. The HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines were simultaneously mapped and detected in the nuclear spiral. The HCO+(4-3) line is 3 times stronger than the HCN(4-3), as expected when star formation excitation dominates over active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. The CO(3-2)/HCO+(4-3) integrated intensity ratio is ~100. The molecular gas is in remarkably regular rotation, with only slight non-circular motions at the periphery of the nuclear spiral arms. These perturbations are quite small, and no outflow nor AGN feedback is detected. Based on observations carried out with ALMA in cycle 0.

  2. ALMA observations of gas and dust in the coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M.; Remijan, A.; Milam, S.; Mumma, M.; Charnley, S.; Paganini, L.; Boissier, J.; Villanueva, G.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Kuan, Y.; Lis, D.; Crovisier, J.; Coulson, I.; Minniti, D.

    2014-07-01

    Ground-based studies of cometary comae provide indirect information on the compositions of the nuclear ices, and thus provide insight into the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar nebula. To realize the full potential of gas-phase coma observations as probes of solar-system evolution requires a complete understanding of the gas-release mechanisms. However, previous observations have been unable to ascertain the precise origins of fundamental coma species including H_2CO, HCN, and HNC, and details regarding the possible formation of these species in the coma are not well understood. Here, we present spatially and spectrally-resolved ALMA sub-mm images of the distributions of HCN, HNC, CH_3OH, H_2CO, and dust in the coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), observed during the outburst event on November 15-17 (at r_H = 0.54-0.61 au and Δ = 0.9 au). Our observations reveal an unprecedented level of detail in the distributions of these fundamental coma constituents, and permit accurate measurement of their origins in the coma. Observations were made using ALMA Band 7 in Cycle 1 (Early Science) mode in the frequency range 339-364 GHz, with 25-29 12-m antennae. Weather conditions were excellent, with good atmospheric phase stability and low precipitable water vapor (0.5-0.8 mm at zenith). The spatial resolution was 0.4-0.8'' (with maximum recoverable angular scales approx. 5-10''), and the spectral resolution was 0.4 km s^{-1}. The ALMA image cubes show kinematically and spatially-resolved structures in HCN, HNC, CH_3OH, and H_2CO emission. Whereas the CH_3OH and HCN distributions are consistent with release from (or within 100 km of) the nucleus, the H_2CO data indicate coma release from a parent species with scale-length on the order of a few hundred km. The HNC distribution suggests release in clumpy, collimated outflows possibly as a result of the breakdown of a macromolecular/dust precursor. Clear 0.9-mm continuum emission was detected, showing a sharp central

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA observations of GKM stars in Upper Sco (Barenfeld+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenfeld, S. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Ricci, L.; Isella, A.

    2016-11-01

    ALMA observations were obtained in Cycle 0 and Cycle 2 using the 12m array. Twenty sources were observed in Cycle 0 between 2012 August and 2012 December. Eighty-seven sources were observed in 2014 June and 2014 July. All observations used band 7 with the correlator configured to record dual polarization. Spectral windows for Cycle 2 were centered at 334.2, 336.1, 346.2, and 348.1GHz for a mean frequency of 341.1GHz (0.88mm). The bandwidth of each window is 1.875GHz. Cycle 0 observations used between 17 and 28 antennas with maximum baselines of ~400m, for an angular resolution of ~0.55". Cycle 2 observations used between 34 and 36 antennas with baselines extending out to 650m, corresponding to an angular resolution of 0.34". (3 data files).

  4. Dense Cloud Cores revealed by ALMA CO observations in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, M.; Elmegreen, B.; Hunter, D.; Cortes, J.; Brinks, E.; Cigan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations, they are molecular with H2 the dominant species and CO the best available. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared to hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it cannot accumulate inside dense clouds. Then we lose our ability to trace the gas in regions of star formation and we lose critical information on the temperatures, densities, and velocities of the material that collapses. I will report on high resolution observations with ALMA of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy WLM, which has a metallicity that is 13% of the solar value and 50% lower than the previous CO detection threshold and the properties derived of very small dense CO clouds mapped..

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA survey of Lupus protoplanetary disks. I. (Ansdell+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-11-01

    Our ALMA Cycle 2 observations (Project ID: 2013.1.00220.S) were obtained on 2015 June 14 (AGK-type sources and unknown spectral types) and 2015 June 15 (M-type sources). The continuum spectral windows were centered on 328.3, 340.0, and 341.8GHz with bandwidths of 1.875, 0.938, and 1.875 GHz and channel widths of 15.625, 0.244, and 0.977MHz, respectively. The bandwidth-weighted mean continuum frequency was 335.8GHz (890um). The spectral setup included two windows covering the 13CO and C18O 3-2 transitions; these spectral windows were centered on 330.6 and 329.3GHz, respectively, with bandwidths of 58.594MHz, channel widths of 0.122MHz, and velocity resolutions of 0.11km/s. (3 data files).

  6. VLT/SPHERE- and ALMA-based shape reconstruction of asteroid (3) Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikinkoski, M.; Kaasalainen, M.; Ďurech, J.; Carry, B.; Marsset, M.; Fusco, T.; Dumas, C.; Merline, W. J.; Yang, B.; Berthier, J.; Kervella, P.; Vernazza, P.

    2015-09-01

    We use the recently released Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and VLT/SPHERE science verification data, together with earlier adaptive-optics images, stellar occultation, and lightcurve data to model the 3D shape and spin of the large asteroid (3) Juno with the all-data asteroid modelling (ADAM) procedure. These data set limits on the plausible range of shape models, yielding reconstructions suggesting that, despite its large size, Juno has sizable unrounded features moulded by non-gravitational processes such as impacts. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (prog. ID: 60.A-9379, 086.C-0785), and at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  7. CONSTRAINING THE PLANETARY SYSTEM OF FOMALHAUT USING HIGH-RESOLUTION ALMA OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Payne, M. J.; Ford, E. B.; Shabram, M.; Corder, S.; Dent, W. R. F.

    2012-05-01

    The dynamical evolution of planetary systems leaves observable signatures in debris disks. Optical images trace micron-sized grains, which are strongly affected by stellar radiation and need not coincide with their parent body population. Observations of millimeter-sized grains accurately trace parent bodies, but previous images lack the resolution and sensitivity needed to characterize the ring's morphology. Here we present ALMA 350 GHz observations of the Fomalhaut debris ring. These observations demonstrate that the parent body population is 13-19 AU wide with a sharp inner and outer boundary. We discuss three possible origins for the ring and suggest that debris confined by shepherd planets is the most consistent with the ring's morphology.

  8. ALMA Observation of Neptune's Spatially-resolved Stratospheric HCN ( J = 4-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Satoru; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yuki; Hirahara, Yasuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Neptune's stratospheric HCN(J = 4 - 3) rotational transition was observed by Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA). 19 12-m antennas with the Band-7 receivers spatially resolved Neptune's 2.3'' diameter disk with 0.4'' times 0.6'' synthesized beam. The HCN emission line was clearly detected on the entire disk. The wind velocity map of the stratosphere was illustrated by the Doppler-shift analysis of the HCN emission, and the structured zonal wind whose maximum velocity reaches as high as 600 m/s in the high latitude region of the southern hemisphere was detected. Respective the westward and eastward zonal winds were observed for the northern and southern hemisphere.

  9. Origin and Kinematics of the Eruptive Flow from XZ Tau Revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Curiel, Salvador; Palau, Aina; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Tafoya, Daniel; Loinard, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    We present high angular resolution (˜0.″94) 12CO(1-0) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations obtained during the 2014 long baseline campaign from the eruptive bipolar flow from the multiple XZ Tau stellar system discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These observations reveal, for the first time, the kinematics of the molecular flow. The kinematics of the different ejections close to XZ Tau reveal a rotating and expanding structure with a southeast-northwest velocity gradient. The youngest eruptive bubbles unveiled in the optical HST images are inside of this molecular expanding structure. Additionally, we report a very compact and collimated bipolar outflow emanating from XZ Tau A, which indicates that the eruptive outflow is indeed originating from this object. The mass (3 × 10-7 M⊙) and energetics (Ekin = 3 × 1037 erg) for the collimated outflow are comparable to those found in molecular outflows associated with young brown dwarfs.

  10. A detailed view of the gas shell around R Sculptoris with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maercker, M.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Brunner, M.; De Beck, E.; Humphreys, E. M.; Kerschbaum, F.; Lindqvist, M.; Olofsson, H.; Ramstedt, S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. During the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase, stars undergo thermal pulses - short-lived phases of explosive helium burning in a shell around the stellar core. Thermal pulses lead to the formation and mixing-up of new elements to the stellar surface. They are hence fundamental to the chemical evolution of the star and its circumstellar envelope. A further consequence of thermal pulses is the formation of detached shells of gas and dust around the star, several of which have been observed around carbon-rich AGB stars. Aims: We aim to determine the physical properties of the detached gas shell around R Sculptoris, in particular the shell mass and temperature, and to constrain the evolution of the mass-loss rate during and after a thermal pulse. Methods: We analyse 12CO(1-0), 12CO(2-1), and 12CO(3-2) emission, observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during Cycle 0 and complemented by single-dish observations. The spatial resolution of the ALMA data allows us to separate the detached shell emission from the extended emission inside the shell. We perform radiative transfer modelling of both components to determine the shell properties and the post-pulse mass-loss properties. Results: The ALMA data show a gas shell with a radius of 19.̋5 expanding at 14.3 km s-1. The different scales probed by the ALMA Cycle 0 array show that the shell must be entirely filled with gas, contrary to the idea of a detached shell. The comparison to single-dish spectra and radiative transfer modelling confirms this. We derive a shell mass of 4.5 × 10-3 M⊙ with a temperature of 50 K. Typical timescales for thermal pulses imply a pulse mass-loss rate of 2.3 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1. For the post-pulse mass-loss rate, we find evidence for a gradual decline of the mass-loss rate, with an average value of 1.6 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1. The total amount of mass lost since the last thermal pulse is 0.03 M⊙, a factor four higher compared to classical models, with a

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: An ALMA survey of ECDFS submillimeter galaxies (Simpson+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, I.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Bertoldi, F.; De Breuck, C.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; da Cunha, E.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Hodge, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Poggianti, B. M.; Schinnerer, E.; Thomson, A. P.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; Weiss, A.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2017-07-01

    In this study we undertake a multi-wavelength analysis of the ALMA-detected submm galaxies from the catalog presented by Hodge et al. (2013, J/ApJ/768/91) (see also Karim et al. 2013MNRAS.432....2K). To briefly summarize the observations, we obtained 120 s integrations of 122 of the original 126 LESS submm sources, initially identified using the LABOCA camera on the APEX telescope (Weiss et al. 2009, J/ApJ/707/1201). These Cycle 0 observations used the compact configuration, yielding a median synthesized beam of ~1.6"x1.2". The observing frequency was matched to the original LESS survey, 344 GHz (Band 7), and we reach a typical rms across our velocity-integrated maps of 0.4 mJy/beam. (3 data files).

  12. Healthcare for the poor and dispossessed: from Alma-Ata to the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, S R

    2011-07-01

    Healthcare models which recognize the equity principle have had to confront the challenge of providing healthcare for the poor and dispossessed. Healthcare premised on "human rights" strives to remove/ reduce barriers to access by a complete waiver of all fees in the public sector or various other subsidies to make healthcare more affordable. Social welfare programmes are held hostage to the vagaries of the economy and resource scarcity. The Alma-Ata's primary healthcare is inherently a health development strategy which embraces a wholistic approach to health and wellness. This strategy, by refocussing on the Millennium Development Goals, can therefore accommodate the innovations required to overcome the challenges posed by technological, financial, cultural and geographical factors to provide a better quality of life for all, but moreso for the poor and dispossessed.

  13. ALMA band 2+3 (67-116 GHz) optics: Design and first measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Tapia, V.; Reyes, N.; Mena, F. P.; Nesti, R.; Villa, F.; Cuttaia, F.; de Rosa, A.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Morbidini, A.; Yagoubov, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The ALMA telescope is one of the largest on-ground astronomical projects in the world. It has been producing great scientific results since the beginning of operations in 2011. Of all the originally planned bands, band 2 (67-90 GHz) is the last band to be implemented into the array. Recent technological progress has open the possibility to combine bands 2 and 3 (84-116 GHz) into a single wideband receiver. This paper describes the first efforts to design wideband optics which cover both bands, from 67 to 116 GHz, using a profiled corrugated horn and a modified Fresnel lens. First measurements were performed at ESO in Dec15-Jan16 and showed good agreement with simulations.

