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Sample records for aloe

  1. Aloe

    MedlinePlus

    ... the aloe plant. It is used in many skin care products. Aloe poisoning occurs when someone swallows this ... Diarrhea Loss of vision Rash Severe abdominal pain Skin irritation Throat swelling (which may also cause breathing difficulty) Vomiting

  2. Aloe vera

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.D.; Penneys, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    We review the scientific literature regarding the aloe vera plant and its products. Aloe vera is known to contain several pharmacologically active ingredients, including a carboxypeptidase that inactivates bradykinin in vitro, salicylates, and a substance(s) that inhibits thromboxane formation in vivo. Scientific studies exist that support an antibacterial and antifungal effect for substance(s) in aloe vera. Studies and case reports provide support for the use of aloe vera in the treatment of radiation ulcers and stasis ulcers in man and burn and frostbite injuries in animals. The evidence for a potential beneficial effect associated with the use of aloe vera is sufficient to warrant the design and implementation of well-controlled clinical trials. 27 references.

  3. Aloe vera in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, G; Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry.

  4. Aloe Vera in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. PMID:25478478

  5. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  6. Aloe-induced Toxic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ha Na; Kim, Young Mook; Kim, Byoung Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Choi, Myung Jin; Choi, Young Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine describes aloe as a herb which has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-aging effects. In recent years several cases of aloe-induced hepatotoxicity were reported. But its pharmacokinetics and toxicity are poorly described in the literature. Here we report three cases with aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. A 57-yr-old woman, a 62-yr-old woman and a 55-yr-old woman were admitted to the hospital for acute hepatitis. They had taken aloe preparation for months. Their clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and histologic findings met diagnostic criteria (RUCAM scale) of toxic hepatitis. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparations, liver enzymes returned to normal level. Aloe should be considered as a causative agent in hepatotoxicity. PMID:20191055

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  8. ALOE VERA: A SHORT REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Surjushe, Amar; Vasani, Resham; Saple, D G

    2008-01-01

    Aloe vera is a natural product that is now a day frequently used in the field of cosmetology. Though there are various indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy. The aloe vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article. PMID:19882025

  9. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers. PMID:28216559

  10. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2017-02-14

    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  11. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  12. Barbaloin in aloe species.

    PubMed

    Groom, Q J; Reynolds, T

    1987-08-01

    Barbaloin levels in the exudates from the leaves of 68 species of ALOE in the Kew collection have been determined by light absorption at 375 nm following separation by HPLC. The exudates from most species contained between 10-20% although a few concentrations of around 30% were found. The level in the leaf was usually around 1% of thedry weight in plants grown in glasshouses at Kew although some species were found to contain up to 5%. The highest concentrations of barbaloin were found in exudates from young mature leaves just below the apex and the level decreased in older leaves towards the base of the plant. Species in the natural groupings of the genus, Section ANGUIALOE and Group 4, all had appreciable concentrations of barbaloin in the leaf exudates. Species containing barbaloinwere distributed throughout the large heterogeneous Sections EUALOE and PACHYDENDRON with no apparent taxonomic significance.

  13. Benefits of Aloe vera in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mangaiyarkarasi, S. P.; Manigandan, T.; Elumalai, M.; Cholan, Priyanka K.; Kaur, Roopam Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) is a plant that belongs to Liliaceae family. The name Aloe derives from the Arabic word “Alloeh” meaning shining bitter substance while “vera” in Latin means true. It contains various minerals and vitamins. It has got various properties such as immunomodulatory, antiviral and antiinflammatory in nature. A. vera can play a significant role in dentistry in treatment of lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, alveolar osteitis, periodontitis, etc. PMID:26015726

  14. [Mechanisms of therapeutic action of aloe].

    PubMed

    Anuszewska, Elżbieta L

    2015-01-01

    Genus Aloe was traditionally applied for the medicinal practice over thousands of years and used for treatment of wide range of medical indication from stomach disorders to cancer. Fresh leaves of aloe contain various groups of chemical compounds such as: glycoproteins, polysaccharides, anthraquinone derivatives, vitamins, minerals, aminoacids and many others, which show multidirectional therapeutic action. These active components are responsible for immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial effects of aloe Recent data confirmed that aloe possess a unique therapeutic profile and has positive potential for medical application.

  15. EDOS Data Capture for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Bruce; Cordier, Guy R.; Wood, Terri; Gamst, Harek

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, NASA's Earth Sciences Missions Operations (ESMO) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) directed the Earth Observing System Data Operations System (EDOS) project to provide a prototype system to assess the feasibility of high rate data capture for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) spacecraft via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The key objective of this collaborative effort between NASA and JAXA was to share science data collected over North and South America previously unavailable due to limitations in ALOS downlink capacity. EDOS provided a single system proof-of-concept in 4 months at White Sands TDRS Ground Terminal The system captured 6 ALOS events error-free at 277 Mbps and delivered the data to the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) within 3 hours (May/June '08). This paper describes the successful rapid prototyping approach which led to a successful demonstration and agreement between NASA and JAXA for operational support. The design of the operational system will be discussed with emphasis on concurrent high-rate data capture, Level-O processing, real-time display and high-rate delivery with stringent latency requirements. A similar solution was successfully deployed at Svalbard, Norway to support the Suomi NPP launch (October 2011) and capture all X-band data and provide a 30-day backup archive.

  16. Preliminary evaluation: the effects of Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yimei; Zhao, Guodong; Jia, Jicheng

    2008-11-20

    Genus Aloe has been traditionally utilized for medicinal purpose for decades. Compared with Aloe vera gel, the qualitative assessment for the therapeutic effects of the other two Aloe species, Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller, for their topical wound healing was less addressed. Therefore, the aim of present study is to provide the positive evidence for Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller supporting their therapeutic properties for topical treatment of skin wounds. Two types of the whole-leaf juice prepared from either Aloe ferox Miller or Aloe arborescens Miller were used in this study. Incision wound healing was investigated using both the rat and rabbit model. The wound closure rate with and without the topical administration of the whole-leaf juice were monitored. The changes in wound characteristics were traced and wound severity was scored on different days. The anti-microorganism actions of each whole-leaf juice preparation were evaluated by measuring their inhibition growth effects on four bacterial strains and three fungal spores. The toxic influence owing to topical application of Aloe whole-leaf juice on intact and damaged skin was also assessed. Our results indicated that the two types of whole-leaf juice preparations exhibit the therapeutic properties, including facilitation of the healing process, selective inhibition of the microbial growth and zero side-effect on the skin, during the observation period. It is concluded that both of Aloe whole-leaf juice preparations have the positive potential for skin medicinal application.

  17. Meeting report: First National Meeting on Aloe, April 20-21, 2013, Isernia, Italy. New perspectives in Aloe research: from basic science to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Laudato, Massimiliano; Borrelli, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Aloe preparations have maintaining their popularity over the of course time. Aloe latex is used for its laxative effects; aloe gel is used topically for skin ailments and internally for variety of disturbances; aloe extract is potentially useful for cancer.

  18. Photochemistry and phototoxicity of aloe emodin.

    PubMed

    Vath, Peter; Wamer, Wayne G; Falvey, Daniel E

    2002-04-01

    Photochemical pathways leading to the phototoxicity of the aloe vera constituent aloe emodin were studied. The results indicate a photochemical mechanism involving singlet oxygen to be the most likely pathway responsible for the observed phototoxicity. Aloe emodin was found to efficiently generate singlet oxygen when irradiated with UV light (phidelta = 0.56 in acetonitrile). The survival of human skin fibroblast cells in the presence of aloe emodin was found to decrease upon irradiation with UV light. A further decrease in cell survival was observed in D2O compared with H2O, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen as the primary pathway. Laser flash photolysis experiments were also carried out on aloe emodin alone and in the presence of various biological substrates. Aloe emodin proved to be relatively photostable (phi = 1 x 10(-4)) and a poor photo-oxidant (E*red = +1.02 V). Only absorption bands caused by the triplet state of aloe emodin (lambdamax = 480 nm) and the aloe emodin conjugate base (lambdamax = 520 nm) were observed in the transient spectra.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Xu, Juan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2003-12-17

    The polysaccharide and flavonoid concentrations of two-, three-, and four-year-old Aloe vera were determined, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated compared to BHT and alpha-tocopherol by the DPPH radical scavenging method and the linoleic acid system at 100 microg of soluble solids per mL of ethanol. The results showed that three-year-old Aloe vera contained significantly higher levels of polysaccharides and flavonoids than two- and four-year-old Aloe vera, and no significant differences in flavonoid levels were found between three- and four-year-old Aloe vera. All the aloe extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts and reference compounds followed the order: three-year-old Aloe vera > BHT > four-year-old Aloe vera > alpha-tocopherol > two-year-old Aloe vera. The three-year-old extract exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity of 72.19%, which is significantly higher than that of BHT at 70.52% and alpha-tocopherol at 65.20%. These data suggest that the growth stage plays a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera.

  1. Aloe vera leaf gel: a review update.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T; Dweck, A C

    1999-12-15

    Research since the 1986 review has largely upheld the therapeutic claims made in the earlier papers and indeed extended them into other areas. Treatment of inflammation is still the key effect for most types of healing but it is now realized that this is a complex process and that many of its constituent processes may be addressed in different ways by different gel components. A common theme running though much recent research is the immunomodulatory properties of the gel polysaccharides, especially the acetylated mannans from Aloe vera, which are now a proprietary substance covered by many patents. There have also been, however, persistent reports of active glycoprotein fractions from both Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. There are also cautionary investigations warning of possible allergic effects on some patients. Reports also describe antidiabetic, anticancer and antibiotic activities, so we may expect to see a widening use of aloe gel. Several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for use as itself or in formulations and there may be moves towards isolating and eventually providing verified active ingredients in dosable quantities

  2. PALSAR system on the ALOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Norimasa; Hamazaki, Takashi

    1998-12-01

    The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) is considered to be one of the follow-on sensors of JERS-1 SAR. PALSAR is designed to achieve high radiometric performance as well as observation flexibility, in addition to the data continuity of JERS-1. It has a beam steering capability using an active phased array antenna, and a multi-polarization capability. In order to achieve high radiometric performance, the system parameters have been carefully designed, and some internal calibration procedures have been investigated. Based on the current design, PALSAR can acquire the data from 8 to 60 degrees of incidence angle. A noise equivalent backscattering coefficient is from -30 to -25 dB depending on the incidence angle. The required radiometric stability is within 1 dB over one scene. The status of development is currently the Bread Board Model (BBM) phase, and NASDA has manufactured the antenna system and tested it both electronically and mechanically. This paper describes the PALSAR system design as well as some results from BBM development.

  3. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  4. ALOS-2 launch and initial checkout result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Saruwatari, Hideki; Hatooka, Yasushi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 has an enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for interferometry SAR (INSAR) data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. ALOS-2 was launched on 24th May 2014, and has been completed the initial functional verifications of onboard components and systems. This paper describes the initial operation and checkout results including the comparison with the previous SAR satellite image and the disaster monitoring. Some key features of orbit control and determination to improve the coherency of the repeat-pass INSAR observation are evaluated.

  5. Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, Neha; Chatterjee, Anirban; Goyal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. It is widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing, as an analgesic, and for its anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included in the study. They were divided into three groups with fifteen patients in each group. Group 1 was asked to rinse with 10 ml of aloe vera mouthwash twice daily for three months. Group 2 were treated with scaling only. Group 3 patients were asked to rinse with aloe vera mouthwash and scaling was done. The clinical changes were evaluated with Loe and Silness gingival index (1963) and Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) at baseline, after one month and three months, respectively. Results: The data obtained was compared statistically. The paired ‘t’ test was done for intragroup comparison and one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison. The data was obtained at the baseline, end of first month, and end of the third month. The result suggested reduction in gingival inflammation in all the three groups, but it was more in the aloe vera mouthwash and scaling group. Hence, it was concluded that aloe vera had a significant anti-inflammatory property. Thus, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for treating plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:24174720

  6. In Vitro Drug Absorption Enhancement Effects of Aloe vera and Aloe ferox

    PubMed Central

    Beneke, Catharina; Viljoen, Alvaro; Hamman, Josias

    2012-01-01

    The effect of whole leaf and gel materials from two aloe species (Aloe vera and A. ferox) was compared with that of the precipitated polysaccharides from these aloe materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as transport of a model compound (atenolol) in the apical-to-basolateral direction across rat intestinal tissue. All the aloe leaf materials and precipitated polysaccharides had a statistically significant effect of lowering the TEER (P < 0.05) compared to the control group, which indicates their ability to open tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells. In contrast to the expectation from the TEER results, only the precipitated polysaccharides from dehydrated A. vera gel (Daltonmax 700®) had a statistically significant effect of enhancing the transport of atenolol (P < 0.05). These in vitro results therefore indicate that A. vera gel polysaccharides have potential as drug absorption enhancing agents in novel pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. PMID:22896832

  7. In Vitro Drug Absorption Enhancement Effects of Aloe vera and Aloe ferox.

    PubMed

    Beneke, Catharina; Viljoen, Alvaro; Hamman, Josias

    2012-01-01

    The effect of whole leaf and gel materials from two aloe species (Aloe vera and A. ferox) was compared with that of the precipitated polysaccharides from these aloe materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as transport of a model compound (atenolol) in the apical-to-basolateral direction across rat intestinal tissue. All the aloe leaf materials and precipitated polysaccharides had a statistically significant effect of lowering the TEER (P < 0.05) compared to the control group, which indicates their ability to open tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells. In contrast to the expectation from the TEER results, only the precipitated polysaccharides from dehydrated A. vera gel (Daltonmax 700(®)) had a statistically significant effect of enhancing the transport of atenolol (P < 0.05). These in vitro results therefore indicate that A. vera gel polysaccharides have potential as drug absorption enhancing agents in novel pharmaceutical drug delivery systems.

  8. Skin permeation enhancement effects of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii and Aloe ferox.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lizelle T; Gerber, Minja; du Preez, Jan L; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Hamman, Josias H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro permeation enhancement effects of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii and Aloe ferox using ketoprofen as a marker compound. The permeation studies were conducted across excised female abdominal skin in Franz diffusion cells, and the delivery of ketoprofen into the stratum corneum-epidermis and epidermis-dermis layers of the skin was investigated using a tape-stripping technique. A. vera gel showed the highest permeation-enhancing effect on ketoprofen (enhancement ratio or ER = 2.551) when compared with the control group, followed by A. marlothii gel (ER = 1.590) and A. ferox whole-leaf material (ER = 1.520). Non-linear curve fitting calculations indicated that the drug permeation-enhancing effect of A. vera gel can be attributed to an increased partitioning of the drug into the skin, while A. ferox whole leaf modified the diffusion characteristics of the skin for ketoprofen. The tape stripping results indicated that A. marlothii whole leaf delivered the highest concentration of the ketoprofen into the different skin layers. Of the selected aloe species investigated, A. vera gel material showed the highest potential as transdermal drug penetration enhancer across human skin. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  10. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  11. Changes in urinary compositions among children after consuming prepared oral doses of aloe (Aloe vera Linn).

    PubMed

    Kirdpon, Sukachart; Kirdpon, Wichit; Airarat, Wanchai; Thepsuthammarat, Kaewjai; Nanakorn, Somsong

    2006-08-01

    1) To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel, and in the urine of healthy normal children, before and after consuming fresh aloe gel. 2) To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among subjects after taking aloe gel. 3) To determine the value of consuming aloe gel for prevention of renal stone formation. Experimental study. Thirteen healthy boys between 9 and 13 years of age were enrolled (with informed permission) in the clinical trial. Subjects ingested 100 g of fresh prepared aloe gel twice a day for seven consecutive days. The 24-hour urine was collected one day prior to taking the gel (Day 0), Days 2 and 5 of consumption, and Day 8 (one day after completion). The authors determined the urine volume, osmolality, potassium, sodium, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, oxalate, Permissible Increment in Calcium (PI Ca), Permissible Increment in Oxalate (PI Ox), Concentration Product Ratio of Calcium Phosphate (CPR CaPO4) and the citrate per creatinine ratio. The citrate and tartrate concentration in 100 g of fresh aloe gel was 96.3 and 158.9 mg, respectively. The 24-hr urine volume and urinary citrate excretion were significantly increased (p < 0.05). The PI Ca and the PI Ox were also significantly increased (p < 0.05). The other measurements were unremarkable. One hundred grams of fresh Aloe vera gel contains 96.3 milligrams of citrate and 158.9 milligrams of tartrate and were in the mid-range among Thai fruits. Changes in chemical compositions of urine after aloe gel consumption shows potential for preventing kidney stone formation among children.

  12. Effect of aloe (Aloe vera Linn.) on healthy adult volunteers: changes in urinary composition.

    PubMed

    Kirdpon, Sukachart; Kirdpon, Wichit; Airarat, Wanchai; Trevanich, Anothai; Nanakorn, Somsong

    2006-08-01

    1. To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel, and in the urine of healthy normal volunteers, before and after consuming fresh aloe gel. 2. To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among subjects after taking aloe gel. 3. To determine the value of consuming aloe gel for prevention of renal stone formation. Experimental study; before and after experiment with no control group Thirty one healthy male medical students between 18 and 23 years of age were enrolled (with informed consent) in the clinical trial. Subjects ingested 100 g of fresh aloe gel twice a day for seven consecutive days. The 24-hr urine was collected one day prior to taking the gel (Day 0), Days 2 and 5 of consumption, and Day 8 (one day after completion). The authors determined the urine volume, osmolality, potassium, sodium, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, oxalate, Permissible Increment in calcium (PI in calcium), Permissible Increment in oxalate (PI in oxalate), Concentration product ratio of calcium phosphate (CPR of CaPO4) and the citrate per creatinine ratio. The citrate and tartrate concentration in 100 g of fresh aloe gel was 96.3 and 158.9 mg, respectively. The urinary excretion of oxalate was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The PI in calcium was significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the citrate excretion and PI in oxalate were consistently, albeit non-significantly, increased. The mean CPR values of CaPO4 were decreased non-significantly. The other measurements were unremarkable. Fresh Aloe vera gel (100 g) contains 96.3 mg of citrate and 158.9 mg of tartrate. This is mid-range for Thai fruits. Changes in chemical compositions of urine after aloe consumption shows its potential for preventing kidney stone formation among adults.

  13. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  14. Quantitative colorimetric analysis of aloe polysaccharides as a measure of Aloe vera quality in commercial products.

    PubMed

    Eberendu, Alexis R; Luta, Gabriela; Edwards, Joshua A; McAnalley, Bill H; Davis, Brice; Rodriguez, Santiago; Henry, C Ray

    2005-01-01

    Aloe vera inner leaf gel has been used as a medicinal remedy for many years. Yet some aloe products do not demonstrate beneficial effects, indicating that poor quality products are reaching the market. Therefore, an efficient and accurate method is needed to evaluate the quality of aloe products. This paper describes a quick, quantitative colorimetric assay that has been developed for the determination of glucomannan in aloe gel and products. With this method, interference by non-aloe polysaccharides or other extraneous components was absent or negligible. Data indicate that the glucomannan can be determined at parts per million (mg/L) in aqueous solutions with an accuracy of 100 +/- 5% at a 10 mg/L concentration. The correlation coefficient is 0.999, and linearity is from 0.9 to 72.7 mg/L in the test solution. The method is inexpensive, simple, sensitive, and reproducible. This method was applied to determine the polysaccharide content of commercial aloe products. Both qualitative and quantitative information can be obtained in about 5 min.

  15. Study of silicone vehicles for Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, V; Montoya, R; Ruiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of different surfactants on the synthesis of a silicone latex is studied. Distinct formulations were mixed and then tested with regard to stability as a function of time and temperature. The ones with the best characteristics for acting as a vehicle for the active cosmetic ingredient Aloe vera are indicated.

  16. Evolutionary history and leaf succulence as explanations for medicinal use in aloes and the global popularity of Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Grace, Olwen M; Buerki, Sven; Symonds, Matthew R E; Forest, Félix; van Wyk, Abraham E; Smith, Gideon F; Klopper, Ronell R; Bjorå, Charlotte S; Neale, Sophie; Demissew, Sebsebe; Simmonds, Monique S J; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-02-26

    Aloe vera supports a substantial global trade yet its wild origins, and explanations for its popularity over 500 related Aloe species in one of the world's largest succulent groups, have remained uncertain. We developed an explicit phylogenetic framework to explore links between the rich traditions of medicinal use and leaf succulence in aloes. The phylogenetic hypothesis clarifies the origins of Aloe vera to the Arabian Peninsula at the northernmost limits of the range for aloes. The genus Aloe originated in southern Africa ~16 million years ago and underwent two major radiations driven by different speciation processes, giving rise to the extraordinary diversity known today. Large, succulent leaves typical of medicinal aloes arose during the most recent diversification ~10 million years ago and are strongly correlated to the phylogeny and to the likelihood of a species being used for medicine. A significant, albeit weak, phylogenetic signal is evident in the medicinal uses of aloes, suggesting that the properties for which they are valued do not occur randomly across the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic investigation of plant use and leaf succulence among aloes has yielded new explanations for the extraordinary market dominance of Aloe vera. The industry preference for Aloe vera appears to be due to its proximity to important historic trade routes, and early introduction to trade and cultivation. Well-developed succulent leaf mesophyll tissue, an adaptive feature that likely contributed to the ecological success of the genus Aloe, is the main predictor for medicinal use among Aloe species, whereas evolutionary loss of succulence tends to be associated with losses of medicinal use. Phylogenetic analyses of plant use offer potential to understand patterns in the value of global plant diversity.

  17. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel. PMID:24991119

  18. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lizelle T; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer(®) CM 825, Visioscan(®) VC 98 and Cutometer(®) dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter(®) MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter(®) readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel.

  19. Anticancer potential of aloes: antioxidant, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory attributes.

    PubMed

    Harlev, Eli; Nevo, Eviatar; Lansky, Ephraim P; Ofir, Rivka; Bishayee, Anupam

    2012-06-01

    Aloe is a genus of medicinal plants with a notable history of medical use. Basic research over the past couple of decades has begun to reveal the extent of Aloe's pharmaceutical potential, particularly against neoplastic disease. This review looks at Aloe, both the genus and the folk medicine, often being called informally "aloes", and delineates their chemistry and anticancer pharmacognosy. Structures of key compounds are provided, and their pharmacological activities reviewed. Particular attention is given to their free radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory properties. This review highlights major research directions on aloes, reflecting the enormous potential of natural sources, and of the genus Aloe in particular, in preventing and treating cancer. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and mutagenic investigation of the South African tree aloe (Aloe barberae).

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, A R; Amoo, S O; Stafford, G I; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2009-07-30

    In recent times, many products ranging from aloe drinks to aloe gels, powders, capsules, and creams have appeared on the commercial market prepared from different aloe species including Aloe barberae. These products are used in ethnomedicine to treat various conditions including gastrointestinal disorders, insect bites, skin burns and other skin injuries by traditional communities. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities as well as genotoxic effects of different extracts of Aloe barberae. Organic and water extracts of the upper stem, young bark, mature bark, leaves and roots of the South African tree aloe (Aloe barberae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial [gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria as well as the fungus Candida albicans], anti-inflammatory (COX-1 and COX-2) and mutagenic properties (Ames test). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to compare the phytochemical profiles of different extracts of Aloe barberae. The petroleum ether (PE) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the mature bark, leaves and roots exhibited good activity against all the bacteria and fungus Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.195 to 1.56 mg/ml. All the PE extracts evaluated showed a high activity (>70%) in both COX-1 and COX-2 assays. Apart from the organic extracts of the root with consistently good activity (>70%), all the remaining extracts showed moderate activity (40-69%) in COX-1 assay. The PE extracts also showed a dose dependent increase in activity. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the leaves and root EtOH extracts indicated the presence of compounds that could absorb UV light (wavelength: 190-820 nm). None of the extracts had a mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay against a tester strain, TA98. Activity observed in the bark, leaves and roots of Aloe barberae validates

  1. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations.

  2. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  3. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Phenolic constituents in dried flowers of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) and their in vitro antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Keyhanian, Shirin; Stahl-Biskup, Elisabeth

    2007-06-01

    The dried flowers from Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) (Asphodelaceae) were analysed by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS, verifying chlorogenic, caffeic, 5-P-coumaroylquinic, caffeoylshikimic, 5-feruloylquinic, 5-P-CIS-coumaroylquinic, P-coumaric and ferulic acid as well as luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, isoorientin, isovitexin and their 7-O-glucosides, saponarin and lutonarin. On searching for anthranoids in the flower extract, aloe-emodin as well as the glycosylchromone aloeresin B could be identified. Aloin A and B, the laxative principle of the drug Curaçao-Aloes, are not accumulated in the dried flowers. The polyphenol content of three different batches was 0.73 - 1.01% (+/- 0.05%) and the flavonoid content 0.24 - 0.34% (+/- 0.01%). The hydrophilic antioxidative capacity amounted to 85.7 - 94.9 (+/- 0.5) micromol TEAC/g dried Aloe vera flower and was directly correlated with the polyphenol and flavonoid contents.

  5. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  6. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Yoon Taek; Kim, Eun-A; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ko, Seok-Chun; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Kim, Young-Sun; Cho, Jin Hun; Jang, Hyeang-Su; Jeon, You-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of a polysaccharide isolated from aloe vera gel were investigated. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from aloe vera gel by using ten digestive enzymes including five carbohydrases and five proteases. Among them, the highest yield was obtained with the Viscozyme extract and the same extract showed the best radical scavenging activity. An active polysaccharide was purified from the Viscozyme extract using ethanol-added separation and anion exchange chromatography. Purified aloe vera polysaccharide (APS) strongly scavenged radicals including DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. In addition, APS showed a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress and cell death in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model. In this study, it is proved that both the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of APS could be further utilized in relevant industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE): Design Test Edition, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, J. Steven; And Others

    The Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE) system of evaluating teaching is presented. ALOE was developed from Arizona adaptations of the Georgia Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments and, with G. Taylor's "Functional Elements Analysis of Teaching Skills" (FEATS), forms an integrated observation package which allows…

  8. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Darias Martín, Jacinto; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper.

  9. Inhibition of infectious diseases by components from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Norimitsu; Yoshida, Tadashi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Hattori, Makoto

    2009-04-23

    The ability to eliminate Escherichia coli K-12 from the peritoneal cavity in the early stage of infection (48 h) was improved by the pre-administration of an aloe sample to BALB/c mice. Our results suggest that the aloe sample could inhibit infectious diseases by stimulating the host defense mechanism, especially the phagocytic and killing activities of macrophages.

  10. Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Shilpakala, S R; Prathiba, J; Malathi, R

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated and the two organisms were susceptible to the inner gel of aloe barbadensis, though it was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. The reduction for Aloe Vera (AV) needed to suppress the growth of the gram-positive bacterium was attributed to the structural differences between the two organisms.

  11. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P; Kadam, V J

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation.

  12. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-02

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  13. Evaluation of aloin and aloe-emodin as anti-inflammatory agents in aloe by using murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2009-04-23

    The aloe ingredients responsible for physiological effects and the concentrations required to exert their biological activities are not fully understood. This study compares the anti-inflammatory effects of aloin and aloe-emodin with other polyphenols. Our results demonstrated that aloe-emodin dose-dependently inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and nitric oxide (NO) production at 5-40 microM. In addition, the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were suppressed by 40 microM aloe-emodin. Aloin also suppressed the production of NO at 5-40 microM, although it did not suppress PGE2 production. The present results indicate that aloin and aloe-emodin possibly suppress the inflammatory responses by blocking iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. The anti-inflammatory effect of aloe-emodin was comparable to that of kaempferol and quercetin, indicating aloe-emodin as a possible key constituent responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of aloe.

  14. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  15. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported.

  16. Antiplasmodial potential and quantification of aloin and aloe-emodin in Aloe vera collected from different climatic regions of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Manila; Yadav, Amita; Rohilla, Pooja; Yadav, Jaya Parkash

    2017-07-17

    In this study, Aloe vera samples were collected from different climatic regions of India. Quantitative HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography) analysis of important anthraquinones aloin and aloe-emodin and antiplasmodial activity of crude aqueous extracts was done to estimate the effects of these constituents on antiplasmodial potential of the plant. HPTLC system equipped with a sample applicator Linomat V with CAMAG sample syringe, twin rough plate development chamber (20 x 10 cm), TLC Scanner 3 and integration software WINCATS 1.4.8 was used for analysis of aloin and aloe-emodin amount. The antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was assessed against a chloroquine (CQ) sensitive strain of P. falciparum (MRC-2). Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of selected samples was determined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended method that was based on assessing the inhibition of schizont maturation in a 96-well microtitre plate. EC (effective concentration) values of different samples were observed to predict antiplasmodial potential of the plant in terms of their climatic zones. A maximum quantity of aloin and aloe-emodin i.e. 0.45 and 0.27 mg/g respectively was observed from the 12 samples of Aloe vera. The inhibited parasite growth with EC50 values ranging from 0.289 to 1056 μg/ml. The antiplasmodial EC50 value of positive control Chloroquine was observed 0.034 μg/ml and EC50 values showed by aloin and aloe-emodin was 67 μg/ml and 22 μg/ml respectively. A positive correlation was reported between aloin and aloe-emodin. Antiplasmodial activity was increased with increase in the concentration of aloin and aloe-emodin. The quantity of aloin and aloe-emodin was decreased with rise in temperature hence it was negatively correlated with temperature. The extracts of Aloe vera collected from colder climatic regions showed good antiplasmodial activity and also showed the presence of higher amount of aloin and aloe

  17. Aloe emodin inhibits the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Harhaji, Ljubica; Mijatovic, Sanja; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Popadic, Dusan; Isakovic, Aleksandra; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2007-07-30

    We demonstrate the capacity of an herbal anthraquinone aloe emodin to reduce the cytotoxicity of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) towards L929 mouse fibrosarcoma and U251 human glioma cell lines. Aloe emodin inhibited both TNF-induced cell necrosis and apoptosis, but it did not reduce cell death induced by UV radiation or hydrogen peroxide. Aloe emodin inhibited both basal and TNF-triggered activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and a selective blockade of ERK activation mimicked the cytoprotective action of the drug. On the other hand, aloe emodin did not affect TNF-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or generation of reactive oxygen species. The combination of aloe emodin and TNF caused an intracellular appearance of acidified autophagic vesicles, and the inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin or 3-methyladenine efficiently blocked the cytoprotective action of aloe emodin. These data indicate that aloe emodin could prevent TNF-triggered cell death through mechanisms involving induction of autophagy and blockade of ERK activation.

  18. In vitro drug permeation enhancement potential of aloe gel materials.

    PubMed

    Lebitsa, Tebogo; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lu, Zhilei; Hamman, Josias

    2012-05-01

    Aloe vera gel previously showed the ability to increase the bioavailability of vitamins and to enhance the in vitro transport of a macromolecular drug across intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of other species of aloe to act as drug absorption enhancement agents. The effect of gel materials from three South African aloes; Aloe ferox, A. marlothii and A. speciosa on the transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability of atenolol across excised intestinal tissue of the rat as well as the transport of FITC-dextran across Caco-2 cell monolayers was investigated. The aloe gel materials exhibited the ability to statistically significantly reduce the transepithelial electrical resistance of excised rat intestinal tissue but did not significantly increase the transport of atenolol across this in vitro tissue model at the concentrations tested. At least one concentration of each aloe gel material enhanced the transport of FITC-dextran statistically significantly across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The aloe gel materials showed potential to act as drug absorption enhancing agents across intestinal epithelia. The absorption enhancement effect was dependent on the type of in vitro model and type of drug was investigated.

  19. Efficient protocol for rapid Aloe vera micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Molsaghi, Mozhgan; Moieni, Ahmad; Kahrizi, Danial

    2014-06-01

    Aloe vera Linn. (Liliaceae) is a medicinal plant and has a number of curative properties. Vegetative propagation has not enough potential for supplying market demand. However, via in vitro propagation makes possible the mass production of Aloe plants. The current study was conducted to investigate growth regulators' effects on proliferation of A. vera. In this study, for comparison of plant growth regulators' effects on proliferation, the shoot tips and auxiliary buds of A. vera were cultured in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Rooted plantlets were transferred to garden soil, compost, and sand in the proportion of 1:1:1, respectively, after hardening. The maximum number of shoots was obtained on the medium supplemented with 1 mg/L IAA+4 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L IAA+0.8 BAP mg/L. Rooting was also achieved in the same media composition proliferation of shoot. The acclimatized plants showed 100% of survival. The regenerated plants looked healthy, and they were morphologically similar to that of stock plants. These results suggest that in vitro culture may be used as a technique for rapid propagation of A. vera.

  20. Precise Global DEM Generation by ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) generated the global digital elevation/surface model (DEM/DSM) and orthorectified image (ORI) using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was operated from 2006 to 2011. PRISM consisted of three panchromatic radiometers that acquired along-track stereo images. It had a spatial resolution of 2.5 m in the nadir-looking radiometer and achieved global coverage, making it a suitable potential candidate for precise global DSM and ORI generation. In the past 10 years or so, JAXA has conducted the calibration of the system corrected standard products of PRISM in order to improve absolute accuracies as well as to validate the high-level products such as DSM and ORI. In this paper, we introduce an overview of the global DEM/DSM dataset generation project, including a summary of ALOS and PRISM, in addition to the global data archive status. It is also necessary to consider data processing strategies, since the processing capabilities of the level 1 standard product and the high-level products must be developed in terms of both hardware and software to achieve the project aims. The automatic DSM/ORI processing software and its test processing results are also described.

  1. Of hemorrhagic shock, spherical cows and Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fuller, Stephanie P

    2004-12-01

    The central question explored in this commentary is whether the beneficial effects of an Aloe vera derived drag-reducing polymer during hemorrhagic shock is due to its O2 radical scavenging properties or to changes in blood rheology.

  2. Aloe vera extract activity on human corneal cells.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Anna; Paduch, Roman

    2012-02-01

    Ocular diseases are currently an important problem in modern societies. Patients suffer from various ophthalmologic ailments namely, conjunctivitis, dry eye, dacryocystitis or degenerative diseases. Therefore, there is a need to introduce new treatment methods, including medicinal plants usage. Aloe vera [Aloe barbadensis Miller (Liliaceae)] possesses wound-healing properties and shows immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory or antioxidant activities. NR uptake, MTT, DPPH• reduction, Griess reaction, ELISA and rhodamine-phalloidin staining were used to test toxicity, antiproliferative activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine level, and distribution of F-actin in cells, respectively. The present study analyzes the effect of Aloe vera extracts obtained with different solvents on in vitro culture of human 10.014 pRSV-T corneal cells. We found no toxicity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane extracts of Aloe vera on human corneal cells. No ROS reducing activity by heptane extract and trace action by ethanol (only at high concentration 125 µg/ml) extract of Aloe vera was observed. Only ethyl acetate extract expressed distinct free radical scavenging effect. Plant extracts decreased NO production by human corneal cells as compared to untreated controls. The cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) production decreased after the addition of Aloe vera extracts to the culture media. Aloe vera contains multiple pharmacologically active substances which are capable of modulating cellular phenotypes and functions. Aloe vera ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts may be used in eye drops to treat inflammations and other ailments of external parts of the eye such as the cornea.

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  4. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected.

  5. Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Chang, Chun-Chao; Fang, Chia-Lang; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two distinct human gastric carcinoma cell lines, AGS and NCI-N87. We demonstrate that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Noteworthy is that the AGS cells were generally more sensitive than the NCI-N87 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by the activation of caspase-3, leading to nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These preclinical studies suggest that aloe-emodin represents a suitable and novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human gastric carcinoma.

  6. Aloe vera: Nature's soothing healer to periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Geetha; Kudva, Praveen; Dodwad, Vidya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent interest and advances in the field of alternative medicine has promoted the use of various herbal and natural products for multiple uses in the field of medicine. Aloe vera is one such product exhibiting multiple benefits and has gained considerable importance in clinical research. This clinical study focuses on Aloe vera and highlights its property when used as a medicament in the periodontal pocket. Materials and Methods: A total number of 15 subjects were evaluated for clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth at baseline, followed by scaling and root planing (SRP). Test site comprised of SRP followed by intra-pocket placement of Aloe vera gel, which was compared with the control site in which only SRP was done, and clinical parameters were compared between the two sites at one month and three months from baseline. Results: Results exhibited encouraging findings in clinical parameters of the role of Aloe vera gel as a drug for local delivery. Conclusion: We conclude that subgingival administration of Aloe vera gel results in improvement of periodontal condition. Aloe vera gel can be used as a local drug delivery system in periodontal pockets. PMID:22028505

  7. [GPC Fingerprint Chromatograms of Aloe vera Leaf Gel Polysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao-e; Xie, Dan; Qian, Jie; Dong, Yin-mao

    2015-10-01

    To establish the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) fingerprint chromatograms of polysaccharides in Aloe vera leaf gel from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats for evaluating the quality of Aloe vera leaf gel products commercially available and testing common adulterated substances. The samples were prepared by water-extraction and alcohol-precipitation method. GPC separation was performed on a Shodex SUGAR KS-805 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 7 μm) column and a Shodex SUGAR KS-803 (300 mm x 8.0 mm, 6 μm) column at the temperature of 60 degrees C by eluting with 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 (containing 0.2 per thousand NaN) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the chromatographic effluent was detected by refractive index detector (RID) at the temperature of 50 degrees C. The common pattern of GPC fingerprint chromatograms was established and four common peaks were demarcated. The similarities of samples from the same habitat (Beijing) and different habitats were over 0.9. Taking the GPC fingerprint chromatograms for the qualified model, three commercially available aloe products were evaluated to be made of Aloe vera by the different manufacturing processes and four common adulterated substances of aloe polysaccharides were identified effectively. The method is simple and accurate with a good reproducibility, and it can be used for the identification and quality evaluation of Aloe vera leaf gel products.

  8. Preliminary trial of aloe vera gruel on HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Olatunya, Oladele S; Olatunya, Ayomadewa M; Anyabolu, Henry C; Adejuyigbe, Ebun A; Oyelami, Oyeku A

    2012-09-01

    Ten (10) young women diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria who did not meet the national criteria for the use of antiretroviral drugs were managed with 30-40 mL of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) gruel daily. Their CD4 counts, general improvement, and physical well-being (including weight gain) were monitored over a 1-year period. The findings were compared with those of 20 age- matched controls who were on antiretroviral drugs. One (1) patient who reacted badly to antiretroviral drug switched over to aloe vera. The average weight gain among those on aloe vera was 4.7 kg compared to 4.8 kg by those on antiretroviral drug (p=0.916). The average rise in CD4 count among them was 153.7 cells/μL compared to 238.85 cells/μL among the controls (p=0.087). There was no significant side effect(s) in either group except in the 1 patient who switched over from antiretroviral drugs to aloe vera gruel. These preliminary data suggest that consumption of aloe vera may be of help to HIV-infected individuals in the tropics, given its availability and inexpensiveness.

  9. Protective effect of Aloe vera on polymicrobial sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nari; Lee, Chan-Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2009-06-01

    Sepsis is an acute life-threatening clinical condition and remains the major cause of death in intensive care units. The primary pathophysiologic event central to the septic response is an overwhelming activation of the inflammatory system and countervailing response from the anti-inflammatory system. However, the cause of this perturbation has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that Aloe vera therapeutically reverses the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The administration of Aloe vera ameliorated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, as evidenced by the serum levels of biochemical parameters and histological changes. In order to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Aloe vera, the levels of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA at various time points. The increases in the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were attenuated by Aloe vera.In vivo administration of Aloe vera also markedly enhanced bacterial clearance. Our findings suggest that Aloe vera could be a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical treatment of sepsis.

  10. Feasibility of Iodine and Bromine analysis in Genesis AloS collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Burnett, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison of solar, meteoritic and terrestrial elemental abundances provides understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. Yet, the majority of the solar abundances are based on meteoritic values [1-6]. As a continuation of our noble gas measurements of the Solar Wind (SW) [7] we attempted to evaluate the possibility of SW-iodine and SW-bromine analyses in the Genesis Solar Wind Aluminum on Sapphire collectors (AloS) using the conversions: 127I(n,γβ)128Xe, 79Br(n,γβ)80Kr and 81Br(n,γβ)82Kr. To estimate the extent of terrestrial halogen contamination in Genesis collectors, several flown fragments of AloS were submerged in methanol (for 1 hour and for 48 hours), rinsed, dried, sealed under vacuum in fused quartz ampoules and irradiated at the Missouri University Research Reactor receiving fluence ˜ 2E+19 thermal neutrons/cm2. Single step laser extraction using 1064 nm laser ablation of 0.7 cm2 area demonstrated clear signature of solar wind as indicated by 129Xe/132Xe = 1.045 ± 0.005, while 128Xe/132Xe = 1.01 ± 0.03 had a 12-fold excess compared to the solar value. Longer washing apparently reduces iodine contamination 4 times, implying that it is surface correlated. Krypton analysis showed 17% excess in 82Kr and 3-fold excess in 80Kr in agreement with their production ratio. A longer 48-hour washing reduced Br contamination 50 times. In order to better separate SW halogens from ubiquitous terrestrial contamination we employed a depth-profiling of AloS using 266 nm laser ablation. Laser beam power was increased in 12 consecutive steps using a combination of controlled defocusing and attenuation by a polarizing beamsplitter. Depth profile analysis revealed that terrestrial halogen contamination is present at the surface and at the interface between Al and sapphire substrate and is more pronounced for iodine, as indicated by 128Xe/132Xe ratio that is higher than atmospheric and solar wind values in all 12 rasters. While washing procedure

  11. Aloe spp.--plants with vertebrate-like telomeric sequences.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hanna; Scherthan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome termini of most eukaryotes end in tracks of short tandemly repeated GC-rich sequences, the composition of which varies among different groups of organisms. Plant species predominantly contain (TTTAGGG)n repeats at their telomeres. However, a few plant species, including members of Alliaceae and Aloe spp. (Asphodelaceae) were found to lack such Arabidopsis-type (T3AG3)n telomeric repeats. Recently, it has been proposed that the lack of T3AG3 telomeric repeat sequences extends to all species forming the Asparagales clade. Here, we analysed the composition of Aloe telomeres by single-primer PCR and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with directly labelled Arabidopsis-type (TTTAGGG)28-43 DNA probe, and with vertebrate-type (TTAGGG)33-50 DNA and a (C3TA2)3 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. It was found that Nicotiana tabacum contained Arabidopsis-type telomeric repeats, while Aloe telomeres lacked the corresponding FISH signals. Surprisingly, FISH with the highly specific vertebrate-type (C3TA2)3 PNA probe resulted in strong T2AG3-specific FISH signals at the ends of chromosomes of both Aloe and Nicotiana tabacum, suggesting the presence of T2AG3 telomeric repeats in these species. FISH with a long (TTAGGG)33-50 DNA probe also highlighted Aloe chromosome ends, while this probe failed to reveal FISH signals on tobacco chromosomes. These results indicate the presence of vertebrate-like telomeric sequences at the telomeres of Aloe spp. chromosomes. However, single-primer PCR with (TAG3)5 primers failed to amplify such sequences in Aloe, which could indicate a low copy number of T2AG3 repeats at the chromosome ends and/or their co-orientation and interspersion with other repeat types. Our results suggest that telomeres of plant species, which were thought to lack GC-rich repeats, may in fact contain variant repeat types.

  12. ALOS-2 development status and draft acquisition strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Osawa, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) will succeed to the radar mission of the ALOS "Daichi" which had contributed to cartography, regional observation, disaster monitoring, and earth resources surveys for more than 5 years until its termination of operation in May 2011. The state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 will have enhanced performance in both high resolution (1m * 3m at finest in the Spotlight mode) and wide swath (up to 490km in the ScanSAR wide mode), compared to ALOS/PALSAR. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for INSAR data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. The SAR antenna consists of 5 panels with total 1,080 radiation elements which are driven by 180 Transmit-Receive-Modules in order to steer and form a beam in both range and azimuth direction. In order to reduce range ambiguities,PALSAR-2 is capable to transmit up or down chirp signal alternatively and has phase modulation with zero or pi as well. The Proto Flight Model of ALOS-2 including PALSAR-2 is under integration and testing at JAXA's Tsukuba Space Center. From experiences of the ALOS operation, a systematic observation strategy to achieve consistent data acquisitions in time and space was crucial. Since more observation modes of PALSAR-2 than those of PALSAR may trigger more conflicts among user requests, a basic observation scenario must be prepared to fulfill the mission requirements. This paper describes the current development status of ALOS-2 and a draft acquisition strategy for PALSAR-2.

  13. Photodynamic activity of aloe-emodin induces resensitization of lung cancer cells to anoikis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Yang, Wen-Hui; Hour, Mann-Jen; Wu, Chi-Yu; Peng, Wen-Huang; Bao, Bo-Ying; Han, Ping-Hsiu; Bau, Da-Tian

    2010-12-01

    Aloe-emodin was found to be a photosensitizer and possess anti-tumor activity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin remains unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of photocytotoxicity induced by aloe-emodin in lung cancer H460 cells. According to the results of the photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced disruption of cytoskeleton, we verify that aloe-emodin with irradiation induces anoikis of H460 cells. Photosensitized aloe-emodin-induced anoikis is associated with the protein expression of α-actinin and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase members. In this study, a rapid opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the change in apoptosis-related protein expression were involved in photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced cell death. We also demonstrated that anoikis induced by aloe-emodin with irradiation is mediated through the intrinsic and extrinsic death pathways in a caspase-dependent manner in H460 cells.

  14. Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Technique to Study the Genetic Diversity of Eight Aloe Species.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Shahira M; El Sayed, Abeer M; Salama, Maha M

    2016-10-01

    The genus Aloe comprises over 400 species of flowering succulent plants. Aloe leaves are used in the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal ulcers, cardiovascular disease, tumors, burns, and diabetes. They are rich in anthraquinones, such as aloin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, aloinoside A, and aloinoside B. The various species of Aloe show chemical and morphological similarity and diversity, which depend on the genotype and environmental conditions. In a continuity to our interest in the genus Aloe, this study targets the authentication of eight different Aloe species, Aloe vera (A1), Aloe arborescens (A2), Aloe eru (A3), Aloe grandidentata (A4), Aloe perfoliata (A5), Aloe brevifolia (A6), Aloe saponaria (A7), and Aloe ferox (A8), grown in Egypt by using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA. Twelve decamer primers were screened in amplification with genomic DNA extracted from all species, of which five primers yielded species-specific reproducible bands. Out of 156 loci detected, the polymorphic, monomorphic, and unique loci were 107, 26, and 23, respectively. Based on a dendrogram and similarity matrix, the eight Aloe species were differentiated from each other and showed more divergence. Aloe species prevailed similarity coefficients of 54-70 % by which they could be classified into three major groups. Thus, this technique may contribute to the identification of these Aloe species that have great morphological similarity in the Egyptian local markets.

