Science.gov

Sample records for almanacs

  1. JSC almanac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During America's space shuttle flights, press and public attention focuses on the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The press and public often put questions to JSC technical and management staff. This fourth JSC Almanac supplies answers for many such questions, and provide an informational resource for speeches to general interest groups. This Almanac is not necessarily comprehensive or definitive. It is not intended as a statement of JSC or NASA policy. However, it does provide a much needed compilation of information from diverse sources. These sources are given as references, permitting the reader to obtain additional information as required. While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and to reconcile statistics, users requiring the most up-to-date and accurate information should contact the office supplying the information at issue. The Almanac is updated periodically as needed. The following offices were responsible for supplying material for this update.

  2. Student Almanac. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This almanac is designed for use in the fifth grade course on regional studies which focuses on several case studies rather than on detailed study of each region. (The course is described in ED 062 226). For that reason the factual information is selected and includes figures relevant to the case studies in the regional areas of the Midwest, North…

  3. Science & Technology Almanac, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allstetter, William, Ed.

    This volume links the year's current news to encyclopedic and almanac-style information on science and technology. This second edition is completely updated, offering full news coverage for 1999, revised statistical tables, and updated facts and figures. The timeline has been expanded to include more problems and catastrophes associated with…

  4. Almanac of American Education, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernan Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Almanac of American Education" is an easy-to-use, single-volume source designed to help users understand and compare the quality of education at the national, state, and county levels. Compiled from official U.S. government and reliable private sources, "The Almanac" contains historical and current data, insightful analysis, and useful graphs…

  5. Hydrologic almanac of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Richard C.; Conover, Clyde Stuart

    1981-01-01

    This first edition is a ready reference source of information on various facts and features about water in Florida. It is aimed primarily to help bust politicians, writers, agency officials, water managers, planners, consultants, educators, hydrologists, engineers, scientists, and the general public answer questions that arise on comparative and statistical aspects on the hydrology of Florida. It contains statistical comparative data, much of which was especially prepared for the almanac, a glossary of technical terms, tabular material, and conversion factors. Also included is a selective bibliography of 174 reports on water in Florida. (USGS)

  6. Almanac services for celestial navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelmes, S.; Whittaker, J.

    2015-08-01

    Celestial navigation remains a vitally important back up to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and relies on the use of almanac services. HM Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) provides a number of these services. The printed book, The Nautical Almanac, produced yearly and now available as an electronic publication, is continuously being improved, making use of the latest ideas and ephemerides to provide the user with their required data. HMNAO also produces NavPac, a software package that assists the user in calculating their position as well as providing additional navigational and astronomical tools. A new version of NavPac will be released in 2015 that will improve the user experience. The development of applications for mobile devices is also being considered. HMNAO continues to combine the latest improvements and theories of astrometry with the creation of books and software that best meet the needs of celestial navigation users.

  7. Texas Almanac, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary G., Ed.

    The 61st edition of the "Texas Almanac" has a reputation as the definitive source for Texas information since 1857. It contains details of the Census 2000 official population count, including statewide, county and town counts, plus an analysis of the numbers by experts at Texas's State Data Center. It includes information about politics,…

  8. The NEA 1994 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Harold, Ed.

    The 1994 edition of the NEA Almanac of Higher Education offers this year, in addition to the usual statistical data that the almanac has traditionally provided, seven articles that analyze important trends in higher education by leading scholars from across the nation. "Faculty Salaries, 1992-1993" by John B. Lee gives a detailed analysis of…

  9. Indians in Almanacs (1793-1815)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrick, Jon S.

    1975-01-01

    The American Indian appeared frequently in the almanac literature of 1783-1815 and was used as a source of humor, political comment, romanticism, etc, much of which contributed to the cultural conflict of the times. (JC)

  10. Nautical Almanac Office 1975-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. K.

    1997-12-01

    During the period of 1975 to 1996 The Nautical Almanac Office (NAO) underwent a number of changes in the publications and products of the office. There was also an organizational change in 1990, when the NAO name changed from being a department to a division within the Astronomical Applications Department. LeRoy E. Doggett was responsible for editing and publishing during the period. The Air Almanac was reduced from three to two volumes per year in 1977 and from two to one in 1987. In 1977 the Almanac for Computers was introduced. In 1981 a reformated and single publication,"The Astronomical Almanac", replaced "The Astronomical Ephemeris" published in the U.K. and "The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac' published in the U.S. The bases for the publication were changed in 1984. The Floppy Almanac was introduced in 1986 and MICA was introduced in 1993. In addition to the publications LeRoy Doggett handled phone calls and letters, particularly about phenomena, calendars, and history. This was done in both a scholarly and user friendly style.

  11. Positional Accuracy of Gps Satellite Almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lihua; Zhou, Shangli

    2014-12-01

    How to accelerate signal acquisition and shorten starting time are key problems in the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS satellite almanac plays an important role in signal reception period. Almanac accuracy directly affects the speed of GPS signal acquisition, the start time of the receiver, and even the system performance to some extent. Combined with precise ephemeris products released by the International GNSS Service (IGS), the authors analyse GPS satellite almanac from the first day to the third day in the 1805th GPS week (from August 11 to 13, 2014 in the Gregorian calendar). The results show that mean of position errors in three-dimensional coordinate system varies from about 1 kilometer to 3 kilometers, which can satisfy the needs of common users.

  12. Stars on Local Time: A Personal Almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb-Roberts, M.

    2016-01-01

    First presented at INSAP VIII, the artwork A Personal Almanac is my interpretation of the familiar seasons-of-life allegory. The booklet's eight pairs of seasonal pages— spring equinox through the cross-quarter Groundhog Day—portray a life in the decades from the 1940s to the 2010s under the stars of rural Georgia, France, Miami, West Africa and the other places I have lived. A Personal Almanac is included in the art book A Durable Tale, the illustrated story of my thirty-year search in the Southeast United States and in West Africa for living memories of old star almanacs. In that odyssey I uncovered some very deep roots for an oral literature of the African desert, the nomadic bard's star story that I believe inspired creation of the first nine tablets of the standard version Babylonian Gilgamesh.

  13. Texas Almanac Teacher's Guide, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas Morning News, TX.

    This teacher's guide utilizes the subject matter in the 1998-99 Texas Almanac in a variety of interdisciplinary student activities for grades 3-8. The guide includes a grade-by-grade curriculum chart detailing which lessons correspond to specific Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) objectives and Essential Element requirements. The 45…

  14. Texas Almanac Teacher's Guide, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, Betty; Ferguson, Sharon; Haynes, Beverly; Jacobs, Margaret; Jameson, Eugenia E.; Massey, Linda; Moran, Rebecca; Wilson, Ann

    This interdisciplinary guide utilizes the subject matter in the 2002-2003 "Texas Almanac" to help classroom educators teach students in grades three to eight about the social, economic, cultural, and historical background of Texas. The guide has questions, puzzles, and activities that teachers can use to inform their students about the Lone Star…

  15. The NEA 1995 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This almanac contains seven articles on current issues in higher education and a report on current faculty salaries. Part 1 includes the following articles: (1) "Faculty Salaries, 1993-94" (John B. Lee), which tracks national and state salary trends; (2) "Workload and Productivity: Case Studies" (Henry L. Allen), which presents case studies of…

  16. The NEA 1993 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rebecca L., Ed.

    This 1993 Almanac of the National Education Association for the higher education sector offers, for the first time, faculty salary data, as well as a review of the year, a listing of resources, and analysis of policy developments. The faculty salary report analyzes the current state of academic salaries by rank and type of institution, and places…

  17. The NEA 2003 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This 10th anniversary edition of the almanac includes: "Foreword" (Rachel Hendrickson); "Overview" (Harold S. Wechsler); "Faculty Salaries: 2001-2002" (Suzanne B. Clery and John B. Lee); "Diversity, Nonstandard Work, and Academic Employment in the 21st Century" (Henry Lee Allen); "The Federal Role in Higher Education" (Thomas R. Wolanin); "Higher…

  18. Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac 1800-2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliversen, N. A.; Harris, W. T.; Puatua, W. K.; Tangren, W. J.; Bangert, J. A.; Kaplan, G. H.; Janiczek, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA) is a software system for Windows and Mac OS computers that provides high-precision astronomical data in tabular form for a wide variety of celestial objects. MICA was designed primarily for professional applications, and provides essential data for use by astronomers, surveyors, meteorologists, navigators and others who regularly need accurate information on the positions, motions, and phenomena of celestial objects. MICA computes many of the astronomical quantities tabulated in The Astronomical Almanac. However, MICA can compute this information for specific locations and specific times, thus eliminating the need for table look-ups and additional hand calculations. MICA was first released in 1993. A major update, MICA 2.0, was released in summer 2005. MICA 2.0 provides all the data available in earlier versions of the software. Several new features have been added to the new version, including: extended date coverage from 1800 to 2050; a redesigned user interface; a graphical sky map; a phenomena calculator (eclipses, transits, equinoxes, solstices, conjunctions, oppositions, elongations), ephemerides of Jupiter's Galilean satellites and selected asteroids; the JPL DE405 lunar and planetary ephemerides; and updated catalogs of celestial objects, including a new astrometric catalog containing about 230,000 stars. The MICA 2.0 software was developed by the U.S. Naval Observatory's Astronomical Applications Department. The software and a user manual are distributed by Willmann-Bell, Inc. For more information see: http://aa.usno.navy.mil/software/mica/micainfo.html.

  19. Development of Nautical Almanac at Korea Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, In-Woo; Shin, Junho

    1994-12-01

    In Korea Astronomy Observatory, we developed a S/W package to compile the Korean Nautical Almanac. We describe the motivation to develop the S/W and explain the S/W package in general terms. In appendix, we describe the procedure to calculate the polaris table in more detail. When we developed the S/W, we paid much attention to produce accurate data. We also made great effort to automate the compilation of Nautical Almanac as far as possible, since the compilation is time consuming labour extensive. As a result, the S/W we developed turns out to be very accurate and efficient to compile Nautical Almanac. In fact, we could compile a Korean Nautical Almanac in a few days.

  20. Implementation of the new nomenclature in The Astronomical Almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenkerk, C. Y.

    2006-08-01

    This talk charts the implementation of the resolutions of the 24^th International Astronomical Union in 2000 (IAU 2000) in The Astronomical Almanac (AsA), a joint publication of HM Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) and the Nautical Almanac Office of the US Naval Observatory (USNO). The aspects of the resolutions that will be discussed are (a) the implementation of IAU 2000 precession-nutation theory, and (b) the recommendation to use what is now called the Celestial Intermediate Origin (CIO) as the origin for right ascension. It is only when new concepts are fully considered, the software tools developed and an established nomenclature exists that a new algorithm may be introduced successfully into any almanac. I will highlight these areas, in the context of Section B - Time-scales and Coordinate Systems, the section of the AsA which covers these topics, and for which HMNAO is responsible.

  1. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (3rd Edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Sean E.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Publications and software from the the Astronomical Applications Department of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) are used throughout the world, not only in the Department of Defense for safe navigation, but by many people including other navigators, astronomers, aerospace engineers, and geodesists. Products such as The Nautical Almanac, The Astronomical Almanac, and the Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA) are regarded as international standards. To maintain credibility, it is imperative that the methodologies employed and the data used are well documented. "The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter, "The ES") is a major source of such documentation. It is a comprehensive reference book on positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of USNO and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). The first edition of The ES appeared in 1961, and the second followed in 1992. Several major changes have taken place in fundamental astronomy since the second edition was published. Advances in radio observations allowed the celestial reference frame to be tied to extragalactic radio sources, thus the International Celestial Reference System replaced the FK5 system. The success of ESA's Hipparcos satellite dramatically altered observational astrometry. Improvements in Earth orientation observations lead to new precession and nutation theories. Additionally, a new positional paradigm, no longer tied to the ecliptic and equinox, was accepted. Largely because of these changes, staff at USNO and HMNAO decided the time was right for the next edition of The ES. The third edition is now available; it is a complete revision of the 1992 book. Along with subjects covered in the previous two editions, the book also contains descriptions of the major advancements in positional astronomy over the last 20 years, some of which are

  2. The future of almanac services --- an HMNAO perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S.; Nelmes, S.; Prema, P.; Whittaker, J.

    2015-08-01

    This talk will explore the means for delivering almanac data currently under consideration by HM Nautical Almanac Office in the near to medium future. While there will be a need to continue printed almanacs, almanac data must be available in a variety of forms ranging from paper almanacs to traditional web services through to applications for mobile devices and smartphones. The supply of data using applications may call for a different philosophy in supplying ephemeris data, one that differentiates between an application that calls on a web server for its data and one that has built-in ephemerides. These ephemerides need to be of a reasonably high precision while maintaining a modest machine footprint. These services also need to provide a wide range of applications ranging from traditional sunrise/set data though to more specialized services such as celestial navigation. The work necessary to meet these goals involves efficient programming, intuitive user interfaces, compact and efficient ephemerides and a suitable range of tools to meet the user's needs.

  3. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Third Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Urban, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    "The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter "The Explanatory Supplement") is a comprehensive reference book on the topic of positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce "The Astronomical Almanac" (AsA), an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) of the UK Hydrographic Office. The first edition of The Explanatory Supplement appeared in 1961 and was reprinted with amendments during the 1970s. The second edition was printed in 1992 and reprinted until 2006. Since the second edition, several changes have taken place in positional astronomy regarding reference systems and internationally accepted models, data sets, and computational methods; these have been incorporated into the AsA. Additionally, the data presented in the AsA have been modified over the years, with new tables being added and some being discontinued. Given these changes, a new edition of The Explanatory Supplement is appropriate. The third edition has been in development for the last few years and will be available in 2010. The book is organized similarly to the second (1991) edition, with each chapter written by subject matter experts. Authors from USNO and HMNAO contributed to the majority of the book, but there are authors from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Technical University of Dresden, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, University of Texas Austin, and University of Virginia. This paper will discuss this latest edition of the Explanatory Supplement.

