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Sample records for aloe

  1. Aloe vera

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.D.; Penneys, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    We review the scientific literature regarding the aloe vera plant and its products. Aloe vera is known to contain several pharmacologically active ingredients, including a carboxypeptidase that inactivates bradykinin in vitro, salicylates, and a substance(s) that inhibits thromboxane formation in vivo. Scientific studies exist that support an antibacterial and antifungal effect for substance(s) in aloe vera. Studies and case reports provide support for the use of aloe vera in the treatment of radiation ulcers and stasis ulcers in man and burn and frostbite injuries in animals. The evidence for a potential beneficial effect associated with the use of aloe vera is sufficient to warrant the design and implementation of well-controlled clinical trials. 27 references.

  2. [The therapeutic properties of aloe].

    PubMed

    Iena, Ia M

    1993-01-01

    Data are reported on the use of aloes in research and folk medicine. Aloes is used in the form of dry juice of aloe leaves, fluid extract, juice, ointments. The author discusses indications and contraindications to the use of aloe. Recipes are given of mixtures with aloe which may be used in domestic conditions for increasing the defensive forces of the body during radiation lesions.

  3. Aloe vera in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, G; Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry.

  4. [Antimetastatic properties of aloe juice].

    PubMed

    Gribel', N V; Pashinskiĭ, V G

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of antimetastatic properties of succus Aloës was carried out using three types of experimental tumors of mice and rats. It was found that succus Aloës treatment contributes to reduction of tumor mass, metastatic foci and metastasis frequency at different stages of tumor progress without affecting major tumor growth. Succus Aloës potentiates the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide as components of combination chemotherapy.

  5. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  6. ALOE VERA: A SHORT REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Surjushe, Amar; Vasani, Resham; Saple, D G

    2008-01-01

    Aloe vera is a natural product that is now a day frequently used in the field of cosmetology. Though there are various indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy. The aloe vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article. PMID:19882025

  7. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  8. Barbaloin in aloe species.

    PubMed

    Groom, Q J; Reynolds, T

    1987-08-01

    Barbaloin levels in the exudates from the leaves of 68 species of ALOE in the Kew collection have been determined by light absorption at 375 nm following separation by HPLC. The exudates from most species contained between 10-20% although a few concentrations of around 30% were found. The level in the leaf was usually around 1% of thedry weight in plants grown in glasshouses at Kew although some species were found to contain up to 5%. The highest concentrations of barbaloin were found in exudates from young mature leaves just below the apex and the level decreased in older leaves towards the base of the plant. Species in the natural groupings of the genus, Section ANGUIALOE and Group 4, all had appreciable concentrations of barbaloin in the leaf exudates. Species containing barbaloinwere distributed throughout the large heterogeneous Sections EUALOE and PACHYDENDRON with no apparent taxonomic significance.

  9. Benefits of Aloe vera in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mangaiyarkarasi, S. P.; Manigandan, T.; Elumalai, M.; Cholan, Priyanka K.; Kaur, Roopam Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) is a plant that belongs to Liliaceae family. The name Aloe derives from the Arabic word “Alloeh” meaning shining bitter substance while “vera” in Latin means true. It contains various minerals and vitamins. It has got various properties such as immunomodulatory, antiviral and antiinflammatory in nature. A. vera can play a significant role in dentistry in treatment of lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, alveolar osteitis, periodontitis, etc. PMID:26015726

  10. EDOS Data Capture for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Bruce; Cordier, Guy R.; Wood, Terri; Gamst, Harek

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, NASA's Earth Sciences Missions Operations (ESMO) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) directed the Earth Observing System Data Operations System (EDOS) project to provide a prototype system to assess the feasibility of high rate data capture for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) spacecraft via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The key objective of this collaborative effort between NASA and JAXA was to share science data collected over North and South America previously unavailable due to limitations in ALOS downlink capacity. EDOS provided a single system proof-of-concept in 4 months at White Sands TDRS Ground Terminal The system captured 6 ALOS events error-free at 277 Mbps and delivered the data to the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) within 3 hours (May/June '08). This paper describes the successful rapid prototyping approach which led to a successful demonstration and agreement between NASA and JAXA for operational support. The design of the operational system will be discussed with emphasis on concurrent high-rate data capture, Level-O processing, real-time display and high-rate delivery with stringent latency requirements. A similar solution was successfully deployed at Svalbard, Norway to support the Suomi NPP launch (October 2011) and capture all X-band data and provide a 30-day backup archive.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  12. Aloe vera in dermatology: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Feily, A; Namazi, M R

    2009-02-01

    Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective prevention for radiation-induced injuries and has no sunburn or suntan protection. It can be effective for genital herpes, psoriasis, human papilloma virus, seborrheic dermatitis, aphthous stomatitis, xerosis, lichen planus, frostbite, burn, wound healing and inflammation. It can also be used as a biological vehicle and an anti-microbial and antifungal agent and also as a candidate for photodynamic therapy of some kinds of cancer. Even though there are some promising results with the use of aloe vera for diverse dermatologic conditions, clinical effectiveness of oral and topical aloe vera is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as yet.

  13. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  14. Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, Neha; Chatterjee, Anirban; Goyal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. It is widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing, as an analgesic, and for its anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included in the study. They were divided into three groups with fifteen patients in each group. Group 1 was asked to rinse with 10 ml of aloe vera mouthwash twice daily for three months. Group 2 were treated with scaling only. Group 3 patients were asked to rinse with aloe vera mouthwash and scaling was done. The clinical changes were evaluated with Loe and Silness gingival index (1963) and Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) at baseline, after one month and three months, respectively. Results: The data obtained was compared statistically. The paired ‘t’ test was done for intragroup comparison and one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison. The data was obtained at the baseline, end of first month, and end of the third month. The result suggested reduction in gingival inflammation in all the three groups, but it was more in the aloe vera mouthwash and scaling group. Hence, it was concluded that aloe vera had a significant anti-inflammatory property. Thus, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for treating plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:24174720

  15. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  16. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  17. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  18. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations.

  19. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  20. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats.

  1. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  2. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Yoon Taek; Kim, Eun-A; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ko, Seok-Chun; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Kim, Young-Sun; Cho, Jin Hun; Jang, Hyeang-Su; Jeon, You-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of a polysaccharide isolated from aloe vera gel were investigated. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from aloe vera gel by using ten digestive enzymes including five carbohydrases and five proteases. Among them, the highest yield was obtained with the Viscozyme extract and the same extract showed the best radical scavenging activity. An active polysaccharide was purified from the Viscozyme extract using ethanol-added separation and anion exchange chromatography. Purified aloe vera polysaccharide (APS) strongly scavenged radicals including DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. In addition, APS showed a protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative stress and cell death in Vero cells as well as in the in vivo zebrafish model. In this study, it is proved that both the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of APS could be further utilized in relevant industrial applications.

  3. First result from ALOS-2 operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatooka, Yasushi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2014-11-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the phased array type Synthetic Aperture Rader (SAR) with the L-band frequency named PALSAR-2. ALOS-2 provides necessary data for disaster management, land and infrastructures management, resource management and so on. For disaster management by satellite based SAR, high resolution and wide swath width observation are needed. The Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) must be higher to improve azimuth resolution with less ambiguity caused by aliasing, but lower PRF is necessary to realize wider swath width. From this reason, high resolution and wide swath width are conflicting requirements for SAR. We have realized the requirements by adopting the multi-beam technology. PALSAR-2 has one transmitter and two receivers (dual beam system). This makes possible to reduce PRF and PALSAR-2 enables to receive the back scatterings, which are received in twice in the single beam receiver, at the same time. Therefore PALSAR-2 can realize high resolution and wide swath width capabilities by mean of the dual beam system. Improving resolution and swath width leads to increasing the data volume. Large amount of data need longer time to send the data to ground stations. From this reason the high speed data transmitting system with multi-mode X-band modulator has been developed. The modulator works with 800Mbps in 16QAM mode. This paper presents the initial on-orbit checkout result of ALOS-2.

  4. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  5. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P; Kadam, V J

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation. PMID:26997712

  6. Metabolism of the aldose reductase inhibitor ALO1567 in man.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y H; Hudson, J E; Barker, R C; York, B M; Brazzell, R K

    1991-01-01

    1. The metabolism of the aldose reductase inhibitor, ALO1567, was studied in man. The major biotransformation pathway was aromatic hydroxylation followed by glucuronide conjugation. 2. Hydroxylation occurred at several positions on the fluorene ring. The major metabolite was identified as the 7-hydroxy analogue of ALO1567 and three minor metabolites were characterized as positional isomers of the 7-hydroxy metabolite. 3. Oxidative defluorination and metabolism on the hydantoin ring were also indicated as minor pathways. 4. The capacity of normal subjects to oxidize ALO1567 was indicated by the urinary ratio of the parent drug to the 7-hydroxy metabolite after daily oral administration of 100 mg and 200 mg of ALO1567. Most subjects having higher ALO1567 plasma concentrations showed higher ratios. PMID:1931471

  7. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. PMID:25282702

  8. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.; Kadam, V. J.

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation. PMID:26997712

  9. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex. PMID:26986231

  10. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers.

  11. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported.

  12. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  13. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  14. Preliminary study of effectiveness of aloe vera in scabies treatment.

    PubMed

    Oyelami, O A; Onayemi, A; Oyedeji, O A; Adeyemi, L A

    2009-10-01

    In an open, non-comparative study carried out between August and December 2002 at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 5 patients with scabies were successfully treated with crude gel of Aloe vera; thereafter the efficacy of the extract was compared with that of benzoate lotion among 30 patients. Sixteen patients were treated with Aloe vera and 14 patients had benzyl benzoate lotion. Itching was still present in 3 patients in the benzyl benzoate group and in 2 patients in the Aloe vera group after 2 courses of treatment. The scabietic lesions virtually disappeared in all of them. None of these patients had any noticeable side effects. It is concluded that Aloe vera gel is as effective as benzyl benzoate in the treatment of scabies.

  15. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  16. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from Aloe barbadensis Miller.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Yin, Sheng; Zhong, Jiasheng; Ding, Wenjing; Wan, Jinzhi; Xie, Zhiyong

    2012-12-01

    Two new chromones, 5-((S)-2'-oxo-4'-hydroxypentyl)-2-(β-glucopyranosyl-oxy-methyl)chromone (1) and 5-((S)-2'-oxo-4'-hydroxypentyl)-2-methoxychromone (2), together with four known analogues, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol (3), isoaloeresin D (4), 8-C-glucosyl-(R)-aloesol (5), and aloesin (6) were isolated from the aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences (1-D and 2-D NMR, HRMS, UV, and IR data), chemical methods and the literature data. The Mosher's method was applied to establish the absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2. The inhibitory effects of these chromones on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were examined, and compound 6 was identified as a noncompetitive tyrosinase inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 108.62μg·mL(-1).

  17. Protective effect of Aloe vera on polymicrobial sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nari; Lee, Chan-Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2009-06-01

    Sepsis is an acute life-threatening clinical condition and remains the major cause of death in intensive care units. The primary pathophysiologic event central to the septic response is an overwhelming activation of the inflammatory system and countervailing response from the anti-inflammatory system. However, the cause of this perturbation has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that Aloe vera therapeutically reverses the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The administration of Aloe vera ameliorated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, as evidenced by the serum levels of biochemical parameters and histological changes. In order to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Aloe vera, the levels of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA at various time points. The increases in the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were attenuated by Aloe vera.In vivo administration of Aloe vera also markedly enhanced bacterial clearance. Our findings suggest that Aloe vera could be a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical treatment of sepsis. PMID:19298839

  18. Feasibility of Iodine and Bromine analysis in Genesis AloS collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Burnett, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison of solar, meteoritic and terrestrial elemental abundances provides understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. Yet, the majority of the solar abundances are based on meteoritic values [1-6]. As a continuation of our noble gas measurements of the Solar Wind (SW) [7] we attempted to evaluate the possibility of SW-iodine and SW-bromine analyses in the Genesis Solar Wind Aluminum on Sapphire collectors (AloS) using the conversions: 127I(n,γβ)128Xe, 79Br(n,γβ)80Kr and 81Br(n,γβ)82Kr. To estimate the extent of terrestrial halogen contamination in Genesis collectors, several flown fragments of AloS were submerged in methanol (for 1 hour and for 48 hours), rinsed, dried, sealed under vacuum in fused quartz ampoules and irradiated at the Missouri University Research Reactor receiving fluence ˜ 2E+19 thermal neutrons/cm2. Single step laser extraction using 1064 nm laser ablation of 0.7 cm2 area demonstrated clear signature of solar wind as indicated by 129Xe/132Xe = 1.045 ± 0.005, while 128Xe/132Xe = 1.01 ± 0.03 had a 12-fold excess compared to the solar value. Longer washing apparently reduces iodine contamination 4 times, implying that it is surface correlated. Krypton analysis showed 17% excess in 82Kr and 3-fold excess in 80Kr in agreement with their production ratio. A longer 48-hour washing reduced Br contamination 50 times. In order to better separate SW halogens from ubiquitous terrestrial contamination we employed a depth-profiling of AloS using 266 nm laser ablation. Laser beam power was increased in 12 consecutive steps using a combination of controlled defocusing and attenuation by a polarizing beamsplitter. Depth profile analysis revealed that terrestrial halogen contamination is present at the surface and at the interface between Al and sapphire substrate and is more pronounced for iodine, as indicated by 128Xe/132Xe ratio that is higher than atmospheric and solar wind values in all 12 rasters. While washing procedure

  19. Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac -Aloe vera Transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Raju, Y Prasanna; Haritha, K; Satyanarayana, Rao P; Vandana, K R; Bindu, D Thushara; Vinesha, V; Chowdary, V Harini

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to formulate aceclofenac transemulgel using Aloe vera as gel base. The prepared formulations were subjected to physical characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment. Aceclofenac, a hydrophobic potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, causes ulceration upon chronic oral administration, could be formulated into transemulgel to enhance therapeutic efficacy and to lower the unwanted side effects. The transemulgel was prepared from aqueous Aloe vera gel and aceclofenac emulsion. The prepared transemulgel was evaluated for its pH, viscosity, drug content, skin irritation, in-vitro diffusion and accelerated stability studies. The prepared aceclofenac-Aloe vera tranemulgel and commercial aceclofenac gel were subjected to pharmacodynamic studies in albino rats of Wistar strain employing carrageenan induced left hind paw edema method to assess the anti-inflammatory effect. The transemulgel showed a pH of 6.78 and viscosity of 18 cps. In-vitro diffusion data revealed better permeation characteristics. Topical application of formulation found no skin irritation. Stability study has proved the integrity of the formulation. The prepared aceclofenac Aloe vera transemulgel showed better in-vitro drug release when compared with the commercial aceclofenac gel formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity in treated rats showed the significant paw volume reduction at p<0.05 compared with that of control. Thus, it is concluded that aceclofenac, a potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, showed high therapeutic efficiency when formulated into transemulgel using aqueous Aloe vera as gel base.

  20. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  1. Comparative performance of ALOS PALSAR polarization bands and its combination with ALOS AVNIR-2 data for land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    Microwave Remote Sensing data have been widely used for land cover classification in our environment. In this study, ALOS PALSAR polarization bands were used to identify land cover features in three study areas in Malaysia. The study area consists of Penang, Perak and Kedah. The aims of this research are to investigate the performance of ALOS PALSAR datasets which are assessed independently and combination of these data with ALOS AVNIR-2 for land cover classification. Standard supervised classification method Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was applied. Various land cover classes were identified and assessed using the Transformed Divergence (TD) separability measures. The PALSAR data training areas were chosen based on the information obtained from ALOS AVNIR-2 datasets. The original data gave very poor results in identifying land cover classes due to the presence of immense speckle. The extraction and use of mean texture measures was found to be very advantageous when evaluating the separability among the different land covers. Hence, mean texture was capable to provide higher classification accuracies as compared to the original radar. The highest overall accuracy was achieved by combining the radar mean texture with ALOS AVNIR-2 data. This study proved that the land cover of Penang, Perak, and Kedah can be mapped accurately using combination of optical and radar data.

  2. Aloe-Vera: A Nature's Gift to Children.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Bhat, Manohar; Devi, Prabha; Girish

    2010-01-01

    (1)Aloe-Barbadensis Mill (Liliaceae) is used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and other countries for anti-inflammatory and cosmetic purposes (Diez-Martinez 1981, Grindlay and Reynolds 1986). Two components are obtained from the fresh leaves of Aloe-Barbadensis, a bitter yellow juice (exudate), which drains from the transversally cut leaves used as a laxative (Ishii et al 1990) and a mucilaginous gel from leaf parenchyma, which has been used as a remedy for a variety of pathological states such as arthritis, gout, acne, dermatitis, burns and peptic ulcers induced by epithelial alterations (Cap-passo and Ganginella 1997, Reynolds and Dweek 1999). The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy of Aloe-Vera gel as a healing agent in an endodontic procedure called pulpotomy. Fifteen primary molars were treated for pulpotomy using 'Aloe-Vera gel'. Patients were recalled after 1 month to check for any clinical symptoms. None of the patients reported with clinical symptoms of pain, mobility, abscess and histopathological evaluation done following extraction after 2 months showed positive signs of healing.

  3. Oral Aloe vera as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a summary.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David

    2010-06-01

    While pain relief is a basic tenet of health care, pain is under-treated in the UK (Davies and Mcvicar, 2000) and this issue remains unresolved. This paper suggests that oral Aloe vera could be used in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), particularly that caused by osteoarthritis (OA). Despite being used as arthritis treatment for centuries (Yoo et al, 2008), evidence of effectiveness of Aloe vera is anecdotal or from small studies. The perceived benefits of prescribing Aloe vera for OA may be twofold: it has utility as an anti-inflammatory agent and also as a prophylactic against the gastrointestinal irritant effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Long-term, randomized, controlled studies are still needed to address the lack of evidence informing optimum prescribing of pain medication for people with OA (Cowan, 2007). There is no reason that so called 'nutraceutical' agents should not be subjected to the same rigorous randomized, controlled, double-blind trials as other 'mainstream' drugs. Therefore, it is appropriate to ask whether NSAID treatment and side effects can be improved by the addition of oral Aloe vera. Thus, we may then be in a more informed position to resolve the ongoing 'Pandemonium over Painkillers' (Cowan, 2007).

  4. Of hemorrhagic shock, spherical cows and Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fuller, Stephanie P

    2004-01-01

    The central question explored in this commentary is whether the beneficial effects of an Aloe vera derived drag-reducing polymer during hemorrhagic shock is due to its O2 radical scavenging properties or to changes in blood rheology. PMID:15566601

  5. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel.

    PubMed

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Singh, Prashant; Bhatia, Daksh

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel was evaluated, in vitro by five established methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(-)) radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, superoxide radical (O(-2)) scavenging and reducing power assay, and in vivo against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial oxidative stress (OS) in albino wistar rats. The polysaccharides exhibited significant inhibitory activity against DPPH(-), superoxide, NO and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay with significant reducing activity at all concentrations used. DOX-induced (7.5 mg/kg, intravenously) cardiotoxicity manifested biochemically by a significant decrease in blood and tissue glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase. In addition, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of aloe vera polysaccharides for 14 days produced a marked protection against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX evidenced by significant reductions in serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine phosphokinase, cardiac TBARS, CAT and SOD along with increased levels of blood and tissue GSH in a dose-dependent manner. The present investigation is the first to establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides from aloe vera against DOX-induced myocardial OS.

  6. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, J J; Fourie, L J; Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg/kg body weight and those in another 25 mg/kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and + 7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days + 1 and + 8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  7. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  8. Efficacy of aloe vera cream in prevention and treatment of sunburn and suntan.

    PubMed

    Puvabanditsin, Porntip; Vongtongsri, Rujirat

    2005-09-01

    The efficacy of aloe vera cream in prevention of burn and tan from ultraviolet were studied in 20 volunteers. The minimal erythema dose of 20 volunteers were tested. The mean MED was 40-60 mj. The well preserved containing 70% of aloe vera cream. The aloe vera cream was applied randomized double blind technique on the test sites 30 minutes before, immediately after, or both before and after then the serial ultraviolet UVB 40,50,60,70,80 mj were radiated. MED reading at 24 hour for sunburn evaluation. Erythema and pigmentation were evaluated by visual grading 1-4 score. The aloe vera cream was continuing applied at the test sites twice daily for the the next three weeks. The results showed that the aloe vera cream has no sunburn or suntan protection and no efficacy in sunburn treatment when compared to placebo. The aloe vera cream has no bleaching effect too.

  9. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. I. Clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yongchaiyudha, S; Rungpitarangsi, V; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Chokechaijaroenporn, O

    1996-11-01

    Aloe vera gel has been claimed to have antidiabetic activity but not all published results are consistent. We investigated the effect of oral administration of one tablespoonful of Aloe vera juice, twice a day for at least 2 weeks in patients with diabetes. Blood sugar and triglyceride levels in the treated group fell; cholesterol levels were not affected. The results suggest the potential of aloe vera juice for use as an antidiabetic agent.

  10. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes.

  11. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

    2011-10-01

    Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases.

  12. Analysis of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of aloe-emodin following intravenous and oral administrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Ping; Shia, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Hui-Ju; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Aloe-emodin, a natural polyphenolic anthraquinone, has shown various beneficial bioactivities in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of aloe-emodin. Aloe-emodin was intravenously and orally administered to rats. The concentrations of aloe-emodin and rhein, a metabolite of aloe-emodin, were determined by HPLC method prior to and after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase/β-glucuronidase. The results showed that the systemic exposures of aloe-emodin and its metabolites were ranked as aloe-emodin glucuronides (G) > rhein sulfates (S) > aloe-emodin > rhein and rhein G when aloe-emodin was given intravenously. In contrast, when aloe-emodin was administered orally, the parent form of aloe-emodin was not absorbed per se, and the systemic exposures of its metabolites were ranked as aloe-emodin G > rhein G > rhein. In conclusion, the metabolites of aloe-emodin are more important than the parent form for the bioactivities in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27061721

  13. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K+ channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25763487

  14. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K(+) channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  15. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  16. Gaia16alo is a Type II SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Mattila, S.; Harrison, D.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2016-05-01

    Gaia16alo (aka PS16cct) was observed using the robotic Liverpool Telescope + SPRAT (R~350; 400-800 nm) on the night of 2016 May 6. The spectrum was compared to a set of templates using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), and we find a best match to a range of Type II SNe at z=0.03.

  17. Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera and curcumin loaded oxidized pectin-gelatin (OP-Gel) matrices were used as antimicrobial finishes on nonwoven cotton fabrics to produce composite wound care devices. The drug release characteristics of the biocomposite dressings indicated that curcumin is released through a biphasic mechanism - erosion of the polymeric matrix, followed by diffusion, while aloe vera is released upon leaching of the polymeric matrix. A 50/50 composition of aloe vera/curcumin was used to fabricate OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings. However, contrary to our expectations, OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings exhibited lesser antimicrobial activity compared to OP-Gel-Aloe and OP-Gel-Curcumin dressings. The cytocompatibility of the fabricated dressings was evaluated using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. OP-Gel-Aloe treated fibroblasts had the highest viability, with the matrices providing a substrate for good cell attachment and proliferation. On the other hand, OP-Gel-Curcumin and OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin seemed to have induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In vivo wound healing analysis was carried out using an excisional splint wound model on C57BL/6J mice. OP-Gel-Aloe treated wounds exhibited very rapid healing with 80% of the wound healing in just 8 days. Furthermore, aloe vera exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect and prominent scar prevention. Histological examination revealed that an ordered collagen formation and neovascularization could be observed along with migration of nuclei. Therefore, OP-Gel-Aloe biocomposite dressings are proposed as viable materials for effective wound management. PMID:26529192

  18. Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera and curcumin loaded oxidized pectin-gelatin (OP-Gel) matrices were used as antimicrobial finishes on nonwoven cotton fabrics to produce composite wound care devices. The drug release characteristics of the biocomposite dressings indicated that curcumin is released through a biphasic mechanism - erosion of the polymeric matrix, followed by diffusion, while aloe vera is released upon leaching of the polymeric matrix. A 50/50 composition of aloe vera/curcumin was used to fabricate OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings. However, contrary to our expectations, OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings exhibited lesser antimicrobial activity compared to OP-Gel-Aloe and OP-Gel-Curcumin dressings. The cytocompatibility of the fabricated dressings was evaluated using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. OP-Gel-Aloe treated fibroblasts had the highest viability, with the matrices providing a substrate for good cell attachment and proliferation. On the other hand, OP-Gel-Curcumin and OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin seemed to have induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In vivo wound healing analysis was carried out using an excisional splint wound model on C57BL/6J mice. OP-Gel-Aloe treated wounds exhibited very rapid healing with 80% of the wound healing in just 8 days. Furthermore, aloe vera exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect and prominent scar prevention. Histological examination revealed that an ordered collagen formation and neovascularization could be observed along with migration of nuclei. Therefore, OP-Gel-Aloe biocomposite dressings are proposed as viable materials for effective wound management.

  19. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  20. DNA degradation by aqueous extract of Aloe vera in the presence of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Shoa; Ullah, M F; Hadi, S M

    2010-06-01

    The plant Aloe vera has long been used in medicine, as dietary supplements and for cosmetic purposes. Aloe vera extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, such as aloin and aloe emodin and have shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The bioactive component aloe emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Many of the biological activities of Aloe vera have been attributed to its antioxidant properties. However, most plant-derived polyphenols that are also present in Aloe vera may exhibit pro-oxidant properties either alone or in the presence of transition metals, such as copper. Previous reports from this laboratory have implicated the pro-oxidant action as one of the mechanisms for their anti-cancer properties. In the present paper, we show that aqueous extract of Aloe vera is also able to cause DNA degradation in the presence of copper ions. Further, the extract is also able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) and generate reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner, which correlates with ability of the extract to cause DNA breakage. Thus, the study shows that in addition to antioxidant activity, Aloe vera extract also possess pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative DNA breakage.

  1. Beneficial Effects of the Genus Aloe on Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, and Differentiation of Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Junki; Kubo, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yuka; Goto, Arisa; Akaki, Junji; Yoshida, Ikuyo; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Hayakawa, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Aloe has been used as a folk medicine because it has several important therapeutic properties. These include wound and burn healing, and Aloe is now used in a variety of commercially available topical medications for wound healing and skin care. However, its effects on epidermal keratinocytes remain largely unclear. Our data indicated that both Aloe vera gel (AVG) and Cape aloe extract (CAE) significantly improved wound healing in human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and a human skin equivalent model. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface expressions of β1-, α6-, β4-integrin, and E-cadherin increased in HPEKs treated with AVG and CAE. These increases may contribute to cell migration and wound healing. Treatment with Aloe also resulted in significant changes in cell-cycle progression and in increases in cell number. Aloe increased gene expression of differentiation markers in HPEKs, suggesting roles for AVG and CAE in the improvement of keratinocyte function. Furthermore, human skin epidermal equivalents developed from HPEKs with medium containing Aloe were thicker than control equivalents, indicating the effectiveness of Aloe on enhancing epidermal development. Based on these results, both AVG and CAE have benefits in wound healing and in treatment of rough skin. PMID:27736988

  2. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P.

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (蘆薈 lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  3. [Identification of Aloe species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis].

    PubMed

    Shioda, Hiroko; Satoh, Kanako; Nagai, Fumiko; Okubo, Tomoko; Seto, Takako; Hamano, Tomoko; Kamimura, Hisashi; Kano, Itsu

    2003-08-01

    Juice and integument of leaves of 3 Aloe species, Aloe vera, A. ferox and A. africana, are not allowed to be used as food according to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan. On the other hand, whole leaves of A. arborescens can be used as food. The present study was designed to distinguish Aloe species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. DNA was isolated from fresh and dried leaves of the 4 Aloe species. Five out of 32 different 10-mer primers examined were useful for analysis. By comparison of the characteristic bands of PCR products on agarose gel, it was possible to distinguish the 4 species. Thus, the botanical species of Aloe in commercial food products can be identified by RAPD analysis.

  4. Inhibitory activity of Aloe vera gel on some clinically isolated cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fani, Mohammadmehdi; Kohanteb, Jamshid

    2012-03-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and immune-boosting properties. In the present study we investigated the inhibitory activities of Aloe vera gel on some cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans), periodontopathic (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis) and an opportunistic periodontopathogen (Bacteroides fragilis) isolated from patients with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Twenty isolates of each of these bacteria were investigated for their sensitivity to Aloe vera gel using the disk diffusion and microdilution methods. S. mutans was the species most sensitive to Aloe vera gel with a MIC of 12.5 µg/ml, while A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and B. fragilis were less sensitive, with a MIC of 25-50 µg/ml (P < 0.01). Based on our present findings it is concluded that Aloe vera gel at optimum concentration could be used as an antiseptic for prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  5. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. Materials and Method In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. Conclusion The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity. PMID:26966709

  6. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. PMID:26774866

  7. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  8. InSAR Monitoring of Landslides using RADARSAT and Alos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhroy, V.; Pierre-Jean, A.; Pavlic, G.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results of InSAR monitoring of several landslides using RADARDAT, and ALOS satellites. InSAR techniques are increasingly being used in slope stability assessment. Our research has shown that differential InSAR and coherent target monitoring techniques using field corner reflectors are useful to monitor landslide activity along strategic transportation and energy corridors. The Mackenzie Valley in northern Canada is experiencing one of the highest rates on mean annual air temperature for any region in Canada, thereby triggering melting in the permafrost, which results in active layer detachment slides. There are approximately 2000 landslides along the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline route. In addition, the Trans Canada Highway in the Canadian Rockies are affected by several rock avalanches and slow retrogressive slides. The ALOS PALSAR InSAR results show that we can observe deformation on both vegetated and exposed rock areas on the Little Smokey slide and the Frank Slide. RADARSAT-1 InSAR images indicate the different level of activity of the slopes (large and small) during different periods of the year. RADARSAT-2 is providing the high resolution rapid revisit capabilities needed to continuously monitor these active slopes along Canadian strategic energy and transportation corridors. The information produced by our InSAR activity maps on various landslides are used to realign the pipeline route in sensitive permafrost areas, and to install slope stability measures along the Trans-Canada and Provincial Highways. Using these different satellites we are able to develop guidelines for more reliable uses of these SAR missions Keywords: InSAR, landslides, RADARSAT, ALOS .

  9. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Thappily, Praveen E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com; Shiju, K. E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  10. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  11. A conceptual design of PRISM-2 for Advanced Land Observing Satellite-3(ALOS-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hiroko; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Sagisaka, Masakazu; Hatooka, Yasushi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Osawa, Yuji; Takahashi, Masuo; Tadono, Takeo

    2012-09-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is planning a satellite system including Advanced Land Observing Satellites 2 and 3 (ALOS-2 and ALOS-3) for the ALOS follow-on program. ALOS-3 will carry the optical sensor named "PRISM-2" and extend the capabilities of earlier ALOS missions. PRISM-2 will be able to collect high-resolution (0.8m) and wide-swath (50 km) imagery with high geo-location accuracy, as well as provide precise digital surface models (DSMs) using stereo pair images acquired by two telescopes. These capabilities are ideal for obtaining large-scale geographical information such as elevation and land cover-maps for use in many research areas and practical applications, including disaster management support. JAXA has conducted a phase A study of the ALOS-3 spacecraft and PRISM-2, and is now working on prototype models of key components of PRISM-2's telescope, focal plane, and data compressor. This paper introduces a conceptual design for PRISM-2 and the ALOS-3 system.

  12. The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maenthaisong, Ratree; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Niruntraporn, Surachet; Kongkaew, Chuenjid

    2007-09-01

    Aloe vera has been traditionally used for burn healing but clinical evidence remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of topical aloe vera for the treatment of burn wounds. We electronically searched relevant studies in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, HealthSTAR, DARE, South-East Asia Database, Chinese Databases, and several Thai local Databases (1918-June 2004). Only controlled clinical trials for burn healing were included. There were no restrictions on any language of publication. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, patient characteristics, intervention, and outcome measure. Four studies with a total of 371 patients were included in this review. Based on a meta-analysis using duration of wound healing as an outcome measure, the summary weighted mean difference in healing time of the aloe vera group was 8.79 days shorter than those in the control group (P=0.006). Due to the differences of products and outcome measures, there is paucity to draw a specific conclusion regarding the effect of aloe vera for burn wound healing. However, cumulative evidence tends to support that aloe vera might be an effective interventions used in burn wound healing for first to second degree burns. Further, well-designed trials with sufficient details of the contents of aloe vera products should be carried out to determine the effectiveness of aloe vera.

  13. Comparative efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash and chlorhexidine on periodontal health: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Bhashyam, Mamtha

    2016-01-01

    Background With introduction of many herbal medicines, dentistry has recently evidenced shift of approach for treating many inflammatory oral diseases by using such modalities. Aloe vera is one such product exhibiting multiple benefits and has gained considerable importance in clinical research recently. Aim To compare the efficacy of Aloevera and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on Periodontal Health. Material and Methods Thirty days randomized controlled trial was conducted among 390 dental students. The students were randomized into two intervention groups namely Aloe Vera (AV) chlorhexidine group (CHX) and one control (placebo) group. Plaque index and gingival index was recorded for each participant at baseline, 15 days and 30 days. The findings were than statistically analyzed, ANOVA and Post Hoc test were used. Results There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters with Aloe Vera (AV) and chlorhexidine group. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean plaque and gingival index scores of aloe Vera and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between AloeVera and chlorhexidine group. Conclusions Being an herbal product AloeVera has shown equal effectiveness as Chlorhexidine. Hence can be used as an alternative product for curing and preventing gingivitis. Key words:Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, dental plaque, gingivitis. PMID:27703614

  14. Binding of the bioactive component Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-11-01

    Aloe dihydroisocoumarin, one of new components isolated from Aloe vera, can scavenge reactive oxygen species. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by using fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. An isoemissive point at 414 nm is seen, indicating that the quenching of HSA fluorescence depends on the formation of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin-HSA complex, which is further confirmed by fluorescence dynamic result. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the gain of α-helix, β-sheet and random coil stability and the loss of β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FTIR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydroisocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  15. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all of the treatment groups that were supplemented with Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p < 0.05) than the unsupplemented group following infection. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis.

  16. Quality change of apple slices coated with Aloe vera gel during storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Yeon; Jo, Wan-Shin; Song, Nak-Bum; Min, Sea C; Song, Kyung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Fresh-cut apples are easily susceptible to browning and microbial spoilage. In this study, an edible coating prepared from Aloe vera gel containing antibrowning solution was applied to preserve the quality of fresh-cut apples during storage. Fresh-cut apples were treated with both an Aloe vera gel and an Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine and then stored at 4 °C for 16 d. The color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, microbial analysis, and sensory evaluation were analyzed during storage. Fresh-cut apples coated with the Aloe vera gel showed delayed browning and reduced weight loss and softening compared to the control. The Aloe vera gel coating was also effective in reducing the populations of the total aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds. In particular, Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine was most effective in delaying browning and the reduction of microbial populations among the treatments. These results suggest that an Aloe vera gel coating can be used for maintaining the quality of fresh-cut apples.

  17. Potential antineoplastic effects of Aloe-emodin: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruie; Zhang, Jinming; Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a bioactive anthraquinone derived from both Aloe vera and Rheum officinale, has recently been demonstrated to have various pharmacological activities. With the widespread popularity of natural products, such as antineoplastic drugs, AE has attracted much attention due to its remarkable antineoplastic activity on multiple tumor cells involving multi-channel mechanisms, including the disruption of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, antiangiogenic, and strengthening of immune function. Experimental data have revealed AE as a potentially potent anti-cancer candidate. Despite this, the pharmaceutical application of AE is still in a fledging period as most research has concentrated on the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of action of existing treatments, rather than the development of novel formulations. Therefore, the present review summarizes the potential toxicity, molecular mechanism, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and pharmaceutical development of AE as an antineoplastic agent. This is based on its physicochemical properties, in an attempt to encourage further research on AE as a potential anti-cancer agent. PMID:24707862

  18. Acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Sierra-García, Gerardo Daniel; Castro-Ríos, Rocío; González-Horta, Azucena; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Chávez-Montes, Abelardo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, the composition, actions, and clinical applications of acemannan in medicine and its effectiveness as an adjunct in the treatment of diseases are presented. An electronic literature search was performed up to January 2014 for studies and research presenting data to validate the efficacy of acemannan. A total of 50 titles, abstracts and full-text studies were selected and reviewed. Acemannan has various medicinal properties like osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial, which accelerate healing of lesions. Also, acemannan is known to have antiviral and antitumor activities in vivo through activation of immune responses. It was concluded that Aloe vera has immense potential as a therapeutic agent. Even though the plant is a promising herb with various clinical applications in medicine and dentistry, more clinical research needs to be undertaken to validate and explain the action of acemannan in healing, so that it can be established in the field of medicine and a more precise understanding of the biological activities of these is required to develop Aloe vera as a pharmaceutical source.

  19. Aloe vera Induced Biomimetic Assemblage of Nucleobase into Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Zubair, Swaleha; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biomimetic nano-assembly formation offers a convenient and bio friendly approach to fabricate complex structures from simple components with sub-nanometer precision. Recently, biomimetic (employing microorganism/plants) synthesis of metal and inorganic materials nano-particles has emerged as a simple and viable strategy. In the present study, we have extended biological synthesis of nano-particles to organic molecules, namely the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using Aloe vera leaf extract. Methodology The 5-FU nano- particles synthesized by using Aloe vera leaf extract were characterized by UV, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by TEM, while crystalline nature of 5-FU particles was established by X-ray diffraction study. The cytotoxic effects of 5-FU nanoparticles were assessed against HT-29 and Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma colorectal) cell lines. Results Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopic techniques confirmed nano-size of the synthesized particles. Importantly, the nano-assembled 5-FU retained its anticancer action against various cancerous cell lines. Conclusion In the present study, we have explored the potential of biomimetic synthesis of nanoparticles employing organic molecules with the hope that such developments will be helpful to introduce novel nano-particle formulations that will not only be more effective but would also be devoid of nano-particle associated putative toxicity constraints. PMID:22403622

  20. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes. PMID:26090436

  1. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27516663

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and its effectiveness in decontaminating gutta percha cones

    PubMed Central

    Athiban, Prakash P; Borthakur, Bikash Jyoti; Ganesan, S; Swathika, B

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and to determine its effectiveness in decontaminating gutta percha cones. Materials and Methods: A concentrated extract of Aloe vera was used to check for the antimicrobial efficacy using the agar well diffusion method. Presence of zones’ of diffusion was identified against three common GP contaminants namely, E.coli, E.faecalis and Staph. aureus. New GP Cones, freshly taken out of the packet were then decontaminated for 1minute using Aloe vera gel and then placed in thioglycolate broth to check for the presence of turbidity. Results: The zones of inhibition on the agar plate were measured as 24mm,21mm and 24mm respectively. The broth remained clear even after 48 hours of incubation. Conclusion: We conclude that Aloe vera is indeed effective as a GP decontaminant and it holds a promising future as a medium for storage of GP cones. PMID:22876011

  3. Effects of highly purified anthraquinoid compounds from Aloe vera on sensitive and multidrug resistant leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Grimaudo, S; Tolomeo, M; Gancitano, R; Dalessandro, N; Aiello, E

    1997-01-01

    Folk medicine has attributed antitumor properties to preparations from Aloe vera. We have studied the effects of five purified compounds from the plant on human K562 leukemia and on its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant, K562/R. The glycosides aloin A and B, aloesin and aloeresin were devoid of antitumor activity up to 200 mu M concentrations. Only the aglycone aloe emodin produced reproducible antitumor effects, which, interestingly, were more pronounced in the MDR, P-glycoprotein overexpressing, cell line. Its IC50 was in fact 29 mu M in K562 and 10.5 mu M in K562/R. Aloe emodine caused mainly cytostasis and accumulation of the cells in the S and G(2)-M phases of the cell cycle during the first 48 h of treatment. Thereafter, massive cell death ensued. Research on the antitumor activity of compounds extracted from Aloe vera probably deserves continuation.

  4. Theoretical investigation of the long-lived metastable AlO2+ dication in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.; Jaidane, Nejm Eddine; Al Mogren, Muneerah Mogren; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-09-01

    We report the results of a detailed theoretical study of the electronic ground and excited states of the gas-phase doubly charged ion AlO2+ using high-level ab initio computer calculations. Both standard and explicitly correlated methods were used to calculate their potential energy curves and spectroscopic parameters. These computations show that the ground state of AlO2+ is X2Π. The internuclear equilibrium distance of AlO2+(X2Π) is computed 1.725 Å. We also deduced the adiabatic double ionization and charge stripping energies of AlO to be about 27.45 eV and 17.80 eV, respectively.

  5. Purification of aloe polysaccharides by using aqueous two-phase extraction with desalination.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jian-Min; Li, Fen-Fang

    2009-01-01

    A PEG6000/(NH4)2SO4 aqueous two-phase system was chosen as the separation system. The effects of NaCl, Gu(SCN)2 and pH on the partitioning of aloe polysaccharide and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied. The result shows that the recovery of aloe polysaccharide was decreased with the increase in pH and the recovery of protein was not changed; NaCl and Gu(SCN)2 can change the partitioning behaviour of the BSA. The separation of BSA and aloe polysaccharides was also carried out. Then, the aloe polysaccharides were obtained by using ultrafiltration membrane. The composition of the polysaccharides was analysed by gas chromatography. The results show that mannose is mainly monosaccharide, and it only contains a few glucose.

  6. Determination of aloesin and aloeresin A for the detection of aloe in beverages.

    PubMed

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Giavarini, Flavio; Ferraboschi, Patrizia; Galli, Giovanni; Bosisio, Enrica

    2007-05-01

    This work describes a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantification of aloesin and aloeresin A in alcoholic beverages containing aloe as a flavoring agent. The compounds were prepared from Aloe ferox juice. Sephadex LH20 and ion-exchange resin AG1X2 column chromatography were used for aloesin. Aloeresin A was obtained by Sephadex LH20 and silica gel column chromatography followed by purification on Discovery DSC-18 solid-phase extraction tubes. A 98 mg amount of aloesin (>99% purity) and 34 mg of aloeresin A (>98% purity) were recovered from 2.5 g of aloe juice. The HPLC method was validated, and intra- and interday performances were established. In-house validation was carried out by analyzing samples of beverages with and without aloe as a flavoring agent.

  7. Biologically active constituents of leaves and roots of Aloe arborescens var. natalensis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, T; Suga, T

    1977-01-01

    Several biologically active substances, such as aloenin (1), magnesium lactate, aloe-emodin (4), barbaloin (5), and succinic acid, were found to be contained in the leaf juice of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger, which has widely been used in domestic medicines. Aloenin (1) and magnesium lactate were elucidated to exhibit an inhibitory action on the gastric juice secretion of rats. Various constituents other than the above bioactive substances were found in the leaves and the roots of the plant.

  8. The Hyperfine Structure of Aluminum Monoxide, AlO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, A.; Büchling, Thomas; Giesen, Thomas; Gauss, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Small metal-containing molecules were produced in a laser ablation supersonic jet apparatus. The products were investigated by means of millimeter/submillimeter wave spectroscopy and optical spectra were recorded with a high-resolution grating spectrometer (HR2000+, OceanOptics). This method has been applied to study AlO produced from laser ablation of solid aluminum seeded in helium-buffer gas enriched with 2% of nitrogenous oxide. The adiabatically expanding dilute gas mixture is probed by monochromatic radiation of frequencies up to 400 GHz (WR2.8x3,Virginia Diodes Inc.). The measurements reveal the hyperfine structure of a linear molecule in Hund's case bβ S due to the nuclear spin of aluminum. With the present measurements, new high accurate line positions for future astronomical observations and more accurate molecular parameters are available. The new data were compared to high level ab initio calculations performed by the group of J. Gauss.

  9. TSS mapping using ALOS and THEOS imageries over Penang island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

    2013-05-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. This study uses an empirical model, based on actual water quality of total suspended solids (TSS) measurements from the Penang Strait, Malaysia to predict TSS based on optical properties of satellite digital imagery using advanced land observing satellite imagery (ALOS) and Thai earth observation system (THEOS) satellite imageries. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. Water samples were collected simultaneously with the airborne image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory. Water sample's locations were determined by using a handheld GPS. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into radiance values and reflectance values. The reflectance values were used for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated based on the observations of correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviations (RMS) with the sea-truth data. This algorithm was then used to map the TSS concentration over Penang, Malaysia. The TSS map was color-coded and geometrically corrected for visual interpretation. The calibrated algorithm had the R and RMS values of 0.9012 and 5.3651 mg/l respectively for ALOS data. The R and RMS values were 0.8515 and 6.2635 mg/l respectively for THEOS data. This study indicates that TSS mapping can be carried out using remote sensing technique of the satellite digital photography system over Penang, Malaysia.

  10. Inclination Adjustment Maneuver and Frozen Orbit Keeping of The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Kazunori; Iwata, Takanori; Uchida, Masashi

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite "Daichi" (ALOS) was successfully injected into its mission orbit on March 26, 2006. ALOS' missions require the orbit to be precisely recurrent regarding both the ground track and altitude. Therefore, the ALOS mission orbit is a sun-synchronous sub-recurrent frozen orbit. A sun-synchronous orbit has to be maintained by compensating inclination change caused by lunisolar gravity perturbation. In the ALOS case, inclination adjustment is planned every two and a half years. The inclination adjustment should be done by out-of-plane maneuvers. During the inclination adjustment, it is also required that the ground track and altitude error should be minimized. However, it is difficult because there are some restrictions on the out-of-plane maneuvers; such as necessity of attitude change maneuver, extra in-plane accelerations by the attitude change maneuver. JAXA planned and performed the inclination adjustment which kept the ground track and altitude error as small as possible by estimating extra in-plane accelerations and exploiting rotation of eccentricity vector caused by gravity perturbations. In this paper, we review the ALOS requirements for orbit keeping, and discuss the challenges of ALOS inclination adjustment maneuvers due to the restrictions. Our strategies and the theoretical background are also presented with subsequent evaluation of flight results.

  11. Molecular interaction and energy transfer between human serum albumin and bioactive component Aloe dihydrocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Aloe dihydrocoumarin is an antioxidant and a candidate of immunomodulatory drug on the immune system and can balance physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which may be useful to maintain homeostasis. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydrocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. A Förster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism is involved in this quenching of Trp fluorescence by Aloe dihydrocoumarin. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the loss of α-helix stability and the gain of β-sheet and β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FT-IR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydrocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  12. Effectiveness of Aloe vera on the antioxidant status of different tissues in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Saada, H N; Ussama, Z S; Mahdy, A M

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the role of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) on the antioxidant status in different tissues of animals whole body exposed to 7 Gy gamma radiations, delivered as a shot dose. Aloe vera (leaf juice filtrate) was supplemented daily to rats (0.25 ml/kg body weight/day), by gavage, 5 days before irradiation and 10 days after irradiation. Experimental investigations performed 3, 7 and 10 days after exposure to radiation showed that Aloe vera treatment has significantly minimized the radiation-induced increase in the amount of malondialdehyde in liver, lungs, and kidney tissues of irradiated rats. Significant amelioration in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities was observed from the 3rd up to the 10th days for lungs, on the 7th and 10th days for kidneys and at 10 days for liver. Data obtained showed that for the different tissues, improvement in the decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) contents was obvious on the 10th day after irradiation. Treatment with Aloe vera was also effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in plasma glucose levels throughout the experimental period, while it has not ameliorated the increase in plasma insulin levels. It could be concluded that the synergistic relationship between the elements found in the leaf of Aloe vera could be a useful adjunct for maintaining the integrity of the antioxidant status.