  14. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE MOLECULAR OUTFLOW G331.512-0.103

    SciTech Connect

    Merello, Manuel; Bronfman, Leonardo; Garay, Guido; Lo, Nadia; Evans, Neal J. II; Nyman, Lars-Ake; Cortes, Juan R.; Cunningham, Maria R.

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. Observations with ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz; 0.86 mm) reveal a very compact, extremely young bipolar outflow and a more symmetric outflowing shocked shell surrounding a very small region of ionized gas. The velocities of the bipolar outflow are about 70 km s{sup -1} on either side of the systemic velocity. The expansion velocity of the shocked shell is {approx}24 km s{sup -1}, implying a crossing time of about 2000 yr. Along the symmetry axis of the outflow, there is a velocity feature, which could be a molecular ''bullet'' of high-velocity dense material. The source is one of the youngest examples of massive molecular outflow found associated with a high-mass star.

  15. An ALMA Dynamical Mass Estimate of the Proposed Planetary-mass Companion FW Tau C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Sheehan, Patrick D.

    2017-09-01

    Dynamical mass estimates down to the planet-mass regime can help to understand planet formation. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm observations of FW Tau C, a proposed ∼10 M Jup planet-mass companion at ∼330 au from the host binary FW Tau AB. We spatially and spectrally resolve the accretion disk of FW Tau C in 12CO (2–1). By modeling the Keplerian rotation of gas, we derive a dynamical mass of ∼0.1 M ⊙. Therefore, FW Tau C is unlikely a planet, but rather a low-mass star with a highly inclined disk. This also suggests that FW Tau is a triple system consisting of three ∼0.1 M ⊙ stars.

  16. ALMA Observations of Powerful AGN Jets & the Continuing Mystery of Multi-component Jet Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Breiding, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Over the past several decades, advances in telescope capabilities have enabled the sub-arcsecond-scale studies of resolved jets from Active Galaxies in the radio, optical, and X-rays. The launch of the Chandra X-ray observatory in particular led to the discovery of anomalously X-ray bright quasar jets, which were initially attributed to Inverse Compton upscattering of the CMB (the IC/CMB model). Over the past few years this model has been called into serious question as it has been ruled out in a number of individual cases based on inferred jet speeds, polarization observations, and missing gamma-ray emission, leading to some preference for an alternative, possibly synchrotron, origin for the X-ray component. Against the backdroup of this continuing mystery over the nature of the X-rays, I will discuss extremely surprising discoveries made with ALMA which suggest that our understanding of the emission from AGN jets is far from settled.

  17. Poster 8: ALMA observations of Titan : Vertical and spatial distributions of nitriles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Raphael; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Vinatier, Sandrine; Gurwell, Mark; Moullet, Arielle; Lara, Luisa; Hidayat, Taufiq

    2016-06-01

    We report submm observations of Titan performed with the ALMA interferometer centered at the rotational frequencies of HCN(4-3) and HNC(4-3), i.e. 354 and 362 GHz. These measurements yielded disk-resolved emission spectra of Titan with an angular resolution of ˜0.47". Titan's angular surface diameter was 0.77". Data were acquired in summer 2012 near the greatest eastern and western elongations of Titan at a spectral resolution of 122 kHz (λ/dλ = 3106). We will present radiative transfer analysis of the acquired spectra. With the combination of all the detected rotational lines, we will constrain the atmospheric temperature, the spatial and vertical distribution HCN, HC3N, CH3CN, HNC, C2H5CN, as well as isotopic ratios.

  18. ALMA IMAGING OF THE CO (6-5) LINE EMISSION IN NGC 7130

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Appleton, Philip; Murphy, Eric; Gao, Yu; Barcos-Munõz, Loreto; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee; Van der Werf, Paul; Evans, Aaron; Cao, Chen; Inami, Hanae

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report our high-resolution (0.″20 × 0.″14 or ∼70 × 49 pc) observations of the CO(6-5) line emission, which probes warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum in the nuclear region of NGC 7130, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO line and dust continuum fluxes detected in our ALMA observations are 1230 ± 74 Jy km s{sup −1} and 814 ± 52 mJy, respectively, which account for 100% and 51% of their total fluxes. We find that the CO(6-5) and dust emissions are generally spatially correlated, but their brightest peaks show an offset of ∼70 pc, suggesting that the gas and dust emissions may start decoupling at this physical scale. The brightest peak of the CO(6-5) emission does not spatially correspond to the radio continuum peak, which is likely dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). This, together with our additional quantitative analysis, suggests that the heating contribution of the AGN to the CO(6-5) emission in NGC 7130 is negligible. The CO(6-5) and the extinction-corrected Pa-α maps display striking differences, suggestive of either a breakdown of the correlation between warm dense gas and star formation at linear scales of <100 pc or a large uncertainty in our extinction correction to the observed Pa-α image. Over a larger scale of ∼2.1 kpc, the double-lobed structure found in the CO(6-5) emission agrees well with the dust lanes in the optical/near-infrared images.

  19. Exploring Io's Atmosphere Chemistry With APEX And ALMA (sub)millimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moullet, Arielle; Lellouch, E.; Gurwell, M.; Moreno, R.; Butler, B.; Black, J.

    2012-10-01

    The Galilean volcanic moon Io holds a tenuous atmosphere (1-10 nbar pressure), originating primarily from the eruption of volcanic plumes, and that feeds the plasma torus in orbit around Jupiter. It is the only known SO2-dominated atmosphere, where only a handful of other species (SO, NaCl, S2) have been detected. Detailed modeling of volcanic plumes thermochemistry (e.g., Fegley and Zolotov, 2000; Schaefer and Fegley, 2004) shows that other trace species may be present. Measuring their abundances would provide constraints on their lifetime in the atmosphere and on the Ionian volcanic regimes. We present here the results of a chemical search project performed on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment antenna (APEX) in 2010, targeting several rotational (sub)millimeter lines of expected yet undetected volcanic species. The obtained data allows us to set an upper limit on SiO abundance, that, while it cannot confirm the existence of silicate-based volcanism, constrains the range of temperatures in volcanic conduits. We also present an upper limit on KCl abundance of 1e-4, consistent with the Na/K atomic ratio observed in Io's corona. Finally, the combination of several observed 34SO2 lines was used to obtain the first estimation of the 34/32 sulfur isotopic ratio in gas phase, suggesting a high value - about 10%, compared to 5% on Earth - that needs confirmation. A similar chemical search project has been accepted for the first observation cycle on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), that is expected to offer a signal to noise increased by a factor greater than 10 with respect to APEX observations, as well as moderate spatial resolution (0.5") allowing to localize SO2 and SO emission on Io's disk. If available at the time of the meeting, ALMA observations will be presented.

  20. An ALMA and MagAO Study of the Substellar Companion GQ Lup B*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Sheehan, Patrick D.; Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Teske, Johanna K.; Haug-Baltzell, Asher; Merchant, Nirav; Lyons, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Multi-wavelength observations provide a complementary view of the formation of young, directly imaged planet-mass companions. We report the ALMA 1.3 mm and Magellan adaptive optics Hα, i\\prime , z\\prime , and Y S observations of the GQ Lup system, a classical T Tauri star with a 10{--}40 {M}{Jup} substellar companion at ˜110 au projected separation. We estimate the accretion rates for both components from the observed Hα fluxes. In our ˜0.″05 resolution ALMA map, we resolve GQ Lup A’s disk in the dust continuum, but no signal is found from the companion. The disk is compact, with a radius of ˜22 au, a dust mass of ˜6 M ⊕, an inclination angle of ˜56°, and a very flat surface density profile indicative of a radial variation in dust grain sizes. No gaps or inner cavity are found in the disk, so there is unlikely a massive inner companion to scatter GQ Lup B outward. Thus, GQ Lup B might have formed in situ via disk fragmentation or prestellar core collapse. We also show that GQ Lup A’s disk is misaligned with its spin axis, and possibly with GQ Lup B’s orbit. Our analysis on the tidal truncation radius of GQ Lup A’s disk suggests that GQ Lup B’s orbit might have a low eccentricity. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. Laying the Groundwork for Future Alma Direct Magnetic Field Detection in Protostellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Erin Guilfoil; Harris, Robert J.; Looney, Leslie; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Crutcher, Richard; Li, Zhi-Yun; Tobin, John; Stephens, Ian; Novak, Giles; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic fields are a crucial element of the star formation process on many scales, from controlling jet and outflow formation on large scales, determining the structure of any protostellar disk, to modulating the accretion rate onto the central protostar. Both the three-dimensional structure and the field strength are important in determining the outcome of star formation. Unfortunately, the method most commonly used to infer magnetic field structure - linearly polarized dust continuum emission - is limited to the plane-of-sky field structure, and gives no reliable information on field strength. Alternatively, observations of the Zeeman effect in transitions of paramagnetic molecules, especially CN, are one of the best prospects for making such measurements due to the molecules' high Zeeman coefficients. In particular, these observations have been used in determining field strengths on cloud-size scales. However, CN and other paramagnetic molecules have, to our knowledge, never been observed in the envelopes/disks of Class 0 protostars at ˜arcsecond resolution, due both to sensitivity and resolution limits of previous generations of millimeter-wave interferometers. Because field strengths near the protostar are so important to understand the star formation process, we have conducted a snapshot ALMA Band 3 (3 mm / 113 GHz) survey of the 10 brightest Class 0 protostars in the Perseus, Taurus, and ρ Ophiuchus molecular clouds in the regions surrounding five transitions of four paramagnetic species, including CN, SO, C_2S, and C_4H. We present this survey - the principle goal of which was to assess the brightness of the lines within ˜ 1000 AU of the protostar - and assess the likelihood of using ALMA observations of the Zeeman effect to determine protostellar magnetic field strength.

  2. Spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova 1987A with ALMA and ATCA

    SciTech Connect

    Zanardo, Giovanna; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Indebetouw, Remy; Chevalier, Roger A.; Matsuura, Mikako; Barlow, Michael J.; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Manchester, Richard N.; Baes, Maarten; Kamenetzky, Julia R.; Lakićević, Maša; Marcaide, Jon M.; Meixner, Margaret; Ng, C.-Y.; Park, Sangwook; and others

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz (λ 3.2 mm to 450 μm), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup –0.73}) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at T ∼ 22 K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localized west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields –0.4 ≲ α ≲ –0.1 across the western regions, with α ∼ 0 around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.

  3. Integrating a university team in the ALMA software development process: a successful model for distributed collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Matias; Ibsen, Jorge; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Troncoso, Nicolás; Tobar, Rodrigo; Araya, Mauricio; Avarias, Jorge; Hoffstadt, Arturo

    2010-07-01

    Observatories are not all about exciting new technologies and scientific progress. Some time has to be dedicated to the future engineers' generations who are going to be on the front line in a few years from now. Over the past six years, ALMA Computing has been helping to build up and collaborating with a well-organized engineering students' group at Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria in Chile. The Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) currently has wide collaborations with national and international organizations, mainly in the astronomical observations field. The overall coordination and technical work is done primarily by students, working side-by-side with professional engineers. This implies not only using high engineering standards, but also advanced organization techniques. This paper aims to present the way this collaboration has built up an own identity, independently of individuals, starting from its origins: summer internships at international observatories, the open-source community, and the short and busy student's life. The organizational model and collaboration approaches are presented, which have been evolving along with the years and the growth of the group. This model is being adopted by other university groups, and is also catching the attention of other areas inside the ALMA project, as it has produced an interesting training process for astronomical facilities. Many lessons have been learned by all participants in this initiative. The results that have been achieved at this point include a large number of projects, funds sources, publications, collaboration agreements, and a growing history of new engineers, educated under this model.

  4. Alma observations of massive molecular gas filaments encasing radio bubbles in the Phoenix cluster

    DOE PAGES

    Russell, H. R.; McDonald, M.; McNamara, B. R.; ...