  4. Arab World Almanac, Volume 2, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie Schmida, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Each of the three issues of this volume of "Arab World Almanac" features a self-contained lesson plan on one aspect of the Arab world. The Fall, 1990 issue focuses on "Oil and the Arab World." The Winter, 1991 issue looks at "The Arab World in the World Wars." The Spring, 1991 issue examines "Islamic Revival in the Arab World." Each issue includes…

  5. The medical content of English almanacs 1640-1700.

    PubMed

    Curth, Louise Hill

    2005-07-01

    There has been a great deal of recent interest in popular health care in early modern England, resulting in studies on a range of topics from practitioners through remedial treatment. Over the past decade, the history of books has also attracted growing interest. This is particularly true for the seventeenth century, a period marked by a dramatic rise in all types of printed works. The 1640s are especially significant in the evolution of printed vernacular medical publications, which continued to flourish during the rest of the century. While recent studies on popular medical books have contributed greatly to our understanding of contemporary medical beliefs and practices, they have failed to properly recognize the effect that almanacs had on early modern medicine. Although their primary function was not to disseminate medical information, most provided a great deal of medical information. Furthermore, these cheap, annual publications targeted and were read by a wide cross-section of the public, making them the first true form of British mass media. This article is based on the content of 1,392 almanacs printed between 1640 and 1700, which may make it the largest comparative study of the medical content of any early modern printed works. The project has resulted in two major findings. First of all, almanacs played a major part in the dissemination, continuing popularity, and longevity of traditional astrological and Galenic beliefs and practices. Secondly, at the same time, almanacs played an important early role in the growth of medical materialism in Britain. PMID:15917257

  6. [Selling health! A new look at old-time pharmacy almanacs].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mario Luiz

    2006-01-01

    Offering images of pharmaceutical products and marketing strategies, pharmacy almanacs are a valuable source when researching the history of medications. The article analyzes the idea of science that was presented in these almanacs and demonstrates how this research source is pertinent to the history both of science and of advertising in Brazil. PMID:17533733

  7. The Astronomical Almanac 2006: Changes Resulting from IAU Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, S. E.; Bell, S.; Kaplan, G. H.; Hohenkerk, C. Y.; Stewart, S. G.; Bangert, J. A.; Hilton, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last few decades, advances in the precision of astronomical and geophysical measurements along with improvements in the underlying theories have lead astronomers to realize that better models and computation methods -- and detailed specifications on how to apply them -- were necessary. This work culminated in several resolutions that were adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1997 and 2000. These include changes to the fundamental celestial reference system, changes to time-scales used in astronomy, new models of precession and nutation, and a new method of computing Earth rotation. Among the first places astronomers will notice the influence of the resolutions is in The Astronomical Almanac (AsA), produced jointly by the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Due to the breadth of the changes and the required lead time, the 2006 edition is the first to have the data consistent with the resolutions. Much of the 2006 AsA is based on new software -- the IAU SOFA package for the data prepared by the British, and a considerably updated NOVAS package for the American portion -- and much new text has been included that describes the new formulations and paradigms. Since the AsA has page limitations, a practical explanation about the resolutions and how to implement them are addressed in detail in a separate publication, USNO Circular 179 (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/publications/docs/Circular_179.html). This paper will discuss specific changes in the The Astronomical Almanac 2006 and identify resources for additional information.

  8. The Liberating Role of Astronomy in an Old Farmer's Almanac: David Rittenhouse's "Useful Knowledge" and a Benjamin Banneker Almanac for 1792

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, astronomy met theology and political ethics in almanacs. As presented in early New England almanacs of the farmer's type, astronomy was deity-affirming and liberty-oriented. The old English label for astronomy that affirms theology was "Astro-theology" (William Derham, 1715). The New England rendering of astro-theology was so strongly oriented towards liberty that it can now be labeled astro-liberation theology. This 21st century label is appropriate because 18th century New England printers and astronomers used astronomy to demonstrate the glory of the Creator (astro-theology) and to encourage liberation from colonialism and slavery (astro-liberation theology). A philosophy of astronomy as "useful knowledge' expressed by David Rittenhouse in 1775 - and implicit in a Benjamin Banneker almanac for 1792 - included liberty-oriented visions of planet Earth as seen from outer space, and liberty-oriented visions of intelligent life on other planets orbiting other stars.

  9. Implementation of the new nomenclature in the Astronomical Almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenkerk, C.

    2005-09-01

    Following the resolutions of the 24th International Astronomical Union in 2000 (IAU 2000) together with the implementation and availability of the various software routines, it became imperative that The Astronomical Almanac (AsA) included the IAU recommended techniques for applying precession-nutation. This involves introducing the Earth rotation angle (ERA), the adopted relationship between Universal Time (UT1) and the rotation of the Earth, together with the celestial intermediate origin (CIO), the corresponding origin for right ascension. The introduction of the CIO has been complicated by the fact that new nomenclature is required, which is in the process of being discussed and agreed by the IAU Working Group on Nomenclature for Fundamental Astronomy. However, an attempt has been made in the 2006 edition to incorporate the new nomenclature (which is also used here) and describe the process in a straight forward way with the intention of helping the diverse user community.

  10. Future Directions in Almanac Products from the U.S. Naval Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, J. A.; Fiala, A. D.; Kaplan, G. H.

    1997-12-01

    The Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory provides astronomical almanac data to the Department of Defense, the international scientific community, and the general public. The way in which these data are produced, distributed, and used has evolved considerably in just the past few years, and responsiveness to the needs of a diverse user community forces a continuing evolution of the products. "Almanac data" now consists not just of tables of numbers, but increasingly includes graphics, algorithms, software, and documentation. Paper publications, PC-based computer applications, and the World Wide Web are all currently used as distribution mechanisms, and the appropriateness of specific data types to specific media is undergoing a general review. Input from the astronomical community is being sought so that both the content and the format of the products remain useful. Specific new initiatives include a broad review of the contents of The Astronomical Almanac (a cooperative effort with Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office at RGO); a new version of the Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA) for years 1990-2005 (available for PCs and Macs); and the development of web-based astronomical information including both static pages and interactive applications (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/AA/).

  11. Nuclear almanac: confronting the atom in war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, J.

    1984-01-01

    The MIT Faculty Coalition for Disarmament prepared this almanac for those who wish to find in a single volume of factual account of the discovery, development, and use of nuclear energy - as well as a critical evaluation of policy issues raised by nuclear armaments and nuclear power. It is their hope that, with this knowledge readily accessible, public opinion will be better informed and public policy more responsible and wise. In an introductory essay, Henry S. Commager, distinguished historian at Amherst College challenges us to put the interests of all peoples ahead of national loyalties. Another introductory essay by Nan Randall, consultant to the Office of Technology Assessment, in Charlottesville: a fictional account, pictures the effects on an old and beautiful city fortunate enough to escape the warheads in a large-scale nuclear war. Twenty-six separate chapters are then included under 9 separate Parts: the Story of Nuclear Weapons; Nuclear Weapons Effects; Nuclear War; Nuclear Warheads; Consequences; International Issues; Nuclear Energy; Action; and Background. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 26 chapters.

  12. Ceque System of Cuzco: A Yearly Calendar-Almanac in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, R. Tom

    The Incas used for the administration of Cuzco, the capital of their empire, and its valley a system of 41 directions, called ceque, as viewed from their central temple of the Sun. This system registered their concerns with space, including ritual space, hierarchy, and time, the latter in the form of a detailed calendar-almanac of weekly, monthly, seasonal, and yearly activities. From Inca times are also preserved some textiles that represent different regular calendars concerning the sun, moon, and stars. Detailed ethnohistoric evidence allows the reconstruction of the Ceque calendar-almanac.

  13. Estimating plant available water for general crop simulations in ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based simulation models ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT contain generalized plant growth subroutines to predict biomass and crop yield. Environmental constraints typically restrict plant growth and yield. Water stress is often an important limiting factor; it is calculated as the sum of water use f...

  14. Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

  15. Almanac of enforceable state laws to control nonpoint source water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This new report provides a comprehensive review of existing state laws that can be applied to control polluted runoff from farms, forests, land development, and other activities not regulated under the Clean Water Act`s permit program. The study contains 52 summary reports for the states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, identifying laws where compliance can be enforced. The Almanac is a valuable tool for attorneys, corporations, citizen groups, state and federal legislators, and policymakers seeking ways to address nonpoint source pollution.

  16. Verification of the Astronomical Almanac's algorithm for approximate the position of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lin; Shen, Guotu; Cai, Jiguang; Dong, Zhanhai; Gao, Jing

    2013-09-01

    With the consumption of the resources, it's important to develop clean solar energy that can solve the problem of energy shortage. Obtaining an accurate position of the sun is the premise of using the solar energy efficiently. An accurate solar position includes two factors that are elevation and azimuth. In the paper, Joseph J. Michalsky's algorithm for calculation of the solar position is verified that is taken from the American Astronomical Almanac. The algorithm has been written into program by Joseph J. Michalsky in FORTRAN. In the paper, it's has been adapted to visual C++ that can calculate the solar elevation and azimuth and errors or some places that less accurate are corrected. The Chinese Astronomical Almanac for the year 1985 doesn't tabulate elevation and azimuth. The quantities needed to calculate elevation and azimuth are the right ascension, the declination and the Greenwich mean sidereal time that are tabulated in the Almanac. Comparing those variables that calculated from the algorithm with the data from the Chinese Astronomical Almanac for the year 1985, it can be found that the biggest difference of the two ways is only 0.01°, 0.01° and 0.0001h respectively, which prove the accuracy of the algorithm indirectly. The measured data that only include elevation comes from Basic Data of Geography in China written by Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Comparing elevation given by the algorithm with the measured data, it shows that the algorithm can be accurate calculating the position of the sun in some extent. And the paper shows in detail the conversion from the local real solar time to Universal Time because the time in Basic Data of Geography in China is the local real solar time. Finally we notice that the 0.01° accuracy mentioned by other paper is not the accuracy of the elevation and azimuth of the sun, but the accuracy of the right ascension and declination. It's easy to understand why the difference of the results

  17. The Education Almanac, 1987-1988. Facts and Figures about Our Nation's System of Education. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Leroy V., Ed.

    This is the third edition of the Education Almanac, an assemblage of statistics, facts, commentary, and basic background information about the conduct of schools in the United States. Features of this variegated volume include an introductory section on "Education's Newsiest Developments," followed by some vital educational statistics, a set of…

  18. Parameterization of ALMANAC crop simulation model for non-irrigated dry bean in semi-arid temperate areas in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models can be used to make management decisions when properly parameterized. This study aimed to parameterize the ALMANAC (Agricultural Land Management Alternatives with Numerical Assessment Criteria) crop simulation model for dry bean in the semi-arid temperate areas of Mexico. The par...

  19. The Almanac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Modern revolutions, in all of their historical varieties and doctrines, perplex many of us. In the hopes of providing some elements for profitable reflection, 23 quotes from famous sources are provided. For example; "Every act of rebelling expresses a nostalgia for innocence" (Albert Camus). (NW)

  20. Study of the star catalogue (epoch AD 1396.0) recorded in ancient Korean astronomical almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Junhyeok; Lee, Yong Bok; Lee, Yong-Sam

    2015-11-01

    The study of old star catalogues provides important astrometric data. Most of the researches based on the old star catalogues were manuscript published in Europe and from Arabic/Islam. However, the old star catalogues published in East Asia did not get attention. Therefore, among the East Asian star catalogues we focus on a particular catalogue recorded in a Korean almanac. Its catalogue contains 277 stars that are positioned in a region within 10° of the ecliptic plane. The stars in the catalogue were identified using the modern Hipparcos catalogue. We identified 274 among 277 stars, which is a rate of 98.9 per cent. The catalogue records the epoch of the stars' positions as AD 1396.0. However, by using all of the identified stars we found that the initial epoch of the catalogue is AD 1363.1 ± 3.2. In conclusion, the star catalogue was compiled and edited from various older star catalogues. We assume a correlation with the Almagest by Ptolemaios. This study presents newly analysed results from the historically important astronomical data discovered in East Asia. Therefore, this star catalogue will become important data for comparison with the star catalogues published in Europe and from Arabic/Islam.

  1. The Peoples Multicultural Almanac: America from the 1400s to Present. 365 Days of Contributions by African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, European Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Earl J., Jr.; And Others

    The Peoples Multicultural Almanac provides five entries for each day in the school year, September through May, organized for the following ethnic groups: (1) African Americans; (2) Asian Americans; (3) European Americans; (4) Hispanic Americans; and (5) Native Americans. The entries highlight significant social, political, historical, cultural,…

  2. 2012-2013 CAUT Almanac of Post-Secondary Education in Canada = 2012-2013 Almanach de l'enseignement postsecondaire au Canada de l'ACPPU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In previous editions of the CAUT Almanac, data for provincial postsecondary education expenditures, total expenditures and university and college revenues and expenditures was reported from Statistics Canada's Financial Management System (FMS), which Statistics Canada last published for the 2008-2009 fiscal year. Statistics Canada will be adopting…

  3. Book review: "Astronomical almanac", 2016, vol. 62. Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev. ISBN 978-966-02-7765-6,2015, 286 p.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The first part of the almanac gives the 2016 calendar, description of calendar systems used by various peoples in the world, ephemerides for the Sun, the Moon, and planets, moments of rising and setting for the Sun and the Moon, planetary configurations, the visibility of planets and Jupiter's satellites on the sky, some data on variable stars, comets, occultations of stars by the Moon and asteroids, meteor showers, eclipses, and other celestial phenomena. The second part informs us on the current state of investigations in some fields of astronomy, and gives some memorable dates in history of astronomy and cosmonautics. The almanac may be used as a handbook by specialists in astronomy and related sciences, by school teachers, students, pupils, amateur astronomers etc.

  4. The Mother's Almanac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Marguerite; Parsons, Elia

    This book is a compilation of practical suggestions for mothers on caring for children from birth through age 6. Everyday problems are discussed in an easy-to-read anecdotal style. The first section of the book deals with family life, including discussions of birth, breast feeding, basic child care (e.g., how to diaper a squirming baby),…

  5. Arab World Almanac 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie S., Ed.; Hurd, Robert, Ed.

    This document is a collection of three lessons to assist high school teachers in introducing the Arab world to their classrooms. The intended purpose of the lessons is to promote greater cross cultural awareness, understanding of the interdependence of peoples and nations, and appreciation for the different approaches other cultures may choose in…

  6. Almanac 2015: coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shavelle, David M

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in the evaluation and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. These include assessment of novel biomarkers and imaging methods for patients at risk for coronary artery disease, care of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, a novel device to treat medical refractory angina, use of non-statin lipid-lowering agents, a better understanding of the risks and benefits of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy and the use of the newer antiplatelet agents. This article summarises research related to coronary artery disease published in Heart in 2014 and 2015, within the context of other major cardiovascular journals. PMID:26819234

  7. Almanac 2014: aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Otto, Catherine M

    2015-06-01

    The past few years have seen major advances in the diagnosis of aortic valve disease and in our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease. In addition, transcatheter aortic valve implantation has transformed our clinical management options. This article summarises new aortic valve disease research published in Heart in 2013 and 2014, within the context of other major studies published in general medical journals, including a discussion of the potential impact of these new research findings on the clinical approach to management of adults with aortic valve disease.