  13. Mechanism of growth inhibitory effect of cape aloe extract in ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Saeda; Oikawa, Tomoko; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kennedy, David Opare; Norikura, Toshio; Honzawa, Mayumi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2007-12-01

    Cape aloe (Aloe ferox Miller) has been a herb well known for its cathartic properties and has also been used popularly as a health drink (juice, tea and tonic) in the United States and in Europe. Cape aloe extract also has been reported to possess several pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and protective effect against liver injury. However, the investigations on an anti-tumor activity in cape aloe extract are very few and subsequent mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of the selective growth inhibitory activity of cape aloe extract and found that the cape aloe extract, especially the dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract, caused a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC), but not in mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells, which was used as a normal cell model. Furthermore, the CH(2)Cl(2) extract caused an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease of cells in the S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle and inhibited DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, other results suggest that cell cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation in EATC by the CH(2)Cl(2 )extract are associated with decreased retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation.

  14. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  15. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study.

  16. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  17. Hepatotherapeutic effect of Aloe vera in alcohol-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Saka, W A; Akhigbe, R E; Ishola, O S; Ashamu, E A; Olayemi, O T; Adeleke, G E

    2011-07-15

    There is a lack of reliable hepatotherapeutic drugs in modern medicine in the management of alcohol/drug-induced liver damage. Aloe vera extract has been used in folklore medicine for its medicinal values. This study evaluates the hepatotherapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; the negative control, positive control and the extract-treated groups. The negative control received only distilled water daily. The positive control received alcohol, while the extract-treated group received aqueous extract of Aloe vera and alcohol. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the positive control and extract-treated rats with alcohol. The hepatotherapeutic effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminases and liver histopathology. Alanine transaminase activities were comparable in all groups. Alcohol treatment alone significantly (p < 0.05) increased total serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities. Alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction was abrogated by Aloe vera extract. Histopathological examination revealed that alcohol induced hepatic damage. Aloe vera treatment maintained hepatic architecture similar to that seen in the control. This study shows that aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel is hepatotherapeutic and thus lends credence to the use of the plant in folklore medicine in the management of alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction.

  18. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Bunyapraphatsara, N; Yongchaiyudha, S; Rungpitarangsi, V; Chokechaijaroenporn, O

    1996-11-01

    The effect of Aloe vera juice in combination with glibenclamide was investigated in diabetic patients. There was no response to glibenclamide alone but Aloe vera juice significantly reduced levels of fasting blood glucose within two weeks and of triglycerides within four weeks. It showed no effect on cholesterol levels and had no toxic effects on kidney or liver function as assessed by blood chemistry. The results support the use of Aloe vera in the treatment of diabetes.

  19. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-07-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders. PMID:27350340

  20. Effects of drying temperature and ethanol concentration on bipolar switching characteristics of natural Aloe vera-based memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2015-10-28

    Extracted, formulated, and processed natural Aloe vera has been used as an active layer for memory applications. The functional memory device is realized by a bottom-up structure of ITO/Aloe vera/Al in which the Aloe vera is spin-coated after mixing with different concentrations of ethanol (0-80 wt%) and subsequently dried at different temperatures (50-120 °C). From the current density-voltage measurements, the device can exhibit a reproducible bipolar switching characteristic with pure Aloe vera dried at 50 °C. It is proposed that charges are transported across the Aloe vera layer via space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC), and clusters of interstitial space formed by the functional groups of acemannans and de-esterified pectins in the dried Aloe vera contribute to the memory effect. The formation of charge traps in the Aloe vera layer is dependent on the drying temperature. The drying temperature of a memory-switching Aloe vera layer can be extended to 120 °C with the addition of appropriate amounts of ethanol. The concept of using natural Aloe vera as an active material for memory applications has been demonstrated, and the read memory window, ON/OFF ratio, and retention time are approximately 5.0 V, 10(3), and >10(4) s, respectively. PMID:26400096

  1. Effects of drying temperature and ethanol concentration on bipolar switching characteristics of natural Aloe vera-based memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2015-10-28

    Extracted, formulated, and processed natural Aloe vera has been used as an active layer for memory applications. The functional memory device is realized by a bottom-up structure of ITO/Aloe vera/Al in which the Aloe vera is spin-coated after mixing with different concentrations of ethanol (0-80 wt%) and subsequently dried at different temperatures (50-120 °C). From the current density-voltage measurements, the device can exhibit a reproducible bipolar switching characteristic with pure Aloe vera dried at 50 °C. It is proposed that charges are transported across the Aloe vera layer via space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC), and clusters of interstitial space formed by the functional groups of acemannans and de-esterified pectins in the dried Aloe vera contribute to the memory effect. The formation of charge traps in the Aloe vera layer is dependent on the drying temperature. The drying temperature of a memory-switching Aloe vera layer can be extended to 120 °C with the addition of appropriate amounts of ethanol. The concept of using natural Aloe vera as an active material for memory applications has been demonstrated, and the read memory window, ON/OFF ratio, and retention time are approximately 5.0 V, 10(3), and >10(4) s, respectively.

  2. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-01-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders. PMID:27350340

  3. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD. PMID:26510768

  4. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD.

  5. In vivo safety evaluation of UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone aloesin formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Safety profiles of the aloe chromone aloesin or Aloe vera inner leaf fillet (Qmatrix) as a well tolerated entity have been reported separately. UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet, has shown a significant beneficial effect in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin resistance in human. Here we evaluate the safety of UP780 after a repeated 14 and 90-day oral administration in CD-1 mice. UP780 was given at doses of 100mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day and 1000mg/kg/day to groups of 10 male and 10 female for 90days or administered by oral gavage at a dose of 2g/kg/day to groups of 5 male and 5 female for 14days. Body weight, feed consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathologic evaluation were performed. UP780 at a dose of 1000mg/kg/day or at 2000mg/kg/day produced no treatment-related toxicity or mortality. Body weight gain or feed consumption was similar between groups. There was no test article-related microscopic change. Spontaneously occurring minor changes in clinical chemistry and hematology were observed. However, these changes were limited to one sex or were not dose correlated. UP780 was well tolerated in this strain. A dose of 2000mg/kg/day was identified as the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level).

  6. Skin permeation enhancement potential of Aloe Vera and a proposed mechanism of action based upon size exclusion and pull effect.

    PubMed

    Cole, Louise; Heard, Charles

    2007-03-21

    The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the potential of Aloe Vera juice as a skin permeation enhancer; a secondary aim was to probe the extent to which Aloe Vera itself permeates the skin. Saturated solutions of caffeine, colchicine, mefenamic acid, oxybutynin, and quinine were prepared at 32 degrees C in Aloe Vera juice and water (control) and used to dose porcine ear skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells with water as receptor phase. Receptor phase samples were taken over a 48 h period and permeants determined by reverse-phase HPLC. For caffeine and mefenamic acid no significant enhancements occurred between Aloe Vera and water as vehicles (p>0.05). However, for colchicine, oxybutynin and quinine the presence of Aloe Vera within the formulation provided enhancements (p < or = 0.05). Enhancement potential was dependent upon the molecular weight of the drug in formulation, with the enhancement effect attributable to as yet unidentified components within the Aloe Vera. Colchicine, with a molecular weight of 399.44, achieved the best enhancement with an enhancement ratio of 10.97. No correlation with lipophilicity was apparent. In a further experiment, where freeze-dried Aloe Vera was reconstituted at 200% residue level, permeation of quinine was 2.8 x that from normal Aloe Vera, providing further evidence for the presence of an enhancing factor within Aloe Vera. Certain, although unidentified, components of Aloe Vera readily permeated skin and the relative amount by which they permeated skin was inversely related to the molecular weight of the drug in solution, thus enhancement ratio. A new mechanistic rationale is proposed whereby larger drug solutes inhibit the permeation of Aloe Vera components, but also are then able to interact more effectively with the enhancing factor and be subject to the pull effect.

  7. Landslide Monitoring with ALOS/PALSAR data in Mountain Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Qi, H.; Yu, B.

    2015-12-01

    InSAR is a relatively new technique with a high potential in earth observation, which has made great success in monitoring urban areas deformation. At present, although there are a considerable number of applications in the complicated mountain areas, it is hard to obtain sufficiently high-density stable point targets in these regions. So scientists have been trying to solve this bottleneck problem and improve accuracy in mountain areas. In this work, we present the landslide measurement result in complicated topographic region using ALOS/PALSAR data. The test area is selected around highlands of the boundary between China and India. We choose 13 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR images from May 2007 to February 2011. The main landforms in this experimental region are bare rock and soil, ice and snow, the vegetation in the alpine area. Due to the lithology of the strata and the undulations extent of the terrain, it is prone to cause landslides in the event of rainfall, earthquakes, snow melt or human activities. The traditional PS algorithm has a higher requirement for a long time series data collection, especially in low-coherence area of vegetation cover. As the collected data and stable points are relatively less in this experimental area, we plan to study the time series InSAR analysis coherence model and error model, and extend its application to the extra-urban regions. The approach has been carried out to increase the density of stable points, which are mainly distributed on the top of mountain and ridge areas. And using the 13 images we find several subsidence areas by this technique. The result shows that the top of mountain is relatively stable and the suspected landslide areas are mainly along the ridge, which is in accordance with the actual situation. Then the mechanism and stability analysis of landslide is discussed. Meanwhile, some other measurement data in experimental area is available for cross validation, such as optical data and TerraSAR-X data. And a

  8. Ice Velocity Map of Antarctica measured with ALOS PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ice velocity is fundamental characteristic of the dynamics of ice sheet and is essential to know for measuring the mass budget of ice sheet and for controlling ice sheet numerical models with realistic boundary conditions. Until recently, data were mostly available on a discrete basis over small areas with variable precision. Here, we report on our results of processing ice velocity from he interferometric synthetic-aperture radar data acquired by ALOS PALSAR in 2007, 2008 and 2009 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and distributed by NASA's Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF). The goal of our project is to produce a new set of Earth Science Data Record (ESDR): high-resolution digital maps of ice velocity of the Antarctic ice sheet. This new ESDR will be based on spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from multiple missions. It will be distributed to the scientific community via institutional links already in place at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The EDSR will benefit glaciologists and ice sheet modelers, but also climate modelers interested in how ice sheets are evolving, physical oceanographers studying sea level change and changes in oceanic circulation, solid earth scientists interested in post-glacial rebound, atmospheric scientists interested in surface mass balance in Antarctica. This effort will establish a long-term legacy for quantitative measurements of the dynamics of polar ice sheets. Areas north of 78 degrees south were first covered by RADARSAT-1 during the RAMP campaign. ALOS PALSAR and ENVISAT ASAR were tasked to cover the area in 2007, 2008 and 2009. PALSAR 46-day speckle tracking works well even in areas where C-band sensors lose signal coherence, which helps us to complete a full coverage of Antarctica's coastal regions. One challenge for L-band data is the sensitivity to ionosphere disturbances and another is to lower data noise in vast interior where flow velocities drop to below a few meters per year. We

  9. Clear Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity by a Whole-Leaf Extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats. PMID:22968693

  10. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.

  11. Kinematic Slip Model for 12 May 2008 Wenchuan-Beichuan Mw 7.9 Earthquake from Joint Inversion of ALOS, Envisat, and Teleseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric; Sladen, Anthony; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Li, Zhenhong; Ryder, Isabelle; Burgmann, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The presentations explores kinematics of the Wenchaun-Beichuan earthquake using data from ALOS, Envisat, and teleseismic recordings. Topics include geomorphic mapping, ALOS PALSAR range offsets, ALOS PALSAR interferometry, Envisat IM interferometry, Envisat ScanSAR, Joint GPS-InSAR inversion, and joint GPS-teleseismic inversion (static and kinematic).

  12. Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Hidehiko; Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tamai, Ikuko; Yamaji, Sachiyo; Ozaki, Sayaka; Kuzuya, Hiroshi; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2006-02-20

    We carried out three experimental trials to determine antidiabetic effects of Aloe arborescens Miller components. Firstly, ICR mice which received frequent injections of streptozotocin (Sz) in small doses (low-dose Sz-induced diabetes mice) were fed ad libitum with basal diets supplemented with components of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe) and Aloe vera Linne from 31 days before to 73 days after the Sz injections. Variation in blood glucose levels, incidence rates of insulitis and blood insulin levels were examined during the trial. As a result, groups receiving diets supplemented at the rate of 2% with whole leaf of Kidachi aloe and 10 KDa fraction powder (a fraction with less than 10 KDa molecular weight derived from Kidachi aloe leaf skin juice by ultra filtration) significantly suppressed the elevation of blood sugar as compared to a control group receiving basal diet. In contrast, there was no significant effect with Aloe vera leaf pulp powder. Insulitis emerged at the rate of 87% in the basal diet group. On the contrary, the whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction groups significantly decreased the incidence of insulitis and incidence rates of whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction powder were 51 and 38%, respectively. While insulin levels in the basal diet group averaged at 0.05 ng, more than four times the insulin level was observed in the 10 KDa group relative to the basal diet group. Secondary, the inhibitory effects of test materials on intestinal glucose absorption were observed using the jejunum of rats. A strong inhibitory action on intestinal glucose absorption was observed in the 10 KDa fraction powder group. Thirdly, phenol compounds derived from aloe in the blood serum and organs were quantitatively measured by a HPLC following forced administration of aloe components to rats to determine absorption kinetics of aloe components inside the body. The primary component of aloe phenol compounds is the same component of the 10 KDa

  13. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1). Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss.

  14. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.

  15. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  16. Aloe-emodin suppresses esophageal cancer cell TE1 proliferation by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jimin; Tian, Fang; Jiang, Yanan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Junfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoguo; Huang, Youtian; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Kangdong; Dong, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is often observed in various human cancers. Both AKT and ERK are important in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways, which play vital roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Compounds that are able to block these pathways have therefore a promising use in cancer treatment and prevention. The present study revealed that AKT and ERK are activated in esophageal cancer TE1 cells. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex, can suppress TE1 cell proliferation and anchor-independent cell growth. Aloe-emodin can also reduce the number of TE1 cells in S phase. Protein analysis indicated that aloe-emodin inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the present data indicate that aloe-emodin can suppress TE1 cell growth by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation, and suggest its clinical use for cancer therapy.

  17. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations. PMID:26815913

  18. Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Mancari, Ferdinando; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-05-01

    Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions.

  19. Aloe-emodin suppresses esophageal cancer cell TE1 proliferation by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jimin; Tian, Fang; Jiang, Yanan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Junfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoguo; Huang, Youtian; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Kangdong; Dong, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is often observed in various human cancers. Both AKT and ERK are important in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways, which play vital roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Compounds that are able to block these pathways have therefore a promising use in cancer treatment and prevention. The present study revealed that AKT and ERK are activated in esophageal cancer TE1 cells. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex, can suppress TE1 cell proliferation and anchor-independent cell growth. Aloe-emodin can also reduce the number of TE1 cells in S phase. Protein analysis indicated that aloe-emodin inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the present data indicate that aloe-emodin can suppress TE1 cell growth by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation, and suggest its clinical use for cancer therapy. PMID:27602169

  20. The Use of Aloe Vera Extract as a Novel Storage Media for the Avulsed Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Badakhsh, Samaneh; Eskandarian, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the most severe dental traumas which most often occur in children. When immediate replantation is not possible, storage in a proper media may lead to a prolonged survival rate. Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. This medicinal plant has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different concentrations of Aloe Vera extract compared to DMEM (cell culture medium) and egg white. Methods: The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured and certain number of cells were treated with Aloe Vera extract (in four different concentrations), egg white and culture media for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Moreover, One-way ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for analyzing the study groups. Results: The results indicate that culture media and Aloe Vera extract (10, 30, and 50% concentration) were statistically similar and significantly preserved more PDL cells compared to other experimental storage media. Conclusion: Aloe Vera 10, 30, and 50% may be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:25031484

  1. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  2. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days' tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content.

  3. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days’ tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content. PMID:26155093

  4. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  5. Spectroscopic Constants of the X1Σ+ and 13Π states of AlO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Linguerri, Roberto; Mogren, Muneerah Mogren Al; Francisco, Joseph S.; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-08-01

    Using both standard and explicitly correlated ab initio methods in conjunction with several atomic basis sets, the ground state of AlO(X2Σ+) and the two lowest electronic states of AlO+ (1Σ+ and 3Π) are investigated. Potential energy curves for these species are mapped, which are incorporated later to solve the nuclear motion problem. Benchmark computations on AlO(X2Σ+) are used to determine the reliability of the theoretical methods and basis sets used for an accurate description of aluminum oxide compounds. The electronic ground state of AlO+ is X1Σ+, followed by the low-lying 13Π state. For both cationic electronic states, a set of spectroscopic parameters are recommended that may help in the identification of this ion in laboratory and astrophysical media. An accurate estimation of the adiabatic ionization energy of AlO, AIE = 9.70 eV, is also reported.

  6. Effect of Aloe vera juice on growth and activities of Lactobacilli in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Kaur, Varinder; Kumar, Manoj; Marotta, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    In present investigation, different concentrations of Aloe vera juice incorporated into the growth media of Lactobacilli were tested to observe the effect on growth and activities of these bacteria. From the results obtained, it was observed that aloe vera juice at a concentration of 5% v/v was effective in promoting the growth of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and L. casei, as evident from the fall in pH and increased acidity, as well as from the improved generation time. At 15 to 25% concentration, growth was unaffected as compared to the controls; however, concentration higher than 25%v/v discouraged the growth. Overall, it was concluded that Aloe vera juice or gel at a particular concentration could possibly be used in combination with probiotic Lactobacillus strain(s) as a combinational therapy for gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. The protective effect of aloe vera juice on lindane induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Etim, O E; Farombi, E O; Usoh, I F; Akpan, E J

    2006-10-01

    The protective effect of fresh aloe vera (AV) leaves extract on lindane (LD) - induced hepatoxicity and genotoxicity was studied. Serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers: glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined after oral administration of aloe vera leaves extract and lindane. The level of polychromatic erythrocytes was also observed. Pretreatment with aloe vera leaves extract at concentration of 1.0 ml/kg body weight significantly decreased (P<0.05) the serum levels of GPT (by 41.8%), GOT (by 36.5%), GGT (by 14.3%) and ALP (by 10.7%) induced by 100mg/kg body weight of lindane. The level of polychromatic erythrocytes observed was not statistically significant when compared to control.

  8. Effect of crosslinking in chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Caridade, S G; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-10-15

    The positive interaction between polysaccharides with active phytochemicals found in medicinal plants may represent a strategy to create active wound dressing materials useful for skin repair. In the present work, blended membranes composed of chitosan (Cht) and aloe vera gel were prepared through the solvent casting, and were crosslinked with genipin to improve their properties. Topography, swelling, wettability, mechanical properties and in vitro cellular response of the membranes were investigated. With the incorporation of aloe vera gel into chitosan solution, the developed chitosan/aloe-based membranes displayed increased roughness and wettability; while the genipin crosslinking promoted the formation of stiffer membranes in comparison to those of the non-modified membranes. Moreover, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that the L929 cells have high cell viability, confirmed by MTS test and calcein-AM staining. The findings suggested that both blend compositions and crosslinking affected the physico-chemical properties and cellular behavior of the developed membranes.

  9. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  10. [Distribution of anthraquinones in leaves of two Aloe species and their defence strategy].

    PubMed

    Shen, Zonggen; Li, Jingyuan; Hu, Zhenghai

    2002-11-01

    Aloe plants are the succulents mainly distributed in arid or semi-arid desert in South Africa. TLC analysis indicated that Aole arborescens and Aloe hereroensis contained the high concentration of phenolic derivative metabolites, anthraquinones such as barbaloin, homonataloin, aloeresin and aloenin. In younger leaf, L3 of A. hereroensis, the average content of 4 anthraquinones reached 44.9% of the dry weight of exudates. The similar distribution of the anthraquinones in the two species were found, which showed that the youngest leaves had the highest content, the top part of each leaf had the highest content, and the basal part had the lowest content. Along leaf margin, the content was higher than that of central parts. However, some different distributions were also revealed and compared between the two species. It was inferred that the special distribution of anthraquinones in Aloe was a chemical defense strategy for protection themselves.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05), specifically the values of Control < CHX and Control < A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between CHX and A. barbadensis Miller (P > 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin.

  12. Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on quality parameters and structural properties of aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Nuñez-Mancilla, Yissleen; Garcia-Segovia, Purificación; Ah-Hen, Kong; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on colour, dietary fibre, vitamin C content, polysaccharides content, physico-chemical and structural properties of aloe vera gel at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 3 min) after 35 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The results showed that HHP exerted a clear influence on most of the quality parameters studied. Moisture, protein and fat contents did not show changes with an increasing pressure. Ash, crude fibre and carbohydrates content increased with increasing pressure. Vitamin C content did not show significant differences after 35 days of storage. The variation of colour in the samples increased at 500 MPa. Total dietary fibre, water holding capacity and firmness increased with pressure. However, all HHP-treated samples presented a decrease in hydration ratio and polysaccharides content; and also minor alterations in the structural properties were produced at HHP of 300-500 MPa, resulting in a high quality gel. PMID:25328187

  13. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05), specifically the values of Control < CHX and Control < A. barbadensis Miller (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between CHX and A. barbadensis Miller (P > 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. PMID:27656056

  14. A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study).

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments.

  15. Phytomodulatory potentials of Aloe vera against Salmonella OmpR-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Praveen; Rampuria, Anjali; Tewari, Rupinder; Koul, Ashwani

    2008-08-01

    Mediators released during inflammatory response play an essential role in eliminating microbes or microbial products. However, the uncontrolled release of cytotoxic substances characterized by extensive inflammation may adversely affect normal tissues. Under such conditions it is important to manage the hyperinflammation in order to change the clinical manifestations of the disease. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation by Aloe vera, a plant known to contain antiinflammatory ingredients. It was observed that outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) extracted from the wild type strain of S. typhimurium caused inflammation of greater magnitude compared with the OMPs extracted from its mutant construct as evident from the oedema test as well as the hyperalgesic (flicking) response of the animals under experimental conditions. However, Aloe vera applied topically, administered intraperitoneally or in combination modulated the inflammatory response. The maximum effect was observed with the combined formulation indicating modulation at local as well as systemic levels. The results reveal that this modulation could be due to the potential of Aloe vera to decrease peroxidative damage via a decrease in the levels of monokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6) and an increase in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, the presence of SOD in Aloe vera itself might be responsible for enhancing its levels in the macrophages. On the other hand, no significant change in the catalase activity was observed by Aloe vera treatment. The use of Aloe vera, therefore, seems to have a promising role in the modulation of Salmonella OmpR mediated inflammation.

  16. Therapeutic approach by Aloe vera in experimental model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiey, A; Aghily, B; Namaki, S; Razavi, A; Ghazavi, A; Ekhtiari, P; Mosayebi, G

    2010-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to an inflammatory demyelination, axonal damage, and progressive neurologic disability that affects approximately 2.5 million people worldwide. The aim of the present research was to test the therapeutic effect of Aloe vera in experimental model of MS. All experiments were conducted on C57BL/6 male mice aged 6-8 weeks. To induce the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), 250 microg of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide emulsified in complete freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously on day 0 over two flank areas. In addition, 200 ng of pertussis toxin in 100 microL phosphate buffered saline was injected intraperitoneally on days 0 and 2. The therapeutic protocol was carried out intragastrically using 120 mg/kg/day Aloe vera from 7 days before to 21 days after EAE induction. The mice were killed 21 days after EAE induction. The brains of mice were removed for histological analysis and their isolated splenocytes were cultured. The results indicated that treatment with Aloe vera caused a significant reduction in severity of the disease in experimental model of MS. Histological analysis showed 3 +/- 2 plaques in Aloe vera-treated mice compared with 5 +/- 1 plaques in control group. The density of mononuclear infiltration in the CNS of Aloe vera-treated mice (500 +/- 200) was significantly less in comparison to 700 +/- 185 cells in control group. Moreover, the serum level of nitric oxide in treatment group was significantly less than control animals. The level of interferon-gamma in cell culture supernatant of treated mice splenocytes was lower than control group, whereas decrease in serum level of interleukin-10 in treatment group was not significant in comparison with control mice. These data indicate that Aloe vera therapy can attenuate the disease progression in experimental model of MS.

  17. An Autocorrelation-Based Technique for Built-Up Area Detection in ALOS PALSAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasolla, Mattia; Gamba, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    The paper describes the results of the human extent analysis developed in the framework of project ALOS- 3648 "Human settlements mapping in Africa by SAR". The approach exploits textural indexes to detect human extent masks that are finally combined. Extensive tests on different and sparsely located sites show that the approach is valid and robust enough o be considered fro regional processing of ALOS/PALSAR data for human settlement extraction in Africa. Further improvements are possible and will be considered, but the achieved results are indeed promising for coming to the first regional urban extent data base extracted from VHR SAR data.

  18. [Study on application of arbuscular-mycorrhizas in growing seedings of Aloe vera].

    PubMed

    Gong, Mingqin; Wang, Fengzhen; Chen, Yu

    2002-01-01

    Tissue culture seedlings of Aloe vera L. inoculated with 7 AMF(arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi) in a greenhouse in Guangzhou showed that the percentage of infection was 99.67%-100%, the index of infected was 73.3%-86.67%. After being inoculated 13 months, the seedling high raised 19.88%-51.91%, the leaves length raised 13.13%-150.96%. After being inoculated 15 months, the leaves juice of Aloe vera raised 60.87%-233.8% and the dried of leaves juice raised 217%-724%.

  19. An in vitro and in vivo toxicologic evaluation of a stabilized aloe vera gel supplement drink in mice.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-05-01

    Aloe vera gel is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of a stabilized aloe vera gel derived from the inner gel fillet and marketed as a drink. The gel juice was assessed through assays of genotoxicity in vivo and acute and subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Aloe vera did not increase the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli and at 1× and 0.25× it did not increase mutagenesis of Salmonella TA100 resulting in histidine biosynthesis. At 3 and 14days following acute exposure, male and female mice gavaged with the stabilized aloe gel had daily appearances, total body weight gain, selected organ weights, necropsy and hematology tests similar to control mice gavaged with water. After a 13-week aloe gel feed study, male and female mice evaluated by the same criteria as the acute study plus feed consumption and serum chemistry tests were found to be equivalent to control groups. These data indicate that a commercial stabilized aloe gel consumed as a beverage was not genotoxic or toxic in vivo. These results contrast with those obtained using preparations containing aloe latex phenolic compounds such as anthraquinones.

  20. A comparative study of baby immature and adult shoots of Aloe vera on UVB-induced skin photoaging in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Kim, Su Hyeon; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Jinwan; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces photo-damage of the skin, which in turn causes depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkle formations are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The production of type I procollagen is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression; the activation of MMP is also correlated with an increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Aloe barbadensis M. (Aloe vera) is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this study, we examined whether baby aloe shoot extract (BAE, immature aloe extract), which is from the one-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, and adult aloe shoot extract (AE), which is from the four-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, have a protective effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BAE and AE on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species, MMP-1, MMP-3, IL-6, type I procollagen, and TGF-β1 after UVB irradiation. We found that NHDF cells treated with BAE after UVB-irradiation suppressed MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6 levels compared to the AE-treated cells. Furthermore, BAE treatment elevated type I procollagen and TGF-β1 levels. Our results suggest that BAE may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced damage more than AE.

  1. Optimality in Microwave-Assisted Drying of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Gel using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Chandan; Das, Arijit; Kumar Golder, Animes

    2016-07-01

    The present work illustrates the Microwave-Assisted Drying (MWAD) characteristic of aloe vera gel combined with process optimization and artificial neural network modeling. The influence of microwave power (160-480 W), gel quantity (4-8 g) and drying time (1-9 min) on the moisture ratio was investigated. The drying of aloe gel exhibited typical diffusion-controlled characteristics with a predominant interaction between input power and drying time. Falling rate period was observed for the entire MWAD of aloe gel. Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD) developed a regression model to evaluate their effects on moisture ratio. The optimal MWAD conditions were established as microwave power of 227.9 W, sample amount of 4.47 g and 5.78 min drying time corresponding to the moisture ratio of 0.15. A computer-stimulated Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was generated for mapping between process variables and the desired response. `Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation' algorithm with 3-5-1 architect gave the best prediction, and it showed a clear superiority over FCCD.

  2. Disinfection of dental unit water line using aloe vera: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Atri, Mansi; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.

  3. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    PubMed

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy.

  4. The effect of a toothpaste containing aloe vera on established gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Namiranian, Homa; Serino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a toothpaste containing high concentrations of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in patients attending regular dental care by a dental hygienist. Fifteen subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, intra-individual and controlled clinical study. Participants were non-smokers, with signs of gingivitis (bleeding index 30%) and no signs of periodontitis. Subjects were followed for three 6-month periods during which they used either their own toothpaste, or an Aloe vera or a control toothpaste. Plaque and gingival indices were recorded atthe start and end of each period. There was a statistically and clinically significant reduction of about 20% of the plaque and gingivitis indices at the end of the clinical trial compared to baseline values, but no differences between the Aloe vera and the control toothpaste. It may be concluded that in patients motivated to improve their oral hygiene habits, the use of a toothpaste containing Aloe Vera showed no additional effect on plaque and gingivitis compared to a control toothpaste. PMID:23421308

  5. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  6. Study on the Land Cover/Use Features by Using ALOS-PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.

    2008-11-01

    Remote sensing technique gives a very useful tool for detecting and analyzing land cover/use features in our environment. This study was carried out to identity the land cover/use features over Penang Island, Malaysia. This research is an investigation to the multi polarized data of ALOS-PALSAR data for land cover/use mapping. The ALOS-PALSAR data used in this study was acquired on 1 November 2007. The ALOS-PALSAR images of the study area were chosen for land cover mapping using the standard supervised classification techniques (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance-to-mean and Parallelepiped). Some filtering and enhancement methods had to be applied in order to reduce speckle noise and to contrast the images. Composite color images were produced for visual interpretation and field surveys. After investigation of the ground truth, representative areas of each land cover type were identified and allocated to the images. The PALSAR data of training areas were choose and selected based on the high resolution optical satellite imagery and were classified using supervised classification methods. The land cover information was extracted from the digital spectral bands using PCI Geomatica 10.1 software package. The accuracies of all classifications will be analyzed to evaluate the best performing combination. The results show that accurate land cover/use distribution maps can be produced from ALOS-PALSAR data.

  7. A Systemic Review on Aloe arborescens Pharmacological Profile: Biological Activities and Pilot Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Singab, Abdel-Naser B; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Esmat, Ahmed; Gad, Haidy A; Nazeam, Jilan A

    2015-12-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in the last few decades has verified several such claims. Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. The popularity of the plant in traditional medicine for several ailments (antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity) focused the investigator's interest on this plant. Most importantly, the reported studies have shown the plant effectiveness on various cancer types such as liver, colon, duodenal, skin, pancreatic, intestinal, lung and kidney types. These multiple biological actions make Aloe an important resource for developing new natural therapies. However, the biological activities of isolated compounds such as glycoprotein, polysaccharides, enzyme and phenolics were insufficient. Considering all these, this contribution provides a systematic review outlining the evidence on the biological efficacy of the plant including the pharmacology and the related mechanisms of action, with specific attention to the various safety precautions, and preclinical and clinical studies, indicating the future research prospects of this plant. PMID:26768148

  8. Disinfection of Dental Unit Water Line Using Aloe Vera: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines. PMID:24089615

  9. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    PubMed

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy. PMID:26878323

  10. Standardization of micropropgation techniques for Aloe vera: a pharmaceutically important plant.

    PubMed

    Zakia, Shehnaz; Zahid, Najma Yousaf; Yaseen, Mehwish; Abbasi, Nadeem Akhtar; Hafiz, Ashfaq Ahmad; Mahmood, Nasir

    2013-11-01

    Aloe vera (Syn Aloe barbadensis Mill.), a medicinal plant, has a great potential in cosmetic and drug industry due to presence of more than 200 bioactive compounds. Natural propagation of Aloe vera, by means of suckers, is very slow and insufficient to meet the increasing demand of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Shoot tip was used as an explant for in vitro regeneration of Aloe vera. Explants were disinfested with the use of 0.1% mercuric chloride and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and washed thoroughly with autoclaved distilled water. Solid MS medium was used with addition of different concentrations of 6-benzyl aminopurine and α-naphthalene acitic acid. After 7 weeks of inoculation, greatest number of shoots (11.18) and highest shoot length (12.15cm) were found in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) along with same concentration of α-naphthalene acitic acid (NAA). Best rooting (84.67%) was found in medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l-1 of indole butyric acid (IBA). The rooted explants were then gradually acclimatized and shifted to green house.

  11. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  12. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of dru...

  13. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  14. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions. PMID:23094205

  15. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  16. Standwise Change Detection for Growing STOCK Using Repeat-Pass Alos Palsar / PALSAR-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.-G.; Kim, C.

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of detecting the changes of growing stocks in mountainous forest stands derived from ALOS PALSAR and PALSAR-2 images. The ALOS PALSAR were obtained over the Kwangneung Experiment Forest (KEF, Korea) during the period of nineteen and a half months from the April 26, 2009 to December 12, 2010, whereas the PALSAR-2 data were acquired on the April 7, 2015. The KEF test site comprises 58 stands, which cover approximately 1,000ha and have steep slope topography. Owing to topographic effects of SAR data in mountainous areas, the DEM-assisted topographic normalized backscattering coefficient γ0 was applied to the evaluation of the relationships between the ALOS PALSAR / PALSAR-2 HV backscatter and the field inventory-based stand stock volume. The results indicate that: 1) the γ0 values for the volume obtained from ALOS PALSAR data on December 12, 2010 show a gradual increase higher than those computed from the data on April 26, 2009, here the γ0 value increases in accordance with an increase in the volume: 2) the γ0 values determined from the PALSAR-2 data increase with the same inventory-based volume, when compared with those computed from both ALOS PALSAR data. They also increase substantially as the values of the volume rise, with the exception of the volume interval from 130 m3 ha-1 to 160 m3 ha-1. This is understandable because the volume of the aforementioned interval has been reduced through clearing. Consequently, the γ0-based relationship between PALSAR-2 HV backscatter and growing stock can lead to detecting the stand growth changes in the KEF of Korea.

  17. Aloe Vera Gel and Cesarean Wound Healing; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Molazem, Zahra; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Younesi, Masoumeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Failure in complete healing of the wound is one of the probable complications of cesarean. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of dressing with aloe vera gel in healing of cesarean wound. Methods: This prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 women who had undergone cesarean operation in Amir-al-Momenin hospital (Gerash, Iran). The participants were randomly divided into two groups each containing 45 patients. In one group, the wound was dressed with aloe vera gel, while simple dressing was used in the control group. Wound healing was assessed 24 hours and 8 days after the cesarean operation using REEDA scale. The data were analyzed through Chi-square and t-test. Results: The participants’ mean age was 27.56±4.20 in the aloe vera group and 26.62±4.88 in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning body mass index, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). Also, a significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the wound healing score 24 hours after the operation (P=0.003). After 8 days, however, the difference in the wound healing score was not significant (P=0.283). Overall, 45 participants in the aloe vera group and 35 ones in the control group had obtained a zero score 24 hours after the operation. These measures were respectively obtained as 42 and 41eight days after the operation. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the women are recommended to be informed regarding the positive effects of dressing with aloe vera gel. PMID:25560349

  18. In-vitro assessment and pharmacodynamics of nimesulide incorporated Aloe vera transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Vandana, K R; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R; Sundaresan, C R; Sriramaneni, Raghava N; Vadlamudi, Harini C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to prepare nimesulide emulsion for incorporation in Aloe vera gel base to formulate 'nimesulide - Aloe vera transemulgel' (NAE) and to carryout in-vitro assessment and in-vivo anti-inflammatory studies of the product. Although the use of nimesulide is banned for oral administration, due to its potential for inducing hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia, the use of nimesulide for topical delivery is prominent in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loading capacity of transdermal gels is low for hydrophobic drugs such as nimesulide. Nimesulide can be effectively incorporated into emulgels (a combination of emulsion and gel). Aloe vera has a mild anti-inflammatory effect and in the present study Aloe vera gel was formulated and used as a gel base to prepare NAE. The emulgels thus prepared were evaluated for viscosity, pH, in-vitro permeation, stability and skin irritation test. In-vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed using carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in Wistar rats. The results were compared with that of commercial nimesulide gel (CNG). From the in-vitro studies, effective permeation of nimesulide from NAE (53.04 %) was observed compared to CNG (44.72 %) at 30 min indicating better drug release from NAE. Topical application of the emulgel found no skin irritation. Stability studies proved the integrity of the formulation. The percentage of inhibition of edema was highest for the prepared NAE (67.4 % inhibition after 240 min) compared to CNG (59.6 %). From our results, it was concluded that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare nimesulide emulgel with high drug loading capacity (86.4 % drug content) compared to CNG (70.5 % drug content) with significant anti-inflammatory effect.

  19. Diffusion of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide and Aloe vera pastes.

    PubMed

    Batista, Victor Eduardo de Souza; Olian, Douglas Dáquila; Mori, Graziela Garrido

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diffusion through the dentinal tubules of hydroxyl ions from different calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes containing Aloe vera. Sixty single-rooted bovine teeth were used. The tooth crowns were removed, the root canals were instrumented and the specimens were assigned to 4 groups (n=15) according to the intracanal medication: Group CH/S - CH powder and saline paste; Group CH/P - CH powder and propylene glycol paste; Group CH/A - calcium hydroxide powder and Aloe vera gel paste; Group CH/A/P - CH powder, Aloe vera powder and propylene glycol paste. After placement of the root canal dressings, the teeth were sealed coronally and apically with a two-step epoxy adhesive. The teeth were placed in identified flasks containing deionized water and stored in an oven with 100% humidity at 37 °C. After 3 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, 15 days and 30 days, the deionized water in the flasks was collected and its pH was measured by a pH meter. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis at a significance level of 5%. The results demonstrated that all pastes provided diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules. The combination of Aloe vera and CH (group CH/A) provided a constant release of calcium ions. Group CH/A/P showed the highest pH at 24 and 72 h. In conclusion, the experimental pastes containing Aloe vera were able to enable the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules.

  20. Clinical Effectiveness of Aloe Vera in the Management of Oral Mucosal Diseases- A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Gopakumar Ramachandran; Naidu, Giridhar Seetharam; Jain, Supreet; Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Jha, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera is well known for its medicinal properties which lead to its application in treating various diseases. Its use in treating oral lesions has not been much documented in literature. Aim Although, systematic reviews on aloe vera and its extracts have been done earlier, but in relation to oral diseases this is the first systematic review. The aim of the present systematic review was to compile evidence based studies on the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of various oral diseases. Materials and Methods Computerized literature searches were performed to identify all published articles in the subject. The following databases were used: PUBMED [MEDLINE], SCOPUS, COCHRANE DATABASE, EMBASE and SCIENCE DIRECT using specific keywords. The search was limited to articles published in English or with an English Abstract. All articles (or abstracts if available as abstracts) were read in full. Data were extracted in a predefined fashion. Assessment was done using Jadad score. Results Fifteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Population of sample study ranged from 20 patients to 110 patients with clinically diagnosed oral mucosal lesions. Out of 15 studies, five were on patients with oral lichen planus, two on patients with oral submucous fibrosis, other studies were carried on patients with burning mouth syndrome, radiation induced mucositis, candida associated denture stomatitis, xerostomic patients and four were on minor recurrent apthous stomatitis. Most studies showed statistically significant result demonstrating the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of oral diseases. Conclusion Although there are promising results but in future, more controlled clinical trials are required to prove the effectiveness of Aloe vera for management of oral diseases. PMID:27656587

  1. Acute inflammation and hematological response in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, G; Ledic-Neto, J; Gonçalves, E L T; Brum, A; Maraschin, M; Martins, M L

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia supplemented with the mixture of natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis (1:1) at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% in diet during 15 days. Thirty-six fish were distributed into four treatments with three replicates: fish supplemented with 0.5% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 1% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 2% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1), injected with 500 µg carrageenin and unsupplemented fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin. Six hours after injection, samples of blood and exudate from the swim bladder of fish were collected. It was observed an increase in the leukocyte count in the swim bladder exudate of fish supplemented with extracts of propolis and Aloe injected with carrageenin. The most frequent cells were macrophages followed by granular leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes. Supplementation with propolis and Aloe to 0.5% caused a significant increase in the number of cells on the inflammatory focus mainly macrophages, cells responsible for the phagocytic activity in tissues, agent of innate fish immune response.

  2. Modified Aloe Polysaccharide Restores Chronic Stress-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjoo; Im, Sun-A; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Sungwon; Kwon, Junghak; Lee, Heetae; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress generally experienced in our daily lives; is known to augment disease vulnerability by suppressing the host immune system. In the present study; the effect of modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) on chronic stress-induced immunosuppression was studied; this Aloe compound was characterized in our earlier study. Mice were orally administered with MAP for 24 days and exposed to electric foot shock (EFS; duration; 3 min; interval; 10 s; intensity; 2 mA) for 17 days. The stress-related immunosuppression and restorative effect of MAP were then analyzed by measuring various immunological parameters. MAP treatment alleviated lymphoid atrophy and body weight loss. The numbers of lymphocyte subsets were significantly normalized in MAP-treated mice. Oral administration of MAP also restored the proliferative activities of lymphocytes; ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell proliferation; antibody production; and the cell killing activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In summary; oral administration of MAP ameliorated chronic EFS stress-induced immunosuppression. PMID:27706024

  3. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  4. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers generated by electrostatic spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Illani; Sekak, Khairunnadim Ahmad; Hasbullah, Norazurean

    2015-08-01

    Researches on the fabrication of nanostructured based membrane have attracted great attention amongst scientists due to their wide potential applications on medical application. In this work, Chitosan and Aloe Vera sol-gel solution were electrospun using 20 kV DC supply at room temperature. Morphological structure and functional group of nanofibers were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. The optimum parameter obtained at 90% concentration of acetic acid, 0.3 ml/h of solution flow rate and 10 cm distance of nozzle to collector. The fiber diameters were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Average diameters of the Chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers is 183nm in ranges of 140-260nm.

  5. Impedance studies of a green blend polymer electrolyte based on PVA and Aloe-vera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvalakshmi, S.; Mathavan, T.; Vijaya, N.; Selvasekarapandian, Premalatha, M.; Monisha, S.

    2016-05-01

    The development of polymer electrolyte materials for energy generating and energy storage devices is a challenge today. A new type of blended green electrolyte based on Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Aloe-vera has been prepared by solution casting technique. The blending of polymers may lead to the increase in stability due to one polymer portraying itself as a mechanical stiffener and the other as a gelled matrix supported by the other. The prepared blend electrolytes were subjected to Ac impedance studies. It has been found out that the polymer film in which 1 gm of PVA was dissolved in 40 ml of Aloe-vera extract exhibits highest conductivity and its value is 3.08 × 10-4 S cm-1.

  6. Investigation on the Ancient Site Location in the Mesopotamian Region Based on ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Ushiki, Hisao; Goto, Tomoya

    2008-11-01

    This project aims to investigate the location of ancient Mesopotamian sites in Iraq and to create a distribution map using ALOS data. Iraq is a centre of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. A distribution map is essential to conduct a prompt investigation and preservation of ancient sites and cultural heritage in Iraq which are at risk of looting and robbery due to the recent Iraqi condition. Firstly this project enables to create Satellite Image Map of Iraq, where the acquisition of detailed map is not possible, based on ALOS Data. The ancient site of Mesopotamia is called "Tell" which is swelled up from the alluvial plain and forms like a hill with the bare land on the surface. Secondly, the estimation of locating ancient site has been undertaken by using the Satellite Image Interpretation method. Finally the locations of the ancient sites and the Satellite Image map are layered to produce the Distribution Map.

  7. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers generated by electrostatic spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Illani; Sekak, Khairunnadim Ahmad; Hasbullah, Norazurean

    2015-08-28

    Researches on the fabrication of nanostructured based membrane have attracted great attention amongst scientists due to their wide potential applications on medical application. In this work, Chitosan and Aloe Vera sol-gel solution were electrospun using 20 kV DC supply at room temperature. Morphological structure and functional group of nanofibers were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. The optimum parameter obtained at 90% concentration of acetic acid, 0.3 ml/h of solution flow rate and 10 cm distance of nozzle to collector. The fiber diameters were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Average diameters of the Chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers is 183nm in ranges of 140–260nm.

  8. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  9. Aloe vera for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis: a self-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Haddad, P; Amouzgar-Hashemi, F; Samsami, S; Chinichian, S; Oghabian, M A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate an Aloe vera lotion for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis, all patients with a prescription of radiotherapy to a minimum dose of 40 Gy were eligible provided that their treatment area could be divided into two symmetrical halves. Patients were given a lotion of Aloe vera to use on one half of the irradiated area, with no medication to be used on the other half. The grade of dermatitis in each half was recorded weekly until 4 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. The trial enrolled 60 patients (mean age: 52 years; 67% women). Most patients had breast cancer (38%), followed by pelvic (32%), head-and-neck (22%), and other cancers (8%). Field size was 80-320 cm(2) (mean: 177 cm(2)), and the dose of radiotherapy was 40-70 Gy (mean: 54 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 20 patients. From week 4 to week 6 of radiotherapy and then at weeks 2 and 4 after radiotherapy, the mean grade of dermatitis with and without Aloe vera was 0.81 and 1.10 (p < 0.001), 0.96 and 1.28 (p < 0.001), 1.00 and 1.57 (p = 0.006), 0.59 and 0.79 (p = 0.003), and 0.05 and 0.21 (p = 0.002) respectively. Age and radiation field size had a significant effect on the grade of dermatitis. Based on these results, we conclude that the prophylactic use of Aloe vera reduces the intensity of radiationinduced dermatitis.

  10. High-performance nanothermite composites based on aloe-vera-directed CuO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2013-12-26

    In this work, we demonstrate the development of high-performance nanothermite composites derived from super-reactive CuO nanorods oxidizers fabricated by simple biogenic routes using Aloe vera plant extracts. Nanorods of various length scales have been realized via simple sonoemulsion and solid-state biosynthesis routes using Aloe vera gel as a green surfactant promoting the directional growth of CuO nanorods in both solid and emulsion phase. The biosynthesized CuO nanorods (oxidizers)/fuel (nanoaluminum) composites ignited vigorously with abundant gas generation, developing high heat of reaction of 1.66 kJ g(-1) and very high pressurization rate of around 1.09 MPa μs(-1) and peak pressure of 65.4 MPa when blasted inside a constant volume pressure cell with a charge density of 0.2 g cm(-3). The pressurization rates so obtained are four times higher with twice the peak pressure in comparison to such nanothermites formulated via other available state of the art wet-chemical techniques, which reflects the catalytic role of Aloe vera surface functional groups (A. vera-sfg) enhancing the reactivity of CuO oxidizers with excess gas release rate during exothermic reaction with nanoaluminum. Through this work, Aloe vera gel has for the first time been identified as a novel biotemplate for green synthesis of nanorod structures of metal oxides, and we have also studied the utility of A. vera-sfg in the creation of super-reactive CuO oxidizers producing excellent heat of reaction and dynamic pressure characteristics as demanded in propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics.