    2017-02-14

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from themore » $$2.1\\pm0.3\\times10^{10}\\rm\\thinspace M_{\\odot}$$ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fuelling a vigorous starburst at a rate of $$500-800\\rm\\thinspace M_{\\odot}\\rm\\; yr^{-1}$$ and powerful black hole activity in the form of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each $$10-20\\rm\\; kpc$$ long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered molecular gas flows around each bubble, which are inconsistent with gravitational free-fall. The molecular clouds have been lifted directly by the radio bubbles, or formed via thermal instabilities induced in low entropy gas lifted in the updraft of the bubbles. These new data provide compelling evidence for close coupling between the radio bubbles and the cold gas, which is essential to explain the self-regulation of feedback. As a result, the very feedback mechanism that heats hot atmospheres and suppresses star formation may also paradoxically stimulate production of the cold gas required to sustain feedback in massive galaxies.« less

  5. Quasi-Optical Verification of the Band 9 ALMA Front-End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candotti, M.; Baryshev, A. M.; Trappe, N. A.; Hespery, R.; Murphy, J. A.; Barkhof, J.

    2005-05-01

    The front-end optical design for band 9 (600 to 720GHz) of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is now completed. A frequency independent design approach is used to couple radiation to the two orthogonal polarized mixed detectors from the large 12m ALMA Cassegrain telescope. As it is a heterodyne receiver, two local oscillator beam paths are integrated into the front-end optical system. Due to the large number of interferometer elements (64 antenna units) to be built, installed and maintained in the remote site of the Atacama Desert, reliability of the optical system should be ensured. A modular and compact optical design is also important. In addition a cheaper fabrication process is considered, at these more tolerant higher frequencies, by milling the mirror surfaces near the surface roughness limit. In this paper we verify the optical design and estimate system efficiency by means of experimental measurement and software simulation comparisons. Precision planar scans of near field beam patterns (amplitude and phase) have been measured. Experimental beam measurements were taken at the output of the mirror coupling system (telescope focal plane location) for both polarization paths and for both local oscillator beam guides. At the same measurement locations, software simulations of a highly accurate geometrical model of the mirror coupling system were predicted using the commercial package GRASP8. These comparisons at some fundamental locations along the beam paths, allow the assessment of the quasi-optical beam coupling system design. The local oscillator power budget analysis is carried out from results obtained using GRASP8. In the conclusion we summarize the current status and describe future analysis plans.

  6. Exocometary gas structure, origin and physical properties around β Pictoris through ALMA CO multitransition observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrà, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Wyatt, M. C.; Kral, Q.; Wilner, D. J.; Panić, O.; Hughes, A. M.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Hales, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Greaves, J.; Roberge, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations unveiled the structure of CO gas in the 23 Myr old β Pictoris planetary system, a component that has been discovered in many similarly young debris discs. We here present ALMA CO J = 2-1 observations, at an improved spectro-spatial resolution and sensitivity compared to previous CO J = 3-2 observations. We find that (1) the CO clump is radially broad, favouring the resonant migration over the giant impact scenario for its dynamical origin, (2) the CO disc is vertically tilted compared to the main dust disc, at an angle consistent with the scattered light warp. We then use position-velocity diagrams to trace Keplerian radii in the orbital plane of the disc. Assuming a perfectly edge-on geometry, this shows a CO scaleheight increasing with radius as R0.75, and an electron density [derived from CO line ratios through non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) analysis] in agreement with thermodynamical models. Furthermore, we show how observations of optically thin line ratios can solve the primordial versus secondary origin dichotomy in gas-bearing debris discs. As shown for β Pictoris, subthermal (NLTE) CO excitation is symptomatic of H2 densities that are insufficient to shield CO from photodissociation over the system's lifetime. This means that replenishment from exocometary volatiles must be taking place, proving the secondary origin of the disc. In this scenario, assuming steady state production/destruction of CO gas, we derive the CO+CO2 ice abundance by mass in β Pic's exocomets to be at most ˜6 per cent, consistent with comets in our own Solar system and in the coeval HD181327 system.

  7. ALMA Discovery of Solar Umbral Brightness Enhancement at λ = 3 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Kazumasa; Loukitcheva, Maria; Shimojo, Masumi; Solanki, Sami K.; White, Stephen M.

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of a brightness enhancement in the center of a large sunspot umbra at a wavelength of 3 mm using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). Sunspots are among the most prominent features on the solar surface, but many of their aspects are surprisingly poorly understood. We analyzed a λ = 3 mm (100 GHz) mosaic image obtained by ALMA that includes a large sunspot within the active region AR12470, on 2015 December 16. The 3 mm map has a 300″ × 300″ field of view and 4.″9 × 2.″2 spatial resolution, which is the highest spatial resolution map of an entire sunspot in this frequency range. We find a gradient of 3 mm brightness from a high value in the outer penumbra to a low value in the inner penumbra/outer umbra. Within the inner umbra, there is a marked increase in 3 mm brightness temperature, which we call an umbral brightness enhancement. This enhanced emission corresponds to a temperature excess of 800 K relative to the surrounding inner penumbral region and coincides with excess brightness in the 1330 and 1400 Å slit-jaw images of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), adjacent to a partial lightbridge. This λ = 3 mm brightness enhancement may be an intrinsic feature of the sunspot umbra at chromospheric heights, such as a manifestation of umbral flashes, or it could be related to a coronal plume, since the brightness enhancement was coincident with the footpoint of a coronal loop observed at 171 Å.

  8. Implementing the concurrent operation of sub-arrays in the ALMA correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus; Lacasse, Richard; Saez, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA correlator processes the digitized signals from 64 individual antennas to produce a grand total of 2016 correlated base-lines, with runtime selectable lags resolution and integration time. The on-line software system can process a maximum of 125M visibilities per second, producing an archiving data rate close to one sixteenth of the former (7.8M visibilities per second with a network transfer limit of 60 MB/sec). Mechanisms in the correlator hardware design make it possible to split the total number of antennas in the array into smaller subsets, or sub-arrays, such that they can share correlator resources while executing independent observations. The software part of the sub-system is responsible for configuring and scheduling correlator resources in such a way that observations among independent subarrays occur simultaneously while internally sharing correlator resources under a cooperative arrangement. Configuration of correlator modes through its CAN-bus interface and periodic geometric delay updates are the most relevant activities to schedule concurrently while observations happen at the same time among a number of sub-arrays. For that to work correctly, the software interface to sub-arrays schedules shared correlator resources sequentially before observations actually start on each sub-array. Start times for specific observations are optimized and reported back to the higher level observing software. After that initial sequential phase has taken place then simultaneous executions and recording of correlated data across different sub-arrays move forward concurrently, sharing the local network to broadcast results to other software sub-systems. The present paper presents an overview of the different hardware and software actors within the correlator sub-system that implement some degree of concurrency and synchronization needed for seamless and simultaneous operation of multiple sub-arrays, limitations stemming from the resource-sharing nature of the

  9. ALMA Imaging of the CO (6-5) Line Emission in NGC 7130*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Barcos-Munõz, Loreto; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Appleton, Philip; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee; van der Werf, Paul; Evans, Aaron; Cao, Chen; Inami, Hanae; Murphy, Eric

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report our high-resolution (0.″20 × 0.″14 or ˜70 × 49 pc) observations of the CO(6-5) line emission, which probes warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum in the nuclear region of NGC 7130, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO line and dust continuum fluxes detected in our ALMA observations are 1230 ± 74 Jy km s-1 and 814 ± 52 mJy, respectively, which account for 100% and 51% of their total fluxes. We find that the CO(6-5) and dust emissions are generally spatially correlated, but their brightest peaks show an offset of ˜70 pc, suggesting that the gas and dust emissions may start decoupling at this physical scale. The brightest peak of the CO(6-5) emission does not spatially correspond to the radio continuum peak, which is likely dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). This, together with our additional quantitative analysis, suggests that the heating contribution of the AGN to the CO(6-5) emission in NGC 7130 is negligible. The CO(6-5) and the extinction-corrected Pa-α maps display striking differences, suggestive of either a breakdown of the correlation between warm dense gas and star formation at linear scales of <100 pc or a large uncertainty in our extinction correction to the observed Pa-α image. Over a larger scale of ˜2.1 kpc, the double-lobed structure found in the CO(6-5) emission agrees well with the dust lanes in the optical/near-infrared images. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. Detection of the Simplest Sugar, Glycolaldehyde, in a Solar-type Protostar with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Favre, Cécile; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Schmalzl, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH3), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0farcs2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species—in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH3OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.

  11. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Spectroscopic Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Simpson, J. M.; Casey, C. M.; Chapman, S. C.; da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; de Breuck, C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Edge, A. C.; Gawiser, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Kovacs, A.; Lutz, D.; Menten, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Weiß, A.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-05-01

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of {\\text{}}{S}870μ {{m}} ≳ 2 mJy submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), which have been identified from the ALMA follow-up observations of 870 μm detected sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (the ALMA-LESS survey). We derive spectroscopic redshifts for 52 SMGs, with a median of z = 2.4 ± 0.1. However, the distribution features a high-redshift tail, with ˜23% of the SMGs at z≥slant 3. Spectral diagnostics suggest that the SMGs are young starbursts, and the velocity offsets between the nebular emission and UV ISM absorption lines suggest that many are driving winds, with velocity offsets of up to 2000 km s-1. Using the spectroscopic redshifts and the extensive UV-to-radio photometry in this field, we produce optimized spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Magphys, and use the SEDs to infer a median stellar mass of {M}\\star = (6 ± 1)× 1010 M {}⊙ for our SMGs with spectroscopic redshift. By combining these stellar masses with the star formation rates (measured from the far-infrared SEDs), we show that SMGs (on average) lie a factor of ˜5 above the so-called “main sequence” at z˜ 2. We provide this library of 52 template fits with robust and uniquely well-sampled SEDs as a resource for future studies of SMGs, and also release the spectroscopic catalog of ˜2000 (mostly infrared-selected) galaxies targeted as part of the spectroscopic campaign.

  12. ALMA Observations of the Coldest Place in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Huggins, P. J.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Gonidakis, I.

    2013-11-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, and an extreme member of the class of pre-planetary nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J = 1-0) observations (with a 45'' beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang Nebula with ALMA in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible wavelength range is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold, high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist—these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (millimeter-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultra-cold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating.

  13. Black hole mass measurement using molecular gas kinematics: what ALMA can do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilsang

    2017-04-01

    We study the limits of the spatial and velocity resolution of radio interferometry to infer the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centres using the kinematics of circum-nuclear molecular gas, by considering the shapes of the galaxy surface brightness profile, signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of the position-velocity diagram (PVD) and systematic errors due to the spatial and velocity structure of the molecular gas. We argue that for fixed galaxy stellar mass and SMBH mass, the spatial and velocity scales that need to be resolved increase and decrease, respectively, with decreasing Sérsic index of the galaxy surface brightness profile. We validate our arguments using simulated PVDs for varying beam size and velocity channel width. Furthermore, we consider the systematic effects on the inference of the SMBH mass by simulating PVDs including the spatial and velocity structure of the molecular gas, which demonstrates that their impacts are not significant for a PVD with good S/N unless the spatial and velocity scale associated with the systematic effects are comparable to or larger than the angular resolution and velocity channel width of the PVD from pure circular motion. Also, we caution that a bias in a galaxy surface brightness profile owing to the poor resolution of a galaxy photometric image can largely bias the SMBH mass by an order of magnitude. This study shows the promise and the limits of ALMA observations for measuring SMBH mass using molecular gas kinematics and provides a useful technical justification for an ALMA proposal with the science goal of measuring SMBH mass.

  14. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE COLDEST PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE: THE BOOMERANG NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Huggins, P. J.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Gonidakis, I.

    2013-11-10

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, and an extreme member of the class of pre-planetary nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J = 1-0) observations (with a 45'' beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang Nebula with ALMA in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible wavelength range is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold, high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist—these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (millimeter-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultra-cold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating.