  8. The NEA 2001 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Harold S., Ed.

    This report contains seven articles on current issues in higher education and a separate faculty salary report for 1999-2000. Articles on the "Status of the Profession" are: (1) "Faculty Salaries, 1999-2000" (Suzanne B. Clery and John B. Lee); (2) "Unions and Faculty Governance" (Christine Maitland and Gary Rhoades); (3) "Higher Education…

  9. Environment and the Law. Legal Almanac Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Irving J.

    This survey is designed to provide the general reader with some basic background on the legal aspects of the effort to achieve environmental quality. The first chapter discusses the structure of federal environmental control in terms of newly established agencies and recently enacted legislation. Other chapters deal individually with air, water,…

  10. The NEA 1992 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rebecca L., Ed.

    This publication presents 1992 higher education and National Education Association (NEA) facts and statistics, updating what appeared in earlier editions and including for the first time tables from three recent studies on faculty. The book arranges information in four sections. The first, "The Academy: A Statistical Profile," covers higher…

  11. The 1987 NEA Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Harold, Ed.

    Statistics on higher education, a review of developments during 1985-1986, a list of resources and references, and information on the National Education Association (NEA) are presented. Information is included on: new books on higher education, federal legislation concerning higher education, federal higher education grants, and winners of college…

  12. Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    PubMed

    Liew, Reginald

    2013-10-01

    Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management. This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

  13. The Almanac of Higher Education: 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This overview of United States higher education is organized in two parts, respectively headed "The Nation" and "The States." The book opens with summary statistics followed by key data displayed in map form. A section on nine issues affecting colleges offers a table listing each college's standing on those issues. A section on students displays…

  14. Almanac 2015: atrial fibrillation research in Heart

    PubMed Central

    Jawad-Ul-Qamar, Muhammad; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation continues to attract interest in the cardiovascular community and in Heart. Over 60 original research and review papers published in Heart in 2014–2015 cover various aspects of atrial fibrillation, from associated conditions and precipitating factors to new approaches to management. Here, we provide an overview of articles on atrial fibrillation published in Heart in 2014–2015, highlighting new developments, emerging concepts and novel approaches to treatment. PMID:26791994

  15. The NEA 1997 Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Harold, Ed.

    This report contains seven essays on current issues in higher education and a 1995-96 faculty salary report. "Faculty Salaries, 1995-96" (John B. Lee) provides an overview of faculty salaries, while "Faculty Workload and Productivity: Ethnic and Gender Disparities (Henry L. Allen) examines the ethnic and gender differences in faculty workload and…

  16. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  17. The Bowker Annual: Library and Book Trade Almanac[TM], 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Dave, Ed.

    This 46th edition of the "Bowker Annual" chronicles another year of rapid evaluation as the library and book trade worlds adapt to the many changes wrought by new technologies. Electronic information is now key to virtually every aspect of both industries, and decisions on its best presentation and organization offer constant challenges and…

  18. Al-Manakh [The Almanac]. Language Centre Journal, Volume 3 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwait Univ., Safat. Language Center.

    These nine articles discuss and offer suggestions for various aspects of language teaching. In "Learning Foreign-Language Phonology: You Can't Hear It If You Can't Say It," Victor W. Mason reviews the literature supporting the proposition that accuracy of articulation is required for aural discrimination. In "Teaching Scanning," James Herbolich…

  19. Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Marianne

    This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book…

  20. Overview: Statistical Almanac, Volume 1. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) was Congressionally mandated to provide information regarding the transition of youth with disabilities from secondary school to early adulthood. Data were collected for more than 8,000 special education students, ages 13-21. The study design involved a survey of…

  1. The Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002. 47th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Dave, Ed.

    This 47th edition is a compilation of practical information and informed analysis of interest to the library, information, and book trade worlds. The volume is divided into six parts. Part 1 includes six Special Reports, as well as reports on the year's activities from federal agencies, federal libraries, and national and international library and…

  2. The Dynamic Architectural and Epigenetic Nuclear Landscape: Developing the Genomic Almanac of Biology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Phillip W. L.; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Wu, Hai; Grandy, Rodrigo A.; Montecino, Martin M.; van Wijnen, André J.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction of the eukaryotic genome into the confined space of the cell nucleus must occur faithfully throughout each cell cycle to retain gene expression fidelity. For decades, experimental limitations to study the structural organization of the interphase nucleus restricted our understanding of its contributions towards gene regulation and disease. However, within the past few years, our capability to visualize chromosomes in vivo with sophisticated fluorescence microscopy, and to characterize chromosomal regulatory environments via massively-parallel sequencing methodologies have drastically changed how we currently understand epigenetic gene control within the context of three-dimensional nuclear structure. The rapid rate at which information on nuclear structure is unfolding brings challenges to compare and contrast recent observations with historic findings. In this review, we discuss experimental breakthroughs that have influenced how we understand and explore the dynamic structure and function of the nucleus, and how we can incorporate historical perspectives with insights acquired from the ever-evolving advances in molecular biology and pathology. PMID:24242872

  3. Vision, Voice, and Intertribal Metanarrative: The American Indian Visual-Rhetorical Tradition and Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roppolo, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    American Indian cultures tend to be right hemispheric because of the ways in which they acquire knowledge. Over the thousands of years that American Indian peoples have lived in this hemisphere, strong visual rhetorics were developed, because of this tendency to engage in visual thinking and the socioeconomic need to communicate with others who…

  4. Almanac 2011: cardiomyopathies. The national society journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Perry M; Mohiddin, Saidi A

    2012-01-01

    As we approach the end of 2011 it is clear that the next few years are going to be dominated by the application of new high throughput genetic screening techniques, capable of screening the entire exome or indeed genome. Understanding the data generated by these techniques will require new and equally sophisticated analysis of large and complex datasets, using a systems biology approach with deeper phenotyping and advanced modelling techniques that have the flexibility for continuous update, refinement with discovery of new knowledge. Exciting new developments that may also transform cardiomyopathy research include those of infrastructure and organisation (multi-centre collaborations) and spin-offs from the field of regenerative medicine research. For clinical researchers that translate this information to the clinic the focus will however remain the same; namely improvement of quality and quantity of life.

  5. Almanac 2011: cardiomyopathies. The national society journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Perry M; Mohiddin, Saidi A

    2012-03-01

    As we approach the end of 2011 it is clear that the next few years are going to be dominated by the application of new high throughput genetic screening techniques, capable of screening the entire exome or indeed genome. Understanding the data generated by these techniques will require new and equally sophisticated analysis of large and complex datasets, using a systems biology approach with deeper phenotyping and advanced modelling techniques that have the flexibility for continuous update, refinement with discovery of new knowledge. Exciting new developments that may also transform cardiomyopathy research include those of infrastructure and organisation (multi-centre collaborations) and spin-offs from the field of regenerative medicine research. For clinical researchers that translate this information to the clinic the focus will however remain the same; namely improvement of quality and quantity of life.

  6. Almanac 2011: cardiomyopathies. The national society journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    M Elliott, Perry; A Mohiddin, Saidi

    2011-12-01

    As we approach the end of 2011 it is clear that the next few years are going to be dominated by the application of new high throughput genetic screening techniques, capable of screening the entire exome or indeed genome. Understanding the data generated by these techniques will require new and equally sophisticated analysis of large and complex datasets, using a systems biology approach with deeper phenotyping and advanced modelling techniques that have the flexibility for continuous update, refinement with discovery of new knowledge. Exciting new developments that may also transform cardiomyopathy research include those of infrastructure and organisation (multi-centre collaborations) and spin-offs from the field of regenerative medicine research. For clinical researchers that translate this information to the clinic the focus will however remain the same; namely improvement of quality and quantity of life.

  7. Youth Categorized as Emotionally Disturbed, Statistical Almanac, Volume 3. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 779 students (ages 13-21) with emotional disturbances. The study design involved a survey of parents/guardians, examination of school records, and a survey of school programs. The 43 tables describe: youths' individual…

  8. Youth Categorized as Mentally Retarded, Statistical Almanac, Volume 5. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 1,204 students with mental retardation (ages 13-21). The study design involved a survey of parents/guardians, examination of school records, and a survey of school programs. The 43 tables describe: youths' individual…

  9. Youth Categorized as Learning Disabled, Statistical Almanac, Volume 2. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 1,191 students with learning disabilities (ages 13-21). The study design involved a survey of parents/guardians, examination of school records, and a survey of school programs. The 43 tables describe: youths'…

  10. Youth Categorized as Hearing Impaired, Statistical Almanac, Volume 7. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 1,688 students with hearing impairments (ages 13-21). The study design involved a survey of parents/guardians, examination of school records, and a survey of school programs. The 43 tables describe: youths' individual…

  11. Youth Categorized as Speech Impaired, Statistical Almanac, Volume 4. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 588 students with speech impairments (ages 13-21). The study design involved a survey of parents/guardians, examination of school records, and a survey of school programs. The 43 tables describe: youths' individual and…

  12. Youth Categorized as Multiply Handicapped, Statistical Almanac, Volume 10. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 744 students (ages 13-21) with concomitant impairments, the combination of which causes such severe educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments…

  13. Youth Categorized as Orthopedically Impaired, Statistical Almanac, Volume 8. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 764 students with orthopedic impairments (ages 13-21). The study design involved a survey of parents/guardians, examination of school records, and a survey of school programs. The 43 tables describe: youths' individual…

  14. Youth Categorized as Visually Impaired, Statistical Almanac, Volume 6. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 875 students with visual impairments (ages 13-21). The study design involved a survey of parents/guardians, examination of school records, and a survey of school programs. The 43 tables describe: youths' individual and…

  15. Youth Categorized as Other Health Impaired, Statistical Almanac, Volume 9. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 475 students (ages 13-21) with health impairments, defined to include youth having limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems that adversely affect education performance (includes…

  16. Ben Franklin. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Ben Franklin is known, among other things, for his wit and wisdom; that Franklin published an almanac for 25 years; and he scattered aphorisms throughout the almanac. The main activity in the lesson is for students…

  17. Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing--an editorial overview of selected research that has driven recent advances in clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    Liew, Reginald

    2014-04-01

    Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management.This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing. PMID:24783482

  18. Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing--an editorial overview of selected research that has driven recent advances in clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    Liew, Reginald

    2014-04-01

    Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management.This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

  19. Dictionnaires et encyclopedies (Dictionaries and Encyclopedias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferran, Pierre

    1988-01-01

    Eight French dictionaries and encyclopedic reference books are reviewed, focusing on their formats, characteristics, and intended uses. They include references for language, geopolitics and economics, economic history, signs and symbols, and an almanac. (MSE)

  20. Benjamin Banneker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Kevin

    A biography of the eighteenth-century black tobacco farmer who taught himself mathematics, astronomy, and clockmaking; became famous for his almanacs; and assisted in the original survey of Washington, D.C.

  1. Eighteenth Century Short Title Catalogue on CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Debora J.

    The Eighteenth Century Short Title Catalogue (ESTC) on compact disc provides access to nearly 300,000 printed materials from Britain and the British colonies from 1701 to 1800. The file contains a wide variety of materials (laws, almanacs, posters, catalogs, directories, verses, monographs, advertisements, and flyers) in all languages, and covers…

  2. The Fate of a Migrant Language in Northern France (1880-1914): Flemish in Song Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Elien; D'hulst, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    New research on the history of nineteenth-century Flemish migration into the North of France shows ample evidence of a complex pattern of transfer procedures taking place between the source and target cultures, both via institutions such as newspapers, magazines and associations and via practices such as popular theatre, almanacs and songs. The…

  3. This Contest Can Give Recognition to Record-Breaking Kids. Front Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1983

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Your local high school students might never get to see their names up in lights. But with talent, luck, and determination, they might get to see their names in print--as winners in the World Almanac's high school records contest. As a way to recognize and reward teenage achievements (and undoubtedly…

  4. The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information. Twenty-First Edition. With Cumulative Index 1972-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Madeline, Ed.; And Others

    The twenty-first edition of the Bowker Annual serves as an almanac, handbook, and fact finder for the library and publishing fields. The first section, "Reports from National Associations and Agencies," summarizes the 1975 activities of 14 organizations. The second part, "Developments in Librarianship and Publishing," features articles on the…

  5. The Unified Plant Growth Model (UPGM): software framework overview and model application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was developed in 1989, the EPIC plant growth component has been incorporated into other erosion and crop management models (e.g., WEPS, WEPP, SWAT, ALMANAC, and APEX) and modified to meet model developer research objectives. This has re...

  6. Distinguished Books. Notable Books of 2002; Best Books for Young Adults; Audiobooks for Young Adults; Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers; Notable Children's Books; Notable Children's Videos; Notable Recordings for Children; Notable Software for Children; Bestsellers of 2002; Literary Prizes, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Riippa, Laurele; Ink, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Includes bibliographies of notable books of 2002, including fiction, nonfiction, and poetry; books for young adults, including fiction, nonfiction, audiobooks, and titles for reluctant readers; notable books for children; videos for children; children's recordings and software; bestsellers, fiction and nonfiction; paperback bestsellers; almanacs,…

  7. Using Web Surveys to Determine Audience Characteristics and Product Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbrick, Jane Hass; Smith, F. Ruth; Bart, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    A web survey is a cost-effective and efficient method to use when measuring the characteristics of an audience and developing or testing new product concepts. This paper reports on the use of a web survey by a start-up media/internet firm, Farmers' Almanac TV. The results indicate that using email to contact respondents from a client list results…

  8. Into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Provides fully developed library media activities that are designed to be used with specific curriculum units. Highlights include elementary school activities for reading and language arts (using the "World Almanac," identifying a story's sequence of events, and using autobiographies); science (causes of wind and learning about squirrels); and…

  9. Celestial Navigation on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malay, Benjamin P.

    2001-05-01

    A simple, accurate, and autonomous method of finding position on the surface of Mars currently does not exist. The goal of this project is to develop a celestial navigation process that will fix a position on Mars with 100-meter accuracy. This method requires knowing the position of the stars and planets referenced to the Martian surface with one arcsecond accuracy. This information is contained in an ephemeris known as the Aeronautical Almanac (from Ares, the god of war) . Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Subroutines (NOVAS) form the basis of the code used to generate the almanac. Planetary position data come the JPL DE405 Planetary Ephemeris. The theoretical accuracy of the almanac is determined mathematically and compared with the Ephemeris for Physical Observations of Mars contained in the Astronautical Almanac. A preliminary design of an autonomous celestial navigation system is presented. Recommendations of how to integrate celestial navigation into NASA=s current Mars exploration program are also discussed. This project is a useful and much-needed first step towards establishing celestial navigation as a practical way to find position on the surface of Mars.

  10. Eagle Heights Woods: Man's Use of Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cay; Nelson, Redgy

    This teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades was prepared as a result of the 1970 Local Materials Workshop on Outdoor Education, Madison, Wisconsin. It develops the concept of a land ethnic as expressed by Aldo Leopold in "A Sand County Almanac". A filmstrip is employed to discover the meaning of several words pertinent to…

  11. Putting History at the Core: History and Literature in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    When environmental studies programs broaden their curricular offerings into the humanities, their first stop is often environmental literature, particularly classics such as Henry David Thoreau's "Walden," Aldo Leopold's "A Sand County Almanac," and Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." Environmental literature courses consider many of the works of…

  12. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  13. Domestic Resistance: Gardening, Mothering, and Storytelling in Leslie Marmon Silko's "Gardens in the Dunes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Leslie Marmon Silko began her most recent work, "Gardens in the Dunes" (1999), intending to write a novel that would not be political. Following the publication of "Almanac of the Dead" (1992), which was simultaneously hailed as one of the most important books of the twentieth century and condemned for its angry self-righteousness, Silko…

  14. Bowditch, Nathaniel (1773-1838)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Insurance actuary, astronomer, mathematician, born in Salem, MA. Self-taught, by age 15 he had compiled an astronomical almanac. Based on practical experience at sea, he wrote the New American Practical Navigator; published papers on comets and meteors, and translated PIERRE LAPLACE's Mécanique Céleste....