  15. Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Dat, Anthony D; Poon, Flora; Pham, Kim B T; Doust, Jenny

    2012-02-15

    Aloe vera is a cactus-like perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceae Family that is commonly grown in tropical climates. Animal studies have suggested that Aloe vera may help accelerate the wound healing process. To determine the effects of Aloe vera-derived products (for example dressings and topical gels) on the healing of acute wounds (for example lacerations, surgical incisions and burns) and chronic wounds (for example infected wounds, arterial and venous ulcers). We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (9 September 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE (2005 to August Week 5 2011), Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 8 September 2011), Ovid EMBASE (2007 to 2010 Week 35), Ovid AMED (1985 to September 2011) and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 9 September 2011). We did not apply date or language restrictions. We included all randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of Aloe vera, aloe-derived products and a combination of Aloe vera and other dressings as a treatment for acute or chronic wounds. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. An objective measure of wound healing (either proportion of completely healed wounds or time to complete healing) was the primary endpoint. Two review authors independently carried out trial selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment, checked by a third review author. Seven trials were eligible for inclusion, comprising a total of 347 participants. Five trials in people with acute wounds evaluated the effects of Aloe vera on burns, haemorrhoidectomy patients and skin biopsies. Aloe vera mucilage did not increase burn healing compared with silver sulfadiazine (risk ratio (RR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 2.85). A reduction in healing time with Aloe vera was noted after haemorrhoidectomy (RR 16.33 days, 95% CI 3.46 to 77.15) and there was

  16. Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac -Aloe vera Transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Raju, Y Prasanna; Haritha, K; Satyanarayana, Rao P; Vandana, K R; Bindu, D Thushara; Vinesha, V; Chowdary, V Harini

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to formulate aceclofenac transemulgel using Aloe vera as gel base. The prepared formulations were subjected to physical characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment. Aceclofenac, a hydrophobic potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, causes ulceration upon chronic oral administration, could be formulated into transemulgel to enhance therapeutic efficacy and to lower the unwanted side effects. The transemulgel was prepared from aqueous Aloe vera gel and aceclofenac emulsion. The prepared transemulgel was evaluated for its pH, viscosity, drug content, skin irritation, in-vitro diffusion and accelerated stability studies. The prepared aceclofenac-Aloe vera tranemulgel and commercial aceclofenac gel were subjected to pharmacodynamic studies in albino rats of Wistar strain employing carrageenan induced left hind paw edema method to assess the anti-inflammatory effect. The transemulgel showed a pH of 6.78 and viscosity of 18 cps. In-vitro diffusion data revealed better permeation characteristics. Topical application of formulation found no skin irritation. Stability study has proved the integrity of the formulation. The prepared aceclofenac Aloe vera transemulgel showed better in-vitro drug release when compared with the commercial aceclofenac gel formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity in treated rats showed the significant paw volume reduction at p<0.05 compared with that of control. Thus, it is concluded that aceclofenac, a potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, showed high therapeutic efficiency when formulated into transemulgel using aqueous Aloe vera as gel base.

  17. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  19. Effect of different drying procedures on the bioactive polysaccharide acemannan from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Minjares-Fuentes, Rafael; Rodríguez-González, Víctor Manuel; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Eim, Valeria; González-Centeno, María Reyes; Femenia, Antoni

    2017-07-15

    The main effects of different drying procedures: spray-, industrial freeze-, refractance window- and radiant zone-drying, on acemannan, the main bioactive polysaccharide from Aloe vera gel, were investigated. All the drying procedures caused a considerable decrease in the acemannan yield (∼40%). Degradation affected not only the backbone, as indicated by the important losses of (1→4)-linked mannose units, but also the side-chains formed by galactose. In addition, methylation analysis suggested the deacetylation of mannose units (>60%), which was confirmed by (1)H NMR analysis. Interestingly, all these changes were reflected in the functional properties which were severely affected. Thus, water retention capacity values from processed samples decreased ∼50%, and a reduction greater than 80% was determined in swelling and fat adsorption capacity values. Therefore, these important modifications should be taken into consideration, since not only the functionality but also the physiological effects attributed to many Aloe vera-based products could also be affected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nephroprotective Effect of the Leaves of Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera) against Toxicity Induced by Diclofenac Sodium in Albino Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, A; Hasan, IJ; Sarfraz, M; Jafri, L; Ashraf, MA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis against toxicity induced by diclofenac sodium in albino rabbits. Subjects and Method: Thirty-six healthy albino rabbits were randomly divided into six groups each with six animals. Group 1 served as the untreated control, group 2 was treated only with diclofenac sodium, group 3 with the nephroprotective drug silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with different doses of Aloe barbadensis, ie 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively after being treated with diclofenac sodium. Blood samples were collected after every five days up to fifteen days. Haematological and histopathological parameters were determined by using diagnostic kits. Results: Results of haematological studies showed that use of the powder of Aloe barbadensis normalized the level of different factors eg, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values. Histopathological studies showed that Aloe barbadensis ameliorated pyknotic nuclei in the renal epithelial cells and reduced oxidative stress by increasing the level of catalase and decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Conclusion: These results have shown that Aloe barbadensis can normalize oxidative stress and can be used as an effective nephroprotective agent against drug-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27398602

  1. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) in different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Jinwan; Jin, Yoojeong; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2012-11-14

    Metabolite profiling of four different-sized Aloe vera plants was performed using gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis. Amino acids, sugars, and organic acids related to growth and development were identified by sizes. In particular, the relative contents of glucose, fructose, alanine, valine, and aspartic acid increased gradually as the size of the aloe increased. Anthraquinone derivatives such as 7-hydroxy-8-O-methylaloin, 7-hydroxyaloin A, and 6'-malonylnataloins A and B increased gradually, whereas chromone derivatives decreased continuously as the size of the aloe increased. The A30 aloe (size = 20-30 cm) with relatively high contents of aloins A and B, was suggested to have antioxidant components showing the highest antioxidant activity among the four different sizes of aloe. These data suggested that MS-based metabolomic approaches can illuminate metabolite changes associated with growth and development and can explain their change of antioxidant activity.

  2. Synthesis and antitumor activity of natural compound aloe emodin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thimmegowda, Naraganahalli R; Park, Chanmi; Shwetha, Bettaswamigowda; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Liu, Kangdong; Hwang, Joonsung; Lee, Sangku; Jeong, Sook J; Soung, Nak K; Jang, Jae H; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong S; Erikson, Raymond L; Kim, Bo Y

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we have synthesized novel water soluble derivatives of natural compound aloe emodin 4(a-j) by coupling with various amino acid esters and substituted aromatic amines, in an attempt to improve the anticancer activity and to explore the structure-activity relationships. The structures of the compounds were determined by (1) H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cell growth inhibition assays revealed that the aloe emodin derivatives 4d, 4f, and 4i effectively decreased the growth of HepG2 (human liver cancer cells) and NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cells) and some of the derivatives exhibited comparable antitumor activity against HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cells) and PC3 (prostate cancer cells) cell lines compared to that of the parent aloe emodin at low micromolar concentrations.

  3. Aloe vera for Dry Mouth Denture Patients – Palliative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S Varalakshmi; Kumar, M Praveen; Samee, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Xerostomia (dry mouth) is dryness of the mouth which is due to reduced salivary flow. Lack of adequate saliva causes discomfort in denture wearing patients and decreases retention of dentures. The ability of saliva to wet the tissue surface is one of the most important properties for oral comfort and retention of complete denture in dry mouth patients. Aim This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the wetting ability of therapeutic Aloe vera saliva substitute and commercially available Aqwet saliva substitute on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Contact angle of liquid saliva substitute was considered as an indicator of wettability. Materials and Methods Aloe vera liquid (Aloe vera – Group I) and Aqwet saliva substitute (Aqwet – Group II) were compared in terms of their wetting ability. Forty samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated and divided into two groups with 20 samples in each. Advancing, receding contact angles and angle of hysteresis were measured using contact angle goniometer and DSA4 software analysis. Mann-Whitney U test was applied for statistical analysis of the study. Results The mean advancing angle and receding angle of Group I (Aloe vera) was smaller than Group II (Aqwet). Mean angle of hysteresis of Group I (Aloe vera) was higher than Group II (Aqwet). Mann-Whitney U test revealed that there is no significant difference in contact angles between the two groups. Conclusion Wetting ability of Group I (Aloe vera) saliva substitute was found to be better compared to Group II (Aqwet) on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. PMID:28764287

  4. Osmo-air drying of aloe vera gel cubes.

    PubMed

    Pisalkar, P S; Jain, N K; Jain, S K

    2011-04-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) cubes of 12.5 × 12.5 × 12.5 mm thick were osmosed for 4 h in sugar syrup of 30, 40 and 50°Brix concentration and temperatures of 30 and 50°C at constant syrup to fruit ratio of 5:1. Osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples were hot air dried at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C with constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The water loss, solid gain and convective drying behaviour were recorded during experiments. It was observed that water loss and solid gain ranged from 39.2 to 71.3 and 2.7 to 6.3%, respectively during osmo-drying. The moisture diffusivity varied from 2.9 to 8.0 × 10(-9) m²/s and 2.7 to 4.6 × 10(-9) m²/s during air drying of osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples, respectively. Drying air temperature and osmosis as pre-treatment affected the water loss, solid gain, diffusivity at -p ≤ 0.01.

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of an actin gene in aloe.

    PubMed

    Wen, S S; He, D W; Liao, C M; Li, J; Wen, G Q; Liu, X H

    2014-07-04

    Aloe (Aloe spp), containing abundant polysaccharides and numerous bioactive ingredients, has remarkable medical, ornamental, calleidic, and edible values. In the present study, the total RNA was extracted from aloe leaf tissue. The isolated high-quality RNA was further used to clone actin gene by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result of sequence analysis for the amplified fragment revealed that the cloned actin gene was 1012 bp in length (GenBank accession No. KC751541.1) and contained a 924-bp coding region and encoded a protein consisting of 307 amino acids. Homologous alignment showed that it shared over 80 and 96% identity with the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of actin from other plants, respectively. In addition, the cloned gene was used for phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences, and the results suggested that the actin gene is highly conserved in evolution. The findings of this study will be useful for investigating the expression patterns of other genes in Aloe.

  6. Ribosomal DNA evolution and phylogeny in Aloe (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Adams, S P; Leitch, I J; Bennett, M D; Chase, M W; Leitch, A R

    2000-11-01

    All Aloe taxa (∼400 species) share a conserved bimodal karyotype with a basic genome of four large and three small submetacentric/acrocentric chromosomes. We investigated the physical organization of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to 13 Aloe species. The organization was compared with a phylogenetic tree of 28 species (including the 13 used for FISH) constructed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA. The phylogeny showed little divergence within Aloe, although distinct, well-supported clades were found. FISH analysis of 5S rDNA distribution showed a similar interstitial location on a large chromosome in all species examined. In contrast, the distribution of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA was variable, with differences in number, location, and size of loci found between species. Nevertheless, within well-supported clades, all species had the same organizational patterns. Thus, despite the striking stability of karyotype structure and location of 5S rDNA, the distribution of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA is not so constrained and has clearly changed during Aloe speciation.

  7. Aloe-Vera: A Nature’s Gift to Children

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Devi, Prabha; Girish

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1Aloe-Barbadensis Mill (Liliaceae) is used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and other countries for anti-inflammatory and cosmetic purposes (Diez-Martinez 1981, Grindlay and Reynolds 1986). Two components are obtained from the fresh leaves of Aloe-Barbadensis, a bitter yellow juice (exudate), which drains from the transversally cut leaves used as a laxative (Ishii et al 1990) and a mucilaginous gel from leaf parenchyma, which has been used as a remedy for a variety of pathological states such as arthritis, gout, acne, dermatitis, burns and peptic ulcers induced by epithelial alterations (Cap-passo and Ganginella 1997, Reynolds and Dweek 1999). The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy of Aloe-Vera gel as a healing agent in an endodontic procedure called pulpotomy. Fifteen primary molars were treated for pulpotomy using ‘Aloe-Vera gel’. Patients were recalled after 1 month to check for any clinical symptoms. None of the patients reported with clinical symptoms of pain, mobility, abscess and histopathological evaluation done following extraction after 2 months showed positive signs of healing. PMID:27507917

  8. ALOS PALSAR and UAVSAR Soil Moisture in Field Campaigns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of our ongoing analysis of L-band radar mapping of soil moisture we are evaluating the role that ALOS PALSAR data can play in the development of radar retrieval algorithms for the future NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. Differences in configurations must be assessed to det...

  9. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel.

    PubMed

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Singh, Prashant; Bhatia, Daksh

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel was evaluated, in vitro by five established methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(-)) radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, superoxide radical (O(-2)) scavenging and reducing power assay, and in vivo against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial oxidative stress (OS) in albino wistar rats. The polysaccharides exhibited significant inhibitory activity against DPPH(-), superoxide, NO and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay with significant reducing activity at all concentrations used. DOX-induced (7.5 mg/kg, intravenously) cardiotoxicity manifested biochemically by a significant decrease in blood and tissue glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase. In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of aloe vera polysaccharides for 14 days produced a marked protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine phosphokinase, cardiac TBARS, CAT and SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH in a dose-dependent manner. The present investigation is the first to establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides from aloe vera against DOX-induced myocardial OS.

  10. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  11. Pan-Tropical Forest Cover from Alos-Palsar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Walker, W. S.; Bishop, J. B.; Cormier, T.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Holecz, F.

    2010-12-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Forest carbon monitoring is a crucial component for the scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle as well as the success of crediting developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Now, tropical and subtropical nations are challenged to establish Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification systems using remote sensing technology. We report on progress using ALOS-PALSAR data in such endeavors. 2. PAN-TROPICAL ALOS PALSAR DATA A database of ~ 17,000 ALOS-PALSAR FBD scenes has been compiled to generate a 2007 pan-tropical dataset to produce forest cover (forest/non-forest) estimates. All scenes are radiometrically and geometrically pre-processed using based on a pre-compiled SRTM global digital elevation data sets. Ancillary data like layover, shadow and local incidence angle are computed and stored for each scene. After pre-processing, data are available in 8-bit filtered (Gamma-MAP) and dB-scaled three-band composites of L-hh/L-hv/Ratio hh-hv (Figure 1), as well as unfiltered power data. More than 95 % of the data are from the FBD acquisition cycles in 2007 with missing tracks filled with data from 2008 and 2009 cycles. 3. FOREST COVER CLASSIFICATION Using ancillary satellite data a pan-tropical network of calibrated reference data was generated. These data are used to classify swath data to be combined to continental forest/non-forest cover classification mosaics. The pan-tropical map is validated with withheld training data for testing, as well as through independent operator verification with very high-resolution image data from optical sensors. A pilot study region in the Xingu Watershed in Mato Grosse, Brazil (300,000 km2) showed map agreements between ALOS-PALSAR and Landsat-TM derived classifications of greater than 99 percent [1]. 4. RELEVANCE TO GLOBAL FOREST MONITORING Global estimates of forest cover are currently produced from various sources at various spatial and temporal

  12. Efficacy of aloe vera gel as an adjuvant treatment of oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sarwar; Ali, Iqbal; Giri, K Y; Gokkulakrishnan, S; Natu, Subodh S; Faisal, Mohammad; Agarwal, Anshita; Sharma, Himanshu

    2013-12-01

    Definitive therapy is not defined for the management of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). This study evaluated the efficacy of aloe vera gel as an adjuvant treatment of OSMF. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 subjects with OSMF divided into medicinal treatment (submucosal injection of hyaluronidase and dexamethasone, n = 30) and surgical treatment (n = 30) categories. Each category was randomly divided into groups A (with aloe vera, n = 15 per category) and B (without aloe vera, n = 15 per category). Follow-up assessment for various symptoms was performed, and results were analyzed using paired and unpaired Student t tests. The group receiving aloe vera had a significant improvement in most symptoms of OSMF (P < .01) compared with the non-aloe vera group, in both the medicinal and surgical categories. Aloe vera gel was effective as an adjuvant in treatment of OSMF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological stabilization of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Juan E; Guanoquiza, Manuel I; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Vega-Galvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2012-09-03

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 1 and 3 min at 20 °C) on the microbiological shelf-life and microbiota composition of Aloe vera gel during 90 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. Aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, as well as moulds and yeasts, were enumerated after HHP treatment and through cold storage. Randomly selected isolates from the count plates were identified by standard methods and the API identification system. Results showed that HHP treatment at or over 400 MPa for 3 min were effective to keep the microbial counts to undetectable levels during the whole storage period, and consequently the microbiological shelf-life of A. vera gel was extended for more than 90 days at 4 °C. The microbiota in the untreated A. vera gel was dominated by Gram-negative bacteria (mostly Rahnella aquatilis) and yeasts (mostly Rhodotorula mucilaginosa). In contrast, Gram-positive bacteria tentatively identified as Arthrobacter spp. and Micrococcus/Kocuria spp. were the predominant microorganisms in samples pressurized at 300 MPa for 1 and 3 min, while Bacillus megaterium predominating in samples treated at 400 MPa for 1 min. At 400 MPa for 3 min and above, the microbial growth was completely suppressed during at least 90 days; however, viable spore-formers were detected by enrichment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aloe vera for prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo Hua; Yang, Liu; Chen, Hai Ying; Chu, Jian Feng; Mei, Lijuan

    2014-06-04

    Up to 80% of hospitalised patients receive intravenous therapy at some point during their admission. About 20% to 70% of patients receiving intravenous therapy develop phlebitis. Infusion phlebitis has become one of the most common complications in patients with intravenous therapy. However, the effects of routine treatments such as external application of 75% alcohol or 50% to 75% magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) are unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new methods to prevent and alleviate infusion phlebitis. To systematically assess the effects of external application of Aloe vera for the prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis associated with the presence of an intravenous access device. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator (TSC) searched the Specialised Register (last searched February 2014) and CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1). In addition the TSC searched MEDLINE to week 5 January 2014, EMBASE to Week 6 2014 and AMED to February 2014. The authors searched the following Chinese databases until 28 February 2014: Chinese BioMedical Database; Traditional Chinese Medical Database System; China National Knowledge Infrastructure; Chinese VIP information; Chinese Medical Current Contents; Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database; and China Medical Academic Conference. Bibliographies of retrieved and relevant publications were searched. There were no restrictions on the basis of date or language of publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (qRCTs) were included if they involved participants receiving topical Aloe vera or Aloe vera-derived products at the site of punctured skin, with or without routine treatment at the same site. Two review authors independently extracted the data on the study characteristics, description of methodology and outcomes of the eligible trials, and assessed study quality. Data were analysed using RevMan 5

  15. Analysis of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Murphy, Timothy P

    2004-12-20

    A procedure was developed for the determination of low levels of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin A (barbalin) in aloe products based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the trimethyl silyl (TMS) derivatives of these analytes in the presence of Chrysophanol used as internal standard. The method was used to analyze several aloe based commercial products (liquids, gels and solids). Wide variation in the level of these anthraquinones was observed among the different products. The method had a sensitivity of 0.005 ppm of aloe-emodin and 0.05 ppm of aloin.

  16. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

    2011-10-01

    Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases.

  17. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  18. Aloe vera and gibberellin. Anti-inflammatory activity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Davis, R H; Maro, N P

    1989-01-01

    Aloe vera inhibits inflammation and adjuvant-induced arthritis. The authors' laboratory has shown that A. vera improves wound healing, which suggests that it does not act like an adrenal steroid. Diabetic animals were used in this study because of their poor wound healing and anti-inflammatory capabilities. The anti-inflammatory activity of A. vera and gibberellin was measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by measuring the inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration into a site of gelatin-induced inflammation over a dose range of 2 to 100 mg/kg. Both Aloe and gibberellin similarly inhibited inflammation in a dose-response manner. These data tend to suggest that gibberellin or a gibberellin-like substance is an active anti-inflammatory component in A. vera.

  19. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K(+) channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  20. Studies of aloe. VI. Cathartic effect of isobarbaloin.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Y; Takino, Y; Toyo'oka, T; Tanizawa, H

    1998-11-01

    The cathartic effect of isobarbaloin, a stereoisomer of barbaloin (compound principally responsible for the cathartic activity of Aloe), was examined in male rats by oral administration. Individual differences in sensitivity in the laxative activity of isobarbaloin and barbaloin was not found. The cathartic activity (ED50) of isobarbaloin in barbaloin positive rats was 19.2 mg/kg, nearly equal to that of barbaloin (19.5 mg/kg). Also, isobarbaloin administered orally was demonstrated to decompose to aloe-emodin-9-anthrone (active metabolite of barbaloin) as well as to barbaloin. Therefore, it is considered that the mechanism underlying the cathartic effect of isobarbaloin is the same as that of barbaloin.

  1. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K+ channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25763487

  2. Aloe-emodin modulates PKC isozymes, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in U-373MG glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Russell, Christopher; Patel, Sapna; Patel, Rekha

    2004-12-20

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroy-3-[hydroxymethyl]-anthraquione) purified from Aloe vera leaves has been reported to have antitumor activity. The objectives of our research were to determine how aloe-emodin regulates the cell cycle, cell proliferation and protein kinase C (PKC) during glioma growth and development. To establish the cell cycle effects of aloe-emodin on brain cells [transformed glia cell line (SVG) and human glioma U-373MG cell line (U-373MG)], cells were treated with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; control) or aloe-emodin (40 microM). Results from flow cytometry demonstrated that aloe-emodin delayed the number of cells entering and exiting DNA synthesis (S) phase in both SVG and U-373MG cells indicating that aloe-emodin may inhibit S phase progression. Assessment of cell viability demonstrated that SVG and U-373MG glioma cell were highly sensitive to aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-induced decreased proliferation was sustained at 48-96 h. A PKC activity assay was quantified to establish the role of PKC in aloe-emodin's mode of action. Exposure of SVG and U-373MG glioma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed PKC activity and reduced the protein content of most of the PKC isozymes. We determined that cancer growth inhibition by aloe-emodin was due to apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death). Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that aloe-emodin represents a novel antitumor chemotherapeutic drug.

  3. Analysis of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of aloe-emodin following intravenous and oral administrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Ping; Shia, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Hui-Ju; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Aloe-emodin, a natural polyphenolic anthraquinone, has shown various beneficial bioactivities in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of aloe-emodin. Aloe-emodin was intravenously and orally administered to rats. The concentrations of aloe-emodin and rhein, a metabolite of aloe-emodin, were determined by HPLC method prior to and after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase/β-glucuronidase. The results showed that the systemic exposures of aloe-emodin and its metabolites were ranked as aloe-emodin glucuronides (G) > rhein sulfates (S) > aloe-emodin > rhein and rhein G when aloe-emodin was given intravenously. In contrast, when aloe-emodin was administered orally, the parent form of aloe-emodin was not absorbed per se, and the systemic exposures of its metabolites were ranked as aloe-emodin G > rhein G > rhein. In conclusion, the metabolites of aloe-emodin are more important than the parent form for the bioactivities in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Cytogenetic toxicity of Aloe vera (a medicinal plant).

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjana; Gupta, Ashok K; Kumar, Amod; Khan, Parimal K

    2012-01-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of the crude leaf extract of Aloe vera, a medicinal plant, was evaluated in two test systems, onion and Swiss albino mice, using their root tip meristematic and bone marrow cells, respectively. No significant increase in structural abnormalities in chromosomes was observed, but a marked increase in cells with chromosome-number anomalies was found. The extract, however, significantly increased the mitotic index of both cell types.

  5. Surface change detection in glacier regions using ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, N.; Ono, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mountainous glaciers are important water resources in the high mountainous region. The glaciers not only supply water for drinking and agriculture, but also produce energy in hydroelectric power plants to local communities. The recent rapid glacier retreat is at high risk for severe water shortage in the near future. And the melting water of glacier sometimes leads to landslide disaster or glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF). Actually, the debris flow happened and damaged the buildings at the valley of Pacuni glacier in Bolivia in December 2007. Consequently, the monitoring of the glacier regions is very important both to manage water resources and to mitigate the damage from landslide disaster. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite “DAICHI” (ALOS) has three sensors, two visible imagers and one L-band polarimetric SAR, and has been observing the land surface since 2006. This study discusses the availability of the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) of ALOS for surface change detection in glacier regions in Bolivia. The observation by PALSAR is unaffected by weather. And this characteristic is the most important for the glacier monitoring. Some glaciers and their surrounding mountainous regions are selected as a test sites for this study and many landslides near Pacuni glacier were detected by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using PALSAR data of ALOS.

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity of anthraquinone components from Aloe.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Jang Hoon; Li, Wei; Jo, A Reum; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-15

    Aloe is a short-stemmed succulent herb widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases and as raw material in cosmetics and heath foods. In this study, we isolated and identified two new anthraquinone derivatives, aloinoside C (6) and aloinoside D (7), together with six known compounds from an aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were evaluated. Compounds 1-8 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 4.1±0.6 to 41.1±4.2 μM. A kinetic analysis of compounds 1-8 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 6 and 8 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2-5 and 7 were the mixed-type. Molecular docking increases our understanding of receptor-ligand binding of all compounds. These results demonstrate that compounds 1-8 from Aloe are potential sEH inhibitors.

  7. Candelabra aloe (Aloe arborescens) in the therapy and prophylaxis of upper respiratory tract infections: traditional use and recent research results.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Petra; Fal, Andrzej M; Jambor, Jerzy; Michalak, Anna; Noster, Britta; Sievers, Hartwig; Steuber, Anke; Walas-Marcinek, Natalia

    2013-02-01

    Aloe arborescens (Candelabra Aloe) has been used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in Central and Eastern European countries for many decades. Originally introduced to support the healing and recovery in cornea transplant patients, aqueous A. arborescens extracts soon became popular in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with a focus on toddlers and children. Recent preclinical and clinical data show that immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, and antiviral effects contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. Based on its well documented, longstanding traditional use and its excellent safety and tolerability, A. arborescens may be considered a valuable addition to the spectrum of herbal medicinal products for the treatment and prophylaxis of upper respiratory tract infections, in particular common cold, in adults and children.

  8. Physicochemical characterization of microwave assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola John

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using different biological extracts is gaining recognition for its numerous applications in different disciplines. Although different approaches (physical and chemical) have been used for the synthesis of AgNP, the green chemistry method is most preferable because of its high efficacy, cost effectiveness, and environmental benignity. Aloe Vera (AV) contains chemical compounds (anthraquinones) that are known to possess antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties and the extract is a good chemical reduction agent for AgNP. Hence, it was hypothesized that a microwave assisted synthesis will produce highly concentrated, homogeneous, stable and biologically active AgNP. Thus, the main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of microwave assisted synthesis of AgNP, the effect of pulse laser treatment on size reduction of a microwave synthesized AgNP, and the physicochemical characterization of AgNP synthesized with Aloe Vera water and ethanol extract. The experiment was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 was first conducted to optimize the experimental variables, thus establishing the optimum variables to apply in the second phase. The experiment in Phase 1 was conducted using three-factor factorial experimental design comprised of the following factors: 1) Extraction Solvent, 2) Heating Methods, 3) pH; and their corresponding levels were water and ethanol, conventional and microwave, pH (7, 8, 10 and 12), respectively. All synthesis was conducted at constant temperature of 80°C. Phase II experimental treatments were Laser ablation (0, 5, and 10 min) and Storage time (Week 1, 2 & 3). The Phase I of the results showed that increased AgNP concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by synthesis time, hence, (15 min) gave the highest concentration. The solvent type, heating methods and pH had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the concentration AgNP. Hence, ethanol extract (99.2 ppm), microwave method

  9. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  10. Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera and curcumin loaded oxidized pectin-gelatin (OP-Gel) matrices were used as antimicrobial finishes on nonwoven cotton fabrics to produce composite wound care devices. The drug release characteristics of the biocomposite dressings indicated that curcumin is released through a biphasic mechanism - erosion of the polymeric matrix, followed by diffusion, while aloe vera is released upon leaching of the polymeric matrix. A 50/50 composition of aloe vera/curcumin was used to fabricate OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings. However, contrary to our expectations, OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings exhibited lesser antimicrobial activity compared to OP-Gel-Aloe and OP-Gel-Curcumin dressings. The cytocompatibility of the fabricated dressings was evaluated using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. OP-Gel-Aloe treated fibroblasts had the highest viability, with the matrices providing a substrate for good cell attachment and proliferation. On the other hand, OP-Gel-Curcumin and OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin seemed to have induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In vivo wound healing analysis was carried out using an excisional splint wound model on C57BL/6J mice. OP-Gel-Aloe treated wounds exhibited very rapid healing with 80% of the wound healing in just 8 days. Furthermore, aloe vera exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect and prominent scar prevention. Histological examination revealed that an ordered collagen formation and neovascularization could be observed along with migration of nuclei. Therefore, OP-Gel-Aloe biocomposite dressings are proposed as viable materials for effective wound management.

  11. Antimutagenicity and antigenotoxicity of Aloe arborescens Miller and Aloe barbadensis Miller in Aspergillus nidulans and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Berti, A P; Palioto, G F; Rocha, C L M S C

    2016-09-02

    Medicinal plants such as Aloe arborescens Miller and Aloe barbadensis Miller are used by the general population to treat various diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimutagenicity of these two species using a methG1 system in Aspergillus nidulans and the comet assay in rats. The animals were treated with the plants at concentrations of 360 and 720 mg/kg body weight (1 and 2, respectively) by gavage for 14 days, followed by the administration of etoposide on treatment day 8. Blood samples were prepared for analysis of DNA damage. For the test in A. nidulans, the biA1methG1 lineage conidia were treated for 4 h with both plant species at concentrations of 4 and 8% (w/v). Then, they were washed and plated on a selective medium for frequency analysis of survival and mutation. The results of the comet assay showed that both plants were antigenotoxic compared to etoposide, which was not a typical response of methG1 systems, where only the highest concentration of plant extracts usually exhibit beneficial effects. This study demonstrates the potential antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of the Aloe plants tested and, therefore, supports their use as a form of preventive therapy and for health maintenance by the population.

  12. Physicochemical and microbiological properties as well as stability of ointments containing aloe extract (Aloe arborescens Mill.) or aloe extract associated to neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Bujak, T

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study was to work out methods of quality assessment of ointments containing dry extract from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. (Lilliaceae) and also of ointments containing both of dry extract and neomycin sulphate. The stability of the ointments, stored at 20 degrees C, was studied and the following criteria were considered: chromatographic analysis (TLC), pH of the ointments, the content of the substances in the dry extract converted to aloenin, the content of aloenin and aloin, anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the ointments, the size of the particles of the dry extract and of neomycin sulphate in the ointment suspension and the sterility of the ointments. After two years of storage at 20 degrees C, the ointments prepared with the anhydrous lipophilic base, did not change their physicochemical characteristics and neomycin in those ointments retained almost 100% of starting anti-microbial activity. Water or propylene glycol significantly decreased the stability of the biologically active substances of the dry extract in the ointments. Besides, in the ointments containing the dry extract and neomycin sulphate, the presence of water or propylene glycol induced degradation of the biologically active substances of the dry extract and a decrease in the anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the ointments. Considering the physicochemical and microbiological stability, the most advisable base for the ointments with aloe and neomycin sulphate was composed of white vaseline, liquid paraffin, solid paraffin, cholesterol.

  13. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Shigella flexneri and Streptococcus pyogenes to Inner Gel of Aloe barbadensis Miller

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Valerie A.; Bradbury, Fiona; Cameron, Pamela; Shakir, Eisin; Rahman, Sabita R.; Stimson, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (or Aloe vera) has widespread use in health products, and despite numerous reports on the whole plant, little work has been performed on the inner gel, which has been used extensively in these products. This report describes the in vitro susceptibilities of two bacteria to this component. PMID:12604556

  14. DNA degradation by aqueous extract of Aloe vera in the presence of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Shoa; Ullah, M F; Hadi, S M

    2010-06-01

    The plant Aloe vera has long been used in medicine, as dietary supplements and for cosmetic purposes. Aloe vera extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, such as aloin and aloe emodin and have shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The bioactive component aloe emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Many of the biological activities of Aloe vera have been attributed to its antioxidant properties. However, most plant-derived polyphenols that are also present in Aloe vera may exhibit pro-oxidant properties either alone or in the presence of transition metals, such as copper. Previous reports from this laboratory have implicated the pro-oxidant action as one of the mechanisms for their anti-cancer properties. In the present paper, we show that aqueous extract of Aloe vera is also able to cause DNA degradation in the presence of copper ions. Further, the extract is also able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) and generate reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner, which correlates with ability of the extract to cause DNA breakage. Thus, the study shows that in addition to antioxidant activity, Aloe vera extract also possess pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative DNA breakage.

  15. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ho

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ER α ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels, thereby suppressing ER α transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER α and increased ER α ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER α dissociation and ER α ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER α degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER α degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER α distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER α protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.

  16. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P.

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (蘆薈 lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  17. Protective effects of Aloe sterols against UVB-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Saito, Marie; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yao, Ruiqing; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2017-03-01

    Aloe vera is a traditional medical plant whose gel has been widely used in skin care. Previously, we have identified Aloe sterols from Aloe vera as active ingredients. This study investigated the protective effects of Aloe sterols without polysaccharides, against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin photoaging in mice using Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) obtained by supercritical fluid extraction. Aloe vera gel extract was supplemented in the diet (12 or 120 ppm), and HR-1 hairless mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 7 weeks. Skin measurements and histological and analytical studies were performed. Repeated UVB irradiation induced rough wrinkling of skin with water content reduction and hyperkeratosis. AVGE administration resulted in the significant improvement of UVB-induced skin dryness, epidermal thickness, and wrinkle formation. The AVGE group also suppressed the degenerations of dermal collagen fibers and the appearance of cutaneous apoptosis cells induced by UVB. Furthermore, AVGE administration reduced the excess elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MMP-13) in UVB-exposed skin. The dietary ingestion of Aloe sterols protected against chronic UVB damage in mouse skin, and our results suggest that Aloe sterols may prevent skin photoaging through the anti-inflammation and MMP regulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Radha, Maharjan H; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera ( lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions.

  19. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ERα Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ERα) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ERα protein levels, thereby suppressing ERα transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ERα and increased ERα ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ERα dissociation and ERα ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ERα degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ERα degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ERα distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ERα protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

  20. The effect of aloe vera on ischemia--Reperfusion injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Guven, Mustafa; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Aslan, Esra; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Cosar, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Aloe vera is compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of aloe vera treatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury. Twenty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Groups; Control group (no surgical procedure or medication), sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group, sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+aloe vera group and sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+methylprednisolone group. Ischemia was performed by clamping the infrarenal abdominal aorta. 24 hours after ischemia, all animals were sacrificed. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically and biochemically. Ischemic fiber degeneration significantly decreased in the pre-treated with aloe vera and treated with methylprednisolone groups, especially in the pre-treated with aloe vera group, compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group (p<0.05). A significant decrease in MDA, an increase in NRF1 level and SOD activity were observed in the groups which obtained from the AV and MP groups when compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group. When all results were analysed it was seen that the aloe vera group was not statistically different compared to the MP group (p>0.05). Aloe vera is effective neuroprotective against sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Also aloe vera was found to be as effective as MP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Beneficial Effects of the Genus Aloe on Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, and Differentiation of Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Junki; Kubo, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yuka; Goto, Arisa; Akaki, Junji; Yoshida, Ikuyo; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Hayakawa, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Aloe has been used as a folk medicine because it has several important therapeutic properties. These include wound and burn healing, and Aloe is now used in a variety of commercially available topical medications for wound healing and skin care. However, its effects on epidermal keratinocytes remain largely unclear. Our data indicated that both Aloe vera gel (AVG) and Cape aloe extract (CAE) significantly improved wound healing in human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and a human skin equivalent model. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface expressions of β1-, α6-, β4-integrin, and E-cadherin increased in HPEKs treated with AVG and CAE. These increases may contribute to cell migration and wound healing. Treatment with Aloe also resulted in significant changes in cell-cycle progression and in increases in cell number. Aloe increased gene expression of differentiation markers in HPEKs, suggesting roles for AVG and CAE in the improvement of keratinocyte function. Furthermore, human skin epidermal equivalents developed from HPEKs with medium containing Aloe were thicker than control equivalents, indicating the effectiveness of Aloe on enhancing epidermal development. Based on these results, both AVG and CAE have benefits in wound healing and in treatment of rough skin. PMID:27736988

  3. In vitro susceptibilities of Shigella flexneri and Streptococcus pyogenes to inner gel of Aloe barbadensis Miller.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Valerie A; Bradbury, Fiona; Cameron, Pamela; Shakir, Eisin; Rahman, Sabita R; Stimson, William H

    2003-03-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (or Aloe vera) has widespread use in health products, and despite numerous reports on the whole plant, little work has been performed on the inner gel, which has been used extensively in these products. This report describes the in vitro susceptibilities of two bacteria to this component.

  4. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Visuthikosol, V; Chowchuen, B; Sukwanarat, Y; Sriurairatana, S; Boonpucknavig, V

    1995-08-01

    In a study of twenty-seven patients with partial thickness burn wound, they were treated with aloe vera gel compared with vaseline gauze. It revealed the aloe vera gel treated lesion healed faster than the vaseline gauze area. The average time of healing in the aloe gel area was 11.89 days and 18.19 days for the vaseline gauze treated wound. Statistical analysis by using t-test and the value of P < 0.002 was statistically significant. In histologic study, it showed early epithelialization in the treated aloe vera gel area. Only some minor adverse effects, such as discomfort and pain were encountered in the 27 cases. This study showed the effectiveness of aloe vera gel on a partial thickness burn wound, and it might be beneficial to do further trials on burn wounds.

  5. Signaling pathway for aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human H460 lung nonsmall carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Feng-Tsgh; Wu, Chun-Hsiung; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2003-08-10

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is an active component from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum that has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects through an unknown mechanism. Our study investigated the mechanisms of aloe-emodin-induced cell death in the human lung nonsmall cell carcinoma cell line H460. Aloe-emodin (40 microM)-induced apoptosis of H460 cells involves modulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and p38 protein expression. The relationship of various signals involved in cell death, such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and p38, has been investigated in the regulation of apoptotic cell death of aloe-emodin. We demonstrated that the expression of p38 is an important determinant of apoptotic death induced by aloe-emodin.

  6. Aloe QDM complex enhances specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing in vivo in metabolic disease mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Jiyeon; An, Jinho; Lee, Heetae; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae

    2017-03-01

    We developed spontaneous diet-induced metabolic disease in mice by feeding them a high-fat diet for 23 weeks and administered Aloe QDM complex for 16 weeks to examine its restorative effect on immune disorders and metabolic syndrome. A series of immune functional assays indicated Aloe QDM complex enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and antigen-specific immunity as determined by the restored functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and IgG production. The elevated serum TNF-α level was also regulated by Aloe QDM complex treatment, which suggested its complex therapeutic potential. As for metabolic phenotypes, oral administration of Aloe QDM complex significantly improved diabetic symptoms, including high fasting glucose levels and glucose tolerance, and distinctly alleviated lipid accumulation in adipose and hepatic tissue. The simultaneous restoration of Aloe QDM complex on metabolic syndrome and host immune dysfunction, especially on the specific CTL killing was first elucidated in our study.

  7. Assessment of Aloe vera (L.) genotoxic potential on Escherichia coli and plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Paes-Leme, Alessandra A; Motta, Ellen S; De Mattos, Jose C P; Dantas, Flavio J S; Bezerra, Roberto J A C; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano

    2005-11-14

    Aloe vera is a tropical plant, known in Brazil as babosa and several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for topic use. Since people use Aloe vera topically, they could be exposed to solar ultraviolet light in addition and it might cause a cross damage effect between these agents. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological effects of Aloe vera pulp extract, associated or not to UVA radiation, on Escherichia coli-deficient repair mutants and plasmid DNA, in order to test its genotoxic potential. Data obtained from analysis of survival fractions, bacterial transformation and agarose gel electrophoresis suggest that Aloe vera has genotoxic properties, but it seems not to be able to damage the cell membrane.

  8. Inhibitory activity of Aloe vera gel on some clinically isolated cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fani, Mohammadmehdi; Kohanteb, Jamshid

    2012-03-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and immune-boosting properties. In the present study we investigated the inhibitory activities of Aloe vera gel on some cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans), periodontopathic (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis) and an opportunistic periodontopathogen (Bacteroides fragilis) isolated from patients with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Twenty isolates of each of these bacteria were investigated for their sensitivity to Aloe vera gel using the disk diffusion and microdilution methods. S. mutans was the species most sensitive to Aloe vera gel with a MIC of 12.5 µg/ml, while A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and B. fragilis were less sensitive, with a MIC of 25-50 µg/ml (P < 0.01). Based on our present findings it is concluded that Aloe vera gel at optimum concentration could be used as an antiseptic for prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  9. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. Materials and Method In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. Conclusion The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity. PMID:26966709

  11. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity.

  12. InSAR Monitoring of Landslides using RADARSAT and Alos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhroy, V.; Pierre-Jean, A.; Pavlic, G.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results of InSAR monitoring of several landslides using RADARDAT, and ALOS satellites. InSAR techniques are increasingly being used in slope stability assessment. Our research has shown that differential InSAR and coherent target monitoring techniques using field corner reflectors are useful to monitor landslide activity along strategic transportation and energy corridors. The Mackenzie Valley in northern Canada is experiencing one of the highest rates on mean annual air temperature for any region in Canada, thereby triggering melting in the permafrost, which results in active layer detachment slides. There are approximately 2000 landslides along the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline route. In addition, the Trans Canada Highway in the Canadian Rockies are affected by several rock avalanches and slow retrogressive slides. The ALOS PALSAR InSAR results show that we can observe deformation on both vegetated and exposed rock areas on the Little Smokey slide and the Frank Slide. RADARSAT-1 InSAR images indicate the different level of activity of the slopes (large and small) during different periods of the year. RADARSAT-2 is providing the high resolution rapid revisit capabilities needed to continuously monitor these active slopes along Canadian strategic energy and transportation corridors. The information produced by our InSAR activity maps on various landslides are used to realign the pipeline route in sensitive permafrost areas, and to install slope stability measures along the Trans-Canada and Provincial Highways. Using these different satellites we are able to develop guidelines for more reliable uses of these SAR missions Keywords: InSAR, landslides, RADARSAT, ALOS .

  13. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of aloe vera tooth gel and two popular commercial toothpastes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    George, Dilip; Bhat, Sham S; Antony, Beena

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) has been suggested for a wide variety of ailments but its use in dentistry is limited. This article reviews the uses of the plant and describes an in vitro investigation that compared the antimicrobial effectiveness of aloe vera tooth gel with two popular, commercially available dentifrices. The preliminary results showed that aloe vera tooth gel and the toothpastes were equally effective against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. Aloe vera tooth gel demonstrated enhanced antibacterial effect against S. mitis.

  15. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  16. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Thappily, Praveen E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com; Shiju, K. E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  17. A biochemical and cellular approach to explore the antiproliferative and prodifferentiative activity of Aloe arborescens leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Manzo, Nicola; Vivo, Maria; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Crescenzi, Elvira; Pollice, Alessandra; Tudisco, Raffaella; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Viola

    2013-12-01

    Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Liliaceae family), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. Although less characterized than the commonest Aloe vera, Aloe arborescens is known to be richer in beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. It is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. However, very few studies have addressed the biological effects of Aloe at molecular level. The aim of the research is to provide evidences for the antiproliferative properties of Aloe arborescens crude leaf extract using an integrated proteomic and cellular biological approach. We analysed the composition of an Aloe arborescens leaf extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We found it rich in Aloe-emodin, a hydroxylanthraquinone with known antitumoral activity and in several compounds with anti-oxidant properties. Accordingly, we show that the Aloe extract has antiproliferative effects on several human transformed cell lines and exhibits prodifferentiative effects on both primary and immortalized human keratinocyte. Proteomic analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the presence of proteins with a strong antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity specifically induced in human keratinocytes by Aloe treatment supporting its application as a therapeutical agent.

  18. Aloe-emodin induces in vitro G2/M arrest and alkaline phosphatase activation in human oral cancer KB cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming; Liu, Donghai; Zhang, Shun

    2007-10-01

    Aloe-emodin is a natural anthraquinone compound from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. In this study, KB cells were treated with 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 microM aloe-emodin for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with aloe-emodin at 10 to 40 microM resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in KB cells increased upon treatment with aloe-emodin when compared to controls. This is one of the first studies to focus on the expression of ALP in human oral carcinomas cells treated with aloe-emodin. These results indicate that aloe-emodin has anti-cancer effect on oral cancer, which may lead to its use in chemotherapy and chemopreventment of oral cancer.

  19. Molecular biology, phytochemistry and bioactivity of three endemic Aloe species from Mauritius and Réunion Islands.

    PubMed

    Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya, Mala; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Lavergne, Christophe; Khoyratty, Shannoo; Da Silva, Denis; Frederich, Michel; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-01-01

    Aloe tormentorii, A. purpurea and A. macra are used as multipurpose folk medicines in Réunion and Mauritius Islands and are mistaken for the introduced Aloe vera. To compare the phytochemical, antimicrobial and DNA profiles of Aloe endemic to Mauritius and Réunion with the profiles of A. vera. Methodology - Leaf extracts of these Aloe species were analysed using standard phytochemical screening techniques, TLC and by HPLC. These extracts were also assayed for antimicrobial activity using microdilution techniques. Genetic diversity was studied using RAPD markers. Phytochemical and antimicrobial assays and RAPD analysis showed that Mascarene Aloe species were very different from A. vera. This study is the first report highlighting the differences between Aloe sp.p from Mascarene and Aloe vera at the metabolic and genomic level. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. in traditional and modern medicine: A review.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra; Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Traditional medicine is a useful guide in medical sciences. In the Islamic Iranian traditional medicine, the medicinal properties of many plants have been mentioned that could be exploited in drug discovery. We aimed to explore the nature and properties of Aloe spp. As described in some major Islamic traditional texts including Ferdows al-Hekmah fi'l-Tibbe (The Paradise of Wisdom in Medicine), Al-Hawi fi'l-Tibb (Comprehensive Book of Medicine), Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah (Complete Book of the Medical Art), Al-Qanun fi'l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshah), and Makhzan al-Adwiah (Drug Treasure), and assess the conformity of traditional medicine instructions with the findings of modern pharmacological studies. Gastrointestinal activities, hepato-protective properties, beneficial effects against skin problems such as wounds, injuries, and infective diseases are among the most frequently mentioned properties of Aloe spp. Several activities of Aloe spp. described in traditional medicine have been the subject of recent in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials. Owing to the positive findings, different preparations of Aloe spp. are now present in pharmaceutical markets such as Aloe cosmetic products. On the other hand, there are many traditional therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. which have not been studied and require confirmatory experimental or clinical investigations. It is hoped that the present study could stimulate further research on the unexplored aspects of the medicinal properties of Aloe spp.

  1. Effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin on cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Z; Hsu, S L; Liu, M C; Wu, C H

    2001-11-23

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is an active component from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. The study investigated the effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin-induced cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line CH27. Aloe-emodin (40 microM)-induced CH27 cell apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation (DNA ladders and sub-G(1) formation). Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis of CH27 cells involved modulation of the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, such as BclX(L), Bag-1, and Bak, and was associated with the translocation of Bak and Bax from cytosolic to particulate fractions. Aloe-emodin-treated CH27 cells had an increased relative abundance of cytochrome c in the cytosolic fraction. Results demonstrated that the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 is an important determinant of apoptotic death induced by aloe-emodin. These results suggest that aloe-emodin induces CH27 cell death by the Bax and Fas death pathway.

  2. In vitro studies on the photobiological properties of aloe emodin and aloin A.

    PubMed

    Wamer, Wayne G; Vath, Peter; Falvey, Daniel E

    2003-01-15

    Plants containing aloin A, aloe emodin, and structurally related anthraquinones have long been used as traditional medicines and in the formulation of retail products such as laxatives, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. Since a recent study indicated that topically applied aloe emodin increases the sensitivity of skin to UV light, we examined the events following photoexcitation of aloin A and aloe emodin. We determined that incubation of human skin fibroblasts with 20 microM aloe emodin for 18 h followed by irradiation with UV or visible light resulted in significant photocytotoxicity. This photocytotoxicity was accompanied by oxidative damage in both cellular DNA and RNA. In contrast, no photocytotoxicity was observed following incubation with up to 500 microM aloin A and irradiation with UVA light. In an attempt to explain the different photobiological properties of aloin A and aloe emodin, laser flash photolysis experiments were performed. We determined that the triplet state of aloe emodin was readily formed following photoexcitation. However, no transient intermediates were formed following photoexcitation of aloin A. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage after irradiation of aloin A is unlikely. Although aloin A was not directly photocytotoxic, we found that human skin fibroblasts can metabolize aloin A to aloe emodin.

  3. Fractionation of Aloe vera L. inner gel, purification and molecular profiling of activity.

    PubMed

    Talmadge, James; Chavez, Jennifer; Jacobs, Lori; Munger, Corey; Chinnah, Tony; Chow, Jimmy T; Williamson, David; Yates, Kenneth

    2004-12-20

    Products derived from the inner gel of the Aloe vera L. plant have demonstrated multiple clinical activities, and are used routinely to accelerate wound healing. However, typical of natural products, the complex nature of Aloe vera gels may contribute to diverse pharmacologic activities. Our focus on the hematopoietic activities of Aloe vera extracts is extended by these functional studies, which used purified fractions from Aloe vera gel and included a preliminary organ-specific in vitro molecular profile. Studies using a >99% pure carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera extracts revealed increased hematopoietic and hematologic activity compared to the starting material. In addition, this fraction differentially regulated liver and lung cytokine mRNA levels, resulting in significant increases in message for hematopoietic cytokines [granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF)]. This profile of activity differed from another fraction obtained from Aloe vera, suggesting the potential for diverse pharmacologic activity. The molecular studies were undertaken using co-cultures of organ slices to limit the amount of purified material required. In summary, these studies revealed significant hematopoietic activity by both pharmacologic and molecular analysis using a >99% pure carbohydrate fraction from Aloe vera gels.