  15. Spatially resolved CO SLED of the Luminous Merger Remnant NGC 1614 with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Toshiki; Iono, Daisuke; Xu, Cong K.; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Ueda, Junko; Espada, Daniel; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; König, Sabine; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Lee, Minju; Yun, Min S.; Aalto, Susanne; Hibbard, John E.; Yamashita, Takuji; Motohara, Kentaro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2017-02-01

    We present high-resolution (1.″0) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of CO (1–0) and CO (2–1) rotational transitions toward the nearby IR-luminous merger NGC 1614 supplemented with ALMA archival data of CO (3–2) and CO (6–5) transitions. The CO (6–5) emission arises from the starburst ring (central 590 pc in radius), while the lower-J CO lines are distributed over the outer disk (∼3.3 kpc in radius). Radiative transfer and photon-dominated region (PDR) modeling reveals that the starburst ring has a single warmer gas component with more a intense far-ultraviolet radiation field ({n}{{{H}}2}∼ {10}4.6 cm‑3, {T}{kin}∼ 42 K, and {G}0∼ {10}2.7) relative to the outer disk ({n}{{{H}}2}∼ {10}5.1 cm‑3, {T}{kin}∼ 22 K, and {G}0∼ {10}0.9). A two-phase molecular interstellar medium with a warm and cold (>70 and ∼19 K) component is also an applicable model for the starburst ring. A possible source for heating the warm gas component is mechanical heating due to stellar feedback rather than PDR. Furthermore, we find evidence for non-circular motions along the north–south optical bar in the lower-J CO images, suggesting a cold gas inflow. We suggest that star formation in the starburst ring is sustained by the bar-driven cold gas inflow and that starburst activities radiatively and mechanically power the CO excitation. The absence of a bright active galactic nucleus can be explained by a scenario where cold gas accumulating on the starburst ring is exhausted as the fuel for star formation or is launched as an outflow before being able to feed to the nucleus.

  16. ALMA spectral survey of Supernova 1987A - molecular inventory, chemistry, dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Woosley, S.; Bujarrabal, V.; Abellán, F. J.; McCray, R.; Kamenetzky, J.; Fransson, C.; Barlow, M. J.; Gomez, H. L.; Cigan, P.; De Looze, I.; Spyromilio, J.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Zanardo, G.; Roche, P.; Larsson, J.; Viti, S.; van Loon, J. Th.; Wheeler, J. C.; Baes, M.; Chevalier, R.; Lundqvist, P.; Marcaide, J. M.; Dwek, E.; Meixner, M.; Ng, C.-Y.; Sonneborn, G.; Yates, J.

    2017-08-01

    We report the first molecular line survey of Supernova 1987A in the millimetre wavelength range. In the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 210-300 and 340-360 GHz spectra, we detected cold (20-170 K) CO, 28SiO, HCO+ and SO, with weaker lines of 29SiO from ejecta. This is the first identification of HCO+ and SO in a young supernova remnant. We find a dip in the J = 6-5 and 5-4 SiO line profiles, suggesting that the ejecta morphology is likely elongated. The difference of the CO and SiO line profiles is consistent with hydrodynamic simulations, which show that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities cause mixing of gas, with heavier elements much more disturbed, making more elongated structure. We obtained isotopologue ratios of 28SiO/29SiO > 13, 28SiO/30SiO > 14 and 12CO/13CO > 21, with the most likely limits of 28SiO/29SiO >128, 28SiO/30SiO >189. Low 29Si and 30Si abundances in SN 1987A are consistent with nucleosynthesis models that show inefficient formation of neutron-rich isotopes in a low-metallicity environment, such as the Large Magellanic Cloud. The deduced large mass of HCO+ (∼5 × 10-6 M⊙) and small SiS mass (<6 × 10-5 M⊙) might be explained by some mixing of elements immediately after the explosion. The mixing might have caused some hydrogen from the envelope to sink into carbon- and oxygen-rich zones after the explosion, enabling the formation of a substantial mass of HCO+. Oxygen atoms may have penetrated into silicon and sulphur zones, suppressing formation of SiS. Our ALMA observations open up a new window to investigate chemistry, dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae.

  17. DETECTION OF THE SIMPLEST SUGAR, GLYCOLALDEHYDE, IN A SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTAR WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Favre, Cecile; Bourke, Tyler L.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Schmalzl, Markus E-mail: suzanne@snm.ku.dk E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: schmalzl@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2012-09-20

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH{sub 2}OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0.''2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species-in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH{sub 3}OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.

  18. Center-to-limb observations of the Sun with ALMA . Implications for solar atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Patsourakos, S.; Nindos, A.; Bastian, T. S.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We seek to derive information on the temperature structure of the solar chromosphere and compare these results with existing models. Methods: We measured the center-to-limb variation of the brightness temperature, Tb, from ALMA full-disk images at two frequencies and inverted the solution of the transfer equation to obtain the electron temperature, Te as a function of optical depth, τ. Results: The ALMA images are very similar to AIA images at 1600 Å. The brightness temperature at the center of the disk is 6180 and 7250 K at 239 and 100 GHz, respectively, with dispersions of 100 and 170 K. Plage regions stand out clearly in the 239/100 GHz intensity ratio, while faculae and filament lanes do not. The solar disk radius, reduced to 1 AU, is 961.1 ± 2.5'' and 964.1 ± 4.5'' at 239 and 100 GHz, respectively. A slight but statistically significant limb brightening is observed at both frequencies. Conclusions: The inversion of the center-to-limb curves shows that Te varies linearly with the logarithm of optical depth for 0.34 <τ100 GHz< 12, with a slope dTe/ dlnτ = -608 K. Our results are 5% lower than predicted by the average quiet Sun model C of Fontenla et al. (1993, ApJ, 406, 319), but do not confirm previous reports that the mm-λ solar spectrum is better fitted with models of the cell interior.

  19. ALMA 1.3 mm Observation of the Fomalhaut Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew J.; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.90 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  20. Merger-induced Shocks in the Nearby LIRG VV 114 through Methanol Observations with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Toshiki; Iono, Daisuke; Espada, Daniel; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ueda, Junko; Sugai, Hajime; Takano, Shuro; Yun, Min S.; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Ohashi, Satoshi; Lee, Minju; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Motohara, Kentaro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of two CH3OH lines (JK = 2K–1K and 3K–2K) between the progenitor’s disks (“Overlap”) of the mid-stage merging galaxy VV 114 obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3 and Band 4. The detected CH3OH emission shows an extended filamentary structure (∼3 kpc) across the progenitor’s disks with relatively large velocity width (FWZI ∼ 150 km s‑1). The emission is only significant in the “overlap” and not detected in the two merging nuclei. Assuming optically thin emission and local thermodynamic equilibrium, we found the CH3OH column density relative to H2 ({X}{{CH}3{OH}}) peaks at the “Overlap” (∼8 × 10‑9), which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that at the eastern nucleus. We suggest that kpc-scale shocks driven by galaxy–galaxy collision may play an important role to enhance the CH3OH abundance at the “Overlap.” This scenario is consistent with shock-induced large velocity dispersion components of ionized gas that have been detected in optical wavelength at the same region. Conversely, low {X}{{CH}3{OH}} at the nuclear regions might be attributed to the strong photodissociation by nuclear starbursts and/or a putative active galactic nucleus, or inefficient production of CH3OH on dust grains due to initial high-temperature conditions (i.e., desorption of the precursor molecule, CO, into gas phase before forming CH3OH on dust grains). These ALMA observations demonstrate that CH3OH is a unique tool to address kpc-scale shock-induced gas dynamics and star formation in merging galaxies.

  1. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Survey Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R. J.; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Le Fevre, Olivier; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    We present the rationale for and the observational description of ASPECS: the ALMA SPECtroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF), the cosmological deep field that has the deepest multi-wavelength data available. Our overarching goal is to obtain an unbiased census of molecular gas and dust continuum emission in high-redshift (z > 0.5) galaxies. The ˜1‧ region covered within the UDF was chosen to overlap with the deepest available imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope. Our ALMA observations consist of full frequency scans in band 3 (84-115 GHz) and band 6 (212-272 GHz) at approximately uniform line sensitivity ({L}{CO}\\prime ˜ 2 × 109 K km s-1 pc2), and continuum noise levels of 3.8 μJy beam-1 and 12.7 μJy beam-1, respectively. The molecular surveys cover the different rotational transitions of the CO molecule, leading to essentially full redshift coverage. The [C ii] emission line is also covered at redshifts 6.0\\lt z\\lt 8.0. We present a customized algorithm to identify line candidates in the molecular line scans and quantify our ability to recover artificial sources from our data. Based on whether multiple CO lines are detected, and whether optical spectroscopic redshifts as well as optical counterparts exist, we constrain the most likely line identification. We report 10 (11) CO line candidates in the 3 mm (1 mm) band, and our statistical analysis shows that <4 of these (in each band) are likely spurious. Less than one-third of the total CO flux in the low-J CO line candidates are from sources that are not associated with an optical/NIR counterpart. We also present continuum maps of both the band 3 and band 6 observations. The data presented here form the basis of a number of dedicated studies that are presented in subsequent papers.

  2. The Luminous Blue Variable RMC 127 as Seen with ALMA and ATCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliozzo, C.; Trigilio, C.; Pignata, G.; Phillips, N. M.; Nikutta, R.; Leto, P.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Buemi, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Paladini, R.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Prieto, J. L.; Massardi, M.; Cerrigone, L.

    2017-06-01

    We present ALMA and ATCA observations of the luminous blue variable RMC 127. The radio maps show for the first time the core of the nebula and evidence that the nebula is strongly asymmetric with a Z-pattern shape. Hints of this morphology are also visible in the archival Hubble Space Telescope {{H}}α image, which overall resembles the radio emission. The emission mechanism in the outer nebula is optically thin free-free in the radio. At high frequencies, a component of point-source emission appears at the position of the star, up to the ALMA frequencies. The rising flux density distribution ({S}ν ˜ {ν }0.78+/- 0.05) of this object suggests thermal emission from the ionized stellar wind and indicates a departure from spherical symmetry with {n}e(r)\\propto {r}-2. We examine different scenarios to explain this excess of thermal emission from the wind and show that this can arise from a bipolar outflow, supporting the suggestion by other authors that the stellar wind of RMC 127 is aspherical. We fit the data with two collimated ionized wind models, and we find that the mass-loss rate can be a factor of two or more smaller than in the spherical case. We also fit the photometry obtained by IR space telescopes and deduce that the mid- to far-IR emission must arise from extended, cool (˜ 80 {{K}}) dust within the outer ionized nebula. Finally, we discuss two possible scenarios for the nebular morphology: the canonical single-star expanding shell geometry and a precessing jet model assuming the presence of a companion star.

  3. Interpreting ALMA observations of the ISM during the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Harley; Kimm, Taysun; Sijacki, Debora; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2017-07-01

    We present cosmological, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy formation during the epoch of reionization in an effort towards modelling the interstellar medium (ISM) and interpreting Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. Simulations with and without stellar radiation are compared at large (Mpc), intermediate (tens of kpc) and small (sub-kpc) scales. At large scales, the dense regions around galaxies reionize first before ultraviolet (UV) photons penetrate the voids; however, considerable amounts of neutral gas remain present within the haloes. The spatial distribution of neutral gas is highly dynamic and is anticorrelated with the presence of stars older than a few Myr. For our specific feedback implementation, most of the metals remain inside the virial radii of haloes, and they are proportionally distributed over the ionized and neutral media by mass. For our most massive galaxy with Mh ˜ 1011 M⊙, the majority of the C II and O I masses are associated with cold neutral clumps. N II is more diffuse and arises in warmer gas, while O III arises in hotter gas with a higher ionization parameter, produced by photoheating and supernovae. If smaller pockets of high-metallicity gas exist in the ISM, the emission from these ions may be observable by ALMA, while the low metallicity of the galaxy may cause these systems to fall below the local [C II]-star formation rate relation. The presence of dust can cause spatial offsets between UV/Lyman α and [C II] emissions, as suggested by the recent observations of Maiolino et al. [O III] may be spatially offset from both of these components since it arises from a different part of density-temperature phase space.