  15. Proverbs: Worldly Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meixner, Linda L.

    1990-01-01

    Offers a two-day lesson plan for secondary literature classes, using biblical proverbs from the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible, Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac," and anonymous adages. Identifies objectives, materials, procedure, evaluation, and suggests student projects. Includes proverbs for discussion and individual…

  16. Collective Research Projects in the History of Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despeaux, Sloan Evans

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I will discuss a collective research project that I designed for my History of Mathematics course. My students, who are by and large pre-service teachers, explored online, digital versions of 18th-century British almanacs that contained question-and-answer sections for mathematics. In a multi-stage research process, they explored…

  17. Soil and variety effects on the energy and carbon balances of switchgrass-derived ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effects of soil and switchgrass variety on sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. Using the Agricultural Land Management Alternatives with Numerical Assessment Criteria (ALMANAC) model, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for severa...

  18. A Reference Bibliography: A Basic Collection for an Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This bibliography provides a selective list of books that could be purchased for a basic reference collection in an elementary (kindergarten through grade 6) library media center. The materials are arranged both by type of reference tool and by subject area. Contents include: (1) Almanacs; (2) Dictionaries; (3) Encyclopedias; (4) Customs,…

  19. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  20. Phase 1 Navstar/GPS ephemeris and space vehicle clock performance summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierman, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    The Navstar/Global Positioning System (GPS) is considered. The issue of control segment accuracy in predicting space vehicle (SV) clock and ephemeris states for broadcast to the user community is addressed. Both the highly precise ephemeris and clock prediction data blocks and the less precise (but longer period of utility) almanac data block are evaluated.

  1. Some Resources in Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, Jack W.

    This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

  2. Evidence as a Stage of Knowing in Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Barbara A.

    The study of composition is in need of a methodology to teach students about the creation of evidence and the epistemological role that it plays in all writing. For many students "evidence" is an absolute, an assortment of facts found in encyclopedias, graphs, tables, census studies, surveys, almanacs, and so on. For most instructors, however, the…

  3. May/June Activity Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Presents hand-on, standards-based activities in language arts, math, science, and social studies, including a daily almanac; bookmark buddies; word palettes; bowling for numbers; math thought teasers; plant puzzles; fingerprint fun; a travel bureau; and an end-of-the-year bulletin board of people involved in interesting activities. Reproducible…

  4. Teaching the Slave Experience: Using Popular Culture as Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    Popular culture genres of the mid-nineteenth century--the anti-slavery almanac, dime novel, panorama, and propaganda play--provide secondary school teachers with an historical medium to help students understand the conditions of slavery. Following an introduction to the uses of these genres in teaching, separate sections contain historical…

  5. Childhood and Children: A Compendium of Customs, Superstitions, Theories, Profiles, and Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bel Geddes, Joan

    Children and childhood are almost completely ignored in most history books, encyclopedias, anthologies, and almanacs, which concentrate on the achievement of the adult half of the world's population. This book is intended to fill the gap by focusing on childhood, and presents an array of facts, anecdotes, profiles, and observations about children…

  6. Echoes of the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracher, Katherine

    1995-05-01

    In 1795, if you needed to know the time of sunrise or the next eclipse, you could look it up in Banneker's Almanac, for the Year 1795: Being the Third after Leap Year. It was the work of Benjamin Banneker, the first African-American astronomer.

  7. Orientation of the JPL Ephemerides, DE 200/LE 200, to the dynamical equinox of J 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The lunar and planetary ephemerides, DE 200/LE 200 have been recently produced at JPL. They will form the basis of the ephemerides in the 'Astronomical Almanac' starting in the year 1984. The origin has been referenced to the J 2000 dynamical equinox of the ephemerides themselves. The procedure for this orientation is described here in detail. Analyses of the ephemerides also provide comparisons with the equinox of the FK 4 and with presently adopted values for the earth's obliquity.

  8. Estimation of evapotranspiration by reed canarygrass using field observations and model simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Kiniry, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) commonly invades meadow wetlands, effectively dominating water use and outcompeting native plants. Objectives of this study were to (i) estimate daily, seasonal and annual water use by reed canarygrass using shallow water table fluctuations; and (ii) calibrate the ALMANAC (Agricultural Land Management Alternative with Numerical Assessment Criteria) model to accurately simulate water uptake by this grass. Using a groundwater well, the water table under an area in Iowa dominated by reed canarygrass was monitored hourly. Differences between water level measurements taken each hour were averaged to determine the hourly water table change in each month. Using these estimates of water use, the ALMANAC model was then calibrated to simulate plant transpiration values close to these water table use rates. Average monthly calculated daily plant water use rates were 3.3 mm d-1 in July and 2.3-2.8 mm d-1 in May, June, August, and September. Simulated bimonthly values for measured water use and plant transpiration simulated by the ALMANAC model differed by 14% or less. From May to October the mean ratio of measured to simulated values was 94%. Thus, the similarity between simulated plant transpiration and water use from the water table showed promise that this process-based model can realistically simulate water use under such grassland systems. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. GPS Modeling and Analysis. Summary of Research: GPS Satellite Axial Ratio Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelrad, Penina; Reeh, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines the algorithms developed at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research to model yaw and predict the axial ratio as measured from a ground station. The algorithms are implemented in a collection of Matlab functions and scripts that read certain user input, such as ground station coordinates, the UTC time, and the desired GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites, and compute the above-mentioned parameters. The position information for the GPS satellites is obtained from Yuma almanac files corresponding to the prescribed date. The results are displayed graphically through time histories and azimuth-elevation plots.

  10. Elevations and Distances in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1980-01-01

    The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the Geological Survey from students, teachers, writers, editors, publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs and other reference books, and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. Some of this information, compiled from older maps, will be revised as new surveys are completed. For further information, write to the U. S. Geological Survey, 507 National Center.Reston,Virginia 22092.

  11. Chinese Calendar and Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The Chinese calendar (li 历) was a system of mathematical astronomy that included mathematical techniques for the computation of celestial movements. It was the basis for producing astronomical ephemerides and annual almanacs. Calendar making started early in China. Since the Great Inception calendar reform in 104 BC, China has produced about 100 calendars (astronomical systems). The focus of calendar making was the prediction of solar, lunar, and planetary motions. As astronomy developed, new observational discoveries were incorporated into the calendar to make the system more precise. The history of astronomy in ancient China was largely a history of calendar making.

  12. Compilation of methods in orbital mechanics and solar geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains a collection of computational algorithms for determining geocentric ephemerides of Earth satellites, useful for both mission planning and data reduction applications. Special emphasis is placed on the computation of sidereal time, and on the determination of the geocentric coordinate of the center of the Sun, all to the accuracy found in the Astronomical Almanac. The report is completely self-contained in that no requirement is placed on any external source of information, and hence, these methods are ideal for computer application.

  13. Maximilian Hell and the Northernmost Transit of Venus Expedition of 1769

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, E.

    2004-12-01

    A short biography of the Jesuit astronomer Maximilian Hell (1720-1792), founder and director of the Astronomical Observatory in Vienna and editor of the Viennese Astronomical Almanac is presented. He was the leader of the expedition to Vardö Island for observing the transit of Venus of 1769. The journey of the participants, the preparations for observing the important phenomenon and its successful observations are described. Hell's scientific merits won him the membership in several European Academies, and his name is found on the lunar maps.

  14. Verification of the Calendar Days of the Joseon Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Astronomical data making such as forming a calendar, period of day, determining the time of rising/setting of the sun and the onset of twilight are essential in our daily lives. Knowing the calendar day of the past is particularly crucial for studying the history of a clan or a nation. To verify previous studies in the calendar day of the Joseon dynasty (1392 -- 1910), we investigate the sexagenary cycle of the new moon day (i.e., the first day in a lunar month) by using sources such as results of the calculations using the Datong calendar (a Chinese Calendar of the Ming Dynasty) and the data of Baekjungryeok (a Perpetual Calendar; literally, a one hundred-year almanac). Compared with the study of Ahn et al., we find that as many as 17 sexagenary cycles show discrepancies. In the cases of nine discrepancies, we find that the sexagenary cycles of this study are identical to those of the almanacs at that time. In addition, we study five sexagenary cycles by using the historical accounts of Joseon Wangjo Sillok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty), Seungjeongwon Ilgi (Daily Reports of Royal Secretariat), Chungung Ilgi (Logs of Crown Prince), and so forth. For the remaining discrepancies, we present historical literature supporting the results of this study. This study will greatly contribute to the identification of the lunisolar calendar days during the Joseon dynasty as the dates of the modern (i.e., Gregorian) calendar.

  15. Van Gogh's Starry Nights, Lincoln's Moon, Shakespeare's Stars, and More: Tales of Astronomy in Art, History, and Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Donald

    2009-10-01

    How do astronomical methods make it possible to calculate dates and times for Vincent van Gogh's night-sky paintings? Why is there a blood-red sky in Edvard Munch's The Scream? On what dates did Ansel Adams create his moonrise photographs in Yosemite? How can the 18.6-year cycle of the lunar nodes and the Moon's declination on the night of August 29-30, 1857, explain a long-standing mystery about Abraham Lincoln's honesty in the murder case known as the almanac trial? Why is a bright star described in Act 1, Scene 1, of Hamlet? To answer questions like these, our Texas State group has published a series of articles over the last two decades, applying astronomy to art, history, and literature.

  16. Luna B. Leopold--pioneer setting the stage for modern hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Meine, Curt

    2012-01-01

    In 1986, during the first year of graduate school, the lead author was sampling the water from a pitcher pump in front of “The Shack,” the setting of the opening essays in Aldo Leopold's renowned book A Sand County Almanac. The sampling was part of my Master's work that included quarterly monitoring of water quality on the Leopold Memorial Reserve (LMR) near Baraboo, Wisconsin. The Shack was already a well-known landmark, and it was common to come upon visitors and hikers there. As such, I took no special note of the man who approached me as I was filling sample bottles and asked, as was typical, “What are you doing?”

  17. Increased induced abortion rate in 1966, an aspect of a Japanese folk superstition.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K

    1975-04-01

    Adecrease of about 463 000 live births occurred in Japan in 1966, constituting a sharp departure from the linear trend before and after. This was partly caused by contraception and partly by induced abortion. The induced abortion rate, 43.1 per 1000 births in the year (a total of 65 000), was significantly higher than the 30.6 expected (46.200 total) from the regression trend computed from the years 1963 to 1969. No epidemics were reported in 1966 which might have caused the increase in abortion. It is more likely to be due to observance of Hinoe-Uma (Elder Fire-Horse), which comes round every sixty years by zodiac almanac. This event represents a superstition observed only by the Japanese, in whcih it is a bad omen for female babies to be born in the year. 1966 was the most recent year of Hinoe-Uma.

  18. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Michael

    Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might revolve around the sun? How did Christopher Columbus abuse his knowledge of a lunar eclipse predicted by an astronomical almanac? Packed with anecdotes and intriguing detail, this book describes how we observed the sky and interpreted what we saw at different periods of history; how this influenced our beliefs and mythology; and how great astronomers contributed to what we now know. The result is a lively and highly visual history of astronomy - a compelling read for specialists and non-specialists alike.

  19. Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebova, N.; Lukashova, M.; Netsvetaeva, G.; Sveshnikov, M.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy has published "The Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Almanac" biennial. Ephemerides are calculated according to resolutions of GA IAU of 2000-2006. The EPM domestic theory of movement of the Solar system bodies is used in Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software since 2009 according to the recommendations of the conference CTNS-2007. Along with printing the astronomical software are elaborated. "The Personal Astronomical Yearbook" (PersAY) allows the user to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any position of the observer on a terrestrial surface. System of the removed access the "Scturman" is developed also intended to solve some the navigating tasks.

  20. Refraction near the horizon-an empirical approach. Part 1: terrestrial refraction of the dip.

    PubMed

    Tschudin, Marcel E

    2016-04-20

    This study aims at providing improved closed-form refraction estimates for observations near the horizon. In this first part, over 1800 previously published direct measurements of the horizon's depression (dip) over the sea are reanalyzed using a nonconventional robust procedure for coping with numerous real, large, and asymmetric outliers from abnormal dips. The derived 1-parameter function agrees with those proposed in modern almanacs and for land surveying. It is found that the dips of warmer and colder sea surfaces vs. air are best described with two different functions. The two proposed 3-parameter functions, also using temperature difference between air and sea and wind speed, reduce the estimated error of the 1-parameter function by ∼⅓ and the number of outliers by ∼⅔.

  1. Sky and Ocean Joined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2007-07-01

    Acknowledgements; Abbreviations; Introduction; Prelude: perspectives and problems: the nation, the navy, the stars; Part I. The Founding Era, 1830-65: 1. From depot to national observatory, 1830-46; 2. A choice of roles: the Maury years, 1844-61; 3. Foundations of the American Nautical Almanac Office, 1849-65; 4. Gilliss and the Civil War years; Part II. The Golden Era, 1866-93: 5. Scientific life and work; 6. Asaph Hall, the great refractor and the moons of Mars; 7. William Harkness and the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882; 8. Simon Newcomb and his work; Part III. The Twentieth Century: 9. Observatory circle: a new site and administrative challenges for the twentieth century; 10. Space: the astronomy of position and its uses; 11. Time: a service for the world; 12. Navigation: from stars to satellites; Summary; Select bibliographical essay; Appendices; Index.

  2. Sky and Ocean Joined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2002-10-01

    Acknowledgements; Abbreviations; Introduction; Prelude: perspectives and problems: the nation, the navy, the stars; Part I. The Founding Era, 1830-65: 1. From depot to national observatory, 1830-46; 2. A choice of roles: the Maury years, 1844-61; 3. Foundations of the American Nautical Almanac Office, 1849-65; 4. Gilliss and the Civil War years; Part II. The Golden Era, 1866-93: 5. Scientific life and work; 6. Asaph Hall, the great refractor and the moons of Mars; 7. William Harkness and the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882; 8. Simon Newcomb and his work; Part III. The Twentieth Century: 9. Observatory circle: a new site and administrative challenges for the twentieth century; 10. Space: the astronomy of position and its uses; 11. Time: a service for the world; 12. Navigation: from stars to satellites; Summary; Select bibliographical essay; Appendices; Index.

  3. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V; Popowich, Fred

    2016-06-07

    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms.

  4. [Attention and physical presence: expressive dimensions and the dialogical practice of nursing care according to the perpective of the hospitalized client].