  11. Deformation Survey of Volcanoes in Central America Using Japanese L-Band SAR Satellite ALOS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.; Lebowitz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese L-Band SAR satellite ALOS-1 has proven intself to be a useful tool for deformation monitoring of active volcanoes. Here we present a systematic deformation survey of volcanoes in Central America for the 2007-2011 time frame using the Small Baseline InSAR time-series approach. We present results for deforming volcanoes and non-deforming volcanoes, including simple elastic source models for the volcanoes that show surface deformation.

  12. Measuring Crustal Deformation Caused by the Nepal (Gorkha) Earthquake Using ALOS-2 SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Yarai, H.

    2015-12-01

    A huge earthquake (Mw 7.8, USGS) occurred on 25 April, 2015 in Nepal, followed by the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3, USGS) on 12 May. We applied an InSAR technique to detect crustal deformation caused by the earthquakes using L-band SAR data acquired by ALOS-2. One of the advantages of ALOS-2 over ALOS is ScanSAR interferometry. Beam synchronization, which is a critical factor for ScanSAR interferometry, is always tuned among ALOS-2 observations. While a width of 350 km is covered by a ScanSAR acquisition, the provided data is divided into five swaths with each width of 70 km. Adjacent swaths have an overlapping area with a width of several kilometers, where interferometric phases for two swaths are basically comparable. We processed each swath independently. Preliminary interferograms are contaminated by noises with long wavelength, which makes it difficult to measure the amount of the crustal deformation accurately. We reduce the noises by following steps. First, pseudo reference points with no displacement are put at intervals of 40-100 km outside of the possible deforming area. The differential phase at the points are assumed to be due to the noises. The curved surface of the noises is estimated by smoothly interpolating the differential phase at the points. Note that the pseudo reference points should be located in a high coherence area where the phases can be unwrapped. Furthermore the points in the overlapping area between adjacent swaths allow to preserve consistency of the phases between adjacent swaths. The interferograms show the clear and detailed crustal deformation (published on http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic150429-index-e.html). The maximum of a quasi up-down component of the deformation estimated from the interferograms with different beam directions reaches over 1.4 m uplift at 20 km northeast from Kathmandu and 0.6 m subsidence at a northern part of the deforming area.

  13. Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe barbadensis Mill. against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chandan, B K; Saxena, A K; Shukla, Sangeeta; Sharma, Neelam; Gupta, D K; Suri, K A; Suri, Jyotsna; Bhadauria, M; Singh, B

    2007-05-22

    Aloe barbadensis Mill. Syn. Aloe vera Tourn. ex Linn.(Liliaceae) has been used in variety of diseases in traditional Indian system of medicine in India and its use for hepatic ailments is also documented. In the present study an attempt has been made to validate its hepatoprotective activity. The shade dried aerial parts of Aloe barbadensis were extracted with petroleum ether (AB-1), chloroform (AB-2) and methanol (AB-3). The plant marc was extracted with distilled water (AB-4). All the extracts were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity on limited test models as hexobarbitone sleep time, zoxazolamine paralysis time and marker biochemical parameters. AB-1 and AB-2 were observed to be devoid of any hepatoprotective activity. Out of two active extracts (AB-3 and AB-4), the most active AB-4 was studied in detail. AB-4 showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity as evident by restoration of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and triglycerides. Hepatoprotective potential was confirmed by the restoration of lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glucose-6-phosphatase and microsomal aniline hydroxylase and amidopyrine N-demethylase towards near normal. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supports the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of AB-4. The present study shows that the aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis is significantly capable of restoring integrity of hepatocytes indicated by improvement in physiological parameters, excretory capacity (BSP retention) of hepatocytes and also by stimulation of bile flow secretion. AB-4 did not show any sign of toxicity up to oral dose of 2 g/kg in mice.

  14. Joint Use of ALOS PalSAR and Landsat TM Images for Urban Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinyan; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Mingsheng; Wang, He

    2013-01-01

    The joint use of Landsat TM data and ALOS PALSAR quad-polarization data for extracting change information of urban areas is investigated, the potential application and the performance of the two data sets are evaluated. Feature extraction and classification using dual-threshold EM segmentation and Random Forest (RF) method are the main steps. Three different experiments are done based on the extracted features, and accuracy assessments are carried out.

  15. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  16. Detection of seagrass beds in Khunk Graben Bay, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Teruhisa; Noiraksar, Thidarat; Sakamoto, Shingo X.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Phauk, Sophany; Thongdee, Pornthep; Jualaong, Suthep; Nishida, Shuhei

    2012-11-01

    Coastal habitats having high productivity provide numerous ecological services such as foods, protection from strong waves through buffering effect, fixation of CO2 through photosynthesis, fostering biodiversity etc. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade coastal habitats. ASEAN region is developing most rapidly in the world. In the developing region, it is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of habitats as a baseline data with standardized mapping methods. Remote sensing is one of the most effective methods for mapping. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) provides non-commercial satellite images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2, similar to LANDSAT TM. Using ALOS AVNIR2 images it may be possible to make habitat map in the region. In Thailand, shrimp ponds cause degradation of coastal ecosystem through cutting mangroves and eutrophicated discharge from ponds. We examined capability of remote sesing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map seagrass beds in Khung Kraben Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, surrounded by shrimp ponds. We analyzed ALOS AVNIR2 taken on 25 January 2008. Ground truth survey was conducted in October 2010 using side scan sonar and scuba diving. The survey revealed that there were broad seagrass beds consisting of Enhalus acroides. We used a decision tree to detect seagrass beds in the bay with quite turbid seawater coupled with Depth-Invariant Index proposed by Lyzenga (1985) and bottom reflectances. We could succeed to detect seagrass beds. Thus it is concluded that ALOS AVNIR2 is practical to map seagrass beds in this region.

  17. [Effects of aloe extracts, aloctin A, on gastric secretion and on experimental gastric lesions in rats].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Imanishi, K; Okabe, S

    1989-05-01

    Effect of aloctin A, glycoprotein isolated from leaves of Aloe arborescens MILL, on gastric secretion and on acute gastric lesions in rats were examined. Aloctin A given intravenously dose-dependently inhibited the volume of gastric juice, acid and pepsin output in pylorus-ligated rats. Aloctin A given intravenously significantly inhibited the development of Shay ulcers and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. It also inhibited water-immersion stress lesions induced in pylorus-ligated rats.

  18. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  19. Preparation and characterization of aloe vera blended collagen-chitosan composite scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Jithendra, Panneerselvam; Rajam, Abraham Merlin; Kalaivani, Thambiran; Mandal, Asit Baran; Rose, Chellan

    2013-08-14

    Collagen-Chitosan (COL-CS) scaffolds supplemented with different concentrations (0.1-0.5%) of aloe vera (AV) were prepared and tested in vitro for their possible application in tissue engineering. After studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of all the composite preparations, a 0.2% AV blended COL-CS scaffold was chosen for further studies. Scaffolds were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) to understand the intermolecular interactions and their influence on the thermal property of the complex composite. Swelling property in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and in vitro biodegradability by collagenase digestion method were monitored to assess the stability of the scaffold in a physiological medium in a hydrated condition, and to assay its resistance against enzymatic forces. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the scaffold samples showed porous architecture with gradual change in their morphology and reduced tensile properties with increasing aloe vera concentration. The FTIR spectrum revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of COL-CS. The inclusion of AV to COL-CS increased the thermal stability as well as hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. Cell culture studies on the scaffold showed enhanced growth and proliferation of fibroblasts (3T3L1) without exhibiting any toxicity. Also, normal cell morphology and proliferation were observed by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The rate of cell growth in the presence/absence of aloe vera in the scaffolds was in the order: COL-CS-AV > COL-CS > TCP (tissue culture polystyrene plate). These results suggested that the aloe vera gel-blended COL-CS scaffolds could be a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications.

  20. In vitro and in vivo assessment of piroxicam incorporated Aloe vera transgel

    PubMed Central

    Velam, Vinesha; Yalavarthi, Prasanna Raju; Sundaresan, CR; Vandana, KR; Dudala, Thushara Bindu; Kodavatikanti, Haritha; Vadlamudi, Harini Chowdary

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to develop piroxicam-Aloe vera gel (PAG) formulation and make a pharmacodynamic evaluation of the formulation. Materials and Methods: The gel was prepared by using carbopol 934 as gelling agent and methyl paraben as a preservative in an Aloe vera gel base. The formulated gel was also evaluated for physicochemical parameters like pH, viscosity, drug content, and in vitro diffusion assessment. Pharmacodynamic activity of the formulation was evaluated in Wistar albino rats. The formulated gel was compared with that of similar marketed gel (commercial piroxicam gel (CPG)) against the same parameters. Results: From in vitro studies, an effective drug release from PAG was observed to be 68.17% when compared with that of the CPG (62.71%) at 180 min indicating better drug release from the gel formulated in this study. Percentage inhibition of edema was greater for the preparation of PAG (29.57 mean percent inhibition after 60 min) compared to marketed gel which exhibited 18.3% after 60 min. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare piroxicam gel with high drug loading capacity and improved anti-inflammatory effect. From the statistical analysis the formulation of PAG showed better release than the CPG at p < 0.05 level of significance. PMID:24350041

  1. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  2. Spectral reflectance of Kelantan Estuary with ALOS data to estimate transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahreza, S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2012-09-01

    The Kelantan estuary, located in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia, is characterized by high levels of suspended sediments. Kuala Besar is the estuary of the river directly opposite South China Sea. Spectral reflectance (Rr) and transparency measurements were carried out in the Kelantan estuary. The objective in this study is to establish empirical relationships between spectral remote sensing reflectance in ALOS satellite imagery and water column transparency, i.e. nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) and Secchi disc depth (SDD) through these numerous in situ measurements. We detected that remote sensing reflectance are linear and power regression functions against NTU and SDD. The results of this sampling show that the wavelengths range from 500-620 nm is the most suitable band for measuring water column transparency. The calibrated reflectance of ALOS AVNIR-2 bands was also regressed against NTU and SDD field data to derive two empirical equations for water transparency estimation. These equations were calculated using ALOS images data on June 12, 2010. The result obtained indicated that reliable estimates of turbidity and transparency values for the Kelantan Estuary, Malaysia, could be retrieved using this method.

  3. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. PMID:26878720

  4. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  5. Comparison of Plaque Inhibiting Efficacies of Aloe Vera and Propolis Tooth Gels: A Randomized PCR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Musalaiah Svv; Pantareddy, Indeevar; Sudhakar, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Backgound and Aim Allopathic medications used for periodontal disease are known to be associated with various side effects. Hence a search for naturotherapies are on the rise. Among the natural pharmacons available aloevera and propolis are considered to be effective and free from adverse effects. Taking this into account, the present study was done to compare the plaque inhibiting efficacies of Aloe vera and Propolis tooth gels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to groups A and B containing 20 patients each. Patients in group A were advised to use Aloe vera tooth gel while those in group B were advised to use Propolis tooth gel. Clinical and microbiologic parameters using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results Student t-test was performed for all the obtained results. In the Aloe vera group, comparison of baseline PCR and after 3 month results showed reduction only in P. gingivalis (p=0.001), where as statistically significant reduction in all the three red complex microorganisms was seen in propolis group. All the clinical parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing, Probing pocket Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level) in both the groups showed statistically significant reductions after 3 months. Conclusion Propolis showed a statistically significant reduction in plaque, microbiologic and clinical parameters. However, clinical trials of longer durations with larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the efficacy. PMID:26501001

  6. Formulation development, optimization and evaluation of aloe vera gel for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To formulate and optimize a herbal gel of Aloe vera extract containing Carbopol 934 as gelling agent and to investigate the effects of topical application of Carbopol 934 gel containing Aloe vera extract on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of viscosity enhancer Carbopol 934 were tried and finally gel that showed good spreadability and consistency was selected for wound healing property of herbal gel of Aloe vera. Excision wound model was used for the study. Results: The optimized gel was evaluated for different physicochemical properties and wound healing property. Differences in wound healing were observed between the various treatments when compared to the control group. Tissue hyperplasia was lower in the control group compared to the other treated groups. In animals group treated with gel, 80.14% healing was observed up to 14th day. While in untreated group I (control) animals showed 52.68% healing of wounds on 14th day. On the other hand, control group animals also showed inflammation and pus formation up to 5th day of study, while treated animals did not showed any observable inflammation and pus formation. Conclusion: Results shows prepared gel has promising effect on the wound healing process. PMID:24143047

  7. Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel

    SciTech Connect

    Grindlay, D.; Reynolds, T.

    1986-06-01

    The mucilaginous gel from the parenchymatous cells in the leaf pulp of Aloe vera has been used since early times for a host of curative purposes. This gel should be distinguished clearly from the bitter yellow exudate originating from the bundle sheath cells, which is used for its purgative effects. Aloe vera gel has come to play a prominent role as a contemporary folk remedy, and numerous optimistic, and in some cases extravagant, claims have been made for its medicinal properties. Modern clinical use of the gel began in the 1930s, with reports of successful treatment of X-ray and radium burns, which led to further experimental studies using laboratory animals in the following decades. The reports of these experiments and the numerous favourable case histories did not give conclusive evidence, since although positive results were usually described, much of the work suffered from poor experimental design and insufficiently large test samples. In addition some conflicting or inconsistent results were obtained. With the recent resurgence of interest in Aloe vera gel, however, new experimental work has indicated the possibility of distinct physiological effects. Chemical analysis has shown the gel to contain various carbohydrate polymers, notably either glucomannans or pectic acid, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of the gel have been described, there is no certain correlation between these and the identified gel components. 154 references.

  8. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  9. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  10. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  11. Aloe vera downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Milesz, Sándor; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an immunomodulatory agent inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on the IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production has not been studied. IL-1β production is strictly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels through the activity of Nlrp3 inflammasome. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of Aloe vera on the molecular mechanisms of Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in LPS-activated human THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results show that Aloe vera significantly reduced IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in a dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was substantially more pronounced in the primary cells. We found that Aloe vera inhibited the expression of pro-IL-1β, Nlrp3, caspase-1 as well as that of the P2X7 receptor in the LPS-induced primary macrophages. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways like NF-κB, p38, JNK and ERK were inhibited by Aloe vera in these cells. Altogether, we show for the first time that Aloe vera-mediated strong reduction of IL-1β appears to be the consequence of the reduced expression of both pro-IL-1β as well as Nlrp3 inflammasome components via suppressing specific signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the ATP sensor P2X7 receptor is also downregulated by Aloe vera that could also contribute to the attenuated IL-1β cytokine secretion. These results may provide a new therapeutic approach to regulate inflammasome-mediated responses.

  12. Aloe vera attenuated gastric injury on indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Rakananurak, Narisorn; Sallapant, Sasipim; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effects of Aloe vera on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, n = 6) was given distilled water (DW) orally. Group 2 (IMN, n = 6) was given oral IMN (150 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-) at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (Aloe vera-treated, n = 6) was given oral Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) dissolved in DW and IMN at time 0 and 4 h. Eight hours later, the stomach was removed to determine gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), the number of interleukin (IL)-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry, and for histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: In the IMN group, serum TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA were significantly increased when compared to the control group (27.78 ± 1.52 pg/mL vs 85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL, P = 0.009; 104.55 ± 45.80 pg/mL vs 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL, and 1.74 ± 0.21 nmol/mg vs 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean level of TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA in the Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with the IMN group (85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL vs 35.19 ± 1.61 pg/mL, P = 0.021; 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL vs 813.56 ± 239.04 pg/mL, P = 0.025; and 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg vs 2.67 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) in the gastric epithelial cells of the IMN group was significantly higher than the control group (5.01% ± 3.73% vs 30.67% ± 2.03%, P = 0.000, respectively). In contrast, Aloe vera treatment decreased the number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) significantly when compared with the IMN group (30.67% ± 2.03% vs 13.21% ± 1.10%, P = 0.000, respectively). Most rats in the IMN group developed moderate to severe

  13. Precipitation of hydroxyapatite on electrospun polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavel, Suganya; Reddy, Venugopal Jayarama; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Lakshmi, B S; Dev, Vr Giri

    2014-07-01

    Advances in electrospun nanofibres with bioactive materials have enhanced the scope of fabricating biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering. The present research focuses on fabrication of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds by electrospinning followed by hydroxyapatite deposition by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering. Morphology, composition, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds along with controls polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle and tensile tests, respectively. Adipose-derived stem cells cultured on polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds displayed highest cell proliferation, increased osteogenic markers expression (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), osteogenic differentiation and increased mineralization in comparison with polycaprolactone control. The obtained results indicate that polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds have appropriate physico-chemical and biological properties to be used as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  14. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  15. Effect of Aloe barbadensis Miller juice on oxidative stress biomarkers in aerobic cells using Artemia franciscana as a model.

    PubMed

    Sirdaarta, J; Cock, I E

    2010-03-01

    This study reports on the induction of oxidative stress in aerobic cell systems by Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) juice using the salt water crustacean Artemia franciscana as a model. A consistent pattern was observed in which Artemia franciscana nauplii responded to Aloe vera juice exposure with a decrease in the overall activity of redox related enzymes. Exposure of Artemia franciscana to sub-lethal levels of Aloe vera juice resulted in a decreased activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase by 34% (66% enzymatic activity), 79% (21% enzymatic activity) and 90% (10% enzymatic activity), respectively. Similarly apparent was the trend whereby the co-exposure of the nauplii to vitamin E counteracted this effect. For each of the biomarker enzymes tested, vitamin E co-exposure resulted in enzyme activities closer to the control value (78%, 56% and 32% of control enzymatic activities for thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity, respectively). These results indicate that exposure to sub-lethal doses of Aloe vera juice induces alterations in the cellular redox status of Artemia franciscana and that the addition of vitamin E helps the Artemia franciscana nauplii to overcome/block the juice induced oxidative stress.

  16. Toxicologic assessment of a commercial decolorized whole leaf aloe vera juice, lily of the desert filtered whole leaf juice with aloesorb.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies-examined grossly and microscopically-that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks.

  17. Toxicologic Assessment of a Commercial Decolorized Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice, Lily of the Desert Filtered Whole Leaf Juice with Aloesorb

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Wallace D.; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies—examined grossly and microscopically—that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks. PMID:23554812

  18. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health. PMID:25504136

  19. EFFECT OF A DENTIFRICE CONTAINING ALOE VERA ON PLAQUE AND GINGIVITIS CONTROL. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Sílvia Morgana Araújo; Torres, Ticiana Carneiro; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima; Carlos, Márlio Ximenes

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was evaluated in a randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to the test group (n=15) – dentifrice containing Aloe vera - or the control group (n=15) – fluoridated dentifrice. Plaque index (PI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were assessed at days 0 and 30. Subjects were asked to brush their teeth with the control or test dentifrice, three times a day, during a 30-day period. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in both groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.01). The dentifrice containing Aloe vera did not show any additional effect on plaque and gingivitis control compared to the fluoridated dentifrice. PMID:19089263

  20. Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, M.; Bindu, K. R.; Sneha Saj, A.; Anila, E. I.

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles remains to be a major issue in their application to the biomedical field. Aloe vera (AV) is one of the most widely exploited medicinal plants that have a multitude of amazing properties in the field of medicine. Methanol extract of Aloe vera can be used as a novel stabilising agent for quantum dots to reduce toxicity. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity studies of ZnS:Mn quantum dots synthesized by the colloidal precipitation method, using methanol extract of Aloe vera (AVME) as the capping agent. The ZnS:Mn quantum dots capped with AVME exhibit superior performances in biocompatibility and antibacterial activity compared with ZnS:Mn quantum dots without encapsulation. Project supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.

  1. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Agunu, Abdulkarim; Diana, Mshelia

    2004-07-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents.

  2. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health.

  3. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  4. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  5. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for nutraceutical application based upon toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Gwak, Hyo-Min; Park, Hyun Jong; Roh, Taehyun; Shin, Min Kyung; Lim, Seong Kwang; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Aloe has been used in versatile herbal medications and nutraceuticals throughout history. Aloe is widely considered to be generally safe for humans and used globally. The effectiveness and pharmacological properties of aloe are dependent upon when the plant is collected. However, little is known about the toxicology of whole-body aloe collected within less than 1 yr. Based upon widespread exposure to aloe, it is important to determine a daily intake level of this chemical to ensure its safety for humans. To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for clinical application, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated orally for 4 wk with 4 different concentrations: 0, 0.125, 0.5, and 2 g/kg body weight (bw). In this study, no significant or dose-dependent toxicological effects of BAP were observed in biochemical or hematological parameters, urinalysis, clinical signs, body weight, and food and water consumption. There were changes in some biomarkers in certain treated groups compared to controls; however, all values were within their reference ranges and not dose-dependent. Based on these results, the NOAEL of BAP was estimated to be greater than 2 g/kg bw in male and 2 g/kg bw in female SD rats. Collectively, these data suggest that BAP used in this study did not produce any marked subacute toxic effects up to a maximum concentration of 2 g/kg bw, and thus use in nutraceuticals and in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications at a concentration of >2 g/kg is warranted.

  6. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Methods Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). Results In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. Conclusions APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate

  7. Generation of the 30 M-Mesh Global Digital Surface Model by Alos Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Nagai, H.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2016-06-01

    Topographical information is fundamental to many geo-spatial related information and applications on Earth. Remote sensing satellites have the advantage in such fields because they are capable of global observation and repeatedly. Several satellite-based digital elevation datasets were provided to examine global terrains with medium resolutions e.g. the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the global digital elevation model by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER GDEM). A new global digital surface model (DSM) dataset using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi") has been completed on March 2016 by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) collaborating with NTT DATA Corp. and Remote Sensing Technology Center, Japan. This project is called "ALOS World 3D" (AW3D), and its dataset consists of the global DSM dataset with 0.15 arcsec. pixel spacing (approx. 5 m mesh) and ortho-rectified PRISM image with 2.5 m resolution. JAXA is also processing the global DSM with 1 arcsec. spacing (approx. 30 m mesh) based on the AW3D DSM dataset, and partially releasing it free of charge, which calls "ALOS World 3D 30 m mesh" (AW3D30). The global AW3D30 dataset will be released on May 2016. This paper describes the processing status, a preliminary validation result of the AW3D30 DSM dataset, and its public release status. As a summary of the preliminary validation of AW3D30 DSM, 4.40 m (RMSE) of the height accuracy of the dataset was confirmed using 5,121 independent check points distributed in the world.

  8. Exploiting ALOS observations as a guide to what will be possible with DESDynI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, M.; Agram, P. S.; Philibosian, B.; Lin, Y. N.; Hetland, E. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several years, L-band radar observations from the Japanese ALOS satellite has allowed a variety of crustal deformation studies that give us a taste of what will be possible with a dedicated L-band InSAR mission such as that currently being planned by NASA. Here we illustrate the success (and sometimes failure) of ALOS PALSAR data to measure ground deformation associated with large earthquakes (2010 Mw 8.8, Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan), volcano deformation in forested or jungled areas (Java), small earthquakes (aftershocks of the Tohoku-oki earthquake), interseismic deformation (the San Andreas and Hayward faults in California), and glacier flow on a temperate ice cap (Hofsjokull, Iceland). In several of these cases, we use time series methods, primarily the MInTS approach, to detect smaller amplitude signals and to separate out the effects of seasonal and tectonic deformation while also mitigating the effects of propagation delays accrued in the atmosphere. All data for these studies were made available through USGRC acquired through the Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) located at the ASF. In addition to deformation analysis, we look at the behavior of interferometric correlation at L-band as a function of orbital and temporal baselines. In vegetated areas such as Java, we find that observations need to be consistently made at shortest time intervals possible (45-90 days) if correlation is to be reliably maintained. Short time intervals are also required to increase sensitivity to small amplitude signals, minimize trade-offs between the estimates of coseismic, post-seismic and seasonal processes, and to reduce the potential impact of transient decorrelation events (e.g., rainfall). We also highlight the importance of short repeat times to enable the use of decorrelation for rapid damage assessment after catastrophic events.

  9. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  10. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study.

  11. Aloe vera inhibits proliferation of human breast and cervical cancer cells and acts synergistically with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Arif; Sharma, Chhavi; Khan, Saniyah; Shah, Kruti; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    Many of the anti-cancer agents currently used have an origin in natural sources including plants. Aloe vera is one such plant being studied extensively for its diverse health benefits, including cancer prevention. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of Aloe vera crude extract (ACE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells was studied by cell viability assay, nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis. Effects were correlated with modulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and drug metabolism by RT-PCR. Exposure of cells to ACE resulted in considerable loss of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was found to be mediated by through the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by changes in the nuclear morphology and the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, ACE did not have any significant cytotoxicity towards normal cells, thus placing it in the category of safe chemopreventive agent. Further, the effects were correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, CYP 1A1, CYP 1A2 and increased expression of bax and p21 in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, low dose combination of ACE and cisplatin showed a combination index less than 1, indicating synergistic growth inhibition compared to the agents applied individually. In conclusion, these results signify that Aloe vera may be an effective anti-neoplastic agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs like cispolatin. Thus promoting the development of plant-derived therapeutic agents appears warranted for novel cancer treatment strategies.

  12. Floral traits mediate the vulnerability of aloes to pollen theft and inefficient pollination by bees

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Pollen-collecting bees are among the most important pollinators globally, but are also the most common pollen thieves and can significantly reduce plant reproduction. The pollination efficiency of pollen collectors depends on the frequency of their visits to female(-phase) flowers, contact with stigmas and deposition of pollen of sufficient quantity and quality to fertilize ovules. Here we investigate the relative importance of these components, and the hypothesis that floral and inflorescence characteristics mediate the pollination role of pollen collection by bees. Methods For ten Aloe species that differ extensively in floral and inflorescence traits, we experimentally excluded potential bird pollinators to quantify the contributions of insect visitors to pollen removal, pollen deposition and seed production. We measured corolla width and depth to determine nectar accessibility, and the phenology of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity to quantify herkogamy and dichogamy. Further, we compiled all published bird-exclusion studies of aloes, and compared insect pollination success with floral morphology. Key Results Species varied from exclusively insect pollinated, to exclusively bird pollinated but subject to extensive pollen theft by insects. Nectar inaccessibility and strong dichogamy inhibited pollination by pollen-collecting bees by discouraging visits to female-phase (i.e. pollenless) flowers. For species with large inflorescences of pollen-rich flowers, pollen collectors successfully deposited pollen, but of such low quality (probably self-pollen) that they made almost no contribution to seed set. Indeed, considering all published bird-exclusion studies (17 species in total), insect pollination efficiency varied significantly with floral shape. Conclusions Species-specific floral and inflorescence characteristics, especially nectar accessibility and dichogamy, control the efficiency of pollen-collecting bees as pollinators of aloes

  13. Phytobezoar by aloe vera as long term complication after oesophagectomy resolved using cellulase

    PubMed Central

    Pinos, Nathalie; Moreno-Merino, Sergio; Congregado, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Bezoars are uncommon diseases caused by the presence of indigestible mass of strange material in the gastrointestinal tract. Gold-standard treatment remains unclear and there are not clinical guidelines to follow. We present a very rare case of 53-year-old man suffering phytobezoar in a gastroplasty after oesophagectomy due to aloe vera ingestion as natural medicine. Finally it was solved with cellulase. Therefore, this is a scarcely complication after esophagectomy. Cellulase is a very good option to treat phytobezoar avoiding reintervention in this kind of patient. PMID:26094056

  14. Observation of the Gorkha, Nepal earthquake of April 25, 2015 with ALOS-2/PALSAR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Gorkha, Nepal earthquake (Mw7.8) of April 25, 2015 is the first event in the Himalaya region that occurred after the development of modern space geodetic technology. Since the epicenter of this earthquake is located in a mountainous and rural area where few continuous GNSS observation is made, satellite remote sensing is required to reveal crustal deformation and damage. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency conducted emergent observations of ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 that has been in operation since summer in 2014. We analyzed acquired images including ScanSAR images whose swath width is about 350 km using Gamma software with a digital ellipsoidal height model based on SRTM DEM. Coherence of all interferograms is very high. However, we found two spots of low coherence in Kathmandu, including the Durbar Square. These spots indicate structural damages or liquefaction. ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferograms contain large phase ramp, possibly due to ionospheric disturbance or inaccurate orbit. We corrected phase ramp using quadratic function of latitude, longitude and altitude. Corrected interferograms show an elliptic zone of LOS decrease extending from the epicenter ESE-ward with a peak of > 1 m. North of the uplift zone, we found LOS increase of ~0.8 m. This result is consistent with thrust motion on a low-angled fault plane. We inverted corrected interferogram to estimate slip distribution and dip angle of fault. Preliminary results imply that the thrust motion is concentrated at depth between 10 and 20 km and the maximum slip is ~ 4.4 m. Geodetic moment is estimated to be 1.47 x 10^21 Nm (Mw8.0). We also processed a postseismic pair and detected coseismic deformation of the May 12 aftershock (Mw7.3). Area of uplift with a diameter of 30 km is found and that of subsidence on its north. It also is consistent with low-angled thrust. It is hard to recognize postseismic deformation of the mainshock possibly due to the correction of phase ramp. ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 images were provided

  15. Proteomic identification of a basic peroxidase stabilized within acetylated polymannan polysaccharide of Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Vittori, Natale; Martín, Mercedes; Sabater, Bartolomé

    2012-01-01

    Acetylated polymannan polysaccharide (ApmP) isolated from Aloe barbadensis Miller contains a stable peroxidase that was solubilized to investigate its biochemical, electrophoretic, immunological, and proteomic properties. In the electrophoretic band corresponding to the solubilized peroxidase, proteomic analysis detected seven tryptic peptides that matched homologous peptides covering one third of the ATP22a peroxidase of Arabidopsis thaliana. All the characteristics tested indicated that the activity stabilized within the ApmP pertains to the basic secretory peroxidase family, which includes members that have several biotechnological uses. Hence ApmP might yield a widely used peroxidase in stabilized form.

  16. A Randomised, Cross-Over, Placebo-Controlled Study of Aloe vera in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Effects on Patient Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, H A; Wareham, K; Baxter, J N; Atherton, P; Kingham, J G C; Duane, P; Thomas, L; Thomas, M; Ch'ng, C L; Williams, J G

    2011-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, difficult to treat condition. The efficacy of Aloe vera in treating IBS symptoms is not yet proven. The purpose of this study was to determine if Aloe vera is effective in improving quality of life. Methods. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, cross-over placebo controlled study design. Patients were randomised to Aloe vera, wash-out, placebo or placebo, washout, Aloe vera. Each preparation (60 mL) was taken orally twice a day. Patient quality of life was measured using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Score, Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life, EuroQol and the Short-Form-12 at baseline and treatment periods 1 and 2. Results. A total of 110 patients were randomised, but only 47 completed all questionnaires and both study arms. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the placebo and Aloe vera treatment in quality of life. Discussion. This study was unable to show that Aloe vera was superior to placebo in improving quality of life. Drop outs and other confounding factors may have impacted on the power of the study to detect a clinically important difference. Conclusion. This study failed to find Aloe vera superior to placebo in improving quality of life proven Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients.

  17. Observations and Mitigation of RFI in ALOS PALSAR SAR Data; Implications for the Desdyni Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Le, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Initial examination of ALOS PALSAR synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has indicated significant radio frequency interference (RFI) in several geographic locations around the world. RFI causes significant reduction in image contrast, introduces periodic and quasi-periodic image artifacts, and introduces significant phase noise in repeat pass interferometric data reduction. The US National Research Council Decadal Survey of Earth Science has recommended DESDynI, a Deformation, Ecosystems, and Dynamics of Ice satellite mission comprising an L-band polarimetric radar configured for repeat pass interferometry. There is considerable interest internationally in other future L-band and lower frequency systems as well. Therefore the issues of prevalence and possibilities of mitigation of RFI in these crowded frequency bands is of considerable interest. RFI is observed in ALOS PALSAR in California, USA, and in southern Egypt in data examined to date. Application of several techniques for removing it from the data prior to SAR image formation, ranging from straightforward spectral normalization to time-domain, multi-phase filtering techniques are considered. Considerable experience has been gained from the removal of RFI from P-band acquired by the GeoSAR system. These techniques applied to the PALSAR data are most successful when the bandwidth of any particular spectral component of the RFI is narrow. Performance impacts for SAR imagery and interferograms are considered in the context of DESDynI measurement requirements.

  18. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.

  19. Photocatalytic Activity of LaSr2 AlO5 :Eu Ceramic Powders.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos R; Oliva, Jorge; Díaz-Torres, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity, of undoped and Europium-doped LaSr2 AlO5 powders, has been investigated by degrading methylene blue dye in water solutions. Those powders were fabricated by a combustion method and an annealing treatment in air. All samples showed a tetragonal single phase according to by X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed irregular semi-oval grains with sizes in the range of 3.5-4.27 μm. Photoluminescence spectrum showed sharp emission peaks at 588 nm and at 617 nm which are associated with (7) F1 ,(7) F2 → (5) D0 Eu(3+) ion forbidden transitions, respectively, under UV light excitation of 322 nm. The methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV light (254 nm) was studied by monitoring changes in the absorbance peak of MB at 665 nm. Finally, LaSr2 AlO5 :Eu powders were used three times and the efficiency for the degradation of MB decreased from 100 to 61% after the third cycle of use.

  20. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S Dutta; Masakapalli, S K

    2013-11-01

    In this study, lyophilized and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms were evaluated for their potential to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. The results showed potent inhibitory effect of Aloe vera gel extracts on L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Significant differences in % inhibition of tyrosinase among the extraction methods and the germplasms were observed. The relative performance of the germplasms was evaluated with the help of posthoc multicomparison test. The methanolic extract was more effective than the lyophilized crude gel in all the germplasms. The inhibitory effect of the lyophilized gel and methanolic extract tested from five germplasms followed the order: RM > TN > S24 > OR > RJN. The germplasm RM showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition, and the maximum % inhibition noted was 26.04% and 41.18%, respectively for the lyophilized and methanolic extracts at 6 mg · mL(-1) concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the different concentrations of L-DOPA in the absence and presence of lyophilized gel extract showed competitive inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in all the germplasms. This study suggests that the germplasm RM could potentially be used for the isolation and identification of the effective tyrosinase inhibitory component, and ascertains the critical role of selecting the best source of germplasm for natural product isolation and characterization.

  1. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, V.; Verma, Arun K.; Patra, G.; Pradhan, S.; Biswas, S.; Chauhan, P.; Das, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  2. Clinicopathological Studies on Vitamin D(3) Toxicity and Therapeutic Evaluation of Aloe vera in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Sambhaji G; Brar, R S; Banga, H S; Sandhu, H S; Sodhi, S; Gadhave, P D; Kothule, V R; Kammon, A M

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the clinical signs, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes in vitamin D(3) toxicity at a dose rate 2 mg/kg b.wt. of vitamin D(3) and to assess the protective effect of Aloe vera in vitamin D(3) toxicity. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, progressive weight loss, difficulty in movement and respiration, diarrhea, epistaxis, subnormal body temperature and nervous signs before death. Mortality was observed in treated rats between day 10 and day 19 of treatment. The gross postmortem changes observed were severe emaciation, white chalky deposits on epicardial surface of heart, pin point white deposits on cortical surface of kidneys with pale yellow discoloration and diffused white deposits on serosal surface of stomach and intestine with bloody ingesta in lumen. The hematological changes included non-significant increase in hemoglobin and total leukocyte count and significant increase in relative neutrophil count. The biochemical changes observed were significant increase in plasma concentration of calcium, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen, whereas a significant decrease in the concentration of albumin and total plasma protein was observed. The histopathological lesions included calcification of various organs, viz., tongue, stomach, intestines, kidney, heart, aorta, larynx, trachea, lungs, spleen, choroid plexus arteries of brain and vas deferens. The Aloe vera juice (2.5% in drinking water) has no protective effect on vitamin D(3) toxicity (2 mg/kg b.wt.). PMID:21430919

  3. Effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on rat peritonitis model

    PubMed Central

    Altincik, Ayca; Sönmez, Ferah; Yenisey, Çigdem; Duman, Soner; Can, Ayse; Akev, Nuriye; Kirdar, Sevin; Sezak, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and probable toxic effects of Aloe vera (AV) in a rat peritonitis model. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into five groups: (1) Control group, (2) AV group, (3) peritonitis group (P), (4) peritonitis + AV group (P + AV), and (5) peritonitis + antibiotherapy group (P + Ab). Ultrafiltration (UF) rates were determined and colony and leukocyte counts were calculated in the dialysate. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities were studied in blood. Glucose, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were studied in dialysate and peritoneal tissue for the assessment of the anti-inflammatory effect. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated in peritoneal tissue. Results: Aloe vera increased the UF rate and lowered leukocyte numbers in the peritonitis group. There was no significant difference in blood and dialysate glucose, BUN, creatinine levels and ALT activity among control and AV groups. AV decreased IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 in peritonitis, showing good anti-inflammatory effect. AV showed antioxidant effect on the chosen antioxidant parameters Cu, Zn-SOD, MDA, and NO. Conclusion: It was concluded that, AV might be used in peritonitis for its probable UF increasing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. PMID:24987181

  4. Joint Use of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat TM Images for Urban Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinyan; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Mingsheng; Wang, He

    2013-01-01

    It is an important issue for urban planning to monitor the growth and change information of urban areas using remote sensed images. The joint use of Landsat TM data and ALOS PALSAR quad-polarization data for extracting change information of urban areas is investigated. The potential application and the performance of the two data sets are evaluated. The processes including the extraction of features, the dual-threshold EM change detection based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and the detection based on random forest (RF) classification were the major steps. The six bands of Landsat TM data without the thermal band were obtained. The four quad-polarimetric features as R-L circular polarization correlation coefficient, the linear polarization correlation coefficient, the total power (TP) and the cross-polarization isolation (XPI) were extracted from ALOS PALSAR data. And the corresponding differential images were got. The dual-threshold EM change detection and the RF classification were carried out based on these images. Accuracy assessment was done and the results were analyzed and verified.

  5. Improving Spatial Resolution of Agricultural Water Use Estimation Using ALOS AVNIR-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, T. K.; Chemin, Y.; Cherif, I.; Tsakoumis, G.; Galanis, G.; Arampatzis, G.; Zalidis, G. C.; Silleos, N. G.; Stavrinos, E.

    2008-11-01

    Estimating agricultural water use is an issue of primary importance in the Mediterranean. At the same time, several advanced algorithms have been developed, which couple Earth Observation data in thermal, visible and near-infrared wavelengths with a few meteorological measurements to provide a close approximation to the actual water use. However, due to the detailed cropping pattern of the Greek agricultural landscape, higher resolution satellite imagery is necessary, a demand which may not be met by the available thermal infrared imagery (Landsat 5 TM and Terra/ASTER). This study investigates the contribution of ALOS AVNIR-2 images to estimate agricultural water consumption in high spatial resolution. Two methods were tested, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land and the remote sensing crop coefficient method. The results were compared against similar products derived with Terra/MODIS and Landsat TM images, used as reference. Comparisons were based on a pixel level, with a random dataset for pixel to pixel comparison and on a canal command area level, with statistical comparison of the water use estimations. Merging of the two datasets was based on the modified Brovey technique, which has the advantage of maintaining the original values, but redistributes them in a higher resolution space. Concluding, ALOS AVNIR-2 significantly underestimated agricultural water use with the crop coefficient method, but was successful in providing the element of high spatial detail to the MODIS derived result, proving to be a useful input in modelling water use of irrigated Greek basins.

  6. Monitoring Indicators for Mediterranean Wetland and Agricultural Area Using ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, T. K.; Topaloglou, C. A.; Pardalis, I.; Tsakoumis, G.; Vogiatzis, M.; Andrianopoulos, A.; Takavakoglou, V.; Vougioukas, S.; Bochtis, D.; Zalidis, G. C.; Silleos, N. G.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural and other human activities are a pressure to several Mediterranean wetland ecosystems. Monitoring the pressures and the state of the ecosystem is an important input to management activities. The aim of this work was to select and implement indicators for monitoring the natural and agricultural environment of a Mediterranean wetland using Earth Observation (EO), and specifically the recently launched ALOS satellite images. Multiple levels of data were collected and integrated: remote sensing data (ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images, and observations during field surveys. EO and GIS methods used during monitoring of the study area involved preprocessing of the satellite images, enhancement of information, information extraction, and derivation of indicators. Geographic overlay comparison with results derived from the area in 2003 using a Terra/ASTER image was used to identify the changes that occurred during the last years. The methodology was applied in the wetland and surrounding agricultural area of Ramsar Convention site "lakes Koronia-Volvi" (Greece). Resulting thematic maps revealed and quantified the intensity of pressures in the vicinity of the protected wetland, the state of the wetland ecosystem, as well as the seasonal and long term temporal trends.

  7. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient (σ) measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0–20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with σ (r = 0.403). The σ values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0–20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. PMID:27529080

  8. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuki; Oki, Kazuo; Noborio, Kosuke; Mizoguchi, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient (σ) measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0-20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with σ (r = 0.403). The σ values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0-20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted.

  9. [Radio protective drug production from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill].

    PubMed

    Bakuridze, A Dzh; Nikolaev, S M; Berashvili, D T; Bakuridze, K A; Tsomaia, I V

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays, phytogenous drugs are wildly used as radio protective substances. The aim of the research was to study radio protective characteristics of aloe juice fraction and to develop new technology for radio protective drug production. Technological scheme for getting the drug in two stages. The first stage - extraction of juice from fresh leaves; the second stage - extracting bagasse have been developed and optimal environment for bagasse extraction are defined: Infusion of bagasse with 96 % ethyl spirit (1:1) during 30 minutes, continuation of extracting with water on correlation to raw materials 10:1 at temperature of 70 degrees C during 30 minutes. For the basis of the first series of balanced loading there are taken the optimal parameters of extracting process, on the basis of which in its turn was developed technological scheme of getting dry extract of aloe. Dry extract is a fine-dispersed reddish-yellow (brownish-yellow) powder, which can be easily dissolved in warm (40-60 degrees C) water. Pharmacological researches were conducted in the Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Branch, Russian. Academy of Sciences. The remarkable radio protective effect of the drug was revealed.

  10. Clinicopathological Studies on Vitamin D(3) Toxicity and Therapeutic Evaluation of Aloe vera in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Sambhaji G; Brar, R S; Banga, H S; Sandhu, H S; Sodhi, S; Gadhave, P D; Kothule, V R; Kammon, A M

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the clinical signs, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes in vitamin D(3) toxicity at a dose rate 2 mg/kg b.wt. of vitamin D(3) and to assess the protective effect of Aloe vera in vitamin D(3) toxicity. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, progressive weight loss, difficulty in movement and respiration, diarrhea, epistaxis, subnormal body temperature and nervous signs before death. Mortality was observed in treated rats between day 10 and day 19 of treatment. The gross postmortem changes observed were severe emaciation, white chalky deposits on epicardial surface of heart, pin point white deposits on cortical surface of kidneys with pale yellow discoloration and diffused white deposits on serosal surface of stomach and intestine with bloody ingesta in lumen. The hematological changes included non-significant increase in hemoglobin and total leukocyte count and significant increase in relative neutrophil count. The biochemical changes observed were significant increase in plasma concentration of calcium, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen, whereas a significant decrease in the concentration of albumin and total plasma protein was observed. The histopathological lesions included calcification of various organs, viz., tongue, stomach, intestines, kidney, heart, aorta, larynx, trachea, lungs, spleen, choroid plexus arteries of brain and vas deferens. The Aloe vera juice (2.5% in drinking water) has no protective effect on vitamin D(3) toxicity (2 mg/kg b.wt.).

  11. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aloe vera Extract Preparations: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Satvinder; Hussain, Shaik Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease, and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking toward new therapeutic approach such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods, different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and antiinflammatory. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of A. vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous solution, alcohol, ethanol, and chloroform for the A. vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Furthermore, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the A. vera and their anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) on the A. vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PMID:26666199

  12. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  13. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuki; Oki, Kazuo; Noborio, Kosuke; Mizoguchi, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient (σ) measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0-20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with σ (r = 0.403). The σ values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0-20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. PMID:27529080

  14. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aloe vera Extract Preparations: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Satvinder; Hussain, Shaik Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease, and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking toward new therapeutic approach such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods, different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and antiinflammatory. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of A. vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous solution, alcohol, ethanol, and chloroform for the A. vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Furthermore, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the A. vera and their anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) on the A. vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

  15. Influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and enzymatic in vitro degradation of alginate hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rúben F; Carvalho, Anabela; Gil, M H; Mendes, Ausenda; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates the influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of Aloe vera-Ca-alginate hydrogel films, for wound healing and drug delivery applications. The influence of A. vera content (5%, 15% and 25%, v/v) on water absorption was evaluated by the incubation of the films into a 0.1 M HCl solution (pH 1.0), acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and simulated body fluid solution (pH 7.4) during 24h. Results show that the water absorption is significantly higher for films containing high A. vera contents (15% and 25%), while no significant differences are observed between the alginate neat film and the film with 5% of A. vera. The in vitro enzymatic degradation tests indicate that an increase in the A. vera content significantly enhances the degradation rate of the films. Control films, incubated in a simulated body fluid solution without enzymes, are resistant to the hydrolytic degradation, exhibiting reduced weight loss and maintaining its structural integrity. Results also show that the water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of the films can be tailored by changing the A. vera content.

  16. Integrating ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1 InSAR data for systematic volcano deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, James; Biggs, Juliet; Ebmeier, Susanna; Parker, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The recent launches of the Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 satellites provide a wealth of new Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data for Earth observation purposes. We exploit these data for volcano deformation monitoring with a particular focus on Latin America, which is nominated as a priority target area under the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites volcano pilot program. By conducting an integrated survey that employs both Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 we are able to achieve previously unprecedented levels of spatial and temporal resolution and combat decorrelation arising from vegetation cover. Latin America is an ideal target region as it has a diversity of geographic volcano locations (e.g., dense rainforest to high-altitude deserts), as well as abundant and varied volcanic activity. The numerous local volcano observatories can also directly benefit from this additional InSAR data when integrating it alongside ground-based observations. To further facilitate this impact we are directing our data outputs to a global volcano deformation database in near-real-time to provide a first-order access point for observatory staff and research scientists in need of satellite-derived ground-deformation results. We will draw upon a selection of case studies within Latin America to demonstrate our approach and how it can enhance volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting efforts.