  4. A search for pre- and proto-brown dwarfs in the dark cloud Barnard 30 with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huélamo, N.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Palau, A.; Barrado, D.; Bayo, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Zapata, L.; Bouy, H.; Morata, O.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Eiroa, C.; Ménard, F.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The origin of brown dwarfs is still under debate. While some models predict a star-like formation scenario, others invoke a substellar mass embryo ejection, a stellar disk fragmentation, or the photo-evaporation of an external core due to the presence of massive stars. Aims: The aim of our work is to characterize the youngest and lowest mass population of the dark cloud Barnard 30, a region within the Lambda Orionis star-forming region. In particular, we aim to identify proto-brown dwarfs and study the mechanism of their formation. Methods: We obtained ALMA continuum observations at 880 μm of 30 sub-mm cores previously identified with APEX/LABOCA at 870 μm. We have complemented part of the ALMA data with sub-mm APEX/SABOCA observations at 350 μm, and with multi-wavelength ancillary observations from the optical to the far-infrared (e.g., Spitzer, CAHA/O2000, WISE, INT/WFC). Results: We report the detection of five (out of 30) spatially unresolved sources with ALMA, with estimated masses between 0.9 and 67 MJup. From these five sources, only two show gas emission. The analysis of multi-wavelength photometry from these two objects, namely B30-LB14 and B30-LB19, is consistent with one Class II- and one Class I low-mass stellar object, respectively. The gas emission is consistent with a rotating disk in the case of B30-LB14, and with an oblate rotating envelope with infall signatures in the case of LB19. The remaining three ALMA detections do not have infrared counterparts and can be classified as either deeply embedded objects or as starless cores if B30 members. In the former case, two of them (LB08 and LB31) show internal luminosity upper limits consistent with Very Low Luminosity objects, while we do not have enough information for LB10. In the starless core scenario, and taking into account the estimated masses from ALMA and the APEX/LABOCA cores, we estimate final masses for the central objects in the substellar domain, so they could be classified as

  5. Solar H-alpha features with hot onsets. III. Long fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by dense canopies of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the extraordinary opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe H-alpha-like fibril canopies, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if these canopies were transparent. An additional file is available at the end of the PDF file of this article.This study is offered as compliment to M.W.M. de Graauw. Our ways, objects, instruments and spectral domains parted after the 1970 eclipse but converge here.

  6. Investigation of ground level solar cosmic ray enhancements by means of Alma-Ata high-altitude neutron monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryakunova, O. N.; Aushev, V. M.; Dryn, E. A.; Nikolaevskyi, N. F.

    2001-08-01

    We analyze ground level solar cosmic ray enhancements (GLE) registered by means of Alma-Ata high-altitude neutron monitor during 1976-2001 years. This includes the observation at the Earth of high energy protons, generated by the powerful solar flares. It is presented the table of these events. Alma-Ata high altitude neutron monitor has a favorable location (3340 m above sea level) and very good statistics (about 1200 counts per second). The analysis of ground level enhancements and solar sources of these events connected with coronal mass ejections (CME) are carried out. It is shown that the solar activity responsible for the considered ground level enhancements extends throughout large areas on the solar disk and includes large CMEs. This may tell on the conditions of the escape and propagation of high-energy particles accelerated in flares. -----------------------

  7. ALMA DETECTED OVERDENSITY OF SUB-MILLIMETER SOURCES AROUND WISE/NVSS-SELECTED z ∼ 2 DUSTY QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Andrea; Sajina, Anna; Lonsdale, Carol; Lacy, Mark

    2015-06-20

    We study the environments of 49 WISE/NVSS-selected dusty, hyper-luminous, z ∼ 2 quasars using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) 345 GHz images. We find that 17 of the 49 WISE/NVSS sources show additional sub-millimeter galaxies within the ALMA primary beam, probing scales within ∼150 kpc. We find a total of 23 additional sub-millimeter sources, four of which are in the field of a single WISE/NVSS source. The measured 870 μm source counts are ∼10× what is expected for unbiased regions, suggesting such hyper-luminous dusty quasars are excellent at probing high-density peaks.

  8. The ALMA Patchy Deep Survey: A Blind Search for [CII] Emitters at z˜ 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Y.; APDS Team

    2015-12-01

    We present an initial result of a blind search for [CII] emitters at z˜ 4.5 using ALMA archival data. We used extra-galactic, band 7 data from eight Cycle 0 projects and searched for line emitters in the continuum-subtracted data cubes. However, we could not detect any new line emitters above a 6-σ significance level. This result provides upper limits to the z˜ 4.5 [CII] luminosity function down to L([CII])˜108 L⊙ (or SFR˜10 M⊙ yr-1). This work demonstated that we will be able to constrain the cosmic star-formation rate density by collecting archival data of Cycle 1 and 2 as the ALMA Patchy Deep Survey.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA view of G351.77-0.54 (Beuther+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Walsh, A. J.; Johnston, K. G.; Henning, T.; Kuiper, R.; Longmore, S. N.; Walmsley, S. M.

    2017-04-01

    The target region G351.77-0.54 was observed with ALMA in cycle 2 in the 690GHz band with 42 antennas in the array. One noisy antenna and very short baselines have been flagged because of outlying amplitudes. This results in a baseline length coverage from 40m to almost ~1.6km. The total duration of that one execution of one scheduling block was 1h40min with an on-target time of 35min. Because of the large number of antennas, even in such a short time, ALMA achieves an excellent uv-plane coverage. This results in an almost circular beam and allows us to recover spatial scales between approximately 0.06" and 2.7". The phase center of the observations was RA (J2000.0) 17:26:42.568 and Dec (J2000.0) -36:09:17.6. (2 data files).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Faint ALMA 1.2mm sources down to ~0.02mJy (Fujimoto+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Ouchi, M.; Ono, Y.; Shibuya, T.; Ishigaki, M.; Nagai, H.; Momose, R.

    2016-06-01

    We use 67 continuum maps obtained by ~120 pointing of the ALMA cycle 0-2 observations in Band 6/7 that accomplish high sensitivities and angular resolutions. For the mapping mode definitions, there are maps targeting field regions by single-pointing observations, referred to as "field" data, 4 and 62 out of which are taken from our programs and the ALMA archive, respectively. Two out of the four maps were taken in the ALMA cycle-0 Band 6 observations for the spectroscopically confirmed Lyα emitter (LAE) at z=6.595 (Himiko) and an LAE at z=6.511 (NB921-N-79144). See Ono et al. (2014ApJ...795....5O) for a summary of these observations. We also utilize two maps of newly obtained (ALMA cycle 2) field data of Bands 6 and 7 taken for spectroscopically confirmed LAEs at z=5.7 (NB816-S-61269) and at z=7.3 (NB101-S-2904). The NB816-S-61269 observations were carried out in the ALMA program of #2012.1.00602.S (PI: R. Momose) on 2014 May 20, Jun 19, and July 7 with 43 12m antennae array in the range of 18-650m baseline. The NB101-S-2904 data were taken in the ALMA program of #2012.1.00088.S (PI: M. Ouchi) on 2014 July 22 and August 6, 7, 14, and 18, with 55 12m antennae array in the extended configuration of 18-1300m baseline. See section 2.1 for further explanations. To increase the number of ALMA sources, we make full use of ALMA archival data of cycles 0 and 1 that became public by 2015 June. See references in table2 for the collected 62 maps and section 2.2.1 for further details. One-cluster data were taken for Abell 1689 (A1689) in ALMA cycle 0 and 1 observations (PI: J. Richard) of ALMA #2011.0.00319.S and #2012.1.00261.S (see section 2.2.2 for further explanations). (3 data files).

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  12. The SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin2 Deep Survey: Stacking Rest-frame Near-infrared Selected Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Kohno, Kotaro; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J.; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanish, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tamura, Yoichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Wilson, Grant W.; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S.; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Foucaud, Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    We present stacking analyses on our ALMA deep 1.1 mm imaging in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field using 1.6 and 3.6 μm selected galaxies in the CANDELS WFC3 catalog. We detect a stacked flux of ˜0.03-0.05 mJy, corresponding to {L}{IR}\\lt {10}11 {L}⊙ and a star formation rate (SFR) of ˜ 15 {M}⊙ yr-1 at z = 2. We find that galaxies that are brighter in the rest-frame near-infrared tend to also be brighter at 1.1 mm, and galaxies fainter than {m}3.6μ {{m}}=23 do not produce detectable 1.1 mm emission. This suggests a correlation between stellar mass and SFR, but outliers to this correlation are also observed, suggesting strongly boosted star formation or extremely large extinction. We also find tendencies that redder galaxies and galaxies at higher redshifts are brighter at 1.1 mm. Our field contains z˜ 2.5 Hα emitters and a bright single-dish source. However, we do not find evidence of bias in our results caused by the bright source. By combining the fluxes of sources detected by ALMA and fluxes of faint sources detected with stacking, we recover a 1.1 mm surface brightness of up to 20.3 ± 1.2 Jy deg-2, comparable to the extragalactic background light measured by COBE. Based on the fractions of optically faint sources in our and previous ALMA studies and the COBE measurements, we find that approximately half of the cosmic star formation may be obscured by dust and missed by deep optical surveys. Much deeper and wider ALMA imaging is therefore needed to better constrain the obscured cosmic star formation history.

  13. ALMA Observations of Dust Polarization and Molecular Line Emission from the Class 0 Protostellar Source Serpens SMM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Girart, Josep M.; Tychoniec, Łukasz; Rao, Ramprasad; Cortés, Paulo C.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Zhang, Qizhou; Houde, Martin; Dunham, Michael M.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yun; Plambeck, Richard L.

    2017-10-01

    We present high angular resolution dust polarization and molecular line observations carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward the Class 0 protostar Serpens SMM1. By complementing these observations with new polarization observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and archival data from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescopes (JCMT), we can compare the magnetic field orientations at different spatial scales. We find major changes in the magnetic field orientation between large (∼0.1 pc) scales—where the magnetic field is oriented E–W, perpendicular to the major axis of the dusty filament where SMM1 is embedded—and the intermediate and small scales probed by CARMA (∼1000 au resolution), the SMA (∼350 au resolution), and ALMA (∼140 au resolution). The ALMA maps reveal that the redshifted lobe of the bipolar outflow is shaping the magnetic field in SMM1 on the southeast side of the source; however, on the northwestern side and elsewhere in the source, low-velocity shocks may be causing the observed chaotic magnetic field pattern. High-spatial-resolution continuum and spectral-line observations also reveal a tight (∼130 au) protobinary system in SMM1-b, the eastern component of which is launching an extremely high-velocity, one-sided jet visible in both {CO}(J=2\\to 1) and {SiO}(J=5\\to 4); however, that jet does not appear to be shaping the magnetic field. These observations show that with the sensitivity and resolution of ALMA, we can now begin to understand the role that feedback (e.g., from protostellar outflows) plays in shaping the magnetic field in very young, star-forming sources like SMM1.

  14. ALMA-SZ Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock at Half the Age of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA measurements of a merger shock using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect signal, at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at z≈ 0.9. Multi-wavelength analysis in combination with the archival Chandra data and a high-resolution radio image provides a consistent picture of the thermal and non-thermal signal variation across the shock front and helps to put robust constraints on the shock Mach number as well as the relic magnetic field. We employ a Bayesian analysis technique for modeling the SZ and X-ray data self-consistently, illustrating respective parameter degeneracies. Combined results indicate a shock with Mach number { M }={2.4}-0.6+1.3, which in turn suggests a high value of the magnetic field (of the order of 4-10 μ {{G}}) to account for the observed relic width at 2 GHz. At roughly half the current age of the universe, this is the highest-redshift direct detection of a cluster shock to date, and one of the first instances of an ALMA-SZ observation in a galaxy cluster. It shows the tremendous potential for future ALMA-SZ observations to detect merger shocks and other cluster substructures out to the highest redshifts.

  15. High Efficiency Wideband Refractive Optics for ALMA Band-1 (35-52 GHz). Design, Implementation, and Measurement Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, V.; González, A.; Finger, R.; Mena, F. P.; Monasterio, D.; Reyes, N.; Sánchez, M.; Bronfman, L.