    PubMed

    de Barcelos, Luisa Maria da Silva; Alvim, Neide Aparecida Titonelli

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative study, discusses the attention and the physical presence as the fundamental care in the dialogical relation between the client living with AIDS and the hospital nursing, using concepts of expressive activities and human care, according to Watson and dialogue, according to Freire. Five persons participated with internment experience, under ambulatory follow up in a hospital of Rio de Janeiro city. It used the triangulation techniques: almanac, semi-structured interview and participant observation. It showed the importance of the valorization of that is necessary and of interest of the client from the attention and the physical presence as essential requirements in the human care, expressed in the dialogical experience and in the participation of the client in the whole care process.

  5. Daytime Celestial Navigation for the Novice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Night, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    What kinds of astronomical lab activities can high school and college astronomy students carry out easily in daytime? The most impressive is the determination of latitude and longitude from observations of the Sun. The ``shooting of a noon sight'' and its ``reduction to a position'' grew to become a daily practice at the start of the 19th century1 following the perfection of the marine chronometer by John Harrison and its mass production.2 This technique is still practiced by navigators in this age of GPS. Indeed, the U.S. Coast Guard exams for ocean-going licenses include celestial navigation.3 These techniques continue to be used by the military and by private sailors as a backup to all-too-fallible and jammable electronic navigation systems. A sextant, a nautical almanac,4 special sight reduction tables,5 and involved calculations are needed to determine position to the nearest mile using the Sun, Moon, stars, or planets. Yet, finding latitude and longitude to better than 30 miles from measurements of the Sun's altitude is easily within the capability of those taking astronomy or physics for the first time by applying certain basic principles. Moreover, it shows a practical application of astronomy in use the world over. The streamlined method described here takes advantage of the similar level of accuracy of its three components: 1.Observations using a homemade quadrant6 (instead of a sextant), 2. Student-made graphs of the altitude of the Sun over a day7 (replacing lengthy calculation using sight reduction tables), and 3. An averaged 20-year analemma used to find the Sun's navigational coordinates8,9 (rather than the 300+ page Nautical Almanac updated yearly).

  6. Spatial forecasting of switchgrass productivity under current and future climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Kathrine D; Kiniry, James R; Winchell, Michael; Juenger, Thomas E; Keitt, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the potential of alternative energy crops across large geographic regions, as well as over time, is a necessary component to determining if biofuel production is feasible and sustainable in the face of growing production demands and climatic change. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a native perennial herbaceous grass, is a promising candidate for cellulosic feedstock production. In this study, current and future (from 2080 to 2090) productivity is estimated across the central and eastern United States using ALMANAC, a mechanistic model that simulates plant growth over time. The ALMANAC model was parameterized for representative ecotypes of switchgrass. Our results indicate substantial variation in switchgrass productivity both within regions and over time. States along the Gulf Coast, southern Atlantic Coast, and in the East North Central Midwest have the highest current biomass potential. However, these areas also contain critical wetland habitat necessary for the maintenance of biodiversity and agricultural lands necessary for food production. The southern United States is predicted to have the largest decrease in future biomass production. The Great Plains are expected to experience large increases in productivity by 2080-2090 due to climate change. In general, regions where future temperature and precipitation are predicted to increase are also where larger future biomass production is expected. In contrast, regions that show a future decrease in precipitation are associated with smaller future biomass production. Switchgrass appears to be a promising biofuel crop for the central and eastern United States, with local biomass predicted to be high (>10 Mg/ha) for approximately 50% of the area studied for each climate scenario. In order to minimize land conversion and loss of biodiversity, areas that currently have and maintain high productivity under climate change should be targeted for their long-term growth potential.

  7. Obituary: Alan D. Fiala (1942-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, George

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Alan Dale Fiala, astronomer and expert on solar eclipses, died on May 26, 2010 in Arlington, Virginia, of respiratory failure after a brief illness. He was 67. Fiala had been a staff astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., for his entire professional career, where he rose from a position as a summer intern to become the Chief of the Nautical Almanac Office, responsible for annual publications for astronomy and navigation that are used the world over. He retired from the observatory in 2000. Although a childhood case of polio affected his mobility for the rest of his life, he seldom let his physical constraints limit his activities, which were many and varied. Alan Fiala was born in Beatrice, Nebraska on November 9, 1942, the middle son of Emil A. ("John") and Lora Marie Fiala. Fiala's father was a postal clerk and Civil Service examiner. Fiala expressed interest in astronomy at a very young age. He contracted polio when he was 9. He graduated from Beatrice High School in 1960 with a straight-A average and went on to study at Carleton College. He received his B.A. summa cum laude after three years, in 1963, with a major in astronomy and minors in physics and mathematics. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics). In 1962, Alan Fiala obtained a job as a summer intern at the Naval Observatory in Washington, working in the Nautical Almanac Office (NAO). He entered the graduate program at Yale University and continued to work summers at the observatory. He received his Ph.D. in 1968, under Gerald Clemence. His dissertation was titled "Determination of the Mass of Jupiter from a Study of the Motion of 57 Mnemosyne." After receiving his doctorate, Fiala became a permanent member of the Naval Observatory staff. Computers were just being introduced there and he participated in the automation of many procedures used to prepare the annual publications of the Nautical Almanac Office. One of his first assignments was

  8. Obituary: Alan D. Fiala (1942-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, George

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Alan Dale Fiala, astronomer and expert on solar eclipses, died on May 26, 2010 in Arlington, Virginia, of respiratory failure after a brief illness. He was 67. Fiala had been a staff astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., for his entire professional career, where he rose from a position as a summer intern to become the Chief of the Nautical Almanac Office, responsible for annual publications for astronomy and navigation that are used the world over. He retired from the observatory in 2000. Although a childhood case of polio affected his mobility for the rest of his life, he seldom let his physical constraints limit his activities, which were many and varied. Alan Fiala was born in Beatrice, Nebraska on November 9, 1942, the middle son of Emil A. ("John") and Lora Marie Fiala. Fiala's father was a postal clerk and Civil Service examiner. Fiala expressed interest in astronomy at a very young age. He contracted polio when he was 9. He graduated from Beatrice High School in 1960 with a straight-A average and went on to study at Carleton College. He received his B.A. summa cum laude after three years, in 1963, with a major in astronomy and minors in physics and mathematics. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics). In 1962, Alan Fiala obtained a job as a summer intern at the Naval Observatory in Washington, working in the Nautical Almanac Office (NAO). He entered the graduate program at Yale University and continued to work summers at the observatory. He received his Ph.D. in 1968, under Gerald Clemence. His dissertation was titled "Determination of the Mass of Jupiter from a Study of the Motion of 57 Mnemosyne." After receiving his doctorate, Fiala became a permanent member of the Naval Observatory staff. Computers were just being introduced there and he participated in the automation of many procedures used to prepare the annual publications of the Nautical Almanac Office. One of his first assignments was

  9. Obituary: Kenneth L. Franklin, 1923-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Joe; Degrasse Tyson, Neil

    2007-12-01

    member of many professional organizations and was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Explorers Club. Ken served as astronomy editor of the World Almanac from 1970 to 1995, and from 1980 to 1992 he provided all of the astronomical calculations for the Farmer's Almanac through his association with the Hart Wright Company of Lewiston, Maine. He also contributed daily almanac information to the New York Times from 1975 to 1997 and launched that paper's weekly Sky Watch feature in the science section. Asteroid number 2845 is named Franklinken in his honor. Since 2004 Ken and his wife, Charlotte, have resided in Loveland, Colorado. In addition to Charlotte, Ken is survived by his daughters Kathleen Williams, Christine Redding, and Julie Jones. The photograph of Kenneth Franklin is provided by the American Museum of Natural History and Sky & Telescope magazine.

  10. On-line Eclipse Resources from the U.S. Naval Observatory: Planning Ahead for April 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredericks, Amy C.; Bartlett, J. L.; Bell, S.; Stapleton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    On 8 April 2024, “…night from mid-day…” (Archilochus, 648 BCE) will appear to fortunate observers along a narrow band, approximately 115 mi (185 km) wide, that crosses fifteen states from Texas to Maine. In response to growing interest in the two total solar eclipses that will sweep the continental United States in the next 11 years, the U.S. Naval Observatory has developed an on-line resource center with direct links to 2024-specific services: the 2024 April 8 Total Solar Eclipse page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2024.php). The Solar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php) calculates tables of local circumstances for events visible throughout the world. A similar service is available for lunar eclipses, Lunar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/LunarEclipse.php). The USNO Eclipse Portal (http://astro.ukho.gov.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi) provides diagrams and animations showing the global circumstances for events visible throughout the world and local circumstances for events visible at selected locations. The Web site, which includes both solar and lunar eclipses, is a joint effort with Her Majesty’s Nautical Almanac Office. The Eclipses of the Sun and Moon page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/UpcomingEclipses.php) links to electronic copies of the visibility maps from The Astronomical Almanac. The Eclipse Reference List (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/eclipse_ref.php) is a representative survey of the available literature for those interested in delving into these phenomena, either technically or historically. As exciting as the 2024 total solar eclipse, another spectacular event will precede it; a total solar eclipse will cross a different swath of the continent on August 21, 2017. The U.S. Naval Observatory has a resource center for that event as well (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) . If your plans for 2024 are not yet made, visit the 2024 April 8 Total Solar Eclipse

  11. On-line Eclipse Resources from the U.S. Naval Observatory: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredericks, Amy C.; Bartlett, J. L.; Bell, S.

    2013-01-01

    On 21 August 2017, “…as the last ray of sunlight vanishes, a scene of unexampled beauty, grandeur, and impressiveness…” (Newcomb 1890) will break upon fortunate observers along a narrow band, approximately 73 mi (118 km) wide, that crosses twelve states from Oregon to South Carolina. In response to growing interest in the first total solar eclipse to sweep the continental United States in nearly a century, the U.S. Naval Observatory has developed an on-line resource center with direct links to 2017-specific services: the 2017 August 21 Total Solar Eclipse page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php). The Solar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php) calculates tables of local circumstances for events visible throughout the world. A similar service is available for lunar eclipses, Lunar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/LunarEclipse.php). The USNO Eclipse Portal (http://astro.ukho.gov.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi) provides diagrams and animations showing the global circumstances for events visible throughout the world and local circumstances for events visible at selected locations. The Web site, which includes both solar and lunar eclipses, is a joint effort with Her Majesty’s Nautical Almanac Office. The Eclipses of the Sun and Moon page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/UpcomingEclipses.php) links to electronic copies of the visibility maps from The Astronomical Almanac. The Eclipse Reference List (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/eclipse_ref.php) is a representative survey of the available literature for those interested in delving into these phenomena, either technically or historically. Less than 7 years after the 2017 total solar eclipse, another such spectacular event will cross a different swath of the continent on April 8, 2024. The U.S. Naval Observatory is planning a resource center for that event as well. If your plans for 2017 are not yet made, visit the 2017 August 21 Total Solar

  12. Total solar eclipse of 17-18 March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Fiala, A.D.; Bangert, J.A.; Harris, W.T.

    1987-03-17

    It is a continuing policy of the Nautical Almanac Office to prepare issues of the series of Naval Observatory Circulars containing detailed information for observing most total solar eclipses and some annular solar eclipses. This is a service to the international scientific community, based on agreements with Commissions and Working Groups of the International Astronomical Union. A total eclipse of the Sun will occur on Thursday, 17 March and Friday, 18 March 1988. It will be preceded by an associated short partial eclipse of the Moon on 3 March. The duration of totality of the solar eclipse will approach 4 minutes at maximum, the longest since 11 June 1983. Not much of the path is over land. First landfall will occur just after sunrise at the west coast of Sumatra, at Oh 28m U.T. The track will cross Sumatra in three minutes, with the umbral shadow growing so as to increase both the width of the path and the duration of totality. Palembang lies near the central line, and is probably one of the most accessible such places. Bangka Island, just off the east coast of Sumatra, is relatively flat and a mining area. The path will reach Borneo at Oh 36m U.T. with the umbral shadow continuing to expand. It will take approximately 13 minutes to cross the island, and the track will lie completely within Indonesian territory on Borneo. The other major land mass in the path of totality is the southern tip of Mindanao.

  13. SUPL support for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narisetty, Jayanthi; Soghoyan, Arpine; Sundaramurthy, Mohanapriya; Akopian, David

    2012-02-01

    Conventional Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers operate well in open-sky environments. But their performance degrades in urban canyons, indoors and underground due to multipath, foliage, dissipation, etc. To overcome such situations, several enhancements have been suggested such as Assisted GPS (A-GPS). Using this approach, orbital parameters including ephemeris and almanac along with reference time and coarse location information are provided to GPS receivers to assist in acquisition of weak signals. To test A-GPS enabled receivers high-end simulators are used, which are not affordable by many academic institutions. This paper presents an economical A-GPS supplement for inexpensive simulators which operates on application layer. Particularly proposed solution is integrated with National Instruments' (NI) GPS Simulation Toolkit and implemented using NI's Labview environment. This A-GPS support works for J2ME and Android platforms. The communication between the simulator and the receiver is in accordance with the Secure User Plane Location (SUPL) protocol encapsulated with Radio Resource Location Protocol (RRLP) applies to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) cellular networks.

  14. The open service signal in space navigation data comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2014-08-19

    More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS) for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA) mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems' SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance.

  15. Elevations and distances in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1991-01-01

    The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the U.S. Geological Survey from students; teachers; writers; editors; publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs, and other reference books; and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. In most cases, the elevations were determined from surveys and from 1:24,000- and 1:25,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In Alaska, information was taken from 1:63,360-scale, 15-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In a few cases, data were obtained from older, 1:62,500-scale, 15-minute maps; these maps are being replaced with larger-scale 7.5-minute coverage. Further information about U.S. Geological Survey products can be obtained from: U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, 507 National Center, Reston, VA 22092 or phone 703-860-6045.

  16. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V; Popowich, Fred

    2016-01-01

    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms. PMID:27271937

  17. Navigator GPS Receiver for Fast Acquisition and Weak Signal Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winternitz, Luke; Moreau, Michael; Boegner, Gregory J.; Sirotzky, Steve

    2004-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a new space-borne GPS receiver that can operate effectively in the full range of Earth orbiting missions from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to geostationary and beyond. Navigator is designed to be a fully space flight qualified GPS receiver optimized for fast signal acquisition and weak signal tracking. The fast acquisition capabilities provide exceptional time to first fix performance (TIFF) with no a priori receiver state or GPS almanac information, even in the presence of high Doppler shifts present in LEO (or near perigee in highly eccentric orbits). The fast acquisition capability also makes it feasible to implement extended correlation intervals and therefore significantly reduce Navigator s acquisition threshold. This greatly improves GPS observability when the receiver is above the GPS constellation (and satellites must be tracked from the opposite side of the Earth) by providing at least 10 dB of increased acquisition sensitivity. Fast acquisition and weak signal tracking algorithms have been implemented and validated on a hardware development board. A fully functional version of the receiver, employing most of the flight parts, with integrated navigation software is expected by mid 2005. An ultimate goal of this project is to license the Navigator design to an industry partner who will then market the receiver as a commercial product.