  4. Modulation of drug efflux by aloe materials: An In Vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carien, Beneke; Alvaro, Viljoen; Josias, Hamman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinically, significant herb-drug interactions have been previously documented and can be pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic in nature. Pharmacokinetic interactions have been attributed to induction or inhibition of either metabolic enzymes or efflux transporters. Objective: The effect of gel and whole leaf materials from 3 different aloe species namely Aloe ferox, Aloe marlothii, and Aloe vera as well as polysaccharides precipitated from the A. vera materials on the bi-directional transport of cimetidine across rat intestinal tissue was investigated. Materials and Methods: Cimetidine transport studies were performed across excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in Sweetana-Grass diffusion chambers in both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. Results: While A. vera gel and whole leaf materials did not inhibit the efflux of cimetidine, the polysaccharides precipitated from them did show a reduction of cimetidine efflux. On the other hand, both A. ferox and A. marlothii gel and whole leaf materials exhibited an inhibition effect on cimetidine efflux. Conclusions: This study identified a modulation effect of efflux transporters by certain aloe materials. This may cause herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions when drugs that are substrates for these efflux transporters are taken simultaneously with aloe materials. On the other hand, these aloe materials may be used for drug absorption enhancement for drugs with low bioavailability due to extensive efflux. PMID:24143044

  5. Modulation of drug efflux by aloe materials: An In Vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Carien, Beneke; Alvaro, Viljoen; Josias, Hamman

    2013-10-01

    Clinically, significant herb-drug interactions have been previously documented and can be pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic in nature. Pharmacokinetic interactions have been attributed to induction or inhibition of either metabolic enzymes or efflux transporters. The effect of gel and whole leaf materials from 3 different aloe species namely Aloe ferox, Aloe marlothii, and Aloe vera as well as polysaccharides precipitated from the A. vera materials on the bi-directional transport of cimetidine across rat intestinal tissue was investigated. Cimetidine transport studies were performed across excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in Sweetana-Grass diffusion chambers in both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. While A. vera gel and whole leaf materials did not inhibit the efflux of cimetidine, the polysaccharides precipitated from them did show a reduction of cimetidine efflux. On the other hand, both A. ferox and A. marlothii gel and whole leaf materials exhibited an inhibition effect on cimetidine efflux. This study identified a modulation effect of efflux transporters by certain aloe materials. This may cause herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions when drugs that are substrates for these efflux transporters are taken simultaneously with aloe materials. On the other hand, these aloe materials may be used for drug absorption enhancement for drugs with low bioavailability due to extensive efflux.

  6. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    1990-05-01

    Full-face dermabrasion provided an ideal opportunity to document the effects of dressings on wound healing management. Following the procedure, the abraded face was divided in half. One side was treated with the standard polyethylene oxide gel wound dressings. The other side was treated with a polyethylene oxide gel dressing saturated with stabilized aloe vera. The polyethylene oxide dressing provided an excellent matrix for the release of aloe vera gel during the initial 5 days of wound healing. By 24-48 hours there was dramatic vasoconstriction and accompanying reduction in edema on the aloe-treated side. By the third to fourth day there was less exudate and crusting at the aloe site, and by the fifth to sixth day the reepithelialization at the aloe site was complete. Overall, wound healing was approximately 72 hours faster at the aloe site. This acceleration in wound healing is important to reduce bacterial contamination, subsequent keloid formation, and/or pigmentary changes. The exact mechanism of acceleration of wound healing by aloe vera is unknown.

  7. Comparative efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash and chlorhexidine on periodontal health: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Bhashyam, Mamtha

    2016-01-01

    Background With introduction of many herbal medicines, dentistry has recently evidenced shift of approach for treating many inflammatory oral diseases by using such modalities. Aloe vera is one such product exhibiting multiple benefits and has gained considerable importance in clinical research recently. Aim To compare the efficacy of Aloevera and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on Periodontal Health. Material and Methods Thirty days randomized controlled trial was conducted among 390 dental students. The students were randomized into two intervention groups namely Aloe Vera (AV) chlorhexidine group (CHX) and one control (placebo) group. Plaque index and gingival index was recorded for each participant at baseline, 15 days and 30 days. The findings were than statistically analyzed, ANOVA and Post Hoc test were used. Results There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters with Aloe Vera (AV) and chlorhexidine group. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean plaque and gingival index scores of aloe Vera and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between AloeVera and chlorhexidine group. Conclusions Being an herbal product AloeVera has shown equal effectiveness as Chlorhexidine. Hence can be used as an alternative product for curing and preventing gingivitis. Key words:Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, dental plaque, gingivitis. PMID:27703614

  8. Binding of the bioactive component Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-11-01

    Aloe dihydroisocoumarin, one of new components isolated from Aloe vera, can scavenge reactive oxygen species. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by using fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. An isoemissive point at 414 nm is seen, indicating that the quenching of HSA fluorescence depends on the formation of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin-HSA complex, which is further confirmed by fluorescence dynamic result. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the gain of α-helix, β-sheet and random coil stability and the loss of β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FTIR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydroisocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  9. Quality change of apple slices coated with Aloe vera gel during storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Yeon; Jo, Wan-Shin; Song, Nak-Bum; Min, Sea C; Song, Kyung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Fresh-cut apples are easily susceptible to browning and microbial spoilage. In this study, an edible coating prepared from Aloe vera gel containing antibrowning solution was applied to preserve the quality of fresh-cut apples during storage. Fresh-cut apples were treated with both an Aloe vera gel and an Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine and then stored at 4 °C for 16 d. The color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, microbial analysis, and sensory evaluation were analyzed during storage. Fresh-cut apples coated with the Aloe vera gel showed delayed browning and reduced weight loss and softening compared to the control. The Aloe vera gel coating was also effective in reducing the populations of the total aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds. In particular, Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine was most effective in delaying browning and the reduction of microbial populations among the treatments. These results suggest that an Aloe vera gel coating can be used for maintaining the quality of fresh-cut apples. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Tropical forest mapping and change detection using ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenmei; Feng, Qi; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan

    2011-10-01

    Tropical forests represent a significant carbon store in the global carbon balance. Over recent years, substantial forests have been cut or burned. To investigate the changes of deforestation in tropical forests, ALOS PALSAR 50 m Orthorectified mosaic product (FBD) in Borneo from 2007 to 2009 was used, as SAR data can overcome the shortcoming of optical images. Pixel based unsupervised classification and object-oriented classification methods were applied to choose better method for classification. The comparison showed the object-oriented classification got the better result and its accuracy was higher. In the following step, object-oriented classification method was employed to monitor the changes of deforestation in Borneo during two years. The results indicated the deforestation increased sharply, especially the areas in the coastal and next to non-forest land cover/use. The change law of land cover/use in Borneo is forest to shrub, grassland and bare soil. There are also inverse changes from non-forest to forest by reforestation around settlement and water areas. Overall, forest decreases gradually and non-forest areas increases simultaneously in Borneo. This research indicates clearly that ALOS PALSAR Ortho-rectified FBD product can be used to classify land cover/use and two different time images could be employed in change detection without in situ data.

  11. Antiinflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, B; Avila, G; Segura, D; Escalante, B

    1996-12-01

    We studied the effects of aqueous, chloroform, and ethanol extracts of Aloe vera gel on carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw, and neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity stimulated by carrageenan. We also studied the capacity of the aqueous extract to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity. The aqueous and chloroform extracts decreased the edema induced in the hind-paw and the number of neutrophils migrating into the peritoneal cavity, whereas the ethanol extract only decreased the number of neutrophils. The antiinflammatory agents indomethacin and dexamethasone also decreased carrageenan-induced edema and neutrophil migration. The aqueous extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 production from [14C]arachidonic acid. The chemical tests performed in the aqueous extract for anthraglycosides, reductor sugars and cardiotonic glycosides were positive. In the ethanol extract, the chemical tests performed for saponins, carbohydrates naftoquinones, sterols, triterpenoids and anthraquinones were also positive. In the chloroform extract, the chemical tests performed for sterols type delta 5, and anthraquinones were positive. These results demonstrated that the extracts of Aloe vera gel have antiinflammatory activity and suggested its inhibitory action on the arachidonic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase.

  12. Potential antineoplastic effects of Aloe-emodin: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruie; Zhang, Jinming; Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a bioactive anthraquinone derived from both Aloe vera and Rheum officinale, has recently been demonstrated to have various pharmacological activities. With the widespread popularity of natural products, such as antineoplastic drugs, AE has attracted much attention due to its remarkable antineoplastic activity on multiple tumor cells involving multi-channel mechanisms, including the disruption of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, antiangiogenic, and strengthening of immune function. Experimental data have revealed AE as a potentially potent anti-cancer candidate. Despite this, the pharmaceutical application of AE is still in a fledging period as most research has concentrated on the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of action of existing treatments, rather than the development of novel formulations. Therefore, the present review summarizes the potential toxicity, molecular mechanism, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and pharmaceutical development of AE as an antineoplastic agent. This is based on its physicochemical properties, in an attempt to encourage further research on AE as a potential anti-cancer agent.

  13. Acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Sierra-García, Gerardo Daniel; Castro-Ríos, Rocío; González-Horta, Azucena; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Chávez-Montes, Abelardo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, the composition, actions, and clinical applications of acemannan in medicine and its effectiveness as an adjunct in the treatment of diseases are presented. An electronic literature search was performed up to January 2014 for studies and research presenting data to validate the efficacy of acemannan. A total of 50 titles, abstracts and full-text studies were selected and reviewed. Acemannan has various medicinal properties like osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial, which accelerate healing of lesions. Also, acemannan is known to have antiviral and antitumor activities in vivo through activation of immune responses. It was concluded that Aloe vera has immense potential as a therapeutic agent. Even though the plant is a promising herb with various clinical applications in medicine and dentistry, more clinical research needs to be undertaken to validate and explain the action of acemannan in healing, so that it can be established in the field of medicine and a more precise understanding of the biological activities of these is required to develop Aloe vera as a pharmaceutical source.

  14. The foliar anatomy and micromorphology of Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Wintola, Olubunmi Abosede; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2014-01-01

    The genus Aloe has been the subject of several chemotaxonomic and phytochemical investigations. Aloe ferox is an important source of biologically active compounds like anthrones, chromones, pyrones, and flavonoids. It is a plant used extensively in traditional medicine. Despite the myriad of studies on the pharmacological profile of the plant, there still exists a dearth of scientific literature on the anatomical and morphological attributes of this important medicinal plant. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the foliar anatomy and micromorphological characteristics of A. ferox using light microscope and scanning electron microscope and to determine the elemental composition of the leaf sections by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Epidermal cells varied from round, square to hexagonal, with distinctive anticlinal walls and sunken stomata, equally distributed on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were observed. There were vertically elongated palisade cells with numerous chloroplasts in the palisade mesophyll layer. The EDXS analysis revealed Ca, K, S, Al, Mg, and Si as the major constituents of crystals present in the mesophyll. Information on the foliar anatomy and micromorphology can further enlightened our perceptions on the inherent interrelationships between structure and function as regards the synthesis and secretion of bioactive secondary metabolites by plants.

  15. First Results of the ALOS PALSAR Verification Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, P.; Monti Guarnieri, A.; D'Aria, D.; Costa, L.; Small, D.; Jehle, M.; Rosich, B.

    2007-03-01

    Among the several applications that will take advantage of the newly available data from the ALOS PALSAR instrument, considerable interest is in the peculiar features that derive from the penetration and polarimetric capabilities of the system. These capabilities, new for a single spaceborne sensor, need specific software tools for the processing of the different acquisition modes. This paper presents a verification processor, developed under ESA contract, for the generation of polarimetric, interferometric and polarimetric-interferometric geocoded products derived from ALOS PALSAR data. The processor, developed with a modular approach, contains the following main elements: - Phase-preserving fine resolution processor; - Phase-preserving ScanSAR processor; - Interference removal tools; - Polarimetric calibration tools; - Polarimetric analysis tools; - Fine resolution interferometric processor; - ScanSAR interferometric processor; - Polarimetric-interferometric processor; - Geocoding; - Atmospheric modelling tools. The processor architecture is presented; highlights are given on specific modules and algorithms. Early results are shown, in particular of the processing of polarimetric and polarimetric-interferometric data over different test sites.

  16. Aloe vera Induced Biomimetic Assemblage of Nucleobase into Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Zubair, Swaleha; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biomimetic nano-assembly formation offers a convenient and bio friendly approach to fabricate complex structures from simple components with sub-nanometer precision. Recently, biomimetic (employing microorganism/plants) synthesis of metal and inorganic materials nano-particles has emerged as a simple and viable strategy. In the present study, we have extended biological synthesis of nano-particles to organic molecules, namely the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using Aloe vera leaf extract. Methodology The 5-FU nano- particles synthesized by using Aloe vera leaf extract were characterized by UV, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by TEM, while crystalline nature of 5-FU particles was established by X-ray diffraction study. The cytotoxic effects of 5-FU nanoparticles were assessed against HT-29 and Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma colorectal) cell lines. Results Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopic techniques confirmed nano-size of the synthesized particles. Importantly, the nano-assembled 5-FU retained its anticancer action against various cancerous cell lines. Conclusion In the present study, we have explored the potential of biomimetic synthesis of nanoparticles employing organic molecules with the hope that such developments will be helpful to introduce novel nano-particle formulations that will not only be more effective but would also be devoid of nano-particle associated putative toxicity constraints. PMID:22403622

  17. Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Ito, Yousuke; Habara, Noriko; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Hayasawa, Hirotoshi; Takase, Mitunori; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuuichi

    2006-07-01

    The genus Aloe in the family Liliaceae is a group of plants including Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis MILLER) and Aloe arborescens (Aloe arborescens MILLER var. natalensis BERGER) that are empirically known to have various medical efficacies. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel and isolated a number of compounds from the gel. On the basis of spectroscopic data, these compounds were identified as lophenol, 24-methyl-lophenol, 24-ethyl-lophenol, cycloartanol, and 24-methylene-cycloartanol. These five phytosterols were evaluated for their anti-hyperglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic BKS.Cg-m(+/+)Lepr(db/J) (db/db) mice. In comparison with the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of vehicle-treated mice, statistically significant decreases of 15 to 18% in HbA1c levels were observed in mice treated with 1 mug of the five phytosterols. Considering the ability to reduce blood glucose in vivo, there were no differences between the five phytosterols. Administration of beta-sitosterol did not reduce the blood glucose levels in db/db mice. After administration of the five phytosterols for 28 d, fasting blood glucose levels decreased to approximately 64%, 28%, 47%, 51%, and 55% of control levels, respectively. Severe diabetic mice treated with phytosterols derived from Aloe vera gel did not suffer weight reduction due to glucose loss in the urine. These findings suggest that Aloe vera gel and phytosterols derived from Aloe vera gel have a long-term blood glucose level control effect and would be useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Lai, Chien-Chen; Huang, Su-Hua; Liao, Jun-Ming; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-09-05

    Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 μg/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β, IFN-γ, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans.

  19. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    Aloe gel and whole-leaf materials have shown biological effects with potential therapeutic applications, and recently, their drug-absorption enhancement properties have been discovered. It is important to establish a safety profile for these materials before they can be used in pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii, Aloe speciosa and Aloe ferox against human hepatocellular (HepG2), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (HeLa). Flow cytometry was used to measure cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aloe gel materials investigated only decreased cell viability at concentrations of >10 mg/mL and exhibited half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values above 1000 mg/mL, except for A. vera gel in HepG2 cells (CC(50) = 269.3 mg/mL). A. speciosa whole-leaf material showed a significant decrease in viability of Hela cells, whereas the other whole-leaf materials did not show a similar effect. The aloe gel materials in general showed low levels of apoptosis, whereas A. vera and A. speciosa whole-leaf materials caused a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in HeLa cells. None of the aloe materials investigated exhibited a significant increase in ROS. It can be concluded that the selected aloe materials caused only limited reduction in cell viability with limited in vitro cytotoxicity effects. Further, neither significant apoptosis effects were observed nor induction of ROS.

  20. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27840496

  1. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27516663

  2. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes. PMID:26090436

  3. Quantitative 1H-NMR spectrometry method for quality control of Aloe vera products.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ping; Jia, Qi; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd; Weaver, Stacy; Milligan, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    An 1H-NMR spectrometry method was developed and validated to quantify acetylated polysaccharides, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid in Aloe vera products. Nicotinamide was selected as an internal standard (IS) in this quantification method. The quantity of marker compounds was calculated by the relative ratio of the integrals of each compound to the IS. The method validation included specificity, linearity, accuracy, robustness, reproducibility, LOD, and LOQ on two samples--A. vera inner leaf standard and decolorized aloe whole leaf Standard from the International Aloe Science Council. Eighteen A. vera commercial products were analyzed with this NMR spectrometry method.

  4. Aloe emodin, an anthroquinone from Aloe vera acts as an anti aggregatory agent to the thermally aggregated hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Furkan, Mohammad; Alam, Md Tauqir; Rizvi, Asim; Khan, Kashan; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2017-05-15

    Aggregation of proteins is a physiological process which contributes to the pathophysiology of several maladies including diabetes mellitus, Huntington's and Alzheimer's disease. In this study we have reported that aloe emodin (AE), an anthroquinone, which is one of the active components of the Aloe vera plant, acts as an inhibitor of hemoglobin (Hb) aggregation. Hb was thermally aggregated at 60°C for four days as evident by increased thioflavin T and ANS fluorescence, shifted congo red absorbance, appearance of β sheet structure, increase in turbidity and presence of oligomeric aggregates. Increasing concentration of AE partially reverses the aggregation of the model heme protein (hemoglobin). The maximum effect of AE was observed at 100μM followed by saturation at 125μM. The results were confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry, intrinsic fluorescence, ThT, ANS, congo red assay as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results were also supported by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) which shows the disappearance of β sheet structure and appearance of α helices. This study will serve as baseline for translatory research and the development of AE based therapeutics for diseases attributed to protein aggregation.

  5. Aloe emodin, an anthroquinone from Aloe vera acts as an anti aggregatory agent to the thermally aggregated hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furkan, Mohammad; Alam, Md Tauqir; Rizvi, Asim; Khan, Kashan; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2017-05-01

    Aggregation of proteins is a physiological process which contributes to the pathophysiology of several maladies including diabetes mellitus, Huntington's and Alzheimer's disease. In this study we have reported that aloe emodin (AE), an anthroquinone, which is one of the active components of the Aloe vera plant, acts as an inhibitor of hemoglobin (Hb) aggregation. Hb was thermally aggregated at 60 °C for four days as evident by increased thioflavin T and ANS fluorescence, shifted congo red absorbance, appearance of β sheet structure, increase in turbidity and presence of oligomeric aggregates. Increasing concentration of AE partially reverses the aggregation of the model heme protein (hemoglobin). The maximum effect of AE was observed at 100 μM followed by saturation at 125 μM. The results were confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry, intrinsic fluorescence, ThT, ANS, congo red assay as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results were also supported by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) which shows the disappearance of β sheet structure and appearance of α helices. This study will serve as baseline for translatory research and the development of AE based therapeutics for diseases attributed to protein aggregation.

  6. Release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus: Involvement in aloe-emodin-induced human lung non small carcinoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Wu, Chun-Hsiung; Chang, Shen-Peng

    2005-03-01

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is one of the active constituents from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. Our previous study has demonstrated that aloe-emodin induced a significant change in the expression of lung cancer cell apoptosis-related proteins compared to those of control cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin still remain unknown. Based on these reasons, we were interested in the change of aloe-emodin-induced total protein expression by the proteomics technique during aloe-emodin-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis. Our study applied 2D electrophoresis to analyze the proteins involved in aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in H460 cells. We found that the release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus to the cytosol and the degradation of nucleophosmin were associated with aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis. Our study also demonstrated that the gene expression of nucleophosmin remained unchanged after treatment with aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-caused increase in the amount of proform and fragment of nucleophosmin in cytoplasm may be one of the important events for aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis.

  7. Electron spin resonance g tensors for complexes of Ne and Ar with AlO: Theoretical studies related to the large matrix effect observed for AlO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, Friedrich

    2005-03-01

    For Nen-AlO (n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10) and Arn-AlO clusters (n=2, 4, 6, 8), the perpendicular (relative to AlO) component of the g tensor was calculated by second-order perturbation theory, using multireference configuration-interaction wave functions. The rare-gas (Rg) atoms were placed axially and/or off axially (one or two rings of four Rg atoms each), and the distance of the Rg atoms from the Al and O atoms, or from the AlO axis, was varied from 4 to 12 bohrs. Rg atoms placed axially mostly increase g⊥, whereas off-axially placed ones lower it below the gas-phase value of AlO. The largest deviations from g⊥ of isolated AlO occur at Ne-Al,O distances of 5-6 bohrs, and Ar-Al,O distances of 6-9 bohrs, with maximal lowerings of about 1600 ppm for Ne and about 2200 ppm (estimated) for Ar in the case of two axial and eight off-axial Rg atoms. Electron spin resonance studies by Knight and Weltner found large matrix effects for AlO, with downshifts of g⊥ observed to be about 450 and 1150 ppm in Ne and Ar matrices, respectively.

  8. Aloe vera in active and passive regions of electronic devices towards a sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Wong, Yew Hoong; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2017-07-01

    The increasing awareness towards sustainable development of electronics has driven the search for natural bio-organic materials in place of conventional electronic materials. The concept of using natural bio-organic materials in electronics provides not only an effective solution to address global electronic waste crisis, but also a compelling template for sustainable electronics manufacturing. This paper attempts to provide an overview of using Aloe vera gel as a natural bio-organic material for various electronic applications. Important concepts such as responses of living Aloe vera plant towards electrical stimuli and demonstrations of Aloe vera films as passive and active regions of electronic devices are highlighted in chronological order. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of Aloe vera can bring the world a step closer towards the ultimate goal of sustainable development of electronic devices from "all-natural" materials.

  9. Increasing productivity by reducing average length of stay (ALOS) in Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sujoy; Basu, Rupali

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of ALOS in the hospital through streamlined processes with validation for standardized work such as clinical pathways. The implementation of barcoding and streamlining laboratories with interface solutions has reduced the cycle time for the diagnostic areas. The long standing cases over seven days provided a trigger for the Medical Board, which helped in multidisciplinary care of these patients. Cohort of patients in respective wards according to discipline for almost 80% of patients have improved nursing and other paramedical services and had a definite impact on ALOS and other outcomes. Finally, the organization had a benefit of nearly USD 0.9 million for a period of nine months during this study. The organization has carried on with the benefits of the ALOS reduction and currently has reduced ALOS to 4.5 days.

  10. [Determination of trace elements in Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hui; Wang, Chang-Hai; Liu, Zhao-Pu

    2008-03-01

    The dry leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater were dissolved in nitric acid and then oxygenated by perchloric acid. Nine kinds of trace elements in the samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper and lead, with added lanthanum chloride as releaser to eliminate the interference of co-existent ions. The recoveries were 96.58%-104.31%, and the relative standard deviations of sample determination (10 times) were less than 2%. This method is simple, sensitive and rapid with satisfactory results and good reproducibility. The results indicated that there were rich Ca, Mg, K and Na, and moderate Mn, Zn and Fe elements in the Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater. However, the concentrations of Cu and Pb were low. Therefore, Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater has officinal and economic values. These results provide data for further research on Aloe barbadensis Miller irrigated with seawater.

  11. A novel angiogenic factor derived from Aloe vera gel: beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol.

    PubMed

    Moon, E J; Lee, Y M; Lee, O H; Lee, M J; Lee, S K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Sung, C K; Choi, J S; Kim, K W

    1999-01-01

    Aloe vera gel has a beneficial effect on wound healing. Because angiogenesis is an essential process in wound healing, we hypothesized that Aloe vera gel might contain potent angiogenic compounds. Here we demonstrate that Aloe vera gel and its extracts are angiogenic on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryo. Out of the three compounds purified from the final fraction of Aloe vera gel, beta-sitosterol showed a potent angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. In the presence of heparin, beta-sitosterol stimulated neovascularization in the mouse Matrigel plug assay and the motility of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in an in vitro wound migration assay. Thus beta-sitosterol is a novel plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical applications for the management of chronic wounds.

  12. Aloe-emodin inhibits proliferation of adult human keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Popadic, Dusan; Savic, Emina; Ramic, Zorica; Djordjevic, Vladimir; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Medenica, Ljiljana; Popadic, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE) is a plant-derived hydroxyanthraquinone with several biological activities. It is present in a variety of skin-conditioning agents containing aloe extracts, but its influence on keratinocyte growth was not examined so far. We investigated the influence of AE on human keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. AE significantly inhibited proliferation of cultivated human keratinocytes at 5 μM concentration, as revealed by incorporation of radioactive thymidine. The antiproliferative effect of AE was accompanied with induction of apoptosis, but not necrosis, as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Based on the half maximal inhibitory concentration values, we demonstrated that AE may impair proliferation of keratinocytes at concentrations far below the industry standards for commercial products containing aloe extracts. Therefore, further research of AE effects on the human skin and proper labeling of products are necessary for maximizing benefits from aloe extracts and to avoid undesired responses.

  13. Theoretical investigation of the long-lived metastable AlO2+ dication in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.; Jaidane, Nejm Eddine; Al Mogren, Muneerah Mogren; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-09-01

    We report the results of a detailed theoretical study of the electronic ground and excited states of the gas-phase doubly charged ion AlO2+ using high-level ab initio computer calculations. Both standard and explicitly correlated methods were used to calculate their potential energy curves and spectroscopic parameters. These computations show that the ground state of AlO2+ is X2Π. The internuclear equilibrium distance of AlO2+(X2Π) is computed 1.725 Å. We also deduced the adiabatic double ionization and charge stripping energies of AlO to be about 27.45 eV and 17.80 eV, respectively.

  14. An investigation of the potential application of chitosan/aloe-based membranes for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Popa, E G; Gomes, M E; Cerqueira, M; Marques, A P; Caridade, S G; Teixeira, P; Sousa, C; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-06-01

    A significant number of therapeutics derived from natural polymers and plants have been developed to replace or to be used in conjunction with existing dressing products. The use of the therapeutic properties of aloe vera could be very useful in the creation of active wound dressing materials. The present work was undertaken to examine issues concerning structural features, topography, enzymatic degradation behavior, antibacterial activity and cellular response of chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes that were developed displayed satisfactory degradation, roughness, wettability and mechanical properties. A higher antibacterial potency was displayed by the blended membranes. Moreover, in vitro assays demonstrated that these blended membranes have good cell compatibility with primary human dermal fibroblasts. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes might be promising wound dressing materials. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries--a review.

    PubMed

    Eshun, Kojo; He, Qian

    2004-01-01

    Scientific investigations on Aloe vera have gained more attention over the last several decades due to its reputable medicinal properties. Some publications have appeared in reputable Scientific Journals that have made appreciable contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of Aloe--"nature's gift." Chemical analysis reveals that Aloe vera contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of Aloe vera have been described, it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s) is responsible for these physiological properties. Further research needs to be done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activities and the functional properties of A. vera. Appropriate processing techniques should be employed during the stabilization of the gel in order to affect and extend its field of utilization.

  16. Influence of aloe vera on the healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chithra, P; Sajithlal, G B; Chandrakasan, G

    1998-01-01

    The positive influence of Aloe vera, a tropical cactus, on the healing of full-thickness wounds in diabetic rats is reported. Full-thickness excision/incision wounds were created on the back of rats, and treated either by topical application on the wound surface or by oral administration of the Aloe vera gel to the rat. Wound granulation tissues were removed on various days and the collagen, hexosamine, total protein and DNA contents were determined, in addition to the rates of wound contraction and period of epithelialization. Measurements of tensile strength were made on treated/untreated incision wounds. The results indicated that Aloe vera treatment of wounds in diabetic rats may enhance the process of wound healing by influencing phases such as inflammation, fibroplasia, collagen synthesis and maturation, and wound contraction. These effects may be due to the reported hypoglycemic effects of the aloe gel.

  17. Composition and applications of Aloe vera leaf gel.

    PubMed

    Hamman, Josias H

    2008-08-08

    Many of the health benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves. These biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, hypoglycemic or antidiabetic effects antiinflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory and gastroprotective properties. While the known biological activities of A. vera will be briefly discussed, it is the aim of this review to further highlight recently discovered effects and applications of the leaf gel. These effects include the potential of whole leaf or inner fillet gel liquid preparations of A. vera to enhance the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of co-administered compounds as well as enhancement of skin permeation. In addition, important pharmaceutical applications such as the use of the dried A. vera gel powder as an excipient in sustained release pharmaceutical dosage forms will be outlined.

  18. Tyrosinase inhibitory components from Aloe vera and their antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Yang, Seo Young; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kwon, Sun Jung; Cho, In Sook; Jeong, Min Hee; Ho Kim, Young; Choi, Gug Seoun

    2017-12-01

    A new compound, 9-dihydroxyl-2'-O-(Z)-cinnamoyl-7-methoxy-aloesin (1), and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from Aloe vera. Their structures were elucidated using 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra. Compound 9 exhibited reversible competitive inhibitory activity against the enzyme tyrosinase, with an IC50 value of 9.8 ± 0.9 µM. A molecular simulation revealed that compound 9 interacts via hydrogen bonding with residues His244, Thr261, and Val283 of tyrosinase. Additionally, compounds 3 and 7 were shown by half-leaf assays to exhibit inhibitory activity towards Pepper mild mottle virus.

  19. Aloe vera-induced acute liver injury: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Parlati, Lucia; Voican, Cosmin Sebastian; Perlemuter, Katy; Perlemuter, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    Recent data suggest that herbal and dietary supplements are the second most common cause of liver injury. We herein report a case of acute liver injury in a 68-year old female caused by ingestion of Aloe vera. Upon discontinuation of the oral Aloe vera, liver function tests (LFT) returned to normal levels. Thus, it is crucial to consider the use of herbal products as causative agents of acute liver injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Aloe vera: an in vitro study of effects on corneal wound closure and collagenase activity.

    PubMed

    Curto, Elizabeth M; Labelle, Amber; Chandler, Heather L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effects of an aloe vera solution on (i) the viability and wound healing response of corneal cells and (ii) the ability to alter collagenase and gelatinase activities. Primary cultures of corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts were prepared from grossly normal enucleated canine globes and treated with an aloe solution (doses ranging from 0.0-2 mg/mL). Cellular viability was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A corneal wound healing model was used to quantify cellular ingrowth across a defect made on the confluent surface. Anticollagenase and antigelatinase activities were evaluated by incubating a bacterial collagenase/gelatinase with aloe solution (doses ranging from 0.0-500 μg/mL) and comparing outcome measures to a general metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1, 10-phenanthroline, and canine serum (doses ranging from 0.0-100%). None of the concentrations of aloe solution tested significantly affected the viability of corneal epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Concentrations ≤175 μg/mL slightly accelerated corneal epithelial cell wound closure; this change was not significant. Concentrations ≥175 μg/mL significantly (P ≤ 0.001) slowed the rate of corneal fibroblast wound closure, while aloe concentrations <175 μg/mL did not significantly alter fibroblast wound closure. Aloe solution did not alter the ability for collagenase to degrade gelatin or collagen Type I but increased the ability for collagenase to degrade Type IV collagen. Although additional experiments are required, lower concentrations of aloe solution may be beneficial in healing of superficial corneal wounds to help decrease fibrosis and speed epithelialization. An increase in collagenase activity with aloe vera warrants further testing before considering in vivo studies. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Hepatotherapeutic effect of Aloe vera in alcohol-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Saka, W A; Akhigbe, R E; Ishola, O S; Ashamu, E A; Olayemi, O T; Adeleke, G E

    2011-07-15

    There is a lack of reliable hepatotherapeutic drugs in modern medicine in the management of alcohol/drug-induced liver damage. Aloe vera extract has been used in folklore medicine for its medicinal values. This study evaluates the hepatotherapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; the negative control, positive control and the extract-treated groups. The negative control received only distilled water daily. The positive control received alcohol, while the extract-treated group received aqueous extract of Aloe vera and alcohol. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the positive control and extract-treated rats with alcohol. The hepatotherapeutic effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminases and liver histopathology. Alanine transaminase activities were comparable in all groups. Alcohol treatment alone significantly (p < 0.05) increased total serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities. Alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction was abrogated by Aloe vera extract. Histopathological examination revealed that alcohol induced hepatic damage. Aloe vera treatment maintained hepatic architecture similar to that seen in the control. This study shows that aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel is hepatotherapeutic and thus lends credence to the use of the plant in folklore medicine in the management of alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction.

  2. Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Li, Shengqing; Lee, Ki Won; Liu, Haidan; He, Long; Soung, Nak Kyun; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2012-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) amplification and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion-caused Akt activation contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a kinase complex comprised of mTOR, Rictor, mSin1, mLST8/GβL and PRR5 and functions in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Herein, we report that mTORC2 plays an important role in PC3 androgen refractory prostate cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Aloe-emodin, a natural compound found in aloe, inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells. Protein content analysis suggested that activation of the downstream substrates of mTORC2, Akt and PKCα, was inhibited by aloe-emodin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that aloe-emodin could bind with mTORC2 in cells and inhibit its kinase activity. Aloe-emodin also exhibited tumor suppression effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that mTORC2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development and aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer progression by targeting mTORC2.

  3. Synthesis and anti-tumor activity evaluation of rhein-aloe emodin hybrid molecule.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye-Fei; Hu, Xiang-Yu; He, Ying; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2012-02-01

    To improve the anti-tumor effects of rhein and aloe-emodin, a rhein-aloe-emodin hybrid molecule (RH-AE) was synthesized from rhein and aloe-emodin in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP). Chemical and spectroscopic methods, such as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and HR-ESIMS were used for the structure identification of RH-AE. Using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, the in vitro anti-tumor effects were compared between RH-AE, rhein and aloe-emodin on human hepatoma HepG2, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE, human lung cancer NCI-H460, human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3, and human cervical cancer Hela cells. The results showed that the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RH-AE on HepG2, CNE, NCI-H460, SK-OV-3, and Hela cells were significantly lower than those of rhein and aloe-emodin. This showed that RH-AE has a better in vitro anti-tumor effect than rhein and aloe-emodin.

  4. Effect of aloe cream versus silver sulfadiazine for healing burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Zamani, Peyman; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2010-01-01

    The management of burn injury remains a problem and it is the major cause of death and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Aloe vera cream in the treatment of thermal burn wounds and to compare these results with silver sulfadiazine in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. Animals were administered topical cream (Aloe vera powdered gel 0.5% and silver sulfadiazine) at 24 h of burn injury induced by hot water. On special days, according to study protocol, wound size was determined and skin sample histopathology performed in animal groups administered topical therapies. On day 25, the mean wound size was 5.5, 4, 0.78 and 4.1 cm2 in control, base, aloe and silver group, respectively. The wound size was significantly smaller in aloe group as compared with other groups. Histologic comparison showed aloe to increase reepithelialization in burn wounds significantly as compared with other cream-treated wounds. The results of this study showed aloe cream to significantly increase reepithelialization in burn wounds as compared with silver sulfadiazine.

  5. Molecular interaction and energy transfer between human serum albumin and bioactive component Aloe dihydrocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Aloe dihydrocoumarin is an antioxidant and a candidate of immunomodulatory drug on the immune system and can balance physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which may be useful to maintain homeostasis. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydrocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. A Förster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism is involved in this quenching of Trp fluorescence by Aloe dihydrocoumarin. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the loss of α-helix stability and the gain of β-sheet and β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FT-IR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydrocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  6. Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Lee, Ki Won; Liu, Haidan; He, Long; Soung, Nak Kyun; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) amplification and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion-caused Akt activation contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a kinase complex comprised of mTOR, Rictor, mSin1, mLST8/GβL and PRR5 and functions in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Herein, we report that mTORC2 plays an important role in PC3 androgen refractory prostate cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Aloe-emodin, a natural compound found in aloe, inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells. Protein content analysis suggested that activation of the downstream substrates of mTORC2, Akt and PKCα, was inhibited by aloe-emodin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that aloe-emodin could bind with mTORC2 in cells and inhibit its kinase activity. Aloe-emodin also exhibited tumor suppression effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that mTORC2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development and aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer progression by targeting mTORC2. PMID:22532249

  7. Effects of massage treatment combined with topical cactus and aloe on puerperal milk stasis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shan; Deng, Qingchun; Feng, Chunyu; Pan, Yinglian; Chang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Puerperal milk stasis is one of the most common puerperal complication that directly affects breastfeeding. Massage treatment with topical cactus and aloe for puerperal milk stasis might be a superior treatment, and it does not affect breastfeeding. The intervention group was treated with massages with cactus and aloe cold compresses, and the control group was treated with massage treatment or cactus and aloe cold compresses alone. We evaluated the efficacies of the treatments through comparisons of the feeding patterns, hardness, and pain after treatment between the three groups. We found that breastfeeding rates were significantly increased in the massage combine with combined with cactus and aloe cold compress group (P < 0.05 for both). Breast hardness and pain were reduced to greater extents in massage combine with combined with cactus and aloe cold compress group than in the massage or cold compress group (P < 0.05). Massage treatment with topical cactus and aloe topical effectively improved the pain status, hard lump of puerperal milk stasis and increase breastfeeding rate.

  8. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  9. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study.

  10. A comparative study of three Aloe species used to treat skin diseases in South African rural communities.

    PubMed

    Coopoosamy, Roger M; Naidoo, Kuben K

    2013-05-01

    Aloe species have been noted to be a miracle cure used by indigenous people of southern Africa. Geographically, each of the three Aloe species-Aloe arborescens, Aloe excelsa, and Aloe ferox-has a specific habitat. Although some species overlap in geographical regions, the species most abundant in a region is most often utilized by indigenous people. All three species display similar curative properties, aiding in wound healing, cures against other skin ailments, and some systemic conditions. All three Aloe species indicated high inhibitory activity against all gram-positive bacteria under investigation. The ethanol extract was most effective and inhibited all gram-positive bacteria and two gram-negative bacteria (i.e., Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli). All fungal species under investigation were successfully inhibited by both the boiled water as well as the ethanol extract, substantiating the traditional usage of this species.

  11. Aloe-emodin induced DNA damage through generation of reactive oxygen species in human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Zin; Lin, Ching-Ju; Yang, Wen-Hui; Leung, Wing-Cheung; Chang, Shen-Pen

    2006-07-28

    The DNA aggregation was found in aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis in this study. Aloe-emodin (40microM)-induced DNA single strand breaks were observed by comet assay. Aloe-emodin induced decreases in the mRNA of DNA repair enzymes such as hMTH1, hOGG1 and APE. Although the activity of the radical-scavenging enzyme SOD was enhanced by aloe-emodin, the effects of aloe-emodin on H460 cell apoptosis were suspected to result from the prooxidant. These results suggest that aloe-emodin induced DNA damage through generation of reactive oxygen species in human lung carcinoma cells.

  12. Suppression of C-myc expression associates with anti-proliferation of aloe-emodin on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junming; Xiao, Bingxiu; Liu, Qiong; Gong, Zhaohui; Le, Yanping

    2008-05-01

    Aloe-emodin is a hydroxyanthraquinone found in Aloe vera, as well as in leaves and roots of other plants. The mechanisms of its anticancer effect are largely unknown. The present study investigated its molecular mechanisms. Crystal violet assay showed that aloe-emodin had a long-term anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer MGC-803 and SGC-7901 cells. Scratch wound-healing motility assays indicated its anti-migration effect. Aloe-emodin arrested SGC-7901 cells at G2/M phase. More importantly, aloe-emodin inhibited the expressions of protein kinase C and c-myc. In conclusion, the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin on gastric cancer cells involves suppression of c-myc expression.

  13. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on functional properties and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Aranda, Mario; Henriquez, Karem; Vergara, Judith; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatment at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500Mpa) on the functional and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel including vitamin C and E, aloin, minerals, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The results show that HHP exerted a clear influence on minerals content, vitamin C and E content, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and aloin content. After 35days of storage all treated samples presented a decrease in mineral content, except for phosphorus. Total phenolic content and vitamin C and E content decreased at high pressures (500MPa), while all pressurised samples showed a higher antioxidant activity and aloin content than untreated sample after 35days of storage. The maximum values of antioxidant activity and aloin were 6.55±1.26μg/ml at 300MPa and 24.23±2.27mg/100g d.m. at 400MPa.

  14. Effects of drying temperature and ethanol concentration on bipolar switching characteristics of natural Aloe vera-based memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2015-10-28

    Extracted, formulated, and processed natural Aloe vera has been used as an active layer for memory applications. The functional memory device is realized by a bottom-up structure of ITO/Aloe vera/Al in which the Aloe vera is spin-coated after mixing with different concentrations of ethanol (0-80 wt%) and subsequently dried at different temperatures (50-120 °C). From the current density-voltage measurements, the device can exhibit a reproducible bipolar switching characteristic with pure Aloe vera dried at 50 °C. It is proposed that charges are transported across the Aloe vera layer via space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC), and clusters of interstitial space formed by the functional groups of acemannans and de-esterified pectins in the dried Aloe vera contribute to the memory effect. The formation of charge traps in the Aloe vera layer is dependent on the drying temperature. The drying temperature of a memory-switching Aloe vera layer can be extended to 120 °C with the addition of appropriate amounts of ethanol. The concept of using natural Aloe vera as an active material for memory applications has been demonstrated, and the read memory window, ON/OFF ratio, and retention time are approximately 5.0 V, 10(3), and >10(4) s, respectively.

  15. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-07-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders.

  16. Aloe-emodin induced in vitro G2/M arrest of cell cycle in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Hsieh, W T; Chang, W C; Chung, J G

    2004-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the chemopreventive role of aloe-emodin in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro by studying the regulation of proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. Aloe-emodin inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Investigation of the levels of cyclins B1, E and A by immunoblot analysis showed that cyclin E level was unaffected, whereas cyclin B1 and A levels increased with aloe-emodin in HL-60 cells. Investigation of the levels of cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdk1 and 2, showed increased levels of Cdk1 but the levels of Cdk2 were not effected with aloe-emodin in HL-60 cells. The levels of p27 were increased after HL-60 cells were cotreated with various concentrations of aloe-emodin. The increase of the levels of p27 may be the major factor for aloe-emodin to cause G2/M arrest in these examined cells. Flow cytometric assays and DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis also confirmed aloe-emodin induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The levels of caspase-3 were increased after HL-60 cells were cotreated with 10 microM aloe-emodin for 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Taken together, aloe-emodin therefore appears to exert its anticarcinogenesis properties by inhibiting proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis underwent activation of caspase-3 in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

  17. Chemical Components from Aloe and their Inhibition of Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Lin Ying; Li, Wei; Kang, Jong Seong; Hwang, Inkyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Korea, Aloe is routinely ingested as a traditional medicine or as a component of health beverages. Objective: To research the inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities of components from Aloe. Materials and Methods: the compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC Rp-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-NMR, and MS). All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit IDO, which actively suppresses immune functions by catalyzing the rate limiting reaction in the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Results: In this phytochemical study, 18 known compounds were isolated from aqueous dissolved Aloe exudates. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit IDO activities for a series of anthraquinone derivatives (1-7) isolated from the Aloe extract; the IC50 values of these compounds ranged from 39.41 to 53.93 µM. Enzyme kinetic studies of their modes of inhibition indicated that all of the compounds were uncompetitive inhibitors. Conclusion: The aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate can be used as a source of novel natural IDO inhibitors and merit testing as therapeutic agents in the treatments of cancer and immunopathologic diseases, such as autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disorders. SUMMARY In this study, 18 known compounds were isolated from aqueous dissolved Aloe exudates. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities for a series of anthraquinone derivatives (1−7) isolated from the Aloe extract. Abbreviation used: IDO: inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, TMS: tetramethylsilane, HMQC: heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, HMBC: heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, COSY: 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, ESI-MS: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide PMID:28216884

  18. Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing

    PubMed Central

    Talla, Harsha Vardhan; Bairi, Jaya Krishna; Gopaldas, Madhulatha; Bathula, Haritha; Vangdoth, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Advances in the field of alternative medicine has encouraged the use of various natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry for treatment of various oral diseases. A natural herbal product is Aloe vera, which has number of benefits with no reported side effects and gaining considerable importance in clinical research. Aim The aim of this cross-sectional randomized interventional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aloe vera in the healing of post extraction sockets. Materials and Methods A sample size of 40 patients undergoing atraumatic extraction was divided into two groups. Group A-patients were prescribed only analgesics and followed for seven consecutive days and socket healing assessment was done. Group B-Patients were given Aloe vera soaked gel foams, followed up to the third and seventh day by two observers and the socket healing was assessed using the standardized index by Landry, Turnbull and Howley. In addition to healing the common complaint associated with extraction wound, the pain was assessed using numerical rating scale. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Mann-whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed ranks test and Spearman’s rank correlation method. Results Control group on the third and the seventh day showed healing of 60% and 70% respectively and the Aloe vera group showed a better result having a healing potential of 70% on the third day and 90% on the seventh day which was statistically significant with a (p-value<0.001). Aloe vera group showed a significant decrease in pain after two hours on the day of extraction followed by second, third and seventh day which was statistically significant (p-value<0.001) and better than the control group. Conclusion Aloe vera has been proved to have a unique property that is implicated in better healing than other group without any side effects. Aloe vera is economical, effective, powerful nutritional supplement and antioxidant that protects and promotes wound

  19. UP780, a chromone-enriched aloe composition improves insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Zhao, Jifu; Corneliusen, Brandon; Pantier, Mandee; Brownell, Lidia Alfaro; Jia, Qi

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic individuals experience elevated fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and plasma insulin and impaired glucose tolerance. Adiponectin is a hormone inversely correlated with insulin resistance. Here we describe the activity of aloesin, an aloe chromone that increases adiponectin production and, when formulated with an aloe polysaccharide composition, improves the insulin sensitivity in db/db and diet-induced obese-diabetic mice. Two aloe chromones, aloesin and aloesinol, were tested in vitro for adiponectin production. Following confirmation of glucose-lowering activity in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model, aloesin was formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder polysaccharide preparation to yield a composition designated UP780. Efficacy of UP780 was evaluated in HDF-induced and db/db mouse models. GW1929, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist, was used as a positive control. After 3 weeks of treatment of HDF-induced mice, plasma insulin levels were decreased 37.9% and 46.7% by aloesin and aloesinol, respectively. In db/db mice, the chromone- (2% chromone:98% aloe polysaccharide) enriched UP780 aloe composition showed a 33.7% and 46.0% decrease in fasting triglyceride and plasma glucose levels after 10 weeks of oral treatment, respectively. Diabetic mice gavaged with 200 mg/kg of UP780 for 10 weeks showed a 30.3% decrease in fasting blood glucose levels and a 32.2% reduction in plasma insulin. In both animal models, UP780 showed a statistically significant improvement in blood glucose clearance. These findings indicate that UP780, a chromone-standardized, aloe-based composition, could potentially be used as a natural product option to facilitate the maintenance of healthy blood glucose levels.

  20. Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing.