  17. A simple and simultaneous identification method for aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-01-01

    An effective and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous identification of aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Identification of three maker compounds presented in three medicinal materials was performed on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Under the optimal HPLC chromatographic conditions, sixty-two samples were processed on an Optimapak C18 column using a solvent system of acetonitrile (from 10% to 35%) and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution (from 90% to 65%) at a total flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 270 nm. All calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r(2)>0.9992). The relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 1% and 2%, respectively. The recoveries of three analytes ranged from 99.48 to 100.97% with low RSDs (<2%). For the first time, this study demonstrates that the processed aloe, catechu and gambir are sold in local material markets in China and Korea without their correct identification. It indicates the existent of high potential medicinal risk by misuse of three medicinal materials. The developed HPLC method can be applied to prevent unexpected biological activity due to misapplication of medicinal materials. PMID:26342878

  18. Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Aloe succotrina in Rats: Possibly Mediated by Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Dinesh; Lamba, Deepak; Kumar, Ramesh; Nath, Pashupati; Gauttam, Satyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate antihyperlipidemic activity of dried pulp of Aloe succotrina leaves in Wistar albino rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by feeding them high fat diet (HFD) or D-fructose (25% w/v) for 4 successive weeks. From 15th to 28th day, dried pulp (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) per se were administered 2 h prior to feeding rats with HFD or fructose. Aloe succotrina did not significantly decrease the body weight of rats. The dried pulp and atorvastatin per se significantly decreased relative liver weight but did not significantly affect relative heart weight. HFD or fructose significantly increased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, and VLDL, and decreased HDL-c; significantly increased liver MDA and decreased GSH levels. The dried pulp (200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reversed high fat diet-induced and fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and atherogenic index. Aloe succotrina significantly decreased HMG Co-A reductase activity. Antihyperlipidemic effect of the dried pulp was comparable to atorvastatin. Thus, Aloe succotrina produced significant antihyperlipidemic activity in both HFD and fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats, possibly through normalization of serum lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity, and amelioration of oxidative stress in liver. PMID:24693447

  19. A Randomized Comparative Trial on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Topical Aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on Diaper Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of Aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Methods. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either Aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Results. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to Aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. Discussion. The evidence from this study suggests that topical Aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants. PMID:22606064

  20. Magnetic nanoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters in environmental water and aloe juice samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hao, Yunhui; Ren, Yiqian; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon with high surface area and ordered structure was synthesized using cheap commercial silica gel as template and sucrose as the carbon source. The prepared magnetic nanoporous carbon was firstly used as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl-phthalate, from lake water and aloe juice samples. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the method (S/N = 3) was 0.10 ng/mL for water sample and 0.20 ng/mL for aloe juice sample. The linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.50-150.0 and 1.0-200.0 ng/mL for water and aloe juice samples, respectively. The results showed that the magnetic nanoporous carbon has a high adsorptive capability toward the target phthalate esters in water and aloe juice samples.

  1. Characterization of Aloeride, a new high-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Aloe vera with potent immunostimulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Pugh, N; Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A; Pasco, D S

    2001-02-01

    We have characterized a new immunostimulatory polysaccharide called Aloeride from commercial aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) juice. Aloeride is between 4 and 7 million Da, and its glycosyl components include glucose (37.2%), galactose (23.9%), mannose (19.5%), and arabinose (10.3%). At 0.5 microg/mL Aloeride increased NF-kappa B directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels 50% of those achieved by maximal concentrations (10 microg/mL) of LPS. Aloeride induced the expression of the mRNAs encoding IL-1beta and TNF-alpha to levels equal to those observed in cells maximally activated by LPS. Acemannan, the major carbohydrate component from aloe, used at 200 microg/mL in the macrophage assay resulted in negligible NF-kappa B activation. Analysis of acemannan and Aloeride using size-exclusion chromatography suggests that the low activity of acemannan is due to trace amounts of Aloeride. Although Aloeride comprises only 0.015% of the aloe juice dry weight, its potency for macrophage activation accounts fully for the activity of the crude juice.

  2. Single-laboratory validation of an NMR method for the determination of aloe vera polysaccharide in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Bryce; Goux, Warren J

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a single-laboratory-validated NMR method for determining the quantity of aloe vera polysaccharide in product formulations. The ratio of signal intensities of the acetyl methyl protons to methyl protons of an internal reference varied linearly with concentration (r2 > 0.99) with a lower LOQ of 0.2 g/100 mL for two commercial aloe polysaccharide standards, Acemannan Hydrogel (AH) and Immuno-10 (I-10). The assay was used to quantify these standards in two nonacetylated polysaccharide matrices, dextrin and arabinogalactan, and in a pharmaceutical product. The concentrations of AH in samples containing the polysaccharide matrices agreed within 7% of values determined on the basis of weight and showed within- and between-run RSD values of < 3.5%. The assay of I-10 in the pharmaceutical product was within 7% of the expected values over a range from 50 to 125% of the targeted I-10 concentration, with a between-run RSD of < 7%. The assay showed no interference from other added polysaccharides or from other components of the pharmaceutical formulation and was independent of the molecular size distribution of the aloe polysaccharide present. The NMR assay can be used to validate aloe polysaccharide contained in a product and to follow any chemical degradation that may occur over time.

  3. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  4. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of aloe vera and zinc/copper compounds against salivary dysfunction in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Nejaim, Yuri; I V Silva, Amaro; V Vasconcelos, Taruska; J N L Silva, Emmanuel; M de Almeida, Solange

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective and reparative effects of compounds based on aloe vera, zinc, and copper against salivary gland dysfunction in Wistar rats. A total of 150 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups, in which the animals received aloe vera and/or zinc and copper. In eight of these groups the animals were also subjected to irradiation before or after administration of the substances. After 27 days, sialometry tests were performed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Rats that had been administered aloe vera before or after irradiation showed a significantly higher salivary flow rate than rats that had been simply irradiated. When both substances were administered, a statistically significant difference in the salivary flow rate was observed in comparison with the irradiation alone group seven days after irradiation. The present results suggest that aloe vera exerts positive protective and reparative effects, and can be considered a potential radioprotective substance.

  5. The Impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on Perineal Healing after Episiotomy in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eghdampour, Farideh; Jahdie, Fereshteh; Kheyrkhah, Masomeh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Naghizadeh, Somayeh; Hagani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Episiotomy is used for enlarging the perineum. Aloe vera and Calendula have been used for treating different diseases from ancient times, limited researches have been done regarding the healing of these plants. Since the effect of their ointment on episiotomy healing has not been studied, this study is being done for determining the impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on episiotomy healing in primiparous women. Methods: This clinical trial involves 111 qualified primiparous women admitted in Lolagar hospital. They were randomly categorized into three groups of control (n=1) and experimental (n=2) groups. The women in experimental group used Aloe vera and Calendula Ointment every 8 hours and the control group used hospital routine on episiotomy for 5 days. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire and redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge and approximation scale (REEDA) which investigated the episiotomy healing before and five days after intervention in two groups. ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal-wallis, Chi-square were used for data analysis. Results: The three groups do not have statistically significant different regarding demographic and other intervening variables. Comparing the mean of REEDA in five days after delivery showed statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. Conclusion: According to the results, using Aloe vera and Calendula ointment considerably increases the speed of episiotomy wound healing so it can be used for quickening the episiotomy healing. PMID:25276736

  6. [Preparative isolation and purification of cinnamoyl-C-glycoside chromone from aloe vera by high-speed countercurrent chromatography].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xia; Cao, Xueli; Dong, Yinmao; Zhao, Hua

    2005-01-01

    Aloe chromone is a group of anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase constituents found in aloe vera leaves. High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) is reported for the preparative isolation and purification of a chromone from aloe vera. The crude extract was obtained by a series of pretreatment of aloe vera leaves and extracted from decolorizing active carbon with methanol. Then the extract was distributed between dichloromethane and water, and the organic part was then subjected to HSCCC for the isolation of chromone constituents. The chromone compounds with a high performance liquid chromatographic grade (>95%) was isolated through two step HSCCC separations by employing two solvent systems composed of chloroform-methanol-water and dichloromethane-methanol-water at volume ratios of 4/3/2 and 5/4/2, respectively. The chromone was finally identified as cinnamoyl-C-glycoside chromone by ultraviolet (UV), fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR).

  7. Evaluation of Isolated Fractions of Aloe vera Gel Materials on Indinavir Pharmacokinetics: In vitro and in vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lonette; Malan, Maides; Gouws, Chrisna; Steyn, Dewald; Ellis, Suria; Abay, Efrem; Wiesner, Lubbe; Otto, Daniel P; Hamman, Josias

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera is a plant with a long history of traditional medicinal use and is consumed in different products, sometimes in conjunction with prescribed medicines. A. vera gel has shown the ability to modulate drug absorption in vitro. The aim of this study was to fractionate the precipitated polysaccharide component of A. vera gel based on molecular weight and to compare their interactions with indinavir pharmacokinetics. Crude polysaccharides were precipitated from a solution of A. vera gel and was fractionated by means of centrifugal filtration through membranes with different molecular weight cut-off values (i.e. 300 KDa, 100 KDa and 30 KDa). Marker molecules were quantified in the aloe leaf materials by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the average molecular weight was determined by means of gel filtration chromatography linked to multi-angle-laser-light scattering and refractive index detection. The effect of the aloe leaf materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayers as well as indinavir metabolism in LS180 cells was measured. The bioavailability of indinavir in the presence and absence of the aloe leaf materials was determined in Sprague-Dawley rats. All the aloe leaf materials investigated in this study reduced the TEER of Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibited indinavir metabolism in LS 180 cells to different extents and changed the bioavailability parameters of indinavir in rats compared to that of indinavir alone. These indinavir pharmacokinetic modulation effects were not dependent on the presence of aloverose and also not on the average molecular weight of the isolated fractions. PMID:26568138

  8. The effects of crude aqueous and alcohol extracts of Aloe vera on growth and abdominal viscera of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Beya, Wabeya; Davidson, Bruce; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of neonates is sensitive to dietary manipulations. When nursing mothers use Aloe vera, their babies are at risk of indirect exposure to Aloe vera via breast feeding or directly as health supplements. The effects of orally administered extracts of Aloe vera in unweaned rats were investigated. Six day old Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with aqueous or alcohol extracts of Aloe vera (low dose 50mg. kg⁻¹ or high dose 500mg. kg⁻¹) daily for eight days. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by one way ANOVA. Pups receiving high doses of either extract had a significantly higher body mass gain than the group receiving lower dose (p < 0.05). Tibial length was significantly increased in the high dose aqueous extract group (15-26%). The differences in growth could not be attributed to circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 as the levels were not significantly different. The caecum was significantly enlarged in the rats that received the high doses of both extracts. Although, there was no significant difference in the non-fasting plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides, the hepatic lipid and glycogen content were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the high dose aqueous extract group. The plasma alanine transaminase was not affected by the treatments, however the high doses of the extracts significantly increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Short term administration of Aloe vera extracts resulted in growth promotion, enhanced hepatic storage of metabolic substrates, increased ALP possibly in relation to bone growth and caused hypertrophy of the caecum of neonatal rats. These effects need to be explored further to enhance animal production and health.

  9. Multifrequency polarimetric ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 analysis over the archaeological area of Djebel Barkal (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Jolanda; Dore, Nicole; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    Differences in vegetation growth and in soil moisture content generate ground anomalies which can be linked to the presence of subsurface anthropic structures. Such evidences have been studied and observed for a long time by means of aerial photographs, thanks to planned campaigns or through the observation of historical II World War acquisitions first, and thanks to the very high spatial resolution of optical satellites later. The present research constitutes a contribution to the non-invasive archaeological investigation methodology carried out in the last years by several institutions and cultural organizations. The work aims to exploit the technique of SAR Polarimetry for the detection of surface and subsurface archaeological structures, comparing ALOS PALSAR L-band, with a central frequency of 1.27 GHz, with RADARSAT-2 C-band sensor, whose central frequency is 5.405 GHz. The choice to analyze satellite radar sensors capabilities is based on their 24-hour observations, as they are independent from Sun illumination and meteorological conditions. Moreover, they could provide additional information concerning electromagnetic properties of the target, qualities not derivable from optical images. A multi frequency comparison between the two SAR sensors has been performed over the Napatan (900-270 BC) Meroitic (270 BC-350 AD) area of Djebel Barkal, located in Sudan and inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 2003. It constitutes one of the five Napatan and Meroitic archaeological sites stretching over more than 60 km in the Nile valley, in an arid area part of Nubia. The area, not completely excavated, presents thombs, pyramids and sacred palaces. The dataset we disposed of is composed of two archived ALOS PALSAR polarimetric images and four RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data specifically acquired in the same year (2012). All the products have been then processed and integrated with the available optical data and the cartographic documentation derivable from

  10. Effect of packaging methods and crude aloe vera gel (Aloe vera barbadensis miller) on the storage quality of enrobed goat meat bites.

    PubMed

    Jairath, Gauri; Chatli, Manish K; Sahoo, Jhari; Biswas, Ashim K

    2015-06-01

    The storage stability of enrobed goat meat bites (EGMB) incorporated with 3 % crude aloe vera (AV) gel was evaluated under aerobic (T-1; unenrobed control product, T-2; enrobed AV treated product) and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP, 50:50, CO2 and N2) (T-3; unenrobed control product, T-4; enrobed AV treated product) at 4 ± 1 °C for 42 days on the basis of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The pH value was higher, whereas water activity (aW) was lower in enrobed and MAP product. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) values were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in MAP packaged (T-3) and AV treated products (T-2 and T-4) products than aerobic packaged (T-1), however it followed an increasing trend in all the products throughout storage. Instrumental colour and textural profile attributes were better maintained in MAP products than others. The sensory panellists graded T-4 'good to very good' even on Day 42, whereas T-1 was acceptable only up to 28 days. Standard Plate Count (SPC) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in MAP products than aerobic packaged products. Results concluded that EGMB treated with AV gel can be successfully stored more than 42 days under MAP conditions without affecting its physico-chemical, textural, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  11. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  12. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

  13. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  14. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  15. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks. PMID:26109009

  16. Energetic-particle synthesis of high-strength Al(O) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Barbour, J.C.; Myers, S.M.; Dugger, M.T.

    1995-09-28

    High-strength Al(O) alloys, initially discovered by ion implantation, have now been produced with electron-cyclotron resonance plasma deposition and pulsed-laser deposition. The mechanical properties of these deposited alloy layers were examined with nanoindentation, and finite element modeling of the indented layer on Si substrates was used to determine yield stresses for the alloys of {approximately} 1--5 GPa. The key to these high strengths is the high density of nanometer-size {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitates formed when high concentrations (5--30 at.%) of oxygen are introduced into aluminum as individual atoms or molecules. The strongest alloys have precipitates as small as 1 nm, implying that such small precipitates block dislocation motion. Based upon previous studies with oxygen-implanted aluminum, improved tribological properties are expected for layers made by the two new deposition methods.

  17. Source Model from ALOS-2 ScanSAR of the 2015 Nepal Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Youtian; Ge, Linlin; Ng, Alex Hay-Man

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake sequence started with a magnitude Mw 7.8 main shock and continued with several large aftershocks, particularly the second major shock of Mw 7.3. Both earthquake events were captured using ALOS-2 ScanSAR images to determine the coseismic surface deformation and the source models. In this paper, the displacement maps were produced and the corresponding modelling results were discussed. The single fault model of the main shock suggests that there was nearly 6 m of right-lateral oblique slip motion with fault struck of 292° and dipped gently Northeast at 7°, indicating that the main shock was on a thrust fault. Moreover, a single fault model for the Mw 7.3 quake with striking of 312° and dipping of 11° was derived from observed result. Both results showed the fault planes struck generally to South and dipped northeast, which depicted the risks since the main shock occurred.

  18. Nitric oxide production by chicken macrophages activated by Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Nordgren, R

    1995-03-01

    Cultures of normal chicken spleen cells and HD11 line cells produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate derived from the Aloe vera plant. Neither cell type produced detectable amounts of NO in response to similar concentrations of yeast mannan, another complex carbohydrate. Nitric oxide production was dose dependent and inhibitable by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine. In addition, the production of NO was inhibited by preincubation of ACM with concanavalin A in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ACM-induced NO synthesis may be mediated through macrophage mannose receptors, and macrophage activation may be accountable for some of the immunomodulatory effects of ACM in chickens.

  19. Helmand river hydrologic studies using ALOS PALSAR InSAR and ENVISAT altimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Kim, J.-W.; Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Duan, J.; Ibaraki, M.; Akyilmaz, O.; Read, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The Helmand River wetland represents the only fresh-water resource in southern Afghanistan and one of the least mapped water basins in the world. The relatively narrow wetland consists of mostly marshes surrounded by dry lands. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) Interferometric SAR (InSAR) to detect the changes of the Helmand River wetland water level. InSAR images are combined with the geocentric water level measurements from the retracked high-rate (18-Hz) Environmental Satellite (Envisat) radar altimetry to construct absolute water level changes over the marshes. It is demonstrated that the integration of the altimeter and InSAR can provide spatio-temporal measurements of water level variation over the Helmand River marshes where in situ measurements are absent. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Optimization of the preparation of pectin from Aloe using a Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lijing; Zhou, Wei; Qu, Xingyuan; Chen, Weijie; Li, Yingchang; Liu, Chang; Sun, Jing; Yu, Xiaolei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijie

    2014-05-25

    The extraction condition of pectin from Aloe vera barbadensis Mill was optimized by a Box-Behnken design. The effect of parameters of extraction water proportion (EWP), extraction pH (EpH), extraction temperature (ETe), extraction time (ETi), alcohol precipitation pH (APpH)and alcohol precipitation temperature (APTe) on the extraction yield of pectin was investigated by a software of Design Export 8.0.5b. The maximum extraction yield was obtained with the EWP of 20:1, EpH of 1.5, ETe of 90°C, ETi of 120min, APpH of 3.0 and APTe of 50°C, which was consistent with the experimental value. We also found out that the pectin content decreased gradually during storage and sucrose concentration had a significant impact on the viscosity of pectin.

  1. Microdontin A and B: Two New Aloin Derivatives from Aloe microdonta.

    PubMed

    Farah, M H; Andersson, R; Samuelsson, G

    1992-02-01

    The leaf juice of ALOE MICRODONTA Chiov. is used in Somali traditional medicine as a remedy for jaundice and for topical treatment of skin diseases. Mucilage was precipitated from the fresh juice by addition of ethanol and the supernatant chromatographed on Amberlite XAD-2 to yield a fraction containing anthraquinone derivatives. Flash chromatography on silica gel followed by preparative TLC yielded aloin A and a new compound. Spectral data (mass, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR) identified this compound as a mixture of aloin A and B where the glucose of both compounds is esterified with 4-hydroxycinnamic acid at the 6'-position. The two compounds were denoted as microdontin A and B, respectively.

  2. Effect of vehicles on topical application of aloe vera and arnica montana components.

    PubMed

    Bergamante, Valentina; Ceschel, Gian Carlo; Marazzita, Sergio; Ronchi, Celestino; Fini, Adamo

    2007-10-01

    In this study two types of gels and microemulsions are investigated for their ability to dissolve, release, and induce the permeation of helenalin, a flavonoid responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of arnica montana extract, and aloin, an anthrone-C-glucosyls with antibacterial activity present in aloe vera extract. The release of these agents from each vehicle was followed by HPLC, and transcutaneous permeation was examined using a modified Franz cell and a porcine skin membrane. The study showed that a microemulsion can be a good vehicle to increase the permeation of helenalin, while the gel formulation, containing Sepigel 305, proved able to reduce the release and permeation of aloin, with a consequent activity limited to the surface of application, without any permeation. This is in accordance with the necessity to avoid this process, since human skin fibroblasts can metabolize absorbed aloin into a structurally related compound that increases the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet light.

  3. Volcano deformation survey over the Northern and Central Andes with ALOS InSAR time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Rivera, Anieri M.; Amelung, Falk; Mothes, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    We use ALOS-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data spanning the period of 2007-2011 to obtain time-dependent ground deformation data over all of the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. We detect deformation on or near the proximity of Galeras, Reventador, Tungurahua, Guagua Pichincha, Sangay, and Cerro Auquihuato volcanoes, uncovering previously undocumented deformation in the latter three. Deformation is attributed to changes in pressurization of the volcanic systems (Galeras, Tungurahua, Guagua Pichincha, and Cerro Auquihuato), subsidence associated with flow deposits (Reventador), and flank creep (Sangay). Our models suggest that the pressure sources are located at depths of ˜1-6 km from the surface, indicating that the measurable deformation within our data is restricted to shallow magma chambers and hydrothermal systems.

  4. Aloe barbadensis Miller mediated green synthesis of mono-disperse copper oxide nanoparticles: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunalan, Sangeetha; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured copper oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. A facile and efficient synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles was carried out with controlled surface properties via green chemistry approach. The CuO nanoparticles synthesized are monodisperse and versatile and were characterized with the help of UV-Vis, PL, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The particles are crystalline in nature and average sizes were between 15 and 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the amount of Aloe vera extract. This new eco-friendly approach of synthesis is a novel, cheap, and convenient technique suitable for large scale commercial production and health related applications of CuO nanoparticles.

  5. A Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) Using ALOS Image for Water Quality Mapping.

    PubMed

    Kzar, Ahmed Asal; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Mutter, Kussay N; Syahreza, Saumi

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing water pollution is a big problem in coastal waters. Coastal health of ecosystems can be affected by high concentrations of suspended sediment. In this work, a Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) was used with remote sensing imagery to classify the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the waters of coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia. The adopted remote sensing image is the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) image acquired on 18 January 2010. Our modification allows the Hopfield neural network to convert and classify color satellite images. The samples were collected from the study area simultaneously with the acquiring of satellite imagery. The sample locations were determined using a handheld global positioning system (GPS). The TSS concentration measurements were conducted in a lab and used for validation (real data), classification, and accuracy assessments. Mapping was achieved by using the MHNNA to classify the concentrations according to their reflectance values in band 1, band 2, and band 3. The TSS map was color-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated by dividing the validation data into two groups. The first group was used as source samples for supervisor classification via the MHNNA. The second group was used to test the MHNNA efficiency. After mapping, the locations of the second group in the produced classes were detected. Next, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated between the two groups, according to their corresponding locations in the classes. The MHNNA exhibited a higher R (0.977) and lower RMSE (2.887). In addition, we test the MHNNA with noise, where it proves its accuracy with noisy images over a range of noise levels. All results have been compared with a minimum distance classifier (Min-Dis). Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in the coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia can be performed using the adopted

  6. Characterization of mangrove species using ALOS-2 PALSAR in Hai Phong city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat Pham, Tien; Yoshino, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Hai Phong city is located in the Northern coast of Vietnam where the mangroves are distributed between zone I and zone II among the four mangrove zones in Vietnam. This city is vulnerable to rising sea levels associated with climate change and tropical cyclones, which are forecasted to become more severe due to the impact of climate change. In the past, mangrove forests in this city have decreased markedly because of over expansion of shrimp farming. Thus, identification of mangrove forests is important to monitor and support mangrove conservation and management in the coastal zone. The objectives of this research were to identify the locations of mangrove and characterize mangrove species in Hai Phong using HH and HV backscatters of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) with enhanced Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Image segmentation was used to identify the locations of mangrove forests. Moreover, Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to update current status of mangrove species in 2015. The results showed that the means of HH and HV backscatter coefficients of K. obovata are lower than S. caseolaris. K. obovata has HH value around -13.9 dB until -10.3 dB and HV value around -20.6 dB until -16.2 dB. Higher HH values between about -14.9 dB and -6.8 dB and HV values between roughly -20.6 dB and -14.3 dB have observed by S. caseolaris. The total area of mangrove forest in Hai Phong in the year 2015 was around 4084 hectares, of which S. caseolaris occupied over 68% and mixed mangrove species was approximately 25.6%. This research indicates the potential for the use of L-band ALOS-2 PALSAR in characterizing mangrove forest species in the coastal zone.

  7. A Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) Using ALOS Image for Water Quality Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kzar, Ahmed Asal; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Mutter, Kussay N.; Syahreza, Saumi

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing water pollution is a big problem in coastal waters. Coastal health of ecosystems can be affected by high concentrations of suspended sediment. In this work, a Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) was used with remote sensing imagery to classify the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the waters of coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia. The adopted remote sensing image is the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) image acquired on 18 January 2010. Our modification allows the Hopfield neural network to convert and classify color satellite images. The samples were collected from the study area simultaneously with the acquiring of satellite imagery. The sample locations were determined using a handheld global positioning system (GPS). The TSS concentration measurements were conducted in a lab and used for validation (real data), classification, and accuracy assessments. Mapping was achieved by using the MHNNA to classify the concentrations according to their reflectance values in band 1, band 2, and band 3. The TSS map was color-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated by dividing the validation data into two groups. The first group was used as source samples for supervisor classification via the MHNNA. The second group was used to test the MHNNA efficiency. After mapping, the locations of the second group in the produced classes were detected. Next, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated between the two groups, according to their corresponding locations in the classes. The MHNNA exhibited a higher R (0.977) and lower RMSE (2.887). In addition, we test the MHNNA with noise, where it proves its accuracy with noisy images over a range of noise levels. All results have been compared with a minimum distance classifier (Min-Dis). Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in the coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia can be performed using the adopted

  8. Potentials of L-band ALOS interferometry for the measurement of ground deformations at Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briole, P.; Panagiotis, E.; Puglisi, G.; Guglielmino, F.; Bonforte, A.; Murakami, M.

    2009-04-01

    Using eleven ascending PALSAR scenes acquired by the Japanese satellite ALOS over Etna, between January 2007 and September 2008, we produced a series of interferograms covering the volcano and surroundings, by using ROI-PAC software. We compare our results with ENVISAT interferograms covering the same period. The coherence is significantly higher than C-band and it is particularly high in the inhabited areas and on lava flows emplaced during last centuries, where local subsidence is observed on the most recent ones; important improvements in the coherency are also achieved on forested areas. L-band interferometric pairs having large baselines, up to 3 km, are still usable but the coherency significantly fall off, as the baseline increases. Deformation patterns are well measured, and the use of L-band dataset is particular useful in those cases where the coherency in C-band is usually low. This is the case, for instance, of the north-eastern sector of the volcano, where the large forested area made difficult to measure the important ground deformations produced by the dynamic of the Pernicana Fault and the NE Rift zone. The known left lateral strike slip creep across the Pernicana fault is, indeed, well mapped. It can be quantified over the observation interval along the entire fault and compared with the GPS measurements. In the next years, we hope that the acquisition plan of ALOS will permit the capture of more PALSAR scene with the same sensor and orbit parameters. This will constitute a new and exceptional data base, crucial for the knowledge of the dynamics of Etna.

  9. Photoconductivity of Graphene in Proximity to La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 Heterostructures: Phenomenon and Photosensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Long; Fan, Xiaodong; Wei, Laiming; Lu, Juanjuan; Liang, Haixing; Qi, Ji; Zeng, Changgan

    2016-07-01

    The proximal coupling between graphene and transition-metal-oxide heterostructures may integrate their unique features and further generate emergent states. Using the photoconductivity of graphene as an effective probe, we demonstrate the existence of a built-in polar field within the La AlO3 layer of the La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 heterostructures for both conducting and insulating La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 interfaces. Such a polar field is a prerequisite for the validity of the electronic reconstruction mechanism for the interfacial conductivity. The built-in polar field is reflected by the hole doping in the graphene in proximity to the La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 induced by pulsed deep-ultraviolet illumination regardless of the graphene's carrier type. These photoresponse characteristics also render the graphene /La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 hybrid system a convenient deep-ultraviolet sensor. Moreover, we design an efficient broad-spectrum photodetector benefiting from the large in-plane electric field in graphene across the boundary between the graphene/La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 and graphene/Sr TiO3 . Our findings may provide clues to the design of photosensors based on the hybrid structures of graphene and oxide heterostructures.

  10. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory herbal remedy, stimulates cell-mediated immunity and antibody production in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz; Jung, Leszek; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Mill) Liliaceae, succulent plant native to northern Africa, is presently cultivated in many regions of the world. Traditionally, its inner part of parenchyma, which contains aloe gel, was used for the treatment of minor wounds, inflammatory skin disorders, thermal and radiation burns and to alleviate chronic osteoarthritis pain. It also possesses some antimicrobial activity. Now, aloe gel is also increasingly consumed as a dietary supplement. Some data suggest its immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the study The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of orally administered aloe gel on some parameters of cellular and humoral immunity viz. mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and their chemokinetic activity, and anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antibody production in Balb/c mice. Results Daily treatment of mice for 14 and 21 days with 50 µl or 150 µl of aloe gel dose resulted in enhanced chemokinetic activity and stronger response of their splenic lymphocytes to mitogen PHA and enhancement of anti-SRBC antibody production. PMID:26155113

  11. Aloe Vera

    MedlinePlus

    63053 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/aloevera ... us ... 63053 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/aloevera ... Burns ... Burns/NON-DISPLAY (Supplements page) ... us ... 63053 ... https://nccih.nih. ...

  12. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain.

  13. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  14. The Online System for Lidar Data Handling and Real Time Monitoring of Lidar Operations at ALO-USU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Luis A.; Wickwar, Vincent B.; Gamboa, Jose; Milla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    It is no longer sufficient to use lidar, such as the Rayleigh lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU), to observe the middle atmosphere and reduce the data to geophysical parameters. Extended operations, with inevitable equipment, data reduction, and analysis improvements, require us to keep careful track of all these changes and how they affect the scientific products. Furthermore, many of the funding agencies and the journals now require us to do, at least, some of this. We have built three interconnected data structures to organize and manage the different hardware and software setups from the Internet as well as to keep track of the products generated by these. These structures were implemented as a database, which is particularly important for groups with a large volume of information like the Rayleigh Group at ALO-USU.

  15. Design and synthesis of aloe-emodin derivatives as potent anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinbing; Wu, Fengyan; Chen, Changhong

    2015-11-15

    Twenty aloe-emodin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. Some compounds displayed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activities, especially, compounds with thiosemicarbazide moiety showed more potent inhibitory effects than the other compounds. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) were preliminarily discussed. The inhibition mechanism of selected compounds 1 and 13 were investigated. The results showed compound 1 was reversible inhibitor, however, compound 13 was irreversible. Kinetic analysis indicated that compound 1 was competitive tyrosinase inhibitor. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities and anti-inflammatory activities of some selected compounds were also screened. The results showed that compound 3 exhibited more potent antibacterial activity than the aloe-emodin, compounds 5 and 6 possessed more potent anti-inflammatory activities than the diacerein.

  16. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain.

  17. Detection of Flooded Areas using ALOS/PALSAR Images for the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Keita; Yamazaki, Fumio

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can observe the earth surface in daytime and night-time regardless of weather conditions. Hence it is highly useful to capture damage distributions shortly after natural disasters strike. Detection of flooded areas is carried out using ALOS/PALSAR images acquired before and after the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Inland earthquake. Because the backscattering echo of SAR shows the condition of the earth surface, the changes of the echo in two images are used to detect the areas covered by water and those dried up after the earthquake. Since many small noises are also extracted from the SAR images, an open-close-scale filter is employed to remove them. The extracted results are compared with the visual detection results from ALOS/AVNIR-2 images and then the accuracy of the proposed method is verified.

  18. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  19. The addition of rosehip oil to Aloe gels improves their properties as postharvest coatings for maintaining quality in plum.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Zapata, Pedro J; Guillén, Fabián; Paladines, Diego; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, María

    2017-02-15

    The effect of Aloe vera gel (AV) and Aloe arborescens gel (AA) alone or in combination with rosehip oil (RO) at 2% on ethylene production, respiration rate, quality parameters, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during plum postharvest storage was studied. Coated plums showed a delay in ethylene production and respiration rate at 20°C and during cold storage and subsequent shelf life, the main effect being observed for those fruits coated with AA+RO. Quality parameters such as softening, colour and maturity index was also delayed during storage by the use of the coatings, which led to a 2-fold increase in plum storability. Accumulation of bioactive compounds was also delayed although at the end of the experiment the content of bioactive compounds was higher than those found for control fruits at the estimated shelf life. The most effective coating for maintaining plum quality and bioactive compounds was AA+RO. PMID:27664675

  20. Leukocyte phagocytosis and lysozyme activity in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, Geovana; de Andrade, Jaqueline Inês Alves; Tavares Gonçalves, Eduardo Luiz; Brum, Aline; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Maraschin, Marcelo; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2014-08-01

    Although there is evidence on the benefits in the use of immunostimulants in aquaculture, there are few commercial products being used. This study evaluated the use of natural substances as potential sources for the production of immunostimulants. Propolis and Aloe barbadensis have been widely studied and its extracts have different chemical constituents responsible for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant. Tilapia juveniles were fed for two weeks with diets supplemented mix of propolis extracts and aloe (1:1) in different concentrations: 0.5, 1 e 2%. After the experimental period, fish blood was collected for hematoimmunological as follows : hematocrit, total plasma protein, erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC), differential leukocyte count, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, and serum antimicrobial activity, serum antimicrobial activity (evaluated against Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterococcus durans and Escherichia coli). Except for higher number of thrombocytes in 1%-supplemented fish, the rest did not show significant difference.

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies on magnetic tunnel junctions with AlO and AlN tunnel barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mun, B. S.; Moon, J. C.; Hong, S. W.; Kang, K. S.; Kim, K.; Kim, T. W.; Ju, H. L.

    2006-04-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of the optimized magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with AlO and AlN barriers have been performed to study the chemical structures of the barrier and the underlying layer. These MTJs with AlO and AlN barriers exhibited increased tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) after annealing at 200 deg. C from 27% to 45% and from 25% to 33%, respectively. Surprisingly, the XPS and XAS measurements confirmed that both the as-grown and the annealed MTJs had metallic Co and Fe at the interface between the barrier and the underlying CoFe layer. After annealing, under-stoichiometric AlO{sub x} and AlN{sub x} phases in MTJs with AlO and AlN barriers partially transformed into stoichiometric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlN phases, respectively. Thus the increase in TMR after annealing for MTJs with clean interface between the barrier and the underlying layer is believed due to the anion redistribution inside the barrier layer, not from back diffusion from pinned magnetic layer to barrier layer.

  2. Effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Yeturu, Sravan Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Urala, Arun Sreenivas; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis in orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A randomized single-center, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial was conducted among 90 subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into one of the three study groups (Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide). Plaque and gingivitis were assessed using modified Silness and Loe Plaque Index and Gingival Index at baseline and at follow-up after 15 days. Paired t-test and ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett test were used. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 85 participants completed the study; among them, 40 were male and 45 were female. There was significant reduction in mean plaque and gingival scores in all the 3 groups at follow-up when compared to baseline. A significantly higher reduction (plaque and gingival scores) was found in chlorhexidine when compared with the Aloe vera group. However, no significant difference was seen between chlorhexidine and chlorine dioxide with respect to mean reduction in plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion Chlorine dioxide can be a suitable and economical alternative for chlorhexidine. Further long-term studies are recommended for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:26937371

  3. Polymeric Films Loaded with Vitamin E and Aloe vera for Topical Application in the Treatment of Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns. PMID:24524083

  4. An investigation of age and yield of fresh fruit bunches of oil palm based on ALOS PALSAR 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Haryati, A.; M, R. Najib A.; Na'aim, M.

    2016-06-01

    The objective on this study is to investigate age and yield of FFB of oil palms based on ALOS PALSAR 2. Study areas in oil palm plantations areas of Jerantut, Pahang Malaysia. Methodology consists collecting of ALOS PALSAR 2 and tabular data on the study area, processing of ALOS PALSAR 2 including of converting digital numbers to normalize radar cross sections (NRCS), topography correction and filtering, making of regions of interest according to areas of age and yield of FFB of oil palms and making of relationship analysis between backscatter value of HH, HV and age and yield of FFB of oil palm. The results have showed relationship between HH, HV and age of oil palm which R2 of 0.63 for HH and 0.42 for HV that indicated increasing of age of oil palm as increasing of HH and HV value. Also relationship between HH, HV and yield of FFB of oil palm which R2 of 0.26 for HH and 0.15 for HV, that indicated increasing of yield of FFB as decreasing of HH and HV value.

  5. Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat.

    PubMed

    Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Oryan, Ahmad; Mohammadalipour, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Polysaccharides are the main macromolecules of Aloe vera gel but no data about their effect on extracellular matrix (ECM) elements are available. Here, mannose rich Aloe vera polysaccharides (AVP) with molecular weight between 50 and 250 kDa were isolated and characterized. Open cutaneous wounds on the back of 45 rats (control and treated) were daily treated with 25mg (n=15) and 50 mg (n=15) AVP for 30 days. The levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression were analyzed using real time PCR. The levels of n-acetyl glucosamine (NAGA), n-acetyl galactosamine (NAGLA) and collagen contents were also measured using standard biochemical methods. Faster wound closure was observed at day 15 post wounding in AVP treated animals in comparison with untreated group. At day 10 post wounding, AVP inhibited MMP-3 gene expression, while afterwards MMP-3 gene expression was upregulated. AVP enhanced TIMP-2 gene expression, collagen, NAGLA and NAGA synthesis in relation to untreated wounds. Our results suggest that AVP has positive effects on the regulation of ECM factor synthesis, which open up new perspectives for the wound repair activity of Aloe vera polysaccharide at molecular level.

  6. Polymeric films loaded with vitamin E and aloe vera for topical application in the treatment of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns.

  7. Applications of ALOS PALSAR for monitoring biophysical parameters of a degraded black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, J. M.; Lu, X. X.; Flores-Verdugo, F.; Zhang, C.; Flores de Santiago, F.; Jiao, X.

    2013-08-01

    Within the last few decades mangrove forests worldwide have been experiencing high annual rates of loss and many of those that remain have undergone considerable degradation. To understand the condition of these forests, various optical remote sensing platforms have been used to map and monitor these wetlands, including the use of these data for biophysical parameter mapping. For many mangrove forests a reliable source of optical imagery is not possible given their location in quasi-permanent cloud cover or smoke covered regions. In such cases it is recommended that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) be considered. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between various ALOS-PALSAR modes, acquired from eight images, and mangrove biophysical parameter data collected from a black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forest that has experienced considerable degradation. In total, structural data were collected from 61 plots representing the four common stand types found in this degraded forest of the Mexican Pacific: tall healthy mangrove (n = 17), dwarf healthy mangrove (n = 15), poor condition mangrove (n = 13), and predominantly dead mangrove (n = 16). Based on backscatter coefficients, significant negative correlation coefficients were observed between filtered single polarization ALOS PALSAR (6.25 m) HH backscatter and Leaf Area Index (LAI). When the dead stands were excluded (n = 45) the strength of these relationships increased. Moreover, significant negative correlation coefficients were observed with stand height, Basal Area (BA) and to a lesser degree with stem density and mean DBH. With the coarser spatial resolution dual-polarization and quad polarization data (12.5 m) only a few, and weaker, correlation coefficients were calculated between the mangrove parameters and the filtered HH backscatter. However, significant negative values were once again calculated for the HH when the 16 dead mangrove stands were removed from the

  8. ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results

  9. Making SAR Data Accessible - ASF's ALOS PALSAR Radiometric Terrain Correction Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Arko, S. A.; Gens, R.

    2015-12-01

    While SAR data have proven valuable for a wide range of geophysical research questions, so far, largely only the SAR-educated science communities have been able to fully exploit the information content of internationally available SAR archives. The main issues that have been preventing a more widespread utilization of SAR are related to (1) the diversity and complexity of SAR data formats, (2) the complexity of the processing flows needed to extract geophysical information from SAR, (3) the lack of standardization and automation of these processing flows, and (4) the often ignored geocoding procedures, leaving the data in image coordinate space. In order to improve upon this situation, ASF's radiometric terrain-correction (RTC) project is generating uniformly formatted and easily accessible value-added products from the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center's (DAAC) five-year archive of JAXA's ALOS PALSAR sensor. Specifically, the project applies geometric and radiometric corrections to SAR data to allow for an easy and direct combination of obliquely acquired SAR data with remote sensing imagery acquired in nadir observation geometries. Finally, the value-added data is provided to the user in the broadly accepted Geotiff format, in order to support the easy integration of SAR data into GIS environments. The goal of ASF's RTC project is to make SAR data more accessible and more attractive to the broader SAR applications community, especially to those users that currently have limited SAR expertise. Production of RTC products commenced October 2014 and will conclude late in 2015. As of July 2015, processing of 71% of ASF's ALOS PALSAR archive was completed. Adding to the utility of this dataset are recent changes to the data access policy that allow the full-resolution RTC products to be provided to the public, without restriction. In this paper we will introduce the processing flow that was developed for the RTC project and summarize the calibration and validation

  10. Measuring Mangrove Type, Structure And Carbon Storage With UAVSAR And ALOS/PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Cornforth, W.; Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Pettorelli, N.

    2011-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a great number of ecosystem services ranging from shoreline protection (e.g. against erosion, tsunamis and storms), nutrient cycling, fisheries production, building materials and habitat. Mangrove forests have been shown to store very large amounts of Carbon, both above and belowground, with storage capacities even greater than tropical rainforests. But as a result of their location and economic value, they are among the most rapidly changing landscapes in the World. Mangrove extent is limited 1) in total extent to tidally influenced coastal areas and 2) to tropical and subtropical regions. This can lead to difficulties mapping mangrove type (such as degraded vs non degraded, scrub vs tall, dense vs sparse) because of cloud cover and limited access to high-resolution optical data. To accurately quantify the effect of land use and climate change on tropical wetland ecosystems, we must develop effective mapping methodologies that take into account not only extent, but also the structure and health of the ecosystem. This must be done by including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. In this research, we used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the ALOS/PALSAR and UAVSAR instruments over selected sites in the Americas (Sierpe, Costa Rica and Everglades, Florida)and Asia (Sundarbans). In particular, we used the SAR data in combination with other remotely sensed data and field data to 1) map mangrove extent 2) determine mangrove type, health and adjascent land use, and 3) estimate aboveground biomass and carbon storage for entire mangrove systems. We used different classification methodologies such as polarimetric decomposition, unsupervised classification and image segmentation to map mangrove type. Because of the high resolution of the radar data, and its ability to interact with forest volume, we are able to identify mangrove zones and differentiate between mangroves and other forests/land uses. We also integrated InSAR data (SRTM

  11. A comparative study of the effects of topical application of Aloe vera, thyroid hormone and silver sulfadiazine on skin wounds in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-03-01

    Many research studies report the healing effects of Aloe Vera, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine. However, the effects of these therapeutic agents are not well understood and have not been compared in one study. This study aimed at investigating the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel, a thyroid hormone cream and a silver sulfadiazine cream on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats for determining the treatment of choice. In a randomized controlled trial, twelve male rats, aged 120 days and with a mean weight of 250 to 300 g, were divided randomly into 5 groups based on drug treatments: Aloe vera gel (AV), thyroid hormone cream (TC), silver sulfadiazine 1% (S), vehicle (V) and control. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment technique, a biomechanical approach was used to assess tensile stress after 14 days of treatment. Tensile stress was significantly improved in the Aloe vera gel group as compared with the other four groups (P≤0.05). While the other treatment options resulted in better healing than the control group, this difference was not significant. We conclude that Aloe vera topical application accelerated the healing process more than thyroid hormone, silver sulfadiazine and vehicle in surgically induced incisions in rats.

  12. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meixiu; Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu; Chen, Tingtao; Xin, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2 (•-) (85%), (•)OH (76%), and Fe(2+) chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  13. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2•− (85%), •OH (76%), and Fe2+ chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  14. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anthony E.; Belmont, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min−1. Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min−1. These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe. PMID:27284273

  15. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  16. Assessment of allelopathic properties of Aloe ferox Mill. on turnip, beetroot and carrot.

    PubMed

    Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) are common vegetables in South Africa. The allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of Aloe ferox Mill.- a highly valued medicinal plant- was evaluated against seed germination and seedling growth of the three vegetables in Petri dish experiments. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL. Leaf extract concentrations above 4 mg/mL inhibited the germination of all the crops, while the root extract had no significant effect on germination irrespective of concentration. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of leaf extract stimulated root length elongation of beetroot by 31.71%. Other concentrations significantly inhibited both root and shoot growth of the vegetable crops except the turnip shoot. The most sensitive crop was carrot, with percentage inhibition ranging from 29.15 to 100% for root and shoot lengths. Lower percentage inhibition was observed for the root extract than the leaf extract against shoot growth of beetroot and carrot. The results from this study suggested the presence of allelochemicals mostly in the leaves of A. ferox that could inhibit the growth of the turnip, beetroot and carrot.

  17. In vivo macrophage activation in chickens with Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Djeraba, A; Quere, P

    2000-05-01

    Acemannan (ACM 1), a beta-(1,4) -acetylated mannan isolated from Aloe vera, can be used as an effective adjuvant in vaccination against some avian viral diseases. Our results demonstrate a quick and lasting in vivo priming effect of ACM 1 on macrophage response after intramuscular inoculation in chickens (500 microg per 2-month-old bird). In response to IFN-gamma in vitro, monocytes from ACM 1-treated chickens exhibited a strong enhancement of NO production from 3 to 9 days p.i., but a weaker effect on MHC II cell surface antigen expression on day 3 p.i. A stimulating effect of ACM 1 treatment was also observed on spontaneous and inducible NO production for splenocytes only on day 3 p.i. By that time, splenocytes exhibited a strong higher capacity to proliferate in response to the T cell-mitogen PHA. At the same time, the in vivo capacity to produce NO, measured by the (NO(-)(2)+NO(-)(3)) serum level after intravenous LPS injection, increased greatly from 3 to 9 days p.i. In conclusion, ACM 1 was able efficiently and durably to increase the activation capacity of macrophages from the systemic immune compartment (in particular from the blood and spleen after an intramuscular injection) in chickens, especially for NO production. These findings provide a better understanding of the adjuvant activity of ACM 1 for viral and tumoral diseases.

  18. Crude Aloe vera Gel Shows Antioxidant Propensities and Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase and Glucose Movement In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Taukoorah, Urmeela; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera gel (AVG) is traditionally used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of AVG against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten (Km) and Lineweaver-Burk equations were used to establish the type of inhibition. The antioxidant capacity of AVG was evaluated for its ferric reducing power, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging ability, nitric oxide scavenging power, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The glucose entrapment ability, antimicrobial activity, and total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and anthocyanin content were also determined. AVG showed a significantly higher percentage inhibition (85.56 ± 0.91) of pancreatic lipase compared to Orlistat. AVG was found to increase the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the maximal velocity (Vmax) of lipase, indicating mixed inhibition. AVG considerably inhibits glucose movement across dialysis tubes and was comparable to Arabic gum. AVG was ineffective against the tested microorganisms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 66.06 ± 1.14 (GAE)/mg and 60.95 ± 0.97 (RE)/mg, respectively. AVG also showed interesting antioxidant properties. The biological activity observed in this study tends to validate some of the traditional claims of AVG as a functional food. PMID:26880905

  19. Assessment of allelopathic properties of Aloe ferox Mill. on turnip, beetroot and carrot.

    PubMed

    Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) are common vegetables in South Africa. The allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of Aloe ferox Mill.- a highly valued medicinal plant- was evaluated against seed germination and seedling growth of the three vegetables in Petri dish experiments. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL. Leaf extract concentrations above 4 mg/mL inhibited the germination of all the crops, while the root extract had no significant effect on germination irrespective of concentration. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of leaf extract stimulated root length elongation of beetroot by 31.71%. Other concentrations significantly inhibited both root and shoot growth of the vegetable crops except the turnip shoot. The most sensitive crop was carrot, with percentage inhibition ranging from 29.15 to 100% for root and shoot lengths. Lower percentage inhibition was observed for the root extract than the leaf extract against shoot growth of beetroot and carrot. The results from this study suggested the presence of allelochemicals mostly in the leaves of A. ferox that could inhibit the growth of the turnip, beetroot and carrot. PMID:23558992

  20. Mapping forests in Monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR and MODIS imagery in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of forests are important to climate change, carbon cycle, and biodiversity. An accurate forest map is required in monsoon Asia where extensive forest changes occurred. An algorithm was developed to map the distribution of forests in Monsoon Asia in 2010, with the integration of structure information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset, and phenology information from MOD13Q1 NDVI, and MOD09A1 land surface reflectance products. The PALSAR-based forest map was generated based on a decision tree classification, and assessed with the randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images in Google Earth. The spatial and area comparison were performed between our forest map (OU/Fudan F/NF) and other forest maps generated by Japanese Space Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests). Then we investigate the reasons for the large uncertainties among these typical forest maps in 2010. This study could provide a way to monitor the dynamics of forests using the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical satellite images, and the resultant F/NF datasets can be used to analyze the impacts of changes in forests on climate and ecosystems.