    2017-03-01

    We present the design, implementation, and characterization of the optics of ALMA Band 1, the lowest frequency band in the most advanced radio astronomical telescope. Band 1 covers the broad frequency range from 35 to 50 GHz, with the goal of minor degradation up to 52 GHz. This is, up to now, the largest fractional bandwidth of all ALMA bands. Since the optics is the first subsystem of any receiver, low noise figure and maximum aperture efficiency are fundamental for best sensitivity. However, a conjunction of several factors (small cryostat apertures, mechanical constraints, and cost limitations) makes extremely challenging to achieve these goals. To overcome these problems, the optics presented here includes two innovative solutions, a compact optimized-profile corrugated horn and a modified Fresnel lens. The horn profile was optimized for optimum performance and easy fabrication by a single-piece manufacturing process in a lathe. In this way, manufacturability is eased when compared with traditional fabrication methods. To minimize the noise contribution of the optics, a one-step zoned lens was designed. Its parameters were carefully optimized to maximize the frequency coverage and reduce losses. The optical assembly reported here fully complies with ALMA specifications.

  16. Star formation and chemical complexity in the Orion nebula: A new view with the IRAM and ALMA interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudry, Alain; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier

    2016-11-01

    The Orion nebula is one of the most observed celestial regions in the Milky Way. It is an active massive star-forming region, especially well studied in the millimeter and submillimeter domains that allow us to unveil the cool and obscured regions in which stars are being formed. After a brief introduction to the main properties of a radio telescope, we recall that the most sensitive radio interferometers, the IRAM mm array and, especially, the recently built ALMA millimeter/submillimeter array, offer an outstanding spatial resolution reaching the sub-arcsecond scale, or even about 10 milli-arcseconds for ALMA (about four times the Earth's orbit radius at the Orion distance). These interferometers can reveal the fine spatial details of the Orion clouds of gas and dust within which new stars and associated planetary systems are being formed. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity of both interferometers and the broad instantaneous bandwidth offered by ALMA allowed us to map the emission from a number of complex organic molecules, to estimate the molecular abundances, and to address some important aspects of the molecular complexity in Orion. Our observations do not lead to a unique molecular formation and excitation scheme, but the chemistry at work in the proto-stellar 'fragments' at the center of the Orion nebula can be compared with the chemistry prevailing in comets of the Solar system. We have underlined the possible links between the prebiotic molecules observed in space and the chemistry leading to the early terrestrial life.

  17. High Efficiency Wideband Refractive Optics for ALMA Band-1 (35-52 GHz) - Design, Implementation, and Measurement Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, V.; González, A.; Finger, R.; Mena, F. P.; Monasterio, D.; Reyes, N.; Sánchez, M.; Bronfman, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present the design, implementation, and characterization of the optics of ALMA Band 1, the lowest frequency band in the most advanced radio astronomical telescope. Band 1 covers the broad frequency range from 35 to 50 GHz, with the goal of minor degradation up to 52 GHz. This is, up to now, the largest fractional bandwidth of all ALMA bands. Since the optics is the first subsystem of any receiver, low noise figure and maximum aperture efficiency are fundamental for best sensitivity. However, a conjunction of several factors (small cryostat apertures, mechanical constraints, and cost limitations) makes extremely challenging to achieve these goals. To overcome these problems, the optics presented here includes two innovative solutions, a compact optimized-profile corrugated horn and a modified Fresnel lens. The horn profile was optimized for optimum performance and easy fabrication by a single-piece manufacturing process in a lathe. In this way, manufacturability is eased when compared with traditional fabrication methods. To minimize the noise contribution of the optics, a one-step zoned lens was designed. Its parameters were carefully optimized to maximize the frequency coverage and reduce losses. The optical assembly reported here fully complies with ALMA specifications.

  18. Morphology of Midlatitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly in NmF2 above Alma-Ata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovets, Artur; Gordienko, Galina; Litvinov, Yuriy

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of the midlatitude summer nighttime anomaly in the diurnal behavior of the electron concentration maximum in the F2 layer (NmF2) over Alma-Ata in various seasons and at various solar activity levels was studied on the basis of the ionospheric vertical sounding over seven months of 2011 and the summer months of 1999, 2008, 2011, and 2012. The vast majority of data of the analyzed electron concentration measurements was obtained under low magnetic activity (Dst > -50 nT). Measurements during which moderate and high magnetic activity (Dst < -50 nT) was observed were rejected from the analysis. It was shown that the anomaly is not seen in the equinox months. The maximum effect of the anomaly is seen in the summer months (July-August). The maximum value of the electron concentration in the evening peak corresponds to the solar zenith angles, when the ionizing radiation almost ceases to reach the heights of the F2 layer maximum. The anomaly is distinctly manifested in the solar activity minimum but scarcely seen in the solar maximum. It was shown that the parameters of the summer anomaly at the boundary of the north-eastern Asia zone (Alma-Ata, 76.9 deg E) change insignificantly as compared to the parameters at its center (Japan, 130.0 deg E). The mechanisms of the formation of the anomaly and of its diurnal and seasonal behavior are discussed. Two factors determining the anomaly formation in the summer months are considered. First, the meridional wind changes its direction from polarward to equatorqard much earlier in summer (around 14.30 LT) in the middle latitudes than in other seasons, when the photoionizing radiation flux is still high. That is why photoionization, in combination with the rise of the ionosphere to the heights where the recombination rate is low, leads to the formation of an evening increase in NmF2. Second, in addition to the factor of an early change in the thermospheric wind direction, seasonal variations in the meridional wind

  19. Modeling the thermal emission from asteroid 3 Juno using ALMA observations and the KRC thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Li, Jian-Yang; Moullet, Arielle; Sykes, Mark V.

    2015-11-01

    Asteroid 3 Juno (hereafter referred to as Juno), discovered 1 September 1804, is the 11th largest asteroid in the Main Asteroid Belt (MAB). Containing approximately 1% of the mass in the MAB [1], Juno is the second largest S-type [2].As part of the observations acquired from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [3], 10 reconstructed images at ~60km/pixel resolution were acquired of Juno [4] that showed significant deviations from the Standard Thermal Model (STM) [5]. These deviations could be a result of surface topography, albedo variations, emissivity variations, thermal inertia variations, or any combination.The KRC thermal model [6, 7], which has been extensively used for Mars [e.g. 8, 9] and has been applied to Vesta [10] and Ceres [11], will be used to compare model thermal emission to that observed by ALMA at a wavelength of 1.33 mm [4]. The 10 images, acquired over a four hour period, captured ~55% of Juno’s 7.21 hour rotation. Variations in temperature as a function of local time will be used to constrain the source of the thermal emission deviations from the STM.This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program.References:[1] Pitjeva, E. V. (2005) Solar System Research 39(3), 176. [2] Baer, J. and S. R. Chesley (2008) Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 100, 27-42. [3] Wootten A. et al. (2015) IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, #2237199 [4] arXiv:1503.02650 [astro-ph.EP] doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L2 [5] Lebofsky, L.A. eta al. (1986) Icarus, 68, 239-251. [6] Kieffer, H. H., et al. (1977) J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4249-4291. [7] Kieffer, Hugh H., (2013) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Volume 118, Issue 3, pp. 451-470 [8] Titus, T. N., H. H. Kieffer, and P. N. Christensen (2003) Science, 299, 1048-1051. [9] Fergason, R. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev, 170, 739-773, doi:10.1007/s11214-012-9891-3. [10] Titus, T. N. et al. (2012) 43rd LPSC, held March 19-23, 2012 at The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No

  20. The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, Cdms, in Times of Herschel, SOFIA, and Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Stutzki, Jürgen; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2009-06-01

    The CDMS provides in its catalog section atomic and molecular line lists for species that have been or may be observed in space by radio astronomical means. The line list of each molecule is gathered in an individual entry; minor isotopologs have separate entries, and the same applies to excited vibrational states with the exception of some diatomic molecules. With 5 to 10 new or updated entries each month, the CDMS catalog has been growing rapidly over the past 10 years: since February 2009, there have been more than 500 entries in the CDMS - with many more entries to be created. Entries are generated from fitting (mostly) laboratory data to accepted Hamiltonian models. Despite many dedicated laboratory spectroscopic investigations in recent years, accurate data is still lacking frequently - in particular at higher frequencies, for minor isotopic species, for excited vibrational states, or for somewhat larger molecules. While high frequency data are of special concern for the Herschel satellite, scheduled to be launched in mid-April 2009, or for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the remaining issues mentioned above are important especially for telecope arrays such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The main features of the CDMS catalog will be described, including recent developments concerning new entries as well as available and planned features. In particular, we will discuss issues relevant for generating a consolidated database that also takes into account information from other databases. Attention will be given to laboratory spectroscopic needs for missions such as Herschel and SOFIA on one hand and for ALMA, the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), and other facilities on the other, both, in terms of general aspects and in terms of specific examples. Selected contributions from the Cologne spectroscopy laboratories to address these needs will be presented. H. S. P. Müller, S. Thorwirth, D. A. Roth, G. Winnewisser

  1. ALMA deep field in SSA22: Blindly detected CO emitters and [C II] emitter candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayatsu, Natsuki H.; Matsuda, Yuichi; Umehata, Hideki; Yoshida, Naoki; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. Mark; Ivison, Rob; Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Kubo, Mariko; Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Nagao, Tohru; Inoue, Akio K.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Lee, Minju; Ao, Yiping; Fujimoto, Seiji; Izumi, Takuma; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Ikarashi, Soh; Yamada, Toru

    2017-06-01

    We report the identification of four millimeter line-emitting galaxies with the Atacama Large Milli/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in SSA22 Field (ADF22). We analyze the ALMA 1.1-mm survey data, with an effective survey area of 5 arcmin2, frequency ranges of 253.1-256.8 and 269.1-272.8 GHz, angular resolution of 0{^''.}7 and rms noise of 0.8 mJy beam-1 at 36 km s-1 velocity resolution. We detect four line-emitter candidates with significance levels above 6σ. We identify one of the four sources as a CO(9-8) emitter at z = 3.1 in a member of the proto-cluster known in this field. Another line emitter with an optical counterpart is likely a CO(4-3) emitter at z = 0.7. The other two sources without any millimeter continuum or optical/near-infrared counterpart are likely to be [C II] emitter candidates at z = 6.0 and 6.5. The equivalent widths of the [C II] candidates are consistent with those of confirmed high-redshift [C II] emitters and candidates, and are a factor of 10 times larger than that of the CO(9-8) emitter detected in this search. The [C II] luminosity of the candidates are 4-7 × 108 L⊙. The star formation rates (SFRs) of these sources are estimated to be 10-20 M⊙ yr-1 if we adopt an empirical [C II] luminosity-SFR relation. One of them has a relatively low S/N ratio, but shows features characteristic of emission lines. Assuming that at least one of the two candidates is a [C II] emitter, we derive a lower limit of [C II]-based star formation rate density (SFRD) at z ∼ 6. The resulting value of >10-2 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 is consistent with the dust-uncorrected UV-based SFRD. Future millimeter/submillimeter surveys can be used to detect a number of high-redshift line emitters, with which to study the star formation history in the early universe.