    PubMed

    Nimma, Vijaya Lakshmi; Talla, Harsha Vardhan; Bairi, Jaya Krishna; Gopaldas, Madhulatha; Bathula, Haritha; Vangdoth, Sandeep

    2017-03-01

    Advances in the field of alternative medicine has encouraged the use of various natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry for treatment of various oral diseases. A natural herbal product is Aloe vera, which has number of benefits with no reported side effects and gaining considerable importance in clinical research. The aim of this cross-sectional randomized interventional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aloe vera in the healing of post extraction sockets. A sample size of 40 patients undergoing atraumatic extraction was divided into two groups. Group A-patients were prescribed only analgesics and followed for seven consecutive days and socket healing assessment was done. Group B-Patients were given Aloe vera soaked gel foams, followed up to the third and seventh day by two observers and the socket healing was assessed using the standardized index by Landry, Turnbull and Howley. In addition to healing the common complaint associated with extraction wound, the pain was assessed using numerical rating scale. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Mann-whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed ranks test and Spearman's rank correlation method. Control group on the third and the seventh day showed healing of 60% and 70% respectively and the Aloe vera group showed a better result having a healing potential of 70% on the third day and 90% on the seventh day which was statistically significant with a (p-value<0.001). Aloe vera group showed a significant decrease in pain after two hours on the day of extraction followed by second, third and seventh day which was statistically significant (p-value<0.001) and better than the control group. Aloe vera has been proved to have a unique property that is implicated in better healing than other group without any side effects. Aloe vera is economical, effective, powerful nutritional supplement and antioxidant that protects and promotes wound healing.

  1. Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) on survivability, extent of proteolysis and ACE inhibition of potential probiotic cultures in fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Basannavar, Santosh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of Aloe vera gel powder on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, extent of proteolysis during fermentation and survival of Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 during storage of fermented milk was studied. Among the different cultures screened for ACE inhibitory activity, Lactobacillus casei NCDC 19 exhibited the highest ACE inhibition (approx. 40%) as well as extent of proteolysis (0.37, Abs₃₄₀). In the presence of Aloe vera (0.5% and 1% w/v) an increase in extent of proteolysis (0.460 ± 0.047 and 0.480 ± 0.027) and percent ACE inhibitory activity (44.32 ± 2.83 and 47.52 ± 1.83) was observed in comparison to control. Aloe vera powder addition also led to an increase in viable counts (>11 log cfu mL⁻¹) of L. casei NCDC 19 in fermented milk during storage for 7 days and the counts were maintained in sufficiently higher numbers. The study suggests Aloe vera to be a good functional ingredient which can be further explored for different health attributes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. In vivo safety evaluation of UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone aloesin formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Safety profiles of the aloe chromone aloesin or Aloe vera inner leaf fillet (Qmatrix) as a well tolerated entity have been reported separately. UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet, has shown a significant beneficial effect in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin resistance in human. Here we evaluate the safety of UP780 after a repeated 14 and 90-day oral administration in CD-1 mice. UP780 was given at doses of 100mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day and 1000mg/kg/day to groups of 10 male and 10 female for 90days or administered by oral gavage at a dose of 2g/kg/day to groups of 5 male and 5 female for 14days. Body weight, feed consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathologic evaluation were performed. UP780 at a dose of 1000mg/kg/day or at 2000mg/kg/day produced no treatment-related toxicity or mortality. Body weight gain or feed consumption was similar between groups. There was no test article-related microscopic change. Spontaneously occurring minor changes in clinical chemistry and hematology were observed. However, these changes were limited to one sex or were not dose correlated. UP780 was well tolerated in this strain. A dose of 2000mg/kg/day was identified as the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD.

  4. Landslide Monitoring with ALOS/PALSAR data in Mountain Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Qi, H.; Yu, B.

    2015-12-01

    InSAR is a relatively new technique with a high potential in earth observation, which has made great success in monitoring urban areas deformation. At present, although there are a considerable number of applications in the complicated mountain areas, it is hard to obtain sufficiently high-density stable point targets in these regions. So scientists have been trying to solve this bottleneck problem and improve accuracy in mountain areas. In this work, we present the landslide measurement result in complicated topographic region using ALOS/PALSAR data. The test area is selected around highlands of the boundary between China and India. We choose 13 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR images from May 2007 to February 2011. The main landforms in this experimental region are bare rock and soil, ice and snow, the vegetation in the alpine area. Due to the lithology of the strata and the undulations extent of the terrain, it is prone to cause landslides in the event of rainfall, earthquakes, snow melt or human activities. The traditional PS algorithm has a higher requirement for a long time series data collection, especially in low-coherence area of vegetation cover. As the collected data and stable points are relatively less in this experimental area, we plan to study the time series InSAR analysis coherence model and error model, and extend its application to the extra-urban regions. The approach has been carried out to increase the density of stable points, which are mainly distributed on the top of mountain and ridge areas. And using the 13 images we find several subsidence areas by this technique. The result shows that the top of mountain is relatively stable and the suspected landslide areas are mainly along the ridge, which is in accordance with the actual situation. Then the mechanism and stability analysis of landslide is discussed. Meanwhile, some other measurement data in experimental area is available for cross validation, such as optical data and TerraSAR-X data. And a

  5. Ice Velocity Map of Antarctica measured with ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ice velocity is fundamental characteristic of the dynamics of ice sheet and is essential to know for measuring the mass budget of ice sheet and for controlling ice sheet numerical models with realistic boundary conditions. Until recently, data were mostly available on a discrete basis over small areas with variable precision. Here, we report on our results of processing ice velocity from he interferometric synthetic-aperture radar data acquired by ALOS PALSAR in 2007, 2008 and 2009 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and distributed by NASA's Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF). The goal of our project is to produce a new set of Earth Science Data Record (ESDR): high-resolution digital maps of ice velocity of the Antarctic ice sheet. This new ESDR will be based on spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from multiple missions. It will be distributed to the scientific community via institutional links already in place at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The EDSR will benefit glaciologists and ice sheet modelers, but also climate modelers interested in how ice sheets are evolving, physical oceanographers studying sea level change and changes in oceanic circulation, solid earth scientists interested in post-glacial rebound, atmospheric scientists interested in surface mass balance in Antarctica. This effort will establish a long-term legacy for quantitative measurements of the dynamics of polar ice sheets. Areas north of 78 degrees south were first covered by RADARSAT-1 during the RAMP campaign. ALOS PALSAR and ENVISAT ASAR were tasked to cover the area in 2007, 2008 and 2009. PALSAR 46-day speckle tracking works well even in areas where C-band sensors lose signal coherence, which helps us to complete a full coverage of Antarctica's coastal regions. One challenge for L-band data is the sensitivity to ionosphere disturbances and another is to lower data noise in vast interior where flow velocities drop to below a few meters per year. We

  6. Detection of glacier lake using ALOS PALSAR data at Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanokuchi, T.; Tadono, T.; Tomiyama, N.

    2010-12-01

    The retreat of mountain glaciers and expansion of glacial lakes are the common issue related to global warming and it sometimes causes a sudden flood, which is called as Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). GLOF event occurs frequently in 1960s at Himalayan glaciers. Satellite data is a sophisticated tool for this research because it is difficult to operate frequent field survey due to severe weather condition and hard accessibility. However, the optical sensor equipped on satellite has one serious problem, which is weather condition of target area. It is very difficult to acquire cloud-free data at Himalayan region on a regular schedule. Therefore, it is necessary to find another way to avoid this problem. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one possible way because SAR can observe under all weather condition and SAR image is able to distinguish water surface and other landcovers because water surface is smoother than the other landcovers, especially in the case of L-band wavelength scale. On the other hand, SAR image has geometric and radiometric distortion due to its observation mechanism and topographic feature. Geometric distortion is able to correct by applying systematic orthorectification using DEM data. However, radiometric distortion is still remained. Recently, several radiometric terrain correction (RTC) methods are proposed. This method corrects the radiometric distortion due to local topographic slope. After RTC, radiometric distortion due to topographic relief is suppressed and backscatter brightness of the image after RTC almost depend on landcovers. In this study, we used L-band ALOS/PALSAR (SAR) data after applying RTC, ALOS/AVNIR-2 (Optical Sensor) data and SRTM-3 (DEM) data. PALSAR data is used for detection of glacier lake to set threshold of radar brightness. AVNIR-2 data is used for making glacier mask area because radar brightness of smooth glacier or icecap area is as dark as water surface on the PALSAR image. To avoid this misdetection, we

  7. In vitro wound healing and cytotoxic activity of the gel and whole-leaf materials from selected aloe species.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lizelle T; Mazumder, Anisha; Dwivedi, Anupma; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Hamman, Josias H

    2017-03-22

    Aloe vera is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world with applications in the cosmetic industry and also in the tonic or health drink product market. Different parts of Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii are used as traditional medicines for different applications. Although wound healing has been shown for certain aloe gel materials (e.g. A. vera ) previously, there are conflicting reports on this medicinal application of aloe leaf gel materials. The present study aimed at determining the wound healing properties of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii, as well as their cytotoxic effects on normal human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to chemically fingerprint the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials by identifying characteristic marker molecules of aloe gel and whole-leaf materials. An MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the various aloe whole-leaf and gel materials on HaCaT cells. Wound healing and in vitro cell migration were investigated with HaCaT cells by means of the CytoSelect™ assay kit. The in vitro wound healing assay suggested that all the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials examined, exhibited faster wound healing activity than the untreated control group. After 48h, all the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials almost completely caused full wound closure, displaying 98.07% (A. marlothii whole-leaf), 98.00% (A. vera gel), 97.20% (A. marlothii gel), 96.00% (A. vera whole-leaf), 94.00% (A. ferox gel) and 81.30% (A. ferox whole-leaf) wound closure, respectively. It was noteworthy that the gel materials of all the three aloe species exhibited significantly faster (p<0.05) wound healing actions when compared to their respective whole-leaf materials at 32h. The gel and whole-leaf materials of A. vera, A. ferox and A. marlothii have shown the ability to heal wounds at a faster rate and to a larger extent than untreated keratinocytes. The MTT assay

  8. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.

  9. Clear Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity by a Whole-Leaf Extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats. PMID:22968693

  10. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  11. Analysis of Aloe-based phytotherapeutic products by using nano-LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore; Aturki, Zeineb; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Rocco, Anna; Ferranti, Anna; Mercolini, Laura; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2010-09-01

    This article proposes a chromatographic method for the analysis of extracts of Aloe plants. The method was developed with a laboratory assembled nano-LC system coupled with a UV detector, followed by an IT-mass spectrometer. With a step gradient mode of ACN/H(2)O mixtures and employing a capillary column packed with C(18) (100 μm id), a complete separation of the following anthrones was achieved: aloin (in its two isomeric forms A and B), 5-hydroxyaloin and 7-hydroxyaloin (in its two isomeric forms A and B). The optimized nano-LC-MS method was validated for the quantification of aloin, the main component of Aloe with known pharmacological activities. RSD values obtained for retention time and peak areas were 1.3 and 12.1%, respectively. LOD and LOQ values of 0.4 and 1.5 μg/mL were obtained for each aloin isomer. The method was applied to the analysis of Aloe vera and A. ferox extracts in order to acquire a fingerprint, characteristic for each plant. Several phenolic compounds were detected by UV and identified by MS. A. vera and A. ferox showed different profiles and it was possible to discriminate them. Several commercial formulations, declared to contain Aloe extracts, were analyzed. Comparing their chromatograms with those obtained from A. vera and A. ferox, it was possible to recognize the Aloe species and to determine aloin.

  12. Aloe vera herbal dentifrices for plaque and gingivitis control: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, K

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of aloe vera containing herbal dentifrices in improving plaque control and gingival health. A manual and electronic literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) search was performed up to July 2012, for randomized controlled trials presenting clinical, microbiological, immunological, and patient-centered data for the efficacy of aloe vera herbal dentifrices for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. From 79 titles and abstracts, eight full-text articles were screened and finally two randomized controlled trials were selected. These randomized controlled trials reported that aloe vera dentifrices were similar in efficacy to control dentifrices in effectively reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients based on the assessment of clinical, microbiological, and patient-centered treatment outcomes. However, many important details (composition and characteristics of aloe vera and control dentifrices along with appropriate randomization, blinding, and outcomes assessed) were lacking in these trials, and therefore, the quality of reporting and methods was generally flawed with high risk of bias. Even though there are some promising results, the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera herbal dentifrices is not sufficiently defined at present and warrants further investigations based on reporting guidelines of herbal CONSORT statement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Aloe emodin suppresses myofibroblastic differentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun Wook; Nan, Ji-Xing; Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Eun-Jeon; Zhao, Yu Zhe; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2002-04-01

    We have studied the inhibitory effect of aloe emodin on hepatic stellate cells activation and proliferation, as these cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Rat hepatic stellate cells were activated by contact with plastic dishes, resulting in their transformation into myofibroblast-like cells. Primary hepatic stellate cells were exposed to aloe emodin (1-10 microg/ml). Possible cytotoxic effects were measured on stellate cells and hepatocytes using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of aloe emodin on production of type I collagen and smooth muscle cell alpha-actin were examined at the same concentration, by quantitative immunoprecipitation. Antiproliferative effects were examined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Aloe emodin at 10 microg/ml restored the morphological changes characteristic of activated primary stellate cells, reduced DNA synthesis to 95% of control hepatic stellate cells at 10 microg/ml without affecting cell viability, and inhibited type I collagen production and smooth muscle alpha-actin expression by 86.77% and 99%, respectively, which suggest that aloe emodin is a potent inhibitor of stellate cell transformation.

  14. Aloe-emodin suppresses esophageal cancer cell TE1 proliferation by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jimin; Tian, Fang; Jiang, Yanan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Junfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoguo; Huang, Youtian; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Kangdong; Dong, Ziming

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is often observed in various human cancers. Both AKT and ERK are important in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways, which play vital roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Compounds that are able to block these pathways have therefore a promising use in cancer treatment and prevention. The present study revealed that AKT and ERK are activated in esophageal cancer TE1 cells. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex, can suppress TE1 cell proliferation and anchor-independent cell growth. Aloe-emodin can also reduce the number of TE1 cells in S phase. Protein analysis indicated that aloe-emodin inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the present data indicate that aloe-emodin can suppress TE1 cell growth by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation, and suggest its clinical use for cancer therapy.

  15. Larvicidal activity of selected aloe species against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culiciade).

    PubMed

    Chore, Judith K; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N; Mireji, Paul O

    2014-01-01

    Management of mosquito vectors by current classes of mosquitocides is relatively ineffective and necessitates prospecting for novel insecticides with different modes of action. Larvicidal activities of 15 crude extracts from three geographically isolated Aloe ngongensis (Christian), Aloe turkanensis (Christian), and Aloe fibrosa (Lavranos & L.E.Newton) (Xanthorrhoeaceae) species (five each) were evaluated against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in Hasselquist) (Diptera: Culiciade L.) yellow fever mosquito. Freshly collected leaves were separately shade-dried to constant weight at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) and powdered. Each powder was macerated in solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) for 72 h and subsequently filtered. Third-instar larvae (n = 25) of the mosquito were exposed to the extracts at different concentrations for 24 h to establish dose response relationships. All the fractions of A. ngongensis were active below 1 mg/ml except A. fibrosa and A. turkanensis. The highest activity (LC50) mg/ml was obtained with extracts of A. fibrosa hexane (0.05 [0.04-0.06]), followed by A. ngongensis hexane (0.11 [0.08-0.15]) and A. turkanensis ethyl acetate (0.11 [0.09-0.12]). The activities are apparently Aloe species specific and extraction solvent dependent. These findings suggest that extracts from selected Aloe species have mosquitocidal principles that can be exploited in development of new insecticides.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Heidari, A H

    2012-04-01

    Aloe littoralis Baker (Asphodelaceae family) is a well known plant in southern parts of Iran. Because of its use in Iranian folk medicine as a wound-healing agent, the present study was carried out to investigate anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of this plant in Wistar rats. A. littoralis raw mucilaginous gel (ALRMG) and also two gel formulations prepared from the raw mucilaginous gel were used in this study. Gel formulations (12.5% and 100% v/w Aloe mucilage in a carbomer base) were applied topically (500 mg once daily) for 24 days in the thermal wound model. Also Aloe gel formulation (100%) and ALRMG (500 mg daily) were evaluated in incisional wound model. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of intraperitoneal injection of ALRMG. In burn wound, ALRMG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) showed significant (P<0.05) healing effect. Topical application of ALMRG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) promoted healing rate of incisional wound. In carrageenan test, ALRMG (2.5 and 5 ml/Kg) revealed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed that A. littoralis is a potential wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent in rats. Further studies are needed to find out the mechanism of these biological effects and also the active constituents responsible for the effects.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, V.; Ghannadi, A.; Heidari, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aloe littoralis Baker (Asphodelaceae family) is a well known plant in southern parts of Iran. Because of its use in Iranian folk medicine as a wound-healing agent, the present study was carried out to investigate anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of this plant in Wistar rats. A. littoralis raw mucilaginous gel (ALRMG) and also two gel formulations prepared from the raw mucilaginous gel were used in this study. Gel formulations (12.5% and 100% v/w Aloe mucilage in a carbomer base) were applied topically (500 mg once daily) for 24 days in the thermal wound model. Also Aloe gel formulation (100%) and ALRMG (500 mg daily) were evaluated in incisional wound model. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of intraperitoneal injection of ALRMG. In burn wound, ALRMG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) showed significant (P<0.05) healing effect. Topical application of ALMRG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) promoted healing rate of incisional wound. In carrageenan test, ALRMG (2.5 and 5 ml/Kg) revealed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed that A. littoralis is a potential wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent in rats. Further studies are needed to find out the mechanism of these biological effects and also the active constituents responsible for the effects. PMID:23181083

  18. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg-1. Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss. PMID:25992253

  19. The Use of Aloe Vera Extract as a Novel Storage Media for the Avulsed Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Badakhsh, Samaneh; Eskandarian, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the most severe dental traumas which most often occur in children. When immediate replantation is not possible, storage in a proper media may lead to a prolonged survival rate. Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. This medicinal plant has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different concentrations of Aloe Vera extract compared to DMEM (cell culture medium) and egg white. Methods: The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured and certain number of cells were treated with Aloe Vera extract (in four different concentrations), egg white and culture media for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Moreover, One-way ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for analyzing the study groups. Results: The results indicate that culture media and Aloe Vera extract (10, 30, and 50% concentration) were statistically similar and significantly preserved more PDL cells compared to other experimental storage media. Conclusion: Aloe Vera 10, 30, and 50% may be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:25031484

  20. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  1. Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Mancari, Ferdinando; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-05-01

    Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Lack of Prophylactic Effects of Aloe Vera Gel on Radiation Induced Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Kadkhodaei, Behnam; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ansari, Mansour; Nasrollahi, Hamid; Hamedi, Sayed Hasan; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy induced dermatitis is a common and sometimes serious side effect. We conducted a randomized study to understand whether the adjunctive use of aloe vera gel might reduce the prevalence and/or severity of radiotherapy induced dermatitis. Methods: One hundred patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were randomized to receive aloe vera gel or nothing during adjuvant radiotherapy consisting of conventional external beam radiation using 6 MV mega voltage linear accelerator photons. The radiation portals were composed of breast fields in all patients and supraclavicular and posterior axillary fields in node positive cases. The total dose was 50 Gy with a daily fraction of 2 Gy, five fractions per week. Results: Dermatitis was first found among patients of both groups after week 2. In the aloe vera and control groups, 2/8 patients and 5/12 patients had dermatitis grade 1 after weeks 2 (P value = 0.240) and 3 (P value = 0.317). After the 4th week, the numbers were 18 and, 23 fordermatitis grade 1 and only 1 for grade 3 dermatitis (P value = 0.328). After the 5th week, 31, 12 and 2 patients in the aloe vera group and 36, 6 and 5 of the controls had grades 1, 2 and 3 dermatitis, respectively (P value = 0.488). Conclusion: Aloe vera exerted no positive effect on prevalence orseverity of radiation dermatitis in this study. PMID:28547955

  3. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera and Antioxidant along with Physiotherapy in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Hebbale, Manjula; Mhapuskar, Amit; Ul Nisa, Shams; Thopte, Shameeka; Singh, Saumya

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a well-established precancerous condition affecting the oral mucosa. It is a disease that causes significant morbidity (in terms of loss of mouth function as tissues become rigid and mouth opening becomes difficult) and mortality (when transformation into squamous cell carcinoma occurs). The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Aloe vera with antioxidant when given along with physiotherapy in the management of OSMF. Forty patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of OSMF were included for the study after informed consent. Group A included 20 patients who received Aloe vera gel (forever living gel) along with physiotherapy. Group B included 20 patients who received antioxidant capsules twice daily for 3 months along with physiotherapy exercises four times in a day. The following parameters, that is, burning sensation, mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility were recorded at each visit. Majority of the participant enrolled were in the age range of 30 to 35 years. Improvement in all the parameters was seen with the individuals receiving Aloe vera gel in comparison to antioxidants. So, Aloe vera being a soothing, simple and safe mode of treatment along with proper habit restriction can be considered to be an effectual protocol in the management of OSMF. The analgesic effects of Aloe vera with the physiotherapy exercises provide better results in reducing burning sensation and improving mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility in comparison to antioxidants.

  4. Vitamin C and aloe vera supplementation protects from chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shamaan, N A; Kadir, K A; Rahmat, A; Ngah, W Z

    1998-01-01

    The effects of vitamin C and aloe vera gel extract supplementation on induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats (120-150 g) by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) was investigated. The severity of the carcinogenesis process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the placental form of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) histochemically in situ and in plasma and liver fractions. In addition, plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and liver microsomal uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity were also determined. Administration of DEN/AAF caused an increase in the surface area and number of enzyme-positive foci (both GGT and GSTP) compared with control. Supplementation of vitamin C or aloe vera gel extract to the cancer-induced rats suppressed this increase significantly (P < 0.05; P < 0.001). Increases in liver UDPGT, GGT, and GSTP activities were also observed with cancer induction that were again suppressed with either vitamin C or aloe vera gel supplementation. Plasma GGT in the DEN/AAF rats were determined monthly for the duration of the experiment and found to be reduced as early as 1 mo with aloe vera gel supplementation and 2 mo with vitamin C supplementation. In conclusion, vitamin C and aloe vera gel extract supplementation were found to be able to reduce the severity of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis.

  5. Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Hidehiko; Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tamai, Ikuko; Yamaji, Sachiyo; Ozaki, Sayaka; Kuzuya, Hiroshi; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2006-02-20

    We carried out three experimental trials to determine antidiabetic effects of Aloe arborescens Miller components. Firstly, ICR mice which received frequent injections of streptozotocin (Sz) in small doses (low-dose Sz-induced diabetes mice) were fed ad libitum with basal diets supplemented with components of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe) and Aloe vera Linne from 31 days before to 73 days after the Sz injections. Variation in blood glucose levels, incidence rates of insulitis and blood insulin levels were examined during the trial. As a result, groups receiving diets supplemented at the rate of 2% with whole leaf of Kidachi aloe and 10 KDa fraction powder (a fraction with less than 10 KDa molecular weight derived from Kidachi aloe leaf skin juice by ultra filtration) significantly suppressed the elevation of blood sugar as compared to a control group receiving basal diet. In contrast, there was no significant effect with Aloe vera leaf pulp powder. Insulitis emerged at the rate of 87% in the basal diet group. On the contrary, the whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction groups significantly decreased the incidence of insulitis and incidence rates of whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction powder were 51 and 38%, respectively. While insulin levels in the basal diet group averaged at 0.05 ng, more than four times the insulin level was observed in the 10 KDa group relative to the basal diet group. Secondary, the inhibitory effects of test materials on intestinal glucose absorption were observed using the jejunum of rats. A strong inhibitory action on intestinal glucose absorption was observed in the 10 KDa fraction powder group. Thirdly, phenol compounds derived from aloe in the blood serum and organs were quantitatively measured by a HPLC following forced administration of aloe components to rats to determine absorption kinetics of aloe components inside the body. The primary component of aloe phenol compounds is the same component of the 10 KDa

  6. Kinematic Slip Model for 12 May 2008 Wenchuan-Beichuan Mw 7.9 Earthquake from Joint Inversion of ALOS, Envisat, and Teleseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric; Sladen, Anthony; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Li, Zhenhong; Ryder, Isabelle; Burgmann, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The presentations explores kinematics of the Wenchaun-Beichuan earthquake using data from ALOS, Envisat, and teleseismic recordings. Topics include geomorphic mapping, ALOS PALSAR range offsets, ALOS PALSAR interferometry, Envisat IM interferometry, Envisat ScanSAR, Joint GPS-InSAR inversion, and joint GPS-teleseismic inversion (static and kinematic).

  7. Bio-inspired Aloe vera sponges for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Oliveira, M B; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2014-11-04

    Chemical composition and biological properties of Aloe vera (AV), a tropical plant, explain its potential use for cosmetic, nutritional and biomedical applications. AV gel present in AV leaves is rich in several compounds, nutrients and polysaccharides. This work proposes using AV gel complex structure and chemical composition, associated with freeze-drying, to produce sponges. To increase the structures stability in aqueous media, a thin coating of gellan gum (GG), was applied onto AV gel. AV-based sponges showed a heterogeneous porous formation, interconnected pores and good porosity (72-77%). The coating with a GG layer onto AV influenced the stability, swelling behavior and mechanical properties of the resulting sponges. Moreover, sponges provided the sustained release of BSA-FTIC, used as a model protein, over 3 weeks. Also, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that sponges are not cytotoxic for a mouse fibroblast-like cell line. Therefore, developed AV-based sponges have potential use in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of bioactive potential of an Aloe vera sterol extract.

    PubMed

    Bawankar, Raksha; Deepti, V C; Singh, Pooja; Subashkumar, Rathinasamy; Vivekanandhan, Govindasamy; Babu, Subramanian

    2013-06-01

    We prepared a crude gel material from Aloe vera succulent leaf tissues. The ethanolic extract of lyophilized A. vera gel was used for the GC-MS analysis. Hexadecanoic acid (22.22%) was identified as major compound. Sitosterol and stigmasterol were found to be 2.89% and 2.1% in the extract. HPLC analysis was carried out to confirm the presence of stigmasterol. The concentration of sterol extract needed to scavenge DPPH free radical by 50% was calculated as 5.2 mg mL(-1). In the FRAP assay, the sterol extract showed significant hydroxyl radical scavenging in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 value 1.17 µg mL(-1)). Concentration of the sample required to reduce lipid peroxidation was found to be 4.18 µg mL(-1), and the extract also possessed acetylcholinesterase activity (IC50 - 5.26 µg mL(-1)). Catalase activity was 0.196 μM H2 O2 decomposed min(-1) µg(-1) protein, whereas the peroxidase activity was 17.01 μM of pyragallol oxidized min(-1) µg(-1) protein. The extract recorded higher activity against growth of S. greseus and C. albicans in the experiments carried out to determine antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Investigations on Forestry Applications in Sweden Using ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Maurizio; Fransson, Johan E. S.; Eriksson, Leif E. B.; Magnusson, Mattias; Ulander, Lars M. H.; Olsson, Hakan; Krantz, Anders

    2008-11-01

    An extensive dataset of ALOS PALSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter images is investigated for clear-cut detection and stem volume retrieval in Swedish forest. Data are available for local test sites (Remningstorp and Krycklan) and for the counties of Västerbotten and Västra Götaland. Thanks to the strong forest/non-forest contrast and the temporal consistency of HV-polarized backscatter in summer/fall, a simple thresholding algorithm seems to be sufficient for clear-cut detection (threshold: 3 dB). First results for the period summer 2007/fall 2008 appear promising. The relationship between SAR backscatter and stem volume was investigated for the HH-polarized data in Fine Beam mode. Significant differences occur for frozen and unfrozen environmental conditions. The behaviour is however opposite at the two local test sites. Multi-temporal combination of images acquired under frozen conditions in Remningstorp performed best with RMSE equal to 97 m3/ha (relative RMSE: 29%). In Krycklan the highest accuracy was achieved when six images acquired under unfrozen conditions were combined resulting in a RMSE of 44 m3/ha (relative RMSE: 41%).

  10. [ALOS PALSAR estimation of vegetation biomass in Daxing' anling region].

    PubMed

    Song, Qian; Fan, Wen-Yi

    2011-02-01

    Based on field survey data, the correlations between the ALOS PALSAR L-band HH (L-HH) polarization data and the parameters of forest components in Daxing' anling region were systematically analyzed, and by adopting forest biomass estimation models, including simple linear model, exponential model, and model with terrain factors, optimal inversion was conducted. The results showed that backscattering coefficient had the greatest correlation with total forest biomass, and secondly, with trunk biomass, suggesting that the L-HH data could be used to estimate the total forest aboveground biomass. Among the three models adopted, the model with terrain factors could greatly reduce the biomass estimation error, with the accuracy reached 0.851, and the inversion result coincided best with the actual situation. It was forecasted that under the 41.5 degrees incidence angle L-HH polarization, the vegetation biomass saturation point within the Tahe and Amuer forest bureaus of Daxing' anling was at about 15.4 kg x m(-2).

  11. Processed Aloe vera gel ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang; Kim, Hee-Suk; Lee, Ki-Hwa; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2014-10-24

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer's patch cells. Peyer's patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer's patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer's patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects.

  12. Processed Aloe vera Gel Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang; Kim, Hee-Suk; Lee, Ki-Hwa; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer’s patch cells. Peyer’s patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer’s patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer’s patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects. PMID:25347273

  13. Estimation of vegetation fraction in arid areas using ALOS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkan, A. A.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Hosseiniasl, A.; Ebrahimi, M.

    2010-10-01

    Fraction of vegetation (Fv) plays an important role in ecosystems. Estimation of Fv is essential for drought monitoring, natural resources studies, estimation of soil erosion volume etc. The aim of this study is to estimate Fv in an arid area in Iran using ALOS Imagery (June 2008). In order to find the best index for estimation of Fv, Seventeen vegetation indices (ARVI, DVI, EVI, GEMI, IPVI, MSAVI1, MSAVI2, NDVI, PVI, SAVI, SARVI, SARVI2, SR, TSAVI, WDVI) were used. The canopy cover percentage of 52 sample plots (50m by 50m) was measured in the field in June 2009. Regression models were used to assess the relationships between the field data and the calculated Fv. The 52 sample plots were randomly divided two times to 30 calibrations and 22 validations, and to 35 and 17 samples. Results revealed that selecting the calibration and validation data randomly leads to different results. Therefore, cross-validation method was used to reduce random division effect. Results indicated that, among all indices, vegetation indices such as MSAVI1, PVI, WDVI and TSAVI which are based on soil line have higher R2 and lower RMSE (R2 > 0.63, RMSE ~ 3%). The results confirm the dominant effect of soil reflectance in arid areas.

  14. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  15. Generation of High Resolution Global DSM from ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, J.; Tadono, T.; Tsutsui, K.

    2014-04-01

    Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM), one of onboard sensors carried on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), was designed to generate worldwide topographic data with its optical stereoscopic observation. The sensor consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers for viewing forward, nadir, and backward in 2.5 m ground resolution producing a triplet stereoscopic image along its track. The sensor had observed huge amount of stereo images all over the world during the mission life of the satellite from 2006 through 2011. We have semi-automatically processed Digital Surface Model (DSM) data with the image archives in some limited areas. The height accuracy of the dataset was estimated at less than 5 m (rms) from the evaluation with ground control points (GCPs) or reference DSMs derived from the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Then, we decided to process the global DSM datasets from all available archives of PRISM stereo images by the end of March 2016. This paper briefly reports on the latest processing algorithms for the global DSM datasets as well as their preliminary results on some test sites. The accuracies and error characteristics of datasets are analyzed and discussed on various fields by the comparison with existing global datasets such as Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, as well as the GCPs and the reference airborne LiDAR/DSM.

  16. Isolation, Purification and Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents from Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Rubina; Tripathi, Priyanka; Jeyakumar, Ebenezer

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Aloe vera gel were studied for their antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity while acetone extract, showed least or no activity against most of the tested pathogens. Fractions obtained from the extracts by Thin Layer and Column Chromatography were studied for their antagonistic properties using Spot Assay Technique. Compounds with maximum antibacterial activity isolated from the ethanol and methanol extracts were identified as p – coumaric acid (Mol. wt.165), ascorbic acid (Mol. wt.177 ), pyrocatechol (Mol. wt.110 ) and cinnamic acid (Mol. wt.148), on the basis of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The study suggests the antimicrobial activity of the A. vera gel extract to be dependant on the synergistic effect of different compounds. With the broad spectral antimicrobial effect of A. vera gel, it could be further recommended in the treatment of various bacterial diseases. PMID:24031440

  17. Isolation, Purification and Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Rubina; Tripathi, Priyanka; Jeyakumar, Ebenezer

    2009-10-01

    The ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Aloe vera gel were studied for their antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity while acetone extract, showed least or no activity against most of the tested pathogens. Fractions obtained from the extracts by Thin Layer and Column Chromatography were studied for their antagonistic properties using Spot Assay Technique. Compounds with maximum antibacterial activity isolated from the ethanol and methanol extracts were identified as p - coumaric acid (Mol. wt.165), ascorbic acid (Mol. wt.177 ), pyrocatechol (Mol. wt.110 ) and cinnamic acid (Mol. wt.148), on the basis of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The study suggests the antimicrobial activity of the A. vera gel extract to be dependant on the synergistic effect of different compounds. With the broad spectral antimicrobial effect of A. vera gel, it could be further recommended in the treatment of various bacterial diseases.

  18. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days' tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content.

  19. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days’ tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content. PMID:26155093

  20. Aloe-emodin is an interferon-inducing agent with antiviral activity against Japanese encephalitis virus and enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Chia-Fang; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Chang, Ching-Yao; Li, Shih-Wein; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Wei-Yong

    2008-10-01

    In this study, aloe-emodin was identified as a potential interferon (IFN)-inducer by screening compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Aloe-emodin showed low cytotoxicity to human HL-CZ promonocyte cells and TE-671 medulloblastoma cells and significantly activated interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and gamma-activated sequence (GAS)-driven cis-reporting systems. Moreover, aloe-emodin upregulated expression of IFN-stimulated genes such as dsRNA-activated protein kinase and 2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthase. Aloe-emodin resulted in significant activation of nitric oxide production. The antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) was evaluated using dose- and time-dependent plaque reduction assays in HL-CZ cells and TE-671 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aloe-emodin ranged from 0.50microg/mL to 1.51microg/mL for JEV and from 0.14microg/mL to 0.52microg/mL for EV71. Aloe-emodin showed clearly potent virus inhibitory abilities and achieved high therapeutic indices, in particular for HL-CZ cells. Therefore, the study demonstrated dose- and time-dependent actions of aloe-emodin on the inhibition of JEV and EV71 replication via IFN signalling responses.

  1. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  2. Isolation and characterization of novel protein with anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties from Aloe vera leaf gel.

    PubMed

    Das, Swagata; Mishra, Biswajit; Gill, Kamaldeep; Ashraf, Md Saquib; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Sinha, Mou; Sharma, Sujata; Xess, Immaculata; Dalal, Krishna; Singh, Tej Pal; Dey, Sharmistha

    2011-01-01

    The Aloe protein of 14 kDa from the Aloe vera leaf gel was isolated by an ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose column. The purified Aloe protein exhibited a potent anti-fungal activity against Candida paraprilosis, Candida krusei and Candida albicans. In addition, the purified Aloe protein also showed an anti-inflammatory property against pure lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 with 84% and 73% inhibition, respectively, and was verified by binding with these proteins by real time method by the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance. This Aloe protein is a novel protein possessing antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and thus sets a platform to be used as a medicinal plant product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05), specifically the values of Control < CHX and Control < A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between CHX and A. barbadensis Miller (P > 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. PMID:27656056

  4. Daily Ingestion of Aloe Vera Gel Powder Containing Aloe Sterols Prevents Skin Photoaging in OVX Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Saito, Marie; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-10-12

    Estrogen deficiencies associated with menopause accelerate spontaneous skin aging and stimulate the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced photoaging of skin. However, food compositions with the potential to ameliorate the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging with menopause have not yet been investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the ability of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel to prevent the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging in ovariectomized mice. Skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was significantly higher in the ovariectomy group than in the sham operation group following UVB irradiation, whereas skin elasticity was significantly lower. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced greater reductions in skin hyaluronic acid levels and more severe collagen fiber damage in the derims in the ovariectomy group than in the sham group. The intake of AVGP significantly ameliorated this acceleration in skin aging by reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and increasing that of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) in the skin. These results indicate that AVGP supplementation prevents skin damage induced by UVB irradiation and ovariectomy in part by inhibiting damage to the extracellular matrix.

  5. Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on quality parameters and structural properties of aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Nuñez-Mancilla, Yissleen; Garcia-Segovia, Purificación; Ah-Hen, Kong; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on colour, dietary fibre, vitamin C content, polysaccharides content, physico-chemical and structural properties of aloe vera gel at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 3 min) after 35 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The results showed that HHP exerted a clear influence on most of the quality parameters studied. Moisture, protein and fat contents did not show changes with an increasing pressure. Ash, crude fibre and carbohydrates content increased with increasing pressure. Vitamin C content did not show significant differences after 35 days of storage. The variation of colour in the samples increased at 500 MPa. Total dietary fibre, water holding capacity and firmness increased with pressure. However, all HHP-treated samples presented a decrease in hydration ratio and polysaccharides content; and also minor alterations in the structural properties were produced at HHP of 300-500 MPa, resulting in a high quality gel.

  6. Effect of crosslinking in chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Caridade, S G; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-10-15

    The positive interaction between polysaccharides with active phytochemicals found in medicinal plants may represent a strategy to create active wound dressing materials useful for skin repair. In the present work, blended membranes composed of chitosan (Cht) and aloe vera gel were prepared through the solvent casting, and were crosslinked with genipin to improve their properties. Topography, swelling, wettability, mechanical properties and in vitro cellular response of the membranes were investigated. With the incorporation of aloe vera gel into chitosan solution, the developed chitosan/aloe-based membranes displayed increased roughness and wettability; while the genipin crosslinking promoted the formation of stiffer membranes in comparison to those of the non-modified membranes. Moreover, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that the L929 cells have high cell viability, confirmed by MTS test and calcein-AM staining. The findings suggested that both blend compositions and crosslinking affected the physico-chemical properties and cellular behavior of the developed membranes.

  7. Spectroscopic Constants of the X1Σ+ and 13Π states of AlO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Linguerri, Roberto; Mogren, Muneerah Mogren Al; Francisco, Joseph S.; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-08-01

    Using both standard and explicitly correlated ab initio methods in conjunction with several atomic basis sets, the ground state of AlO(X2Σ+) and the two lowest electronic states of AlO+ (1Σ+ and 3Π) are investigated. Potential energy curves for these species are mapped, which are incorporated later to solve the nuclear motion problem. Benchmark computations on AlO(X2Σ+) are used to determine the reliability of the theoretical methods and basis sets used for an accurate description of aluminum oxide compounds. The electronic ground state of AlO+ is X1Σ+, followed by the low-lying 13Π state. For both cationic electronic states, a set of spectroscopic parameters are recommended that may help in the identification of this ion in laboratory and astrophysical media. An accurate estimation of the adiabatic ionization energy of AlO, AIE = 9.70 eV, is also reported.

  8. Influence of Aloe vera on collagen characteristics in healing dermal wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Chithra, P; Sajithlal, G B; Chandrakasan, G

    1998-04-01

    Wound healing is a fundamental response to tissue injury that results in restoration of tissue integrity. This end is achieved mainly by the synthesis of the connective tissue matrix. Collagen is the major protein of the extracellular matrix, and is the component which ultimately contributes to wound strength. In this work, we report the influence of Aloe vera on the collagen content and its characteristics in a healing wound. It was observed that Aloe vera increased the collagen content of the granulation tissue as well as its degree of crosslinking as seen by increased aldehyde content and decreased acid solubility. The type I/type III collagen ratio of treated groups were lower than that of the untreated controls, indicating enhanced levels of type III collagen. Wounds were treated either by topical application or oral administration of Aloe vera to rats and both treatments were found to result in similar effects.

  9. Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Sivagnanam, Karuran; Subramanian, Sorimuthu

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of antioxidant property in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera leaf gel. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg to diabetic rats significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and increased hemoglobin. The increased levels of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxides in tissues of diabetic rats were reverted back to near normal levels after the treatment with gel extract. The extract treatment also resulted in a significant increase in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. These results clearly show the antioxidant property of Aloe vera gel extract. The extract was also more effective than glibenclamide in restoring the values of these parameters.

  10. In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun-A; Lee, Young-Ran; Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Myung-Koo; Park, Young In; Lee, Sungwon; Kim, Kyungjae; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2010-03-01

    The gels of Aloe species contain immunomodulatory components such as aloctin A and acemannan. Most studies on these gels were performed in in vitro cell culture systems. Although several studies examined their immunomodulatory activity in vivo, the route of administration was intraperitoneal or intramuscular. Here, we evaluated the in vivo immunomodulatory activity of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) in mice. Oral administration of PAG significantly reduced the growth of C. albicans in the spleen and kidney following intravenous injection of C. albicans in normal mice. PAG administration also reduced the growth of C. albicans in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PAG administration did not increase ovalbumin (OVA)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in normal mice, but did increase it in high-fat-diet induced diabetic mice. These findings provide the first clear evidence for the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells using Aloe Vera and Cladode of Cactus extracts as natural sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganta, D.; Jara, J.; Villanueva, R.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from natural plant-based dyes, extracted from the Cladode (nopal) of the Thornless Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), the gel of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller), and the combination of Cladode and Aloe Vera extracts on side-by-side configuration. Optical properties were analyzed using UV-Vis Absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Open circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.440 to 0.676 V, fill factors (FF) were greater than 40%, short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.112 to 0.290 mA/cm2 and highest conversion efficiency of 0.740% was reported for the Cladode DSSC.

  12. Use of Aloe vera gel coating preserves the functional properties of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Guillén, Fabian; Castillo, Salvador; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Valero, Daniel

    2006-05-31

    Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Crimson Seedless) were coated with Aloe vera gel according to our developed patent (SP Patent P200302937) and then stored for 35 days at 1 degrees C, and the subsequent shelf life (SL) was monitored at 20 degrees C. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid loss of functional compounds, such as total phenolics and ascorbic acid. These changes were accompanied by reduction of the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and increases in total anthocyanins, showing an accelerated ripening process. On the contrary, table grapes coated with Aloe vera gel significantly delayed the above changes, such as the retention of ascorbic acid during cold storage or SL. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating, a simple and noncontaminating treatment, maintained the functional properties during postharvest storage of table grapes.

  13. [Isolation and characterization of active compounds from Aloe vera with a possible role in skin protection].

    PubMed

    Kostálová, D; Bezáková, L; Oblozinský, M; Kardosová, A

    2004-09-01

    Aloe vera is widely used in food supplements, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. It has been long recognized as an effective natural remedy for its wound-healing properties and its positive influence on other inflammatory skin disorders. Major proteins and mono- and polysaccharides were identified and analysed from Aloe vera commercial extract. Molecular weight of proteins calculated from the sets of molecular weight reference standards, ranged from 70 kDa for the largest to 14 kDa for the smallest ones. IR spectral analysis of the carbohydrate fraction shows that the main carbohydrate copound is acetylated (1 --> 4)-beta-D-mannan substituated with D-galactose and D-glucose. The results have shown that proteins and polysaccharides are a necessary component in the study of biological activity of Aloe vera leaf extract.

  14. Absorption cross sections and kinetics of formation of AlO at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Martín, Juan Carlos; Daly, Shane M.; Brooke, James S. A.; Plane, John M. C.

    2017-05-01

    The rate coefficient of the Al + O2 reaction has been measured in a laser ablation-fast flow tube apparatus by monitoring atomic Al resonance absorption and AlO laser induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate constant has been found to be k(298 K) = (1.68 ± 0.24) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Under conditions of near-stoichiometric conversion of Al into AlO, the absorption cross section of AlO at the bandhead of the B2Σ+(v' = 0) ← X2Σ+(v'' = 0) transition has been determined to be σ(298 K, 1 hPa) = (6.7 ± 1.6) × 10-15 cm2 molecule-1 (0.003 nm resolution), in very good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  16. Effect of Aloe vera juice on growth and activities of Lactobacilli in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Kaur, Varinder; Kumar, Manoj; Marotta, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    In present investigation, different concentrations of Aloe vera juice incorporated into the growth media of Lactobacilli were tested to observe the effect on growth and activities of these bacteria. From the results obtained, it was observed that aloe vera juice at a concentration of 5% v/v was effective in promoting the growth of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and L. casei, as evident from the fall in pH and increased acidity, as well as from the improved generation time. At 15 to 25% concentration, growth was unaffected as compared to the controls; however, concentration higher than 25%v/v discouraged the growth. Overall, it was concluded that Aloe vera juice or gel at a particular concentration could possibly be used in combination with probiotic Lactobacillus strain(s) as a combinational therapy for gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study)

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments. PMID:24551800

  18. A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study).

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments.

  19. Protective value of Aloe vera against some toxic effects of arsenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Flora, Swaran J S

    2005-01-01

    Concomitant oral supplementation of Aloe vera, (1, 2 or 5% w[sol ]v in drinking water) during arsenic exposure (0.2 mg[sol ]kg, intraperitoneally, once daily for 3 weeks) was investigated in rats for its protective value. Animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a marginal decrease in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood. White blood corpuscles (WBC) level decreased while most of the other clinical blood parameters like red blood cells count, haemoglobin, MCV, MCH, MCHC ratio and platelet number, etc. remained unaltered on arsenic exposure. Hepatic reduced GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level remained unaltered, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level increased significantly while the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and catalase decreased on arsenic exposure. Renal GSH contents decreased while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly on arsenic exposure. Concomitant administration of Aloe vera had remarkable protective action on inhibited blood ALAD activity and restored blood GSH level while most of the other blood biochemical parameters remained unchanged on Aloe vera supplementation. Interestingly, most of hepatic biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress showed protection; no effect of Aloe vera on blood and liver arsenic concentration was noted. Also, no effect of Aloe vera on most of the altered renal biochemical parameters were noticed. The results thus lead us to conclude that simultaneous supplementation of Aloe vera protects against arsenic induced oxidative stress but does not influence the arsenic concentration in these organs. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A Phase III study on the efficacy of topical aloe vera gel on irradiated breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Sue; Bryant, Guy P; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Rose, Pauline; Glendenning, Mary; Heath, Jenny

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study was to see if topical aloe vera gel would be beneficial in reducing the identified skin side-effects of radiation therapy, including erythema, pain, itching, dry desquamation, and moist desquamation, when compared with aqueous cream. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of other factors known to predict severity of radiation skin reaction, ie, breast size, smoking habit, and one or more drainages of lymphocele after surgery, on other skin side effects. A Phase III study was conducted involving 225 patients with breast cancer after lumpectomy or partial mastectomy, who required a course of radiation therapy using tangential fields. Patients were randomized to either topical aloe vera gel or topical aqueous cream to be applied 3 times per day throughout and for 2 weeks after completion of radiation treatment. Weekly skin assessments were performed by nursing staff. Aqueous cream was significantly better than aloe vera gel in reducing dry desquamation and pain related to treatment. Subjects with D cup or larger size breasts experienced significantly more erythema, regardless of treatment arm. For subjects who had undergone lymphocele drainage, the aloe vera group experienced significantly more pain than the aqueous cream group. Within the aqueous cream arm, smokers were significantly more likely to experience itching within the treatment field than were nonsmokers. Within the aloe vera arm, subjects who had undergone one or more lymphocele drainages after surgery were significantly more likely to experience erythema and itching within the treatment field than those who did not have drainage. In this study, aloe vera gel did not significantly reduce radiation-induced skin side effects. Aqueous cream was useful in reducing dry desquamation and pain related to radiation therapy.

  1. Modification of emodin and aloe-emodin by glycosylation in engineered Escherihia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Koirala, Niranjan; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Jung, Hye Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 (YjiC) was used for enzymatic modification of emodin and aloe-emodin in vitro and in vivo. In order to increase the availability of UDP-glucose, three genes involved in the production of precursors of NDP-sugar in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) viz. D-glucose phosphate isomerase (pgi), D-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), and UDP-sugar hydrolase (ushA) were deleted and glucose-1-phosphate urididyltransferase (galU) gene was over expressed. To improve the yield of the products; substrate, time and media parameters were optimized, and the production was scaled up using a 3 L fermentor. The maximum yield of glycosylated products of emodin (emodin-O-β-D-glucoside) and aloe-emodin (aloe-emodin-O-β-D-glucoside) were approximately 144 µM (38 mg/L) and 168 µM (45 mg/L) respectively, representing almost 72 % and 84 % bioconversion of emodin and aloe-emodin when 200 µM of emodin and aloe-emodin were supplemented in the culture. Additionally, the emodin and aloe emodin major glycosylated products exhibited the highest stability at pH 8.0 and the stability of products was up to 70 °C and 60 °C respectively. Furthermore, the biological activities of emodin and its major glucoside (P1) were compared and their anti-cancer activities were assayed in several cancer cell lines. The results demonstrate that YjiC has the capacity to catalyze the glycosylation of these aromatic compounds and that glycosylation of anthraquinones enhances their aqueous solubility while retaining their biological activities.