  1. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against microorganisms grown in planktonic and sessile phases.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, V; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Nostro, A; Cellini, L; Di Giulio, M

    2015-12-01

    The failure of traditional antimicrobial treatments is becoming a worldwide problem. The use of Aloe vera is of particular interest for its role as curative agent and its efficacy in complementary therapies for a variety of illnesses. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of A. vera inner gel against a panel of microorganisms, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. In addition to A. vera inner gel being used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, in dermatological treatments, and wound healing, it was also tested on the sessile phase of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains (including multi-drug-resistant strains) and on planktonic and sessile phase of Staphylococcus aureus/Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from venous leg ulcers.A. vera inner gel expresses its prevalent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans in respect to Gram-positive bacteria. The results of the A. vera antibiofilm activity showed a decrease of the produced biomass in a concentration-dependent-way, in each analyzed microorganism. The data obtained show that A. vera inner gel has both an antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity suggesting its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections, in particular for H. pylori gastric infection, especially in case of multi-drug-resistance, as well as for an effective wound dressing. PMID:26526205

  2. Novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2005-10-01

    A novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel obtained according to SP Patent Filed 200302937 has been used as a means of preservation to maintain the quality and safety of cv. Crimson Seedless table grapes during cold storage and subsequent shelf life. Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf life due to a rapid loss of quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 7 days at 1 degrees C plus 4 days at 20 degrees C, based on the fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis browning, and high incidence of berry decay. On the contrary, those clusters treated with A. vera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to postharvest quality losses, and storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1 degrees C. Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which significantly increased in uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma, or flavors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time A. vera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments. PMID:16190634

  3. Energy transfer processes of Er3+ in Y AlO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Chua; S, Xia; Tanner, P. A.

    2003-11-01

    In this study the upconversion of the 4I13/2 and 4I11/2 multiplets, and the cross-relaxation (CR) processes of 4S3/2 and 4I9/2 of Er3+ in Y AlO3, which are related to its 3 µm laser operation, have been investigated. The dominant energy transfer (ET) pathways are discussed and the ET rates of the contributing multipolar interaction mechanisms have been estimated, based upon the Holstein-Lyo-Orbach or the Miyakawa and Dexter formalisms for phonon-assisted ET. The Kushida formalism has been employed for the investigation of migration processes, and the matrix elements of Kaminskii for the relevant electronic transitions have been used in our calculations. The major results are that at room temperature, the contributions of 2H11/2 (particularly from electric quadrupole-electric quadrupole interactions) to the CR and migration of 4S3/2, and to the upconversion of 4I11/2, are important, and are even the dominant ones in some cases.

  4. Shellac and Aloe vera gel based surface coating for shelf life extension of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, O P; Nanjappa, C; Ashok, N; Ravi, N; Roopa, N; Raju, P S

    2015-02-01

    Shellac (S) and Aloe vera gel (AG) were used to develop edible surface coatings for shelf-life extension of tomato fruits. The coating was prepared by dissolving de-waxed and bleached shellac in an alkaline aqueous medium as such as well as in combination with AG. Incorporation of AG in shellac coating improved permeability characteristics of the coating film towards oxygen and carbon dioxide and water vapours. The coatings when applied to tomatoes delayed senescence which was characterized by restricted changes in respiration and ethylene synthesis rates during storage. Texture of the fruits when measured in terms of firmness showed restricted changes as compared to untreated control. Similar observations were also recorded in the case of instrumental colour (L*, a* and b* values). The developed coatings extended shelf-life of tomatoes by 10, 8 and 12 days in case of shellac (S), AG and composite coating (S + AG) coated fruits, respectively; when kept at ambient storage conditions (28 ± 2 °C).

  5. Novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2005-10-01

    A novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel obtained according to SP Patent Filed 200302937 has been used as a means of preservation to maintain the quality and safety of cv. Crimson Seedless table grapes during cold storage and subsequent shelf life. Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf life due to a rapid loss of quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 7 days at 1 degrees C plus 4 days at 20 degrees C, based on the fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis browning, and high incidence of berry decay. On the contrary, those clusters treated with A. vera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to postharvest quality losses, and storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1 degrees C. Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which significantly increased in uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma, or flavors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time A. vera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments.

  6. Effect of Leaf Extracts of Aloe arborescens Mill subsp. natalensis Berger on Growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Keisuke; Yamada, Yasuo; Azuma, Keizou; Hirozawa, Susumu

    1978-01-01

    The antifungal activity of a lyophilized powder containing aloe leaf homogenate (whole-leaf powder) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes was investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 25 mg/ml by the agar dilution method, using Sabouraud glucose agar medium. At subinhibitory concentrations, the powder exerted its main effect on colony growth by prolongation of the lag phase and inhibition of growth rate. Homogenates of fresh whole leaf were filtered through Whatman GF/A paper, and the filtrate was dialyzed and concentrated by molecular filtration using an Amicon hollow-fiber dialyzer concentrator DC-2, and a powder containing components with molecular weights higher than 10,000 (high-molecular-weight component powder) was prepared by lyophilization. The minimal inhibitory concentrations against three strains of T. mentagrophytes were all 10 mg/ml. The inhibitory activity was fungicidal and was lost by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Both the whole-leaf powder and the high-molecular-weight component powder induced various morphological abnormalities in spores and hyphae by the inhibition of spore germination and development of hyphae. Images PMID:686703

  7. Metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera using next-generation technology

    PubMed Central

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale; Goh, Joo Kheng; Lim, Siew Ping; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) enables rapid analysis of the composition and diversity of microbial communities in several habitats. We applied the high throughput techniques of NGS to the metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera plant, by assessing its PCR amplicon of 16S rDNA sequences (V3–V4 regions) with the Illumina metagenomics technique used to generate a total of 5,199,102 reads from the samples. The analyses revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes as the predominant genera. The roots have the largest composition with 23% not present in other tissues. The stems have more of the genus—Pseudomonas and the unclassified Pseudomonadaceae. The α-diversity analysis indicated the richness and inverse Simpson diversity index of the bacterial endophyte communities for the leaf, root and stem tissues to be 2.221, 6.603 and 1.491 respectively. In a similar study on culturable endophytic bacteria in the same A. vera plants (unpublished work), the dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera was similar, with equal proportion of four species each in root, stem and leaf tissues. It is evident that NGS technology captured effectively the metagenomics of microbiota in plant tissues and this can improve our understanding of the microbial–plant host interactions. PMID:26697361

  8. Improved early performance of turkey poults given an Aloe ferox leaf extract with bentonite.

    PubMed

    Edens, F W; Ort, D T; Ludescher, B L

    2014-01-01

    AT-402 (20 g/kg), a proprietary blend of Aloe ferox leaf extract and calcium bentonite, had no adverse effect on poult body weights at 3 weeks of age. Lower body weights and lower feed consumption were observed in 4-week-old poults given 10 and 20 g/kg of AT-402 compared to poults given 0 or 5 g/kg. Floor-reared poults, given either 5 or 10 g/kg AT-402 to 4 weeks of age, were significantly heavier than controls (0 g/kg AT-402), and feed conversion ratios for AT-402 given poults were improved. Xylose uptake in 5 g/kg AT-402-fed poults was significantly greater than in poults given AT-402 at 0 and 10 g/kg, reflecting increased body weights of 5 g/kg AT-402-fed poults. Delayed access by poults to the AT-402 until 10 d of age also improved 4-week body weights, suggesting that the AT-402 might improve performance as soon as it is given. AT-402 at 5 g/kg was most efficacious as demonstrated by improved body weights and feed conversions. PMID:25137299

  9. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing. PMID:26830302

  10. Crude Aloe vera Gel Shows Antioxidant Propensities and Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase and Glucose Movement In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Taukoorah, Urmeela; Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera gel (AVG) is traditionally used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of AVG against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten (K m ) and Lineweaver-Burk equations were used to establish the type of inhibition. The antioxidant capacity of AVG was evaluated for its ferric reducing power, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging ability, nitric oxide scavenging power, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The glucose entrapment ability, antimicrobial activity, and total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and anthocyanin content were also determined. AVG showed a significantly higher percentage inhibition (85.56 ± 0.91) of pancreatic lipase compared to Orlistat. AVG was found to increase the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the maximal velocity (V max) of lipase, indicating mixed inhibition. AVG considerably inhibits glucose movement across dialysis tubes and was comparable to Arabic gum. AVG was ineffective against the tested microorganisms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 66.06 ± 1.14 (GAE)/mg and 60.95 ± 0.97 (RE)/mg, respectively. AVG also showed interesting antioxidant properties. The biological activity observed in this study tends to validate some of the traditional claims of AVG as a functional food. PMID:26880905

  11. Preparation of polyamide nanocapsules of Aloe vera L. delivery with in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The purpose of this study was to prepare polyamide nanocapsules containing A. vera L. by an emulsion diffusion technique with in vivo studies. Diethyletriamine (DETA) was used as the encapsulating polymer with acetone ethyl acetate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the organic solvents and Tween and gelatin in water as the stabilizers. Sebacoyl chloride (SC) monomer, A. vera L. extract, and olive oil were mixed with the acetone and then water containing DETA monomer was added to the solution using a magnetic stirrer. Finally, the acetone was removed under vacuum, and nanocapsules were obtained using a freeze drier. This study showed that the size of the nanocapsule depends on a variety of factors such as the ratio of polymer to oil, the concentration of polymers, and the plant extract. The first sample is without surfactant and the size of nanocapsules in the sample is 115 nm. By adding surfactant, nanocapsules size was reduced to 96 nm. Nanocapsules containing A. vera were administered to rats and the effects were compared with a normal control group. The results showed that in the A. vera group, the effect is higher. The nanocapsules were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential sizer (ZPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  12. Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Tachaboonyakiat, Wanpen; Sangvanich, Polkit; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Jettanacheawchankit, Suwimon; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-11-20

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties.

  13. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against microorganisms grown in planktonic and sessile phases.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, V; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Nostro, A; Cellini, L; Di Giulio, M

    2015-12-01

    The failure of traditional antimicrobial treatments is becoming a worldwide problem. The use of Aloe vera is of particular interest for its role as curative agent and its efficacy in complementary therapies for a variety of illnesses. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of A. vera inner gel against a panel of microorganisms, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. In addition to A. vera inner gel being used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, in dermatological treatments, and wound healing, it was also tested on the sessile phase of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains (including multi-drug-resistant strains) and on planktonic and sessile phase of Staphylococcus aureus/Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from venous leg ulcers.A. vera inner gel expresses its prevalent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans in respect to Gram-positive bacteria. The results of the A. vera antibiofilm activity showed a decrease of the produced biomass in a concentration-dependent-way, in each analyzed microorganism. The data obtained show that A. vera inner gel has both an antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity suggesting its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections, in particular for H. pylori gastric infection, especially in case of multi-drug-resistance, as well as for an effective wound dressing.

  14. Aloe vera affects changes induced in pulmonary tissue of mice caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashwani; Bala, Shashi; Yasmeen; Arora, Neha

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of Aloe vera (AV) on changes induced in pulmonary tissue of cigarette smoke (CS) inhaling mice. CS inhalation for 4 weeks caused pulmonary damage as evident by histoarchitectural alterations and enhanced serum and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. CS inhalation also led to increased mucin production as revealed by mucicarmine and Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of CS exposed animals revealed structural changes in phospholipids and increase in surface tension when compared with control counterparts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced nitric oxide (NO) levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and differential modulation of antioxidant defense system. AV administration (seven weeks, 500 mg/kg b.w. daily) to CS inhaling mice led to modulation of CS induced pulmonary changes as revealed by lesser degree of histoarchitectural alterations, lesser mucin production, decreased NO levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and serum LDH activity. AV treatment to CS inhaling mice was associated with varying response to antioxidant defense system, however balf of CS + AV treated animals did not exhibit appreciable changes when compared with that of CS exposed animals. These observations suggest that AV has the potential to modulate CS induced changes in the pulmonary tissue which could have implications in management of CS associated pulmonary diseases, however, further investigations are required to explore its complete mechanism of action.

  15. Metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera using next-generation technology.

    PubMed

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale; Goh, Joo Kheng; Lim, Siew Ping; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2015-12-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) enables rapid analysis of the composition and diversity of microbial communities in several habitats. We applied the high throughput techniques of NGS to the metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera plant, by assessing its PCR amplicon of 16S rDNA sequences (V3-V4 regions) with the Illumina metagenomics technique used to generate a total of 5,199,102 reads from the samples. The analyses revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes as the predominant genera. The roots have the largest composition with 23% not present in other tissues. The stems have more of the genus-Pseudomonas and the unclassified Pseudomonadaceae. The α-diversity analysis indicated the richness and inverse Simpson diversity index of the bacterial endophyte communities for the leaf, root and stem tissues to be 2.221, 6.603 and 1.491 respectively. In a similar study on culturable endophytic bacteria in the same A. vera plants (unpublished work), the dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera was similar, with equal proportion of four species each in root, stem and leaf tissues. It is evident that NGS technology captured effectively the metagenomics of microbiota in plant tissues and this can improve our understanding of the microbial-plant host interactions. PMID:26697361

  16. Diversity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culturable bacterial endophyte communities in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale; Goh, Joo Kheng; Lim, Siew Ping; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-nine culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues (root, stem and leaf) of Aloe vera and molecularly characterized to 13 genera: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Aeromonas, Providencia, Cedecea, Klebsiella, Cronobacter, Macrococcus and Shigella. The dominant genera include Bacillus (20.7%), Pseudomonas (20.7%) and Enterobacter (13.8%). The crude and ethyl acetate fractions of the metabolites of six isolates, species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Chryseobacterium and Shigella, have broad spectral antimicrobial activities against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Candida albicans, with inhibition zones ranging from 6.0 ± 0.57 to 16.6 ± 0.57 mm. In addition, 80% of the bacterial endophytes produced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with scavenging properties of over 75% when their crude metabolites were compared with ascorbic acid (92%). In conclusion, this study revealed for the first time the endophytic bacteria communities from A. vera (Pseudomonas hibiscicola, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Enterobacter ludwigii, Bacillus anthracis) that produce bioactive compounds with high DPPH scavenging properties (75-88%) and (Bacillus tequilensis, Pseudomonas entomophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Bacillus aerophilus) that produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activities against bacterial pathogens. Hence, we suggest further investigation and characterization of their bioactive compounds. PMID:26454221

  17. Aloe ferox seed: a potential source of oil for cosmetic and pharmaceutical use.

    PubMed

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Chivandi, Eliton; Erlwanger, Kennedy

    2013-03-01

    Aloe ferox is an important medicinal plant in Southern Africa whose seeds could be useful as a source of oil. The fatty acid composition of A. ferox seed oil was determined using gas chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the oil were analysed using standard methods. The seeds yielded 19.4% of a light textured oil using the Blight and Dyer's method and 12.3% using the Soxhlet extraction method. The saponification value of the seed oil was 241.9 mg KOH/g and the peroxide value was 8.9 meq/kg. The acid value of the seed oil was 51.5 mg KOH/g (25.9% free fatty acids). The major fatty acids found in the seed oil were linoleic acid (71.8%), oleic acid (12.0%), palmitic acid (11.2%) and stearic acid (2.9%). The results obtained suggest that as A. ferox seed oil is high in linoleic acid, it could be potentially exploited in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23678824

  18. Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Tachaboonyakiat, Wanpen; Sangvanich, Polkit; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Jettanacheawchankit, Suwimon; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-11-20

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties. PMID:26344314

  19. [Landscape spatial pattern of typical loess hilly-gully watershed based on ALOS imagery].

    PubMed

    Mai, Kai-le; Zhang, Wen-hui

    2011-03-01

    Based on the ALOS satellite medium and high resolution images, seven landscape types closely related to the ecosystem restoration, farming, and living of Yan' gou watershed, a typical watershed in loess hilly-gully region, were interpreted. The landscape pattern and function of the watershed in 2007 were analyzed with the landscape indices of diversity and heterogeneity, and the landscape distribution suitability of the whole and parts of the watershed were evaluated, combined with the digital elevation model (DEM) data. The results showed that the dominant landscape types in the watershed were bush and forest, which were mainly distributed on the slopes with a gradient greater than 25 degrees. The patch fractal dimension of the watershed was 1.09, suggesting that the general landscape spatial pattern was stable. The area ratio of the three landscape functional types of eco-protection, product economy, and living service was 23:9:1. The suitability of the whole watershed landscape distribution was 0.76, suggesting that the overall landscape distribution was relatively reasonable. However, the land-use suitability of semi-shade slopes and of the areas with an altitude less than 900 m was lower, being 0.74 and 0.02, respectively.

  20. Validation of "AW3D" Global Dsm Generated from Alos Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, Junichi; Tadono, Takeo; Tsutsui, Ken; Ichikawa, Mayumi

    2016-06-01

    Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM), one of onboard sensors carried by Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), was designed to generate worldwide topographic data with its optical stereoscopic observation. It has an exclusive ability to perform a triplet stereo observation which views forward, nadir, and backward along the satellite track in 2.5 m ground resolution, and collected its derived images all over the world during the mission life of the satellite from 2006 through 2011. A new project, which generates global elevation datasets with the image archives, was started in 2014. The data is processed in unprecedented 5 m grid spacing utilizing the original triplet stereo images in 2.5 m resolution. As the number of processed data is growing steadily so that the global land areas are almost covered, a trend of global data qualities became apparent. This paper reports on up-to-date results of the validations for the accuracy of data products as well as the status of data coverage in global areas. The accuracies and error characteristics of datasets are analyzed by the comparison with existing global datasets such as Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data, as well as ground control points (GCPs) and the reference Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR).

  1. High-performance HfO x /AlO y -based resistive switching memory cross-point array fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Feifei; Chen, Bing; Zheng, Yang; Gao, Bin; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Resistive switching memory cross-point arrays with TiN/HfO x /AlO y /Pt structure were fabricated. The bi-layered resistive switching films of 5-nm HfO x and 3-nm AlO y were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Excellent device performances such as low switching voltage, large resistance ratio, good cycle-to-cycle and device-to-device uniformity, and high yield were demonstrated in the fabricated 24 by 24 arrays. In addition, multi-level data storage capability and robust reliability characteristics were also presented. The achievements demonstrated the great potential of ALD-fabricated HfO x /AlO y bi-layers for the application of next-generation nonvolatile memory.

  2. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone) for moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Rauck, Richard L; Hale, Martin E; Bass, Almasa; Bramson, Candace; Pixton, Glenn; Wilson, Jacquelyn G; Setnik, Beatrice; Meisner, Paul; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Malhotra, Bimal K; Wolfram, Gernot

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing pellets of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) surrounding sequestered naltrexone HCl, compared with placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. An open-label titration period in which all patients received ALO-02 was followed by a double-blind treatment period where patients meeting treatment response criteria were randomized to either a fixed dose of ALO-02 or placebo. Daily average low back pain was assessed using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS)-Pain. Of the 663 patients screened, 410 received ALO-02 during the open-label conversion and titration period and 281 patients were randomized to the double-blind treatment period (n = 134, placebo; n = 147, ALO-02). Change in the mean NRS-Pain score from randomization baseline to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period was significantly different favoring ALO-02 compared with placebo (P = 0.0114). Forty-four percent of patients treated with placebo and 57.5% of patients treated with ALO-02 reported ≥30% improvement in weekly average NRS-Pain scores from screening to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period (P = 0.0248). In the double-blind treatment period, 56.8% of patients in the ALO-02 group and 56.0% of patients in the placebo group experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The most common treatment-related TEAEs for ALO-02 during the treatment period were nausea, vomiting, and constipation, consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 has been demonstrated to provide significant reduction of pain in patients with chronic low back pain and has a safety profile similar to other opioids.

  3. Intranasal administration of crushed ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone with sequestered naltrexone): A randomized, controlled abuse-potential study in nondependent recreational opioid users.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Bramson, Candace; Bass, Almasa; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Malhotra, Bimal; Matschke, Kyle; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Wolfram, Gernot; Geoffroy, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    ALO-02 is an abuse-deterrent formulation consisting of capsules filled with pellets of extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-/active-controlled, 4-way crossover study examined the abuse potential of crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to healthy, nondependent, recreational opioid users. Following drug discrimination and naloxone challenge, eligible participants (n = 32) entered a 4-way crossover treatment phase: crushed single dose of 1 of 2 placebos, ALO-02 30 mg/3.6 mg (oxycodone/naltrexone) or oxycodone immediate-release (IR) 30 mg. Primary end points were Drug Liking and High, measured on visual analog scales (VAS) summarized as maximum effect (Emax ) and effect occurring over 2 hours postdose (AUE0-2  h ). Crushed ALO-02 resulted in significantly lower scores versus oxycodone IR on Drug Liking (Emax , 60.5 vs 92.8; AUE0-2  h , 105.4 vs 160.0, respectively) and High (Emax , 25.2 vs 86.9; AUE0-2  h , 27.1 vs 136.4, respectively; n = 28; P < .0001). Adverse events occurred most frequently with oxycodone IR, followed by ALO-02, then placebo, and were considered mild and consistent with opioid therapy. Crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to nondependent recreational opioid users resulted in significantly lower scores on Drug Liking/High VAS and other positive subjective measures versus crushed oxycodone IR, suggesting less abuse potential. Demonstration of actual abuse deterrence in the real world requires further research.

  4. Comparison of the Effect of Aloe Vera Gel and Nitrofurazone 2% on Epithelialization and Granulation Tissue Formation Regarding Superficial Second-Degree Burns

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Parichehr Sabaghzade; Varaie, Shokoh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in burn wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in wound care. Aloe Vera is an herbal medicine, which has wound healing effects on chronic wound. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effect of Aloe Vera gel and nitrofurazone 2% on epithelialization and granulation tissue formation with respect to superficial second-degree burns. Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial and the sampling method was used based on pre-defined inclusion criteria. The sample size was 30 patients that were admitted to Kerman burn center, including patients that had superficial burn in the symmetry limb, who were chosen based on depth burn and the qualifications needed for the study. One part of the burned area was dressed using ointment nitrofurazone 2% (according to routine care in the hospital) and the symmetry part was dressed using Aloe Vera gel. The tools for data collection included a demographic questionnaire, tools of bats-joints for checking epithelialization and granulation tissue. The burn wound epithelialization and granulation at the beginning of patient’s admission and the first, second and third weeks after dressing were assessed and recorded. Results: In patients treated with Aloe Vera gel, epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn wounds were remarkably earlier than those patients treated with nitrofurazone 2% (P<0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Aloe Vera gel enhanced epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn wounds in superficial second-degree burn patients better than nitrofurazone 2%. The mechanism of the remarkable efficacy of Aloe Vera gel in the epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn injuries may be explained by its hydrocolloid and moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27516662

  5. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in aloe vera plant extract prepared by a hydrothermal method and their synergistic antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Phromviyo, Nutthakritta; Boueroy, Parichart; Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2016-01-01

    Background There is worldwide interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by various chemical reactions for use in applications exploiting their antibacterial activity, even though these processes exhibit a broad range of toxicity in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. To avoid the chemical toxicity, biosynthesis (green synthesis) of metal nanoparticles is proposed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative. Aloe vera leaf extract is a medicinal agent with multiple properties including an antibacterial effect. Moreover the constituents of aloe vera leaves include lignin, hemicellulose, and pectins which can be used in the reduction of silver ions to produce as AgNPs@aloe vera (AgNPs@AV) with antibacterial activity. Methods AgNPs were prepared by an eco-friendly hydrothermal method using an aloe vera plant extract solution as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs@AV were characterized using XRD and SEM. Additionally, an agar well diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. MIC and MBC were used to correlate the concentration of AgNPs@AV its bactericidal effect. SEM was used to investigate bacterial inactivation. Then the toxicity with human cells was investigated using an MTT assay. Results The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline with sizes of 70.70 ± 22-192.02 ± 53 nm as revealed using XRD and SEM. The sizes of AgNPs can be varied through alteration of times and temperatures used in their synthesis. These AgNPs were investigated for potential use as an antibacterial agent to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Their antibacterial activity was tested on S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. The results showed that AgNPs had a high antibacterial which depended on their synthesis conditions, particularly when processed at 100 oC for 6 h and 200 oC for 12 h. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was determined using human PBMCs revealing no obvious cytotoxicity. These results indicated that AgNPs@AV can be effectively utilized in

  7. Fusion of HJ1B and ALOS PALSAR data for land cover classification using machine learning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Guo, Y. G.; He, J.; Du, L. T.

    2016-10-01

    Image classification from remote sensing is becoming increasingly urgent for monitoring environmental changes. Exploring effective algorithms to increase classification accuracy is critical. This paper explores the use of multispectral HJ1B and ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR L-band (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) for land cover classification using learning-based algorithms. Pixel-based and object-based image analysis approaches for classifying HJ1B data and the HJ1B and ALOS/PALSAR fused-images were compared using two machine learning algorithms, support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), to test which algorithm can achieve the best classification accuracy in arid and semiarid regions. The overall accuracies of the pixel-based (Fused data: 79.0%; HJ1B data: 81.46%) and object-based classifications (Fused data: 80.0%; HJ1B data: 76.9%) were relatively close when using the SVM classifier. The pixel-based classification achieved a high overall accuracy (85.5%) using the RF algorithm for classifying the fused data, whereas the RF classifier using the object-based image analysis produced a lower overall accuracy (70.2%). The study demonstrates that the pixel-based classification utilized fewer variables and performed relatively better than the object-based classification using HJ1B imagery and the fused data. Generally, the integration of the HJ1B and ALOS/PALSAR imagery can improve the overall accuracy of 5.7% using the pixel-based image analysis and RF classifier.

  8. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  9. AlO x /LiF composite protection layer for Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 quantum anomalous Hall films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yunbo; Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Hao, Zhenqi; Zhang, Liguo; Liu, Chang; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun

    2016-08-01

    We have realized robust quantum anomalous Hall samples by protecting Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 topological insulator films with a combination of LiF and AlO x capping layers. The AlO x /LiF composite capping layer well keeps the quantum anomalous Hall states of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films and effectively prevent them from degradation induced by ambient conditions. The progress is a key step towards the realization of the quantum phenomena in heterostructures and devices based on quantum anomalous Hall system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11325421).

  10. Radar data sensitivity to crops using TerraSAR-X, Radarsat-2 and Alos satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieuzal, R.; Baup, F.; Marais-Sicre, C.

    2012-04-01

    In a changing climate context, the understanding of the different processes involved in the surface-atmosphere interactions in anthropized area is fundamental. On agricultural ecosystems, this issue is reinforced by the obligation to combine sufficient productivity and durability of the resources from local to regional scales. The objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of multi-frequency (at X-, C- and L-bands) and multi-polarization (HH, VV, HV and VH at C-band) radar backscatter signatures during the growing season (i.e. from sowing to harvest) of different crops (e.g. corn, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and wheat). Optical data are used as references for the analyses. The study is in the framework of the MCM'10 experiment (http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/fr/mcm.html), carried out over an agricultural area located in the South West of France, in Midi-Pyrénées region. The aim of the experiment is to improve knowledge on agrosystems functioning, combining ground measurements and high resolution satellite images acquired in optical, thermal and radar domains. In microwave domain acquisitions are performed quasi-synchronously by TerraSAR-X, Radarsat-2 and Alos. Optical images are acquired by Formosat-2 and Spot 4/5 satellites. In addition to meteorological stations, ground measurements are collected the closest to each satellite acquisitions. They consist in qualitative (e.g. observations upon land use, agricultural practices…) and quantitative (e.g. crop height, crop biomass…) measurements. Overview of the experiment is given in Baup et al., 2012 presented in this conference. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) are computed from optical data. Backscattering coefficients are derived from microwave data following different steps: (i) a radiometric calibration is applied, (ii) all images are geo-referenced using aerial ortho-photos, (iii) an angular correction is performed at X- and C-bands (at L

  11. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp.

    PubMed

    Ni, Y; Turner, D; Yates, K M; Tizard, I

    2004-12-20

    The clear pulp, also known as inner gel, of Aloe vera L. leaf is widely used in various medical, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. Many beneficial effects of this plant have been attributed to the polysaccharides present in the pulp. However, discrepancies exist regarding the composition of pulp polysaccharide species and an understanding of pulp structure in relation to its chemical composition has been lacking. Thus, we examined pulp structure, isolated structural components and determined their carbohydrate compositions along with analyzing a partially purified pulp-based product (Acemannan hydrogel) used to make Carrisyn hydrogel wound dressing. Light and electron microscopy showed that the pulp consisted of large clear mesophyll cells with a diameter as large as 1000 microm. These cells were composed of cell walls and cell membranes along with a very limited number of degenerated cellular organelles. No intact cellular organelles were found in mesophyll cells. Following disruption of pulp by homogenization, three components were isolated by sequential centrifugation. They were thin clear sheets, microparticles and a viscous liquid gel, which corresponded to cell wall, degenerated cellular organelles and liquid content of mesophyll cells based on morphological and chemical analysis. These three components accounted for 16.2% (+/-3.8), 0.70% (+/-0) and 83.1% of the pulp on a dry weight basis. The carbohydrate composition of each component was distinct; liquid gel contained mannan, microparticles contained galactose-rich polysaccharide(s) and cell walls contained an unusually high level of galacturonic acid (34%, w/w; Gal A). The same three components were also found in Acemannan Hydrogel with mannan as the predominant component. Thus, different pulp structural components are associated with different polysaccharides and thus may potentially be different functionally. These findings may help lay a basis for further studies and development of better

  12. Land Subsidence in and around Bangkok area using ALOS/PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Mio, A.; Saito, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The metropolitan area of Bangkok, Thailand, has been subsided during the past decades. To effectively monitor, assess, and manage this ground deformation on various time scales and over broad areas, understanding these processes is of critical importance. This ground deformation has been monitored using leveling surveys since 1978 and InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis. These results show that the Bangkok metropolitan city is subsiding with a rate of -20 mm/year in recent years, due to the law limiting groundwater pumping since the late 1980s, although in 1981 the highest subsidence rate up to 120 mm/year had been recorded in the eastern area [Phien-wej et al., 2006]. However, these studies were focused in the Bangkok metropolitan city using C-band satellites images. In this study, we applied the method of measuring long-term land subsidence by Differential InSAR and InSAR time series analysis using ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired between 2007 and 2010 to investigate ground deformation in and around Bangkok area. The ground deformation were detected both near the Chao Phraya river and the Tha Chin river, which is a distributary of the Chao Phraya river and flows westerly from the Chao Phraya through the central plains of Thailand until it mouths into the Gulf of Thailand. We compared our results with previous leveling and InSAR studies to find an overall consistency in the deformation estimates. The deformation rates have been monitored, with velocity a maximum rate of about -20 mm/year, and showed consistent with previous studies (e.g., Aobpaet et al., 2009). These results verify the validity of the method and data used.

  13. Sensitivity of ALOS/PALSAR imagery to forest degradation by fire in northern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Flora da Silva Ramos Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Xaud, Haron Abrahim Magalhães

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the full polarimetric Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), to forest degradation caused by fires in northern Amazon, Brazil. We searched for changes in PALSAR signal and tri-dimensional polarimetric responses for different classes of fire disturbance defined by fire frequency and severity. Since the aboveground biomass (AGB) is affected by fire, multiple regression models to estimate AGB were obtained for the whole set of coherent and incoherent attributes (general model) and for each set separately (specific models). The results showed that the polarimetric L-band PALSAR attributes were sensitive to variations in canopy structure and AGB caused by forest fire. However, except for the unburned and thrice burned classes, no single PALSAR attribute was able to discriminate between the intermediate classes of forest degradation by fire. Both the coherent and incoherent polarimetric attributes were important to explain AGB variations in tropical forests affected by fire. The HV backscattering coefficient, anisotropy, double-bounce component, orientation angle, volume index and HH-VV phase difference were PALSAR attributes selected from multiple regression analysis to estimate AGB. The general regression model, combining phase and power radar metrics, presented better results than specific models using coherent or incoherent attributes. The polarimetric responses indicated the dominance of VV-oriented backscattering in primary forest and lightly burned forests. The HH-oriented backscattering predominated in heavily and frequently burned forests. The results suggested a greater contribution of horizontally arranged constituents such as fallen trunks or branches in areas severely affected by fire.

  14. Detection and characterizacion of Colombian wetlands using Alos Palsar and MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupinan-Suarez, L. M.; Florez-Ayala, C.; Quinones, M. J.; Pacheco, A. M.; Santos, A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands regulate the flow of water and play a key role in risk management of extreme flooding and drought. In Colombia, wetland conservation has been a priority for the government. However, there is an information gap neither an inventory nor a national baseline map exists. In this paper, we present a method that combines a wetlands thematic map with remote sensing derived data, and hydrometeorological stations data in order to characterize the Colombian wetlands. Following the adopted definition of wetlands, available spatial data on land forms, soils and vegetation was integrated in order to characterize spatially the occurrence of wetlands. This data was then complemented with remote sensing derived data from active and passive sensors. A flood frequency map derived from dense time series analysis of the ALOS PALSAR FBD /FBS data (2007-2010) at 50m resolution was used to analyse the recurrence of flooding. In this map, flooding under the canopy and open water classes could be mapped due to the capabilities of the L-band radar. In addition, MODIS NDVI profiles (2007-2012) were used to characterize temporally water mirrors and vegetation, founding different patterns at basin levels. Moreover, the Colombian main basins were analysed and typified based on hydroperiods, highlighting different hydrological regimes within each basin. The combination of thematic maps, SAR data, optical imagery and hydrological data provided information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of wetlands at regional scales. Our results provide the first validated baseline wetland map for Colombia, this way providing valuable information for ecosystem management.

  15. The effect of an aloe polymannose multinutrient complex on cognitive and immune functioning in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John E; McDaniel, H Reginald; Agronin, Marc E; Loewenstein, David A; Riveros, Jorge; Mestre, Rafael; Martinez, Mairelys; Colina, Niurka; Abreu, Dahlia; Konefal, Janet; Woolger, Judi M; Ali, Karriem H

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading killer of Americans, imparts a significant toll on the quality of life of the patient and primary caregiver, and results in inordinate costs in an already overburdened medical system. Prior studies on cholinesterase inhibitors among AD patients have shown minimal amelioration of disease symptoms and/or restoration of lost cognitive functioning. The effect of improved nutrition, particularly with dietary supplements, on cognitive functioning may offer an alternative strategy compared to standard treatment. The present pilot study investigated the effect of an aloe polymannose multinutrient complex (APMC) formula on cognitive and immune functioning over 12 months among adults diagnosed with AD. Subjects participated in an open-label trial and consumed 4 teaspoons per day of the APMC. The ADAS-cog, MMSE, ADCS-ADL, and SIB were administered at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up. Cytokines and lymphocyte and monocyte subsets were assessed at baseline and 12 months. The mean ADAS-cog cognition score significantly improved at 9 and 12 months from baseline, and 46% of our sample showed clinically-significant improvement (≥4-point change) from baseline to 12 months. Participants showed significant decreases in tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukins-2 and-4. CD90+, CD95+CD3+, CD95+CD34+, CD95+CD90+, CD14+CD34+, CD14+CD90+, and CD14+CD95+ decreased significantly, whereas CD14+ significantly increased. Participants tolerated the APMC supplement with few, temporary adverse reactions. Our results showed improvements in both clinical and physiological outcomes for a disease that otherwise has no standard ameliorative remedy.

  16. Aloe vera gel facilitates re-epithelialization of corneal alkali burn in normal and diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Atiba, Ayman; Wasfy, Tamer; Abdo, Walied; Ghoneim, Ahmed; Kamal, Tarek; Shukry, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of topical applied aloe vera (AV) and to facilitate the repair of the standardized alkaline corneal ulcer in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and methods The corneal alkali-burn injury model was established unilaterally in Wistar rats by filter paper saturated with 0.01 M NaOH contacting the eyes for 45 seconds. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal AV (NAV), diabetic control (DC), and diabetic AV (DAV). NAV and DAV groups were treated with AV gel eye drops four times daily, and NC and DC groups were treated with normal saline for 3 days. Corneal epithelial wound closure and degree of edema were recorded using slit lamp and optical coherence tomography at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours postwounding. Histological examination was conducted to evaluate the degree of inflammation and the healing effect. Results Corneal epithelial wound healing was better in the NAV group than in the NC group, and it was significantly higher in the DAV group than in the DC group (P<0.05). In comparison to the DC group, DAV treated with AV demonstrated a marked reduction in edema at 48 and 72 hours. Histologically, corneal re-epithelialization was complete and higher in DAV group than that in DC group; moreover, the inflammatory cells were increased in DC group than DAV group (P<0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated the efficacy of AV for enhanced corneal re-epithelialization, as well as reduced inflammatory response after alkali burn in rats; therefore, it could be useful as a therapy for diabetic keratopathy. PMID:26604672

  17. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Scarbrough, Kirk A.; Powell, Richard B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Huberty, Brian; Jenkins, Liza K.; Banda, Elizabeth C.; Galbraith, David M.; Laubach, Zachary M.; Riordan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The invasive variety of Phragmites australis (common reed) forms dense stands that can cause negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands including habitat degradation and reduced biological diversity. Early treatment is key to controlling Phragmites, therefore a map of the current distribution is needed. ALOS PALSAR imagery was used to produce the first basin-wide distribution map showing the extent of large, dense invasive Phragmites-dominated habitats in wetlands and other coastal ecosystems along the U.S. shore of the Great Lakes. PALSAR is a satellite imaging radar sensor that is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the detection and delineation of these tall (up to 5 m), high density, high biomass invasive Phragmites stands. Classification was based on multi-season ALOS PALSAR L-band (23 cm wavelength) HH and HV polarization data. Seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) datasets were used to improve discrimination of Phragmites by taking advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Extensive field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in 2010–2011 to aid in mapping and for accuracy assessments. Overall basin-wide map accuracy was 87%, with 86% producer's accuracy and 43% user's accuracy for invasive Phragmites. The invasive Phragmites maps are being used to identify major environmental drivers of this invader's distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool.

  18. Postharvest sour cherry quality and safety maintenance by exposure to Hot- water or treatment with fresh Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Rahele; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Maftoonazad, Neda

    2014-10-01

    Iranian sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were coated with fresh Aloe vera gel or treated with hot water (40 ± 2 °C) for 2 min and stored for 17 days at 4 ± 1 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of gel coated and hot water treated samples were compared with untreated fruit during the cold storage period. Untreated fruit showed increased respiration rate, rapid weight loss and colour change, accelerated aging and ripening. On the contrary, sour cherries, particularly those coated with gel significantly delayed the above mentioned parameters allowing a fruit storability extension. The sensory analysis in both treatments revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying dehydration, maintenance of fruit visual aspect without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma or flavours. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating and immersion in hot water maintained the properties during postharvest storage of sour cherries and could be introduced as two valuable, simple and non-contaminating treatments. PMID:25328241

  19. Development of novel wound care systems based on nanosilver nanohydrogels of polymethacrylic acid with Aloe vera and curcumin.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Sadiya; Gupta, Amlan; Sharma, Deepika; Gautam, Deepti; Bhan, Surya; Sharma, Anupama; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at the development of a composite material for wound dressing containing nanosilver nanohydrogels (nSnH) along with Aloe vera and curcumin that promote antimicrobial nature, wound healing and infection control. Nanosliver nanohydrogels were synthesized by nanoemulsion polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) followed by subsequent crosslinking and silver reduction under irradiation. Both the polymerization and irradiation time had significant influence on the nanoparticle shape, size and its formation. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose matrix was used as gel system to blend with nSnH, A. vera, curcumin and coat it on the hydrolysed PET fabric to develop antimicrobial dressings. The cumulative release of silver from the dressing was found to be ~42% of the total loading after 48h. The antimicrobial activity of the dressings was studied against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vivo wound healing studies were carried out over a period of 16d on full-thickness skin wounds created on Swiss albino mice. Fast healing was observed in Gel/nSnH/Aloe treated wounds with minimum scarring, as compared to other groups. The histological studies showed A. vera based dressings to be the most optimum one. These results suggest that nSnH along with A. vera based dressing material could be promising candidates for wound dressings.

  20. Estimation of Damaged Areas due to the 2010 Chile Earthquake and Tsunami Using SAR Imagery of Alos/palsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Made, Pertiwi Jaya Ni; Miura, Fusanori; Besse Rimba, A.

    2016-06-01

    A large-scale earthquake and tsunami affect thousands of people and cause serious damages worldwide every year. Quick observation of the disaster damage is extremely important for planning effective rescue operations. In the past, acquiring damage information was limited to only field surveys or using aerial photographs. In the last decade, space-borne images were used in many disaster researches, such as tsunami damage detection. In this study, SAR data of ALOS/PALSAR satellite images were used to estimate tsunami damage in the form of inundation areas in Talcahuano, the area near the epicentre of the 2010 Chile earthquake. The image processing consisted of three stages, i.e. pre-processing, analysis processing, and post-processing. It was conducted using multi-temporal images before and after the disaster. In the analysis processing, inundation areas were extracted through the masking processing. It consisted of water masking using a high-resolution optical image of ALOS/AVNIR-2 and elevation masking which built upon the inundation height using DEM image of ASTER-GDEM. The area result was 8.77 Km2. It showed a good result and corresponded to the inundation map of Talcahuano. Future study in another area is needed in order to strengthen the estimation processing method.

  1. Development of novel wound care systems based on nanosilver nanohydrogels of polymethacrylic acid with Aloe vera and curcumin.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Sadiya; Gupta, Amlan; Sharma, Deepika; Gautam, Deepti; Bhan, Surya; Sharma, Anupama; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at the development of a composite material for wound dressing containing nanosilver nanohydrogels (nSnH) along with Aloe vera and curcumin that promote antimicrobial nature, wound healing and infection control. Nanosliver nanohydrogels were synthesized by nanoemulsion polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) followed by subsequent crosslinking and silver reduction under irradiation. Both the polymerization and irradiation time had significant influence on the nanoparticle shape, size and its formation. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose matrix was used as gel system to blend with nSnH, A. vera, curcumin and coat it on the hydrolysed PET fabric to develop antimicrobial dressings. The cumulative release of silver from the dressing was found to be ~42% of the total loading after 48h. The antimicrobial activity of the dressings was studied against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vivo wound healing studies were carried out over a period of 16d on full-thickness skin wounds created on Swiss albino mice. Fast healing was observed in Gel/nSnH/Aloe treated wounds with minimum scarring, as compared to other groups. The histological studies showed A. vera based dressings to be the most optimum one. These results suggest that nSnH along with A. vera based dressing material could be promising candidates for wound dressings. PMID:27127040

  2. Arizona Department of Water Resources use of ALOS Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to Identify Areas of Land Subsidence in Southeastern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been collecting, processing, and analyzing Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data since 2005. The Alaska Satellite Facility's Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) has provided ADWR's InSAR program with the necessary data to identify new land subsidence features in Southeastern Arizona within Cochise County. ADWR has used the ALOS InSAR data in conjunction with ADWR groundwater level data to better understand the groundwater conditions in relation to the current land subsidence data and attempt to better understand the complex basin hydrology of the area. ADWR and the Arizona Geological Survey (AZGS) have used the ALOS InSAR data to also identify areas where conditions may exist for earth fissure formation. Further ground investigations by the AZGS have revealed unmapped earth fissures in potential earth fissure risk areas identified by ALOS InSAR data. Previously mapped earth fissures by the AZGS also fall within some of these earth fissure risk areas.

  3. Analysis of Land Covers over Northern Peninsular Malaysia by Using ALOS-PALSAR Data Based on Frequency-Based Contextual and Neural Network Classification Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.

    2008-11-01

    Optical and microwave remote sensing data have been widely used in land cover and land use classification. Optical satellite remote sensing methods are more appropriate but require cloud-free conditions for data to be useful especially at Equatorial region. In Equatorial region cloud free acquisitions can be rare reducing these sensors' applicability to such studies. ALOS-PALSAR data can be acquired day and night irrespective of weather conditions. This paper presents a comparison between frequency-based contextual and neural network classification technique by using ALOS-PALSAR data for land cover assessment in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. The ALOS-PALSAR data acquired on 10 November 2006 were converted to vegetation, urban, water and other land features. The PALSAR data of training areas were choose and selected based on the optical satellite imagery and were classified using supervised classification methods. Supervised classification techniques were used in the classification analysis. The best supervised classifier was chosen based on the highest overall accuracy and Kappa statistic. Based on the result produced by this study, it can be pointed out the utility of ALOS-PALSAR data as an alternative data source for land cover classification in the Peninsular Malaysia.

  4. Formation of Circumstellar Dust Around an Oxygen-Rich AGB Star W Hya: AlO and SiO Observations with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, A.; Kamizuka, T.; Tachibana, S.; Yamamura, I.

    2016-08-01

    In order to understand the formation of circumstellar dust and the origin of presolar grains, we observed spatial distributions of AlO and SiO molecules around an oxygen-rich AGB star, W Hya, with ALMA (cycle 3).

  5. Effects of Aloe vera cream on chronic anal fissure pain, wound healing and hemorrhaging upon defection: a prospective double blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, N; Khademloo, M; Vosoughi, K; Assadpour, S

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that promotes wound healing in burn injuries. A prospective clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a topical cream containing 0.5% Aloe vera juice powder in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. The aloe cream was applied by the patients to the wound site 3 times per day for 6 weeks following the instructions of a physician. Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale before treatment and at the end of each week of treatment. Wound healing and the amount and severity of bleeding were examined and evaluated before and at the end of each week of treatment. There were statistically significant differences in chronic anal fissure pain, hemorrhaging upon defection and wound healing before and at the end of the first week of treatment also in comparison with control group (p < 0.0001). In this study, a topical cream containing aloe vera juice was an effective treatment for chronic anal fissures. This is a promising result indicating that further comparative studies are justified.

  6. Scattering Properties of Greenland Ice Sheets Inferred from ALOS L-band InSAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. C.; Zebker, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is 2000 kilometers long and has a maximum thickness of over 3000 meters. It contains around ten percent of the fresh water on Earth. As both a reservoir of water and a heat sink for the Gulf Stream, it plays an important role in the Earth's climate and sea level. Therefore accurate assessments of the Greenland ice sheet's mass balance are essential for understanding global climate change and sea level. Measurements of ice scattering properties in the dry snow zone can contribute to our understanding of accumulation rates, which tend to be harder to measure than loss rates. In this study we examine data acquired by the PALSAR L-band (23.61 centimeter carrier wavelength) InSAR instrument aboard the ALOS satellite. We generate polarimetric InSAR images of two long strips of the Greenland ice sheet extending from the inner dry snow zone through the percolation and wet snow zones to the northern coastline, a total distance of about 700 kilometers. The single-look resolution is around 10 meters, and there is a temporal baseline of 46 days, and spatial baselines range from about 150 to 350 meters. We have demonstrated that the resulting geocoded differential interferograms can have high coherence (0.5 up to 0.9) in large regions of the dry snow zone, and that corrections can be made to recover coherence that is lost due to ionospheric inhomogeneity. We have also estimated radar penetration depths of 50 to 90 meters in the dry snow zone, though estimated penetration depth also depends on polarization. We apply phase and radiometric calibration to the data products generated by our SAR processor, incorporating calibration results published by JAXA. This allows us to estimate radar backscatter brightness (sigma0) and to make an estimated correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation effects in order to accurately measure polarimetric parameters. In general, the backscatter brightness in co-polarized SLC images is about 5 dB higher than in cross

  7. Blow me down: A new perspective on Aloe dichotoma mortality from windthrow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Windthrow, the uprooting of trees during storms associated with strong winds, is a well-established cause of mortality in temperate regions of the world, often with large ecological consequences. However, this phenomenon has received little attention within arid regions and is not well documented in southern Africa. Slow rates of post-disturbance recovery and projected increases in extreme weather events in arid areas mean that windthrow could be more common and have bigger impacts on these ecosystems in the future. This is of concern due to slow rates of post-disturbance recovery in arid systems and projected increases in extreme weather events in these areas. This study investigated the spatial pattern, magnitude and likely causes of windthrown mortality in relation to other forms of mortality in Aloe dichotoma, an iconic arid-adapted arborescent succulent and southern Africa climate change indicator species. Results We found that windthrown mortality was greatest within the equatorward summer rainfall zone (SRZ) of its distribution (mean = 31%, n = 11), and was derived almost exclusively from the larger adult age class. A logistic modelling exercise indicated that windthrown mortality was strongly associated with greater amounts of warm season (summer) rainfall in the SRZ, higher wind speeds, and leptosols. A statistically significant interaction term between higher summer rainfall and wind speeds further increased the odds of being windthrown. While these results would benefit from improvements in the resolution of wind and substrate data, they do support the hypothesised mechanism for windthrow in A. dichotoma. This involves powerful storm gusts associated with either the current or subsequent rainfall event, heavy convective rainfall, and an associated increase in soil malleability. Shallow rooting depths in gravel-rich soils and an inflexible, top-heavy canopy structure make individuals especially prone to windthrown mortality during

  8. Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyi; Liu, Wen; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tieyun; Tian, Haoming

    2016-06-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: -30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -54.87 to -5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: -0.41%; 95% CI: -0.55% to -0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue.