  18. Sozodont powder dentifrice and Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup: dental nostrums.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    2000-11-01

    The Great Patent Medicine Era (1865-1907) was the golden age of secret remedies--quack, non-prescription medicinal products, sold over-the-counter. Making outrageous and unsubstantiated claims, the makers of dental nostrums purported to effectively treat stained teeth, bad breath, diseased gums, toothache and teething discomfort. No proof was required to substantiate the safety and effectiveness of these concoctions. Advertisements for patent medicines were widespread, appearing in newspapers, almanacs, magazines, trade cards and multiple other media forms. Many dental patent medicines contained acids, abrasive substances, alcohol and/or narcotics, such as heroin, cocaine and morphine. Sozodont Tooth Powder, the most widely promoted and successful dentifrice of this era, claimed to "harden and invigorate the gums, purify and perfume the breath and beautify and preserve the teeth from youth to old age." Early dental researchers found that this remedy contained harsh ingredients (such as acid, sharp abrasives and astringents) which could destroy tooth substance. Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup, an extremely popular dental nostrum, was intended to quiet a fretful child during the teething process. However, it contained generous levels of alcohol and morphine sulfate which could cause coma, addiction or death in an infant. Although somewhat chemically altered, these two products were eventually removed from the market in the 1930s.

  19. CALCM: The untold story of the weapon used to start the Gulf war

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, J.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Conventional Air Launched Cruise Missile (CALCM) was developed from the strategic ALCM, AGM-86, by integrating GPS navigation into the missile in place of terrain correlation (TERCOM). In addition, the nuclear warhead was replaced by conventional explosives. The CALCM was developed, tested, and fielded in a single year (mid-1986 - mid-1987) by the Boeing Company where the author was then employed. Although the GPS technology used, a Rockwell single channel aided receiver, has been eclipsed by newer receivers with additional capabilities and newer technology, many innovative things were done in completing the CALCM integration: the external loading of almanac data along with other mission data, three satellite navigation capability, and the use of a single channel receiver in a dynamic flight environment. This effort demonstrated that GPS outputs can be integrated quickly into an existing weapon system using the traditional loosely coupled `cascaded filter` approach. Although this approach is not as ideal as a tightly coupled integration using raw GPS data, the use of cascaded filters resulted in a weapon that was able to be rapidly fielded. The Air Force had sufficient confidence in the missile, that after four years of operational testing, 35 of these missiles were targeted at key sites at the start of the Gulf War in 1991. This effort, which was declassified in 1992, resulted in the first weapon in the DoD inventory to be operational using GPS navigation. The effort deserves consideration as a model as to how GPS integration can be performed. 2 refs.

  20. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V.; Popowich, Fred

    2016-01-01

    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms. PMID:27271937

  1. Ben Franklin: A Curiosity-Driven Scientist, a Service-Driven Citizen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2003-04-01

    At the age of 42, Franklin retired from his prosperous printing business, ``to have leisure to read, study, and make experiments." The scope of his scientific work was remarkable. Beyond his key contributions to understanding electrcity, Franklin wrote major papers on population growth, on meterology, on heat conduction and evaporation, charted the Gulf Stream, studied bioluminescence and the stilling of water waves by a surface layer of oil. He also advanced arguments in favor of conservation of mass and the wave theory of light. Although always alert for practical applications, his style was that of an explorer, eager for adventure and insight. However, Franklin did not consider science as important as public service. He promoted many civic projects in Philadelphia, including a circulating library, fire department, paving of streets, hospital, and was the prime mover in founding the American Philosophical Society and an academy that evolved into the University of Pennsylvania. As well as publishing the most widely read newspaper in the colonies and his bestselling almanac, he became public printer for several of the colonies and postmaster. He lived in England 14 years as a trade representative, largely struggling in vain. At the age of 70, he undertook a decade of service as minister to France, achieving against great odds crucial diplomatic triumphs.

  2. The Open Service Signal in Space Navigation Data Comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2014-01-01

    More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS) for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA) mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems' SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance. PMID:25195848

  3. The Russian Astronomical Yearbooks and IAU 2000 Resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebova, N. I.; Lukashova, M. V.; Sveshnikov, M. L.

    2006-08-01

    According to IAU 2000 resolutions, a reform of IAA RAS publications has been carried out during 2003-2006. In "The Astronomical Yearbook for 2007" the ephemerides of the Sun, the Moon and major planets are based on EPM 2004 theory developed in IAA RAS with accuracy adequate to DE405/LE405. Apparent places of stars are given in FK6/HIPPARCOS system referred to ICRS, and are calculated taking into account the new IAU 2000 model of nutation and the new IERS 2003 precession model which is practically close to P03 model. The sidereal time was determined by the Earth rotation angle. Coordinates of pole X, Y, CIO locator s and the equation of the origins are also presented. Matrixes of conversions from ICRS to the true equator and the equinox of date, as well as to the celestial intermediate origin and the true equator date are given. Navigating ephemerides are issued as "The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook" and "The Nautical Astronomical Almanac" biennial on the basis of DE405/LE405, new precession-nutation model, FK6/HIPPARCOS catalogues and the classical concept of the equinox. Nevertheless, the implementation of the new CIO concept in navigating ephemerides tables cannot be planned yet. At IAA RAS, the electronic versions of astronomical yearbooks have been developed allowing to calculate topocentric ephemerides. All the calculations are made with a specialized ERA programming system created in IAA RAS using the problem-oriented programming language for the solution of problems of ephemeris and dynamic astronomy.

  4. Time of the year and absconding from a psychiatric hospital in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Akleema; Maharajh, Hari D.

    2003-01-01

    Personal characteristics of patients and environmental factors at psychiatric hospitals have been identified as predictors of absconding. This study seeks to establish a relationship between time of the year and absconding. All characteristics of absconders were analysed over a two-year period using hospital records (N= 104). Public holidays and lunar phases were obtained through almanacs for each year; and school vacation period was determined by reference to a school academic calendar. Friday was the most popular day of the week for absconding, males tend to escape more on the weekends compared to females, females tend to escape more during the wet season, and Christmas was the most popular holiday season for absconding to take place. The full moon phase had the largest percentage of absconding when compared to other phases. Recommendations are that the system of patient care should be client driven at all times and greater supervision of patients is needed on weekends, vacation periods and during the full moon phase. PMID:21206811

  5. Outreach Activities of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, T.; Watanabe, J.; Agata, H.

    2006-08-01

    The activities on the outreach issues in the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) are mainly conducted by the Public Relations Center established in June 1998. Its mission is to present the latest findings in astronomy to the public in a manner that is understandable, contemporary, and exciting. For this purpose, we provide a wide range of services and deliver a variety of scientific information through multiple ways. We also maintain an effective partnership with lots of dissemination experts working at the public observatories, the science museums, and the planetariums in Japan. The representative outreach activities in NAOJ are follows. • Telephone service to answer the questions on astronomy (about 10,000 calls a year) • Press release (about 60 a year) to about 100 registered journalists • Press Members' Lounge" for registered journalists • A special seminar for science journalists every year • Service of astronomical ephemeredes, and nautical almanacs. • Weekly news letter service named "Astro-Topics" • Monthly paper magazine "NAOJ news" • Web site service (http://www.nao.ac.jp/) (about 10^7 hits a year) • Open campus or visitor service to the public • Regular star party using a modern 50-cm reflector twice a month • Coordination and cooperation with other astronomical facilities. Such as Public Astronomical Observatory Network (PAONET), Star Week Program

  6. Time of the year and absconding from a psychiatric hospital in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akleema; Maharajh, Hari D

    2003-01-01

    Personal characteristics of patients and environmental factors at psychiatric hospitals have been identified as predictors of absconding. This study seeks to establish a relationship between time of the year and absconding. All characteristics of absconders were analysed over a two-year period using hospital records (N= 104). Public holidays and lunar phases were obtained through almanacs for each year; and school vacation period was determined by reference to a school academic calendar. Friday was the most popular day of the week for absconding, males tend to escape more on the weekends compared to females, females tend to escape more during the wet season, and Christmas was the most popular holiday season for absconding to take place. The full moon phase had the largest percentage of absconding when compared to other phases. Recommendations are that the system of patient care should be client driven at all times and greater supervision of patients is needed on weekends, vacation periods and during the full moon phase.

  7. Obituary: Julena Steinheider Duncombe, 1911-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. Kenneth

    2004-12-01

    Julena Steinheider Duncombe died on 13 September 2003, just eight days before her 92nd birthday. Julena Steinheider was born September 21, 1911 on a farm in Dorchester, Nebraska and grew up in Goehner, Nebraska. Her parents were Frederick and Ella Beenders Steinheider, and she had four brothers. She began college at the age of 17 and graduated at 21 from Doane College in Crete, Nebraska with a major in mathematics and a minor in astronomy. She started teaching in a one-room schoolhouse, where, with assistance from her family, she started possibly the first school lunch program by fixing lunches on the schoolhouse stove to provide food for children who only had popcorn to eat. Then she taught in Minatare and Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, and in a Japanese Relocation Camp in Wyoming. In 1945 she moved to Washington DC to begin working at the US Naval Observatory (USNO). She was the first woman observer on the 6-inch transit circle. She worked as an observer and mathematician reducing and analyzing observations of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars. At the Naval Observatory she met Raynor Duncombe and married him in Goehner, Nebraska, in January 1948. She resigned from the USNO in 1948 to go with her husband to Yale University. At Yale the Duncombes introduced punched card equipment into the Astronomy Department. Ray also took graduate classes and Julie worked on Astrographic Catalog reductions. Upon returning to USNO in 1950 she joined the Nautical Almanac Office. She supervised the punched card operated typewriter to produce tables of positions of celestial bodies for air and sea navigation. With Dorrit Hoffleit she directed the keypunching of over 150 star catalogs, approximating 1.5 million cards. Several thousand errata to the catalogs were discovered and corrected on the cards and tape versions of the catalogs. This activity was the basis for future stellar databases. From 1963 she was responsible for producing the tabular predictions and maps for solar and lunar

  8. Van Gogh's Starry Nights, Lincoln's Moon, Shakespeare's Stars, and More: Tales of Astronomy in Art, History, and Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    How do astronomical methods make it possible to calculate dates and times for Vincent van Gogh's night-sky paintings? Why is there a blood-red sky in Edvard Munch's The Scream? How can the 18.6-year cycle of the lunar nodes and the Moon's declination on the night of August 29-30, 1857, explain a long-standing mystery about Abraham Lincoln's honesty in the murder case known as the almanac trial? Why is a bright star described in Act 1, Scene 1, of Hamlet? There is a long tradition of astronomical methods employed to analyze works of art, to understand historical events, and to elucidate passages in literature. Both Edmond Halley and George Biddell Airy calculated lunar phases and tide tables in attempts to determine the landing beach where Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C. Henry Norris Russell computed configurations of Jupiter and Saturn to determine a date for a 14th-century celestial event mentioned in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. In this tradition, our Texas State group has published a series of articles in Sky & Telescope over the last two decades, applying astronomy to art, history, and literature. Don Osterbrock worked with us 3 years ago when my students and I calculated dates for moonrise photographs taken by Ansel Adams in Yosemite National Park. The peaks of the Sierra Nevada crest in Yosemite are more than 125 miles from Lick Observatory, but the mountains can become visible from Lick on clear winter days and were photographed from there on early infrared-sensitive plates during the 1920s and 1930s. As we tested our topographic software by identifying the peaks that appear in the Lick plates, it was a pleasure to come to know Don, a former director of Lick Observatory and the person in whose honor this talk is dedicated.

  9. Calendar Reform: Bob McClenon's Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The world's presently-used Gregorian calendar is extremely clumsy, because the Gregorian calendar repeats only after 400 years (Seidelman 1961), and therefore organizations, including the AAS, have to re-work their calendar each and every year. This work is totally unnecessary. I propose that the American Astronomical Society advocate the world-wide adoption of the CCC&T calendar, which is an adaptation of Bob McClenon's Calendar, a brilliant fix which results in the calendar being identical every year. This calendar is far superior to previously suggested reformed calendars, in that it does not break the cycle of the days of the week, ever! Pragmatic (and more than adequate) synchronization with the seasons is achieved by the introduction of an extra week-long ``month" every four or five years at the end of June; I propose that this seven-day month be called Newton. The target for adoption is 2006 Jan 1, and at the same time, universal use of universal time should be adopted, making the date and time identical everywhere on Earth. Time zones remain as ``hours of work" zones, EST for example becoming ``14 o'clock to 22 o'clock" for a ``nine-to-five" job. The economic benefit that astronomers could provide the world through shepherding this simple reform would easily and indeed more than repay all that the world has kindly spent on astronomical research. This work was supported by NASA's Maryland Space Grant Consortium. Seidelman, K. 1961, Explanatory Supplement to ``The Astronomical Ephemeris" and ``The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac," (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office), p. 407

  10. Hawk and Handsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Peter D.

    2008-05-01

    In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Prince Hamlet states, "I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw." This celebrated yet perennially baffling passage is readily understood in the context of the cosmic allegorical interpretation of the play (BAAS 28, 1305, 1996; Hamlet's Universe, 2006). The first direction points from Tycho Brahe's observatory on Hven to the fictional home of the geocentric Pyolemaic worldview at Elsinore, and the second from Hven to the home of Copernican heliocentricism at Wittenberg. The directions correspond to the two influences on Tycho's geo-heliocentric World model. Anyone at Elsinore who advocates the new organon of the New Philosophy is "mad," whereas sanity prevails at Wittenberg. "Hawk" refers to a bird of prey, the leonard, and to Leonard Digges, inventor of the world's first two-element telescope. "Handsaw" refers to the artistic tool necessary to sever the hands depicted in de Gheyn's two quasi-mirror-imaged portraits of Tycho at age 40, which show hands affixed to the wrong arms. Elsewhere in Hamlet, Shakespeare substantiates the New Astronomy through descriptions of planets and stars that could only have been determined telescopically. Therefore, the passage in question contrasts two modes of observing in the early modern era, viz. visual and telescopic. Shakespeare completed writing Hamlet in about 1601 and the Second Quarto appeared in 1604, so the first substantial account of astronomical telescopy is now over 400 years old. In addition, 432 years ago Thomas Digges published the first account of the New Astronomy in a popular almanac. These two means of presentation may seem odd by present standards, but contemporary culture was intolerant of 'natural magic,' and furthermore, it was prudent to minmize the risk of domestic persecution and threats from Continental armies and the European and Spanish Inquisitions.

  11. Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software (NOVAS) Version 3.1:Fortran, C, and Python Editions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G. H.; Bangert, J. A.; Barron, E. G.; Bartlett, J. L.; Puatua, W.; Harris, W.; Barrett, P.