  2. The effect of Aloe vera gel on viability of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sholehvar, Fatemeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Yaghmaei, Parichehr; Vahdati, Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can play a prominent role in tissue regeneration. Aloe vera L. (Liliaceae) contains the polysaccharide of acemannan that was shown to be a trigger factor for cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation. This study sought to determine the viability of DPSCs in Aloe vera in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Twelve rabbits underwent anesthesia, and their incisor teeth were extracted; the pulp tissue was removed, chopped, treated with collagenase and plated in culture flasks. DPSCs from passage 3 were cultured in 24-well plates, and after 3 days, the culture media changed to 10, 25, 50, and 100% concentrations of Aloe vera at intervals of 45 and 90 min and 3 and 6 h. Distilled water was used as negative and HBSS as positive control for comparison. The cell morphology, viability, population doubling time (PDT), and growth kinetics were evaluated. RT-PCR was carried out for characterization and karyotyping for chromosomal stability. Aloe vera showed a significant higher viability than HBSS (74.74%). The 50% Aloe vera showed higher viability (97.73%) than other concentrations. PDT in 50% concentration was 35.1 h and for HBSS was 49.5 h. DPSCs were spindle shaped and were positive for CD73 and negative for CD34 and CD45. Karyotyping was normal. Aloe vera as an inexpensive and available herb can improve survival of avulsed or broken teeth in emergency cases as a transfer media. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Phytomodulatory potentials of Aloe vera against Salmonella OmpR-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Praveen; Rampuria, Anjali; Tewari, Rupinder; Koul, Ashwani

    2008-08-01

    Mediators released during inflammatory response play an essential role in eliminating microbes or microbial products. However, the uncontrolled release of cytotoxic substances characterized by extensive inflammation may adversely affect normal tissues. Under such conditions it is important to manage the hyperinflammation in order to change the clinical manifestations of the disease. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation by Aloe vera, a plant known to contain antiinflammatory ingredients. It was observed that outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) extracted from the wild type strain of S. typhimurium caused inflammation of greater magnitude compared with the OMPs extracted from its mutant construct as evident from the oedema test as well as the hyperalgesic (flicking) response of the animals under experimental conditions. However, Aloe vera applied topically, administered intraperitoneally or in combination modulated the inflammatory response. The maximum effect was observed with the combined formulation indicating modulation at local as well as systemic levels. The results reveal that this modulation could be due to the potential of Aloe vera to decrease peroxidative damage via a decrease in the levels of monokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6) and an increase in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, the presence of SOD in Aloe vera itself might be responsible for enhancing its levels in the macrophages. On the other hand, no significant change in the catalase activity was observed by Aloe vera treatment. The use of Aloe vera, therefore, seems to have a promising role in the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation.

  4. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a nondecolorized [corrected] whole leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water study).

    PubMed

    Boudreau, M D; Beland, F A; Nichols, J A; Pogribna, M

    2013-08-01

    Extracts from the leaves of the Aloe vera plant (Aloe barbadensis Miller) have long been used as herbal remedies and are also now promoted as a dietary supplement, in liquid tonics, powders or tablets, as a laxative and to prevent a variety of illnesses. We studied the effects of Aloe vera extract on rats and mice to identify potential toxic or cancer-related hazards. We gave solutions of nondecolorized extracts of Aloe vera leaves in the drinking water to groups of rats and mice for 2 years. Groups of 48 rats received solutions containing 0.5%, 1% or 1.5% of Aloe vera extract in the drinking water, and groups of mice received solutions containing 1%, 2%, or 3% of Aloe vera extract. Similar groups of animals were given plain drinking water and served as the control groups. At the end of the study tissues from more than 40 sites were examined for every animal. In all groups of rats and mice receiving the Aloe vera extract, the rates of hyperplasia in the large intestine were markedly increased compared to the control animals. There were also increases in hyperplasia in the small intestine in rats receiving the Aloe vera extract, increases in hyperplasia of the stomach in male and female rats and female mice receiving the Aloe vera extract, and increases in hyperplasia of the mesenteric lymph nodes in male and female rats and male mice receiving the Aloe vera extract. In addition, cancers of the large intestine occurred in male and female rats given the Aloe vera extract, though none had been seen in the control groups of rats for this and other studies at this laboratory. We conclude that nondecolorized Aloe vera caused cancers of the large intestine in male and female rats and also caused hyperplasia of the large intestine, small intestine, stomach, and lymph nodes in male and female rats. Aloe vera extract also caused hyperplasia of the large intestine in male and female mice and hyperplasia of the mesenteric lymph node in male mice and hyperplasia of the stomach

  5. Pharmacological attribute of Aloe vera: Revalidation through experimental and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinay K.; Malhotra, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Aloe vera has long been used as a traditional medicine for inducing wound healing. It is a natural product that now a days is used in cosmetic industry. Benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves though there are various indications for its use. Biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory. Gingival fibroblasts play an important role in oral wound healing. Double blind-controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy in oral health. PMID:23559789

  6. Antifungal effects of different plant extracts and their major components of selected aloe species.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Shalaby, N M; Elgamal, M H; Mousa, A S

    1999-08-01

    Different extracts of both fresh and dry leaves of Aloe eru A. Berger, A. vera L. Webb & Berth and A. arborescens Mill. were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium moniliforme. The toxicity of the isolated pure components were evaluated on the tested fungi. A comparative chromatographic study was performed to differentiate between natural components existing in various fractions and extracts of Aloe species and specific spray reagents were used for the detection of anthraquinones in the isolated components.

  7. Pharmacological attribute of Aloe vera: Revalidation through experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinay K; Malhotra, Seema

    2012-04-01

    Aloe vera has long been used as a traditional medicine for inducing wound healing. It is a natural product that now a days is used in cosmetic industry. Benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves though there are various indications for its use. Biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory. Gingival fibroblasts play an important role in oral wound healing. Double blind-controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy in oral health.

  8. [Study on application of arbuscular-mycorrhizas in growing seedings of Aloe vera].

    PubMed

    Gong, Mingqin; Wang, Fengzhen; Chen, Yu

    2002-01-01

    Tissue culture seedlings of Aloe vera L. inoculated with 7 AMF(arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi) in a greenhouse in Guangzhou showed that the percentage of infection was 99.67%-100%, the index of infected was 73.3%-86.67%. After being inoculated 13 months, the seedling high raised 19.88%-51.91%, the leaves length raised 13.13%-150.96%. After being inoculated 15 months, the leaves juice of Aloe vera raised 60.87%-233.8% and the dried of leaves juice raised 217%-724%.

  9. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Results Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Conclusion Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. PMID:23870710

  10. ALOS2-Indonesia REDD+ Experiment (AIREX): Soil Pool Carbon Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimadoya, M.; Kristijono, A.; Sudiana, N.; Sumawinata, B.; Suwardi; Santoso, E.; Mahargo, D.; Sudarman, S.; Mattikainen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The bilateral REDD+ agreement between Indonesia and Norway [1] has scheduled that performance based result phase will be started in 2014. Therefore, a transparent and reliable Monitoring, Reporting and V erification (MRV) system for the following carbon pools: (1) biomass, (2) dead organic matter (DOM), and (3) soil, is required to be ready prior to the performance based phase. While the biomass pool could be acquired by space-borne radar (SAR) application i.e. SAR Interferometry (In-SAR) and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (Pol-InSAR), the method for soil pool is still needed to be developed.A study was implemented in a test site located in the pulp plantation concession of Teluk Meranti Estate, Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP), Pelalawan District, Riau Province, Indonesia. The study was intended to evaluate the possibility to estimate soil pool carbon with radar technology. For this purpose, a combination of spaceborne SAR (ALOS/PALSAR) and Ground Penetrating Radar (200 MHz IDS 200 MHz IDS GPR) were used in this exercise.The initial result this study provides a promising outcome for improved soil pool carbon estimation in tropical peat forest condition. The volume estimation of peat soil could be measured from the combination of spaceborne SAR and GPR. Based on this volume, total carbon content can be generated. However, the application of this approach has several limitation such as: (1) GPR survey can only be implemented during the dry season, (2) Rugged Terrain Antenna (RTA) type of GPR should be used for smooth GPR survey in the surface of peat soil which covered by DOM, and (3) the map of peat soil extent by spaceborne SAR need to be improved.

  11. Chemical characterization of the immunomodulating polysaccharide of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Tai-Nin Chow, Jimmy; Williamson, David A; Yates, Kenneth M; Goux, Warren J

    2005-05-02

    The polysaccharide isolated by alcohol precipitation of Aloe vera mucilaginous gel was found to have a Man:Glc:Gal:GalA:Fuc:Ara:Xyl ratio of 120:9:6:3:2:2:1 with traces of Rha and GlcA. Linkage analysis of the endo-(1-->4)-beta-d-mannanase-treated sample yielded Manp-(1--> (approximately 26%), 4-Manp (approximately 53%), 2,4-Manp (approximately 3%), 3,4-Manp (approximately 1%), 4,6-Manp (approximately 1%), 4-Glcp (approximately 5%), 4-Xylp (approximately 1%), Xylp-(1--> (approximately 2%), Galp-(1--> (approximately 5%), and traces of 4,6-Galp and 3,6-Galp. Hydrolysis with strong acids produced a mixture of short oligosaccharides and an acid-resistant fraction containing greater relative fractions of Manp-(1-->, Araf-(1-->, Xylp-(1-->, and 4-Xylp than the bulk polysaccharide. NMR analysis of oligosaccharides generated by endo-(1-->4)-beta-D-mannanase and acid hydrolysis showed the presence of di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides of 4-beta-Manp, beta-Glcp-(1-->4)-Man, beta-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-Manp-(1-->4)-Man, and beta-Manp-(1-->4)-[alpha-Galp-(1-->6)]-Man, consistent with a backbone containing alternating -->4)-beta-Manp-(1--> and -->4)-beta-Glcp-(1--> residues in a approximately 15:1 ratio. Analysis of the sample treated sequentially with endo-(1-->4)-beta-d-mannanase and alpha-D-galactosidase showed that the majority of alpha-Galp-(1--> residues were linked to O-2, O-3, or O-6 of -->4)-beta-Manp-(1--> residues, with approximately 16 -->4)-beta-Manp-(1--> residues between side chains. Our data provide direct evidence of a previously proposed glucomannan backbone, but draw into question previously proposed side-chain structures.

  12. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, Fatemeh

    2013-07-19

    The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes.

  13. An ALOS-derived glacier inventory of the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hiroto; Fujita, Koji; Nuimura, Takayuki; Sakai, Akiko

    2013-04-01

    Glacier inventory provides fundamental information of glacier settings such as number, area, and horizontal/altitudinal distribution, which make possible to study management of water resources, glacial response to climate change, and glacier-related hazards. In the Bhutan Himalaya, heavily debris-covered surface and seasonal snow cover under the humid climate hamper automated mapping of glaciers. We present a novel glacier inventory manually delineated from high resolution (2.5 m) ALOS-PRISM images along the Bhutan Himalaya including Tibetan side. We delineated 1273 glaciers with area of 1408.3 km2, in which 210 debris-covered glaciers with area of 951.2 km2 were identified. Scatter plot of top and terminus altitudes of these glaciers shows that the termini of debris-covered glaciers tend to be located at lower altitude than those of debris-free glaciers. Classifying surface aspect into eight directions, surface of the debris-free glaciers tends to be exposed northward (16.7%) while the southwestward surface is minimum (9.2%). No remarkable aspect tendency is found for the debris-covered glaciers. We compare the locations of debris-free glaciers with annual precipitation of TRMM 3B43 data. Median altitude, at which glacier surface is divided into two equal areas obviously increases northward (toward Tibet) along latitude. Additionally the median altitude averaged over basin scale (~2500 km2) shows a significant negative correlation against the annual precipitation (r= -0.48, p< 0.05). Our results suggest that the high latitudinal gradient of annual precipitation crossing the Bhutan Himalaya contrasts the glacier altitudinal distribution within a scale of 100 km.

  14. Identification and discrimination of three common Aloe species by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Ya Nan; Lee, Min Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-09-15

    Aloe arborescens, Aloe barbadensis and Aloe ferox are the most widely cultivated and used among 500 aloe species due to their potent bioactivity. However, the difference of aloe species is neglected and labeled only one name Aloe in the market without specifying aloe species discrimination in general. Furthermore, differences in bioactivity and side effects from different aloe species have not been well investigated. This study develops an effective method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of three common aloe species using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on methanol concentration, extraction time and solvent-to-material ratio. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the three aloe species. The developed HPLC-MS/MS method coupled with multivariate analysis can be applied to discriminate three aloe species successfully. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Aloe emodin-induced apoptosis in t-HSC/Cl-6 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Lian, Li-Hua; Park, Eun-Jeon; Piao, Hui-Shan; Zhao, Yu-Zhe; Sohn, Dong Hwan

    2005-06-01

    The aim of our study was to clarify the apoptosis pathway induced by aloe emodin, an hydroxyanthraquinone present in aloe vera leaves, in rat hepatic stellate cells transformed by simian virus 40 (t-HSC/Cl-6), which retain the features of activated rat stellate cells. Apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation, caspase activity assay and western blotting analysis. Treatment of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells with 12.5, 25, or 50 microM aloe emodin inhibited t-HSC/Cl-6 cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis by aloe emodin was confirmed by typical DNA ladder formation and annexin v-propidium iodide flow-cytometric analysis. Aloe emodin treatment of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells caused activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, detected with a caspase activity assay, although no change was observed in caspase-8 activity. Western blotting showed caspase-3 and caspase-9 active forms and the subsequent proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Aloe emodin induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Our data also show that cytochrome c increased in the cytosol but decreased in the mitochondria in a time-dependent manner. Increased Bax and unchanged Bcl-2 levels resulted in an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Thus, our research provides evidence that aloe emodin-induced apoptosis involves a mitochondria-associated apoptosis pathway.

  16. Protein kinase C involvement in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Z

    2001-11-01

    1. This study demonstrated aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma cell lines CH27 (human lung squamous carcinoma cell) and H460 (human lung non-small cell carcinoma cell). Aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis was characterized by nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. 2. During apoptosis, an increase in cytochrome c of cytosolic fraction and activation of caspase-3, identified by the cleavage of its proform, were observed. 3. To elucidate whether the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are involved in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis, this study examined the changes of PKC isozymes by Western blotting techniques during aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis. 4. The expression of PKC isozymes involved in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis of CH27 and H460 cells. In this study, aloe-emodin and emodin induced the changes of each of PKC isozymes in CH27 and H460 cells. 5. The decrease in the expression of PKC delta and epsilon may play a critical role in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in CH27 and H460 cells. 6. The present study also demonstrated that PKC stimulation occurs at a site downstream of caspase-3 in the emodin-mediated apoptotic pathway.

  17. First-principles study of the structural, electronic, dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of Li5AlO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Qiushi; Chen, Xiaojun; Gao, Tao; Xiao, Chengjian; Zhao, Linjie; He, Jianchao; Long, Xinggui

    2015-10-01

    Pentalithium aluminate, Li5AlO4, has attracted increasing attention for its high lithium density and potential uses in tritium breeding materials and thermal batteries. In this work, the structural, electronic, lattice dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of α- and β-phase Li5AlO4 were investigated using first-principles density functional theory. The optimized structural parameters were consistent with the experimental values, with the absolute deviation being less than 2.5%. The indirect band gaps of α- and β-Li5AlO4 were 4.82 and 5.16 eV, respectively, showing that they are insulators. In addition, the vibrational properties of α- and β-Li5AlO4 were computed using density functional perturbation theory. By adding Born effective charges into the phonon calculations, the longitudinal optical-transverse optical (LO-TO) splittings were calculated. The optical modes at the Γ point were categorized as Raman- and IR-active modes. Our results show that β-Li5AlO4 is more polar and anisotropic than α-Li5AlO4. Furthermore, their thermodynamic functions were determined using the calculated phonon density of states. The results were in good agreement with those of previous theoretical studies. The data presented in this work will help in the further characterization of Li5AlO4, which may be valuable for future experimental studies.

  18. A comparative study of baby immature and adult shoots of Aloe vera on UVB-induced skin photoaging in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Kim, Su Hyeon; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Jinwan; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces photo-damage of the skin, which in turn causes depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkle formations are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The production of type I procollagen is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression; the activation of MMP is also correlated with an increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Aloe barbadensis M. (Aloe vera) is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this study, we examined whether baby aloe shoot extract (BAE, immature aloe extract), which is from the one-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, and adult aloe shoot extract (AE), which is from the four-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, have a protective effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BAE and AE on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species, MMP-1, MMP-3, IL-6, type I procollagen, and TGF-β1 after UVB irradiation. We found that NHDF cells treated with BAE after UVB-irradiation suppressed MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6 levels compared to the AE-treated cells. Furthermore, BAE treatment elevated type I procollagen and TGF-β1 levels. Our results suggest that BAE may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced damage more than AE. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Preliminary antiplaque efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash on 4 day plaque re-growth model: randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Yadav, Ankit; Obaid, Khursheed; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-04-01

    Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo (saline water). A total of 300 systemically healthy subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Aloe vera mouthwash group (n=100), control group (=100)-chlorhexidene group and saline water-Placebo (n=100). To begin with, Gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After randomization of the participants into three groups they were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (Aloe vera mouthwash, 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. The results showed that Aloe vera mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque as Chlorhexidine compared to placebo over a period of 4 days. There was a significant reduction on plaque in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects. The results of the present study indicated that Aloe vera may prove an effective mouthwash due to its ability in reducing dental plaque.

  20. An in vitro and in vivo toxicologic evaluation of a stabilized aloe vera gel supplement drink in mice.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-05-01

    Aloe vera gel is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of a stabilized aloe vera gel derived from the inner gel fillet and marketed as a drink. The gel juice was assessed through assays of genotoxicity in vivo and acute and subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Aloe vera did not increase the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli and at 1× and 0.25× it did not increase mutagenesis of Salmonella TA100 resulting in histidine biosynthesis. At 3 and 14days following acute exposure, male and female mice gavaged with the stabilized aloe gel had daily appearances, total body weight gain, selected organ weights, necropsy and hematology tests similar to control mice gavaged with water. After a 13-week aloe gel feed study, male and female mice evaluated by the same criteria as the acute study plus feed consumption and serum chemistry tests were found to be equivalent to control groups. These data indicate that a commercial stabilized aloe gel consumed as a beverage was not genotoxic or toxic in vivo. These results contrast with those obtained using preparations containing aloe latex phenolic compounds such as anthraquinones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimality in Microwave-Assisted Drying of Aloe Vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) Gel using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Chandan; Das, Arijit; Kumar Golder, Animes

    2016-10-01

    The present work illustrates the Microwave-Assisted Drying (MWAD) characteristic of aloe vera gel combined with process optimization and artificial neural network modeling. The influence of microwave power (160-480 W), gel quantity (4-8 g) and drying time (1-9 min) on the moisture ratio was investigated. The drying of aloe gel exhibited typical diffusion-controlled characteristics with a predominant interaction between input power and drying time. Falling rate period was observed for the entire MWAD of aloe gel. Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD) developed a regression model to evaluate their effects on moisture ratio. The optimal MWAD conditions were established as microwave power of 227.9 W, sample amount of 4.47 g and 5.78 min drying time corresponding to the moisture ratio of 0.15. A computer-stimulated Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was generated for mapping between process variables and the desired response. `Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation' algorithm with 3-5-1 architect gave the best prediction, and it showed a clear superiority over FCCD.

  2. Chaperones are the target in aloe-emodin-induced human lung nonsmall carcinoma H460 cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Miao-Ying; Hour, Mann-Jen; Wing-Cheung Leung, Henry; Yang, Wen-Hui; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2007-11-14

    Our previous study has demonstrated that aloe-emodin induced a significant change in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in H460 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of aloe-emodin still remain unknown. The present study applied 2D electrophoresis (pH range 4-7) to the proteins involved in aloe-emodin (40 muM)-induced H460 cell apoptosis. Eleven proteins were found to markedly change. These altered proteins were identified as ATP synthase, vimentin, HSP60, HSP70 and protein disulfide isomerase. Aloe-emodin caused a time-dependent decrease in intracellular ATP levels, which might be related to direct inhibition of ATP synthase. We also observed that the activity of mitochondria was injured by aloe-emodin. These data clearly demonstrated that mitochondria may play a critical role in aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell death. Many reports emphasize that chaperones have a complex role in apoptosis. The present study suggested that the increasing protein expression of HSP60, HSP70, 150 kDa oxygen-regulated protein and protein disulfide isomerase is involved in aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell apoptosis. HSP70, 150 kDa oxygen-regulated protein and protein disulfide isomerase are endoplasmic reticulum chaperone. Therefore, we hypothesized that the increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress serves to promote H460 cell apoptosis after treatment with aloe-emodin. We also demonstrated aloe-emodin-induced H460 cell death through caspase-3 apoptotic pathway, but not apoptosis-inducing factor apoptotic pathway.

  3. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of dru...

  4. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  5. Disinfection of dental unit water line using aloe vera: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Atri, Mansi; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.

  6. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-09-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions.

  7. Radio sensitizing effect of aloe polysaccharide on pancreatic cancer bxpc-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunjin; Xu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    The roles of autophagy in pancreatic cancers are complex and may differ depending on tumor type or context. This study aimed to investigate if aloe polysaccharide can be used as a radio-sensitizing chemical to induce autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3 cells were divided into four groups: A control group, an aloe polysaccharide only group, a radiation only group and a radiation combined with aloe polysaccharide group (combination group). Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultra structural changes of autophagosomes in each cell group. The mRNA expressions of ULK1, GABARAPL1, BECN1, and BCL-2 were detected by real-time PCR. Autophagosomes or autophagolysosomes were observed in all experimental groups except the control group. Compared with the control group, ULK1 mRNA expression was up-regulated and BECN1 and BCL-2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in all groups (P<0.05); changes in expression were most obvious in the combination group (P<0.05). GABARAPL1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the combination group (P<0.05), but had no significant changes among other groups. In brief, aloe polysaccharide induces autophagy in pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3 cells both alone and in concert with radiation. Autophagic cell death may be one of the mechanisms producing a radiosensitizing effect.

  8. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Lowther, William; Lorick, Kevin; Lawrence, Susan D; Yeow, Wen-Shuz

    2012-12-01

    Methods necessary for the successful transformation and regeneration of Aloe vera were developed and used to express the human protein, interferon alpha 2 (IFNα2). IFNα2 is a secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the cellular response to viral infection. Transgenic plants were regenerated from callus cultures initiated from zygotic embryos. Expression of the IFNA2 transgene in transformed plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and IFNα2 protein was detected by immunoblot analysis. Human A549 cells treated with transgenic aloe extracts for 6 h induced expression of the interferon stimulated gene 54, indicating activation of the IFN signaling pathway. The biological activity of the aloe produced IFNα2 was assessed using an antiviral assay with A549 cells treated with extracts from both the rind and pulp fractions of the shoot and subsequently infected with the lytic encephalomyocarditis virus. The highest level of activity attributable to recombinant IFNα2 was determined to be 625 IU/mg of total soluble protein (TSP) in the rind and 2,108 IU/mg TSP in the pulp. Two daughter plants that vegetatively budded during the course of this study were also confirmed to express IFNα2. These results confirm that Aloe vera is capable of expressing a human protein with biological activity, and that a secreted protein targeting the apoplast can be detected in the pulp fraction of the plant.

  9. A Systemic Review on Aloe arborescens Pharmacological Profile: Biological Activities and Pilot Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Singab, Abdel-Naser B; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Esmat, Ahmed; Gad, Haidy A; Nazeam, Jilan A

    2015-12-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in the last few decades has verified several such claims. Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. The popularity of the plant in traditional medicine for several ailments (antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity) focused the investigator's interest on this plant. Most importantly, the reported studies have shown the plant effectiveness on various cancer types such as liver, colon, duodenal, skin, pancreatic, intestinal, lung and kidney types. These multiple biological actions make Aloe an important resource for developing new natural therapies. However, the biological activities of isolated compounds such as glycoprotein, polysaccharides, enzyme and phenolics were insufficient. Considering all these, this contribution provides a systematic review outlining the evidence on the biological efficacy of the plant including the pharmacology and the related mechanisms of action, with specific attention to the various safety precautions, and preclinical and clinical studies, indicating the future research prospects of this plant.

  10. Disinfection of Dental Unit Water Line Using Aloe Vera: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines. PMID:24089615

  11. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  12. Validation of burst overlapping for ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsuaki, Ryo; Motohka, Takeshi; Ohki, Masato; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) aboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite- 2 (ALOS-2, "DAICHI-2") is the latest L-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). PALSAR-2 observes the world mainly with 10 m resolution / 70 km swath Stripmap mode and 25 m resolution / 350 km swath ScanSAR mode. The 3-m resolution Stripmap mode is mainly used upon Japan. 350 km ScanSAR observation could detect large scale deformation e.g., the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and its aftershocks in 2015. ALOS-2 ScanSAR is the first one that supports ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry in L-band spaceborne SAR. However, because of the parameter setting error for the orbit estimation, ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 ScanSAR could achieve little number of interferometric pair until the software modification on February 8, 2015. That is, the burst overlap timing required for the interferometric analysis was insufficient and it depends on the observation date. In this paper, we report the investigation results of this case and discuss the current status of the ALOS-2 ScanSAR InSAR. Some archives achieved before February 8, 2015 can be used for interferometric analysis with after Feb. 8. However, most of them have no interferometric pair. We also report that the archives acquired after February 8, have enough burst overlapping.

  13. Influence of Aloe vera on the glycosaminoglycans in the matrix of healing dermal wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Chithra, P; Sajithlal, G B; Chandrakasan, G

    1998-01-01

    The influence of Aloe vera (L.) Burman f. on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components of the matrix in a healing wound was studied. Wound healing is a dynamic and complex sequence of events of which the major one is the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. The early stage of wound healing is characterized by the laying down of a provisional matrix, which is then followed by the formation of granulation tissue and synthesis of collagen and elastin. The provisional matrix or the ground substance consists of GAGs and proteoglycans (PGs), which are protein GAG conjugates. In the present work, we have studied the influence of Aloe vera on the content of GAG and its types in the granulation tissue of healing wounds. We have also reported the levels of a few enzymes involved in matrix metabolism. The amount of ground substance synthesized was found to be higher in the treated wounds, and in particular, hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulphate levels were increased. The levels of the reported glycohydrolases were elevated on treatment with Aloe vera, indicating increased turnover of the matrix. Both topical and oral treatments with Aloe vera were found to have a positive influence on the synthesis of GAGs and thereby beneficially modulate wound healing.

  14. Novel bioactive maloyl glucans from aloe vera gel: isolation, structure elucidation and in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Esua, Macniell F; Rauwald, Johann-Wilhelm

    2006-02-27

    In this study, three novel maloyl glucans were isolated at temperatures below 15 degrees C from aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller). These compounds were characterized using NMR spectroscopy, ESIMS, MALDITOF-MS and capillary electrophoresis. The compounds were characterized as 6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha-,beta-D-Glcp (veracylglucan A), alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha,-beta,-D-Glcp (veracylglucan B) and alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-tetra-[6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)]-6-O-(1-L-maloyl)-alpha,-beta-D-Glcp (veracylglucan C). These unusual malic acid acylated carbohydrates were then tested in vitro for effects on cell proliferation and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8 and ICAM-1, using RT-PCR. Veracylglucan B demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects, while Veracylglucan C, on the other hand, exhibited significant cell proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Veracylglucan A could only be isolated in smaller quantities, and it proved to be very unstable. Thus no biological effects could be observed in this respect. The in vitro bioassays also indicated that Veracylglucan B and C are antagonistic and competitive in their effects on cell proliferation. The results of this work represent a major step forward in the research on aloe vera gel. This is the first time that two fully chemically characterized compounds are shown to be responsible for known biological activities of aloe vera gel.

  15. An HPLC Procedure for the Quantification of Aloin in Latex and Gel from Aloe barbadensis Leaves.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Mariscal-Domínguez, María F; Cruz-Flores, Paola; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Sanches-Silva, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Aloin is an anthraquinone-C-glycoside present in Aloe vera. This compound is extremely variable among different species and highly depends on the growing conditions of the plants. The quantification of aloin in different extraction preparations has been a frequent problem due to the high instability of the compound. The aim of the present study is to develop and validated an analytical method for aloin detection in fresh and dry samples of Aloe barbadensis gel and latex using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Phosphate buffered saline (pH 3) was selected as the extraction solvent. The aloin was separated using a Zorbax Eclipse AAA column (4.6 × 150 mm) at 35°C, and water and acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The linearity was satisfactory with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999. Under these conditions, the method precision (relative standard deviation) was 3.71% for FL, 4.41% for dry latex, 0.81% for fresh gel and 4.42% for dry gel samples. Aloe latex was determined to have a greater amount of aloin than aloe gel. The method validation was satisfactory and exhibited adequate linearity, repeatability and accuracy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  17. Characterization of gelatin/chitosan scaffold blended with aloe vera and snail mucus for biomedical purpose.

    PubMed

    López Angulo, Daniel Enrique; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2016-11-01

    Biologically active scaffolds used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been generating promising results in skin replacement. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that the incorporation of Aloe vera and snail mucus into scaffolds based on gelatin and chitosan could improve their structure, composition and biodegradability, with a potential effect on bioactivity. Homogeneous pore diameter as well as pore walls in the composite scaffold could be seen in the SEM image. The pores in the scaffolds were interconnected and their sizes ranged from 93 to 296μm. The addition of Aloe vera and snail mucus enlarged the mean pore size with increased porosity and caused changes in the pore architecture. The FTIR analysis has shown good affinity and interaction between the matrix and the Aloe, which may decrease water-binding sites, so this fact hindered the water absorption capacity of the material. The mechanical properties could explain the highest swelling capacity of the snail scaffold, because the high percentage of elongation could facilitate the entry of liquid in it, generating a matrix with plenty of fluid retention. The real innovation in the present work could be the use of these substances (Aloe and snail mucus) for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    PubMed

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy.

  19. Safety evaluation of supercritical carbon dioxide extract of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The gel of the Aloe vera plant has been used safely for oral and external applications. Previously, we found phytosterols derived from an extract of Aloe vera gel obtained with an organic solvent to have hypoglycemic and antiobesity effects. While developing of functional foods using Aloe vera gel, we produced an active Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) using a supercritical carbon dioxide (CO₂) extraction procedure. In this study, we tested the safety of AVGE in vitro and in vivo. In an acute oral toxicological test in which AVGE was administered to rats at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight, there were no deaths or apparent abnormalities at necropsy. In a 90-d toxicity test in which rats were continuously administrered AVGE at 30 or 150 mg/kg, euthanized, and subjected to pathological examinations, no abnormalities attributable to the AVGE were found. AVGE was nonmutagenic in the Ames test and a chromosomal aberration test at concentrations of up to 5000 μg/plate and 1600 μg/plate, respectively, and in an in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test at up to 150 mg/kg/d. AVGE can be safely used as a functional food material. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Clinical and microbiologic effects of commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Agarwal, Esha; Naik, Savitha B

    2012-06-01

    Certain plants used in folk medicine serve as a source of therapeutic agents that have antimicrobial and other multipotential effects. This prospective, randomized, placebo, and positively controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic effects of a commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Ninety patients diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into three groups: group 1, placebo toothpaste; group 2, toothpaste containing aloe vera; and group 3, toothpaste with polymer and fluoride containing triclosan. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using a gingival index, plaque was assessed using a modification of the Quigley-Hein index, and microbiologic counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by questionnaire. Toothpaste containing aloe vera showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with toothpaste containing triclosan. Toothpaste containing aloe vera may be a useful herbal formulation for chemical plaque control agents and improvement in plaque and gingival status.

  1. In-vitro assessment and pharmacodynamics of nimesulide incorporated Aloe vera transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Vandana, K R; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R; Sundaresan, C R; Sriramaneni, Raghava N; Vadlamudi, Harini C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to prepare nimesulide emulsion for incorporation in Aloe vera gel base to formulate 'nimesulide - Aloe vera transemulgel' (NAE) and to carryout in-vitro assessment and in-vivo anti-inflammatory studies of the product. Although the use of nimesulide is banned for oral administration, due to its potential for inducing hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia, the use of nimesulide for topical delivery is prominent in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loading capacity of transdermal gels is low for hydrophobic drugs such as nimesulide. Nimesulide can be effectively incorporated into emulgels (a combination of emulsion and gel). Aloe vera has a mild anti-inflammatory effect and in the present study Aloe vera gel was formulated and used as a gel base to prepare NAE. The emulgels thus prepared were evaluated for viscosity, pH, in-vitro permeation, stability and skin irritation test. In-vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed using carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in Wistar rats. The results were compared with that of commercial nimesulide gel (CNG). From the in-vitro studies, effective permeation of nimesulide from NAE (53.04 %) was observed compared to CNG (44.72 %) at 30 min indicating better drug release from NAE. Topical application of the emulgel found no skin irritation. Stability studies proved the integrity of the formulation. The percentage of inhibition of edema was highest for the prepared NAE (67.4 % inhibition after 240 min) compared to CNG (59.6 %). From our results, it was concluded that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare nimesulide emulgel with high drug loading capacity (86.4 % drug content) compared to CNG (70.5 % drug content) with significant anti-inflammatory effect.

  2. [Intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin using single-passintestinal perfusion method in rat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yongmao; Meng, Xianli; Zhang, Yan

    2011-09-01

    The intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin was investigated using the single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in S/D rats. SPIP was performed in each isolated segment of the intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) and the different concentrations inhibitor group of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2) with the concentrations of aloe-emodin (0.238 mg x L(-1)) at a flow rate of 0.28 mL x min(-1). The effective absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent absorption coefficient (Papp) of aloe-emodin for each segment were determined before and after treated with different concentrations of inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 respectively. Aloe-emodin exhibits a high intestinal permeability except the the ileum, indicative that the compounds are well absorbed. Decreases of Ka and Papp values in the duodenum, jejunum, colon and ileum, furthermore, the duodenum has significant increased compared with the ileum, there are have no significant difference in other isolated region of the intestine. Compared with the group which have no inhibitor of P-gp, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of P-gp groups. Compared with the group of no inhibitor of MRP2, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of MRP2 groups with the highest and the middle concentration. The results suggested that the inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 all can promote the intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin.

  3. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  4. Aloe Vera Gel and Cesarean Wound Healing; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Molazem, Zahra; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Younesi, Masoumeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Failure in complete healing of the wound is one of the probable complications of cesarean. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of dressing with aloe vera gel in healing of cesarean wound. Methods: This prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 women who had undergone cesarean operation in Amir-al-Momenin hospital (Gerash, Iran). The participants were randomly divided into two groups each containing 45 patients. In one group, the wound was dressed with aloe vera gel, while simple dressing was used in the control group. Wound healing was assessed 24 hours and 8 days after the cesarean operation using REEDA scale. The data were analyzed through Chi-square and t-test. Results: The participants’ mean age was 27.56±4.20 in the aloe vera group and 26.62±4.88 in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning body mass index, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). Also, a significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the wound healing score 24 hours after the operation (P=0.003). After 8 days, however, the difference in the wound healing score was not significant (P=0.283). Overall, 45 participants in the aloe vera group and 35 ones in the control group had obtained a zero score 24 hours after the operation. These measures were respectively obtained as 42 and 41eight days after the operation. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the women are recommended to be informed regarding the positive effects of dressing with aloe vera gel. PMID:25560349

  5. Mitigation of Faraday rotation in ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full polarimetric SAR imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Shradha; Singh, Gulab

    2016-05-01

    The ionosphere, which extends from 50-450 kms in earth's atmosphere, is a particularly important region with regards electromagnetic wave propagation and radio communications in the L-band and lower frequencies. These ions interact with the traversing electromagnetic wave and cause rotation of polarization of the radar signal. In this paper, a potentially computable method for quantifying Faraday rotation (FR), is discussed with the knowledge of full polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data. For a well calibrated monostatic, full-pol ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data, the reciprocal symmetry of the received scattering matrix is violated due to FR. Apart from FR, other system parameters like residual system noise, channel amplitude, phase imbalance and cross-talk, also account for the non-symmetry. To correct for the FR effect, firstly the noise correction was performed. PALSAR/PALSAR-2 data was converted into 4×4 covariance matrix to calculate the coherence between cross-polarized elements. Covariance matrix was modified by the coherence factor. For FR corrections, the covariance matrix was converted into 4×4 coherency matrix. The elements of coherency matrix were used to estimate FR angle and correct for FR. Higher mean FR values during ALOS-PALSAR measurements can be seen in regions nearer to the equator and the values gradually decrease with increase in latitude. Moreover, temporal variations in FR can also be noticed over different years (2006-2010), with varying sunspot activities for the Niigata, Japan test site. With increasing sunspot activities expected during ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 observations, more striping effects were observed over Mumbai, India. This data has also been FR corrected, with mean FR values of about 8°, using the above mentioned technique.

  6. Diffusion of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide and Aloe vera pastes.

    PubMed

    Batista, Victor Eduardo de Souza; Olian, Douglas Dáquila; Mori, Graziela Garrido

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diffusion through the dentinal tubules of hydroxyl ions from different calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes containing Aloe vera. Sixty single-rooted bovine teeth were used. The tooth crowns were removed, the root canals were instrumented and the specimens were assigned to 4 groups (n=15) according to the intracanal medication: Group CH/S - CH powder and saline paste; Group CH/P - CH powder and propylene glycol paste; Group CH/A - calcium hydroxide powder and Aloe vera gel paste; Group CH/A/P - CH powder, Aloe vera powder and propylene glycol paste. After placement of the root canal dressings, the teeth were sealed coronally and apically with a two-step epoxy adhesive. The teeth were placed in identified flasks containing deionized water and stored in an oven with 100% humidity at 37 °C. After 3 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, 15 days and 30 days, the deionized water in the flasks was collected and its pH was measured by a pH meter. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis at a significance level of 5%. The results demonstrated that all pastes provided diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules. The combination of Aloe vera and CH (group CH/A) provided a constant release of calcium ions. Group CH/A/P showed the highest pH at 24 and 72 h. In conclusion, the experimental pastes containing Aloe vera were able to enable the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules.

  7. Aloe vera gel and cesarean wound healing; a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Molazem, Zahra; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Younesi, Masoumeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2014-08-31

    Failure in complete healing of the wound is one of the probable complications of cesarean. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of dressing with aloe vera gel in healing of cesarean wound. This prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 women who had undergone cesarean operation in Amir-al-Momenin hospital (Gerash, Iran). The participants were randomly divided into two groups each containing 45 patients. In one group, the wound was dressed with aloe vera gel, while simple dressing was used in the control group. Wound healing was assessed 24 hours and 8 days after the cesarean operation using REEDA scale. The data were analyzed through Chi-square and t-test. The participants' mean age was 27.56±4.20 in the aloe vera group and 26.62±4.88 in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning body mass index, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). Also, a significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the wound healing score 24 hours after the operation (P=0.003). After 8 days, however, the difference in the wound healing score was not significant (P=0.283). Overall, 45 participants in the aloe vera group and 35 ones in the control group had obtained a zero score 24 hours after the operation. These measures were respectively obtained as 42 and 41eight days after the operation. According to the findings of this study, the women are recommended to be informed regarding the positive effects of dressing with aloe vera gel.

  8. Clinical Effectiveness of Aloe Vera in the Management of Oral Mucosal Diseases- A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Gopakumar Ramachandran; Naidu, Giridhar Seetharam; Jain, Supreet; Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Jha, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera is well known for its medicinal properties which lead to its application in treating various diseases. Its use in treating oral lesions has not been much documented in literature. Aim Although, systematic reviews on aloe vera and its extracts have been done earlier, but in relation to oral diseases this is the first systematic review. The aim of the present systematic review was to compile evidence based studies on the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of various oral diseases. Materials and Methods Computerized literature searches were performed to identify all published articles in the subject. The following databases were used: PUBMED [MEDLINE], SCOPUS, COCHRANE DATABASE, EMBASE and SCIENCE DIRECT using specific keywords. The search was limited to articles published in English or with an English Abstract. All articles (or abstracts if available as abstracts) were read in full. Data were extracted in a predefined fashion. Assessment was done using Jadad score. Results Fifteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Population of sample study ranged from 20 patients to 110 patients with clinically diagnosed oral mucosal lesions. Out of 15 studies, five were on patients with oral lichen planus, two on patients with oral submucous fibrosis, other studies were carried on patients with burning mouth syndrome, radiation induced mucositis, candida associated denture stomatitis, xerostomic patients and four were on minor recurrent apthous stomatitis. Most studies showed statistically significant result demonstrating the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of oral diseases. Conclusion Although there are promising results but in future, more controlled clinical trials are required to prove the effectiveness of Aloe vera for management of oral diseases. PMID:27656587

  9. Aloe-emodin affects the levels of cytokines and functions of leukocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-Shu; Yu, Fu-Shun; Chan, Jack Kai-Sheng; Li, Te-Mao; Lin, Song-Shei; Chen, Ssu-Ching; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chang, Yung-Hsien; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2006-01-01

    Aloe-emodin has shown anti-neoplastic activity against some human cancer cell lines. This study aimed to explore the effects of aloe-emodin on the phagocytosis of macrophages, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and the expression of cytokines in leukocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats. Leukocytes were collected, placed into culture plates and the functions of macrophages and NK cells and the percentage of viable cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis. Incubation of leukocytes with various concentrations of aloe-emodin caused a dose-dependent decrease of viable cells, a decrease of phagocytosis by macrophages, and a decrease of the activity of NK cells. Evaluation of cytokines in leukocytes by ELISA indicated that aloe-emodin increased the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The results were also confirmed by PCR assay for the mRNA expression of the examined cytokines.

  10. Large-area Mapping of Forest Cover and Biomass using ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartus, O.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Walker, W. S.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Bishop, J.; Cormier, T.; Baccini, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the frame of a Pantropical mapping project, we aim at producing high-resolution forest cover maps from ALOS PALSAR. The ALOS data was obtained through the Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) at ASF. For the forest cover classification, a pan-tropical network of calibrated reference data was generated from ancillary satellite data (ICESAT GLAS). These data are used to classify PALSAR swath data to be combined to continental forest probability maps. The maps are validated with withheld training data for testing, as well as through independent operator verification with very high-resolution image. In addition, we aim at developing robust algorithms for the mapping of forest biophysical parameters like stem volume or biomass using synergy of PALSAR, optical and Lidar data. Currently we are testing different approaches for the mapping of forest biophysical parameters. 1) For the showcase scenario of Mexico, where we have access to ~1400 PALSAR FBD images as well as the 30 m Landsat Vegetation Continuous Field product, VCF, we test a traditional ground-data based approach. The PALSAR HH/HV intensity data and VCF are used as predictor layers in RandomForest for predicting aboveground forest biomass. A network of 40000 in situ biomass plots is used for model development (for each PALSAR swath) as well as for validation. With this approach a first 30 m biomass map for entire Mexico was produced. An initial validation of the map resulted in an RMSE of 41 t/ha and an R2 of 0.42. Pronounced differences between different ecozones were observed. In some areas the retrieval reached an R2 of 0.6 (e.g. pine-oak forests) whereas, for instance, in dry woodlands, the retrieval accuracy was much lower (R2 of 0.1). A major limitation of the approach was also represented by the fact that for the development of models for each ALOS swath, in some cases too few sample plots were available. 2) Chile: At a forest site in Central Chile, dominated by plantations of pinus radiata, synergy of ALOS

  11. A novel method for air drying aloe leaf slices by covering with filter papers as a shrink-proof layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Baek, J H; Lee, S J; Choi, S Y; Hur, W; Lee, S Y

    2009-01-01

    To prevent the shrinkage of aloe vera slices during air drying, a method utilizing a shrink-proof layer was developed. The sample was configured of whole leaf aloe slices, where 1 side or both sides were covered with filter papers as shrink-proof layers. After air drying by varying the air temperature and the slice thickness, the drying characteristics, as well as several quality factors of the dried aloe vera leaf slices, were analyzed. In the simulation of the drying curves, the modified Page model showed the best fitness, representing a diffusion-controlled drying mechanism. Nonetheless, there was a trace of a constant-rate drying period in the samples dried by the method. Shrinkage was greatly reduced, and the rehydration ratios increased by approximately 50%. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that the surface structure of original fibrous form was well sustained. FT-IR characteristics showed that the dried samples could sustain aloe polysaccharide acetylation. Furthermore, the functional properties of the dried slices including water holding capacity, swelling, and fat absorption capability were improved, and polysaccharide retention levels increased by 20% to 30%. Therefore, we concluded that application of shrink-proof layers on aloe slices provides a novel way to overcome the shrinkage problems commonly found in air drying, thereby improving their functional properties with less cost. Practical Application: This research article demonstrates a novel air drying method using shrink-proof layers to prevent the shrinkage of aloe slices. We analyzed extensively the characteristics of shrinkage mechanism and physical properties of aloe flesh gels in this drying system. We concluded that this method can be a beneficial means to retain the functional properties of dried aloe, and a potential alternative to freeze drying, which is still costly.

  12. In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of aloe-emodin on Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Delavari, Mahdi; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Sadraei, Javid

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease that is endemic in some parts of Iran. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are associated with a risk of recurrence and serious adverse effects. Therefore, finding a safe and effective treatment is of great importance. In the present study, the effect of aloe-emodin on the growth of Leishmania major amastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. In addition, the efficacy of a topical of aloe-emodin ointment was investigated in BALB/c mice with cutaneous leishmanial ulcers. Different concentrations (40 μg/mL, 80 μg/mL, 120 μg/mL, and 160 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin were tested on Leishmania amastigotes twice: 24 hours and 48 hours. The induced apoptosis and necrotic effects of two concentrations (40 μg/mL and 120 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin on promastigotes were investigated by flow cytometry. Under the in vivo condition, aloe-emodin ointment efficacy was evaluated at two concentrations (i.e., 0.1% and 1%). Serum indicator factors of the test and control groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of this compound on the liver and kidney. Results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited the growth of Leishmania amastigotes and induced apoptosis in promastigotes. Topical application of aloe-emodin ointment likewise reduced the ulcer size. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups. In conclusion, aloe-emodin showed antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical trials.

  13. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone, in vitro inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Yuan; Uen, Yih-Huei

    2010-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 and WiDr. Colon carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of aloe-emodin for different durations. Cell viability was measured by sodium 3'-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate assay. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Nuclear shrinkage was visualized by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blotting was used to indicate the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria and the phosphorylation of Bid. Caspase-3 and casein kinase II activities were measured by the respective assays. Cell viability analyses showed that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the WiDr cells were more sensitive to aloe-emodin than the DLD-1 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by activation of caspase-3 leading to DNA fragmentation, nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure of colon carcinoma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These findings showed that the inhibition of casein kinase II activity, the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c, and the caspase-3 activation are involved in aloe-emodin-mediated apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells.