  2. Terahertz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz DES) - ‘ALMA in the Lab’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile Auriacombe, Olivier Bruno Jacques; Fraser, Helen; Ellison, Brian; Ioppolo, Sergio; Rea, Simon

    2016-06-01

    ALMA is revolutionising our scope to identify and locate molecules that have been desorbed from ices, particularly complex organic molecules (COMS), which provide a vital link between interstellar and prebiotic chemistry. Explaining the existence of these molecules in star-forming regions relies on an empirical understanding of the chemistry that underpins their formation:- do COMS form predominantly in the solid-phase and then desorb to the gas phase, or do only “smaller” species, radials or ions desorb and then undergo gas-phase chemical reactions to generate larger COMS?-are the rotational state populations in COMS only attributable to equilibrium chemistry, or could their formation mechanisms and desorption processes affect the rotational state occupancy of these molecules, thereby directly tying certain species to solid-state origins?We have developed a novel laboratory method - THz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz-DES) that combines “traditional” laboratory astrophysics high-vacuum ice experiments with a sensitive high-spectral-resolution terahertz total-power heterodyne radiometer 1,2, partially mirroring the spectral range of ALMA band 7 (275- 373 GHz). Ices are grown in situ on a cold-plate, situated in a vacuum cell, then (thermally) desorbed. The sub-mm emission spectra of the resultant gas-phase molecules are detected as a function of time, temperature, or distance from the surface. Our first THz DES results will be shown for pure and binary ice systems including H2O, N2O and CH3OH. They show good correlation with established methods e.g. TPD, with the advantage of exploiting the molecular spectroscopy to unravel surface dynamics, state-occupancy, and unequivocal molecular identification, as well as concurrently measuring desorption barriers and molecular yields. We will extend our technique to a broader frequency range, enabling us to detect radical and ion desorption, to differentiate between A and E populations of CH3OH or ortho

  3. ALMA Observations of the Interaction of a Radio Jet with Molecular Gas in Minkowski's Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark; Croft, Steve; Fragile, Chris; Wood, Sarah; Nyland, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    We use the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to detect and image CO (1-0) emission from Minkowski’s Object, a dwarf galaxy in the cluster Abell 194 that is interacting with a radio jet from a nearby elliptical galaxy. The ALMA observations, which are the first to detect molecular gas in Minkowski’s Object, also image the high-frequency continuum emission from the radio jet, allowing us to study the interaction in detail. We estimate the range in the mass of molecular gas in Minkowski’s Object assuming two different values of the ratio of the molecular gas mass to the CO luminosity, {α }{CO}. For the Milky Way value of {α }{CO}=4.6 {M}ȯ {({{K}}{km}{{{s}}}-1{{pc}}2)}-1 we obtain a molecular gas mass of {M}{{{H}}2}=3.0× {10}7 {M}ȯ , 6% of the H I gas mass. We also use the prescription of Narayanan et al. (2012) to estimate an {α }{CO}=27 {M}ȯ {({{K}}{km}{{{s}}}-1{{pc}}2)}-1, in which case we obtain {M}{{{H}}2}=1.8× {10}8 {M}ȯ , 36% of the H I mass. The observations are consistent with previous claims of star formation being induced in Minkowski’s Object via the passage of the radio jet, and it therefore being a rare local example of positive feedback from an active galactic nucleus. In particular, we find highly efficient star formation, with gas depletion timescales ∼ 5× {10}7{--}3× {10}8 year (for assumed values of {α }{CO}=4.6 and 27 {M}ȯ {({{K}}{km}{{{s}}}-1{{pc}}2)}-1, respectively) in the upstream regions of Minkowski’s Object that were struck first by the jet, and less efficient star formation downstream. We discuss the implications of this observation for models of jet-induced star formation and radio-mode feedback in massive galaxies.

  4. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302.

    PubMed

    Santander-García, M; Bujarrabal, V; Alcolea, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Sánchez Contreras, C; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Corradi, R L M; Neri, R

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that the main agents must operate at their innermost regions, where a significant equatorial density enhancement should be present and related to the collimation of light and jet launching from the central star preferentially towards the polar directions. Most of the material in this equatorial condensation must be lost during the asymptotic giant branch as stellar wind and later released from the surface of dust grains to the gas phase in molecular form. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich regions of these objects can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms themselves. We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. The high spatial resolution of the (12)CO and (13)CO J=3-2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the shapemol plug-in. We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much greater spatial resolution of the data allows for a very detailed description. We confirm that the mass of the molecular region is 0.1 M⊙. Additionally, we report a previously undetected component at the nebular equator, an inner, younger ring inclined ~60° with respect to the main ring, showing a characteristic radius of 7.5×10(16) cm, a mass of 2.7×10(-3) M⊙, and a counterpart in optical images of the nebula. This inner ring has the same kinematical age as the northwest optical lobes

  5. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302

    PubMed Central

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Neri, R.

    2016-01-01

    Context The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that the main agents must operate at their innermost regions, where a significant equatorial density enhancement should be present and related to the collimation of light and jet launching from the central star preferentially towards the polar directions. Most of the material in this equatorial condensation must be lost during the asymptotic giant branch as stellar wind and later released from the surface of dust grains to the gas phase in molecular form. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich regions of these objects can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms themselves. Aims We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. Methods The high spatial resolution of the 12CO and 13CO J=3−2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the shapemol plug-in. Results We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much greater spatial resolution of the data allows for a very detailed description. We confirm that the mass of the molecular region is 0.1 M⊙. Additionally, we report a previously undetected component at the nebular equator, an inner, younger ring inclined ~60° with respect to the main ring, showing a characteristic radius of 7.5×1016 cm, a mass of 2.7×10−3 M⊙, and a counterpart in optical images of the nebula. This inner ring has the same kinematical age as the

  6. Anatomy of a blazar in the (sub-)millimeter: ALMA observations of PKS 0521-365

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, S.; Cortes, P. C.; Guerard, M.; Villard, E.; Hidayat, T.; Ocaña Flaquer, B.; Vila-Vilaro, B.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: We aim at analyzing the (sub-)millimeter emission in a nearby blazar, PKS 0521-365, to study the synchrotron and thermal emission in the different components detected at low frequency. Methods: We analyzed the archive public data of the ALMA Cycle 0 where PKS 0521-365 is used as a calibrator. A total of 13 projects with 23 dataset were analyzed in Bands 3, 6, and 7 and combined. The whole set of data was combined and wavelet-filtered to obtain a deep image toward PKS 0521-365, reaching a dynamic range of 47 000. The individual emission flux was measured on different dates over a period of 11 months in various components. Finally we analyzed the spectral energy distribution (SED) in each different component, including the radio jet and counter jet. Results: The point sources detected in the field follow a similar distribution to previous studies. The blazar flux shows large variation especially in Band 3. Different components are observed: core, radio jet, and newly detected counter jet, hot spot (HS), and a disky structure roughly perpendicular to the jet. The HS emission is formed by a point source surrounded by an extended emission. The viewing angle of the jet is about 30° with a Doppler factor of δ = 1.6. The HS is at a distance of 19 kpc from the center. The SED analysis shows a strong variation in the core spectral index, especially in Band 3. The two components in the radio jet have roughly a flat spectral index in Bands 6 and 7. Conclusions: The different weak and extended components in PKS 0521-365 are detected with the ALMA data. The analysis of both jets constrains the geometrical distance of the HS to the center. The SED presents a different shape in time and frequency for each component. Finally, a new structure is detected roughly perpendicular to the radio jet. and a thermal emission origin is currently favored. Further observations at higher spatial resolution are needed to confirm that hypothesis. FITS files for all the images are only

  7. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Neri, R.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that the main agents must operate at their innermost regions, where a significant equatorial density enhancement should be present and related to the collimation of light and jet launching from the central star preferentially towards the polar directions. Most of the material in this equatorial condensation must be lost during the asymptotic giant branch as stellar wind and later released from the surface of dust grains to the gas phase in molecular form. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich regions of these objects can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms themselves. Aims: We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. Methods: The high spatial resolution of the 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the shapemol plug-in. Results: We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much greater spatial resolution of the data allows for a very detailed description. We confirm that the mass of the molecular region is 0.1 M⊙. Additionally, we report a previously undetected component at the nebular equator, an inner, younger ring inclined 60° with respect to the main ring, showing a characteristic radius of 7.5 × 1016 cm, a mass of 2.7 × 10-3M⊙, and a counterpart in optical images of the nebula. This inner ring has the same kinematical age as

  8. Porting the ALMA Correlator Data Processor from hard real-time to plain Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus; Saez, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA correlator back-end consists of a cluster of 16 computing nodes and a master collector/packager node. The mission of the cluster is to process time domain lags into auto-correlations and complex visibilities, integrate them for some configurable amount of time and package them into a workable data product. Computers in the cluster are organized such that individual workloads per node are kept within achievable levels for different observing modes and antennas in the array. Over the course of an observation the master node transmits enough state information to each involved computing node to specify exactly how to process each set of lags received from the correlator. For that distributed mechanism to work, it is necessary to unequivocally identify each individual lag set arriving at each computing node. The original approach was based on a custom hardware interface to each node in the cluster plus a realtime version of the Linux Operating System. A modification recently introduced in the ALMA correlator consists of tagging each lag set with a time stamp before delivering them to the cluster. The time stamp identifies a precise 16- millisecond window during which that specific data set was streamed to the computing cluster. From the time stamp value a node is able to identify a centroid (in absolute time units), base-lines, and correlator mode during that hardware integration. That is, enough information to let the digital signal processing pipeline in each node to process time domain lags into frequency domain auto-correlations per antenna and visibilities per base-line. The scheme also means that a good degree of concurrency can be achieved in each node by having individual CPU cores process individual lag sets at the same time, thus rendering enough processing power to cope with a maximum 1 GiB/sec output from the correlator. The present paper describes how we time stamp lag sets within the correlator hardware, the implications to their on

  9. Resolving the stellar activity of the Mira AB binary with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Ramstedt, S.; O'Gorman, E.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Wittkowski, M.; Baudry, A.; Karovska, M.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We present the size, shape, and flux densities at millimeter continuum wavelengths, based on ALMA science verification observations in Band 3 (~94.6 GHz) and Band 6 (~228.7 GHz), from the binary Mira A (o Ceti) and Mira B. Methods: The Mira AB system was observed with ALMA at a spatial resolution down to ~25 mas. The extended atmosphere of Mira A and the wind around Mira B sources were resolved, and we derived the sizes of Mira A and of the ionized region around Mira B. The spectral indices within Band 3 (between 89-100 GHz) and between Bands 3 and 6 were also derived. Results: The spectral index of Mira A is found to change from 1.71 ± 0.05 within Band 3 to 1.54 ± 0.04 between Bands 3 and 6. The spectral index of Mira B is 1.3 ± 0.2 in Band 3, in good agreement with measurements at longer wavelengths; however, it rises to 1.72 ± 0.11 between the bands. For the first time, the extended atmosphere of a star is resolved at these frequencies, and for Mira A the diameter is ~3.8 × 3.2 AU in Band 3 (with brightness temperature Tb ~ 5300 K) and ~4.0 × 3.6 AU in Band 6 (Tb ~ 2500 K). Additionally, a bright hotspot ~0.4 AU, with Tb ~ 10 000 K, is found on the stellar disk of Mira A. The size of the ionized region around the accretion disk of Mira B is found to be ~2.4 AU. Conclusions: The emission around Mira B is consistent with emission from a partially ionized wind of gravitationally bound material from Mira A close to the accretion disk of Mira B. The Mira A atmosphere does not fully match predictions with brightness temperatures in Band 3 significantly higher than expected, potentially owing to shock heating. The hotspot is very likely due to magnetic activity and could be related to the previously observed X-ray flare of Mira A. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. THE PECULIAR DISTRIBUTION OF CH3CN IN IRC +10216 SEEN BY ALMA

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Marcelino, N.; Guélin, M.

    2015-01-01

    IRC +10216 is a circumstellar envelope around a carbon-rich evolved star which contains a large variety of molecules. According to interferometric observations, molecules are distributed either concentrated around the central star or as a hollow shell with a radius of ~15″. We present ALMA Cycle 0 band 6 observations of the J = 14 – 13 rotational transition of CH3CN in IRC +10216, obtained with an angular resolution of 0.″76×0.″61. The bulk of the emission is distributed as a hollow shell located at just ~2″ from the star, with a void of emission in the central region up to a radius of ~1″. This spatial distribution is markedly different from those found to date in this source for other molecules. Our analysis indicate that methyl cyanide is not formed neither in the stellar photosphere nor far in the outer envelope, but at radial distances as short as 1-2″, reaching a maximum abundance of ~ 0.02 molecules cm−3 at 2″ from the star. Standard chemical models of IRC +10216 predict that the bulk of CH3CN molecules should be present at a radius of ~ 15″, where other species such as polyyne radicals and cyanopolyynes are observed, with an additional inner component within 1″ from the star. The non-uniform structure of the circumstellar envelope and grain surface processes are discussed as possible causes of the peculiar distribution of methyl cyanide in IRC +10216. PMID:26709313

  11. THE PECULIAR DISTRIBUTION OF CH3CN IN IRC +10216 SEEN BY ALMA.

    PubMed

    Agúndez, M; Cernicharo, J; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Prieto, L Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A; Marcelino, N; Guélin, M

    2015-12-01

    IRC +10216 is a circumstellar envelope around a carbon-rich evolved star which contains a large variety of molecules. According to interferometric observations, molecules are distributed either concentrated around the central star or as a hollow shell with a radius of ~15″. We present ALMA Cycle 0 band 6 observations of the J = 14 - 13 rotational transition of CH3CN in IRC +10216, obtained with an angular resolution of [Formula: see text]. The bulk of the emission is distributed as a hollow shell located at just ~2″ from the star, with a void of emission in the central region up to a radius of ~1″. This spatial distribution is markedly different from those found to date in this source for other molecules. Our analysis indicate that methyl cyanide is not formed neither in the stellar photosphere nor far in the outer envelope, but at radial distances as short as 1-2″, reaching a maximum abundance of ~ 0.02 molecules cm(-3) at 2″ from the star. Standard chemical models of IRC +10216 predict that the bulk of CH3CN molecules should be present at a radius of ~ 15″, where other species such as polyyne radicals and cyanopolyynes are observed, with an additional inner component within 1″ from the star. The non-uniform structure of the circumstellar envelope and grain surface processes are discussed as possible causes of the peculiar distribution of methyl cyanide in IRC +10216.