    2012-08-01

    The Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software (NOVAS) is a source - code library that provides common astrometric quantities and transformations to high precision. The library can supply, in one or two subroutine or function calls, the instantaneous celestial position of any star or planet in a variety of coordinate systems. NOVAS also provides access to all of the building blocks that go into such computations. NOVAS is used for a wide variety of applications, including the U.S. portions of The Astronomical Almanac and a number of telescope control systems. NOVAS uses IAU recommended models for Earth orientation, including the IAU 2006 precession theory, the IAU 2000A and 2000B nutation series, and diurnal rotation based on the celestial and terrestrial intermediate origins. Equinox - based quantities, such as sidereal time, are also supported. NOVAS Earth orientation calculations match those from SOFA at the sub - microarcsecond level for comparable transformations. NOVAS algorithms for aberration an d gravitational light deflection are equivalent, at the microarcsecond level, to those inherent in the current consensus VLBI delay algorithm. NOVAS can be easily connected to the JPL planetary/lunar ephemerides (e.g., DE405), and connections to IMCCE and IAA planetary ephemerides are planned. NOVAS Version 3.1 introduces a Python edition alongside the Fortran and C editions. The Python edition uses the computational code from the C edition and currently mimics the function calls of the C edition. Future versions will expand the functionality of the Python edition to exploit the object - oriented features of Python. In the Version 3.1 C edition, the ephemeris - access functions have been revised for use on 64 - bit systems and for improved performance in general. NOVAS source code, auxiliary files, and documentation are available from the USNO website (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/software/novas/novas_info.php).

  12. Tools for Implementing the Recent IAU Resolutions: USNO Circular 179 and the NOVAS Software Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G. H.; Bangert, J. A.

    2006-08-01

    The resolutions on positional astronomy adopted at the 1997 and 2000 IAU General Assemblies are far-reaching in scope, affecting both the details of various computations and the basic concepts upon which they are built. For many scientists and engineers, applying these recommendations to practical problems is thus doubly challenging. Because the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) serves a broad base of users, we have provided two different tools to aid in implementing the resolutions, both of which are intended for the person who is knowledgeable but not necessarily expert in positional astronomy. These tools complement the new material that has been added to The Astronomical Almanac (see paper by Hohenkerk). USNO Circular 179 is a 118-page book that introduces the resolutions to non-specialists. It includes extensive narratives describing the basic concepts as well as compilations of the equations necessary to apply the recommendations. The resolutions have been logically grouped into six main chapters. The Circular is available as a hard-cover book or as a PDF file that can be downloaded from either the USNO/AA web site (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/) or arXiv.org. NOVAS (Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Subroutines) is a source-code library available in both Fortran and C. It is a long established package with a wide user base that has recently been extensively revised (in version 3.0) to implement the recent IAU resolutions. However, use of NOVAS does not require detailed knowledge of the resolutions, since commonly requested high-level data _ for example, topocentric positions of stars or planets _ are provided in a single call. NOVAS can be downloaded from the USNO/AA web site. Both Circular 179 and NOVAS version 3.0 anticipate IAU adoption of the recommendations of the 2003-2006 working groups on precession and nomenclature.

  13. The Rift Valley of African Plate in Elasto-Plastic Creeping over Magma Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Shigehisa

    2016-04-01

    This is a brief note to a problem on the Rift Valley in the eastern Africa. It is said that this valley was formed in an age 20,000,000 years before present though the valley is yet continuing to move eastward at an annual rate of about 5 cm/year in a geographical trend. Adding to some of the scientists tell that the separation threat of the easternAfrica from the mother land of the Africa under the effect of African crust motion over the magma. However, it is now geological understanding that the land of the Africa has been kept its basic coastal configulation in geographic pattern since the time more than 20,000,000 years before present. Sothat, it is hard to consider the above noted African land separation by part could be in the next age in a time scale of 20,000,000 years. As far as, we concern the geographic data obtaoned by the ground based survey of the African typical mountain peaks, the highest mountain peak 5885m (in 1980) is for Kilimanjaro, Kibo Peak though one of the scientific almanacs tells us its peak height as 5890m (in 2009). As for the Mount Kenia, the peak height is as 5199m (in 1980) and 5200m(in 2009). At a glance, it looks to be a trend in altimetry of the African typical mountain. Now, what trends are noted for the peak heights could be taken to suggesting the geological activity on the earth surface to maintain in a spherical shape approximately on the orbit around the Sun. In these several ten years, the digitizing of the data has been promoted even for the topographic patterns on the earth though its time scaling is extremely short comparing to the geological time scaling. Now, it should be found what is effective to monitor any trends of the African crust in motion as well as variations of the mountain peaks.

  14. Calendars in the Gregorian Spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Heiner; Richter, Peter H.

    The Gregorian Calendar is an adaptable cyclic, lunisolar time-reckoning system [1]. It assumes the following equations: atrop &=& 1461/4 - s/(100 × P1) quad days msyn &=& atrop / (235/19 + e/(3000 × P2))quad day s for the average tropical year atrop and the average synodical month msyn, respectively [2]. s is the number of leap years reverting to common years at the secular boundaries of the period P1, measured in centuries. e is the number of (net) adjustments of the epact at the secular boundaries of the period P2, measured in centuries. The particular form of this rational approximation characterizes the Gregorian spirit; the standard integers s = 3, P1 = 4, e = -43, P2 = 100 are open for adjustment. Truncated continued fraction expansions should be used to successively improve the accuracy. For atrop = 365.2422 d and msyn = 29.530588 d, we find that s = 3, P1 = 4, e = -19, P2 = 44 is slightly better than the standard values. Its fundamental equation 2,508,000 atrop = 31,019,639 msyn = 916,028,190 d defines a period about half as long as for the usual Gregorian calendar, 5,700,000 atrop = 70,499,183 msyn = 2,081,882,250 d [3]. [1] Clavius, Chr., Rom. Cal. Explic., Rome 1603, (= Op. math., tom. V, Mainz 1612). [2] Lichtenberg, H., The Gregorian Calendar: An Adaptable Cyclic Lunisolar Time-reckoning System for the Millennia, Hum. Welf. Stud., vol. 2 (1999), pp. 137 - 148. [3] Explan. Suppl. Astron. Almanac, ed. P. K. Seidelmann, Mill Valley, Ca.,

  15. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Sanders, S. J.; Huggins, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Spitz Fulldome Curriculum (FDC) for the SciDome digital planetarium ushered in a new and innovative way to present astronomical pedagogy via its use of the unique teaching attributes of the digital planetarium. In the case of the FDC, which uses the ubiquitous Starry Night planetarium software as its driving engine, these engaging and novel teaching techniques have also been made usable to desktop computers and flat-screen video projectors for classroom use. Volume 2 of the FDC introduces exciting new classes and mini-lessons to further enlighten and invigorate students as they struggle with often difficult three dimensional astronomical concepts. Additionally, other topics with related astronomical ties have been created to integrate history into planetarium presentations. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is its use of Starry Night as its astronomical engine. With it students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home, using the PC or Mac version. They can then simply load their creations onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for their classmates on the dome. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new content that has been developed for Volume 2. Topics covered in Volume 2 include eclipses, plotting planet locations on a curtate orbit chart by observing their positions in the sky, time and timekeeping (including sidereal day, hour angles, sidereal time, LAST, LMST, time zones and the International Date Line), teaching to the Boy Scout Merit Badge requirements, plotting scale analemmas on the surface of planets and interpreting them, precession, astronomical events in revolutionary Boston, the Lincoln Almanac Trial, eclipsing binaries, lunar librations, a trip through the universe, watching the speed of light move in real time, stellar sizes and the Milky Way.

  16. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S. Surendran; Kang, Shujiang; Zhang, Xuesong; Miguez, Fernando; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Post, Wilfred M; Dietze, Michael; Lynd, L.; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  17. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Surendran Nair, Sujith; Kang, Shujiang; Zhang, Xuesong; Miguez, Fernando; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Post, W. M.; Dietze, Michael; Lynd, Lee R.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2012-03-15

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of renewable energy are making available critical information for the development, validation, and use of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been developed and validated for herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops adapted to arid lands. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane as plant function types at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). A model of biomass production in CAM plants has been developed (EPI), but lacks the sophistication of the other models. Except for CAM plants, all the models include representations of leaf area dynamics, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few of the models are capable of simulating soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle processes, making them especially useful for assessing environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the field-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. Similar to other process-based models, simulations are challenged by computing and data management issues and an integrated framework for model testing and inter-comparison is needed. Considerable work remains concerning the development of models for unconventional bioenergy crops like CAM plants, generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation, and development of an integrated framework for efficient execution of large-scale simulations for use in planning regional to global sustainable bioenergy production systems.

  18. Simon Marius vs. Galileo: Who First Saw Moons of Jupiter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Van Helden, Albert

    2016-10-01

    In his almanac for 1612 and book Mundus Iovalis of 1614, Simon Marius in Germany reported his discovery of moons around Jupiter, which he started writing down in late 1609 in the Julian calendar, which translated to 8 January 1610 in the Gregorian calendar in use by Galileo in Italy. Is Marius to be believed? Galileo certainly did not. But a Dutch jury of experts about three hundred years later reported that they validated the claim that Marius independently discovered the moons of Jupiter one day after Galileo first both saw and wrote down his discovery! There is no doubt that the names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto came from Marius (to whom they were suggested by Kepler). See JMP's Journal for the History of Astronomy article, 46(2), 218-234 (2015).Marius wrote that he had been observing the moons around Jupiter since November 1609 (Julian), using a neighboring nobleman's telescope, which would mean that he actually saw the Jupiter satellites first (though publish or perish). Whether this feat was technically possible comes down to discussions of the capabilities of telescopes in the early 17th century.The quadricentennial of Marius's book was celebrated in Nuremberg with a symposium that is now in press in German with an English translation expected. One of us (AVH) has recently prepared a complete English translation of Marius's book, superseding the partial translation made 100 years ago. There is no evidence that, whether he saw what we now call the Galilean satellites first or not, Marius appreciated their cosmological significance the way that Galileo soon did. And Marius was certainly the first to publish tables of the moons of Jupiter.We thank the Chapin Library of Williams College and the Huntington Library for assistance with first editions of Marius's 1614 book, and we thank Pierre Leich of the Simon Marius Gesellschaft for his consultations.

  19. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  20. The Newcomb-Michelson velocity of light experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Wiiliam E.; Carter, Merri Sue

    In 1877, at age 42, Simon Newcomb became the superintendent of the Nautical Almanac Office (NAO), U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington D.C. That same year, at age 25, Ensign Albert Michelson began his new assignment as a professor of physics and chemistry at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland [Reingold, 1964]. While they worked for the same agency less than 1 hour apart by train, the two men lived in very different worlds. Newcomb had already achieved international acclaim for his studies of the orbits of Neptune and Uranus and had his choice of any number of prestigious and powerful positions at scientific institutions and astronomic observatories throughout the nation. As a junior naval officer Michelson could, at best, expect to spend a few years teaching at the Naval Academy before being reassigned to sea duty. Within 2 years of graduating, Michelson had already served aboard five ships of the line, sailing to ports as distant as Rio de Janeiro [Livingston, 1973]. Newcomb had direct access to the secretary of the Navy and members of Congress, and when he learned that Michelson had begun to work on velocity of light experiments, he did not hesitate in having the young ensign detailed to the Naval Observatory. Together they assembled and perfected an apparatus that measured the velocity of light more accurately than had ever been possible before, and the value obtained from the complete set of experiments performed in Washington—299,810 km/s—was not bettered for more than 4 decades.

  1. Global Aspects of the Exploration of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Hugh L.

    1959-01-01

    The interest of man in outer space began long ago among uncivilized peoples to whom the face of the sky was clock and almanac; the celestial bodies, objects of worship. Exploration was at first by visual observation, later aided by armillary spheres and quadrants, and still later by more precise measuring instruments, telescopes, and spectroscopes. The information obtained was that borne by the light that was transmitted from the distant celestial object through the atmosphere to the observing instrument on the ground. In recent years the light waves have been supplemented by radio waves as carriers of information from the stars and planets. Men of many nations have contributed through the centuries to the exploration of space by the methods of astronomy. The history of advances in astronomical knowledge and technique includes the records of Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks, Arabians, and of nearly every nation of the modern world. International cooperation was early recognized as essential and beneficial; the countless number of the stars and the vastness of space present mankind with a truly global task. The picture of the universe obtained by the astronomers early stirred the imagination of men to speculate about the existence of life elsewhere in the universe, about means of communication with distant stars, and in the last centuries about the possibility of the travel of man to the moon and planets. Some sought to apply the science and engineering of their day to describe the vehicles to be used. For example, Jules Verne published in 1865 in "From the Earth to the Moon" a description of a gun-launched projectile carrying passengers to orbit the moon. Today we have taken the first steps to bring this inspired vision to reality. The exploration of space by unmanned vehicles carrying scientific apparatus began on October 4, 1957; exploration by man will follow in due course.

  2. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2012-01-01

    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  3. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  4. Projection for household development in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z

    1991-01-01

    In traditional Chinese culture, marriage and setting up a new household is the most important event in life with the requisite purchases of real estate, furniture and other large items from years of savings. The development of the national economy depends on these households to as significant extent as they also provide microeconomic functions in society. The sex age-specific householder rate method was used for forecasting the number of future households. The UN medium projection of the population of China for the year 2000 indicated 1,285,000,000, the low projection showed 1,260,000,000 and the high projection came up with 1,300,000,000 with an essentially unchanged number of households and probably smaller average household size. The 1988, the China Population Statistics Almanac disclosed that in 1987 there was a total 258,340,000 households expected to increase according to the medium projection to 370,000,000 households expected to increase according to the medium projection to 370,640,000 by 2000. This annual growth rate of 2.8% exceeds the rate of 1.4% in the 1950s, 1.8% in the 1960s and early 1970s and 2.4% during 1975-87. The data of the Statistics Bureau and the Ministry of Public Security for 1985-89 yielded an annual household growth rate of 3.6%. This could be attributed to the increased number of births following the troublesome early 1960s who enter marriage age now. Based on the average household living space of 61.37 sq m there would be an additional 6,890,000,000 sq m of living space requirement for 112,300,000 new households. The proportion of urban population would rise from the level of 1987 when the agricultural population made up 80.1% and the nonagricultural segment comprised 19.8%. New household construction would require planning, raising funds, building materials, construction teams, and land. PMID:12317649

  5. Deductive Coordination of Multiple Geospatial Knowledge Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldinger, R.; Reddy, M.; Culy, C.; Hobbs, J.; Jarvis, P.; Dungan, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Deductive inference is applied to choreograph the cooperation of multiple knowledge sources to respond to geospatial queries. When no one source can provide an answer, the response may be deduced from pieces of the answer provided by many sources. Examples of sources include (1) The Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer, a repository that gives the locations for almost six million place names, (2) The Cia World Factbook, an online almanac with basic information about more than 200 countries. (3) The SRI TerraVision 3D Terrain Visualization System, which displays a flight-simulator-like interactive display of geographic data held in a database, (4) The NASA GDACC WebGIS client for searching satellite and other geographic data available through OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Map Servers, and (5) The Northern Arizona University Latitude/Longitude Distance Calculator. Queries are phrased in English and are translated into logical theorems by the Gemini Natural Language Parser. The theorems are proved by SNARK, a first-order-logic theorem prover, in the context of an axiomatic geospatial theory. The theory embodies a representational scheme that takes into account the fact that the same place may have many names, and the same name may refer to many places. SNARK has built-in procedures (RCC8 and the Allen calculus, respectively) for reasoning about spatial and temporal concepts. External knowledge sources may be consulted by SNARK as the proof is in progress, so that most knowledge need not be stored axiomatically. The Open Agent Architecture (OAA) facilitates communication between sources that may be implemented on different machines in different computer languages. An answer to the query, in the form of text or an image, is extracted from the proof. Currently, three-dimensional images are displayed by TerraVision but other displays are possible. The combined system is called Geo-Logica. Some example queries that can be handled by Geo-Logica include: (1) show the