  14. In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of aloe-emodin on Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Delavari, Mahdi; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Sadraei, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease that is endemic in some parts of Iran. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are associated with a risk of recurrence and serious adverse effects. Therefore, finding a safe and effective treatment is of great importance. In the present study, the effect of aloe-emodin on the growth of Leishmania major amastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. In addition, the efficacy of a topical of aloe-emodin ointment was investigated in BALB/c mice with cutaneous leishmanial ulcers. Different concentrations (40 μg/mL, 80 μg/mL, 120 μg/mL, and 160 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin were tested on Leishmania amastigotes twice: 24 hours and 48 hours. The induced apoptosis and necrotic effects of two concentrations (40 μg/mL and 120 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin on promastigotes were investigated by flow cytometry. Under the in vivo condition, aloe-emodin ointment efficacy was evaluated at two concentrations (i.e., 0.1% and 1%). Serum indicator factors of the test and control groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of this compound on the liver and kidney. Results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited the growth of Leishmania amastigotes and induced apoptosis in promastigotes. Topical application of aloe-emodin ointment likewise reduced the ulcer size. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups. In conclusion, aloe-emodin showed antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical trials. PMID:26151018

  15. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone, in vitro inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LIN, KAI-YUAN; UEN, YIH-HUEI

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 and WiDr. Colon carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of aloe-emodin for different durations. Cell viability was measured by sodium 3′-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate assay. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Nuclear shrinkage was visualized by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blotting was used to indicate the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria and the phosphorylation of Bid. Caspase-3 and casein kinase II activities were measured by the respective assays. Cell viability analyses showed that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the WiDr cells were more sensitive to aloe-emodin than the DLD-1 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by activation of caspase-3 leading to DNA fragmentation, nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure of colon carcinoma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These findings showed that the inhibition of casein kinase II activity, the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c, and the caspase-3 activation are involved in aloe-emodin-mediated apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells. PMID:22966340

  16. A multi-analytical approach for the identification of aloe as a colorant in oil-resin varnishes.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Adriana; Shibayama, Nobuko; Kirby, Daniel P

    2011-03-01

    Aloe plants have been widely documented in artists' treatises dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century as a source of colorant to achieve lustrous golden glazes on tin- and silver-foiled objects and warm-toned finishes on musical instruments, such as violins. Aloe extracts contain characteristic anthraquinone and phenolic components which impart a distinctive orange tone and fluorescence to mixtures containing them. Because of the low concentration of colorant in the coatings and its probable degradation by high temperature during manufacture, the identification of aloe in heated oil-resin mixtures represents an analytical challenge. For this reason, the possible presence of aloe in glazes and coatings has been largely overlooked. This paper describes various analytical approaches to the identification of aloe in historic samples, from comparison with results obtained from reference standards and mock-up samples. Complementary analytical techniques including thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, laser desorption-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-mass spectrometry and surface-enhanced Raman scattering were used. Different chemical markers were identified by the individual methods and the advantages and limitations of each technique for the identification of aloe in oil-resin varnishes are discussed.

  17. Novel synthetic cyclic integrin αvβ3 binding peptide ALOS4: antitumor activity in mouse melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Yacobovich, Shiri; Tuchinsky, Lena; Kirby, Michael; Kardash, Tetiana; Agranyoni, Oryan; Nesher, Elimelech; Redko, Boris; Gellerman, Gary; Tobi, Dror; Gurova, Katerina; Koman, Igor; Fabian, Osnat Ashur; Pinhasov, Albert

    2016-01-01

    ALOS4, a unique synthetic cyclic peptide without resemblance to known integrin ligand sequences, was discovered through repeated biopanning with pIII phage expressing a disulfide-constrained nonapeptide library. Binding assays using a FITC-labeled analogue demonstrated selective binding to immobilized αvβ3 and a lack of significant binding to other common proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and collagen. In B16F10 cell cultures, ALOS4 treatment at 72 h inhibited cell migration (30%) and adhesion (up to 67%). Immunofluorescent imaging an ALOS4-FITC analogue with B16F10 cells demonstrated rapid cell surface binding, and uptake and localization in the cytoplasm. Daily injections of ALOS4 (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) to mice inoculated with B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in two different cancer models, metastatic and subcutaneous tumor, resulted in reduction of lung tumor count (metastatic) and tumor mass (subcutaneous) and increased survival of animals monitored to 45 and 60 days, respectively. Examination of cellular activity indicated that ALOS4 produces inhibition of cell migration and adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that ALOS4 is a structurally-unique selective αvβ3 integrin ligand with potential anti-metastatic activity. PMID:27556860

  18. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells by Aloe vera gel components.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Han, S S; Mo, Y K; Kim, R S; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Lee, S K; Kim, Y S

    1997-10-01

    The active components of Aloe vera gel that can prevent ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells (LC) were purified by activity-guided sequential fractionation followed by in vitro functional assay. The functional assay was based on the fact that exposure of freshly isolated murine epidermal cells (EC) to UVB radiation resulted in impairment of accessory cell function of LC, as measured by their ability to support anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-primed T-cell mitogenesis. This UVB-suppressed LC accessory cell function was prevented by addition of partially purified Aloe gel components to cultures of UVB-irradiated EC. The Aloe gel components appeared to prevent events occurring within the first 24 h after UVB irradiation that lead to the impairment of accessory cell function. The Aloe gel components did not cause proliferation of anti-CD3 mAb-primed T-cells, nor did induce proliferation of normal EC. The activity-guided final purification of Aloe gel components resulted in the isolation of two components. Both of the components were small molecular weight (MW) substances with an apparent MW of less than 1,000 Da but different from each other in net charge characteristics at pH 7.4. These results suggest that Aloe vera gel contains at least two small molecular weight immunomodulators that may prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin.

  19. Intestinal absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin; A comparative study using two in vitro absorption models.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Aloe products are one of the top selling health-functional foods in Korea, however the adequate level of intake to achieve desirable effects are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the intestinal uptake and metabolism of physiologically active aloe components using in vitro intestinal absorption model. The Caco-2 cell monolayer and the everted gut sac were incubated with 5-50 microM of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin. The basolateral appearance of test compounds and their glucuronosyl or sulfated forms were quantified using HPLC. The % absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin was ranged from 5.51% to 6.60%, 6.60% to 11.32%, and 7.61% to 13.64%, respectively. Up to 18.15%, 18.18%, and 38.86% of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin, respectively, was absorbed as glucuronidated or sulfated form. These results suggest that a significant amount is transformed during absorption. The absorption rate of test compounds except aloesin was similar in two models; more aloesin was absorbed in the everted gut sac than in the Caco-2 monolayer. These results provide information to establish adequate intake level of aloe supplements to maintain effective plasma level.

  20. Acute inflammation and hematological response in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, G; Ledic-Neto, J; Gonçalves, E L T; Brum, A; Maraschin, M; Martins, M L

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia supplemented with the mixture of natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis (1:1) at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% in diet during 15 days. Thirty-six fish were distributed into four treatments with three replicates: fish supplemented with 0.5% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 1% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 2% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1), injected with 500 µg carrageenin and unsupplemented fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin. Six hours after injection, samples of blood and exudate from the swim bladder of fish were collected. It was observed an increase in the leukocyte count in the swim bladder exudate of fish supplemented with extracts of propolis and Aloe injected with carrageenin. The most frequent cells were macrophages followed by granular leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes. Supplementation with propolis and Aloe to 0.5% caused a significant increase in the number of cells on the inflammatory focus mainly macrophages, cells responsible for the phagocytic activity in tissues, agent of innate fish immune response.

  1. [Effect of aloe vera polysaccharide on the release of cytokines and nitric oxide in cultured human keratinocytes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-dong; Huang, Li-ying; Wu, Bo-yu; Jiang, Qiong; Wang, Zhong-cheng; Lin, Xin-hua

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracted from Aloe Barbadensis on the release of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured human keratinocytes. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), TGF-beta1, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and NO in the supernatants of keratinocyte culture in which culture media containing 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 microg/ml, respectively of aloe polysaccharide were assayed. In the control group equal volume of media without the polysaccharide was used. Compared with control group, the levels of TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF in the supernatants of cultured keratinocytes were significantly higher when aloe polysaccharide was added (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and they were positively correlated to the concentration of aloe polysaccharide (P<0.01). However, aloe polysaccharide markedly decreased the level of NO in a dose dependent manner (P<0.01). Aloe polysaccharide could promote keratinocytes to secrete TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF, and inhibit the release of NO.

  2. The efficacy of aloe vera in management of oral lichen planus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, S; Wahbi, W

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of oral lichen planus management is to control symptomatic outbreaks via eliminating lesions and alleviating symptoms. Corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and most of the available modalities are associated with adverse effects, which may limit their use. The aim of this review was to assess the effect of aloe vera on pain alleviation and/or clinical improvement in patients with symptomatic oral lichen planus. MEDLINE-PubMed; CENTRAL, and LILACS were searched in May 2016 to identify all clinical trials evaluating aloe vera vs placebo or corticosteroids for treatment of oral lichen planus. The included studies were five clinical trials and two case reports. From the included studies, there is weak evidence that aloe vera is more efficient than placebo and has comparable effect to triamcinolone acetonide. The meta-analyses show heterogeneity and reveals that aloe vera is inferior to the control in general. Although corticosteroids are still the gold standard, aloe vera shows promising results especially with no adverse effects compared with various adverse effects of corticosteroids. We recommend conducting new randomized clinical trials with larger sample size, sufficiently long follow-up period as well as standardized aloe vera formulations and outcome measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic methods for determination of aloin in herbal products containing Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros Almaguer, Lucía; Cavazos Rocha, Norma Cecilia; Silva Flores, Perla Giovanna; De Torres, Noemí Waksman

    2008-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant used worldwide to treat a variety of conditions and, as such, has important commercial value. Aloin is a principal component of aloe vera leaves and is used for quality control of products containing it. A semiquantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method for determining the concentration of aloin in aloe-based products was validated. The results were similar to those of a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method; therefore, TLC, which is a simple, sensitive, specific, rapid, and cheap method, may be ideal for use in any laboratory for routine analysis of commercial products containing aloe vera.

  4. Modified Aloe Polysaccharide Restores Chronic Stress-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjoo; Im, Sun-A; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Sungwon; Kwon, Junghak; Lee, Heetae; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae

    2016-09-30

    Chronic stress generally experienced in our daily lives; is known to augment disease vulnerability by suppressing the host immune system. In the present study; the effect of modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) on chronic stress-induced immunosuppression was studied; this Aloe compound was characterized in our earlier study. Mice were orally administered with MAP for 24 days and exposed to electric foot shock (EFS; duration; 3 min; interval; 10 s; intensity; 2 mA) for 17 days. The stress-related immunosuppression and restorative effect of MAP were then analyzed by measuring various immunological parameters. MAP treatment alleviated lymphoid atrophy and body weight loss. The numbers of lymphocyte subsets were significantly normalized in MAP-treated mice. Oral administration of MAP also restored the proliferative activities of lymphocytes; ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell proliferation; antibody production; and the cell killing activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In summary; oral administration of MAP ameliorated chronic EFS stress-induced immunosuppression.

  5. Modified Aloe Polysaccharide Restores Chronic Stress-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjoo; Im, Sun-A; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Sungwon; Kwon, Junghak; Lee, Heetae; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress generally experienced in our daily lives; is known to augment disease vulnerability by suppressing the host immune system. In the present study; the effect of modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) on chronic stress-induced immunosuppression was studied; this Aloe compound was characterized in our earlier study. Mice were orally administered with MAP for 24 days and exposed to electric foot shock (EFS; duration; 3 min; interval; 10 s; intensity; 2 mA) for 17 days. The stress-related immunosuppression and restorative effect of MAP were then analyzed by measuring various immunological parameters. MAP treatment alleviated lymphoid atrophy and body weight loss. The numbers of lymphocyte subsets were significantly normalized in MAP-treated mice. Oral administration of MAP also restored the proliferative activities of lymphocytes; ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell proliferation; antibody production; and the cell killing activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In summary; oral administration of MAP ameliorated chronic EFS stress-induced immunosuppression. PMID:27706024

  6. Nutritional content of fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W

    2006-07-01

    Aloe greatheadii var. davyana is the most important indigenous South African bee plant. Fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of this aloe was collected and analysed for its nutritional content, including amino acid and fatty acid composition. Highly significant differences were found between the three types of pollen. Collection and storage by the bees resulted in increased water (13-21% wet weight) and carbohydrate content (35-61% dry weight), with a resultant decrease in crude protein (51-28% dry weight) and lipid content (10-8% dry weight). Essential amino acids were present in equal or higher amounts than the required minimum levels for honeybee development, with the exception of tryptophan. Fatty acids comprised a higher proportion of total lipid in fresh pollen than in bee-collected and stored pollen. This study is the first to compare the changes that occur in pollen of a single species after collection by honeybees.

  7. Evaluation of the anti-angiogenic effect of aloe-emodin.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, C; Quesada, A R; Medina, M A

    2006-12-01

    The present study identified aloe-emodin (AE, a hydroxyanthraquinone from Aloe vera and other plants) as a new anti-angiogenic compound with inhibitory effects in an in vivo angiogenesis assay and evaluates its effects on specific key steps of the angiogenic process. AE inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, but this effect is not cell specific, since AE also inhibits tumor cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion are not remarkably affected by AE. On the other hand, AE has different effects on endothelial and tumor cell gelatinases. Two main targets of the pharmacological action of AE as an anti-angiogenic compound seem to be urokinase secretion and tubule formation of endothelial cells. Finally, AE produces a remarkable photocytotoxic effect on tumor cells. Taken together, our data indicate that AE can behave both as an anti-tumor and an anti-angiogenic compound and suggest that AE could be a candidate drug for photodynamic therapy.

  8. Design, synthesis and molecular modeling of aloe-emodin derivatives as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Hua; Huang, Wei; Li, Chao; Liu, Yu-Wei; Wang, Shi-Fan

    2014-03-21

    A series of aloe-emodin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Among them, four aloe-emodin derivatives showed significant inhibitory activities against xanthine oxidase. The compound 4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-carbaldehyde (A1) possessed the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 2.79 μM. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis revealed that A1 acted as a mixed-type inhibitor for xanthine oxidase. The docking study revealed that the molecule A1 had strong interactions with the active site of xanthine oxidase and this result was in agreement with kinetic study. Consequently, compound A1 is a new-type candidate for further development for the treatment of gout.

  9. Phytochemical constituents and in vitro radical scavenging activity of different Aloe species.

    PubMed

    Lucini, Luigi; Pellizzoni, Marco; Pellegrino, Roberto; Molinari, Gian Pietro; Colla, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The phytochemical profile of Aloe barbadensis Mill. and Aloe arborescens Mill. was investigated using colorimetric assays, triple quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometry, focusing on phenolic secondary metabolites in the different leaf portions. Hydroxycinnamic acids, several characteristic anthrones and chromones, the phenolic dimer feralolide and flavonoids such as flavones and isoflavones were identified. The stable radical DPPH test and the ORAC assay were then used to determine the in vitro radical scavenging. The outer green rind was the most active, while the inner parenchyma was much less effective. The 5-methylchromones aloesin, aloeresin A and aloesone were the most active among the pure secondary metabolites tested. The results suggest that several compounds are likely to contribute to the overall radical scavenging activity, and indicate that leaf portion must be taken into account when the plant is used for its antioxidant properties.

  10. Sea Oil Slick Observation by Means of Fully-Polarimetric ALOS PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Shimada, M.; Isoguchi, O.

    2009-04-01

    A study on sea oil slick observation by means of L- band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is accomplished. It is based on the different sea surface scattering mechanism expected with and without surface slicks. Polarimetric measurements are processed by means of a simple and very effective filtering technique which is electromagnetically based on the Mueller scattering matrix. Moreover, some polarimetric features, evaluated on both the slick-free and slick-covered sea surface, are analyzed for confirming the filter output. Experiments are accomplished on polarimetric SAR data acquired by the PALSAR sensor, mounted on board of the ALOS satellite, and are relevant to an oil slick, due to a tank accident, and a look-alike. Results demonstrate, for the first time, that L-band polarimetric SAR measurements are useful for oil slick observation purposes and witness the capability of ALOS PALSAR data for such application.

  11. Investigation on the Ancient Site Location in the Mesopotamian Region Based on ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Ushiki, Hisao; Goto, Tomoya

    2008-11-01

    This project aims to investigate the location of ancient Mesopotamian sites in Iraq and to create a distribution map using ALOS data. Iraq is a centre of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. A distribution map is essential to conduct a prompt investigation and preservation of ancient sites and cultural heritage in Iraq which are at risk of looting and robbery due to the recent Iraqi condition. Firstly this project enables to create Satellite Image Map of Iraq, where the acquisition of detailed map is not possible, based on ALOS Data. The ancient site of Mesopotamia is called "Tell" which is swelled up from the alluvial plain and forms like a hill with the bare land on the surface. Secondly, the estimation of locating ancient site has been undertaken by using the Satellite Image Interpretation method. Finally the locations of the ancient sites and the Satellite Image map are layered to produce the Distribution Map.

  12. Updated NASA Satellite Flood Map of Southeastern Texas (ALOS-2 Data)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, used synthetic aperture radar imagery from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) ALOS-2 satellite to create this Flood Proxy Map depicting areas of Southeastern Texas that are likely flooded as a result of Hurricane Harvey (shown by light blue pixels). The map is derived images taken before (July 30, 2017) and after (Aug. 27, 2017) Hurricane Harvey made landfall. The map covers an area of 220 by 400 miles (350 by 640 kilometers). Each pixel measures about 55 yards (50 meters) across. Local ground observations provided anecdotal preliminary validation. The results are also cross-validated with ARIA Sentinel-1 flood proxy map v0.2. The map should be used as guidance, and may be less reliable over urban areas. ALOS-2 data were accessed through the International Charter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21931

  13. Aloe L.--a second plant family without (TTTAGGG)n telomeres.

    PubMed

    Adams, S P; Leitch, I J; Bennett, M D; Leitch, A R

    2000-06-01

    The physical ends of chromosomes are protected and stabilised by telomeres. The sequence of telomeric DNA normally consists of a simple repeating unit that is conserved in many organisms. Most plants examined have been shown to possess Arabidopsis-type telomeres consisting of many repeat copies of the sequence 5'-TTTAGGG-3'. Using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, slot blotting and the asymmetric polymerase chain reaction we demonstrate an absence of Arabidopsis-type telomeres in the genus Aloe (family Asphodelaceae). The only other plant genera so far reported without such telomeres are Allium, Nothoscordum, and Tulbaghia (family Alliaceae). As these genera and Aloe are petaloid monocots in the Asparagales, it is suggested that an absence of Arabidopsis-type telomeres may be characteristic of this related group of plants.

  14. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers generated by electrostatic spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Illani; Sekak, Khairunnadim Ahmad; Hasbullah, Norazurean

    2015-08-28

    Researches on the fabrication of nanostructured based membrane have attracted great attention amongst scientists due to their wide potential applications on medical application. In this work, Chitosan and Aloe Vera sol-gel solution were electrospun using 20 kV DC supply at room temperature. Morphological structure and functional group of nanofibers were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. The optimum parameter obtained at 90% concentration of acetic acid, 0.3 ml/h of solution flow rate and 10 cm distance of nozzle to collector. The fiber diameters were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Average diameters of the Chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers is 183nm in ranges of 140–260nm.

  15. Lipid lowering activity of hydrosoluble chitosan and association with Aloe vera L. and Brassica olearaceae L.

    PubMed

    Geremias, R; Pedrosa, R C; Locatelli, C; de Fávere, V T; Coury-Pedrosa, R; Laranjeira, M C M

    2006-04-01

    The lipid lowering activity of chitosan associated with Aloe vera L. or hydrosoluble chitosan with Brassica olearaceae L. has been studied in rats. In this study, rats were submitted to different treatments with hydrosoluble chitosan alone (4% diet), hydrosoluble chitosan associated with Aloe vera L. or hydrosoluble chitosan with Brassica olearaceae L. (1:4, 4% diet) for 35 days, to identify the formula with the highest hypolipaemic potential. The results showed that all treatments reduced blood lipid levels but that hydrosoluble chitosan associated with Brassica olearaceae L. proved most efficient, because it decreased the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in blood serum. The overall results suggest that the hydrosoluble chitosan/Brassica olearaceae L. association is a therapeutic alternative for hyperlipidaemia, and in this way may contribute to the prevention of atherogenic processes.

  16. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  17. The potential benefits of using aloe vera in stoma patient skin care.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Mark; Perrin, Angie; Darwood, Richard; Ousey, Karen

    2017-03-09

    Individuals living with an ostomy may suffer from a variety of peri-stomal skin complications related to the use of their stoma appliance or accessories. These conditions can be serious enough to significantly impact on a patient's quality of life and may result in severe clinical complications (such as infection). This article is a review of the literature with the objective of investigating and presenting evidence for the well-documented use of aloe vera in the prevention of skin conditions similar to those seen in peri-stomal skin complications. An exploration for the potential use of aloe vera directly or indirectly (as an adjunct to medical devices such as wafers) in stoma patients is presented with the view that this use may be beneficial in the prevention of such peri-stomal skin complications.

  18. Impedance studies of a green blend polymer electrolyte based on PVA and Aloe-vera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvalakshmi, S.; Mathavan, T.; Vijaya, N.; Selvasekarapandian, Premalatha, M.; Monisha, S.

    2016-05-01

    The development of polymer electrolyte materials for energy generating and energy storage devices is a challenge today. A new type of blended green electrolyte based on Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Aloe-vera has been prepared by solution casting technique. The blending of polymers may lead to the increase in stability due to one polymer portraying itself as a mechanical stiffener and the other as a gelled matrix supported by the other. The prepared blend electrolytes were subjected to Ac impedance studies. It has been found out that the polymer film in which 1 gm of PVA was dissolved in 40 ml of Aloe-vera extract exhibits highest conductivity and its value is 3.08 × 10-4 S cm-1.

  19. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers generated by electrostatic spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Illani; Sekak, Khairunnadim Ahmad; Hasbullah, Norazurean

    2015-08-01

    Researches on the fabrication of nanostructured based membrane have attracted great attention amongst scientists due to their wide potential applications on medical application. In this work, Chitosan and Aloe Vera sol-gel solution were electrospun using 20 kV DC supply at room temperature. Morphological structure and functional group of nanofibers were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. The optimum parameter obtained at 90% concentration of acetic acid, 0.3 ml/h of solution flow rate and 10 cm distance of nozzle to collector. The fiber diameters were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Average diameters of the Chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers is 183nm in ranges of 140-260nm.

  20. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Ravi, K; Subramanian, S

    2004-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of hypoglycemic activity in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera gel. Effects of oral administration of A. vera extract at a concentration of 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight on (a) normal fasted rats, (b) oral glucose-loaded rats, and (c) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats have been studied. A. vera extract maintain the glucose homeostasis by controlling the carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes.

  2. Expression profile of genes modulated by Aloe emodin in human U87 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Haris, Khalilah; Ismail, Samhani; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Yusoff, Abdul Aziz Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive and malignant form of glioma, appears to be resistant to various chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, approaches have been intensively investigated to targeti specific molecular pathways involved in glioblastoma development and progression. Aloe emodin is believed to modulate the expression of several genes in cancer cells. We aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Aloe emodin on gene expression profiles in the human U87 glioblastoma cell line utilizing microarray technology. The gene expression analysis revealed that a total of 8,226 gene alterations out of 28,869 genes were detected after treatment with 58.6 μg/ml for 24 hours. Out of this total, 34 genes demonstrated statistically significant change (p<0.05) ranging from 1.07 to 1.87 fold. The results revealed that 22 genes were up-regulated and 12 genes were down-regulated in response to Aloe emodin treatment. These genes were then grouped into several clusters based on their biological functions, revealing induction of expression of genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) and tissue remodelling in U87 cells (p<0.01). Several genes with significant changes of the expression level e.g. SHARPIN, BCAP31, FIS1, RAC1 and TGM2 from the apoptotic cluster were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results could serve as guidance for further studies in order to discover molecular targets for the cancer therapy based on Aloe emodin treatment.

  3. Screening for novel plant sources of prenyloxyanthraquinones: Senna alexandrina Mill. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to reveal the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants claimed to have a laxative effect, in this article, we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) and 3-geranyloxyemodine from dried leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (Leguminosae) and leaves and gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Both compounds are described herein for the first time as components of extracts of the title plants.

  4. A Preliminary Study of Biomass Estimation of Boreal Forest in Alaska Using ALOS PALSAR Polarimetric Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Wurtz, T.; Gens, R.

    2007-12-01

    A reliable forest biomass determination is essential for understanding and modeling ecosystem dynamics, regional and global Carbon-fluxes, and their implications in global climate and environmental changes. The full- (HH+HV+VV+VH) and 2-polarization (HH+HV) information available from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the newly launched Japanese satellite, Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS), offers a great opportunity for estimating forest biomass from Space. We investigate ALOS PALSAR application in forest biomass estimation through two approaches. The first involves SAR polarimetry. Multiple scattering within forest, especially within forest canopy causes change of vibration direction in return radar signals, resulting in increase of the proportion of cross-polarization (i.e., HV and VH) components. Consequently, the degree of polarization (the ratio of co-polarized received power-HH+VV-over the total received power) thus decreases with increasing biomass. The second approach involves with polarization phase difference (PPD) and its standard deviation. These two parameters increase with increase in multiple scattering. Therefore, they are also indicators of higher biomass. ALOS PALSAR data sets at test sites at Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska, were acquired through the Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) at Alaska Satellite Facility. Interferometric tools are used in data processing to relate complex images in different polarizations. The resulting interferometric phase images are used for PPD and coherence images for deviations in PPD. Analysis is made through comparison of the interferometric-based patterns of PPD and its standard deviation with ground truth gathered through previous field campaigns.

  5. Detection of seagrass beds in Khunk Graben Bay, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Teruhisa; Noiraksar, Thidarat; Sakamoto, Shingo X.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Phauk, Sophany; Thongdee, Pornthep; Jualaong, Suthep; Nishida, Shuhei

    2012-11-01

    Coastal habitats having high productivity provide numerous ecological services such as foods, protection from strong waves through buffering effect, fixation of CO2 through photosynthesis, fostering biodiversity etc. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade coastal habitats. ASEAN region is developing most rapidly in the world. In the developing region, it is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of habitats as a baseline data with standardized mapping methods. Remote sensing is one of the most effective methods for mapping. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) provides non-commercial satellite images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2, similar to LANDSAT TM. Using ALOS AVNIR2 images it may be possible to make habitat map in the region. In Thailand, shrimp ponds cause degradation of coastal ecosystem through cutting mangroves and eutrophicated discharge from ponds. We examined capability of remote sesing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map seagrass beds in Khung Kraben Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, surrounded by shrimp ponds. We analyzed ALOS AVNIR2 taken on 25 January 2008. Ground truth survey was conducted in October 2010 using side scan sonar and scuba diving. The survey revealed that there were broad seagrass beds consisting of Enhalus acroides. We used a decision tree to detect seagrass beds in the bay with quite turbid seawater coupled with Depth-Invariant Index proposed by Lyzenga (1985) and bottom reflectances. We could succeed to detect seagrass beds. Thus it is concluded that ALOS AVNIR2 is practical to map seagrass beds in this region.

  6. The Effects of Different Media on Shoot Proliferation From the Shoot Tip of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Moallemi, Noorolah; Abdolah Zadeh, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Background Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income. Objectives In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated. Materials and Methods In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications. Results The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments. Conclusions Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment. PMID:24624195

  7. Preparation and characterization of aloe vera blended collagen-chitosan composite scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Jithendra, Panneerselvam; Rajam, Abraham Merlin; Kalaivani, Thambiran; Mandal, Asit Baran; Rose, Chellan

    2013-08-14

    Collagen-Chitosan (COL-CS) scaffolds supplemented with different concentrations (0.1-0.5%) of aloe vera (AV) were prepared and tested in vitro for their possible application in tissue engineering. After studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of all the composite preparations, a 0.2% AV blended COL-CS scaffold was chosen for further studies. Scaffolds were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) to understand the intermolecular interactions and their influence on the thermal property of the complex composite. Swelling property in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and in vitro biodegradability by collagenase digestion method were monitored to assess the stability of the scaffold in a physiological medium in a hydrated condition, and to assay its resistance against enzymatic forces. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the scaffold samples showed porous architecture with gradual change in their morphology and reduced tensile properties with increasing aloe vera concentration. The FTIR spectrum revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of COL-CS. The inclusion of AV to COL-CS increased the thermal stability as well as hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. Cell culture studies on the scaffold showed enhanced growth and proliferation of fibroblasts (3T3L1) without exhibiting any toxicity. Also, normal cell morphology and proliferation were observed by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The rate of cell growth in the presence/absence of aloe vera in the scaffolds was in the order: COL-CS-AV > COL-CS > TCP (tissue culture polystyrene plate). These results suggested that the aloe vera gel-blended COL-CS scaffolds could be a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  9. Deformation Survey of Volcanoes in Central America Using Japanese L-Band SAR Satellite ALOS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.; Lebowitz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese L-Band SAR satellite ALOS-1 has proven intself to be a useful tool for deformation monitoring of active volcanoes. Here we present a systematic deformation survey of volcanoes in Central America for the 2007-2011 time frame using the Small Baseline InSAR time-series approach. We present results for deforming volcanoes and non-deforming volcanoes, including simple elastic source models for the volcanoes that show surface deformation.

  10. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  11. Mapping land subsidence in Jakarta, Indonesia using persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) technique with ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Alex Hay-Man; Ge, Linlin; Li, Xiaojing; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Andreas, Heri; Zhang, Kui

    2012-08-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia. It is one of the largest cities with an around 10 million population as for 2010, covering an area of about 661 square kilometers. The land subsidence phenomena in several areas of Jakarta are well known for many years. Land subsidence does damage infrastructures in the city; therefore, it has to be closely monitored and analysed. In this paper, the authors have demonstrated the capability of the PALSAR sensor aboard the Japanese ALOS satellite for large-scale mapping of land subsidence in Jakarta. Mapping results were produced from 17 ALOS PALSAR L-band radar images using persistent scatterer radar interferometry (PSI). The GEOS-PSI software, developed by the Geodesy and Earth Observing Systems group at UNSW for PSI analysis, was used to detect and map those land subsidence. The results showed that the land in the area of Jakarta was deforming at different rates across several zones. The land subsidence measured from ALOS PALSAR imagery were cross-examined with the subsidence values obtained from 4 GPS campaign surveys by the authors at 19 stations between 2007 and 2010. The magnitudes and trends of the deformation obtained from both techniques agreed well in general for those pinpoints of GPS. After the removal of 2 suspected outliers in GPS measurements, the subsidence rate difference between the two techniques range from -29 to 6 mm/year, with a standard deviation of 9 mm/year and an average absolute difference of 8 mm/year. This research has suggested that PSI with L-band ALOS PALSAR data can be a promising technique to complement the GPS surveying for monitoring land subsidence in super large cities like Jakarta.

  12. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against Helicobacter pylori strains.

    PubMed

    Cellini, L; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Genovese, S; Locatelli, M; Di Giulio, M

    2014-07-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is a herbal remedy widely used for a variety of illnesses; A. vera leaf extracts have been promoted for detoxification, cure constipation, help flush out toxins and wastes from the body, promote digestion and are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer for cytoprotective action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of A. vera inner gel against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains isolated in Abruzzo region, Italy. The inner gel of leaves of a 5-year-old plant of A. vera was extracted, homogenized and tested from 800 to 1.56 mg ml(-1) against 14 clinical strains and one reference strain of H. pylori using the broth microdilution methodology. Furthermore, the sample of A. vera was investigated for the chemical fingerprint of anthraquinones. The inhibitory concentrations of A. vera inner gel were similar to the bactericidal ones, with values ranging from 6.25 to 800 mg ml(-1) . Fifty per cent of the detected strains, independently of their susceptibility profile, were inhibited in their growth at 100 mg ml(-1) . Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against H. pylori and, therefore, in combination with antibiotics, could represent a novel strategy for the treatment of the infection of H. pylori, especially in cases of multiresistance. The study demonstrates that the Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains. These findings may impact on the antimicrobial resistance phenomenon of H. pylori, proposing the A. vera inner gel as a novel effective natural agent for combination with antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori gastric infection. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Measuring Crustal Deformation Caused by the Nepal (Gorkha) Earthquake Using ALOS-2 SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Yarai, H.

    2015-12-01

    A huge earthquake (Mw 7.8, USGS) occurred on 25 April, 2015 in Nepal, followed by the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3, USGS) on 12 May. We applied an InSAR technique to detect crustal deformation caused by the earthquakes using L-band SAR data acquired by ALOS-2. One of the advantages of ALOS-2 over ALOS is ScanSAR interferometry. Beam synchronization, which is a critical factor for ScanSAR interferometry, is always tuned among ALOS-2 observations. While a width of 350 km is covered by a ScanSAR acquisition, the provided data is divided into five swaths with each width of 70 km. Adjacent swaths have an overlapping area with a width of several kilometers, where interferometric phases for two swaths are basically comparable. We processed each swath independently. Preliminary interferograms are contaminated by noises with long wavelength, which makes it difficult to measure the amount of the crustal deformation accurately. We reduce the noises by following steps. First, pseudo reference points with no displacement are put at intervals of 40-100 km outside of the possible deforming area. The differential phase at the points are assumed to be due to the noises. The curved surface of the noises is estimated by smoothly interpolating the differential phase at the points. Note that the pseudo reference points should be located in a high coherence area where the phases can be unwrapped. Furthermore the points in the overlapping area between adjacent swaths allow to preserve consistency of the phases between adjacent swaths. The interferograms show the clear and detailed crustal deformation (published on http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic150429-index-e.html). The maximum of a quasi up-down component of the deformation estimated from the interferograms with different beam directions reaches over 1.4 m uplift at 20 km northeast from Kathmandu and 0.6 m subsidence at a northern part of the deforming area.

  14. Efficacy of fresh Aloe vera gel against multi-drug resistant bacteria in infected leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Banu, Asima; Sathyanarayana, Bc; Chattannavar, Goura

    2012-01-01

    Infected leg ulcers are major health problems resulting in morbidity and disability and are usually chronic and refractory to antimicrobial treatment. The present study is aimed at determining the bacteria involved in leg ulcers and their resistance patterns to commonly used antibiotics as well as to determine whether Aloe Vera has antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant organisms and promotes wound healing. A total of 30 cases with leg ulcers infected with multi-drug resistant organisms were treated with topical aloe vera gel and 30 age and sex-matched controls were treated with topical antibiotics. Culture and sensitivity was done from the wounds on alternate days and the ulcer was clinically and microbiologically assessed after 10 days. The results were compiled and statistically analysed. Cultures of the study group who were using aloe vera dressings showed no growth by the fifth day in 10 (33.3%) cases, seventh day in another 16 (53.3%) and ninth day in two of the remaining four cases (6.7%) while in two (6.7%) cases there was no decrease in the bacterial count. This means that of the 30 cases, 28 showed no growth by the end of 11 days while two cases showed no decrease in bacterial count. Growth of bacteria in study group is decreased from 100% (30 cases) to 6.7% (2 cases) by day 11 with P<0.001. Cultures of the control group did not show any decrease in the bacterial growth by day 11. Aloe vera gel preparation is cheap and was effective even against multi-drug resistant organisms as compared to the routinely used topical anti-microbial agents.

  15. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  16. Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel

    SciTech Connect

    Grindlay, D.; Reynolds, T.

    1986-06-01

    The mucilaginous gel from the parenchymatous cells in the leaf pulp of Aloe vera has been used since early times for a host of curative purposes. This gel should be distinguished clearly from the bitter yellow exudate originating from the bundle sheath cells, which is used for its purgative effects. Aloe vera gel has come to play a prominent role as a contemporary folk remedy, and numerous optimistic, and in some cases extravagant, claims have been made for its medicinal properties. Modern clinical use of the gel began in the 1930s, with reports of successful treatment of X-ray and radium burns, which led to further experimental studies using laboratory animals in the following decades. The reports of these experiments and the numerous favourable case histories did not give conclusive evidence, since although positive results were usually described, much of the work suffered from poor experimental design and insufficiently large test samples. In addition some conflicting or inconsistent results were obtained. With the recent resurgence of interest in Aloe vera gel, however, new experimental work has indicated the possibility of distinct physiological effects. Chemical analysis has shown the gel to contain various carbohydrate polymers, notably either glucomannans or pectic acid, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of the gel have been described, there is no certain correlation between these and the identified gel components. 154 references.

  17. Surface change detection in glacier regions of Bolivia using ALOS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Nobuhiro; Ono, Makoto; Ramirez, Edson

    Mountainous glaciers are important water resources in the high Andean region. The glaciers not only supply water for drinking and agriculture, but also produce energy in hydroelectric power plants to local communities. The recent rapid glacier retreat is at high risk for severe water shortage in the near future. And the melting water of glacier sometimes leads to landslide disaster or glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF). Actually, the debris flow happened and damaged the buildings at the valley of Pacuni glacier in Bolivia in December 2007. Consequently, the monitoring of the glacier regions is very important both to manage water resources and to limit damage from landslide disaster. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite "DAICHI" (ALOS) has three sensors, two visible imagers and one L-band polarimetric SAR, and has been observing the land surface since 2006. This study discusses the availability of ALOS data for surface change detection in glacier regions in Bolivia. Pacuni glacier and its surrounding mountainous region is selected as a test site for this study and many landslides are detected by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data of ALOS.

  18. Acitretin and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogel for the treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Divya, G; Panonnummal, Rajitha; Gupta, Swati; Jayakumar, R; Sabitha, M

    2016-10-01

    The present study focuses on the development of an effective topical nanogel formulation of two anti-psoriatic drugs; Acitretin (Act) and Aloe-emodin (AE) using natural polymer chitin. Simple regeneration chemistry was used to prepare Chitin Nanogel Systems (CNGs). The developed control chitin (CNGs) nanogels, acitretin loaded chitin nanogels (ActCNGs) and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogels (AECNGs) were characterized by DLS, SEM, FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. The systems were found to be spherical in shape with a size range of 98±10, 138±8 and 238±6nm having zeta potential values of +28±3, +27±3 and +25±6mV for CNGs, ActCNGs and AECNGs respectively. The in vitro haemolysis assay revealed that all the nanogel systems are blood compatible. The systems exhibited higher swelling and release at acidic pH. The ex vivo skin permeation studies using porcine skin confirmed the higher deposition of the systems at epidermal and dermal layers, which was confirmed further by fluorescent imaging. The in vivo anti-psoriatic activity study using Perry's mouse tail model and skin safety studies confirmed the potential benefit of the system for topical delivery of acitretin and aloe-emodin in psoriasis.

  19. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  20. In vitro and in vivo assessment of piroxicam incorporated Aloe vera transgel

    PubMed Central

    Velam, Vinesha; Yalavarthi, Prasanna Raju; Sundaresan, CR; Vandana, KR; Dudala, Thushara Bindu; Kodavatikanti, Haritha; Vadlamudi, Harini Chowdary

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to develop piroxicam-Aloe vera gel (PAG) formulation and make a pharmacodynamic evaluation of the formulation. Materials and Methods: The gel was prepared by using carbopol 934 as gelling agent and methyl paraben as a preservative in an Aloe vera gel base. The formulated gel was also evaluated for physicochemical parameters like pH, viscosity, drug content, and in vitro diffusion assessment. Pharmacodynamic activity of the formulation was evaluated in Wistar albino rats. The formulated gel was compared with that of similar marketed gel (commercial piroxicam gel (CPG)) against the same parameters. Results: From in vitro studies, an effective drug release from PAG was observed to be 68.17% when compared with that of the CPG (62.71%) at 180 min indicating better drug release from the gel formulated in this study. Percentage inhibition of edema was greater for the preparation of PAG (29.57 mean percent inhibition after 60 min) compared to marketed gel which exhibited 18.3% after 60 min. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare piroxicam gel with high drug loading capacity and improved anti-inflammatory effect. From the statistical analysis the formulation of PAG showed better release than the CPG at p < 0.05 level of significance. PMID:24350041

  1. In vitro evaluation of UV opacity potential of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Shyam; Datta, P K; Dutta Gupta, S

    2009-04-01

    In this study, lyophilized crude and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms (S24, RM, TN, OR, and RJN) of Aloe vera L. were tested for their ultraviolet (UV) opacity potential. UV absorption profiles, sun protection factor (SPF), and percentage blocking of UVA and UVB were considered to test UV opacity potential. Both the extracts showed UV absorption and followed the same path in the wavelength range of 250-400 nm in all the germplasms. Methanolic extract showed a stronger absorptivity than the crude lyophilized extract. Among the tested germplasms, maximum UV opacity property with a SPF of 9.97% and 79.12% UVB blocking was obtained with RJN, whereas a poor response was evident in TN with a SPF of 1.37% and 28.5% UVB blocking at 4 mg/ml methanolic extract. To our knowledge the present work for the first time documents UV opacity properties of A. vera L. gel and opens up new vistas in Aloe gel characterization.

  2. The Relation between Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Leaf Slices of Aloe arborescens Mill.

    PubMed

    Denius, H R; Homann, P H

    1972-06-01

    Leaves and leaf slices from Aloe arborescens Mill. were used to study the interrelations between Crassulacean acid metabolism, photosynthesis, and respiration. Oxygen exchange of leaf slices was measured polarographically. It was found that the photosynthetic utilization of stored malic acid resulted in a net evolution of oxygen. This oxygen production, and the decrease in acid content of the leaf tissue, were completely inhibited by amytal, although the rate of respiratory oxygen uptake was hardly affected by the presence of this inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Other poisons of respiration (cyanide) and of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (trifluoroacetate, 2-diethyl malonate) also were effective in preventing acid-dependent oxygen evolution. It is concluded that the mobilization of stored acids during light-dependent deacidification of the leaves depends on the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and of the electron transport of the mitochondria.A comparison of enzyme activities in extracts from Aloe leaves and from other plants and studies of leaf anatomy and chloroplast morphology revealed typical characteristics of C(3)-, as well as C(4)-, plants in Aloe.

  3. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  4. Spectral reflectance of Kelantan Estuary with ALOS data to estimate transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahreza, S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2012-09-01

    The Kelantan estuary, located in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia, is characterized by high levels of suspended sediments. Kuala Besar is the estuary of the river directly opposite South China Sea. Spectral reflectance (Rr) and transparency measurements were carried out in the Kelantan estuary. The objective in this study is to establish empirical relationships between spectral remote sensing reflectance in ALOS satellite imagery and water column transparency, i.e. nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) and Secchi disc depth (SDD) through these numerous in situ measurements. We detected that remote sensing reflectance are linear and power regression functions against NTU and SDD. The results of this sampling show that the wavelengths range from 500-620 nm is the most suitable band for measuring water column transparency. The calibrated reflectance of ALOS AVNIR-2 bands was also regressed against NTU and SDD field data to derive two empirical equations for water transparency estimation. These equations were calculated using ALOS images data on June 12, 2010. The result obtained indicated that reliable estimates of turbidity and transparency values for the Kelantan Estuary, Malaysia, could be retrieved using this method.

  5. Identification of optimal molecular size of modified Aloe polysaccharides with maximum immunomodulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun-A; Oh, Sun-Tack; Song, Sukgil; Kim, Mi-Ran; Kim, Dong-Seon; Woo, Sung-Sick; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2005-02-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from the gel of Aloe species have been known to have diverse biological activities, including immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. The molecular size-immunomodulatory activity relationship of modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) was examined in this study. Crude MAP (G2E1) was prepared from the gel of Aloe vera that was partially digested with cellulase. Proteins in crude MAP were removed by passage through a DEAE-Sephacel column, and then the protein-free MAP (G2E1D) was further separated into three fractions, G2E1DS3 molecular weight (MW > or = 400 KDa), G2E1DS2 (5 KDa < or = MW < or = 400 KDa), G2E1DS1 (MW < or = 5 KDa), by Sephacryl column chromatography and ultrafiltration. Immunomodulatory activities of MAP preparations were examined on a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells, and in ICR strain of mouse implanted with sarcoma 180 cells. We found that polysaccharides between 400 and 5 KDa exhibit the most potent macrophage-activating activity as determined by increased cytokine production, nitric oxide release, expression of surface molecules, and phagocytic activity. In accordance with the in vitro activity, polysaccharides between 400 and 5 KDa also exhibited the most potent antitumor activity in vivo.

  6. Comparison of Plaque Inhibiting Efficacies of Aloe Vera and Propolis Tooth Gels: A Randomized PCR Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aravind; Sunkara, Musalaiah Svv; Pantareddy, Indeevar; Sudhakar, Sankaran

    2015-09-01

    Allopathic medications used for periodontal disease are known to be associated with various side effects. Hence a search for naturotherapies are on the rise. Among the natural pharmacons available aloevera and propolis are considered to be effective and free from adverse effects. Taking this into account, the present study was done to compare the plaque inhibiting efficacies of Aloe vera and Propolis tooth gels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to groups A and B containing 20 patients each. Patients in group A were advised to use Aloe vera tooth gel while those in group B were advised to use Propolis tooth gel. Clinical and microbiologic parameters using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Student t-test was performed for all the obtained results. In the Aloe vera group, comparison of baseline PCR and after 3 month results showed reduction only in P. gingivalis (p=0.001), where as statistically significant reduction in all the three red complex microorganisms was seen in propolis group. All the clinical parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing, Probing pocket Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level) in both the groups showed statistically significant reductions after 3 months. Propolis showed a statistically significant reduction in plaque, microbiologic and clinical parameters. However, clinical trials of longer durations with larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the efficacy.

  7. Circadian variations in biologically closed electrochemical circuits in Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Baker, Kara; Foster, Justin C; Clemmons, Jacqueline; Jovanov, Emil; Markin, Vladislav S

    2011-04-01

    The circadian clock regulates a wide range of electrophysiological and developmental processes in plants. This paper presents, for the first time, the direct influence of a circadian clock on biologically closed electrochemical circuits in vivo. Here we show circadian variation of the plant responses to electrical stimulation. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica, which regulate their physiology, were analyzed using the charge stimulation method. The electrostimulation was provided with different timing and different voltages. Resistance between Ag/AgCl electrodes in the leaf of Aloe vera was higher during the day than at night. Discharge of the capacitor in Aloe vera at night was faster than during the day. Discharge of the capacitor in a pulvinus of Mimosa pudica was faster during the day. The biologically closed electrical circuits with voltage gated ion channels in Mimosa pudica are also activated the next day, even in the darkness. These results show that the circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. We present the equivalent electrical circuits in both plants and their circadian variation to explain the experimental data.

  8. Comparison of Plaque Inhibiting Efficacies of Aloe Vera and Propolis Tooth Gels: A Randomized PCR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Musalaiah Svv; Pantareddy, Indeevar; Sudhakar, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Backgound and Aim Allopathic medications used for periodontal disease are known to be associated with various side effects. Hence a search for naturotherapies are on the rise. Among the natural pharmacons available aloevera and propolis are considered to be effective and free from adverse effects. Taking this into account, the present study was done to compare the plaque inhibiting efficacies of Aloe vera and Propolis tooth gels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to groups A and B containing 20 patients each. Patients in group A were advised to use Aloe vera tooth gel while those in group B were advised to use Propolis tooth gel. Clinical and microbiologic parameters using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results Student t-test was performed for all the obtained results. In the Aloe vera group, comparison of baseline PCR and after 3 month results showed reduction only in P. gingivalis (p=0.001), where as statistically significant reduction in all the three red complex microorganisms was seen in propolis group. All the clinical parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing, Probing pocket Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level) in both the groups showed statistically significant reductions after 3 months. Conclusion Propolis showed a statistically significant reduction in plaque, microbiologic and clinical parameters. However, clinical trials of longer durations with larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the efficacy. PMID:26501001

  9. Preliminary results of calibration for ALOS optical sensors and validation of generated PRISM DSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mukaida, Akira; Takaku, Junichi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was successfully launched on January 24 th, 2006. This paper introduces the preliminary results of calibration and validation for two optical sensors of ALOS i.e., the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). PRISM consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers, and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution, which is also an objective of the ALOS mission. So, the geometric calibration is important in generating a highly accurate DSM by stereo pair image of PRISM. The radiometric calibration is also important for AVNIR-2 as well as PRISM. The relative radiometric calibration is carrying out using acquired images over homogeneous targets such as ocean, deserts, ice and snow areas and the nighttime observation. The absolute radiometric calibration is applied the cross calibration method using calibrated satellite images i.e., MODIS onboard Terra/Aqua satellites, ASTER, SPOT-5 etc. In this paper, results of the first images acquisition and preliminary analysis for calibration and validation are described.