  9. Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyi; Liu, Wen; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tieyun; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: -30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -54.87 to -5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: -0.41%; 95% CI: -0.55% to -0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue. PMID:27347994

  10. Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Liu, Wen; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tieyun; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: −30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −54.87 to −5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: −0.41%; 95% CI: −0.55% to −0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue. PMID:27347994

  11. Aloe arborescens Extract Protects IMR-32 Cells against Alzheimer Amyloid Beta Peptide via Inhibition of Radical Peroxide Production.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Tringali, Giuseppe; Triggiani, Doriana; Giardina, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. Besides, it is well known to have beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. In this study, we first provided evidence that A. arborescens extract protects IMR32, a neuroblastoma human cellular line, from toxicity induced by beta amyloid, the peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease. In particular, pretreatment with A. arborescens maintains an elevated cell viability and exerts a protective effect on mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by oxygen consumption experiments. The protective mechanism exerted by A. arborescens seems be related to lowering of oxidative potential of the cells, as demonstrated by the ROS measurement compared with the results obtained in the presence of amyloid beta (1-42) peptide alone. Based on these preliminary observations we suggest that use ofA. arborescens extract could be developed as agents for the management of AD. PMID:26749845

  12. Theoretical study of the AlO blue-green (B2Sigma + - X2Sigma +) band system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Langhoff, S. R.; Lengsfield, B. H., III; Liu, B.

    1983-01-01

    Two independent, extensive theoretical calculations are reported for the relative band strengths of the AlO (B2Sigma + - X2Sigma +) blue-green system and for the radiative lifetimes of the lowest few vibrational levels of the B2Sigma(+) state. The theoretical lifetimes, which include a small (less than -.5 percent) contribution from bound-bound transitions into the A2Pi state, are in excellent agreement with laser fluorescence studies. The theoretical lifetimes increase monotonically and very slowly with increasing vibrational quantum number. The relative band strengths for the blue-green system derived from the two theoretical calculations are in excellent agreement, but differ systematically from the relative band strengths of Linton and Nicholls (1969). The present results suggest that their self-absorption corrections are not large enough, resulting in relative intensities that are too large, especially for the weak bands with r centroids less than 1.5 A.

  13. Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?

    PubMed

    Moody, J O; Adebiyi, O A; Adeniyi, B A

    2004-05-01

    The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial and fungal test organisms.

  14. Aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Thomas, Chunpen; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(C5H8O2)3) and aloe vera plant-extracted solution. The influences of different reaction temperatures and times on the structure and magnetic properties of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline and have particle sizes of ˜6-30 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution TEM (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicate that the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the inverse cubic spinel structure without the presence of any other phase impurities. The hysteresis loops of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles at room temperature show superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 samples increases with increasing reaction temperature and time.

  15. An Approach to Monitoring Mangrove Extents Through Time-Series Comparison of JERS-1 SAR and ALOS PALSAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Nathan; Lucas, Richard; Itoh, Takuya; Simard, Marc; Fatoyinbo, Lucas; Bunting, Peter; Rosenqvist, Ake

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2010, Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Arrayed L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) captured dual polarization HH and HV data across the tropics and sub-tropics. A pan tropical dataset of Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) SAR (HH) data was also acquired between 1995 and 1998. The provision of these comparable cloud-free datasets provided an opportunity for observing changes in the extent of coastal mangroves over more than a decade. Focusing on nine sites distributed through the tropics, this paper demonstrates how these data can be used to backdate and update existing baseline maps of mangrove extent. The benefits of integrating dense timeseries of Landsat sensor data for both validating assessments of change and determining the causes of change are outlined. The approach is evaluated for wider application across the geographical range of mangroves in order to advance the development of JAXA's Global Mangrove Watch (GMW) program.

  16. Volcano Deformation and Modeling on Active Volcanoes in the Philippines from ALOS InSAR Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Rivera, Anieri M.; Amelung, Falk; Eco, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Bulusan, Kanlaon, and Mayon volcanoes have erupted over the last decade, and Taal caldera showed signs of volcanic unrest within the same time range. Eruptions at these volcanoes are a threat to human life and infrastructure, having over 1,000,000 people living within 10 km from just these 4 volcanic centers. For this reason, volcano monitoring in the Philippines is of extreme importance. We use the ALOS-1 satellite from the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to make an InSAR time series analysis over Bulusan, Kanlaon, Mayon, and Taal volcanoes for the 2007-2011 period. Time-dependent deformation was detected at all of the volcanoes. Deformation related to changes in pressurization of the volcanic systems was found on Taal caldera and Bulusan volcanoes, with best fitting Mogi sources located at half-space depths of 3.07 km and 0.5 km respectively.

  17. Structural characterization and solution properties of a galacturonate polysaccharide derived from Aloe vera capable of in situ gelation.

    PubMed

    McConaughy, Shawn D; Stroud, Paul A; Boudreaux, Brent; Hester, Roger D; McCormick, Charles L

    2008-02-01

    A series of highly purified galacturonate polysaccharides have been extracted from the Aloe vera plant and analyzed in terms of chemical composition and molecular weight. This Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been found to exist as a high molecular weight species and possess a unique chemical composition, including a high galacturonic acid (GalA) content and low degree of methyl ester substitution. These factors facilitate gel formation upon exposure to low concentrations of calcium ions, leading to potential application in formulations designed for in situ nasal or subcutaneous protein delivery. Thorough examination of classic dilute solution properties, the [eta]-M(w), and R(g)-M(w) relationships, persistence length (L(p)), and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter), indicate an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C(e), was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity (eta(o)) and fluorescence emission of the probe molecule 1,8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS) as a function of polymer concentration. Examination of zeta potential and C(e) as a function of ionic strength indicates that the shift in C(e) from 0.60 to 0.30 wt % is related to an increased occurrence of intermolecular interactions at high salt concentrations. Additionally, dynamic rheology data are presented highlighting the ability of AvP to form gels at low polymer and calcium ion concentrations, exemplifying the technological potential of this polysaccharide for in situ drug delivery.

  18. In vitro effect of Aloe vera, Coriandrum sativum and Ricinus communis fractions on Leishmania infantum and on murine monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Fernanda C M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Accioly, Marina P; Morais, Selene M; Andrade-Junior, Heitor F; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Cardoso, Roselaine P A; Almeida, Camila A; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Rodrigues, Ana Caroline M

    2011-06-10

    In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan species Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) and is primarily transmitted through the bite of the female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Its main reservoir in urban areas is the dog. The application of control measures recommended by health agencies have not achieved significant results in reducing the incidence of human cases, and the lack of effective drugs to treat dogs resulted in the prohibition of this course of action in Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to search new alternatives for the treatment of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of fractions from Aloe vera (aloe), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Ricinus communis (castor) on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum and to analyze the toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7. To determine the viability of these substances on 50% parasites (IC50), we used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay (bromide 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium), and on amastigotes we performed an in situ ELISA. All fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the positive control pentamidine (p>0.05). However, the R. communis ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, as well as the C. sativum methanol fraction, were the most effective against amastigotes and did not differ from the positive control amphotericin B (p>0.05). The R. communis ethyl acetate fraction was the least toxic, presenting 83.5% viability of RAW 264.7 cells, which was similar to the results obtained with amphotericin B (p>0.05). Based on these results, we intend to undertake in vivo studies with R. communis ethyl acetate fractions due the high effectiveness against amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum and the low cytotoxicity towards murine monocytic cells.

  19. Comparison of multiple glacier inventories with a new inventory derived from high-resolution ALOS imagery in the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Tadono, T.

    2016-01-01

    Digital glacier inventories are invaluable data sets for revealing the characteristics of glacier distribution and for upscaling measurements from selected locations to entire mountain ranges. Here, we present a new inventory of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) imagery and compare it with existing inventories for the Bhutan Himalaya. The new inventory contains 1583 glaciers (1487 ± 235 km2), thereof 219 debris-covered glaciers (951 ± 193 km2) and 1364 debris-free glaciers (536 ± 42 km2). Moreover, we propose an index for quantifying consistency between two glacier outlines. Comparison of the overlap ratio demonstrates that the ALOS-derived glacier inventory contains delineation uncertainties of 10-20 % which depend on glacier size, that the shapes and geographical locations of glacier outlines derived from the fourth version of the Randolph Glacier Inventory have been improved in the fifth version, and that the latter is consistent with other inventories. In terms of whole glacier distribution, each data set is dominated by glaciers of 1.0-5.0 km2 area (31-34 % of the total area), situated at approximately 5400 m elevation (nearly 10 % in 100 m bin) with either north or south aspects (22 and 15 %). However, individual glacier outlines and their area exhibit clear differences among inventories. Furthermore, consistent separation of glaciers with inconspicuous termini remains difficult, which, in some cases, results in different values for glacier number. High-resolution imagery from Google Earth can be used to improve the interpretation of glacier outlines, particularly for debris-covered areas and steep adjacent slopes.

  20. Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Pyo, Han-Jong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-12-28

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity.

  1. Review of the efficacy of green tea, isoflavones and aloe vera supplements based on randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Gary; Coppens, Patrick; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Dew, Tristan

    2011-12-01

    We assess the evidence for health benefits of three commonly consumed plant food supplements (PFS), green tea, isoflavone and aloe vera, based on published systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Whilst the potential benefits of green tea have been reported in a wide range of health areas, it is only in the area of the metabolic syndrome that the number of RCTs is approaching sufficient to judge such efficacy. Isoflavone supplements are widely used, and RCTs indicate that they affect bone resorption at lower doses in postmenopausal women undergoing estrogen-related bone loss, but this is only translated to attenuation of bone loss at higher doses of isoflavones. A systematic review on RCTs concluded that the effects of isoflavones on hot flashes in postmenopausal women were highly variable and no conclusions could be drawn. Despite the popularity of aloe vera as a PFS, the evaluation of its efficacy as a coadjuvant therapy for certain metabolic or digestive pathologies remains scarce; it constitutes a typical example of a naturally occurring ingredient whose efficacy in topical applications presupposes its efficacy in systemic applications. Nevertheless, its possible toxic effects on oral consumption call for caution in its utility as a PFS. Since 2007, efficacy evaluation of PFS in Europe has been covered by European Union Nutrition and Health Claims legislation. The European Food Safety Authority has adopted an approach relying on RCTs, while medicinal effects are accepted based on traditional use. In general, there are insufficient RCTs for claims to be made, and conclusive results on PFS should be obtained in the future by conducting studies with more homogeneous populations, by using supplements with optimised and measured bioavailability, and by conducting larger RCTs.

  2. Shallow Hydrothermal Pressurization before the 2010 Eruption of Mount Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia, Observed by use of ALOS Satellite Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Pablo J.; Singh, Keshav D.; Tiampo, Kristy F.

    2015-11-01

    Ground deformation in volcanic regions can be a precursor to resumption of activity. Volcanic eruptions are typically brief periods of activity punctuating very long inter-eruptive periods. This makes hazard evaluation a difficult task for volcanoes with low-recurrence eruptive activity, which often are poorly monitored. As a result, analysis of inter-eruptive periods by use of remote sensing techniques can provide important information on precursory activity and improve volcano hazard assessment. In August-September 2010 Mt Sinabung, Indonesia, reawakened after at least 400 years of dormancy. The ground deformation before this eruption was investigated by use of differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar data obtained from Japanese ALOS-PALSAR radar imagery between 05 January 2007 and 31 August 2010. Results from InSAR time series processing detected significant ground deformation (subsidence) at several locations on the Karo plateau, and uplift in the summit area of Mt Sinabung. The persistent scatterers density obtained by use of ALOS data is sufficient to enable extraction of temporal and spatial patterns of the deformation. The surface deformation at the summit can be modeled by using a spherical point-source model. Source data are consistent with a very shallow (hydrothermal) reservoir, with a linear increase in overpressure before the 2010 Mt Sinabung eruption. Hydrothermal origin is consistent with seismicity, tiltmeters, and analysis of ash products collected during and after the 2010 eruption. These results support the potential of L-band interferometry for hazard assessment in poorly monitored and highly vegetated volcanic areas and also indicate that hazard assessment for Indonesian volcanoes could potentially be improved by identification of precursory (inter-eruptive) uplift periods.

  3. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  4. The natural medications for wound healing - Curcumin, Aloe-Vera and Ginger - do not induce a significant effect on the migration kinematics of cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Topman, Gil; Lin, Feng-Huei; Gefen, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, Aloe-vera and Ginger are popular natural medications (NMs) for treating wounds, however, the mechanisms by which these NMs apparently accelerate wound healing remain largely unknown. From a biomechanical perspective, it is specifically unclear whether fibroblast motility improves in the presence of any of these NMs. Here we use our recently developed quantitative high-precision automated assay for cell migration (Topman et al., 2012b) which is based on image processing of time lapse micrographs to determine whether kinematic parameters e.g. the maximum and average migration rates of en mass fibroblast colonies are influenced by treating the cells with the above NMs. We found no evidence that Curcumin, Aloe-vera and Ginger directly influence the en mass fibroblast migration kinematics in vitro post infliction of localized mechanical damage to the cultures. However, due to the complexity of a wound healing process in vivo, these NMs may still influence the healing through other pathways.

  5. Isolation of a new aloe-emodin dianthrone diglucoside from senna and its potentiating effect on the purgative activity of sennoside A in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Yamauchi, K; Kuwano, S

    1985-10-01

    Two aloe-emodin dianthrone diglucosides (I and II) were isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia Vahl by successive column chromatography with Amberlite XAD-2, silica gel, Polyamide C-200 and Sephadex LH-20. The stereostructures of I and II were elucidated as trans and meso isomers at 10-10', respectively, from the patterns of the ultraviolet absorption spectra and circular dichroism curves. This is the first report of isolation of diglucoside I from senna. Despite the lack of purgative activity, diglucoside I exerts a potentiating effect of about 1.3 times on the purgative activity of sennoside A in mice when even 15% is included in the mixture. The difference between I and a third active glycoside based on aloe-emodin is also discussed. PMID:2867138

  6. Modulation of Immune Response of BALB/Mice Bearing Lymphoma L5178Y Treated with Bitter Yellow Juice of Aloe vera (L) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oronzo-Barocio, Arturo; Zaitseva, Galina; Chavez-Anaya, Azucena; Arceta-Gonzalez, Veronika I.; Puebla-Perez, Ana Marija; Alfaro-Bustamante, Fernando; Zimina, Irina V.; Arion, Vitaly Ya.

    1999-04-01

    Aloe vera (L), a plant of African origin, has been introduced in Mexico since XVIth century. It has been used in the treatment of many diseases of immune system. In the present study we investigated a specific and non-specific immune response of BALB/c mice, healthy and immunosuppressed with murine lymphoma L5178Y, treated with bitter yellow juice (extract) of Aloe vera (L). We observed that the immunosuppressed mice, treated with the whole extract of the bitter yellow juice achieved restoration of immunological parameters in cellular immune response and phagocytosis. On the other hand, the humoral immunity was not restored. Also, in the healthy rodents treated with the extract, it caused the stimulation of specific and non-specific responses, the results had significant differences with the obtained ones in untreated mice.

  7. The Effect of Aloe Vera Solution on Chemotherapy-Induced Stomatitis in Clients with Lymphoma and Leukemia: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Parisa; Haghighi, Maryam; Beheshtipour, Noushin; Ramzi, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stomatitis is the most common complication of chemotherapy. This study aimed to assess the effect of aloe vera solution on stomatitis and its pain intensity in patients undergoing chemotherapeutic procedures. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia undergoing chemotherapy were randomly divided into a control and an intervention group. The intervention group patients were asked to wash their mouths with 5 ml of aloe vera solution for two minutes three times a day for 14 days. The control group patients, however, used only the ordinary mouthwashes recommended in hematologic centers. The patients’ mouths were examined by two assistants on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. The intensity of stomatitis was recorded according to WHO stomatitis intensity checklists and pain was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software, version 18. Results: The results showed that aloe vera solution mouthwash significantly reduced the intensity of stomatitis and its pain in the intervention group compared to the control group. On the first day, no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the mean intensity of stomatitis (P=0.178) and pain (P=0.154). However, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in this regard on other days (days 3-14: P=0.001 for stomatitis intensity, P=0.001 for pain). Conclusions: Aloe vera solution can improve the patients’ nutritional status, reduce stomatitis and its pain intensity, and increase the patients’ satisfaction. Trial Registration Number IRCT2014092819318N1 PMID:27218109

  8. Identification of the C 2∏-X 2Σ + band system of AlO in the ultraviolet galvanoluminescence obtained during aluminum anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvan, Mirjana; Perić, Miljenko; Zeković, Ljubiša; Stojadinović, Stevan; Belča, Ivan; Petković, Marija; Kasalica, Bećko

    2011-10-01

    The first galvanoluminescence spectrum in the ultraviolet region obtained during anodization of high purity aluminum samples annealed at temperature above 525 °C is presented. An intense broad peak with the maximum at about 31,900 cm -1 is assigned to the transitions (some of them heretofore unobserved) between vibrational levels of the C 2∏ → X 2Σ + spectral system of AlO, partly overlapped with the A 2Σ + → X 2∏ system of OH.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of commercially available Aloe vera L. products using size exclusion chromatography with refractive index and multi-angle laser light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Turner, Carlton E; Williamson, David A; Stroud, Paul A; Talley, Doug J

    2004-12-20

    Raw materials supplied as Aloe vera L. (sometimes referred to as Aloe barbadensis) samples often contain different composition of low and high molecular weight components when analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. One major reason for variable compositions of commercial A. vera L. materials is that they are produced by different manufacturing techniques. Consistent composition of matter based upon a given standard has been difficult to define. In addition, the method of quantifying and characterization of these commercially available materials has not been agreed upon within the industry. The end user, whether a researcher, a manufacturer, a marketing arm of industry or the consumer, should know that they are receiving a consistent product. A blind study of 32 various A. vera L. samples from different manufacturers, and a prepared sample of fresh A. vera L. gel with the commercial, biologic drug Acemannan Immunostimulanttrade mark, were analyzed for content of high molecular weight (polysaccharides) material by size exclusion chromatography with refractive index detection (SEC/RI) and SEC/RI coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. Results from the SEC/RI analysis showed significant variation in the high molecular weight content, and the MALLS analysis also showed significant variation versus SEC/RI. In addition, HPLC analysis of the anthraquinone content showed that all samples contained significantly less than that of the raw, unwashed aloe gel. The variation of results from all analysis is attributed to differing methods in which the samples were processed by the different manufacturers.

  10. Characterization and spatial distribution of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR mosaic 25m-resolution in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Nakazono, E.; Parwati, E.; Dien, V. T.; Oo, K. S.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate characteristics of mangrove forest types and to identify spatial distribution of mangrove forest based on ALOS PALSAR mosaic 25m- resolution in Southeast Asia. Methodology consists of collecting of ALOS PALSAR image for overall Southeast Asia region, preprocessing include converting DN to NRCS and filtering, collecting regions of interest of mangrove forest in Southeast Asia, plotting, characterization and classification. Result on this research we found characteristics of mangrove forest on HH values around -10.88 dB to -6.65 dB and on HV value around -16.49 dB to -13.26 dB. On polarization of HH which the highest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Preak Piphot River Cambodia, Thái Thủy Thai Binh Vietnam, and Vạn Ninh tp. Móng Cái Quảng Ninh Vietnam whereas the lowest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Thailand area. On polarization of HV which the highest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Preak Piphot River Cambodia, Sorong and Teluk Bintuni Indonesia whereas the lowest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Subang Indonesia, Giao Thiện Giao Thuỷ Nam Định, Vietnam and Puyu Mueng Satun Thailand. Based on characterization, we create a rule criteria for classification of mangrove areas and non mangrove area. Finally we found spatial distribution of mangrove forest based on ALOS PALSAR 25m-resolution in Southeast Asia.

  11. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  12. Safety of purified decolorized (low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L) Burm. f. juice in a 3-month drinking water toxicity study in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, A; Broadmeadow, A; Goddard, G; Bejar, E; Frankos, V

    2013-07-01

    Decolorized (purified, low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. juice was administered at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% in the drinking water of F344Du rats for 3 months without any adverse effect. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in this study was considered to be >2%w/v (>1845 mg/kg bodyweight/day for males and >2920 mg/kg bodyweight for females). The test material contained total anthraquinones at <0.1 parts per million. In the present study there was a complete absence of any histological alteration in samples from the cecum, colon (proximal, mid and distal regions). Similar concentrations of non-decolorized (unpurified, high anthraquinone) Aloe vera extracts tested in other studies have resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea and colon adenomas and carcinomas. The results of this study supports the assertion that the high levels of anthraquinone present in orally administered, non-purified whole leaf Aloe vera extract may be responsible for the adverse effects observed on the colon.

  13. A randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of Aloe Vera and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash efficacy on de-novo plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Chhina, Shivjot; Singh, Avnish; Menon, Ipseeta; Singh, Rickypal; Sharma, Anubhav; Aggarwal, Vartika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group. Conclusions: Herbal mouthwash containing Aloe vera mouthwash has comparable antiplaque efficacy as the gold standard 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate with fewer side effects and can be considered as an alternative. PMID:27382543

  14. Crustal Deformation Caused by an M8.1 Earthquake in the Solomon Islands, Detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Y.; Ozawa, T.; Shimada, M.

    2009-12-01

    On April 1, 2007 (UTC), a large Mw 8.1 interplate earthquake occurred in the Solomon Islands subduction zone where Pacific, Australian, Solomon Sea, and Woodlark Plates produce complicated tectonics. This earthquake was accompanied by a large tsunami and caused considerable damage in the epicentral area. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) performed emergency observations using the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). A remote-sensing technique has the advantage of being able to observe and monitor a disaster in a remote location like the Solomon Islands that is difficult to access and receives few geophysical observations. Especially the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Rader (PALSAR) can observe the target and get high coherence even under cloudy conditions in heavily-vegetated tropical region. We applied Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using data from the PALSAR installed on ALOS, and detected significant crustal deformation over wide area associated with the earthquake. Then we inverted the geodetic information from DInSAR result jointly with the field investigation data (Tomita et al., 2008), and estimated a slip distribution on the inferred seismic fault (Miyagi et al., 2009). The modeling result shows large slip areas around the hypocenter and the centroid, and the estimated slip pattern was corresponding to those deduced from teleseismic data (e.g. Yagi, 2007). It can be interpreted that the large slip area around the centroid is consistent with a strong coupling area due to a subduction of the plate boundary between the Woodlark and Australian plates, and that the small slip area is consistent with the weak coupling area under the Simbo Island caused by thermal activities related to volcanic activity of Simbo Island. The 2007 earthquake occurred in the area where has occurred no M7- or larger-sized earthquake since 1970. Although a part of the seismic gap was filled in the 2007 events, small seismic gap

  15. Transient Surface Deformation of Northern Taiwan, 2007-2011, Using Persistent Scattered InSAR with ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Chang, W.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Taipei basin, triangular in shape and located in the northern Taiwan, is now developed into the most densely populated area and also the capital of politics and economics in Taiwan. North of the Taipei basin, the Tatun volcano group was proposed to be the cause of extensional collapse during the Pleistocene following the collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the Eurasian continental margin at about 5 Ma. We investigated the contemporary surface deformation of the northern Taiwan using ALOS images that cover the Taipei basin and its surrounding mountainous area. The Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique has been widely used in the past ten years. However, the mountainous areas surrounding the basin are mostly covered with densely various vegetations that reduce signal-to-noise ratio in the interferograms. Therefore, the DInSAR technique is not effective for measuring the surface deformation in and around the Taipei basin, including the Tatun volcano area, and consequently the Persistent Scatterer (PS) and small baseline (SB) InSAR techniques have been employed to extract phase signals of the chosen PS points. In this study, we aim to measure the ground deformation of northern Taiwan by processing the spaceborne radar interferometry data of ALOS acquired from 2007 to 2011 using PSInSAR and SBInSAR techniques. Compared with the Envisat and ERS images used by previous studies, L-band PALSAR images can produce more PS points in the region covered by dense vegetation so that our results reveal a higher resolution of ground deformation. The mean Line of Sight (LOS) velocity field of up to 8 mm/yr in the central Tatun volcanic area, and up to 5 mm/yr in the Taipei basin with higher rate at the hanging wall of the Sanchiao fault than the footwall. (See the Figure.) While previous studies indicated that the Taipei basin had experienced ground uplift from 1993 to 2001 and subsidence from 2003 to 2008, our results show a return to

  16. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  17. Random Forest Classification of Sediments on Exposed Intertidal Flats Using ALOS-2 Quad-Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Yang, X.; Liu, G.; Zhou, H.; Ma, W.; Yu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are one of the world's most densely populated areas and it is necessary to propose an accurate, cost effective, frequent, and synoptic method of monitoring these complex ecosystems. However, misclassification of sediments on exposed intertidal flats restricts the development of coastal zones surveillance. With the advent of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellites, polarimetric SAR satellite imagery plays an increasingly important role in monitoring changes in coastal wetland. This research investigated the necessity of combining SAR polarimetric features with optical data, and their contribution in accurately sediment classification. Three experimental groups were set to make assessment of the most appropriate descriptors. (i) Several SAR polarimetric descriptors were extracted from scattering matrix using Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi methods; (ii) Optical remote sensing (RS) data with R, G and B channels formed the second feature combinations; (iii) The chosen SAR and optical RS indicators were both added into classifier. Classification was carried out using Random Forest (RF) classifiers and a general result mapping of intertidal flats was generated. Experiments were implemented using ALOS-2 L-band satellite imagery and GF-1 optical multi-spectral data acquired in the same period. The weights of descriptors were evaluated by VI (RF Variable Importance). Results suggested that optical data source has few advantages on sediment classification, and even reduce the effect of SAR indicators. Polarimetric SAR feature sets show great potentials in intertidal flats classification and are promising in classifying mud flats, sand flats, bare farmland and tidal water.

  18. Capability of Integrated MODIS Imagery and ALOS for Oil Palm, Rubber and Forest Areas Mapping in Tropical Forest Regions

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Sheriza Mohd; Marin, Arnaldo; Nuruddin, Ahmad Ainuddin; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Hamid, Hazandy Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth's surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into forests, oil palm groves, rubber plantations, mixed horticulture, mixed oil palm and rubber and mixed forest and rubber. Even though frequent cloud cover has been a challenge for mapping tropical forests, our MODIS land use classification map found that 2008 ISODATA-1 performed well with overall accuracy of 94%, with the highest Producer's Accuracy of Forest with 86%, and were consistent with MODIS Land Cover 2008 (MOD12Q1), respectively. The MODIS land use classification was able to distinguish young oil palm groves from open areas, rubber and mature oil palm plantations, on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) map, whereas rubber was more easily distinguished from an open area than from mixed rubber and forest. This study provides insight on the potential for integrating regional databases and temporal MODIS data, in order to map land use in tropical forest regions. PMID:24811079

  19. Coseismic Deformation and Landslides Assosiated with Cinchona Earthquake, Mw 6.1, Costa Rica, Detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemura, S.; Furuya, M.

    2014-12-01

    A shallow earthquake with magnitude 6.1 (Mw) occurred in Costa Rica, Central America, on 8 January 2009. This earthquake, called Cinchona earthquake, caused many landslides and around 20 fatalities. Alvarado (2009) reported that the area of landslides was concentrated in the northwestern part of the epicenter. To simulate the relationships between the location of landslides and acceleration, we detected landslides and coseismic deformation by using the ALOS/PALSAR radar image analyses. We first detected the coseismic deformation for ascending and descending tracks by InSAR analysis. The maximum coseismic Line of Sight (LOS) changes were around 20cm for both tracks. We derived the fault source model to explain the LOS changes, using elastic dislocation sources; the optimum geometry was inferred by trial-and-errors. The location of the fault model indicated that the source fault of this earthquake was the northern part of the Angel fault. We also detected the signal of landslides by pixel-offset techniques. The signal had larger amplitude in narrower area than coseismic deformation. The signal was placed on the same area reported by Alvarado (2009). As following the attenuation relationships for peak ground acceleration (Si and Midorikawa, 1999), we calculated the horizontal peak ground acceleration. The signal of landslides was concentrated in the area where the value of peak ground acceleration had larger than 450 gal.

  20. Mapping forests in monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and MODIS imagery in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Gilani, Hammad; Murthy, Manchiraju Sri Ramachandra; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Bangqian; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Bajgain, Rajen; Li, Xiangping; Dai, Shengqi; Hou, Ying; Xin, Fengfei; Moore, Berrien, III

    2016-02-01

    Extensive forest changes have occurred in monsoon Asia, substantially affecting climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Accurate forest cover maps at fine spatial resolutions are required to qualify and quantify these effects. In this study, an algorithm was developed to map forests in 2010, with the use of structure and biomass information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset and the phenological information from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 and MOD09A1) products. Our forest map (PALSARMOD50 m F/NF) was assessed through randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images and had an overall accuracy of 95%. Total area of forests in monsoon Asia in 2010 was estimated to be ~6.3 × 106 km2. The distribution of evergreen and deciduous forests agreed reasonably well with the median Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in winter. PALSARMOD50 m F/NF map showed good spatial and areal agreements with selected forest maps generated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests), but relatively large differences and uncertainties in tropical forests and evergreen and deciduous forests.

  1. Mapping forests in monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and MODIS imagery in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Gilani, Hammad; Murthy, Manchiraju Sri Ramachandra; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Bangqian; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Bajgain, Rajen; Li, Xiangping; Dai, Shengqi; Hou, Ying; Xin, Fengfei; Moore III, Berrien

    2016-01-01

    Extensive forest changes have occurred in monsoon Asia, substantially affecting climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Accurate forest cover maps at fine spatial resolutions are required to qualify and quantify these effects. In this study, an algorithm was developed to map forests in 2010, with the use of structure and biomass information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset and the phenological information from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 and MOD09A1) products. Our forest map (PALSARMOD50 m F/NF) was assessed through randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images and had an overall accuracy of 95%. Total area of forests in monsoon Asia in 2010 was estimated to be ~6.3 × 106 km2. The distribution of evergreen and deciduous forests agreed reasonably well with the median Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in winter. PALSARMOD50 m F/NF map showed good spatial and areal agreements with selected forest maps generated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests), but relatively large differences and uncertainties in tropical forests and evergreen and deciduous forests. PMID:26864143

  2. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Jittapiromsak, Nawaporn; Sahawat, Dusida; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe vera gel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Then the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation, and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization, compared with the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization, whereas neither was detected in the calcium hydroxide-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, whereas the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating primary human dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.

  3. Extraction and purification of anthraquinones derivatives from Aloe vera L. using alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-jian; Li, Fen-fang; Xu, Xue-lei

    2013-08-01

    An alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of 1-propanol and (NH4)2SO4 was employed to purify anthraquinones (AQs) extracted from Aloe vera L. The main influencing system parameters such as type of alcohol, type and concentration of salt, temperature and pH were investigated in detail. Under the optimal extraction conditions, AQs can be extracted into alcohol-rich phase with high extraction efficiency, meanwhile majority polysaccharides, proteins, mineral substances and other impurities were extracted into salt-rich phase. Partitioning of AQs is dependent on hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bond interaction, and salting-out effect in ATPS. Temperature also played a great role in the partitioning. After ATPS extraction, alcohol can be recycled by evaporation; moreover, salt can be recycled by dilution crystallization method. Compared with other liquid-liquid extractions, this alcohol/salt system is much simpler, lower in cost with easier recovery of phase-forming components, which has the potential scale-up in down-processing of active ingredients in plant.

  4. Automated Control of the Organic and Inorganic Composition of Aloe vera Extracts Using (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2016-09-01

    Recent classification of Aloe vera whole-leaf extract by the International Agency for Research and Cancer as a possible carcinogen to humans as well as the continuous adulteration of A. vera's authentic material have generated renewed interest in controlling A. vera. The existing NMR spectroscopic method for the analysis of A. vera, which is based on a routine developed at Spectral Service, was extended. Apart from aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, whole-leaf material (WLM), acetic acid, fumaric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, the quantification of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and fructose is possible with the addition of a Cs-EDTA solution to sample. The proposed methodology was automated, which includes phasing, baseline-correction, deconvolution (based on the Lorentzian function), integration, quantification, and reporting. The NMR method was applied to 41 A. vera preparations in the form of liquid A. vera juice and solid A. vera powder. The advantages of the new NMR methodology over the previous method were discussed. Correlation between the new and standard NMR methodologies was significant for aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and WLM (P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.99). NMR was found to be suitable for the automated simultaneous quantitative determination of 13 parameters in A. vera. PMID:27413027

  5. Crustal deformation associated with an M8.1 earthquake in the Solomon Islands, detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Yousuke; Ozawa, Taku; Shimada, Masanobu

    2009-10-01

    On April 1, 2007 (UTC), a large Mw 8.1 interplate earthquake struck the Solomon Islands subduction zone where complicated tectonics result from the subduction of four plates. Extensive ground movements and a large tsunami occurred in the epicentral area causing severe damage over a wide area. Using ALOS/PALSAR data and the DInSAR technique, we detected crustal deformation exceeding 2 m in islands close to the epicenter. A slip distribution of the inferred seismic fault was estimated using geodetic information derived from DInSAR processing and field investigations. The result indicates large slip areas around the hypocenter and the centroid. It is possible that the largest slip area is related to subduction of the plate boundary between the Woodlark and Australian plates. A small slip area between those large slip areas may indicate weak coupling due to thermal activity related to volcanic activity on Simbo Island. The 2007 earthquake struck an area where large earthquake has not occurred since 1970. Most of this seismic gap was filled by the 2007 events, however a small seismic gap still remains in the southeastern region of the 2007 earthquake.

  6. Mapping forests in monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and MODIS imagery in 2010.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Gilani, Hammad; Murthy, Manchiraju Sri Ramachandra; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Bangqian; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Bajgain, Rajen; Li, Xiangping; Dai, Shengqi; Hou, Ying; Xin, Fengfei; Moore, Berrien

    2016-01-01

    Extensive forest changes have occurred in monsoon Asia, substantially affecting climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Accurate forest cover maps at fine spatial resolutions are required to qualify and quantify these effects. In this study, an algorithm was developed to map forests in 2010, with the use of structure and biomass information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset and the phenological information from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 and MOD09A1) products. Our forest map (PALSARMOD50 m F/NF) was assessed through randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images and had an overall accuracy of 95%. Total area of forests in monsoon Asia in 2010 was estimated to be ~6.3 × 10(6 )km(2). The distribution of evergreen and deciduous forests agreed reasonably well with the median Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in winter. PALSARMOD50 m F/NF map showed good spatial and areal agreements with selected forest maps generated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests), but relatively large differences and uncertainties in tropical forests and evergreen and deciduous forests. PMID:26864143

  7. Effects of fresh Aloe vera gel coating on browning alleviation of fresh cut wax apple (Syzygium samarangenese) fruit cv. Taaptimjaan.

    PubMed

    Supapvanich, S; Mitrsang, P; Srinorkham, P; Boonyaritthongchai, P; Wongs-Aree, C

    2016-06-01

    The effect of natural coating by using fresh Aloe vera (A. vera) gel alleviating browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits cv. Taaptimjaan was investigated. The fresh-cut fruits were dipped in fresh A. vera gel at various concentrations of 0, 25, 75 or 100 % (v/v) for 2 min at 4 ± 1 °C for 6 days. Lightness (L*), whiteness index (WI), browning index (BI), total color difference (ΔE*), sensorial quality attributes, total phenolic (TP) content, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined. During storage, L* and WI of the fresh-cut fruits surface decreased whilst their BI and ΔE* increased. A. vera coating maintained the L* and WI and delayed the increase in BI and ΔE*, especially at 75 % A. vera dip. The fresh-cut fruits dipped in 75 % A. vera had the lowest browning score, the highest acceptance score and delayed the increase in TP content and PPO activity. However POD activity was induced by A. vera coating. Antioxidant activity had no effect on browning incidence of the fresh-cut fruits. Consequently, A. vera gel coating could maintain quality and retarded browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits during storage. PMID:27478241

  8. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of processed Aloe vera gel in a mouse model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanghee; Kim, Hyunyul; Kwon, Jeunghak; Lee, Sungwon; Kong, Hyunseok; Im, Sun-A; Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Young-Ran; Oh, Sun-Tack; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Kyungjae

    2009-09-01

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on the course of established diet-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied in C57BL/6J mice. NIDDM was induced in C57BL/6J mice by feeding them a high-fat diet. Mice exhibiting diet-induced obesity (DIO) with blood glucose levels above 180mg/dl were selected to examine the antidiabetic effects of PAG. Oral administration of PAG for 8 weeks reduced circulating blood glucose concentrations to a normal level in these DIO mice. In addition, the administration of PAG significantly decreased plasma insulin. The antidiabetic effects of PAG were also confirmed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing. PAG appeared to lower blood glucose levels by decreasing insulin resistance. The administration of PAG also lowered triacylglyceride levels in liver and plasma. Histological examinations of periepididymal fat pad showed that PAG reduced the average size of adipocytes. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of PAG prevents the progression of NIDDM-related symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, and suggest that PAG could be useful for treating NIDDM.

  9. Mapping forests in monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and MODIS imagery in 2010.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Gilani, Hammad; Murthy, Manchiraju Sri Ramachandra; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Bangqian; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Bajgain, Rajen; Li, Xiangping; Dai, Shengqi; Hou, Ying; Xin, Fengfei; Moore, Berrien

    2016-02-11

    Extensive forest changes have occurred in monsoon Asia, substantially affecting climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Accurate forest cover maps at fine spatial resolutions are required to qualify and quantify these effects. In this study, an algorithm was developed to map forests in 2010, with the use of structure and biomass information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset and the phenological information from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 and MOD09A1) products. Our forest map (PALSARMOD50 m F/NF) was assessed through randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images and had an overall accuracy of 95%. Total area of forests in monsoon Asia in 2010 was estimated to be ~6.3 × 10(6 )km(2). The distribution of evergreen and deciduous forests agreed reasonably well with the median Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in winter. PALSARMOD50 m F/NF map showed good spatial and areal agreements with selected forest maps generated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests), but relatively large differences and uncertainties in tropical forests and evergreen and deciduous forests.

  10. Effects of Aloe-emodin and Emodin on Proliferation of the MKN45 Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kaneko, Takaaki; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (1, 8-dihydroxy-3-hydroxyl-methylanthraquinone; AE) and emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6- methylanthraquinone; EM) are anthraquinone derivatives that have been detected in some medical plants and share similar anthraquinone structures. AE and EM have been shown to exhibit anticancer activities in various cancer cell lines; however, the inhibitory effects of these derivatives on the growth of cancer cells were previously reported to be different. Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer cell death worldwide. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of 0.05 mM AE and 0.05 mM EM on the proliferation of the MKN45 human gastric cancer cell line. The proliferation of MKN45 cells was significantly inhibited in AE- and EM-treated groups 24 h and 48 h after treatment. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of EM were stronger than those of AE. The cell cycle of MKN45 cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase or G0/G1 and G2/M phases by AE and EM, respectively. However, an analysis of intracellular polyamine levels and DNA fragmentation revealed that the mechanisms underlying cell death following cell arrest induced by AE and EM differed. PMID:25987055

  11. In vitro study of the PLA2 inhibition and antioxidant activities of Aloe vera leaf skin extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the present work we determined the total phenolic content of Aloe vera leaf skin (AVLS) extracts by using various solvents (hexane, chloroform-ethanol (1/1), ethyl acetate, butanol and water). We have also evaluated the antioxidant and the anti-PLA2 properties of these extracts by measuring their inhibition potency on the human pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2 (group IIA). Results The water extract exhibits the highest inhibitory effect with an IC50 = 0.22 mg/ml and interestingly no effect was observed on the digestive phospholipase A2 (group IB) even at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities were also analyzed and the most active extracts were observed when using chloroform ethanol (1/1) and ethyl acetate (IC50 = 0.274 and 0.326 mg/ml, respectively). Analysis of the total phenolic content reveals that the water extract, with the best anti-PLA2 effect, was poor in phenolic molecules (2 mg GAE/g). This latter value has to be compared with the chloroform-ethanol and the ethyl acetate extracts (40 and 23.8 mg GAE/g, respectively), mostly responsible for the antioxidant activity. Conclusion A significant correlation was established between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity but not with the anti PLA2 activity. Results from phytochemical screening suggest that the anti PLA2 molecules were probably catechin tannins compounds. PMID:21310091

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and Meswak containing dentifrices with fluoridated dentifrice: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Bhati, Neha; Jaidka, Shipra; Somani, Rani

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of fluoridated and herbal dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Sixty students in the age group 6–12 years with DMF/def score 0 were selected from an orphanage center. The participants were divided into four groups. In group A, no dentifrice was used; in group B, fluoride containing dentifrice was used; group C subjects used Aloe vera containing dentifrice; and in group D, Meswak containing dentifrice was used. The salivary samples were collected at the washout period of 2 days, 15 days, and 30 days and cultured on Mitis Salivarius Agar for determining Streptococcus mutans count. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: There was an increase in bacterial count in group A where no dentifrices were used, while the bacterial count steadily decreased in groups B, C, and D by 83.7%, 80.94%, and 83.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Herbal dentifrices containing A. vera and Meswak can be safely recommended as an alternative to fluoridated dentifrices in terms of antimicrobial efficacy. PMID:26539392

  13. The 2015 Wolf volcano (Galápagos) eruption studied using Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenbin; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Ruch, Joël.; Aoki, Yosuke

    2016-09-01

    An energetic eruption started on 25 May 2015 from a circumferential fissure at the summit of Wolf volcano on Isabela Island, western Galápagos. Further eruptive activity within the Wolf caldera followed in mid-June 2015. As no geodetic observations of earlier eruptions at Wolf exist, this eruption provides an opportunity to study the volcano's magmatic plumbing system for the first time. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from both the Sentinel-1A and ALOS-2 satellites to map and analyze the surface deformation at four time periods during the activity. These data allow us to identify the two eruption phases and reveal strong coeruptive subsidence within the Wolf caldera that is superimposed on a larger volcano-wide subsidence signal. Modeling of the surface displacements shows that two shallow magma reservoirs located under Wolf at ~1 km and ~5 km below sea level explain the subsidence and that these reservoirs appear to be hydraulically connected. We also suggest that the transition from the circumferential to the intracaldera eruption may have involved ring fault activity.

  14. Effects of fresh Aloe vera gel coating on browning alleviation of fresh cut wax apple (Syzygium samarangenese) fruit cv. Taaptimjaan.

    PubMed

    Supapvanich, S; Mitrsang, P; Srinorkham, P; Boonyaritthongchai, P; Wongs-Aree, C

    2016-06-01

    The effect of natural coating by using fresh Aloe vera (A. vera) gel alleviating browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits cv. Taaptimjaan was investigated. The fresh-cut fruits were dipped in fresh A. vera gel at various concentrations of 0, 25, 75 or 100 % (v/v) for 2 min at 4 ± 1 °C for 6 days. Lightness (L*), whiteness index (WI), browning index (BI), total color difference (ΔE*), sensorial quality attributes, total phenolic (TP) content, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined. During storage, L* and WI of the fresh-cut fruits surface decreased whilst their BI and ΔE* increased. A. vera coating maintained the L* and WI and delayed the increase in BI and ΔE*, especially at 75 % A. vera dip. The fresh-cut fruits dipped in 75 % A. vera had the lowest browning score, the highest acceptance score and delayed the increase in TP content and PPO activity. However POD activity was induced by A. vera coating. Antioxidant activity had no effect on browning incidence of the fresh-cut fruits. Consequently, A. vera gel coating could maintain quality and retarded browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits during storage.

  15. Aloe vera Gel: Effective Therapeutic Agent against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Recovered from Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Mousavi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aloe vera is an herbal medicinal plant with biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones, and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of A. vera gel against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with burn wound infections. Methods. During a 6-month study, 140 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from patients admitted to the burn wards of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out against the pathogens using the A. vera gel and antibiotics (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin). Results. The antibiogram revealed that 47 (33.6%) of all isolates were MDR P. aeruginosa. The extract isolated from A. vera has antibacterial activity against all of isolates. Also, 42 (89.4%) isolates were inhibited by A. vera gel extract at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 200 µg/mL. MIC value of A. vera gel for other isolates (10.6%) was 800 µg/mL. All of MDR P. aeruginosa strains were inhibited by A. vera at similar MIC50 and MIC90 200 µg/mL. Conclusion. Based on our results, A. vera gel at various concentrations can be used as an effective antibacterial agent in order to prevent wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:26266047

  16. Aloe vera juice: IC₅₀ and dual mechanistic inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Djuv, Ane; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potency (IC₅₀ values) of ethanol extracts of two commercially available aloe vera juice (AVJ) products, on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 activities in vitro and to determine if such inhibitions could be mechanism-based. Recombinant human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes were used and the activities were expressed by the metabolism of testosterone and dextromethorphan with ketoconazole and quinidine as positive inhibitor controls, respectively. The formed metabolites were quantified by validated HPLC techniques. Time- and NADPH- dependent inhibition assays were performed to evaluate a possible mechanism-based inhibition. One of the AVJ extracts showed about twice the inhibitory potency towards both CYP enzymes over the other with IC₅₀ values of 8.35 ± 0.72 and 12.5 ± 2.1 mg/mL for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. The AVJ was found to exert both CYP mediated and non-CYP mediated inhibition of both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. This dual mechanistic inhibition, however, seems to be governed by different mechanisms for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Estimated IC₅₀ inhibition values indicate no major interference of AVJ with drug metabolism in man, but the dual mechanistic inhibition of both enzymes might be of clinical significance.

  17. Automated Control of the Organic and Inorganic Composition of Aloe vera Extracts Using (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2016-09-01

    Recent classification of Aloe vera whole-leaf extract by the International Agency for Research and Cancer as a possible carcinogen to humans as well as the continuous adulteration of A. vera's authentic material have generated renewed interest in controlling A. vera. The existing NMR spectroscopic method for the analysis of A. vera, which is based on a routine developed at Spectral Service, was extended. Apart from aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, whole-leaf material (WLM), acetic acid, fumaric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, the quantification of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and fructose is possible with the addition of a Cs-EDTA solution to sample. The proposed methodology was automated, which includes phasing, baseline-correction, deconvolution (based on the Lorentzian function), integration, quantification, and reporting. The NMR method was applied to 41 A. vera preparations in the form of liquid A. vera juice and solid A. vera powder. The advantages of the new NMR methodology over the previous method were discussed. Correlation between the new and standard NMR methodologies was significant for aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and WLM (P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.99). NMR was found to be suitable for the automated simultaneous quantitative determination of 13 parameters in A. vera.