  12. IRAS 16547–4247: A NEW CANDIDATE OF A PROTOCLUSTER UNVEILED WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Aya E.; Saigo, Kazuya; Chibueze, James O.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Garay, Guido

    2015-01-10

    We present the results of continuum and {sup 12}CO(3-2) and CH{sub 3}OH(7-6) line observations of IRAS 16547–4247 made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at an angular resolution of ∼0.''5. The {sup 12}CO(3-2) emission shows two high-velocity outflows whose driving sources are located within the dust continuum peak. The alignment of these outflows does not coincide with that of the wide-angle, large-scale, bipolar outflow detected with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment in previous studies. The CH{sub 3}OH(7-6) line emission traces an hourglass structure associated with the cavity walls created by the outflow lobes. Taking into account our results together with the position of the H{sub 2}O and class I CH{sub 3}OH maser clusters, we discuss two possible scenarios that can explain the hourglass structure observed in IRAS 16547–4247: (1) precession of a biconical jet, (2) multiple, or at least two, driving sources powering intersecting outflows. Combining the available evidence, namely, the presence of two cross-aligned bipolar outflows and two different H{sub 2}O maser groups, we suggest that IRAS 16547–4247 represents an early formation phase of a protocluster.

  13. Implementing Kanban for agile process management within the ALMA Software Operations Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reveco, Johnny; Mora, Matias; Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Sepulveda, Jorge; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    After the inauguration of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Software Operations Group in Chile has refocused its objectives to: (1) providing software support to tasks related to System Integration, Scientific Commissioning and Verification, as well as Early Science observations; (2) testing the remaining software features, still under development by the Integrated Computing Team across the world; and (3) designing and developing processes to optimize and increase the level of automation of operational tasks. Due to their different stakeholders, each of these tasks presents a wide diversity of importances, lifespans and complexities. Aiming to provide the proper priority and traceability for every task without stressing our engineers, we introduced the Kanban methodology in our processes in order to balance the demand on the team against the throughput of the delivered work. The aim of this paper is to share experiences gained during the implementation of Kanban in our processes, describing the difficulties we have found, solutions and adaptations that led us to our current but still evolving implementation, which has greatly improved our throughput, prioritization and problem traceability.

  14. Three-dimensional mapping of the water cycle and D/H on Mars with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Clarke, John T.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Khayat, Alain; Hecht, Michael; Fisher, David Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Using ALMA, we mapped the vertical distribution of the water D/H across a broad range of terrains and times of days and local seasons on Mars. The observations were done in March/2016 and targeted four lines of isotopic water (H2O, HDO, H218O, H217O), and one line of isotopic carbon monoxide (C17O) used for establishing the thermal structure. The observations allowed us to investigate and separate how the D/H evolves on the planet, since fractionation processes induced by cloud formation would lead to notable variations of D/H along the column.Isotopic measurements are per-se excellent tracers of water loss/evolution on Mars (Villanueva et al. 2015), yet some of the recently observed variations are striking and reveal a far more complex scenario for the processes acting on the Martian water cycle. They are perhaps indicative of sub-surface water reservoirs interacting with the atmosphere, but the IR measurements did not resolve the vertical structure, limiting the untangling of climatological effects (e.g., cloud formation, Rayleigh distillation).We will present 3D maps of water and D/H and will discuss possible scenarios to explain the observations, in particular, in the context of the upper-atmosphere D/H MAVEN measurements.Villanueva, G. L., Mumma, M. J., Novak, R. E., et al. 2015, Science, 348, 218

  15. ORIGIN AND KINEMATICS OF THE ERUPTIVE FLOW FROM XZ TAU REVEALED BY ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Luis A.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Palau, Aina; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Tafoya, Daniel; Loinard, Laurent; Curiel, Salvador

    2015-09-20

    We present high angular resolution (∼0.″94) {sup 12}CO(1-0) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations obtained during the 2014 long baseline campaign from the eruptive bipolar flow from the multiple XZ Tau stellar system discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These observations reveal, for the first time, the kinematics of the molecular flow. The kinematics of the different ejections close to XZ Tau reveal a rotating and expanding structure with a southeast–northwest velocity gradient. The youngest eruptive bubbles unveiled in the optical HST images are inside of this molecular expanding structure. Additionally, we report a very compact and collimated bipolar outflow emanating from XZ Tau A, which indicates that the eruptive outflow is indeed originating from this object. The mass (3 × 10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙}) and energetics (E{sub kin} = 3 × 10{sup 37} erg) for the collimated outflow are comparable to those found in molecular outflows associated with young brown dwarfs.

  16. ALMA Observations of the Young Substellar Binary System 2M1207

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, L.; Cazzoletti, P.; Czekala, I.; Andrews, S. M.; Wilner, D.; Szűcs, L.; Lodato, G.; Testi, L.; Pascucci, I.; Mohanty, S.; Apai, D.; Carpenter, J. M.; Bowler, B. P.

    2017-07-01

    We present ALMA observations of the 2M1207 system, a young binary made of a brown dwarf with a planetary-mass companion at a projected separation of about 40 au. We detect emission from dust continuum at 0.89 mm and from the J=3-2 rotational transition of CO from a very compact disk around the young brown dwarf. The small radius found for this brown dwarf disk may be due to truncation from the tidal interaction with the planetary-mass companion. Under the assumption of optically thin dust emission, we estimate a dust mass of 0.1 M ⊕ for the 2M1207A disk and a 3σ upper limit of ˜1 M Moon for dust surrounding 2M1207b, which is the tightest upper limit obtained so far for the mass of dust particles surrounding a young planetary-mass companion. We discuss the impact of this and other non-detections of young planetary-mass companions for models of planet formation that predict circumplanetary material to surround these objects.

  17. Thermal mapping of Ceres at 1.2 mm with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moullet, Arielle; Li, Jian-Yang; Titus, Timothy N.; Sykes, Mark V.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lai, Ian-Lin

    2016-10-01

    Ceres' thermal emission distribution, which can be characterized through observations at IR and longer wavelengths, is indicative of radiative and physical properties of its surface such as thermal inertia and roughness. High-resolution maps from the Dawn mission now provide an exquisite geographic and geological context for the interpretation of temperature features, which are at large not accessible to the spacecraft's instruments. In particular, the presence of hydrated minerals and distinctive geological features suggest the existence of ice water reservoirs near the surface, which may be characterized through the analysis of thermal inertia distributions.We report on observations obtained in Fall 2015 at the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), sampling most of the rotation of Ceres and hence allowing one to disentangle local-hour effects from geographical thermal features. The observations were performed during the 2015 Long Baseline Campaign, offering baselines as long as 10 km and yielding a spatial resolution down to 30 mas (~45 km at the equator). At the observed wavelength of 1.2 mm, the thermal emission probes both the emission from the surface and from deeper layers, down to the level of the diurnal skin depth, hence accessing regions where water ice could be stable.We will describe the diurnal and latitudinal temperature variations derived from our observations as well as preliminary results from thermal modeling in terms of subsurface thermal inertia and ice table latitudinal extent. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program grant NNX15AE02G.

  18. A Measurement of the Black-Hole Mass in NGC 1097 using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Kyoko; Iguchi, Satoru; Sheth, Kartik; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-08-01

    We present an estimate of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass in nearby galaxies using molecular gas kinematics.Black holes are nowadays considered to play an important role in the galaxy evolution process, which could be discussed with various known relations between SMBH mass and host galaxy properties. The correlations, however, have relatively small number of samples at this point, mainly due to the constraints given by handful of methods to derive SMBH mass.We present the kinematical analysis of the dense molecular gas in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 observed with ALMA. Using the dynamics traced with HCN(J = 1-0) and HCO+(J = 1-0) emission lines, and by assuming a host galaxy inclination of 46°, we derive a SMBH mass, MBH=1.40+0.27-0.32×108M⊙, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be 5.14+0.03-0.04, using HCN(J = 1-0).Our result showcases ALMA’s potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses, especially for nearby late-type galaxies. Larger samples and accurate SMBH masses will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole and host galaxy properties and constrain the coevolutionary growth of galaxies and black holes.

  19. A Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1097 Using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, K.; Iguchi, S.; Sheth, K.; Kohno, K.

    2015-06-01

    We present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 using Atacamma Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of dense gas kinematics. Dense molecular gas dynamics are traced with HCN(J=1-0) and HC{{O}+}(J=1-0) emission lines. Assuming a host galaxy inclination of 46{}^\\circ , we derive an SMBH mass, {{M}BH}=1.40-0.32+0.27× {{10}8 }{{M}⊙ }, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be 5.14-0.04+0.03, using HCN(J=1-0). The estimated parameters are consistent between the two emission lines. The measured SMBH mass is in good agreement with the SMBH mass and bulge velocity dispersion relationship. Our result showcases ALMA’s potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses, especially for nearby late-type galaxies. Larger samples and accurate SMBH masses will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole (BH) and host galaxy properties and constrain the coevolutionary growth of galaxies and BHs.

  20. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  1. Cosmic Star-Formation History and Deep ALMA imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, James

    2015-08-01

    I will give an overview of how recent work at UV, optical, infrared, mm and radio wavelengths have impacted on our current understanding of the cosmic evolution of co-moving star-formation rate density. I will review recent progress at redshifts z ~ 2 - 3, corresponding to the putative peak of star-formation activity. However, I will focus primarily on new results at the very highest redshifts, within 1 Gyr of the Big Bang, where dramatic recent observational progress with Hubble, Spitzer, Vista, and spectrographs on 8-m telescopes has enabled us to chart the rise of the early galaxy population back to redshifts z ~ 10, and to deduce the basic physical properties of galaxies at these early times. We have also been able to estimate the contribution of young galaxies to the reionization of the Universe, and I will show that the inferred progress of reionization is now in excellent agreement with new measurements of the Thomson scattering optical depth from microwave background observations with Planck. I will conclude with a discussion of how new results from deep ALMA imaging have the potential to clarify and complete our understanding of cosmic star-formation history.

  2. ALMA SiO (5-4) Observations: Protostellar Outflows near Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Royster, M.; Wardle, M.; Arendt, R.; Bushouse, H. A.; Lis, D. C.; Pound, M. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Whitney, B.; Wootten, A.

    2013-06-01

    ALMA observations of the Galactic center resulted in the detection of a number of SiO (5-4) clumps of molecular gas in the 2-pc molecular ring orbiting Sgr A*. Eleven clumps of SiO (5-4) are also found within 0.6pc (15'') of Sgr A*. The three SiO (5-4) clumps closest to Sgr A* show the largest central velocities of ~150 km/s and broadest asymmetric linewidths with full width zero intensity (FWZI) 110-147 km/s. Other clumps beyond the inner 15'' show narrow linewidths (FWZI ~18-56 km/s. Using CARMA SiO (2-1) data, LVG modeling of the broad velocity clumps, constrain the H2 gas density (3-9)x10^5 cm^-3 for an assumed kinetic temperature 100-200K. The SiO clumps combined with evidence of YSO candidates are interpreted as highly embedded protostellar outflows, signifying an early stage of massive star formation near Sgr A* in the last 10^4-10^5 years. Star formation near Sgr A* is forbidden, unless the gas density is large enough for self-gravity to overcome the strong