  10. Formulation development, optimization and evaluation of aloe vera gel for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To formulate and optimize a herbal gel of Aloe vera extract containing Carbopol 934 as gelling agent and to investigate the effects of topical application of Carbopol 934 gel containing Aloe vera extract on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of viscosity enhancer Carbopol 934 were tried and finally gel that showed good spreadability and consistency was selected for wound healing property of herbal gel of Aloe vera. Excision wound model was used for the study. Results: The optimized gel was evaluated for different physicochemical properties and wound healing property. Differences in wound healing were observed between the various treatments when compared to the control group. Tissue hyperplasia was lower in the control group compared to the other treated groups. In animals group treated with gel, 80.14% healing was observed up to 14th day. While in untreated group I (control) animals showed 52.68% healing of wounds on 14th day. On the other hand, control group animals also showed inflammation and pus formation up to 5th day of study, while treated animals did not showed any observable inflammation and pus formation. Conclusion: Results shows prepared gel has promising effect on the wound healing process. PMID:24143047

  11. Screening methods used to determine the anti-microbial properties of Aloe vera inner gel.

    PubMed

    Habeeb, Fatema; Shakir, Eisin; Bradbury, Fiona; Cameron, Pamela; Taravati, Mohamad R; Drummond, Allan J; Gray, Alexander I; Ferro, Valerie A

    2007-08-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains is a growing problem and is an important concern for patients, physicians, healthcare managers, and policymakers as it results in poorer health and economic outcomes. This has led to an urgent global call for new antimicrobial drugs, particularly from natural resources. We have been studying the antimicrobial properties of the inner leaf gel component of Aloe barbadensis Miller and have used a number of different, simple in vitro assays to establish a scientific basis for the potential use of Aloe vera on a range of clinically relevant bacteria. The bacteria used include Shigella flexneri, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus bovis. In this paper, we compare standard methods recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) with a microtitre assay using a metabolic colour indicator Alamar blue. All the techniques described have shown that Aloe vera has an antimicrobial effect, however, the microtitre assay enables high throughput screening, under similar conditions and is less wasteful of plant material.

  12. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  13. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  14. Millimeter Detection of AlO (X^2 Σ ^+): Metal Oxide Chemistry in the Envelope of VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2009-06-01

    A new circumstellar molecule, the radical AlO (X^2 Σ ^+), has been detected toward the envelope of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The N = 7 → 6 and 6 → 5 rotational transitions of AlO at 268 and 230 GHz were observed at 1 mm using the ARO Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) and the N = 4 → 3 line was detected at 2 mm using the ARO 12 m. Based on the shape of the line profiles, AlO most likely arises from the dust-forming region in the spherical outflow of VY CMa, as opposed to the blue- or red-shifted winds, with a source size of θ_s ˜ 0.5^''. Given this source size, the column density of AlO was found to be N_{tot} ˜ 2 × 10^{15} cm^{-2} for T_{rot} ˜ 230 K, with a fractional abundance, relative to H_2, of ˜ 10^{-8}. Gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry is the likely formation mechanism for AlO in VY CMa, but shocks may disrupt the condensation process into Al_2O_3, allowing AlO to survive to a radius of ˜ 20 R_*. The detection of AlO in VY CMa is additional evidence of an active gas-phase refractory chemistry in oxygen-rich envelopes, and suggests such objects may be fruitful sources for other new oxide identifications.

  15. Aloe vera downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Milesz, Sándor; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an immunomodulatory agent inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on the IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production has not been studied. IL-1β production is strictly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels through the activity of Nlrp3 inflammasome. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of Aloe vera on the molecular mechanisms of Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in LPS-activated human THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results show that Aloe vera significantly reduced IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in a dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was substantially more pronounced in the primary cells. We found that Aloe vera inhibited the expression of pro-IL-1β, Nlrp3, caspase-1 as well as that of the P2X7 receptor in the LPS-induced primary macrophages. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways like NF-κB, p38, JNK and ERK were inhibited by Aloe vera in these cells. Altogether, we show for the first time that Aloe vera-mediated strong reduction of IL-1β appears to be the consequence of the reduced expression of both pro-IL-1β as well as Nlrp3 inflammasome components via suppressing specific signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the ATP sensor P2X7 receptor is also downregulated by Aloe vera that could also contribute to the attenuated IL-1β cytokine secretion. These results may provide a new therapeutic approach to regulate inflammasome-mediated responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aloe vera attenuated gastric injury on indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Rakananurak, Narisorn; Sallapant, Sasipim; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effects of Aloe vera on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, n = 6) was given distilled water (DW) orally. Group 2 (IMN, n = 6) was given oral IMN (150 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-) at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (Aloe vera-treated, n = 6) was given oral Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) dissolved in DW and IMN at time 0 and 4 h. Eight hours later, the stomach was removed to determine gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), the number of interleukin (IL)-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry, and for histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: In the IMN group, serum TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA were significantly increased when compared to the control group (27.78 ± 1.52 pg/mL vs 85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL, P = 0.009; 104.55 ± 45.80 pg/mL vs 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL, and 1.74 ± 0.21 nmol/mg vs 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean level of TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA in the Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with the IMN group (85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL vs 35.19 ± 1.61 pg/mL, P = 0.021; 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL vs 813.56 ± 239.04 pg/mL, P = 0.025; and 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg vs 2.67 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) in the gastric epithelial cells of the IMN group was significantly higher than the control group (5.01% ± 3.73% vs 30.67% ± 2.03%, P = 0.000, respectively). In contrast, Aloe vera treatment decreased the number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) significantly when compared with the IMN group (30.67% ± 2.03% vs 13.21% ± 1.10%, P = 0.000, respectively). Most rats in the IMN group developed moderate to severe

  17. Aloe vera attenuated gastric injury on indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Rakananurak, Narisorn; Sallapant, Sasipim; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-12-28

    To evaluate the protective effects of Aloe vera on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, n = 6) was given distilled water (DW) orally. Group 2 (IMN, n = 6) was given oral IMN (150 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 (-)) at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (Aloe vera-treated, n = 6) was given oral Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) dissolved in DW and IMN at time 0 and 4 h. Eight hours later, the stomach was removed to determine gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), the number of interleukin (IL)-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry, and for histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. In the IMN group, serum TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA were significantly increased when compared to the control group (27.78 ± 1.52 pg/mL vs 85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL, P = 0.009; 104.55 ± 45.80 pg/mL vs 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL, and 1.74 ± 0.21 nmol/mg vs 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean level of TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA in the Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with the IMN group (85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL vs 35.19 ± 1.61 pg/mL, P = 0.021; 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL vs 813.56 ± 239.04 pg/mL, P = 0.025; and 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg vs 2.67 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) in the gastric epithelial cells of the IMN group was significantly higher than the control group (5.01% ± 3.73% vs 30.67% ± 2.03%, P = 0.000, respectively). In contrast, Aloe vera treatment decreased the number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) significantly when compared with the IMN group (30.67% ± 2.03% vs 13.21% ± 1.10%, P = 0.000, respectively). Most rats in the IMN group developed moderate to severe gastric inflammation

  18. Effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Suksomboon, N; Poolsup, N; Punthanitisarn, S

    2016-04-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Xanthorrhoeaceae family) has long been used in folk or traditional medicine for diabetes. Several studies have been conducted on the effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control, but the results appear inconsistent. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted through MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Scopus, http://clinicaltrials.gov, Web of Science, Proquest, LILACS, HerbMed, NAPRALERT and CNKI to the end of January 2016 without language restriction. Historical search of relevant articles and personal contact with experts in the area were also undertaken. Studies were included if they were (1) randomized controlled trials of Aloe vera aimed at assessing glycaemic control in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes and (2) reporting fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ). Treatment effect was estimated with mean difference in the final value of FPG and HbA1c between the treatment and the control groups. Eight trials involving 470 patients (235 each for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes) were included. In prediabetes, Aloe vera significantly improved FPG (mean difference -0·22 mmol/L, 95% CI -0·32 mmol/L to -0·12 mmol/L, P < 0·0001), with no effect on HbA1c (mean difference -2 mmol/mol, 95% CI -5 mmol/mol to 1 mmol/mol). Aloe vera may improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, with a marginal improvement in FPG (mean differences -1·17 mmol/L, 95% CI -2·35 mmol/L to 0·00 mmol/L, P = 0·05) and a significant improvement in HbA1c (mean difference -11 mmol/mol, 95% CI -19 mmol/mol to -2 mmol/mol, P = 0·01). The current evidence suggests some potential benefit of Aloe vera in improving glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, given the limitations of the available evidence and the high heterogeneity in study results, high-quality, well-powered randomized controlled

  19. Using ALoFT to determine the impact of putative loss-of-function variants in protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Fu, Yao; Pawashe, Mayur; McGillivray, Patrick; Jin, Mike; Liu, Jeremy; Karczewski, Konrad J; MacArthur, Daniel G; Gerstein, Mark

    2017-08-29

    Variants predicted to result in the loss of function of human genes have attracted interest because of their clinical impact and surprising prevalence in healthy individuals. Here, we present ALoFT (annotation of loss-of-function transcripts), a method to annotate and predict the disease-causing potential of loss-of-function variants. Using data from Mendelian disease-gene discovery projects, we show that ALoFT can distinguish between loss-of-function variants that are deleterious as heterozygotes and those causing disease only in the homozygous state. Investigation of variants discovered in healthy populations suggests that each individual carries at least two heterozygous premature stop alleles that could potentially lead to disease if present as homozygotes. When applied to de novo putative loss-of-function variants in autism-affected families, ALoFT distinguishes between deleterious variants in patients and benign variants in unaffected siblings. Finally, analysis of somatic variants in >6500 cancer exomes shows that putative loss-of-function variants predicted to be deleterious by ALoFT are enriched in known driver genes.Variants causing loss of function (LoF) of human genes have clinical implications. Here, the authors present a method to predict disease-causing potential of LoF variants, ALoFT (annotation of Loss-of-Function Transcripts) and show its application to interpreting LoF variants in different contexts.

  20. Aloe-emodin suppressed NMDA-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells through regulation of ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ju; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Huang, Shiuan-Yi; Wan, Lai; Wu, Chen-Ju; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2007-11-01

    A high concentration of glutamate in the vitreous body and optic nerves of the eyes activates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is toxic to retina ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucomatous patients. Aloe-emodin sulfates/glucuronides (s/g), the major metabolites of aloe-emodin, was found to be effective in decreasing NMDA-induced apoptosis in RGCs. In order to elucidate the mechanisms, an in vitro optic neuropathy model adding NMDA to N18 RGCs was used in this study. The phosphorylation level of extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (cytokines-suppressive antiinflammatory drug binding protein kinase) were measured by western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. The results showed that aloe-emodin metabolites significantly decreased the activation of three major mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways and the activation of downstream genes in nucleus induced by NMDA, which were verified by the addition of the respective inhibitors. Comparing the effect of the inhibitors of the three MAP kinase pathways, the ERK pathway was found to be the major route of aloe-emodin metabolites in decreasing the apoptosis of NMDA-treated RGCs. Besides, cfos rather then cjun was the target downstream gene. Aloe-emodin emodin metabolites could regulate the phosphorylation of ERK kinases and it was a promising candidate for NMDA-induced apoptosis of RGCs.

  1. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel compared with 1% silver sulphadiazine cream as burn wound dressing in second degree burns.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Naveed; Ahmed, Naheed

    2013-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of Aloe Vera gel compared with 1% silver sulfadiazine cream as a burn dressing for the treatment of superficial and partial thickness burns. This Interventional Comparative study was carried out at the Burn unit and Plastic surgery department, Nishtar Hospital Multan, Pakistan from July 2008 to December 2010. A total of 50 patients with superficial and partial thickness burns were divided into two equal groups randomly by consecutive sampling method, one group was dressed with Aloe Vera gel while the other was treated with 1% silversulphadiazine cream, and the results regarding duration of wound epithelialization, pain relief and cost of treatment were compared. In patients treated with Aloe Vera gel, healing of burn wounds were remarkably early than those patients treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine. All the patients of Aloe Vera group were relieved of pain earlier than those patients who were treated with SSD. Thermal burns patients dressed with Aloe Vera gel showed advantage compared to those dressed with SSD regarding early wound epithelialization, earlier pain relief and cost-effectiveness.

  2. A randomized study of chemotherapy versus biochemotherapy with chemotherapy plus Aloe arborescens in patients with metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Lissoni, Paolo; Rovelli, Franco; Brivio, Fernando; Zago, Romano; Colciago, Massimo; Messina, Giuseppina; Mora, Adelio; Porro, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    The recent advances in the analysis of tumor immunobiology suggest the possibility of biologically manipulating the efficacy and toxicity of cancer chemotherapy by endogenous or exogenous immunomodulating substances. Aloe is one of the of the most important plants exhibiting anticancer activity and its antineoplastic property is due to at least three different mechanisms, based on antiproliferative, immunostimulatory and antioxidant effects. The antiproliferative action is determined by anthracenic and antraquinonic molecules, while the immunostimulating activity is mainly due to acemannan. A study was planned to include 240 patients with metastatic solid tumor who were randomized to receive chemotherapy with or without Aloe. According to tumor histotype and clinical status, lung cancer patients were treated with cisplatin and etoposide or weekly vinorelbine, colorectal cancer patients received oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gastric cancer patients were treated with weekly 5-FU and pancreatic cancer patients received weekly gemcitabine. Aloe was given orally at 10 ml thrice/daily. The percentage of both objective tumor regressions and disease control was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with Aloe than with chemotherapy alone, as well as the percent of 3-year survival patients. This study seems to suggest that Aloe may be successfully associated with chemotherapy to increase its efficacy in terms of both tumor regression rate and survival time.

  3. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  4. Precipitation of hydroxyapatite on electrospun polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavel, Suganya; Reddy, Venugopal Jayarama; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Lakshmi, B S; Dev, Vr Giri

    2014-07-01

    Advances in electrospun nanofibres with bioactive materials have enhanced the scope of fabricating biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering. The present research focuses on fabrication of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds by electrospinning followed by hydroxyapatite deposition by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering. Morphology, composition, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds along with controls polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle and tensile tests, respectively. Adipose-derived stem cells cultured on polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds displayed highest cell proliferation, increased osteogenic markers expression (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), osteogenic differentiation and increased mineralization in comparison with polycaprolactone control. The obtained results indicate that polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds have appropriate physico-chemical and biological properties to be used as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation in cutaneous wounds after topical application of aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh; Zolbin, Masoumeh Majidi

    2016-12-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant used to treat various skin diseases. The effects of using aloe vera gel on the healing process were investigated by microscopic methods, cell counting, and TGF-β gene expression in the wound bed. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were placed under anesthesia in sterile conditions. A square 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm wound was made on the back of the neck. The rats were divided into control and 2 experimental groups. Additionally, the control and experimental groups were separated into 3 subgroups corresponding to 4, 7, and 14 days of study. In the first experimental group, aloe vera was used twice on the wound. The second experimental group received aloe vera overtreatment once on the wound. The positive control group received daily application of 1% phenytoein cream following surgical wound creation. The control group did not receive any treatment. This tissue was examined using histological staining (H&E) and Masson's Trichrome. Wound surface and wound healing were evaluated separately. TGF-β gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results showed that fibroblasts in both experimental groups were significantly increased, thereby acceleration wound healing. Application of aloe vera gel will increase TGF-β gene expression, ultimately accelerating the wound healing process.

  6. Aloe-emodin induces cell death through S-phase arrest and caspase-dependent pathways in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Lai, Wan-Wen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Wu, Ping-Ping; Ma, Chia-Yu; Yeh, Chin-Chung; Ho, Chin-Chin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Wood, W Gibson; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2009-11-01

    Aloe-emodin, one of the anthraquinones, has been shown to have anticancer activity in different kinds of human cancer cell lines. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of aloe-emodin on human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The results indicated that aloe-emodin induced cell death through S-phase arrest and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with 30 microM of aloe-emodin led to S-phase arrest through promoted p53, p21 and p27, but inhibited cyclin A, E, thymidylate synthase and Cdc25A levels. Aloe-emodin promoted the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (Endo G), pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome c from the mitochondria via a loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) which was associated with a increase in the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax)/B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) and activation of caspase-9 and -3. The free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and caspase inhibitors markedly blocked aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis. Aloe-emodin thus induced apoptosis in the SCC-4 cells through the Fas/death-receptor, mitochondria and caspase cascade. Aloe-emodin could be a novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human tongue squamous cancer in the future.

  7. Toxicologic Assessment of a Commercial Decolorized Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice, Lily of the Desert Filtered Whole Leaf Juice with Aloesorb

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Wallace D.; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies—examined grossly and microscopically—that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks. PMID:23554812

  8. Toxicologic assessment of a commercial decolorized whole leaf aloe vera juice, lily of the desert filtered whole leaf juice with aloesorb.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies-examined grossly and microscopically-that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks.

  9. Determination of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin-A by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2007-01-01

    Methods using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC with diode array detection (DAD) in the UV range (LC/UV) were developed for the determination of low levels of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin-A (barbaloin) in aloe-based products. The methods were used to analyze several commercial products (liquids, semisolids, and solids) for the 2 anthraquinones. The wavelengths used for quantification of aloin-A, aloe-emodin, and emodin (internal standard) by DAD were 357, 257, and 289 nm, respectively. The on-column sensitivities were 0.25 and 0.05 ng by LC/UV and 0.01 and 0.025 ng by LC/MS for aloin-A and aloe-emodin, respectively. The methods are simple and sensitive and provide reproducible results; therefore, they are suitable for the determination of these anthraquinones in various aloe-based products.

  10. Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, M.; Bindu, K. R.; Sneha Saj, A.; Anila, E. I.

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles remains to be a major issue in their application to the biomedical field. Aloe vera (AV) is one of the most widely exploited medicinal plants that have a multitude of amazing properties in the field of medicine. Methanol extract of Aloe vera can be used as a novel stabilising agent for quantum dots to reduce toxicity. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity studies of ZnS:Mn quantum dots synthesized by the colloidal precipitation method, using methanol extract of Aloe vera (AVME) as the capping agent. The ZnS:Mn quantum dots capped with AVME exhibit superior performances in biocompatibility and antibacterial activity compared with ZnS:Mn quantum dots without encapsulation. Project supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.

  11. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health.

  12. Effect of aloe vera leaf gel extract on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in rats with streptozotocin diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sriram, N; Arulselvan, P; Subramanian, S

    2007-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to promote deterioration of membrane function and impair intra cellular metabolism in the organism. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats treated with STZ showed significant alterations in the activities of membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in the liver and kidney. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days significantly restored the alterations in enzymes activity to near normalcy. These results were compared with glibenclamide, a reference drug. Thus, the present study confirms that Aloe vera gel extract possesses a significant beneficial effect on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases.

  13. EFFECT OF A DENTIFRICE CONTAINING ALOE VERA ON PLAQUE AND GINGIVITIS CONTROL. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Sílvia Morgana Araújo; Torres, Ticiana Carneiro; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima; Carlos, Márlio Ximenes

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was evaluated in a randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to the test group (n=15) – dentifrice containing Aloe vera - or the control group (n=15) – fluoridated dentifrice. Plaque index (PI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were assessed at days 0 and 30. Subjects were asked to brush their teeth with the control or test dentifrice, three times a day, during a 30-day period. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in both groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.01). The dentifrice containing Aloe vera did not show any additional effect on plaque and gingivitis control compared to the fluoridated dentifrice. PMID:19089263

  14. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  15. Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Ishizaki, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol) to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing 40 μg Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ≥40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25759593

  16. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Thanapirom, Kessarin; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Siriviriyakul, Prasong

    2014-07-08

    An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate that Aloe vera attenuate APAP

  17. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Methods Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). Results In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. Conclusions APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate

  18. Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Yolanda Y; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; Tortoriello, Jaime; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a widespread pathology associated with the metabolic syndrome, myocardial ischemia, and hypertension. Finding an adequate treatment for this pathology is an important goal in medicine. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of an extract from Aloe vera gel containing a high concentration of polyphenols on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice. A polyphenol-rich Aloe vera extract (350 mg/kg) with known concentrations of aloin (181.7 mg/g) and aloe-emodin (3.6 mg/g) was administered orally for a period of 4 weeks to insulin resistant ICR mice. Pioglitazone (50 mg/kg) and bi-distilled water were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Body weight, food intake, and plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured and insulin tolerance tests were performed. The insulin resistance value was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula. Results showed that the polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera was able to decrease significantly both body weight (p < 0.008) and blood glucose levels (p < 0.005) and to protect animals against unfavorable results on HOMA-IR, which was observed in the negative control group. The highest glucose levels during the insulin tolerance curve test were in the negative control group when compared to the Aloe vera extract and pioglitazone treated mice (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Aloe vera gel could be effective for the control of insulin resistance.

  19. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for nutraceutical application based upon toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Gwak, Hyo-Min; Park, Hyun Jong; Roh, Taehyun; Shin, Min Kyung; Lim, Seong Kwang; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Aloe has been used in versatile herbal medications and nutraceuticals throughout history. Aloe is widely considered to be generally safe for humans and used globally. The effectiveness and pharmacological properties of aloe are dependent upon when the plant is collected. However, little is known about the toxicology of whole-body aloe collected within less than 1 yr. Based upon widespread exposure to aloe, it is important to determine a daily intake level of this chemical to ensure its safety for humans. To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for clinical application, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated orally for 4 wk with 4 different concentrations: 0, 0.125, 0.5, and 2 g/kg body weight (bw). In this study, no significant or dose-dependent toxicological effects of BAP were observed in biochemical or hematological parameters, urinalysis, clinical signs, body weight, and food and water consumption. There were changes in some biomarkers in certain treated groups compared to controls; however, all values were within their reference ranges and not dose-dependent. Based on these results, the NOAEL of BAP was estimated to be greater than 2 g/kg bw in male and 2 g/kg bw in female SD rats. Collectively, these data suggest that BAP used in this study did not produce any marked subacute toxic effects up to a maximum concentration of 2 g/kg bw, and thus use in nutraceuticals and in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications at a concentration of >2 g/kg is warranted.

  20. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  1. Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    PubMed

    Dal'Belo, Susi Elaine; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves

    2006-11-01

    The polysaccharide-rich composition of Aloe vera extracts (Aloe barbadensis Miller), often used in cosmetic formulations, may impart moisturizing properties to the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cosmetic formulations containing different concentrations of freeze-dried Aloe vera extract on skin hydration, after a single and a 1- and 2-week period of application, by using skin bioengineering techniques. Stable formulations containing 5% (w/w) of a trilaureth-4 phosphate-based blend were supplemented with 0.10%, 0.25% or 0.50% (w/w) of freeze-dried Aloe vera extract and applied to the volar forearm of 20 female subjects. Skin conditions in terms of the water content of the stratum corneum and of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (Corneometer CM 825 and Tewameter TM 210) were analysed before and after a single and 1- and 2-week period of daily application. After a single application, only formulations supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% (w/w) of Aloe vera extract increased the water content of the stratum corneum, while after the 2-week period application, all formulations containing the extract (0.10%, 0.25% and 0.50%) had the same effect, in both cases as compared with the vehicle. TEWL was not modified after a single and after 1- and 2-week period of application, when compared with the vehicle. Our results show that freeze-dried Aloe vera extract is a natural effective ingredient for improving skin hydration, possibly through a humectant mechanism. Consequently, it may be used in moisturizing cosmetic formulations and also as a complement in the treatment of dry skin.

  2. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. Results: This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (p<0.05) reduced and increased the number of gut E. coli and Lactobacillus sps. Colonies, respectively, as compared to that of control groups; Villi was significantly (p<0.05) taller and broader on 14 days of age across the jejunum of chicks fed with neem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (p<0.05) was observed in the duodenum of Aloe supplementation. Villus height: Crypt depth ratio of duodenum and jejunum was significantly (p<0.05) increased neem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Conclusion: Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut. PMID:28717305

  3. Millimeter Detection of AlO (X 2Σ+): Metal Oxide Chemistry in the Envelope of VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2009-03-01

    A new circumstellar molecule, the radical AlO (X 2Σ+), has been detected toward the envelope of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The N = 7 → 6 and 6 → 5 rotational transitions of AlO at 268 and 230 GHz were observed at 1 mm using the ARO Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) and the N = 4 → 3 line was detected at 2 mm using the ARO 12 m telescope. Based on the shape of the line profiles, AlO most likely arises from the dust-forming region in the spherical outflow of VY CMa, as opposed to the blue or redshifted winds, with a source size of θ s ~ 0farcs5. Given this source size, the column density of AlO was found to be N tot ~ 2 × 1015 cm-2 for T rot ~ 230 K, with a fractional abundance, relative to H2, of ~10-8. Gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry is the likely formation mechanism for AlO in VY CMa, but either shocks disrupt the condensation process into Al2O3, or chemical "freezeout" occurs. The species therefore survives further into the circumstellar envelope to a radius of r ~ 20 R *. The detection of AlO in VY CMa is additional evidence of an active gas-phase refractory chemistry in oxygen-rich envelopes, and suggests such objects may be fruitful sources for other new oxide identifications.

  4. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (p<0.05) reduced and increased the number of gut E. coli and Lactobacillus sps. Colonies, respectively, as compared to that of control groups; Villi was significantly (p<0.05) taller and broader on 14 days of age across the jejunum of chicks fed with neem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (p<0.05) was observed in the duodenum of Aloe supplementation. Villus height: Crypt depth ratio of duodenum and jejunum was significantly (p<0.05) increased neem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut.

  5. Generation of the 30 M-Mesh Global Digital Surface Model by Alos Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Nagai, H.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2016-06-01

    Topographical information is fundamental to many geo-spatial related information and applications on Earth. Remote sensing satellites have the advantage in such fields because they are capable of global observation and repeatedly. Several satellite-based digital elevation datasets were provided to examine global terrains with medium resolutions e.g. the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the global digital elevation model by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER GDEM). A new global digital surface model (DSM) dataset using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi") has been completed on March 2016 by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) collaborating with NTT DATA Corp. and Remote Sensing Technology Center, Japan. This project is called "ALOS World 3D" (AW3D), and its dataset consists of the global DSM dataset with 0.15 arcsec. pixel spacing (approx. 5 m mesh) and ortho-rectified PRISM image with 2.5 m resolution. JAXA is also processing the global DSM with 1 arcsec. spacing (approx. 30 m mesh) based on the AW3D DSM dataset, and partially releasing it free of charge, which calls "ALOS World 3D 30 m mesh" (AW3D30). The global AW3D30 dataset will be released on May 2016. This paper describes the processing status, a preliminary validation result of the AW3D30 DSM dataset, and its public release status. As a summary of the preliminary validation of AW3D30 DSM, 4.40 m (RMSE) of the height accuracy of the dataset was confirmed using 5,121 independent check points distributed in the world.

  6. On-orbit performance of the Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) onboard ALOS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Nakau, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) is a technology demonstration instrument equipped with an uncooled infrared array detector (microbolometer) for space application. Microbolometers have an advantage of not requiring cooling system such as a mechanical cooler and are suitable for resource-limited sensor systems. Another characteristic of the CIRC is its use of an athermal optical system and a shutterless system. The CIRC is small in size (approximately 200 mm), is light weight (approximately 3 kg), and has low electrical power consumption (<20 W) owing to these characteristics. The main objective of CIRC is to detect wildfires, which are major and chronic disasters affecting various countries of Southeast Asia, particularly considering the effects of global warming and climate change. One of the CIRCs was launched in May 24, 2014 as a technology demonstration payload of the Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS- 2). Since the initial functional verification phase (July 4-14, 2014), the CIRC has demonstrated functions according to its intended design. We also confirmed that the noise equivalent differential temperature of the CIRC observation data is less than 0.2 K, the temperature accuracy is within ±4 K, and the spatial resolution is less than 210 m in the calibration validation phase after the initial functional verification phase. The CIRC also detects wildfires in various areas and observes volcano activities and urban heat islands in the operational phase. The other CIRC will be launched in 2015 onboard the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station. Installation of the CIRCs on the ALOS-2 and on the JEM/CALET is expected to increase the observation frequency. In this study, we present the on-orbit performance including observational results of the CIRC onboard the ALOS-2 and the current status of the CIRC onboard the JEM/CALET.

  7. Continental Scale Vegetation Structure Mapping Using Field Calibrated Landsat, ALOS Palsar And GLAS ICESat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Armston, J.; Lucas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical plant profiles are important descriptors of canopy structure and are used to inform models of biomass, biodiversity and fire risk. In Australia, an approach has been developed to produce large area maps of vertical plant profiles by extrapolating waveform lidar estimates of vertical plant profiles from ICESat/GLAS using large area segmentation of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat satellite image products. The main assumption of this approach is that the vegetation height profiles are consistent across the segments defined from ALOS PALSAR and Landsat image products. More than 1500 field sites were used to develop an index of fractional cover using Landsat data. A time series of the green fraction was used to calculate the persistent green fraction continuously across the landscape. This was fused with ALOS PALSAR L-band Fine Beam Dual polarisation 25m data and used to segment the Australian landscapes. K-means clustering then grouped the segments with similar cover and backscatter into approximately 1000 clusters. Where GLAS-ICESat footprints intersected these clusters, canopy profiles were extracted and aggregated to produce a mean vertical vegetation profile for each cluster that was used to derive mean canopy and understorey height, depth and density. Due to the large number of returns, these retrievals are near continuous across the landscape, enabling them to be used for inventory and modelling applications. To validate this product, a radiative transfer model was adapted to map directional gap probability from airborne waveform lidar datasets to retrieve vertical plant profiles Comparison over several test sites show excellent agreement and work is underway to extend the analysis to improve national biomass mapping. The integration of the three datasets provide options for future operational monitoring of structure and AGB across large areas for quantifying carbon dynamics, structural change and biodiversity.

  8. Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora leaf extract against Eimeria tenella in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kaingu, Fredrick; Liu, Dandan; Wang, Lele; Tao, Jianping; Waihenya, Rebecca; Kutima, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Anticoccidial effects of Aloe secundiflora crude leaf extract was tested in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria tenella. Sixty 22-day-old birds were divided into six groups of ten birds each. Three treatment groups A, B, and C were fed with the extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/day, respectively) mixed in feed for 10 days, and three control groups: group D (drug control) administered 300 mg/l of sulfachloropyrazine sodium soluble powder in drinking water for 5 days, group E (infected/non-medicated positive control), and group F (uninfected/non-medicated negative control). Except for group F, all groups were orally inoculated with 75,000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. The effects of the extract on E. tenella infection were evaluated by severity of bloody diarrhea, body weight (BW) gain, oocyst output, and lesion score. No bird in the treated groups died of coccidiosis, and severity of bloody diarrhea was milder than in the positive control group. BW gains in the treated groups were significantly higher than in group E (p < 0.05). The lesion scores of the treated groups were significantly lower than that of group E. Oocyst output in groups A, B, and C were 11.23, 8.24, and 6.82 × 10(6), respectively. As compared with the negative control group (12.84 × 10(6)), the reductions in oocyst production were 12.54, 35.83, and 46.88%, respectively. Oocyst output significantly reduced with an increase in Aloe dosage. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe secundiflora extract presents an alternative anticoccidial agent for the control of avian coccidiosis.

  9. Floral traits mediate the vulnerability of aloes to pollen theft and inefficient pollination by bees

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Pollen-collecting bees are among the most important pollinators globally, but are also the most common pollen thieves and can significantly reduce plant reproduction. The pollination efficiency of pollen collectors depends on the frequency of their visits to female(-phase) flowers, contact with stigmas and deposition of pollen of sufficient quantity and quality to fertilize ovules. Here we investigate the relative importance of these components, and the hypothesis that floral and inflorescence characteristics mediate the pollination role of pollen collection by bees. Methods For ten Aloe species that differ extensively in floral and inflorescence traits, we experimentally excluded potential bird pollinators to quantify the contributions of insect visitors to pollen removal, pollen deposition and seed production. We measured corolla width and depth to determine nectar accessibility, and the phenology of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity to quantify herkogamy and dichogamy. Further, we compiled all published bird-exclusion studies of aloes, and compared insect pollination success with floral morphology. Key Results Species varied from exclusively insect pollinated, to exclusively bird pollinated but subject to extensive pollen theft by insects. Nectar inaccessibility and strong dichogamy inhibited pollination by pollen-collecting bees by discouraging visits to female-phase (i.e. pollenless) flowers. For species with large inflorescences of pollen-rich flowers, pollen collectors successfully deposited pollen, but of such low quality (probably self-pollen) that they made almost no contribution to seed set. Indeed, considering all published bird-exclusion studies (17 species in total), insect pollination efficiency varied significantly with floral shape. Conclusions Species-specific floral and inflorescence characteristics, especially nectar accessibility and dichogamy, control the efficiency of pollen-collecting bees as pollinators of aloes

  10. Aloe vera inhibits proliferation of human breast and cervical cancer cells and acts synergistically with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Arif; Sharma, Chhavi; Khan, Saniyah; Shah, Kruti; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    Many of the anti-cancer agents currently used have an origin in natural sources including plants. Aloe vera is one such plant being studied extensively for its diverse health benefits, including cancer prevention. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of Aloe vera crude extract (ACE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells was studied by cell viability assay, nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis. Effects were correlated with modulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and drug metabolism by RT-PCR. Exposure of cells to ACE resulted in considerable loss of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was found to be mediated by through the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by changes in the nuclear morphology and the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, ACE did not have any significant cytotoxicity towards normal cells, thus placing it in the category of safe chemopreventive agent. Further, the effects were correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, CYP 1A1, CYP 1A2 and increased expression of bax and p21 in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, low dose combination of ACE and cisplatin showed a combination index less than 1, indicating synergistic growth inhibition compared to the agents applied individually. In conclusion, these results signify that Aloe vera may be an effective anti-neoplastic agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs like cispolatin. Thus promoting the development of plant-derived therapeutic agents appears warranted for novel cancer treatment strategies.

  11. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study.

  12. Crustal deformation in Australia measured by satellite radar interferometry using ALOS/PALSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Linlin; Ng, Alex Hay-Man; Wang, Hua; Rizos, Chris

    2009-03-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), launched on 24 January 2006, is a Japanese satellite carrying an L-band SAR sensor, namely the PALSAR, which is expected to demonstrate good performance in applications such as crustal deformation measurement, subsidence detection and landslide monitoring. This paper describes a case study of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) using ALOS/PALSAR data to detect crustal deformation caused by a recent small earthquake in Western Australia. Single Look Complex (SLC) images acquired by the ALOS/PALSAR sensor were used to measure the co-seismic deformation of the 9 October 2007 earthquake that occurred south of the town of Katanning, in the state of Western Australia. Three images with dual polarizations (HH & HV) were used in this study; two acquired before the earthquake event and one after. The two-pass DInSAR processing method was applied to generate differential interferograms. The peak-to-peak surface displacement is up to 32 centimetres in the radar line-of-sight direction. The interferograms were used to constrain the fault modelling. The co-seismic displacements were modelled using a two-segment uniform slip model in a homogeneous isotropic half-space. A genetic algorithm was used to determine the optimal source parameters for the nonlinear inversion. The resultant maximum slip is about 0.4 metres on an almost pure reverse fault striking ~NE55° and dipping at ~40°S. The scalar moment was estimated to be 1:84 × 1016 Nm (Mw4.8), which is in good agreement with the seismological results. The root-mean-square difference between the DInSAR observed and modelled displacements is 1.6 cm.

  13. Mass spectrometry characterization of an Aloe vera mannan presenting immunostimulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Simões, Joana; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, Pedro; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, M Rosário

    2012-09-01

    Aloe vera acemannan is a polysaccharide composed by a backbone of β-(1→4)-linked D-mannose residues interspersed by few glucose residues, acetylated in O-2, O-3, and O-6 containing side chains constituted by O-6-linked single α-D-galactose and α-L-arabinose residues. This structural features are rather similar to mannans from other sources, namely coffee and locust bean gum. However, Aloe vera acemannan and coffee mannans present immunostimulatory activity but locust bean gum does not. In order to know more about the structural features of a commercial preparation of Aloe vera presenting comparable immunostimulatory activity to that observed for coffee mannans, this preparation was submitted to sugar and methylation analysis. To gain further insight to the structural details of the mannans, focusing in the study of acetylation pattern, a specific hydrolysis with an endo-β-(1→4)-D-mannanase was performed and the resulting oligosaccharides (OS) were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-MS. The majority of the OS obtained for acemannan had a ratio of two acetyl groups per sugar residue. The observation of OS highly acetylated as well as non-acetylated OS, allowed to infer a non-homogeneous distribution of the acetyl groups. Also, it was observed OS presenting fully acetylated arabinose residues. The occurrence of a high abundance of acetylated residues shows that this polysaccharide contains odd acetylation content. These unusual features are reinforced by the presence of acetylated side chains, only previously observed in chemically acetylated mannans with immunostimulatory activity prepared from coffee residue. The comparison with other galactomannans allowed to infer that lower branching, shorter chains, and higher acetylation seems to promote the immunostimulatory activity attributed to these polysaccharides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  15. Floral traits mediate the vulnerability of aloes to pollen theft and inefficient pollination by bees.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2012-03-01

    Pollen-collecting bees are among the most important pollinators globally, but are also the most common pollen thieves and can significantly reduce plant reproduction. The pollination efficiency of pollen collectors depends on the frequency of their visits to female(-phase) flowers, contact with stigmas and deposition of pollen of sufficient quantity and quality to fertilize ovules. Here we investigate the relative importance of these components, and the hypothesis that floral and inflorescence characteristics mediate the pollination role of pollen collection by bees. For ten Aloe species that differ extensively in floral and inflorescence traits, we experimentally excluded potential bird pollinators to quantify the contributions of insect visitors to pollen removal, pollen deposition and seed production. We measured corolla width and depth to determine nectar accessibility, and the phenology of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity to quantify herkogamy and dichogamy. Further, we compiled all published bird-exclusion studies of aloes, and compared insect pollination success with floral morphology. Species varied from exclusively insect pollinated, to exclusively bird pollinated but subject to extensive pollen theft by insects. Nectar inaccessibility and strong dichogamy inhibited pollination by pollen-collecting bees by discouraging visits to female-phase (i.e. pollenless) flowers. For species with large inflorescences of pollen-rich flowers, pollen collectors successfully deposited pollen, but of such low quality (probably self-pollen) that they made almost no contribution to seed set. Indeed, considering all published bird-exclusion studies (17 species in total), insect pollination efficiency varied significantly with floral shape. Species-specific floral and inflorescence characteristics, especially nectar accessibility and dichogamy, control the efficiency of pollen-collecting bees as pollinators of aloes.

  16. Neuroprotective potential of Aloe arborescens against copper induced neurobehavioral features of Parkinson's disease in rat.

    PubMed

    Abbaoui, Abdellatif; Hiba, Omar El; Gamrani, Halima

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element for the organism survival, which ensures the normal functioning of different biosystems. However, excessive levels of this heavy metal are responsible for profound physiological alterations including the central nervous system. Numerous findings sustain the involvement of heavy metals, as an environmental risk factor such as copper (Cu), in the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) which is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that principally affects the motor system. The classic and evident symptoms of PD namely rigidity, tardiness of movement, and difficulty with walking, result from progressive dopaminergic neurons death within substantia nigra. Whereas, few pharmacological trials have shown a beneficial role against Cu neurotoxicity, Aloe arborescens is one of the powerful medicinal plants with an array of therapeutic effects. Thus, we aimed through the present study, to evaluate the impact of acute Cu intoxication (10μg/g B.W. i.p) for 3days on the dopaminergic system and locomotor performance, together with the possible restorative effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of Aloe arborescens gel (AEAAG) (200mg/kg B.W.). By means of immunohistochemistry, we noted, in the Cu intoxicated rats, a significant loss of TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) expression within substantia nigra compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the subsequent striatal outputs, those alterations were correlated to behavioral abnormalities such as a severe drop of locomotor performance. While AEAAG administration to Cu intoxicated rats showed a noticeable beneficial effect; this potential was featured by a complete recovery of the TH expression and locomotor behavior deficiencies in the intoxicated rats. The present investigation have brought, on the one hand, an experimental evidence of an altered dopaminergic innervations following Cu intoxication and on the other hand, a new pharmacological property of Aloe arborescens that

  17. Exploiting ALOS observations as a guide to what will be possible with DESDynI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, M.; Agram, P. S.; Philibosian, B.; Lin, Y. N.; Hetland, E. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several years, L-band radar observations from the Japanese ALOS satellite has allowed a variety of crustal deformation studies that give us a taste of what will be possible with a dedicated L-band InSAR mission such as that currently being planned by NASA. Here we illustrate the success (and sometimes failure) of ALOS PALSAR data to measure ground deformation associated with large earthquakes (2010 Mw 8.8, Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan), volcano deformation in forested or jungled areas (Java), small earthquakes (aftershocks of the Tohoku-oki earthquake), interseismic deformation (the San Andreas and Hayward faults in California), and glacier flow on a temperate ice cap (Hofsjokull, Iceland). In several of these cases, we use time series methods, primarily the MInTS approach, to detect smaller amplitude signals and to separate out the effects of seasonal and tectonic deformation while also mitigating the effects of propagation delays accrued in the atmosphere. All data for these studies were made available through USGRC acquired through the Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) located at the ASF. In addition to deformation analysis, we look at the behavior of interferometric correlation at L-band as a function of orbital and temporal baselines. In vegetated areas such as Java, we find that observations need to be consistently made at shortest time intervals possible (45-90 days) if correlation is to be reliably maintained. Short time intervals are also required to increase sensitivity to small amplitude signals, minimize trade-offs between the estimates of coseismic, post-seismic and seasonal processes, and to reduce the potential impact of transient decorrelation events (e.g., rainfall). We also highlight the importance of short repeat times to enable the use of decorrelation for rapid damage assessment after catastrophic events.

  18. Aloe vera Derived Activated High-Surface-Area Carbon for Flexible and High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Karnan, M; Subramani, K; Sudhan, N; Ilayaraja, N; Sathish, M

    2016-12-28

    Materials which possess high specific capacitance in device configuration with low cost are essential for viable application in supercapacitors. Herein, a flexible high-energy supercapacitor device was fabricated using porous activated high-surface-area carbon derived from aloe leaf (Aloe vera) as a precursor. The A. vera derived activated carbon showed mesoporous nature with high specific surface area of ∼1890 m(2)/g. A high specific capacitance of 410 and 306 F/g was achieved in three-electrode and symmetric two-electrode system configurations in aqueous electrolyte, respectively. The fabricated all-solid-state device showed a high specific capacitance of 244 F/g with an energy density of 8.6 Wh/kg. In an ionic liquid electrolyte, the fabricated device showed a high specific capacitance of 126 F/g and a wide potential window up to 3 V, which results in a high energy density of 40 Wh/kg. Furthermore, it was observed that the activation temperature has significant role in the electrochemical performance, as the activated sample at 700 °C showed best activity than the samples activated at 600 and 800 °C. The electron microscopic images (FE-SEM and HR-TEM) confirmed the formation of pores by the chemical activation. A fabricated supercapacitor device in ionic liquid with 3 V could power up a red LED for 30 min upon charging for 20s. Also, it is shown that the operation voltage and capacitance of flexible all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors fabricated using aloe-derived activated carbon could be easily tuned by series and parallel combinations. The performance of fabricated supercapacitor devices using A. vera derived activated carbon in all-solid-state and ionic liquid indicates their viable applications in flexible devices and energy storage.

  19. Recent Evolution of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay as seen by ALOS AVNIR-2 Data (ADEN AO 3643)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul; Bilaudeau, Clelia; Deffontaines, Benoit

    2008-11-01

    The ALOS AVNIR-2 scene acquired on October 24, 2007 has been used for drawing a new map of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay. This area is characterised by a large dry-fallen tidal flat, one of the largest in the world. The tidal records indicate that the ALOS datatake was acquired in favorable conditions, the elevation of the sea at 2.56 m being very close to the theoretical minimum value (about 2.30 m). In these conditions, the largest tidal flat observed by a sun-synchronous satellite on the Mont Saint-Michel Bay is exposed.

  20. [Advances in the research of promotion effect of Aloe vera on wound healing and its clinical use].

    PubMed

    Song, X F; Chen, X D

    2016-10-20

    Aloe vera has been widely investigated and used as folk medicine since ancient time. Biologically active substances in its gel include polysaccharides, glycoprotein, enzymes, anthraquinones or phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, and so on, which play important roles in anti-inflammatory response, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant activity, immunoregulation effects, and especially in wound healing. In this paper, we review the advances in the mechanism and clinical application of Aloe vera and its extract on wound healing, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of various kinds of wounds.

  1. Transparent oxygen impermeable AlO x thin films on polycarbonate deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Jin-Wook; Kim, Sang-Mun; Choi, Daiwon; Yoon, K. H.

    2005-08-01

    The AlO x thin films were deposited on the polycarbonate by reactive ion beam sputtering (RIBS) at different oxygen partial pressures where the AlO x thin film with O/Al ratio of 1.5 was formed when oxygen partial pressure increased from 4 × 10 -5 to 2 × 10 -4 Torr. As a result, oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the barrier significantly decreased from 24 cm 3/m 2 day to around 2 cm 3/m 2 day with increase in oxygen partial pressure. Optical transmittances of the films were in the 86-88% range at 550 nm versus 89% for the pure polycarbonate film.

  2. A HPTLC densitometric method for the determination of aloeverose in Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Richard; Prabhu, Kirti S; Shirwaikar, Arun; Ballal, Mamatha; Balachandran, C; Shirwaikar, Annie

    2010-06-01

    Aloe vera gel is a familiar ingredient in a range of widely available and advertisement healthcare and cosmetic products. As to date there are no documented reports on the standardization of A. vera gel and the following study is an attempt in this direction. A. vera gel was evaluated for its aloeverose content for the first time. Aloeverose, was separated on a thin-layer of silica gel by isocratic gradient elution technique was determined by using HPTLC-photodensitometry. The proposed method is simple and sensitive and can be used for the routine assay of aloeverose in phytomedicines containing A. vera gel.

  3. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of aloe-emodin derivatives as new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Hua; Huang, Wei; Li, Chao; Wang, Ling-Ting; Wang, Shi-Fan

    2013-03-01

    A series of aloe-emodin derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Most of the new prepared compounds showed remarkable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Among them, the compound 1-((4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-2-yl) methyl) pyridin-1-ium chloride (C3) which has a pyridinium substituent possessed the best inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (IC(50)=0.09 μM). The docking study performed with AUTODOCK demonstrated that C3 could interact with the catalytic active site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of acetylcholinesterase.

  4. Possible hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera L. high molecular weight fractions on type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Akira; Hegazy, Sahar; Kabbash, Amal; Wahab, Engy Abd-El

    2009-07-01

    Aloe vera L. high molecular weight fractions (AHM) containing less than 10 ppm of barbaloin and polysaccharide (MW: 1000 kDa) with glycoprotein, verectin (MW: 29 kDa), were prepared by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze-dry technique with microwave and far infrared radiation. AHM produced significant decrease in blood glucose level sustained for 6 weeks of the start of the study. Significant decrease in triglycerides was only observed 4 weeks after treatment and continued thereafter. No deterious effects on kidney and liver functions were apparent. Treatment of diabetic patients with AHM may relief vascular complications probably via activation of immunosystem.

  5. Two functionally and chemically distinct immunomodulatory compounds in the gel of Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Hart, L A; van Enckevort, P H; van Dijk, H; Zaat, R; de Silva, K T; Labadie, R P

    1988-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel was analyzed guided by modulatory activity with regard to the in vitro activation of human complement and of human polymorphnuclear leucocytes (PMN). Upon ultrafiltration a high (h-Mr) and a low (l-Mr) molecular mass fraction were obtained. Pre-incubation of human pooled serum with the h-Mr fraction resulted in a depletion of classical and alternative pathway complement activity. In contrast, only the l-Mr fraction could inhibit the production of free oxygen radicals by activated PMNs. The latter activity cannot be attributed to non-specific effects like toxicity, interference with stimulant binding or scavenger activity.