  18. Caco-2 cell methodology and inhibition of the P-glycoprotein transport of digoxin by Aloe vera juice.

    PubMed

    Djuv, Ane; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2008-12-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a thorough quality control setup for essential Caco-2 cell characteristics in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition studies and to explore if Aloe vera juice (AVJ) inhibits the bidirectional transport of the P-gp substrate digoxin (30 nm). Seven AVJ concentrations (0.00001-1.0 mg/mL), anticipated to cover a clinically relevant range, were tested and digoxin apparent permeability coefficients (Papp), net Papp values (Papp(Net)) and net flux values (J(Net)) were calculated. Relevant validation parameters for P-gp inhibition studies in Caco-2 cells are suggested to include, as a minimum, an assay linearity test with and without a known P-gp inhibitor, cell cytotoxicity testing (MTT-test) for substrates and inhibitors, and cell integrity testing by TEER and mannitol transport measurements. The question is also raised whether a minimum effect of a reference P-gp inhibitor as verapamil should be demanded. Cell cytotoxicity was seen for digoxin at concentrations >or=3 microM and for AVJ at 10 mg/mL. AVJ did not inhibit the P-gp transport of digoxin in any of the concentrations tested. This indicates that AVJ is no inhibitor of the P-gp mediated transport of digoxin in vitro if AVJ is present in clinically relevant concentrations.

  19. Aloe vera extract functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles as nanoantibiotics against multi-drug resistant clinical bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khursheed; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Azam, Ameer; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Said, Mansour S; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2016-06-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were synthesised through a simple and efficient biogenic synthesis approach, exploiting the reducing and capping potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. vera) leaf extract (ALE). ALE-capped ZnO nanoparticles (ALE-ZnONPs) were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. XRD analysis provided the average size of ZnONPs as 15 nm. FTIR spectral analysis suggested the role of phenolic compounds, terpenoids and proteins present in ALE, in nucleation and stability of ZnONPs. Flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) data analyses revealed the surface binding and internalization of ZnONPs in Gram +ve (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli) cells, respectively. Significant antibacterial activity of ALE-ZnONPs was observed against extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) positive E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates exhibiting the MIC and MBC values of 2200, 2400 μg/ml and 2300, 2700 μg/ml, respectively. Substantial inhibitory effects of ALE-ZnONPs on bacterial growth kinetics, exopolysaccharides and biofilm formation, unequivocally suggested the antibiotic and anti-biofilm potential. Overall, the results elucidated a rapid, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and convenient method for ALE-ZnONPs synthesis, for possible applications as nanoantibiotics or drug carriers. PMID:27031596

  20. Nature-Derived Aloe Vera Gel Blended Silk Fibroin Film Scaffolds for Cornea Endothelial Cell Regeneration and Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyung; Sim, Bo Ra; Khang, Gilson

    2016-06-22

    The goal of this study was to fabricate an appropriate replacement for cadaveric corneas to overcome a shortage of cadaveric corneas for transplantation. In this study, we fabricated transparent ultrathin film scaffolds with nature-derived aloe vera (AV) gel and silk fibroin (SF) for corneal endothelial cells (CECs). The scaffolds were subjected to analysis of transparency and contact angle using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine their physical and chemical properties. FESEM images revealed that the critical morphology of CECs was formed on the AV gel in the blend with SF rather than in the scaffold with SF alone. The cell proliferation, phenotype, and specific gene marker expressions for CECs were determined by MTT assays, immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. Incorporation of a small amount of AV gel increased the cell viability and maintained its functions well. The scaffolds were easily handled for transplantation into rabbit eyes with small incisions and examined by their transparency after transplantation and histological staining. The scaffolds attached to the surface of the corneal stroma and integrated with surrounding corneal tissue without a significant inflammatory reaction. These results indicate that AV blended SF film scaffolds might be a suitable substitute for alternative corneal grafts for transplantation. PMID:27243449

  1. Effect of high pressure and thermal processing on quality changes of aloe vera-litchi mixed beverage (ALMB) during storage.

    PubMed

    Swami Hulle, Nishant R; Srinivasa Rao, P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (600 MPa/15 min/56 °C) and thermal processing (TP) (95 °C/5 min) on the quality characteristics of aloe vera-litchi mixed beverage samples (ALMB) stored at 4, 15 and 25 °C were studied. The total color difference and browning index of ALMB samples increased with the storage period for both HPP and TP treated samples under all storage conditions. HPP of ALMB resulted in inactivation of pectinmethylesterase (PME), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) to 34, 65 and 62 %, respectively after immediate processing, whereas, TP treatment lead to 83, 79 and 78 %, respectively. The residual activity of all the studied enzymes decreased with storage period. The ascorbic acid loss of up to 22 % was observed after HPP treatment and up to 31 % for thermally treated samples. Minimal changes were noted for phenolics content after HPP as well as thermal processing. The natural microbiota present in samples was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/mL) throughout the storage period. The shelf life of HPP and TP treated samples stored at 4 °C was estimated to be 100 and 80 days, respectively, based on the sensory quality, ascorbic acid degradation and instrumental color difference. PMID:26787955

  2. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. )

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  3. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations.

  4. Aloe vera mediated hydrothermal synthesis of reduced graphene oxide decorated ZnO nanocomposite: Luminescence and antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavyashree, D.; Nagabhushana, H.; Ananda Kumari, R.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Suresh, D.; Daruka Prasad, B.; Sharma, S. C.

    2016-05-01

    A zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/rGO) nanocomposite was fabricated by facile hydrothermal route using Aloe vera gel as surfactant. The PL emission spectrum of the ZnO/rGO composite consists of four peaks at around 380, 394, 449 and 465nm. The PL intensity is found to diminish in ZnO-rGO composites rather than in pure ZnO, which was attributed to electron transfer from ZnO to rGO. A single intense glow curve was recorded in rGo-ZnO for a dose range of 1-8kGy. The TL response curve of rGO-ZnO is found to be a simple glow curve structure, linear dependence over a dose range of 1-8kGy. The obtained ZnO/rGO composite could provide a facile and eco-friendly method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in radiation dosimetry and antioxidant activities.

  5. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  6. Capability of integrated MODIS imagery and ALOS for oil palm, rubber and forest areas mapping in tropical forest regions.

    PubMed

    Razali, Sheriza Mohd; Marin, Arnaldo; Nuruddin, Ahmad Ainuddin; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Hamid, Hazandy Abdul

    2014-05-07

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth's surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into forests, oil palm groves, rubber plantations, mixed horticulture, mixed oil palm and rubber and mixed forest and rubber. Even though frequent cloud cover has been a challenge for mapping tropical forests, our MODIS land use classification map found that 2008 ISODATA-1 performed well with overall accuracy of 94%, with the highest Producer's Accuracy of Forest with 86%, and were consistent with MODIS Land Cover 2008 (MOD12Q1), respectively. The MODIS land use classification was able to distinguish young oil palm groves from open areas, rubber and mature oil palm plantations, on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) map, whereas rubber was more easily distinguished from an open area than from mixed rubber and forest. This study provides insight on the potential for integrating regional databases and temporal MODIS data, in order to map land use in tropical forest regions.

  7. Developing synergy regression models with space-borne ALOS PALSAR and Landsat TM sensors for retrieving tropical forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Suman; Jeganathan, C.; Sharma, L. K.; Nathawat, M. S.; Das, Anup K.; Mohan, Shiv

    2016-06-01

    Forest stand biomass serves as an effective indicator for monitoring REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Optical remote sensing data have been widely used to derive forest biophysical parameters inspite of their poor sensitivity towards the forest properties. Microwave remote sensing provides a better alternative owing to its inherent ability to penetrate the forest vegetation. This study aims at developing optimal regression models for retrieving forest above-ground bole biomass (AGBB) utilising optical data from Landsat TM and microwave data from L-band of ALOS PALSAR data over Indian subcontinental tropical deciduous mixed forests located in Munger (Bihar, India). Spatial biomass models were developed. The results using Landsat TM showed poor correlation ( R 2 = 0.295 and RMSE = 35 t/ha) when compared to HH polarized L-band SAR ( R 2 = 0.868 and RMSE = 16.06 t/ha). However, the prediction model performed even better when both the optical and SAR were used simultaneously ( R 2 = 0.892 and RMSE = 14.08 t/ha). The addition of TM metrics has positively contributed in improving PALSAR estimates of forest biomass. Hence, the study recommends the combined use of both optical and SAR sensors for better assessment of stand biomass with significant contribution towards operational forestry.

  8. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of "SAL," a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400-250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  9. Effect of high pressure and thermal processing on quality changes of aloe vera-litchi mixed beverage (ALMB) during storage.

    PubMed

    Swami Hulle, Nishant R; Srinivasa Rao, P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (600 MPa/15 min/56 °C) and thermal processing (TP) (95 °C/5 min) on the quality characteristics of aloe vera-litchi mixed beverage samples (ALMB) stored at 4, 15 and 25 °C were studied. The total color difference and browning index of ALMB samples increased with the storage period for both HPP and TP treated samples under all storage conditions. HPP of ALMB resulted in inactivation of pectinmethylesterase (PME), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) to 34, 65 and 62 %, respectively after immediate processing, whereas, TP treatment lead to 83, 79 and 78 %, respectively. The residual activity of all the studied enzymes decreased with storage period. The ascorbic acid loss of up to 22 % was observed after HPP treatment and up to 31 % for thermally treated samples. Minimal changes were noted for phenolics content after HPP as well as thermal processing. The natural microbiota present in samples was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/mL) throughout the storage period. The shelf life of HPP and TP treated samples stored at 4 °C was estimated to be 100 and 80 days, respectively, based on the sensory quality, ascorbic acid degradation and instrumental color difference.

  10. Leaf Area Index and Biomass Assessment over Tropical Peatland Forest Ecosystem Using ALOS PalSAR and Envisat ASAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Arief; Susanti, Ari; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Wardhana, Wahyu; Yanto, Edi; Soeprijadi, Djoko; McFarlane, Craig; Qomar, Nurul

    2011-03-01

    Provision of accurate forest parameter properties is important as a basis for forest resources monitoring and carbon cycle assessment. The present study aims to model leaf area index (LAI), above ground biomass and carbon stocks over tropical peatland forests using single polarization SAR, full polarimetry SAR (PolSAR) data. Single band ALOS Palsar data (HH band, acquired on November 17, 2008) and polarimetric data (HH, VV, HV and VH, collected on April 4 and May 5, 2007) are used for the study. A series of ENVISAT ASAR data (5 datasets) collected in 2004 - 2005 are also used to model the forest properties. Landsat ETM data collected on January 22, 2009 is also used as a reference. The relationship between forest parameters and normalized radar backscattering is estimated using empirical models, and preliminary results show that Polarimetric SAR data has better correlations with the LAI and biomass than single polarimetry SAR data. The field data were collected during field work in March - April 2009 and the reliability of identified forest classes was also assessed from available Landsat ETM data. Analysis will be conducted on the basis of statistical correlations between radar data and modeled forest properties, such as LAI, biomass and tree age. This study focuses on a unique tropical peatland ecosystem in Kampar Peninsula, Sumatera, Indonesia, which has great potentials as carbon sinks and/or sources. Only few studies have been conducted in the study area due to limited satellite and field observation data.

  11. In vivo monitoring of oxidative burst on aloe under salinity stress using hemoglobin and single-walled carbon nanotubes modified carbon fiber ultramicroelectrode.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiong-Qiong; Yuan, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Xiao-Rong; Wen, Wei; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-15

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and hemoglobin (Hb) modified carbon fiber ultramicroelectrode (CFUME) were employed to construct a direct electron transfer based in vivo H2O2 sensor. At the low working potential of -0.1 V, Hb/SWCNTs/CFUME showed a dynamic range up to 0.405 mM with a low detection limit of 4 μM (S/N=3) and a high sensitivity of 1.07 log(A) log(M)(-1) cm(-2). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km, app) was estimated to be as low as 1.35 mM. Due to the extremely small dimension and low working potential, Hb/SWCNTs/CFUME could give directly amperometric in vivo monitoring of H2O2 in aloe leaves with salt stress for 19.5h without the requirement of complex data processing and extra surface coatings to avoid interferences. The sharp increase of H2O2 level in aloe leaves with salt stress was clearly observed using Hb/SWCNTs/CFUME from 12.5 h, while in the aloe without salt stress, H2O2 level remained stable in the whole measurement. For further confirming the in vivo response of Hb/SWCNTs/CFUME, catalase (CAT) was injected into the spot adjacent to the sensor and caused rapid current decrease, which suggests the scavenging of H2O2. These results indicate that Hb/SWCNTs/CFUME can be a powerful tool for in vivo investigation of ROS.

  12. Humoral responses of broiler chickens challenged with NDV following supplemental treatment with extracts of Aloe vera, Alma millsoni, Ganoderma lucidum and Archachatina marginata

    PubMed Central

    Eghafona, Nosahkare'Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The significance of nutritional supplements for immunity has been documented. Locally sourced extracts used in alternative medicine were studied to determine their potential effects on antibody production and humoral responses in viral challenged birds. Method Three hundred and eighty birds were distributed into 19 groups of 20 birds each. Following acclimatization for 16 days, they were fed with standard broilers feed and water ad libitum. Group A was supplemented with Aloe vera (AV) extract, group B was given Alma millsoni (AM) extract, group C was given Archachatina marginata (AMS) extract and group D was given Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, and group E was the control group. Extract concentrations of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were given to three subsets of each treatment group for 30 days. Birds were then challenged with intramuscular administration of 0.2 ml of 50% Embryo Lethal Dose of saline suspension of the challenge strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on the 30th day, and were examined for clinical signs and symptoms. Serum from venous blood was used for antibody and immunological assay. Results Aloe vera at 50 µg and A. millsoni extracts supplementations yielded a significant antibody titre (p < 0.001). The difference within the AMS, GL and AV groups and the control group was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion Unlike the extract of Ganoderma and A. marginata, pretreatment with A. millsoni extract and a lower dosage of Aloe vera enhanced the ability to mount humoral responses against viral infection in broiler chickens. PMID:26648773

  13. ICESat GLAS Elevation Changes and ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight Changes on the Continuous Permafrost Zone of the North Slope, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald

    2016-04-01

    Measuring centimeter-scale and smaller surface changes by satellite-based systems on the periglacial terrains and permafrost zones of the northern hemisphere is an ongoing challenge. We are investigating this challenge by using data from the NASA Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (ICESat GLAS) and the JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) on the continuous permafrost zone of the North Slope, Alaska. Using the ICESat GLAS exact-repeat profiles in the analysis of ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight (LOS) changes we find evidence of volume scattering over much of the tundra vegetation covered active-layer and surface scattering from river channel/banks (deposition and erosion), from rock outcropping bluffs and ridges. Pingos, ice-cored mounds common to permafrost terrains can be used as benchmarks for assessment of LOS changes. For successful InSAR processing, topographic and tropospheric phase cannot be assumed negligible and must be removed. The presence of significant troposphere phase in short-period repeat interferograms renders stacking ill suited for the task of deriving verifiable centimeter-scale surface deformation phase and reliable LOS changes. Ref.: Muskett, R.R. (2015), ICESat GLAS Elevation Changes and ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight Changes on the Continuous Permafrost Zone of the North Slope, Alaska. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (10), 1101-1115. doi:10.4236/ijg.2015.610086 http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=60406

  14. Landslide-dammed lakes detection via ALOS/PALSAR InSAR DEM: A case study of the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Tomohito; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Keishi; Kudou, Katsuteru; Fujii, Hisao; Nishikawa, Hajime; Sensing Specialist Yukihiro Suzuoki, Remote

    On 14th June 2008, the Japan Meteorological Agency recorded a 7.2 magnitude (Richter scale) earthquake with an epicenter depth of 8 km in the southern Iwate prefecture of the Tohoku region of Japan. In the hardest hit prefectures of Iwate and Miyagi, the earthquake produced 15 new landslide-dammed lakes; a phenomenon common when the earthquake hypocenter is within inland areas. In our last study, we demonstrated that interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique can detect surface displacements within centimeter accuracy and create detailed three-dimensional terrain information. In this study, we developed a new methodology to detect landslide-dammed lakes using Digital Drainage Models (DDMs) generated from the DEM's cre-ated with InSAR data. Using our technique, small scale topographical change was detected by comparing pre-earthquake DEM's such as created from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data and post-earthquake DEM's created from the Advanced Land Observing System (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data. Pre-and post-earthquake changes in the drainage networks were detected by comparing DDM features derived from an existing DEM to DDM features derived from a post-earthquake DEM created from ALOS InSAR data. It was verified that landslide-dammed lakes were detected specifically in the area where drainage network with more than three of the river-order computed from DDM's shifted before and after the earthquake. Thus, InSAR DEM generated from ALOS/PALSAR can provide timely and useful spatial information for detecting landslide-dammed lakes.

  15. Excavating the Role of Aloe Vera Wrapped Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Frame Ornamentation in Newly Architectured Polyurethane Scaffolds for Osteogenesis and Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, M; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Francis, Nimmy K; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-03-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are unsuccessful in many clinical applications due to a high incidence of postoperative infection. The objective of this work is to fabricate GBR with an anti-infective electrospun scaffold by ornamenting segmented polyurethane (SPU) with two-dimensional Aloe vera wrapped mesoporous hydroxyapatite (Al-mHA) nanorods. The antimicrobial characteristic of the scaffold has been retrieved from the prepared Al-mHA frame with high aspect ratio (∼14.2) via biosynthesis route using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extract. The Al-mHA frame was introduced into an unprecedented SPU matrix (solution polymerized) based on combinatorial soft segments of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, pristine mHA nanorods are also ornamented into it. An enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segment of (PCL-PEC-b-PDMS). Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Al-mHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (175%) in the mechanical properties with promising antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast-like MG63 cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits as an animal model by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Improved in vivo biocompatibilities, biodegradation, osteoconductivity, and the ability to provide an adequate biomimetic environment for biomineralization for GBR of the scaffolds (SPU and ornamented SPUs) have been found from the various histological sections. Early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks were found in the defects filled with Al-mHA ornamented

  16. Excavating the Role of Aloe Vera Wrapped Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Frame Ornamentation in Newly Architectured Polyurethane Scaffolds for Osteogenesis and Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, M; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Francis, Nimmy K; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-03-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are unsuccessful in many clinical applications due to a high incidence of postoperative infection. The objective of this work is to fabricate GBR with an anti-infective electrospun scaffold by ornamenting segmented polyurethane (SPU) with two-dimensional Aloe vera wrapped mesoporous hydroxyapatite (Al-mHA) nanorods. The antimicrobial characteristic of the scaffold has been retrieved from the prepared Al-mHA frame with high aspect ratio (∼14.2) via biosynthesis route using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extract. The Al-mHA frame was introduced into an unprecedented SPU matrix (solution polymerized) based on combinatorial soft segments of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, pristine mHA nanorods are also ornamented into it. An enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segment of (PCL-PEC-b-PDMS). Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Al-mHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (175%) in the mechanical properties with promising antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast-like MG63 cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits as an animal model by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Improved in vivo biocompatibilities, biodegradation, osteoconductivity, and the ability to provide an adequate biomimetic environment for biomineralization for GBR of the scaffolds (SPU and ornamented SPUs) have been found from the various histological sections. Early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks were found in the defects filled with Al-mHA ornamented

  17. Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic for the Kahiltna terrane, Alaska, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.

    2015-01-01

    The USGS has compiled a continuous, cloud-free 12.5-meter resolution radar mosaic of SAR data of approximately 212,000 square kilometers to examine the suitability of this technology for geologic mapping. This mosaic was created from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data collected from 2007 to 2010 spanning the Kahiltna terrane and the surrounding area. Interpretation of these data may help geologists understand past geologic processes and identify areas with potential for near-surface mineral resources for further ground-based geological and geochemical investigations.

  18. Sensitivity of Backscatter Intensity of ALOS/PALSAR to Above-ground Biomass and Other Biophysical Parameters of Boreal Forests in Alaska and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, R.; Hayashi, M.; Kim, Y.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Shoyama, K.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, A.; Saigusa, N.; Ito, A.

    2012-12-01

    For the better understanding of the carbon cycle in the global environment, investigations on the spatio-temporal variation of the carbon stock which is stored as vegetation biomass is important. The backscatter intensity of "Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR)" onboard the satellite "Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)" provides us the information which is applicable to estimate the forest above-ground biomass (AGB). This study examines the sensitivity of the backscatter intensity of ALOS/PALSAR to the forest AGB and other biophysical parameters (tree height, tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and tree stand density) for boreal forests in two geographical regions of Alaska and Kushiro, northern Japan, and compares the sensitivities in two regions. In Alaska, a forest survey was executed in the south-north transect (about 300 km long) along a trans-Alaska pipeline which profiles the ecotone from the boreal forest to tundra in 2007. Forest AGBs and other biophysical parameters at 29 forests along the transect were measured by Bitterlich method. In Kushiro, a forest survey was carried out at 42 forests in 2011 and those parameters were similarly obtained by Bitterlich method. 20 and 2 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR FBD Level 1.5 data that cover the regions in Alaska and Kushiro, respectively, were collected and mosaicked. Backscatter intensities of ALOS/PALSAR in HH (horizontally polarized transmitted and horizontally polarized received) and HV (horizontally polarized transmitted and vertically polarized received) modes were compared with the forest AGB and other biophysical parameters. The intensity generally increased with the increase of those biophysical parameters in both HV and HH modes, but the intensity in HV mode generally had a stronger correlation to those parameters than in HH mode in both Alaska and Kushiro. The HV intensity had strong correlation to the forest AGB and DBH, while weak correlation to the tree stand density in Alaska

  19. A 50-m Forest Cover Map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and Its Application on Forest Fragmentation Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Dinh Duong, Nguyen; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×106 km2 (GlobCover) to 2.69×106 km2 (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity. PMID:24465714

  20. Aloe vera toxic effects: expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in testis of Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Asgharzade, Samira; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Amin; Reiisi, Somaye; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Nitric oxide (NO), a product of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contributes in germ cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Aloe vera gel (AVG) on male Wistar rat reproductive organ, serum NO level, and expression of iNOS gene in leydig cells. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=36) were used for experiments in three groups. The experimental groups were orally administered with the AVG extract solution once-daily as follow: 150 mg.kg-1; group A, 300 mg.kg-1; group B, and only normal saline; group C (control group). They were mated with untreated females and the reproductive and chemical parameters were assessed for each group, including semen quality, serum testosterone, sperm fertility, gonad and body weight, serum NO concentration (by the Griess method), and iNOS gene expression (using RT-PCR). Results: The testes weight, serum testosterone, as well as sperm count and fertility of the AVG treated groups were significantly reduced when compared to the control (P<0.001). Concentration of serum NO was significantly increased (37.1±4.63 µM) in the administrated group with higher AVG concentration, compared to the control group (P<0.001; 10.19±0.87 µM); however, iNOS mRNA expression was increased in the treated animals (P<0.001). Conclusion: iNOS may play a functional role in spermatogenesis via apoptosis, reducing sperm count, but further studies are needed to illustrate the mechanisms by which AVG exerts its negative effects on spermatogenesis and sperm quality. PMID:26730330

  1. InSAR Detection and Field Evidence for Thermokarst after a Tundra Wildfire, Using ALOS-PALSAR

    DOE PAGES

    Iwahana, Go; Uchida, Masao; Liu, Lin; Gong, Wenyu; Meyer, Franz; Guritz, Richard; Yamanokuchi, Tsutomu; Hinzman, Larry

    2016-03-08

    Thermokarst is the process of ground subsidence caused by either the thawing of ice-rich permafrost or the melting of massive ground ice. The consequences of permafrost degradation associated with thermokarst for surface ecology, landscape evolution, and hydrological processes have been of great scientific interest and social concern. Part of a tundra patch affected by wildfire in northern Alaska (27.5 km2) was investigated here, using remote sensing and in situ surveys to quantify and understand permafrost thaw dynamics after surface disturbances. A two-pass differential InSAR technique using L-band ALOS-PALSAR has been shown capable of capturing thermokarst subsidence triggered by a tundramore » fire at a spatial resolution of tens of meters, with supporting evidence from field data and optical satellite images. We have introduced a calibration procedure, comparing burned and unburned areas for InSAR subsidence signals, to remove the noise due to seasonal surface movement. In the first year after the fire, an average subsidence rate of 6.2 cm/year (vertical) was measured. Subsidence in the burned area continued over the following two years, with decreased rates. The mean rate of subsidence observed in our interferograms (from 24 July 2008 to 14 September 2010) was 3.3 cm/year, a value comparable to that estimated from field surveys at two plots on average (2.2 cm/year) for the six years after the fire. These results suggest that this InSAR-measured ground subsidence is caused by the development of thermokarst, a thawing process supported by surface change observations from high-resolution optical images and in situ ground level surveys.« less

  2. Recent land subsidence caused by the rapid urban development in the Hanoi region (Vietnam) using ALOS InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, V. K.; Doubre, C.; Weber, C.; Gourmelen, N.; Masson, F.

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1990s the land subsidence due to the rapid urbanization has been considered a severely destructive hazard in the center of Hanoi City. Although previous studies and measurements have quantified the subsiding deformation in Hanoi center, no data exist for the newly established districts in the south and the west, where construction development has been most significant and where groundwater pumping has been very intensive over the last decade. With a multi-temporal InSAR approach, we quantify the spatial distribution of the land subsidence in the entire Hanoi urban region using ALOS images over the 2007-2011 period. The map of the mean subsidence velocity reveals that the northern bank of the Red River appears stable, whereas some areas in southern bank are subsiding with a mean vertical rate up to 68.0 mm yr-1, especially within the three new urban districts of Hoang Mai, Ha Dong - Thanh Xuan and Hoai Duc - Tu Liem. We interpret the spatial distribution of the surface deformation as the combination of the nature of the unsaturated layer, the lowering of groundwater in the aquifers due to pumping withdrawal capacity, the increase of built-up surfaces and the type of building foundation. The piezometric level in Qp aquifer lowers particularly after 2008, whereas the groundwater level in Qh aquifer remains steady, even if it loses its seasonal fluctuation in urban areas and drawdowns in neighboring water production plants. The time evolution deduced from the InSAR time series is consistent with previous leveling data and shows that the lowering rate of the surface slightly decreases till 2008. The analysis of groundwater levels in instrumented wells shows a correlation between the behavior of groundwater with the urban development and the acceleration of groundwater withdrawal. Also, the time variations suggest that the deformation became non-stationary, with upward and downward transient displacements related to the charge and discharge of the aquifers.

  3. Early postseismic deformation following the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake from ALOS PALSAR and campaign GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funning, G. J.; Ryder, I. M.; Floyd, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The 4 April 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake ruptured approximately 110 km of the plate boundary zone in northern Baja California and southern California, including a previously unmapped section through the Colorado River delta. The event was unusual in that it had a longer rupture length than other recent events of the same magnitude, perhaps a manifestation of crustal thinning in the region, in the transition between transform motion on the San Andreas-Imperial fault system to the northwest and seafloor spreading in the Gulf of California to the southeast. Here we examine the ongoing postseismic deformation that has occurred in the aftermath of the event, using a combination of InSAR and GPS time series. In order to identify the spatial pattern of postseismic deformation, we process the full archive of ALOS PALSAR data held by the Alaska Satellite Facility's USGRC datapool, spanning a nine month interval from April 2010 to January 2011. We supplement these data with campaign GPS measurements made on a series of post-earthquake campaigns in Baja California by researchers from UCR, Scripps Institiute of Oceanography and CICESE, starting one day after the event. Preliminary indications suggest that the first year of postseismic deformation was marked by i) a narrow zone of ~10 cm of subsidence bounded to the north by the Colorado delta segment of the main fault rupture; ii) a secondary area of initial subsidence located a few kilometers to the northeast of the main subsiding zone that is recovered within ~6 months of the earthquake; iii) near-field right-lateral shear of ~5 cm across the Sierra Cucapah. The first two of these deformation signals are consistent with a combination of transient poroelastic deformation and the third with shallow afterslip. Preliminary models of predicted Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation do not appear to explain this early, rapid deformation.

  4. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6) km(2) (GlobCover) to 2.69×10(6) km(2) (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity.

  5. Effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hujaz; Rao, P. V. Raman; Raghuvanshi, Rita S.; Mondal, B. C.; Singh, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120-day-old Japanese quails, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz. T1-control, T2-0.5% A. vera, T3-0.5% clove, and T4-(0.25% A. vera + 0.25% clove) powder, each having three replications consisting of ten Japanese quails. The birds in control group (T1) were fed no supplement whereas in treatments T2-T4 birds were supplemented with A. vera leaf powder, clove, and mixture of both (powdered form) at 0.5, 0.5, and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. After 7 days of brooding, a feeding trial of 35 days was conducted. On 35th day of trial birds were sacrificed and dressing percentage, cut up parts, organ weight, processing losses and carcass meat composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick were recorded. Blood samples were collected on the same day and serum was separated to evaluate serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Results: It showed significantly (p<0.05) higher values of dressing percentage with and without giblet and breast weight in the T2-T4 group as compared to the T1 group. No significant (p>0.05) differences were observed in giblet weight, other cut up parts and composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles in all the treatment groups. Serum ALT and AST did not vary significantly among different treatment groups. Conclusion: A. vera and clove supplementation improved the dressing percentage and breast weight without adversely affecting the meat composition and serum enzymes. Thus, these can be used as a growth promoter in Japanese quails. PMID:27047153

  6. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action. PMID:25311442

  7. Benefit of Aloe vera and Matricaria recutita mixture in rat irritable bowel syndrome: Combination of antioxidant and spasmolytic effects.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Mozaffari, Shilan; Sanei, Yara; Baeeri, Maryam; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-12-21

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the beneficial effects of a mixture of Aloe vera (AV) and Matricaria recutita (German chamomile, GC) in an experimental model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: IBS was induced by a 5-day restraint stress in rats including the groups of control (water), GC (300 mg/kg), loperamide (10 mg/kg), mixed AV and GC (50: 50 at doses of 150, 300 or 450 mg/kg assigned as Mix-150, Mix-300 and Mix-450, respectively) and the sham group which did not receive any restraint stress and was fed with saline. All medications were administered intragastrically by gavage for 7 days, 2 days as pre-treatment followed by 5 days during induction of IBS every day before restraining. RESULTS: The increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in colonic cells in the control group were significantly decreased in the treatment groups. GC inhibited only small bowel transit while the AV/GC mixture delayed gastric emptying at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg. The AV/GC mixture also reduced colonic transit and small bowel transit at the dose of 150 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of stress-induced IBS was diminished by the AV/GC mixture at all doses used but not dose-dependently, via inhibiting colonic MPO activity and improving oxidative stress status. The effect of the mixture was more effective than GC alone. The present results support effectiveness of the AV and GC combination in IBS. PMID:23263994

  8. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceae) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus, against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William

    2012-01-01

    The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212

  9. A Temporal Dimension to the Influence of Pollen Rewards on Bee Behaviour and Fecundity in Aloe tenuior

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Karl J.; Johnson, Steven D.; Peter, Craig I.

    2014-01-01

    The net effect of pollen production on fecundity in plants can range from negative – when self-pollen interferes with fecundity due to incompatibility mechanisms, to positive – when pollen availability is associated with increased pollinator visitation and fecundity due to its utilization as a reward. We investigated the responses of bees to pollen and nectar rewards, and the effects of these rewards on pollen deposition and fecundity in the hermaphroditic succulent shrub Aloe tenuior. Self-pollinated plants failed to set fruit, but their ovules were regularly penetrated by self-pollen tubes, which uniformly failed to develop into seeds as expected from ovarian self-incompatibility (or strong early inbreeding depression). Bees consistently foraged for pollen during the morning and early afternoon, but switched to nectar in the late afternoon. As a consequence of this differential foraging, we were able to test the relative contribution to fecundity of pollen- versus nectar-collecting flower visitors. We exposed emasculated and intact flowers in either the morning or late afternoon to foraging bees and showed that emasculation reduced pollen deposition by insects in the morning, but had little effect in the afternoon. Despite the potential for self-pollination to result in ovule discounting due to late-acting self-sterility, fecundity was severely reduced in artificially emasculated plants. Although there were temporal fluctuations in reward preference, most bee visits were for pollen rewards. Therefore the benefit of providing pollen that is accessible to bee foragers outweighs any potential costs to fitness in terms of gender interference in this species. PMID:24755611

  10. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6) km(2) (GlobCover) to 2.69×10(6) km(2) (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity. PMID

  11. In-vitro anthelminthic activity of crude aqueous extracts of Aloe ferox, Leonotis leonurus and Elephantorrhiza elephantina against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick J; Bizimenyera, Edmund S; Eloff, J N

    2010-02-01

    Aloe ferox (Mill), Leonotis leonurus (L) R. BR; and Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels are plants frequently used by resource-limited farmers in the Eastern Cape Province to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. A study was conducted to validate their anthelminthic activities in-vitro on the egg and larvae of the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The crude aqueous extracts of leaves of A. ferox and L. leonurus; and roots of E. elephantina were used. Eggs and larvae of the parasite were incubated at 25 degrees C in aqueous extracts at concentrations of 0.625-20 mg/ml for 48 h and 7 days for the egg hatch and larval development assays respectively. Albendazole and water were the positive and negative controls respectively. Inhibition of egg hatching and larval development increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing concentrations of the extracts. E. elephantina and L. leonurus extracts had 100% egg hatch inhibition at concentration as low as 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml respectively, whereas A. ferox extracts had 100% inhibition at concentrations of 20 mg/ml. At the lowest concentration tested (0.625 mg/ml), E. elephantina inhibited egg hatching >96% and this was comparable to albendazole at the same concentration. E. elephantina and L. leonurus also totally inhibited larval development at concentrations of 1.25 mg/ml. The study provided evidence that A. ferox, E. elephantina and L. leonurus extracts possess anthelminthic activity, thus justifying their use in the treatment of GI helminthosis. There is however need to assess the safety of these plants in vivo and also to undertake in vivo efficacy studies.

  12. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action.

  13. Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Hazrati, Saeid; Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Zeinolabedin; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Ali; Nicola, Silvana

    2016-09-01

    Aloe vera L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. In order to determine the effects of light intensity and water deficit stress on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and pigments of A. vera, a split-plot in time experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a research greenhouse. The factorial combination of three light intensities (50, 75 and 100% of sunlight) and four irrigation regimes (irrigation after depleting 20, 40, 60 and 80% of soil water content) were considered as main factors. Sampling time was considered as sub factor. The first, second and third samplings were performed 90, 180 and 270 days after imposing the treatments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the highest light intensity and the severe water stress decreased maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)/Fm, quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ФPSII), Chl and photochemical quenching (qP) but increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), minimum fluorescence (F0) and Anthocyanin (Anth). Additionally, the highest Fm, Fv/Fm, ФPSII and qP and the lowest NPQ and F0 were observed when 50% of sunlight was blocked and irrigation was done after 40% soil water depletion. Irradiance of full sunlight and water deficit stress let to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as indicated by a reduced quantum yield of PSII, ФPSII, and qP, as well as higher NPQ. Thus, chlorophyll florescence measurements provide valuable physiological data. Close to half of total solar radiation and irrigation after depleting 40% of soil water content were selected as the most efficient treatments. PMID:27161580

  14. Effect of Aloe vera application on the content and molecular arrangement of glycosaminoglycans during calcaneal tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, Andrea Aparecida de; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto; Nishan, Umar; Perez, Mylena Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Foglio, Mary Ann; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Gomes, Laurecir; Vidal, Benedicto De Campos; Pimentel, Edson Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Although several treatments for tendon lesions have been proposed, successful tendon repair remains a great challenge for orthopedics, especially considering the high incidence of re-rupture of injured tendons. Our aim was to evaluate the pharmacological potential of Aloe vera on the content and arrangement of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during tendon healing, which was based on the effectiveness of A. vera on collagen organization previously observed by our group. In rats, a partial calcaneal tendon transection was performed with subsequent topical A. vera application at the injury site. The tendons were treated with A. vera ointment for 7 days and excised on the 7(th) , 14(th) , or 21(st) day post-surgery. Control rats received ointment without A. vera. A higher content of GAGs and a lower amount of dermatan sulfate were detected in the A. vera-treated group on the 14(th) day compared with the control. Also at 14 days post-surgery, a lower dichroic ratio in toluidine blue stained sections was observed in A. vera-treated tendons compared with the control. No differences were observed in the chondroitin-6-sulfate and TGF-β1 levels between the groups, and higher amount of non-collagenous proteins was detected in the A. vera-treated group on the 21(st) day, compared with the control group. No differences were observed in the number of fibroblasts, inflammatory cells and blood vessels between the groups. The application of A. vera during tendon healing modified the arrangement of GAGs and increased the content of GAGs and non-collagenous proteins.

  15. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, A. R.; Karuna, Y. M.; Yavagal, C.; Deepak, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry. PMID:25821369

  16. Exploring the potential of gastro retentive dosage form in delivery of ellagic acid and aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Arati N; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Ramesh, C

    2014-01-01

    Approach of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) overcomes the limitations of conventional dosage forms. However, this concept is still not practiced to a large extent in delivery of herbal drugs in Ayurveda. Thus, the potential of herbal drugs has not been explored to its fullest. Hence, there is a growing need to amalgamate the concept of NDDS in delivery of herbal constituents. The present investigation is designed to deliver and retain two herbal constituents in stomach for better action against Helicobacter pylori induced gastric ulcers. The objective was to develop a bilayer floating tablet of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gel powder through rational combination of excipients to give the lowest possible lag time with maximum drug release in the period of 4 h. Formulation F9 containing 100 mg of HPMC K15M, 27 mg of crospovidone, 80 mg of mannitol and effervescent agents in the ratio 1:2 gave 92% drug release and desired floating properties. In vivo studies showed that combination of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gave 75 % ulcer inhibition in comparison to 57% ulcer inhibition in the group which was administered with ellagic acid alone. This suggests the use of bilayer floating tablet in gastric ulcer treatment.

  17. Line-of-sight displacement from ALOS-2 interferometry: Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake and Mw 7.3 aftershock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Eric O.; Natsuaki, Ryo; Xu, Xiaohua; Shimada, Masanobu; Hashimoto, Manabu; Melgar, Diego; Sandwell, David T.

    2015-08-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a key tool for the analysis of displacement and stress changes caused by large crustal earthquakes, particularly in remote areas. A challenge for traditional InSAR has been its limited spatial and temporal coverage especially for very large events, whose dimensions exceed the typical swath width of 70-100 km. This problem is addressed by the ALOS-2 satellite, whose PALSAR-2 instrument operates in ScanSAR mode, enabling a repeat time of 2 weeks and a swath width of 350 km. Here we present InSAR line-of-sight displacement data from ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 observations covering the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock that were acquired within 1 week of each event. The data are made freely available and we encourage their use in models of the fault slip and associated stress changes. The Mw 7.3 aftershock not only extended the rupture area of the main shock toward the east but also left a 20 km gap where the fault has little or no coseismic slip. We estimate this unslipped fault patch has the potential to generate a Mw 6.9 event.

  18. Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model.

    PubMed

    Boonyagul, Sani; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2014-07-01

    Aloe vera is a traditional wound healing medicine. We hypothesized acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, could affect bone formation. Primary rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were treated with various concentrations of acemannan. New DNA synthesis, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H] thymidine incorporation assay, ELISA, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In an animal study, mandibular right incisors of male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted and an acemannan treated sponge was placed in the socket. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the mandibles were dissected. Bone formation was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histopathological examination. The in vitro results revealed acemannan significantly increased BMSC proliferation, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin expression, and mineralization. In-vivo results showed acemannan-treated groups had higher bone mineral density and faster bone healing compared with untreated controls. A substantial ingrowth of bone trabeculae was observed in acemannan-treated groups. These data suggest acemannan could function as a bioactive molecule inducing bone formation by stimulating BMSCs proliferation, differentiation into osteoblasts, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Acemannan could be a candidate natural biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  19. In vitro anti-proliferative activities of Aloe perryi flowers extract on human liver, colon, breast, lung, prostate and epithelial cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; El-Shaibany, Amina; Al-Jassas, Ebtesam; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Farshori, Nida Nayyar

    2016-03-01

    Natural products, especially plant extracts have offered vast opportunities in the field of drug development due to its chemical diversity. The genus Aloe has for long been used for medicinal purposes in different parts of the world. The present study was designed to investigate the phytochemicals and anti-cancer potential of Aloe perryi flowers. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and proteins. While alkaloids and saponins were absent. The percentage inhibition of various extracts (viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous) of A. perryi flowers on seven human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa) has been evaluated using MTT assay. All the extracts significantly inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The petroleum ether extract was most active, where the inhibition was recorded as 92.6%, 93.9%, 92%, 90.9%, 88.9%, 82% and 85.7% for HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A-549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa cells, respectively. The results also revealed that HCT-116 cells were more sensitive among all the cell lines studied.

  20. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    SciTech Connect

    Selvakumar, D.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Jayavel, R.; Thenammai, A. N.; Hemamalini, R.

    2015-06-24

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application.

  1. Crop Species Recognition and Discrimination Paddy-Rice from Reaped-Fields by the Radar Vegetation Index (rvi) of ALOS-2/PALSAR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Japanese ALOS-2 satellite was launched on May 24th, 2014. It has the L-band SAR, PALSAR-2. Kim,Y. and van Zyl, J.J. proposed a kind of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) as RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv + 2* σ0hv) by L-band full-polarimetric radar data. Kim, Y. and Jackson, T.J., et al. applied the equation into rice and soybean by multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer above 4.16 meters from the ground. Their report showed the L-band was the most promising wave length for estimating LAI and NDVI from RVI. The author tried to apply the analysis to the actual paddy field areas, both Inashiki region and Miyagi region in the eastern main island, "Honshu", areas of Japan by ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data in the summer season, the main crop growing time, of 2015. Judging from conventional methods, it will be possible to discriminate paddy rice growing fields from reaped fields or the other crops growing fields by the PALSAR-2 data. But the RVI value is vaguely related to such land use or biomass at the present preliminary experiment. The continuous research by the additional PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data should be desired.

  2. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel powder prevents UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity via suppression of overexpression of MMPs in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yao, Ruiquing; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the effects of oral Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing Aloe sterols on skin elasticity and the extracellular matrix in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated hairless mice. Ten-week-old hairless mice were fed diets containing 0.3% AVGP for 8 weeks and irradiated UVB for 6 weeks. Mice treated with AVGP showed significant prevention of the UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity. To investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression of skin elasticity loss, we measured the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and -13. AVGP prevented both the UVB-induced increases in MMPs expressions. Moreover, we investigated hyaluronic acid (HA) content of mice dorsal skin and gene expression of HA synthase-2 (Has2). In the results, AVGP oral administration prevented UVB-induced decreasing in skin HA content and Has2 expression and attenuates the UVB-induced decrease in serum adiponectin, which promotes Has2 expression. These results suggested that AVGP has the ability to prevent the skin photoaging. PMID:27045316

  3. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, D.; Thenammai, A. N.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Hemamalini, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application.

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after oral administration of a rhubarb peony decoction and rhubarb extract to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xin; Li, Jun-Song; Peng, Wen-Wen; Liu, Xiao; Yang, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li-Hua; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to clarify the rationality of herbaceous compatibility of a rhubarb peony decoction (DaHuang-Mu-Dan-Tang, RPD) by comparing the pharmacokinetics of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin in rats' plasma after oral administration of RPD and rhubarb extract. A rapid, sensitive LC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of the plasma concentrations of the three analytes after oral administration RPD and rhubarb extract. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin in rats' plasma after oral administration. Compared with administration of single rhubarb, the C(max) of rhein in RPD was decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the T1/2 of aloe-emodin and emodin were increased significantly (p < 0.05) after administration of RPD. In addition, the T(max) of rhein and emodin were also increased significantly (p < 0.05) in RPD. These results indicated that the absorption of rhein in rats was suppressed after oral administration RPD. Moreover, The time for rhein and emodin to reach the peak concentration was delayed and the elimination of aloe-emodin and emodin was also postponed in RPD. This study could provide a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine in terms of pharmacokinetics.

  5. Combining ALOS-PALSAR imagery with field water level measurements for flood mapping of a tropical floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Hoekman, D. H.; Vissers, M. A. M.; Hoitink, A. J. F.