  6. The change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey: A closer look at regional differences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Substantial regional health inequalities have been shown to exist in Turkey for major health indicators. Turkish data on hospitals deserves a closer examination with a special emphasis on the regional differences in the context of the rapid privatization of the secondary or tertiary level health services. This study aims to evaluate the change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey between 2001-2006 and to determine the regional differences. Methods Data for this retrospective study was provided from Statistical Almanacs of Inpatient Services (2001-2006). Hospitals in each of the 81 provinces were grouped into two categories: public and private. Provinces were grouped into six regions according to a development index composed by the State Planning Organisation. The number of facilities, hospital beds, outpatient admissions, inpatient admissions (per 100 000), number of deliveries and surgical operations (per 10 000) were calculated for public and private hospitals in each province and region. Regional comparisons were based on calculation of ratios for Region 1(R1) to Region 6(R6). Results Public facilities had a fundamental role in service delivery. However, private sector grew rapidly in Turkey between 2001-2006 in capacity and service delivery. In public sector, there were 2.3 fold increase in the number of beds in R1 to R6 in 2001. This ratio was 69.9 fold for private sector. The substantial regional inequalities in public and private sector decreased for the private sector enormously while a little decrease was observed for the public sector. In 2001 in R1, big surgical operations were performed six times more than R6 at the public sector whereas the difference was 117.7 fold for the same operations in the same regions for the private sector. These ratios decreased to 3.6 for the public sector and 13.9 for the private sector in 2006. Conclusions The private health sector has grown enormously between 2001-2006 in

  7. The Venus "Shell-over-Star" hieroglyph and Maya warfare: An examination of the interpretation of a Mayan symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Claudia Ann

    For decades, Maya scholars have associated the Mayan "Shell-Star" (also referred to as "Star-War") hieroglyph with Maya warfare. Put forward by scholars such as Floyd Lounsbury and David Kelley, and later advanced by Linda Schele, David Freidel, Ian Graham, Peter Matthews, Anthony Aveni and others, there are now dozens of published articles and chapters relating the hieroglyph to Venus and warfare. Venus is one of the most notable celestial objects outside of the Sun and Moon and was highly visible to the inhabitants of the Maya world. The Dresden Codex (an astronomical almanac) contains important information about the planet Venus, and the calendar section was deciphered by the librarian and mathematician, Ernst Förstemann in the late 1800s. In his decipherment, he deduced that the numbers contained in the tables must be connected to the orbital period of the planet. There is no other planet with the same orbital period 3 as Venus. Förstemann suggested that the decoded astronomy tables were used by the Maya to determine when to wage war. This interpretation, along with others, like Floyd Lounsbury`s study of Venus and the Long Count date at Bonampak were the seeds that have led to methodological errors that first began to take root in Maya research. The idea of the Venus association with warfare took hold and continues to propagate. Many scholars continue to assert that the "shell-star" glyph is related to warfare events. Others, like Gerardo Aldana, and Stanley Guenter, have recently come forward to reexamine and question the hieroglyph and its relationship, if any, to Maya warfare. I suggest, further, that methodological errors may have occurred along the way. I propose that these errors include data lost in translation, and inaccurate translations. In addition, the statistical analysis of Venus cycles has weak points. If this identification of the errors is correct, we need to re-evaluate the weakened foundation on which we are building our assertions about

  8. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  9. Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum

  10. Obituary: Brian Marsden (1937-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gareth; Marsden, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    Brian Geoffrey Marsden was born on 1937 August 5 in Cambridge, England. His father, Thomas, was the senior mathematics teacher at a local high school. It was his mother, Eileen (nee West), however, who introduced him to the study of astronomy, when he returned home on the Thursday during his first week in primary school in 1942 and found her sitting in the back yard watching an eclipse of the sun. Using now frowned-upon candle-smoked glass, they sat watching the changing bite out of the sun. What most impressed the budding astronomer, however, was not that the eclipse could be seen, but the fact that it had been predicted in advance, and it was the idea that one could make successful predictions of events in the sky that eventually led him to his career. When, at the age of 11, he entered the Perse School in Cambridge he was developing primitive methods for calculating the positions of the planets. He soon realized that earlier astronomers had come up with more accurate procedures for doing this over the centuries, and during the next couple of years this led to his introduction to the library of the Cambridge University Observatories and his study of how eclipses, for example, could be precisely computed. Together with a couple of other students he formed a school Astronomical Society, of which he served as the secretary. At the age of 16 he joined and began regularly attending the monthly London meetings of the British Astronomical Association. He quickly became involved with the Association's Computing Section, which was known specifically for making astronomical predictions other than those that were routinely being prepared by professional astronomers for publication in almanacs around the world. Under the watchful eyes of the director and assistant director of the Computing Section, this led him to prepare and publish predictions of the occasions when one of Jupiter's moons could be seen to pass directly in front of another. He also calculated the

  11. Effect of catalogues coordinate errors of a star onto determination of the physical libration of the Moon from the observations of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Natalia; Kocoulin, Valerii; Nefediev, Yurii

    2016-07-01

    In the Kazan University computer simulation is carried out for observation of lunar physical libration in projects planned installation of measuring equipment on the lunar surface. One such project is the project of ILOM (Japan), in which on the lunar pole an optical telescope with CCD will be equipped. As a result, the determining the selenographic coordinates (x and y) of a star with an accuracy of 1 ms of arc will be achieved. On the basis of the analytical theory of physical libration we developed a technique for solving the inverse problem of the libration. And we have already shown, for example, that the error in determining selenographic coordinates about ɛ seconds does not lead to errors in the determination of the libration angles ρ and Iσ larger than the 1.414ɛ. Libration in longitude is not determined from observations of the polar star (Petrova et al., 2012). The accuracy of the libration in the inverse problem depends on accuracy of the coordinates of the stars - α and δ - taken from the star catalogs. Checking this influence is the task of the present study. To do simulation we have developed that allows to choose the stars, falling in the field of view of the lunar telescope on observation period. Equatorial coordinates of stars were chosen by us from several fundamental catalogs: UCAC2-BSS, Hipparcos, Tycho, FK6 (part I, III) and the Astronomical Almanac. An analysis of these catalogues from the point of view accuracy of coordinates of stars represented in them was performed by Nefediev et al., 2013. The largest error, 20-70 ms, found in the catalogues UCAC2 and Tycho, the others have an error about a millisecond of arc. We simulated the observations with mentioned errors and got the following results. 1. The error in the declination Δδ of the star causes the same order error in libration parameters ρ and Iσ , while the sensitivity of libration to errors in Δα is ten time smaller. Fortunately, due to statistics (30 to 70, depending on

  12. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor

    2011-12-01

    Georgetown University studying astronomy. On July 6, 1963, Tom Van Flandern married Barbara Ann Weber in Kentucky. They remained together until his passing 46 years later. They had four children, Michael, Constance, Brian, and Kevin. Also in 1963, Tom began work in the Nautical Almanac Office of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. He became an expert on refining the lunar orbit from timings of lunar occultations, then the best observations for that purpose. He encouraged observations by providing observers with predictions of occultations for their locations. He designed a cable system connecting all observers timing a grazing occultation, to record their observations at a central station. After a 1964 success, four amateur astronomical societies built similar cable systems. Tom Van Flandern relished efforts to simplify computer calculations. He and Henry Fliegel developed an algorithm to calculate a Julian date from a Gregorian date that would fit on a single IBM card. They published this in a paper, "A machine algorithm for processing calendar dates" in 1968 in the Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. This was used in countless business applications worldwide. With Kenneth Pulkkinen, he published "Low precision formulae for planetary positions", in Ap. J. Supp. in 1979. The paper set a record for the number of reprints requested from that journal. Tom Van Flandern earned a PhD in astronomy from Yale University in 1969. His thesis was "A discussion of 1950-1968 occultations of stars by the Moon," advised by Prof. G. M. Clemence. In 1976 Van Flandern asserted that the orbits of 60 long-period comets traced to a common origin, supporting Michael Ovenden's exploded planet hypothesis. He founded the non-profit Meta Research, Inc. in 1990 to provide support for alternative theories in astronomy. The Meta Research Bulletin reported the newest discoveries and how they presented difficulties to accepted astronomical theories, such as the Big Bang and

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Uranometria Argentina catalog of bright southern stars (Gould, 1879)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    In 1879 Benjamin Apthorp Gould published in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Uranometria Argentina catalog of 7756 stars south of declination +10 degrees. This included all those stars he considered magnitude 7 or brighter and some fainter stars which are close companions to brighter stars or to each other and have combined magnitude 7 or brighter. Star positions are in 1875 coordinates, and constellation boundaries also in 1875 coordinates were defined within the aforementioned declination range. With only a few small changes these were incorporated into the boundaries adopted by the IAU in 1930 and subsequently universally accepted. In terms of accurate photoelectric magnitude measurements the Uranometria Argentina is nearly complete to magnitude 6.5 in its declination range. In each constellation the individual stars considered to be magnitude 7 and brighter were numbered in sequence of increasing right ascension in 1875 coordinates, except that in a few cases this sequence was somewhat adjusted so that stars close together could be listed on adjacent lines of text. The numbering system is analogous to that in the Flamsteed Catalogus Brittanicus and now widely used. Star numbers from the Uranometria Argentina rarely appear in the 21st century despite the potential utility of their use. They were included in the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac until 1978, and in the FK5 catalog until 1999, always with the letter G following the number in the Uranometria Argentina catalog. This serves to distinguish Flamsteed numbers with no following letters from Gould numbers, and is utilized in this presentation and recommended for general use. The file catalog.dat includes every star in the original Uranometria Argentina. In the original the constellations were presented in sequence of increasing distance from the south pole and numbered accordingly. For the convenience of 21st century astronomers the constellations are presented here by alphabetical sequence in

  14. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    initio within the relativistic framework presented in the other resolutions (in that regard, there still exist some difficult problems to solve), their relativistic terms are accurate enough for all the current and near-future observational techniques. At that level, the Earth rotation models are consistent with the general relativity framework recommended by the IAU and considered in this book. The chapter presents practical algorithms for implementing the recommended models. The appendices to the book contain a list of astronomical constants and the original text of the relevant IAU resolutions adopted by the IAU General Assemblies in 1997, 2000, 2006, and 2009. Numerous colleagues have contributed to this book in one way or or another. It is a pleasure for us to acknowledge the enlightening discussions which one or more of the authors had on different occasions with Victor A. Brumberg of the Institute of Applied Astronomy (St. Petersburg, Russia); Tianyi Huang and Yi Xie of Nanjing University (China); Edward B. Fomalont of the National Radio Astronomical Observatory (USA); Valeri V. Makarov, William J. Tangren, and James L. Hilton of the US Naval Observatory; Gerhard Schäfer of the Institute of Theoretical Physics (Jena, Germany); Clifford M. Will of Washington University (St. Louis, USA); Ignazio Ciufolini of the Università del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); and Patrick Wallace, retired from Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (UK). We also would like to thank Richard G. French of Wellesley College (Massachusetts, USA); Michael Soffel and Sergei Klioner of the Technical University of Dresden; Bahram Mashhoon of the University of Missouri-Columbia; John D. Anderson, retired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA); the late Giacomo Giampieri, also of JPL; Michael Kramer, Axel Jessner, and Norbert Wex of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Bonn, Germany); Alexander F. Zakharov of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow

  15. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor

    2011-12-01

    Georgetown University studying astronomy. On July 6, 1963, Tom Van Flandern married Barbara Ann Weber in Kentucky. They remained together until his passing 46 years later. They had four children, Michael, Constance, Brian, and Kevin. Also in 1963, Tom began work in the Nautical Almanac Office of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. He became an expert on refining the lunar orbit from timings of lunar occultations, then the best observations for that purpose. He encouraged observations by providing observers with predictions of occultations for their locations. He designed a cable system connecting all observers timing a grazing occultation, to record their observations at a central station. After a 1964 success, four amateur astronomical societies built similar cable systems. Tom Van Flandern relished efforts to simplify computer calculations. He and Henry Fliegel developed an algorithm to calculate a Julian date from a Gregorian date that would fit on a single IBM card. They published this in a paper, "A machine algorithm for processing calendar dates" in 1968 in the Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. This was used in countless business applications worldwide. With Kenneth Pulkkinen, he published "Low precision formulae for planetary positions", in Ap. J. Supp. in 1979. The paper set a record for the number of reprints requested from that journal. Tom Van Flandern earned a PhD in astronomy from Yale University in 1969. His thesis was "A discussion of 1950-1968 occultations of stars by the Moon," advised by Prof. G. M. Clemence. In 1976 Van Flandern asserted that the orbits of 60 long-period comets traced to a common origin, supporting Michael Ovenden's exploded planet hypothesis. He founded the non-profit Meta Research, Inc. in 1990 to provide support for alternative theories in astronomy. The Meta Research Bulletin reported the newest discoveries and how they presented difficulties to accepted astronomical theories, such as the Big Bang and

  16. Obituary: Brian Marsden (1937-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gareth; Marsden, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    Brian Geoffrey Marsden was born on 1937 August 5 in Cambridge, England. His father, Thomas, was the senior mathematics teacher at a local high school. It was his mother, Eileen (nee West), however, who introduced him to the study of astronomy, when he returned home on the Thursday during his first week in primary school in 1942 and found her sitting in the back yard watching an eclipse of the sun. Using now frowned-upon candle-smoked glass, they sat watching the changing bite out of the sun. What most impressed the budding astronomer, however, was not that the eclipse could be seen, but the fact that it had been predicted in advance, and it was the idea that one could make successful predictions of events in the sky that eventually led him to his career. When, at the age of 11, he entered the Perse School in Cambridge he was developing primitive methods for calculating the positions of the planets. He soon realized that earlier astronomers had come up with more accurate procedures for doing this over the centuries, and during the next couple of years this led to his introduction to the library of the Cambridge University Observatories and his study of how eclipses, for example, could be precisely computed. Together with a couple of other students he formed a school Astronomical Society, of which he served as the secretary. At the age of 16 he joined and began regularly attending the monthly London meetings of the British Astronomical Association. He quickly became involved with the Association's Computing Section, which was known specifically for making astronomical predictions other than those that were routinely being prepared by professional astronomers for publication in almanacs around the world. Under the watchful eyes of the director and assistant director of the Computing Section, this led him to prepare and publish predictions of the occasions when one of Jupiter's moons could be seen to pass directly in front of another. He also calculated the