  6. Phytobezoar by aloe vera as long term complication after oesophagectomy resolved using cellulase

    PubMed Central

    Pinos, Nathalie; Moreno-Merino, Sergio; Congregado, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Bezoars are uncommon diseases caused by the presence of indigestible mass of strange material in the gastrointestinal tract. Gold-standard treatment remains unclear and there are not clinical guidelines to follow. We present a very rare case of 53-year-old man suffering phytobezoar in a gastroplasty after oesophagectomy due to aloe vera ingestion as natural medicine. Finally it was solved with cellulase. Therefore, this is a scarcely complication after esophagectomy. Cellulase is a very good option to treat phytobezoar avoiding reintervention in this kind of patient. PMID:26094056

  7. Observation of the Gorkha, Nepal earthquake of April 25, 2015 with ALOS-2/PALSAR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Gorkha, Nepal earthquake (Mw7.8) of April 25, 2015 is the first event in the Himalaya region that occurred after the development of modern space geodetic technology. Since the epicenter of this earthquake is located in a mountainous and rural area where few continuous GNSS observation is made, satellite remote sensing is required to reveal crustal deformation and damage. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency conducted emergent observations of ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 that has been in operation since summer in 2014. We analyzed acquired images including ScanSAR images whose swath width is about 350 km using Gamma software with a digital ellipsoidal height model based on SRTM DEM. Coherence of all interferograms is very high. However, we found two spots of low coherence in Kathmandu, including the Durbar Square. These spots indicate structural damages or liquefaction. ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferograms contain large phase ramp, possibly due to ionospheric disturbance or inaccurate orbit. We corrected phase ramp using quadratic function of latitude, longitude and altitude. Corrected interferograms show an elliptic zone of LOS decrease extending from the epicenter ESE-ward with a peak of > 1 m. North of the uplift zone, we found LOS increase of ~0.8 m. This result is consistent with thrust motion on a low-angled fault plane. We inverted corrected interferogram to estimate slip distribution and dip angle of fault. Preliminary results imply that the thrust motion is concentrated at depth between 10 and 20 km and the maximum slip is ~ 4.4 m. Geodetic moment is estimated to be 1.47 x 10^21 Nm (Mw8.0). We also processed a postseismic pair and detected coseismic deformation of the May 12 aftershock (Mw7.3). Area of uplift with a diameter of 30 km is found and that of subsidence on its north. It also is consistent with low-angled thrust. It is hard to recognize postseismic deformation of the mainshock possibly due to the correction of phase ramp. ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 images were provided

  8. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic studies of aloe emodin and chrysophanol in rats after oral administration of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Fu; Yu, Qin; Wan, Mei-Hua; Qin, Feng; Wang, Yong-Gang; Chen, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Mao-Zhi; Huang, Xi

    2007-07-01

    A validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of aloe emodin and chrysophanol in rats. It was performed on a reverse-phase C(18) column and a mobile phase made up of methanol and 0.2% acetic acid (83:17, v/v). The ultraviolet detection was 254 nm. 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone was used as the internal standard. The assay was linear over the range 28-2800 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9993) for aloe emodin and 25.6-2560 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.9991) for chrysophanol. The average percentage recoveries of three spiked plasmas were 98.8-104.8% and 97.7-103.2% for aloe emodin and chrysophanol, respectively. Their RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision at concentrations of 56, 280 and 1400 ng/mL for aloe emodin and 51.6, 258 and 1290 ng/mL for chrysophanol were less than 3.5%. This method was applied for the first time to simultaneously determinate aloe emodin and chrysophanol in rats following oral administration of traditional Chinese medicine of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed that chrysophanol was better absorbed with higher concentrations in plasma than aloe emodin did. They both eliminated slowly in male rats. The assay is suitable for identifying the plasma and tissue levels of aloe emodin and chrysophanol in preclinical investigations.

  9. The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53-dependent and p21-dependent apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Lin; Lin, Ta-Chen; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-09-06

    The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin in two human liver cancer cell lines, Hep G2 and Hep 3B. We observed that aloe-emodin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both examined cell lines, but with different the antiproliferative mechanisms. In Hep G2 cells, aloe-emodin induced p53 expression and was accompanied by induction of p21 expression that was associated with a cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In addition, aloe-emodin had a marked increase in Fas/APO1 receptor and Bax expression. In contrast, with p53-deficient Hep 3B cells, the inhibition of cell proliferation of aloe-emodin was mediated through a p21-dependent manner that did not cause cell cycle arrest or increase the level of Fas/APO1 receptor, but rather promoted aloe-emodin induced apoptosis by enhancing expression of Bax. These findings suggest that aloe-emodin may be useful in liver cancer prevention.

  10. Comparative Efficacy of Aloe vera and Benzydamine Mouthwashes on Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Triple-blind, Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sahebjamee, Mahnaz; Mansourian, Arash; Hajimirzamohammad, Mohammad; Mohammad, Haji Mirza Mohammad; Zadeh, Mohsen Taghi; Bekhradi, Reza; Kazemian, Ali; Manifar, Soheila; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Doroudgar, Kiavash

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of an Aloe vera mouthwash with a benzydamine mouthwash in the alleviation of radiation- induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients using a triple-blind, randomised controlled trial. Twenty-six eligible head and neck cancer patients who were to receive conventional radiation therapy at the radiation oncology department were randomised to receive an Aloe vera mouthwash or a benzydamine mouthwash. Mucositis severity was assessed during the course of radiation therapy using the WHO grading system. At baseline, there was no difference in the distribution of mucositis severity between the two groups. The mean interval between radiation therapy and onset of mucositis was similar for both groups (Aloe vera 15.69±7.77 days, benzydamine 15.85±12.96 days). The mean interval between the start of radiation therapy and the maximum severity of mucositis were was also similar in both the Aloe vera and benzydamine groups (Aloe vera 23.38±10.75 days, benzydamine 23.54±15.45 days). Mean changes of mucositis severity over time in both groups were statistically similar and the effect of both treatments did not change signficantly with time (p=0.09). Aloe vera mouthwash was as beneficial as benzydamine mouthwash in alleviating the severity of radiation-induced mucositis and showed no side effects. The Aloe vera mouthwash could be an alternative agent in the treatment of radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers.

  11. Influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and enzymatic in vitro degradation of alginate hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rúben F; Carvalho, Anabela; Gil, M H; Mendes, Ausenda; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates the influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of Aloe vera-Ca-alginate hydrogel films, for wound healing and drug delivery applications. The influence of A. vera content (5%, 15% and 25%, v/v) on water absorption was evaluated by the incubation of the films into a 0.1 M HCl solution (pH 1.0), acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and simulated body fluid solution (pH 7.4) during 24h. Results show that the water absorption is significantly higher for films containing high A. vera contents (15% and 25%), while no significant differences are observed between the alginate neat film and the film with 5% of A. vera. The in vitro enzymatic degradation tests indicate that an increase in the A. vera content significantly enhances the degradation rate of the films. Control films, incubated in a simulated body fluid solution without enzymes, are resistant to the hydrolytic degradation, exhibiting reduced weight loss and maintaining its structural integrity. Results also show that the water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of the films can be tailored by changing the A. vera content.

  12. Observations and Mitigation of RFI in ALOS PALSAR SAR Data; Implications for the Desdyni Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Le, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Initial examination of ALOS PALSAR synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has indicated significant radio frequency interference (RFI) in several geographic locations around the world. RFI causes significant reduction in image contrast, introduces periodic and quasi-periodic image artifacts, and introduces significant phase noise in repeat pass interferometric data reduction. The US National Research Council Decadal Survey of Earth Science has recommended DESDynI, a Deformation, Ecosystems, and Dynamics of Ice satellite mission comprising an L-band polarimetric radar configured for repeat pass interferometry. There is considerable interest internationally in other future L-band and lower frequency systems as well. Therefore the issues of prevalence and possibilities of mitigation of RFI in these crowded frequency bands is of considerable interest. RFI is observed in ALOS PALSAR in California, USA, and in southern Egypt in data examined to date. Application of several techniques for removing it from the data prior to SAR image formation, ranging from straightforward spectral normalization to time-domain, multi-phase filtering techniques are considered. Considerable experience has been gained from the removal of RFI from P-band acquired by the GeoSAR system. These techniques applied to the PALSAR data are most successful when the bandwidth of any particular spectral component of the RFI is narrow. Performance impacts for SAR imagery and interferograms are considered in the context of DESDynI measurement requirements.

  13. A Study toward the Evaluation of ALOS Images for LAI Estimation in Rice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Hashjin, Sh.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Khandan, R.

    2013-10-01

    For expanding and managing agricultural sources, satellite data have a key role in determining required information about different factors in plants Including Leaf Area Index (LAI).This paper has studied the potential of spectral indices in estimating rice canopy LAI in Amol city as one of the main sources of rice production in Iran. Due to its importance in provision of food and calorie of a major portion of population, rice product was chosen for study. A field campaign was conducted when rice was in the max growth stage (late of June). Also, two satellite images from ALOS-AVNIR-2 were used (simultaneous with conducted field works) to extract and determine vegetation indices. Then the Regression between measured data and vegetation indices, derived from combination of different bands, was evaluated and after that suitable vegetation indices were realized. Finally, statistics and calculations for introduction of a suitable model were presented. After examination of models, the results showed that RDVI and SAVI2, by determination coefficient and RMSE of 0.12-0.59 and 0.24-0.62, have more accuracy in LAI estimation. Results of present study demonstrated the potential of ALOS images, for LAI estimation and their significant role in monitoring and managing the rice plant.

  14. Observations and Mitigation of RFI in ALOS PALSAR SAR Data; Implications for the Desdyni Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Le, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Initial examination of ALOS PALSAR synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has indicated significant radio frequency interference (RFI) in several geographic locations around the world. RFI causes significant reduction in image contrast, introduces periodic and quasi-periodic image artifacts, and introduces significant phase noise in repeat pass interferometric data reduction. The US National Research Council Decadal Survey of Earth Science has recommended DESDynI, a Deformation, Ecosystems, and Dynamics of Ice satellite mission comprising an L-band polarimetric radar configured for repeat pass interferometry. There is considerable interest internationally in other future L-band and lower frequency systems as well. Therefore the issues of prevalence and possibilities of mitigation of RFI in these crowded frequency bands is of considerable interest. RFI is observed in ALOS PALSAR in California, USA, and in southern Egypt in data examined to date. Application of several techniques for removing it from the data prior to SAR image formation, ranging from straightforward spectral normalization to time-domain, multi-phase filtering techniques are considered. Considerable experience has been gained from the removal of RFI from P-band acquired by the GeoSAR system. These techniques applied to the PALSAR data are most successful when the bandwidth of any particular spectral component of the RFI is narrow. Performance impacts for SAR imagery and interferograms are considered in the context of DESDynI measurement requirements.

  15. Lactobacillus brevis Strains from Fermented Aloe vera Survive Gastroduodenal Environment and Suppress Common Food Borne Enteropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  16. Photocatalytic Activity of LaSr2 AlO5 :Eu Ceramic Powders.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos R; Oliva, Jorge; Díaz-Torres, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity, of undoped and Europium-doped LaSr2 AlO5 powders, has been investigated by degrading methylene blue dye in water solutions. Those powders were fabricated by a combustion method and an annealing treatment in air. All samples showed a tetragonal single phase according to by X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed irregular semi-oval grains with sizes in the range of 3.5-4.27 μm. Photoluminescence spectrum showed sharp emission peaks at 588 nm and at 617 nm which are associated with (7) F1 ,(7) F2 → (5) D0 Eu(3+) ion forbidden transitions, respectively, under UV light excitation of 322 nm. The methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV light (254 nm) was studied by monitoring changes in the absorbance peak of MB at 665 nm. Finally, LaSr2 AlO5 :Eu powders were used three times and the efficiency for the degradation of MB decreased from 100 to 61% after the third cycle of use.

  17. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S Dutta; Masakapalli, S K

    2013-11-01

    In this study, lyophilized and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms were evaluated for their potential to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. The results showed potent inhibitory effect of Aloe vera gel extracts on L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Significant differences in % inhibition of tyrosinase among the extraction methods and the germplasms were observed. The relative performance of the germplasms was evaluated with the help of posthoc multicomparison test. The methanolic extract was more effective than the lyophilized crude gel in all the germplasms. The inhibitory effect of the lyophilized gel and methanolic extract tested from five germplasms followed the order: RM > TN > S24 > OR > RJN. The germplasm RM showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition, and the maximum % inhibition noted was 26.04% and 41.18%, respectively for the lyophilized and methanolic extracts at 6 mg · mL(-1) concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the different concentrations of L-DOPA in the absence and presence of lyophilized gel extract showed competitive inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in all the germplasms. This study suggests that the germplasm RM could potentially be used for the isolation and identification of the effective tyrosinase inhibitory component, and ascertains the critical role of selecting the best source of germplasm for natural product isolation and characterization. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Using ERS-2 and ALOS PALSAR images for soil moisture and inundation mapping in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Retalis, Adrianos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-08-01

    Floods are among the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human and economic loss and are considered to be a weather-related natural disaster. This study strives to highlight the potential of active remote sensing imagery in flood inundation monitoring and mapping in a catchment area in Cyprus (Yialias river). GeoEye-1 and ASTER images were employed to create updated Land use /Land cover maps of the study area. Following, the application of fully polarimetric (ALOS PALSAR) and dual polarimetric (ERS - 2) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for soil moisture and inundation mapping is presented. For this purpose 2 ALOS PALSAR images and 3 ERS-2 images were acquired. This study offers an integrated methodology by the use of multi-angle radar images to estimate roughness and soil moisture without the use of ancillary field data such as field measurements. The relationship between soil moisture and backscattering coefficient was thoroughly studied and linear regression models were developed to predict future flood inundation events. Multi-temporal FCC images, classification, image fusion, moisture indices, texture and PCA analysis were employed to assist soil moisture mapping. Certain land cover classes were characterized as flood prone areas according to statistics of their signal response. The results will be incorporated in an integrated flood risk assessment model of Yialias catchment area.

  19. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient (σ) measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0–20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with σ (r = 0.403). The σ values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0–20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. PMID:27529080

  20. Monitoring Indicators for Mediterranean Wetland and Agricultural Area Using ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, T. K.; Topaloglou, C. A.; Pardalis, I.; Tsakoumis, G.; Vogiatzis, M.; Andrianopoulos, A.; Takavakoglou, V.; Vougioukas, S.; Bochtis, D.; Zalidis, G. C.; Silleos, N. G.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural and other human activities are a pressure to several Mediterranean wetland ecosystems. Monitoring the pressures and the state of the ecosystem is an important input to management activities. The aim of this work was to select and implement indicators for monitoring the natural and agricultural environment of a Mediterranean wetland using Earth Observation (EO), and specifically the recently launched ALOS satellite images. Multiple levels of data were collected and integrated: remote sensing data (ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images, and observations during field surveys. EO and GIS methods used during monitoring of the study area involved preprocessing of the satellite images, enhancement of information, information extraction, and derivation of indicators. Geographic overlay comparison with results derived from the area in 2003 using a Terra/ASTER image was used to identify the changes that occurred during the last years. The methodology was applied in the wetland and surrounding agricultural area of Ramsar Convention site "lakes Koronia-Volvi" (Greece). Resulting thematic maps revealed and quantified the intensity of pressures in the vicinity of the protected wetland, the state of the wetland ecosystem, as well as the seasonal and long term temporal trends.

  1. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity by Aloe vera gel components.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Han, S S; Shin, Y K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Lee, S K; Kim, Y S

    1999-05-01

    We have recently reported that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators, G1C2F1, that restore ultraviolet B (UVB)-suppressed accessory cell function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) in vitro. In the present study we evaluated the UVB-protective activity of G1C2F1 in vivo. Exposure of the shaved abdominal skin of mice to 2.4 KJ/m2 of UVB radiation resulted in suppression of contact sensitization through the skin to 41.1%, compared to normal unirradiated skin. Topical application of G1C2F1 immediately after irradiation reduced this suppression significantly. The percentage recovery of UVB-suppressed contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response was 52.3, 77.3, and 86.6% when the irradiated skin was treated once with 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg/ml of G1C2F1-containing cream, respectively. G1C2F1 did not show nonspecific stimulatory activity on CHS response. The present study, together with the previous observation, show that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators that prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin by restoration of UVB-induced damages on epidermal LC.

  2. Aloe vera gel protects liver from oxidative stress-induced damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Taslima; Uddin, Borhan; Hossain, Shahdat; Sikder, Abdul Mannan; Ahmed, Sohel

    2013-05-07

    Aloe vera is a semi-tropical plant of Liliaceae family which has a wide range of applications in traditional medicine. In the present study, we sought to investigate the heptaoprotective potential of Aloe vera gel as a diet supplement. To achieve this goal, we have designed in vitro and in vivo experimental models of chemical-induced liver damage using male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the in vitro model, its effect was evaluated on Fenton's reaction-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Co-incubation with gel significantly reduced the generation of liver lipid peroxide (LPO). Next, to see the similar effect in vivo, gel was orally administered to rats once daily for 21 successive days. Following 1 hour of the last administration of gel, rats were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4. Dietary gel showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced damage as evident by restoration of liver LPO, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin towards near normal. The beneficial effects were pronounced with the doses used (400 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Besides, we did not observe any significant drop in serum albumin, globulin as well as total protein levels of gel-administered rats. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of dietary gel.

  3. In vitro angiogenic activity of Aloe vera gel on calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Lee, O H; Yoon, S H; Lee, S K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Sung, C K; Choi, J S; Kim, K W

    1998-06-01

    Angiogenic activity of Aloe vera gel was investigated by in vitro assay. We obtained the most active fraction from dichloromethane extract of Aloe vera gel by partitioning between hexane and 90% aqueous methanol. The most active fraction (F3) increased the proliferation of calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. In addition, F3 fraction induced CPAE cells to invade type 1 collagen gel and form capillary-like tube through in vitro angiogenesis assay, and increased the invasion of CPAE cells into matrigel through in vitro invasion assay. Furthermore, the effect on the mRNA expression of proteolytic enzymes which are key participants in the regulation of extracellular matrix degradation was investigated by northern blot analysis. F3 fraction enhanced mRNA expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) in CPAE cells whereas the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA was not changed.

  4. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.

  5. A simple and simultaneous identification method for aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-01-05

    An effective and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous identification of aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Identification of three maker compounds presented in three medicinal materials was performed on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Under the optimal HPLC chromatographic conditions, sixty-two samples were processed on an Optimapak C18 column using a solvent system of acetonitrile (from 10% to 35%) and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution (from 90% to 65%) at a total flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 270 nm. All calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r(2)>0.9992). The relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 1% and 2%, respectively. The recoveries of three analytes ranged from 99.48 to 100.97% with low RSDs (<2%). For the first time, this study demonstrates that the processed aloe, catechu and gambir are sold in local material markets in China and Korea without their correct identification. It indicates the existent of high potential medicinal risk by misuse of three medicinal materials. The developed HPLC method can be applied to prevent unexpected biological activity due to misapplication of medicinal materials.

  6. Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Nam, Dong-Yoon; Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Si-Rim; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Heo, Jin-Chul; Cha, Tae-Yang; Baek, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-04-01

    For centuries, Aloe has been used as a herbal plant remedy against skin disorders, diabetes, and for its cardiac stimulatory activity. Here, we examined the gastroprotective effects of an Aloe vera polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ≥50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on an ethanol-induced gastric lesion mouse model. Mice pre-treated with Avpf had significantly fewer gastric lesions than their respective controls. To further examine the potential mechanism underlying this effect, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)mRNA expression on tissues from gastric lesions. Our results revealed that the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were each reduced by ~50% in Avpf-treated mice vs. the controls, whereas, the mRNA expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase remained unchanged. MMP-9, an index for gastric lesions, also alleviated the ethanol-treated gastric ulceration during Avpf treatment. These findings collectively suggest that Avpf significantly protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric damage, at least in part, by decreasing mRNA expression levels of not only iNOS and nNOS, but also MMP-9.

  7. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, V.; Verma, Arun K.; Patra, G.; Pradhan, S.; Biswas, S.; Chauhan, P.; Das, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  8. Computation of AlO B 2Σ + → X 2Σ + emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parigger, Christian G.; Hornkohl, James O.

    2011-10-01

    Application of molecular spectroscopy to analytical chemistry usually requires accurate description of the particular transition of interest. In this communication we describe the creation of a list of spectral lines. Following the introduction and definition of the line strength, we present a recipe for computation of diatomic-line-strengths, including the Hönl-London factor and electric dipole line strength for each spectral line. The diatomic eigenfunction is discussed including Hund's case basis functions. In our data tables we prefer use of Hund's case (a) basis, and we apply the usual Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the electronic-vibrational strengths. This allows us to generate the table of line strengths that we frequently apply for spectroscopic temperature determination. Using these line-strength tables, we present theoretical AlO emission spectra for the B-X system of AlO. These emission spectra are computed for temperatures of 3000 and 6000 K and for typical spectroscopic resolution used in laser-induced optical breakdown studies.

  9. Investigating the capabilities of new microwave ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data for biomass estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, L. V.; Paull, D. J.; Griffin, A. L.

    2016-10-01

    Most studies indicate that L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has a great capacity to estimate biomass due to its ability to penetrate deeply through canopy layers. Many applications using L-band space-borne data have showcased their own significant contribution in biomass estimation but some limitations still exist. New data have been released recently that are designed to overcome limitations and drawbacks of previous sensor generations. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the new sensor ALOS-2 to improve wide and high-resolution observation technologies in order to further meet social and environmental objectives. In the list of priority tasks addressed by JAXA there are experiments utilizing these new data for vegetation biomass distribution measurement. This study, therefore, focused on investigating the capabilities of these new microwave data in above ground biomass (AGB) estimation. The data mode used in this study was a full polarimetric ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 (L-band) scene. The experiment was conducted on a portion of a tropical forest in a Central Highland province in Vietnam.

  10. Integrating ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1 InSAR data for systematic volcano deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, James; Biggs, Juliet; Ebmeier, Susanna; Parker, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The recent launches of the Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 satellites provide a wealth of new Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data for Earth observation purposes. We exploit these data for volcano deformation monitoring with a particular focus on Latin America, which is nominated as a priority target area under the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites volcano pilot program. By conducting an integrated survey that employs both Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 we are able to achieve previously unprecedented levels of spatial and temporal resolution and combat decorrelation arising from vegetation cover. Latin America is an ideal target region as it has a diversity of geographic volcano locations (e.g., dense rainforest to high-altitude deserts), as well as abundant and varied volcanic activity. The numerous local volcano observatories can also directly benefit from this additional InSAR data when integrating it alongside ground-based observations. To further facilitate this impact we are directing our data outputs to a global volcano deformation database in near-real-time to provide a first-order access point for observatory staff and research scientists in need of satellite-derived ground-deformation results. We will draw upon a selection of case studies within Latin America to demonstrate our approach and how it can enhance volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting efforts.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Magnesium Ferrite-Based PCL/Aloe Vera Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Zanshe; Rahman, Shekh; Yarmolenko, Sergey; Sankar, Jagannathan; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2017-01-01

    Composite nanofibers of biopolymers and inorganic materials have been widely explored as tissue engineering scaffolds because of their superior structural, mechanical and biological properties. In this study, magnesium ferrite (Mg-ferrite) based composite nanofibers were synthesized using an electrospinning technique. Mg-ferrite nanoparticles were first synthesized using the reverse micelle method, and then blended in a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer, and Aloe vera, a natural polymer, to create magnetic nanofibers by electrospinning. The morphology, structural and magnetic properties, and cellular compatibility of the magnetic nanofibers were analyzed. Mg-ferrite/PCL/Aloe vera nanofibers showed good uniformity in fiber morphology, retained their structural integrity, and displayed magnetic strength. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging showed that magnetic nanofibers supported 3T3 cell viability. We believe that the new composite nanofibrous membranes developed in this study have the ability to mimic the physical structure and function of tissue extracellular matrix, as well as provide the magnetic and soluble metal ion attributes in the scaffolds with enhanced cell attachment, and thus improve tissue regeneration. PMID:28800071

  12. Modulatory effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on oxidative stress in rats treated with streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Subramanian, S

    2005-02-01

    Oxidative stress is currently suggested as a mechanism underlying diabetes and diabetic-related complications. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging systems. Many secondary plant metabolites have been reported to possess antioxidant activity. This study was designed to evaluate the potential antioxidative activity of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in the plasma and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as a standard reference drug. Oral administration of ethanolic extract at a concentration of 300 mg kg(-1) body weight for 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and alpha-tocopherol and significant improvement in ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and insulin in the plasma of diabetic rats. Similarly, the treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and significant improvement in reduced glutathione in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract appeared to be more effective than glibenclamide in controlling oxidative stress. Thus, this study confirms the ethnopharmacological use of Aloe vera in ameliorating the oxidative stress found in diabetes.

  13. Aboveground biomass estimation of mangrove species using ALOS-2 PALSAR imagery in Hai Phong City, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tien Dat; Yoshino, Kunihiko

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the potential of using the HH and HV backscatter from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) with enhanced phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) in high sensitive mode to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB) of the two mangrove species of Hai Phong city, Vietnam. A positive correlation was observed between the mean backscattering coefficients of the dominant mangrove species at dual polarizations HH and HV and various biophysical parameters. In contrast, low correlations were observed between those coefficients and the tree densities for the two mangrove species. The AGB of the mangrove species were estimated at between 2.8 and 161.5 Mg ha-1 with an average of about 39 Mg ha-1 for Sonneratia caseolaris and between 27.6 and 209.2 Mg ha-1 with an average of ˜100 Mg ha-1 for Kandelia obovata. The main indicators used for the selection of the best potential models in estimating the AGB of different species were R2 and the root-mean-square error (RMSE). The results showed a satisfactory correlation between model estimation and field-based measurements with R2=0.51, RMSE=35.5 Mg ha-1 for S. caseolaris and R2=0.64, RMSE=41.3 Mg ha-1 for K. obovata. This research has illustrated the potential use of ALOS-2 PALSAR data in estimating the AGB of mangrove species in the tropics.

  14. Native pollen thieves reduce the reproductive success of a hermaphroditic plant, Aloe maculata.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2010-06-01

    Pollen is unique among floral rewards in functioning as both a carrier of gametes and an attractant and nutritious resource for floral visitors. Animals that collect pollen without pollinating (pollen thieves) could reduce siring success of thieved plants and cause pollen limitation of seed set at the population level; however, such impacts on plant reproduction have not been demonstrated experimentally. To test these effects we added hives of native honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to populations of a primarily bird-pollinated plant, Aloe maculata, in eastern South Africa. In field and aviary trials, bee addition increased pollen removal from anthers but decreased pollen deposition on stigmas, and so reduced both male and female pollination components. Further, total seed production decreased with hive addition in the aviary experiment and in three of four field populations, indicating that population-level pollen theft can also compromise reproductive success. In the field, naturally occurring allodapine bees also seemed to act as pollen thieves, outweighing the effect of honey bee hive addition at one of the four aloe populations. Our results highlight the importance of social bees as pollen thieves, even of plants that have evolved in their presence, and the role of dichogamy in promoting pollen theft. Given the commonness of both social bees and dichogamy, pollen theft is likely a much more common influence on floral ecology and evolution than suggested by the sparse literature.

  15. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aloe vera Extract Preparations: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Satvinder; Hussain, Shaik Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease, and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking toward new therapeutic approach such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods, different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and antiinflammatory. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of A. vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous solution, alcohol, ethanol, and chloroform for the A. vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Furthermore, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the A. vera and their anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) on the A. vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on rat peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Altincik, Ayca; Sönmez, Ferah; Yenisey, Cigdem; Duman, Soner; Can, Ayse; Akev, Nuriye; Kirdar, Sevin; Sezak, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and probable toxic effects of Aloe vera (AV) in a rat peritonitis model. RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO FIVE GROUPS: (1) Control group, (2) AV group, (3) peritonitis group (P), (4) peritonitis + AV group (P + AV), and (5) peritonitis + antibiotherapy group (P + Ab). Ultrafiltration (UF) rates were determined and colony and leukocyte counts were calculated in the dialysate. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities were studied in blood. Glucose, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were studied in dialysate and peritoneal tissue for the assessment of the anti-inflammatory effect. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated in peritoneal tissue. Aloe vera increased the UF rate and lowered leukocyte numbers in the peritonitis group. There was no significant difference in blood and dialysate glucose, BUN, creatinine levels and ALT activity among control and AV groups. AV decreased IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 in peritonitis, showing good anti-inflammatory effect. AV showed antioxidant effect on the chosen antioxidant parameters Cu, Zn-SOD, MDA, and NO. It was concluded that, AV might be used in peritonitis for its probable UF increasing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of Aloe vera and its fractions on response of macrophages against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Farahnejad, Zohreh; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Yaraee, Roya

    2011-12-01

    Natural products are important resources in traditional medicine and have been long used for prevention and treatment of many diseases. Medicinal plants have immunomodulatory properties. Aloe is one of the herbal medicines widely used in natural treatment and alternative therapy for various types of diseases. Aloe vera has been shown to modulate the immune response. Macrophages have been shown to play an essential role as the first line of defense against invading pathogen. Candida albicans is a communal and opportunistic pathogen in humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of A. vera extract and its fractions on infected macrophages with C. albicans. Viability of intraperitoneal macrophages was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Cell viability of infected macrophages was increased by the extract and dose of some isolated fractions dependently. The extract as well as R100, R50, R30, and R10 fractions of A. vera significantly increased cell viability of macrophages in most doses. R5 and F5 fractions showed no significant difference in comparison with control group. Further studies in animal models and human are necessary to clarify the modulatory effects of A. vera on macrophage function. Isolation and purification of A. vera components are also needed to find out the effective molecules.

  18. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research.

  19. Safety studies conducted on a proprietary high-purity aloe vera inner leaf fillet preparation, Qmatrix.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lonnie D; Burdock, George A; Shin, Eunju; Kim, Seunghyun; Jo, T H; Jones, Kenneth N; Matulka, Ray A

    2010-06-01

    The aloe vera plant has a long history of safe use for oral and topical applications. This publication describes safety studies conducted on a proprietary high-purity aloe vera inner leaf fillet preparation, Qmatrix. In a 13-week study in rats, Qmatrix was administered via gavage at 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. There were no significant changes in food or water consumption, body weight, serum biochemistry or hematology at any of the doses tested. Sporadic, significant increases were observed in some of the measured urinalysis parameters; however, these variations were not treatment-related, as most were observed only in one sex, not dose-dependent and within historical control values. Organ weights were unaffected, except for a statistically significant, though not dose-dependent, increase in absolute and relative weights of the right kidney in males at 500 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed no abnormal signs. Qmatrix was non-mutagenic in an Ames test and a chromosomal aberration test at concentrations up to 10,000 microg/plate, and in an in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test at doses up to 5000 mg/kg bw/day. Based on these results, Qmatrix is not genotoxic in vitro or in vivo and; has an oral NOAEL greater than 2000 mg/kg bw/day following 90 days of oral exposure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on rat peritonitis model

    PubMed Central

    Altincik, Ayca; Sönmez, Ferah; Yenisey, Çigdem; Duman, Soner; Can, Ayse; Akev, Nuriye; Kirdar, Sevin; Sezak, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and probable toxic effects of Aloe vera (AV) in a rat peritonitis model. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into five groups: (1) Control group, (2) AV group, (3) peritonitis group (P), (4) peritonitis + AV group (P + AV), and (5) peritonitis + antibiotherapy group (P + Ab). Ultrafiltration (UF) rates were determined and colony and leukocyte counts were calculated in the dialysate. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities were studied in blood. Glucose, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were studied in dialysate and peritoneal tissue for the assessment of the anti-inflammatory effect. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated in peritoneal tissue. Results: Aloe vera increased the UF rate and lowered leukocyte numbers in the peritonitis group. There was no significant difference in blood and dialysate glucose, BUN, creatinine levels and ALT activity among control and AV groups. AV decreased IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 in peritonitis, showing good anti-inflammatory effect. AV showed antioxidant effect on the chosen antioxidant parameters Cu, Zn-SOD, MDA, and NO. Conclusion: It was concluded that, AV might be used in peritonitis for its probable UF increasing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. PMID:24987181

  1. Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit migration and invasion in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells through the inhibition of gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Weng, Shu-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-05-01

    Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein are major compounds in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), used in Chinese herbal medicine, and found to have antitumor properties including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous studies also showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced apoptosis in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. However, the detail regarding emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein affecting migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are not clear. In the present study, we investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibited migration and invasion of SCC-4 cells. Herein, we demonstrate that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit the protein levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) but did not affect gene expression of MMP-2, however, they inhibited the gene expression of MMP-9 and all also inhibited the migration and invasion of human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. MMP-9 (gelatinase-B) plays an important role and is the most associated with tumor migration, invasion and metastasis in various human cancers. Results from zymography and Western blotting showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein treatment decrease the levels of MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of inhibition of associated protein levels and gene expression of migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are emodin >aloe-emodin >rhein. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit tongue cancers. In conclusion, these findings suggest that molecular targeting of MMP-9 mRNA expression by emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein might be a useful strategy for chemo-prevention and/or chemo-therapeutics of tongue cancers.

  2. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  3. The Impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on Perineal Healing after Episiotomy in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Eghdampour, Farideh; Jahdie, Fereshteh; Kheyrkhah, Masomeh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Naghizadeh, Somayeh; Hagani, Hamid

    2013-12-01

    Episiotomy is used for enlarging the perineum. Aloe vera and Calendula have been used for treating different diseases from ancient times, limited researches have been done regarding the healing of these plants. Since the effect of their ointment on episiotomy healing has not been studied, this study is being done for determining the impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on episiotomy healing in primiparous women. This clinical trial involves 111 qualified primiparous women admitted in Lolagar hospital. They were randomly categorized into three groups of control (n=1) and experimental (n=2) groups. The women in experimental group used Aloe vera and Calendula Ointment every 8 hours and the control group used hospital routine on episiotomy for 5 days. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire and redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge and approximation scale (REEDA) which investigated the episiotomy healing before and five days after intervention in two groups. ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal-wallis, Chi-square were used for data analysis. The three groups do not have statistically significant different regarding demographic and other intervening variables. Comparing the mean of REEDA in five days after delivery showed statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. According to the results, using Aloe vera and Calendula ointment considerably increases the speed of episiotomy wound healing so it can be used for quickening the episiotomy healing.

  4. The Impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on Perineal Healing after Episiotomy in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eghdampour, Farideh; Jahdie, Fereshteh; Kheyrkhah, Masomeh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Naghizadeh, Somayeh; Hagani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Episiotomy is used for enlarging the perineum. Aloe vera and Calendula have been used for treating different diseases from ancient times, limited researches have been done regarding the healing of these plants. Since the effect of their ointment on episiotomy healing has not been studied, this study is being done for determining the impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on episiotomy healing in primiparous women. Methods: This clinical trial involves 111 qualified primiparous women admitted in Lolagar hospital. They were randomly categorized into three groups of control (n=1) and experimental (n=2) groups. The women in experimental group used Aloe vera and Calendula Ointment every 8 hours and the control group used hospital routine on episiotomy for 5 days. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire and redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge and approximation scale (REEDA) which investigated the episiotomy healing before and five days after intervention in two groups. ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal-wallis, Chi-square were used for data analysis. Results: The three groups do not have statistically significant different regarding demographic and other intervening variables. Comparing the mean of REEDA in five days after delivery showed statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. Conclusion: According to the results, using Aloe vera and Calendula ointment considerably increases the speed of episiotomy wound healing so it can be used for quickening the episiotomy healing. PMID:25276736

  5. [The molecular structure of iso-aloesin isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berge].

    PubMed

    Yuan, A X

    1993-10-01

    A new constituent iso-aloesin was isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera var. chinensis found in the Province of Guangxi. The molecular formula of iso-aloesin is C19H22O9, which is 2-acetonyl-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-5-methyl-chromone.

  6. Magnetic nanoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters in environmental water and aloe juice samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hao, Yunhui; Ren, Yiqian; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon with high surface area and ordered structure was synthesized using cheap commercial silica gel as template and sucrose as the carbon source. The prepared magnetic nanoporous carbon was firstly used as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl-phthalate, from lake water and aloe juice samples. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the method (S/N = 3) was 0.10 ng/mL for water sample and 0.20 ng/mL for aloe juice sample. The linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.50-150.0 and 1.0-200.0 ng/mL for water and aloe juice samples, respectively. The results showed that the magnetic nanoporous carbon has a high adsorptive capability toward the target phthalate esters in water and aloe juice samples.

  7. A Randomized Comparative Trial on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Topical Aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on Diaper Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of Aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Methods. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either Aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Results. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to Aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. Discussion. The evidence from this study suggests that topical Aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants. PMID:22606064

  8. A randomized comparative trial on the therapeutic efficacy of topical aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on diaper dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. The evidence from this study suggests that topical aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants.

  9. Single-laboratory validation of an NMR method for the determination of aloe vera polysaccharide in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Bryce; Goux, Warren J

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a single-laboratory-validated NMR method for determining the quantity of aloe vera polysaccharide in product formulations. The ratio of signal intensities of the acetyl methyl protons to methyl protons of an internal reference varied linearly with concentration (r2 > 0.99) with a lower LOQ of 0.2 g/100 mL for two commercial aloe polysaccharide standards, Acemannan Hydrogel (AH) and Immuno-10 (I-10). The assay was used to quantify these standards in two nonacetylated polysaccharide matrices, dextrin and arabinogalactan, and in a pharmaceutical product. The concentrations of AH in samples containing the polysaccharide matrices agreed within 7% of values determined on the basis of weight and showed within- and between-run RSD values of < 3.5%. The assay of I-10 in the pharmaceutical product was within 7% of the expected values over a range from 50 to 125% of the targeted I-10 concentration, with a between-run RSD of < 7%. The assay showed no interference from other added polysaccharides or from other components of the pharmaceutical formulation and was independent of the molecular size distribution of the aloe polysaccharide present. The NMR assay can be used to validate aloe polysaccharide contained in a product and to follow any chemical degradation that may occur over time.

  10. Characterization of Aloeride, a new high-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Aloe vera with potent immunostimulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Pugh, N; Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A; Pasco, D S

    2001-02-01

    We have characterized a new immunostimulatory polysaccharide called Aloeride from commercial aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) juice. Aloeride is between 4 and 7 million Da, and its glycosyl components include glucose (37.2%), galactose (23.9%), mannose (19.5%), and arabinose (10.3%). At 0.5 microg/mL Aloeride increased NF-kappa B directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels 50% of those achieved by maximal concentrations (10 microg/mL) of LPS. Aloeride induced the expression of the mRNAs encoding IL-1beta and TNF-alpha to levels equal to those observed in cells maximally activated by LPS. Acemannan, the major carbohydrate component from aloe, used at 200 microg/mL in the macrophage assay resulted in negligible NF-kappa B activation. Analysis of acemannan and Aloeride using size-exclusion chromatography suggests that the low activity of acemannan is due to trace amounts of Aloeride. Although Aloeride comprises only 0.015% of the aloe juice dry weight, its potency for macrophage activation accounts fully for the activity of the crude juice.

  11. Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers.

  12. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of aloe vera and zinc/copper compounds against salivary dysfunction in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Nejaim, Yuri; I V Silva, Amaro; V Vasconcelos, Taruska; J N L Silva, Emmanuel; M de Almeida, Solange

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective and reparative effects of compounds based on aloe vera, zinc, and copper against salivary gland dysfunction in Wistar rats. A total of 150 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups, in which the animals received aloe vera and/or zinc and copper. In eight of these groups the animals were also subjected to irradiation before or after administration of the substances. After 27 days, sialometry tests were performed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Rats that had been administered aloe vera before or after irradiation showed a significantly higher salivary flow rate than rats that had been simply irradiated. When both substances were administered, a statistically significant difference in the salivary flow rate was observed in comparison with the irradiation alone group seven days after irradiation. The present results suggest that aloe vera exerts positive protective and reparative effects, and can be considered a potential radioprotective substance.

  13. Comparative study of the efficacy of herbal antioxdants oxitard and aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Halgatti, Vishal; Maheshwari, Sneha; Santosh, B S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent due to areca nut, tobacco and their products. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of oxitard and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and Methods: 120 subjects with OSMF were included in the study. The patients were clinico-pathologically diagnosed and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (oxitard group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 2 oxitard capsules twice daily and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Different clinical parameters were evaluated at regular intervals. Data was analyzed using the Student’s paired t test and Chi-square test. P-value <0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Clinical improvements in mouth opening and tongue protrusion was significant in the oxitard group (p=0.0005). Subjective symptoms of pain associated with the lesion (p=0.0003), difficulty in swallowing (p=0.0000) and speech (p=0.0001) also significantly improved in the Group A. The improvement in burning sensation was not statistically significant between the 2 groups (p=0.002). There was a mild to moderate decrease in the size of the lesion. Conclusions: Though there is no definitive treatment for the condition however, overall assessment of symptoms like mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in swallowing and speech and pain associated with the lesion showed that oxitard capsules can bring about significant clinical improvements than aloe vera gel in the treatment of OSMF. Key words:Oral submucous fibrosis, oxitard capsules, aloe vera, burning sensation, mouth opening. PMID:25136428

  14. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on Swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-01-01

    The skin, being a cell-renewal system, is one of the first organs to be affected in total-body irradiation during radiotherapy. An attempt has been made in the present study to explore radiation-induced biochemical alterations caused by whole-body gamma irradiation and their modulation in Swiss albino mice by Aloe vera leaf extract (AVE). Mice were selected for this study from an inbreed colony and divided into four different groups: I (double-distilled water-treated group): considered as normal; II (Aloe vera-treated group): the animals were administered 1 g/kg body-wt/day Aloe vera leaf extract; III (radiation-treated group): the animals were exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 0.96 Gy/min; and IV (combination group): animals were administered Aloe vera leaf extract continuously for 15 consecutive days, and on the 15th day they were irradiated to 6 Gy gamma radiation after 30 minutes of extract administration. The animals from the above groups were autopsied after 6 hours, 24 hours, and at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of radiation. Biochemical estimations of DNA, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide-dismutase were made. Total DNA, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the skin, and glutathione (GSH) in the liver and blood significantly decreased compared to normal, but lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver and blood increased in the irradiated control group. In contrast, in experimental animals, DNA, catalase, and SOD in the skin and GSH in the liver and blood increased significantly, whereas LPO in the liver and blood decreased in comparison to irradiated control animals. Thus, Aloe vera leaf extract is found to have damage-resistant properties against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

  15. The effects of crude aqueous and alcohol extracts of Aloe vera on growth and abdominal viscera of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Beya, Wabeya; Davidson, Bruce; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of neonates is sensitive to dietary manipulations. When nursing mothers use Aloe vera, their babies are at risk of indirect exposure to Aloe vera via breast feeding or directly as health supplements. The effects of orally administered extracts of Aloe vera in unweaned rats were investigated. Six day old Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with aqueous or alcohol extracts of Aloe vera (low dose 50mg. kg⁻¹ or high dose 500mg. kg⁻¹) daily for eight days. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by one way ANOVA. Pups receiving high doses of either extract had a significantly higher body mass gain than the group receiving lower dose (p < 0.05). Tibial length was significantly increased in the high dose aqueous extract group (15-26%). The differences in growth could not be attributed to circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 as the levels were not significantly different. The caecum was significantly enlarged in the rats that received the high doses of both extracts. Although, there was no significant difference in the non-fasting plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides, the hepatic lipid and glycogen content were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the high dose aqueous extract group. The plasma alanine transaminase was not affected by the treatments, however the high doses of the extracts significantly increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Short term administration of Aloe vera extracts resulted in growth promotion, enhanced hepatic storage of metabolic substrates, increased ALP possibly in relation to bone growth and caused hypertrophy of the caecum of neonatal rats. These effects need to be explored further to enhance animal production and health.

  16. Evaluation of Isolated Fractions of Aloe vera Gel Materials on Indinavir Pharmacokinetics: In vitro and in vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lonette; Malan, Maides; Gouws, Chrisna; Steyn, Dewald; Ellis, Suria; Abay, Efrem; Wiesner, Lubbe; Otto, Daniel P; Hamman, Josias

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera is a plant with a long history of traditional medicinal use and is consumed in different products, sometimes in conjunction with prescribed medicines. A. vera gel has shown the ability to modulate drug absorption in vitro. The aim of this study was to fractionate the precipitated polysaccharide component of A. vera gel based on molecular weight and to compare their interactions with indinavir pharmacokinetics. Crude polysaccharides were precipitated from a solution of A. vera gel and was fractionated by means of centrifugal filtration through membranes with different molecular weight cut-off values (i.e. 300 KDa, 100 KDa and 30 KDa). Marker molecules were quantified in the aloe leaf materials by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the average molecular weight was determined by means of gel filtration chromatography linked to multi-angle-laser-light scattering and refractive index detection. The effect of the aloe leaf materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayers as well as indinavir metabolism in LS180 cells was measured. The bioavailability of indinavir in the presence and absence of the aloe leaf materials was determined in Sprague-Dawley rats. All the aloe leaf materials investigated in this study reduced the TEER of Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibited indinavir metabolism in LS 180 cells to different extents and changed the bioavailability parameters of indinavir in rats compared to that of indinavir alone. These indinavir pharmacokinetic modulation effects were not dependent on the presence of aloverose and also not on the average molecular weight of the isolated fractions.

  17. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Rezapour, Taha Mohammad; Vatanchian, Mehran; Zare Hesari, Mohammad; Nabizade Haghighi, Hadi; Izanlu, Mostafa; Sabaghian, Maryam; Shahveisi, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group. Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output. PMID:25050311

  18. Multifrequency polarimetric ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 analysis over the archaeological area of Djebel Barkal (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Jolanda; Dore, Nicole; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    Differences in vegetation growth and in soil moisture content generate ground anomalies which can be linked to the presence of subsurface anthropic structures. Such evidences have been studied and observed for a long time by means of aerial photographs, thanks to planned campaigns or through the observation of historical II World War acquisitions first, and thanks to the very high spatial resolution of optical satellites later. The present research constitutes a contribution to the non-invasive archaeological investigation methodology carried out in the last years by several institutions and cultural organizations. The work aims to exploit the technique of SAR Polarimetry for the detection of surface and subsurface archaeological structures, comparing ALOS PALSAR L-band, with a central frequency of 1.27 GHz, with RADARSAT-2 C-band sensor, whose central frequency is 5.405 GHz. The choice to analyze satellite radar sensors capabilities is based on their 24-hour observations, as they are independent from Sun illumination and meteorological conditions. Moreover, they could provide additional information concerning electromagnetic properties of the target, qualities not derivable from optical images. A multi frequency comparison between the two SAR sensors has been performed over the Napatan (900-270 BC) Meroitic (270 BC-350 AD) area of Djebel Barkal, located in Sudan and inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 2003. It constitutes one of the five Napatan and Meroitic archaeological sites stretching over more than 60 km in the Nile valley, in an arid area part of Nubia. The area, not completely excavated, presents thombs, pyramids and sacred palaces. The dataset we disposed of is composed of two archived ALOS PALSAR polarimetric images and four RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data specifically acquired in the same year (2012). All the products have been then processed and integrated with the available optical data and the cartographic documentation derivable from

  19. Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) supplemented probiotic lassi prevents Shigella infiltration from epithelial barrier into systemic blood flow in mice model.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Reddi, Srinu; Yadav, Vidhu; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Singh, Ram Ran Bijoy; Kapila, Suman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of present work was to investigate preventive role of orally administered Aloe vera supplemented probiotic lassi (APL) on Shigella dysenteriae infection in mice. At the end of experimental period (2, 5 and 7 days of challenging), different organs such as spleen, liver, small intestine, large intestine, and peritoneal fluid were collected and assessed for Shigella colonization. Secretary IgA was estimated in intestinal fluid. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. Oral administration of APL showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the Shigella counts (log cfu/mL) in all organs as compared to other treatment groups at different intervals after post feeding. Similarly, secretary IgA antibody levels (μg/mL) in intestinal fluid were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in case of APL fed mice. Further, feeding of APL also demonstrated a positive effect on different haematological parameters viz. Hb (gm %), RBC and WBC count. The results indicated the immunoprotective effects of APL against Shigella dysenteriae induced infection in mice.

  20. Effect of packaging methods and crude aloe vera gel (Aloe vera barbadensis miller) on the storage quality of enrobed goat meat bites.