    2011-10-01

    Radar imagery is potentially useful for the identification, mapping, and measurement of streams, lakes, and wetlands. Many studies showed that comparison of two consecutive radar images is useful for determining flood extent. However, the use of radar data series for flood mapping is still rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of ALOS-PALSAR imagery for observing the dynamics of the Mahakam River floodplain in Kalimantan, Indonesia, by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, lakes and at two peatland locations, using arrays of pressure transducers. The first peatland (P1) is part of the Mahakam floodplain, representing open peat area dominated by shrub and reed. The second peatland (P2) represents a forest covered peatland. A series of PALSAR imagery (polarity: HH; pixel spacing: 50 m) covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 and 2008 was collected. A land use/land cover map was available from a previous analysis of PALSAR imagery. To analyze Radar backscatter behavior for different land cover types, several regions of interest were selected, based on the land cover classes. A number of land cover classes (medium shrub, high shrub, fern/grass, and secondary forest) were found to be sensitive to flooding, whereas in some other classes (peat forest, riverine forest and tree plantation) backscatter signatures remained almost unchanged with flood inundation. Correlations between water level and radar backscatter of the regions of interest were used to distinguish between three types of flooding signal, viz. flooding of low vegetation, flooding of high vegetation, and the boundary shift of lakes. An analysis of the relationship between radar backscatter and water levels was carried out in each of the regions of interest. For lakes and shrub covered peatland in P1, where the range of water level variation was high, a good water level-backscatter correlation was

  6. Detection of Area Changes in River Mouthbars at the Mekong River Delta using ALOS/PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Uehara, K.; Tamura, T.; Saito, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Projected sea-level rise by the year 2100 would be ~1m recently and its negative impact on the coastal zone has been pointed out, particularly for mega-deltas in Asia by the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). The relative sea-level rise varies with specific conditions and processes over broad spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, long-term monitoring of geomorphological changes in coastal areas over wide areas is of highly interest and importance for coastal management. However, due to limited data availability and accessibility in developing countries, there is not enough systematic coastal monitoring. The Mekong River Delta is one of typical mega-deltas in Asia, which has a low-lying wide delta-plain located in Cambodia to South Vietnam. Sediment and water discharges of the Mekong River are controlled by the monsoon with high and low discharge in summer (wet season) and winter (dry season), respectively. Therefore, technologies such as SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. In this study, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired over a period from December 2006 to January 2011 are analyzed to investigate the relation between the sea level and the shape of mouthbars in the Mekong River. Level-1.0 PALSAR data were processed, coregistered, and geocoded to make SAR backscatter intensity images. River mouthbars with strong backscatter, which is surrounded by the water with weak backscatter, are successfully extracted using a histogram thresholding algorithm. Estimated areas of river mouthbars, which are located at the central part of the delta and openly faced to the South China Sea, gradually increase on an annual time scale. These river mouthbars are growing to the seaward. Besides this overall increasing trend, seasonal variations of areas are observed; these correlate with

  7. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, Estelle; Amelung, Falk; Wdowinski, Shimon; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    The societal impacts of land subsidence are colossal, both in terms of decrease in water resources and in threat to human life due to buildings damages and increase in flood risk from rivers. Most subsidence surveys in Mexico focus on Mexico City, known to subside since the 1950s, while a few studies have documented the occurrence of land subsidence in other medium to large-seized cities of central Mexico. However, because most works target one single city, they fail to reveal the bigger picture. Here we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time-series analysis of ALOS L-band SAR data to resolve land subsidence in an area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms. The data reveal significant subsidence in seventeen cities, including sixteen with over 100, 000 inhabitants and allow mapping of subsidence with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Land subsidence is detected, from east to west, in Puebla (population of 2.5 million), Mexico city (population of 21 million), Toluca de Lerdo (population of 427K), Queretaro (population of 825K), San Luis de la Paz (population of 101K), Celaya (population of 266K), San Luis Potosi (population of 936K), Morelia (population of 537K), Salamanca (population of 144K), Irapuato (population of 317K), Silao (population of 147K), Leon (population of 1.4 million), Aguascalientes (population of 735K), Zamora de Hidalgo (population of 186K), Guadalajara (population of 3.8 million), Ahuacatlan (population of 6.5K), and Tepic (population of 261K). We additionally identify subsidence in 3 agricultural areas outside major urban centers: 20 km southwest of the city of San Luis de la Paz, south of Villa de Reyes (40 km south of San Luis Potosi), and west of villa de Arista (50 km north of San Luis Potosi). The time-series suggest nearly constant rates of subsidence at most the locations over the 2-years period spanned by the SAR

  8. Correlating mass physical properties with ALOS reflectance spectra for intertidal sediments from the Ba Lat Estuary (northern Vietnam): an exploratory laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi; Koike, Katsuaki; Tue, Nguyen Tai

    2013-08-01

    Characterization of the sediment composition of tidal flats and monitoring of their spatiotemporal changes has become an important part of the sustainable management of coastal environments. To accurately classify sediments through remote sensing, a comprehensive understanding of sediment reflectance spectra is indispensable. The present laboratory-based study explores the performance of the high spatial resolution (10 × 10 m) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) launched in 2006. Relationships between reflectance spectra (bands 1 to 4) and four typical mass physical properties were investigated under wet and dry experimental conditions for intertidal sediments sampled near the Ba Lat Estuary in northern Vietnam. Reflectance in the near-infrared region corresponding to ALOS band 4 (0.76-0.89 μm) was found (1) to have a strong negative correlation with sand content (dry wt%) under both wet and dry conditions (linear correlation coefficient r = -0.7859 and -0.8094, respectively), (2) to increase with decreasing relative water content (%) in a given sediment type (r = -0.7748 to -0.9367 for mud, sandy mud, muddy sand, and sand), (3) to have a positive correlation with organic matter content (r = 0.7610 and 0.6460 under wet and dry conditions for contents >0.20 dry wt%), and (4) to be insignificantly correlated with mineral composition assessed in terms of contents (wt%) of quartz, clay minerals, and mica group minerals. Positive relationships between reflectance and water content for the pooled data of all sediment types (r = 0.6395) or organic matter content contrast with previous findings, and can be attributed to close interrelationships between these properties and the predominance of sand content as controlling factor of reflectance. This study clarifies that ALOS band 4 provides the most useful imagery for intertidal monitoring because its reflectance, as simulated using the laboratory data, shows the strongest correlation with sand content. In a next step

  9. An observational study of dust nucleation in Mira (o Ceti). I. Variable features of AlO and other Al-bearing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, T.; Wong, K. T.; Schmidt, M. R.; Müller, H. S. P.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Cherchneff, I.; Menten, K. M.; Keller, D.; Brünken, S.; Winters, J. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Dust is efficiently produced by cool giant stars, but the condensation of inorganic dust is poorly understood. Observations of key aluminum bearing molecules around evolved stars has enabled us to investigate the nucleation of alumina (Al2O3) dust in the gas. Aims: We aim to identify and characterize aluminum bearing species in the circumstellar gas of Mira (o Ceti) in order to elucidate their role in the production of Al2O3 dust. Methods: We used multiepoch spectral line observations at (sub-)millimeter, far-infrared, and optical wavelengths including: maps with ALMA that probe the gas distribution in the immediate vicinity of the star at ~30 mas; observations with ALMA, APEX, and Herschel in 2013-2015 for studying cycle and inter-cycle variability of the rotational lines of Al-bearing molecules; optical records as far back as 1965 to examine variations in electronic transitions over time spans of days to decades; and velocity measurements and excitation analysis of the spectral features that constrain the physical parameters of the gas. Results: Three diatomic molecules AlO, AlOH, and AlH, and atomic Al i are the main observable aluminum species in Mira, although a significant fraction of aluminum might reside in other species that have not yet been identified. Strong irregular variability in the (sub-)millimeter and optical features of AlO (possibly the direct precursor of Al2O3) indicates substantial changes in the excitation conditions, or varying abundance that is likely related to shocks in the star. The inhomogeneous distribution of AlO might influence the spatial and temporal characteristics of dust production. Conclusions: We are unable to quantitatively trace aluminum depletion from the gas, but the rich observational material constrains time-dependent chemical networks. Future improvements should include spectroscopic characterization of higher aluminum oxides, coordinated observations of dust and gas species at different variability phases

  10. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p < 0.05) weight gain, absolute growth rate and specific growth rate. Feed intake significantly increased in fish fed with A. vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p < 0.05). Several haemato-biochemical indices were examined before and after fish were challenged with S. iniae pathogen containing 7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells mL(-1). A. vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in red blood cells, hematocrits (Hb), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, serum total protein, glucose and cortisol after challenge when compared to unsupplemented ones. Meanwhile, 4% A. vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p < 0.05) in RBC, Hb, Ht, WBC, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) after challenge compared to unsupplemented ones and other supplemented ones. In addition, lower mean corpuscular volume values (MCV) (p < 0.05) were observed in fish fed with A. vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p < 0.05) of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) than those fed unsupplemented diet and 4% A. vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) within experimental groups after challenge; N/L ratio in A. vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera

  11. Microparticles of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan: microscopic, a nuclear imaging and an in vivo test analysis for burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Albernaz, Martha S; Canema, Daniel; Weismüller, Gilberto; Barros, Eduardo Bede; Magalhães, Luciana; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-02-01

    The use of drug-loaded nanoparticles and microparticles has been increasing, especially for cosmetic and drug delivery purposes. In this work, a new microparticle formulation was developed for use in the healing process of skin burns in a composition of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan. In order to observe the morphological properties, Raman and atomic force microscopy evaluation were performed. The biodistribution studies were analyzed by using a nuclear methodology, labeling the microparticles with Technetium-99m and in vivo test was procedure to analyzed the cicatrization process. The results of AFM analysis show the formation and the adherence property of the microparticles. Raman analyses show the distribution of each component in the microparticle. The nuclear method used shows that the biodistribution of the microparticles remained in the skin. The in vivo cicatrization test showed that the poloxamer gel containing the microparticles make a better cicatrization in relation to the other formulations tested.

  12. Factors of Susceptibility of Human Myiasis Caused by the New World Screw-Worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista-da-Silva, José A.; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo E.; Queiroz, Margareth M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out between July 2007 and June 2008 and reports on the occurrence of human myiasis caused by the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in São Gonçalo in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Liquid or solid vaseline was used to suffocate the larvae, which were then preserved in 70% ethanol and sent to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz for identification. C. hominivorax were identified in all 22 cases of myiasis. There were 12 male and 10 female patients with ages ranging from 03 to 71. Ethnically the highest incidence was among black people, with 17 cases. Open wounds were the main cause of the parasitosis, whereas poor personal hygiene, the low educational level, alcoholism, bedridden patients, and physical or mental disability were possibly secondary factors; in addition to all these factors the income of the patients was very low. PMID:21526934

  13. Monitoring of Western Corn Rootworm Damage in Maize Fields by Using Integrated Radar (ALOS PALSAR) and Optical (IRS LISS, AWiFS) Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nador, Gizella; Fenyes, Diana; Surek, Gyorgy; Vasas, Laszlo

    2008-11-01

    The gradual dispersion of western corn rootworm (WCR) is becoming a serious maize pest in Europe, and all over the world. In 2008 using remote sensing data, the Remote Sensing Centre of Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing (FÖMI RSC) carried out this project to identify WCR larval damage. Our goal with the present project is to assess and identify the disorder and structural changes caused by WCR larvae using optical (IRS-P6 AWiFS, IRS-P6 LISS, SPOT4 and SPOT5) and polarimetic radar (ALOS PALSAR) satellite images. The project aims to identify the extent of WCR damaged cornfields using both polarimetic radar images and optical satellite data time series. Findings were tested against on-the-spot ground assessments. Using radar polarimetry increased the accuracy significantly. The final results have implications for plant protection strategy, farming practices, pesticide producers, state authorities and research institutes.

  14. Preliminary Study on the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) Application to Actual Paddy Fields by ALOS/PALSAR Full-polarimetry SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Kim and van Zyl (2001) proposed a kind of radar vegetation index (RVI). RVI = 4*min(λ1, λ2, λ3) / (λ1 + λ2 + λ3) They modified the equation as follows. (2009) RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv +σ0hv ) by L-band full-polarimetric SAR data. They applied it into rice crop and soybean. (Y.Kim, T.Jackson et al., 2012) They compared RVI for L-, C- and X-bands to crop growth data, LAI and NDVI. They found L-band RVI was well correlated with Vegetation Water Content, LAI and NDVI. But the field data were collected by the multifrequency polarimetric scatterometer. The platform height was 4.16 meters from the ground. The author tried to apply the method to actual paddy fields near Tsukuba science city in Japan using ALOS/PALSAR, full-polarimetry L-band SAR data. The staple crop in Eastern Asia is rice and paddy fields are dominant land use. A rice-planting machine comes into wide use in this areas. The young rice plants were bedded regularly ridged line in the paddy fields by the machine. The space between two ridges of rice plants is about 30 cm and the wave length of PALSAR sensor is about 23 cm. Hence the Bragg scattering will appear depending upon the direction of the ridges of paddy fields. Once the Bragg scattering occurs, the backscattering values from the pixels should be very high comparing the surrounding region. Therefore the radar vegetation index (RVI) would be saturated. The RVI did not follow the increasing of vegetation anymore. Japan has launched ALOS-2 satellite and it has PALSAR-2, L-band SAR. Therefore RVI application product by PALSAR-2 will be watched with deep interest.

  15. Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss metabolic rate is affected by dietary Aloe vera inclusion but not by mounting an immune response against formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, F S; Urbinati, E C; Nash, G W; Gamperl, A K

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen consumption (MO2) of two groups of 10° C acclimated steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was measured for 72 h after they were given a 100 µl kg(-1) intraperitoneal injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish from both groups prior to, and 1 and 3 h after, they were given a 30 s net stress. The first group was fed an unaltered commercial diet for 4 weeks, whereas the second group was fed the same diet but with 0·5% (5 g kg(-1) ) Aloe vera powder added; A. vera has potential as an immunostimulant for use in aquaculture, but its effects on basal and acute phase response (APR)-related metabolic expenditures and stress physiology, are unknown. Injection of ASAL v. PBS had no measurable effect on the MO2 of O. mykiss indicating that the APR in this species is not associated with any net increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, incorporating 0·5% A. vera powder into the feed decreased routine metabolic rate by c. 8% in both injection groups and standard metabolic rate in the ASAL-injected group (by c. 4 mg O2 kg(-1) h(-1) ; 5%). Aloe vera fed fish had resting cortisol levels that were approximately half of those in fish on the commercial diet (c. 2·5 v. 5·0 ng ml(-1) ), but neither this difference nor those post-stress reached statistical significance (P > 0·05).

  16. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of 30-M Resolution Alos, Aster, and Srtm Global Dems Over Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, J. R.; Makinano-Santillan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALOS World 3D - 30 m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30 m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM- 30 m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30 m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30 m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30 m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER

  17. Land coverage classification using EO-1/Hyperion and ALOS/PALSAR: Possibility of combined analysis with different type of sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, E.; Furuta, R.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-12-01

    Hyper-spectral has huge advantage in determining the land surface coverage due to its spectral resolution and large number of bands, however, its swath is comparatively narrow, and there is cloud problem. In contrast, radar sensor can observe under almost all weather condition, and has wide observation swath. Therefore, if radar data can be used for the detection of land surface with hyper-spectral data, it will be useful tool for the monitoring in any field. However, there are not so many reports about the land-cover detection with combination use of both hyper-spectral data and SAR data so far. In our previous study, we detected wet area around Sendai Airport where suffered Tsunami by 2011 great earthquake in the northern Japan by combined analysis of satellite hyper-spectral and SAR data. In that study, the possible wet regions were successfully detected objectively in wide area. In this study, we adopted similar method on soil surface to investigate the relationship between land coverage classification by hyper-spectral data (EO-1/Hyperion) and physical values from L-band SAR (ALOS/PALSAR), and to study how to apply the combined analysis of hyper-spectral and SAR data to land coverage monitoring (e.g. landslides). Mauna Kea, Hawaii was selected as the test site of this study because whose land coverage shows variety; various volcanic soils, mixture of soil and vegetation, and lava flow from Mauna Loa from top to hillside. The Hyperion equipment has 242 channels but some of them include full noise or have no data. We selected channels by checking each channel, and select 105 channels. Before analysis, the atmospheric correction was applied by ENVI/FLAASH for the selected channels. The corrected data were analyzed by both unsupervised and supervised classification (based on the result from field work). Each classified results were extracted as vector data. For SAR data analysis, Dual Polarization data (FBD) is selected. SAR data were converted to backscattered

  18. Oral Administration of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and Honey Improves the Host Body Composition and Modulates Proteolysis Through Reduction of Tumor Progression and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, Rebeka; de Andrade, Rafael Siqueira; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has a dual role in cancer; it is linked with tumorigenic events and host wasting, as well as senescence and apoptosis. Researchers have demonstrated the importance of coadjuvant therapies in cancer treatment, and Aloe vera and honey have immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. The preventive and therapeutic effects of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and honey in tumor progression and host wasting were analyzed in Walker 256 carcinoma-bearing rats. The animals were distributed into the following groups: C=control-untreated, W=tumor-untreated, WA=treated after tumor induction, A=control-treated, AW=treated before tumor induction, and AWA=treated before and after tumor induction. Proteolysis and oxidative stress were analyzed in the tumor, liver, muscle, and myocardial tissues. The results suggest that the Aloe vera and honey treatment affect the tumor and host by different mechanisms; the treatment-modulated host wasting and cachexia, whereas it promoted oxidative stress and damage in tumor tissues, particularly in a therapeutic context (WA).

  19. Three-dimensional deformation mapping of a dike intrusion event in Sakurajima in 2015 by exploiting the right- and left-looking ALOS-2 InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Yu; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Yarai, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    One of the limitations of the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is its one-dimensional measurement capability. Although three-dimensional (3-D) deformation can be studied if there are three or more measurements with different viewing geometries, it has not been executed because almost all SAR data are acquired using a right-looking geometry. For the Sakurajima volcanic activity on 15 August 2015, ALOS-2 conducted SAR observations from four different viewing directions, ascending/descending and right-/left-looking, enabling the retrieval of 3-D deformation data only from the InSAR results. We have retrieved 3-D deformation with high precision and resolution by a weighted least squares approach. Expansive deformation of over 10 cm has been observed with standard errors of 0.8, 3.4, and 0.7 cm for east-west, north-south, and up-down components, respectively. It is inferred that a dike of 1.7 × 106m3 volume intruded beneath the Showa crater at a depth of 0.4-1.2 km.

  20. Aloe-Emodin Protects RIN-5F (Pancreatic β-cell) Cell from Glucotoxicity via Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine and Downregulation of Bax and Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subash-Babu, P.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the protective effect of aloe-emodin (AE) from high glucose induced toxicity in RIN-5F (pancreatic β-cell) cell and restoration of its function was analyzed. RIN-5F cells have been cultured in high glucose (25 mM glucose) condition, with and without AE treatment. RIN-5F cells cultured in high glucose decreased cell viability and increased ROS levels after 48 hr compared with standard medium (5.5 mM glucose). Glucotoxicity was confirmed by significantly increased ROS production, increased pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-1β,) & decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-6&IL-10) cytokine levels, increased DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found increased Bax, caspase 3, Fadd, and Fas and significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression after 48 hr. RIN-5F treated with both high glucose and AE (20 μM) decreased ROS generation and prevent RIN-5F cell from glucotoxicity. In addition, AE treated cells cultured in high glucose were transferred to standard medium, normal responsiveness to glucose was restored within 8hr and normal basal insulin release within 24 hr was achieved when compared to high glucose. PMID:26759701

  1. Rapid Damage Mapping for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha Earthquake using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data from COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-2 Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S. H.; Hudnut, K. W.; Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Macdonald, A.; Sacco, P.; Gurrola, E. M.; Manipon, G.; Liang, C.; Fielding, E. J.; Milillo, P.; Hua, H.; Coletta, A.

    2015-12-01

    The April 25, 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake caused more than 8,000 fatalities and widespread building damage in central Nepal. Four days after the earthquake, the Italian Space Agency's (ASI's) COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite acquired data over Kathmandu area. Nine days after the earthquake, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) ALOS-2 SAR satellite covered larger area. Using these radar observations, we rapidly produced damage proxy maps derived from temporal changes in Interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence. These maps were qualitatively validated through comparison with independent damage analyses by National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the UNITAR's (United Nations Institute for Training and Research's) Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT), and based on our own visual inspection of DigitalGlobe's WorldView optical pre- vs. post-event imagery. Our maps were quickly released to responding agencies and the public, and used for damage assessment, determining inspection/imaging priorities, and reconnaissance fieldwork.

  2. Measurement and analysis of atomic hydrogen and diatomic molecular AlO, C2, CN, and TiO spectra following laser-induced optical breakdown.

    PubMed

    Parigger, Christian G; Woods, Alexander C; Witte, Michael J; Swafford, Lauren D; Surmick, David M

    2014-02-14

    In this work, we present time-resolved measurements of atomic and diatomic spectra following laser-induced optical breakdown. A typical LIBS arrangement is used. Here we operate a Nd:YAG laser at a frequency of 10 Hz at the fundamental wavelength of 1,064 nm. The 14 nsec pulses with anenergy of 190 mJ/pulse are focused to a 50 µm spot size to generate a plasma from optical breakdown or laser ablation in air. The microplasma is imaged onto the entrance slit of a 0.6 m spectrometer, and spectra are recorded using an 1,800 grooves/mm grating an intensified linear diode array and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) or an ICCD. Of interest are Stark-broadened atomic lines of the hydrogen Balmer series to infer electron density. We also elaborate on temperature measurements from diatomic emission spectra of aluminum monoxide (AlO), carbon (C2), cyanogen (CN), and titanium monoxide (TiO). The experimental procedures include wavelength and sensitivity calibrations. Analysis of the recorded molecular spectra is accomplished by the fitting of data with tabulated line strengths. Furthermore, Monte-Carlo type simulations are performed to estimate the error margins. Time-resolved measurements are essential for the transient plasma commonly encountered in LIBS.

  3. Shoreline changes and vertical displacement of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake Mw 8.1 revealed by ALOS PALSAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, Ashar Muda; Isezaki, Nobuhiro

    The Solomon Islands earthquake with magnitude Mw = 8.1 occurred on 2 April 2007 at 7:39 local time. We used six L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data to roughly estimate the shoreline and vertical displacements associated with this earthquake. We processed the raw SAR data with the SIGMA-SAR software package, produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Our measurements showed good agreement with field observations performed by Japanese scientists just a few weeks after the earthquake. We estimated the dislocation related to this earthquake between Ranongga Island and Simbo Island. Moreover, we compared the radar imagery analysis data with Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and found that the SAR images were more efficient for investigating vertical displacements than similar techniques based on data from optical sensors. Measurements of offset cross-correlation intensities in SAR images indicated about 1.4 m of uplift on southwestern New Georgia Island.

  4. Measurement and Analysis of Atomic Hydrogen and Diatomic Molecular AlO, C2, CN, and TiO Spectra Following Laser-induced Optical Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.; Witte, Michael J.; Swafford, Lauren D.; Surmick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present time-resolved measurements of atomic and diatomic spectra following laser-induced optical breakdown. A typical LIBS arrangement is used. Here we operate a Nd:YAG laser at a frequency of 10 Hz at the fundamental wavelength of 1,064 nm. The 14 nsec pulses with anenergy of 190 mJ/pulse are focused to a 50 µm spot size to generate a plasma from optical breakdown or laser ablation in air. The microplasma is imaged onto the entrance slit of a 0.6 m spectrometer, and spectra are recorded using an 1,800 grooves/mm grating an intensified linear diode array and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) or an ICCD. Of interest are Stark-broadened atomic lines of the hydrogen Balmer series to infer electron density. We also elaborate on temperature measurements from diatomic emission spectra of aluminum monoxide (AlO), carbon (C2), cyanogen (CN), and titanium monoxide (TiO). The experimental procedures include wavelength and sensitivity calibrations. Analysis of the recorded molecular spectra is accomplished by the fitting of data with tabulated line strengths. Furthermore, Monte-Carlo type simulations are performed to estimate the error margins. Time-resolved measurements are essential for the transient plasma commonly encountered in LIBS. PMID:24561875

  5. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Aloe saponaria Haw in a model of UVB-induced paw sunburn in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; Trevisan, Gabriela; Hoffmeister, Carin; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Walker, Cristiani Isabel Banderò; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Silva, Cássia Regina; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-04-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation mainly affects biological tissues by inducing an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which leads to deleterious outcomes for the skin, including pain and inflammation. As a protective strategy, many studies have focused on the use of natural products. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Aloe saponaria on nociceptive, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters in a model of UVB-induced sunburn in adult male Wistar rats. Sunburned animals were topically treated with vehicle (base cream), 1% silver sulfadiazine (positive control) or A. saponaria (10%) once a day for 6days. UVB-induced nociception (allodynia and hyperalgesia), inflammation (edema and leukocyte infiltration) and oxidative stress (increases in H2O2, protein carbonyl levels and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in non protein thiol content) were reduced by both A. saponaria and sulfadiazine topical treatment. Furthermore, A. saponaria or its constituents aloin and rutin reduced the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in skin homogenates in vitro. Our results demonstrate that topical A. saponaria treatment displayed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in a UVB-induced sunburn model, and these effects seem to be related to its antioxidant components.

  7. Chlorophyll and suspended sediment mapping to the Caribbean Sea from rivers in the capital city of the Dominican Republic using ALOS AVNIR-2 data.

    PubMed

    Sakuno, Yuji; Miño, Esteban R; Nakai, Satoshi; Mutsuda, Hidemi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Castro, Rolando; García, Amarillis; Peña, Rosanna; Rodríguez, Marcos; Depratt, G Conrado

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to study the distribution of contaminants in rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended sediment (SS) as markers and ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite sensor data. The Haina River (HN) and Ozama and Isabela Rivers (OZ-IS) that flow through the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, were chosen. First, in situ spectral reflectance/Chl-a and SS datasets obtained from these rivers were acquired in March 2011 (case A: with no rain influence) and June 2011 (case B: with rain influence), and the estimation algorithm of Chl-a and SS using AVNIR-2 data was developed from the datasets. Moreover, the developed algorithm was applied to AVNIR-2 data in November 2010 for case A and August 2010 for case B. Results revealed that for Chl-a and SS estimations under cases A and B conditions, the reflectance ratio of AVNIR-2 band 4 and band 3 (AV4/AV3) and the reflectance of AVNIR-2 band 4 (AV4) were effective. The Chl-a and SS mapping results obtained using AVNIR-2 data corresponded with the field survey results. Finally, an outline of the distribution of contaminants at the mouth of the river that flows into the Caribbean Sea was obtained for both rivers in cases A and B.

  8. Green route for preparing extra-small TiO2 nanoparticles using aloe extracts and their application in degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Fang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Chunfeng; Fu, Yunzhi; Chen, Yongjun; Xue, Xinghua; Mazidi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with high-photocatalysis properties both in ultraviolet and visible-light regions were synthesized via a simple sol-gel method, and an aloe leaf extract (ALE) was used as the cap. When the Ti)∶)CHOH∶ALE volume ratio was equal to 0.5∶8∶40, the reaction time was 6 h, and crystallization occurred at 80°C for 2 h, the TiO2NPs had been synthesized. XRD analysis showed that the structure of TiO2NPs without thermal treatment was anatase. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed their average size, which was around 5 nm. The products showed an excellent photocatalytic property for methyl orange in the presence of UV and sunlight with the characterization of UV-vis. The photocatalytic activity was optimized by adjusting the amount of TiO2, the pH value, and the calcination temperature. Results indicated that ALE acted as a cap and nano-TiO2 could be synthesized without calcination.

  9. Evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake efficiency of zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with Aloe Vera in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    K S, Joshy; Sharma, Chandra P; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Sandeep, K; Thomas, Sabu; Pothen, Laly A

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles of stearic acid modified with Aloe Vera (AV) have been prepared via simple emulsion solvent evaporation method which showed excellent stability at room temperature and refrigerated condition. The nanoparticles were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of modified stearic acid nanoparticles. The inclusion of AV to stearic acid decreased the crystallinity and improved the hydrophilicity of lipid nanoparticles and thereby improved the drug loading efficacy of lipid nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that, the average particle size of unmodified (bare) nanoparticles was 45.66±12.22nm and modified solid lipid nanoparticles showed an average size of 265.61±80.44nm. Solid lipid nanoparticles with well-defined morphology were tested in vitro for their possible application in drug delivery. Cell culture studies using C6 glioma cells on the nanoparticles showed enhanced growth and proliferation of cells without exhibiting any toxicity. In addition, normal cell morphology and improved uptake were observed by fluorescence microscopy images of rhodamine labeled modified solid lipid nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles. The cellular uptake study suggested that these nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery system to enhance the uptake of antiviral drug by brain cells and it could be a suitable drug carrier system for the treatment of HIV. PMID:27207037

  10. Anti-inflammatory and Wound Healing Activities of Aloe vera, Honey and Milk Ointment on Second-Degree Burns in Rats.

    PubMed

    Farzadinia, Parviz; Jofreh, Niloofar; Khatamsaz, Saeed; Movahed, Ali; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Bargahi, Afshar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was morphological and morphometric investigation of burn healing impacts of an honey, milk, and Aloe vera (HMA) ointment on experimentally induced second-degree burns, to approve the medicinal basis of its use in Iranian traditional medicine. A total of 21 male Albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g were divided into 3 groups of 7, including (1) control group, (2) positive control group, and (3) the treatment group that were treated with eucerin, silver sulfadiazine 3% and HMA ointment 5% respectively.After anesthetizing, the second-degree burns (1 cm(2) areas) were made on the back of the animals using a digital controlled hot plaque, and each group was treated topically, based on the time scheduled. Then, skin punch biopsies were obtained on the 1st, 14th, and 28th days of post-burn induction; processed; and stained using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome methods. The results showed that HMA ointment induces cell proliferation, increasing the wound closure rate, blood vessel counts, and collagen fiber density in treated animals. It also reduced the wound secretions, inflammation, and scar formation. According to the obtained morphological, morphometric results, we concluded that the traditional HMA ointment, which is rich in therapeutic biomaterials and minerals, has multiple healing effects on burn wounds in rats. PMID:27217089

  11. Above-ground biomass and carbon estimates of Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis forests using QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, M. D.; Tripathi, P.; Mishra, B.; Kumar, Shashi; Chitale, V. S.; Behera, Soumit K.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to mitigate climate change in tropical countries such as India require information on forest structural components i.e., biomass and carbon for conservation steps to be implemented successfully. The present study focuses on investigating the potential use of a one time, QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR L-band 25 m data to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) using a water cloud model (WCM) in a wildlife sanctuary in India. A significant correlation was obtained between the SAR-derived backscatter coefficient (σ°) and the field measured AGB, with the maximum coefficient of determination for cross-polarized (HV) σ° for Shorea robusta, and the weakest correlation was observed with co-polarized (HH) σ° for Tectona grandis forests. The biomass of S. robusta and that of T. grandis were estimated on the basis of field-measured data at 444.7 ± 170.4 Mg/ha and 451 ± 179.4 Mg/ha respectively. The mean biomass values estimated using the WCM varied between 562 and 660 Mg/ha for S. robusta; between 590 and 710 Mg/ha for T. grandis using various polarized data. Our results highlighted the efficacy of one time, fully polarized PALSAR data for biomass and carbon estimate in a dense forest.

  12. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. Results: At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. Conclusions: The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract. PMID:27757271

  13. EXAFS analysis of cations distribution in structure of Co1-xNixFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongpratat, Unchista; Maensiri, Santi; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Effect of cations distribution upon EXAFS analysis on magnetic properties of Co1-xNixFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles prepared by the hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution were studied. XRD analysis confirmed a pure phase of cubic spinel ferrite of all samples. Changes in lattice parameter and particle size depended on the Ni content with partial substitution and site distributions of Co2+, Ni2+ ions of different ionic radii at both tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the crystal structure. Particle sizes of samples estimated by TEM images were found to be in the range of 10.87-62.50 nm. The VSM results at room temperature indicated the ferrimagnetic behavior of all samples. Superparamagnetic behavior was observed in NiFe2O4 sample. The coercivity (Hc) and remanance (Mr) values were related to the particle sizes of samples. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was increased by a factor of 1.4 to a value of 57.57 emu/g, whereas the coercivity (Hc) was decreased by a factor of 20 to a value of 63.15 Oe for a sample with x = 0.75. In addition to the cations distribution, the increase of aspect ratio (surface to volume ratio) due to the decrease of particle size could significantly affect the magnetic properties of the materials.

  14. Band-gap engineering of La1‑x Nd x AlO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) perovskite using density functional theory: A modified Becke Johnson potential study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep; D, P. Rai; A, Shankar; M, P. Ghimire; Anup Pradhan, Sakhya; T, P. Sinha; R, Khenata; S, Bin Omran; R, K. Thapa

    2016-06-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the Nd-doped Rare earth aluminate, La1‑x Nd x AlO3 (x = 0% to 100%) alloys are studied using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory. The effects of the Nd substitution in LaAlO3 are studied using the supercell calculations. The computed electronic structure with the modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential based approximation indicates that the La1‑x Nd x AlO3 alloys may possess half-metallic (HM) behaviors when doped with Nd of a finite density of states at the Fermi level (E F). The direct and indirect band gaps are studied each as a function of x which is the concentration of Nd-doped LaAlO3. The calculated magnetic moments in the La1‑x Nd x AlO3 alloys are found to arise mainly from the Nd-4f state. A probable half-metallic nature is suggested for each of these systems with supportive integral magnetic moments and highly spin-polarized electronic structures in these doped systems at E F. The observed decrease of the band gap with the increase in the concentration of Nd doping in LaAlO3 is a suitable technique for harnessing useful spintronic and magnetic devices. Project supported by the DST-SERB, Dy (Grant No. SERB/3586/2013-14), the UGCBSR, FRPS (Grant No. F.30-52/2014), the UGC (New Delhi, India) Inspire Fellowship DST (India), and the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University (Grant No. RPG-VPP-088). M P Ghimire thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany for the financial support.

  15. Band-gap engineering of La1-x Nd x AlO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) perovskite using density functional theory: A modified Becke Johnson potential study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep; D, P. Rai; A, Shankar; M, P. Ghimire; Anup Pradhan, Sakhya; T, P. Sinha; R, Khenata; S, Bin Omran; R, K. Thapa

    2016-06-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the Nd-doped Rare earth aluminate, La1-x Nd x AlO3 (x = 0% to 100%) alloys are studied using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory. The effects of the Nd substitution in LaAlO3 are studied using the supercell calculations. The computed electronic structure with the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential based approximation indicates that the La1-x Nd x AlO3 alloys may possess half-metallic (HM) behaviors when doped with Nd of a finite density of states at the Fermi level (E F). The direct and indirect band gaps are studied each as a function of x which is the concentration of Nd-doped LaAlO3. The calculated magnetic moments in the La1-x Nd x AlO3 alloys are found to arise mainly from the Nd-4f state. A probable half-metallic nature is suggested for each of these systems with supportive integral magnetic moments and highly spin-polarized electronic structures in these doped systems at E F. The observed decrease of the band gap with the increase in the concentration of Nd doping in LaAlO3 is a suitable technique for harnessing useful spintronic and magnetic devices. Project supported by the DST-SERB, Dy (Grant No. SERB/3586/2013-14), the UGCBSR, FRPS (Grant No. F.30-52/2014), the UGC (New Delhi, India) Inspire Fellowship DST (India), and the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University (Grant No. RPG-VPP-088). M P Ghimire thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany for the financial support.

  16. Protective effect of a mixture of Aloe vera and Silybum marianum against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwa; Cheon, Ho Jun; Yun, Nari; Oh, Sun-Tack; Shin, Eunju; Shim, Kyu Suk; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2009-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of ACTIValoe N-931 complex, a mixture of Aloe vera and Silybum marianum, against acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injuries were investigated. Acute hepatotoxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4) (50 microl/kg), and ACTIValoe N-931 complex at 85, 170, and 340 mg/kg was administered orally 48, 24, and 2 h before and 6 h after injection of CCl(4). Hepatotoxicity was assessed 24 h after CCl(4) treatment. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4) for 8 weeks (0.5 ml/kg, twice per week), and mice were treated with ACTIValoe N-931 complex at 85, 170, or 340 mg/kg once a day (p.o.). In both acute hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis, serum aminotransferase levels and lipid peroxidation were increased and the hepatic glutathione content was decreased. These changes were prevented by ACTIValoe N-931 complex. The ACTIValoe N-931 complex attenuated the increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mRNA expressions in acute hepatotoxicity. In antifibrotic experiments, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1) mRNA expression was attenuated by treatment with ACTIValoe N-931 complex. The ACTIValoe N-931 complex decreased the hepatic hydroxyproline content and the transforming growth factor-beta1 levels. Our results suggest that the ACTIValoe N-931 complex has hepatoprotective effects in both acute and chronic liver injuries induced by CCl(4).

  17. Complex faulting in the Quetta Syntaxis: fault source modeling of the October 28, 2008 earthquake sequence in Baluchistan, Pakistan, based on ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Furuya, Masato

    2015-09-01

    The Quetta Syntaxis in western Baluchistan, Pakistan, is the result of an oroclinal bend of the western mountain belt and serves as a junction for different faults. As this area also lies close to the left-lateral strike-slip Chaman fault, which marks the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, the resulting seismological behavior of this regime is very complex. In the region of the Quetta Syntaxis, close to the fold and thrust belt of the Sulaiman and Kirthar Ranges, an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 (Mw) occurred on October 28, 2008, which was followed by a doublet on the very next day. Six more shocks associated with these major events then occurred (one foreshock and five aftershocks), with moment magnitudes greater than 4. Numerous researchers have tried to explain the source of this sequence based on seismological, GPS, and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT)/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. Here, we used Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) InSAR data sets from both ascending and descending orbits that allow us to more completely detect the deformation signals around the epicentral region. The results indicated that the shock sequence can be explained by two right-lateral and two left-lateral strike-slip faults that also included reverse slip. The right-lateral faults have a curved geometry. Moreover, whereas previous studies have explained the aftershock crustal deformation with a different fault source, we found that the same left-lateral segment of the conjugate fault was responsible for the aftershocks. We thus confirmed the complex surface deformation signals from the moderate-sized earthquake. Intra-plate crustal bending and shortening often seem to be accommodated as conjugate faulting, without any single preferred fault orientation. We also detected two possible landslide areas along with the crustal deformation pattern.

  18. Recent land subsidence caused by the rapid urban development in the Hanoi urban region (Vietnam) using ALOS InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, V. K.; Doubre, C.; Weber, C.; Masson, F.; Gourmelen, N.

    2013-11-01

    Since the 1990s the land subsidence due to the rapid urbanization has been considered a severely destructive hazard in the center of Hanoi City. Although previous studies and measurements have quantified the subsiding deformation in Hanoi center, no data exist for the newly established districts in the south and the west, where construction development has been most significant and where groundwater pumping has been very intensive over the last decade. With a multi-temporal InSAR approach, we quantify the spatial distribution of the land subsidence in the whole Hanoi urban region using ALOS images over the 2007-2011 period. The map of the mean subsidence velocity reveals that the northern bank of the Red River appears stable, whereas some areas in southern bank are subsiding with a mean vertical rate up to 68 mm yr-1, especially within the three new urban districts of Hoang Mai, Ha Dong and Hoai Duc. We interpret the spatial distribution of the surface deformation as the combination of the nature of the unsaturated layer, the lowering of groundwater in the aquifers due to pumping withdrawal capacity, the increase of built-up surfaces and the type of building foundation. The time evolution deduced from the InSAR time series is consistent with previous leveling data and shows that the lowering rate of the surface slightly decreases till 2008. Then, a seasonal variation suggests that the deformation became non-stationary, with upward and downward transient displacements related to the charge and discharge of the aquifer following the changes between rainy and dry seasons.

  19. Line of Sight Displacement from ALOS-2 ScanSAR Interferometry: Burst Alignment and the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, E. O.; Natsuaki, R.; Xu, X.; Shimada, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Melgar, D.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    A challenge for traditional InSAR has been its limited spatial and temporal coverage especially for very large events, whose dimensions exceed the typical swath width of 70 - 100 km. This problem is addressed by the ScanSAR mode of the ALOS-2 satellite's PALSAR-2 instrument, which enables a repeat time of 2 weeks and a swath width of 350 km. We present InSAR line-of-sight displacement observations from ScanSAR images acquired within one week of both the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock. The Mw 7.3 aftershock extended the rupture area of the main shock toward the east, but also left a 20 km gap where the fault has little or no co-seismic slip. We estimate this un-slipped fault patch has the potential to generate a Mw 6.9 event. Our results are freely available online at http://topex.ucsd.edu/nepal, and we encourage their use in models of the fault slip and associated stress changes. We also discuss burst alignment of the PALSAR-2 ScanSAR images and show that while images acquired after February 8, 2015 are burst-aligned with each other, prior to that date the alignment drifted according to a sinusoidal function. We present an accurate formula for determining the burst offset between two scenes; the date ranges for burst alignment with post-February 8 images are July 22 - July 31, November 8 - November 17, December 16 - December 23 2014, and January 20 - January 29 2015.

  20. Aloe vera Plant Extracted Green Synthesis, Structural and Opto-Magnetic Characterizations of Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄Nano-Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, A; Durka, M; Selvi, M Amutha; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple Aloe vera plant extracted green synthesis route. Powder XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of single phase, cubic spinel gahnite structure without other impurities. The lattice parameter increased from 8.089 to 8.125 A with increasing CO²⁺ content. The average crystallite sizes were estimated using Scherrer's method, and it was found to be in the range of 15.72 nm to 26.53 nm. FT-IR spectra showed vibrational stretching frequencies corresponding to the spinel structure. HR-SEM and HR-TEM images showed the features of well particle shaped crystals with nano-sized grains. The elemental compositions of Co, Zn, Al and O were quantitatively obtained from EDX analysis. The band gap energy estimated using Kubelka-Munk method by UV-Visible DRS method, and the values are decreased with increasing the Co²⁺ content (4.12 eV to 3.67 eV), due to the formation of sub bands in between the energy gap. PL spectra showed emission bands in UV as well as in the visible regions for ZnAl₂O₄ and Co-doped ZnAl₂O4, due to the defect centers acting as the trap levels. VSM measurements revealed that pure ZnAl₂O₄ has diamagnetic, while Co doped ZnAl₂O₄ samples (x = 0.2 to 0.8) have superparamagnetism, whereas the sample CoAl₂O₄ has ferromagnetic in nature. Catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was found that the sample Co₀.₆Zn₀.₄Al₂O₄ showed 93.25% conversion with 99.56% selectivity, whereas for pure ZnAl₂O₄, the conversion was only 86.31% with 92.85% selectivity. PMID:27398465

  1. Aloe vera Plant Extracted Green Synthesis, Structural and Opto-Magnetic Characterizations of Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄Nano-Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, A; Durka, M; Selvi, M Amutha; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple Aloe vera plant extracted green synthesis route. Powder XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of single phase, cubic spinel gahnite structure without other impurities. The lattice parameter increased from 8.089 to 8.125 A with increasing CO²⁺ content. The average crystallite sizes were estimated using Scherrer's method, and it was found to be in the range of 15.72 nm to 26.53 nm. FT-IR spectra showed vibrational stretching frequencies corresponding to the spinel structure. HR-SEM and HR-TEM images showed the features of well particle shaped crystals with nano-sized grains. The elemental compositions of Co, Zn, Al and O were quantitatively obtained from EDX analysis. The band gap energy estimated using Kubelka-Munk method by UV-Visible DRS method, and the values are decreased with increasing the Co²⁺ content (4.12 eV to 3.67 eV), due to the formation of sub bands in between the energy gap. PL spectra showed emission bands in UV as well as in the visible regions for ZnAl₂O₄ and Co-doped ZnAl₂O4, due to the defect centers acting as the trap levels. VSM measurements revealed that pure ZnAl₂O₄ has diamagnetic, while Co doped ZnAl₂O₄ samples (x = 0.2 to 0.8) have superparamagnetism, whereas the sample CoAl₂O₄ has ferromagnetic in nature. Catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was found that the sample Co₀.₆Zn₀.₄Al₂O₄ showed 93.25% conversion with 99.56% selectivity, whereas for pure ZnAl₂O₄, the conversion was only 86.31% with 92.85% selectivity.

  2. Stealth, biocompatible monoolein-based lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles for enhanced aloe-emodin delivery to breast cancer cells: in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Freag, May S; Elnaggar, Yosra SR; Abdelmonsif, Doaa A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2016-01-01

    Recently, research has progressively highlighted on clues from conventional use of herbal medicines to introduce new anticancer drugs. Aloe-emodin (AE) is a herbal drug with promising anticancer activity. Nevertheless, its clinical utility is handicapped by its low solubility. For the first time, this study aims to the fabrication of surface-functionalized polyethylene glycol liquid crystalline nanoparticles (PEG-LCNPs) of AE to enhance its water solubility and enable its anticancer use. Developed AE-PEG-LCNPs were optimized via particle size and zeta potential measurements. Phase behavior, solid state characteristics, hemocompatibility, and serum stability of LCNPs were assessed. Sterile formulations were developed using various sterilization technologies. Furthermore, the potential of the formulations was investigated using cell culture, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and toxicity studies. AE-PEG-LCNPs showed particle size of 190 nm and zeta potential of −49.9, and PEGylation approach reduced the monoolein hemolytic tendency to 3% and increased the serum stability of the nanoparticles. Sterilization of liquid and lyophilized AE-PEG-LCNPs via autoclaving and γ-radiations, respectively, insignificantly affected the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles. Half maximal inhibitory concentration of AE-PEG-LCNPs was 3.6-fold lower than free AE after 48 hours and their cellular uptake was threefold higher than free AE after 24-hour incubation. AE-PEG-LCNPs presented 5.4-fold increase in t1/2 compared with free AE. Biodistribution and toxicity studies showed reduced AE-PEG-LCNP uptake by reticuloendothelial system organs and good safety profile. PEGylated LCNPs could serve as a promising nanocarrier for efficient delivery of AE to cancerous cells. PMID:27703348

  3. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  4. Static Rupture Model of the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake from ALOS, ENVISAT, SPOT and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialko, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Barbot, S.; Leprince, S.; Sandwell, D. T.; Agnew, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    The April 4, 2010 "Easter Sunday" earthquake on the US-Mexico border was the largest event to strike Southern California in the last 18 years. The earthquake occurred on a northwest trending fault close to, but not coincident with the identified 1892 Laguna Salada rupture. We investigate coseismic deformation due to the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery form ENVISAT and ALOS satellites, optical imagery from SPOT-5 satellite, and continuous and campaign GPS data. The earliest campaign postseismic GPS survey was conducted within days after the earthquake, and provided the near-field cosesmic offsets. Along-track SAR interferograms and amplitude cross-correlation of optical images reveal a relatively simple continuous fault trace with maximum offsets of the order of 3 meters. This is in contrast to the results of geological mapping that portrayed a complex broad zone of distributed faulting. Also, SAR data indicate that the rupture propagated bi-laterally from the epicenter near the town of Durango both to the North-West into the Cucapah mountains and to the South-East into the Mexically valley. The inferred South-East part of the rupture was subsequently field-checked and associated with several fresh scarps, although overall the earthquake fault does not have a conspicuous surface trace South-East of the hypocenter. It is worth noting that the 2010 earthquake propagated into stress shadows of prior events - the Laguna Salada earthquake that ruptured the North-West part of the fault in 1892, and several M6+ earthquakes that ruptured the South-East part of the fault over the last century. Analysis of the coseismic displacement field at the Earth's surface (in particular, the full 3-component displacement field retrieved from SAR and optical imagery) shows a pronounced asymmetry in horizontal displacements across both nodal planes. The maximum displacements are observed in the North-Eastern and South-Western quadrants. This

  5. The effect of aloe emodin-encapsulated nanoliposome-mediated r-caspase-3 gene transfection and photodynamic therapy on human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai-Ting; Duan, Qin-Qin; Chen, Qing; He, Juan-Wen; Tian, Si; Lin, Hai-Dan; Gao, Qing; Bai, Ding-Qun

    2016-02-01

    Gastric carcinoma (GC) has high incidence and mortality rates in China. Surgery and chemotherapy are the main treatments. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a new treatment modality, appearing in recent experimental studies and clinical trials in various tumors. This study explores the combined effect of gene transfection with PDT on GC cells using aloe emodin (AE)-encapsulated nanoliposomes, which acted as gene carrier as well as one photosensitizer (PS). AE-encapsulated nanoliposomes (nano-AE) were prepared by reverse evaporation method. Electron microscopy and nano-ZS90 analyzer were used to detect its morphology, size, and wavelength. Western blot was used to detect the expression of the caspase-3 after transfection. MTT assay and flow cytometry were employed to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic rates, respectively. Hoechst 33342 staining was adopted to detect the morphological changes in death gastric cancer cells. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were measured by DCFH-DA staining. Outcomes demonstrated that the nano-AE has good properties as gene delivery carriers as well as a PS. The group in which the recombinant plasmid of r-caspase-3 was transfected had higher protein expression of the caspase-3 than controls, meanwhile the proliferation rates of the transfected cells were inhibited by the nano-AE-mediated PDT in an energy-dependent manner. In addition, in the transfected cells, the death rate increased to 77.3% as assessed 12 h after PDT (6.4 J/cm(2) ). Hochest 33342 staining also revealed that the death rate increased significantly in the transfected group compared with other groups. Compared to control groups, the production of ROS in nano-AE PDT group had quadrupled in SGC-7901 cells as early as 1 h after PDT, while it is similar to the group of nano-AE transfection and PDT. Nano-AE-mediated r-caspase-3 gene transfection coupled with PDT could inhibit the proliferation rate and increase the apoptotic rate remarkably in human

  6. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  7. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  8. Evidence from ALOS PALSAR data for diking in the rapid onset of the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, C. W.; de la Llera, J.; Lara, L. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    On May 2, 2008 at Chaitén Volcano, located in Chile's southern Andean volcanic zone, hot, water saturated, nearly crystal-free rhyolitic magma migrated from greater than 5 km depth in less than four hours [Castro & Dingwell, Nature 2009] and erupted explosively with only two days of detected precursory seismic activity [Carn et al., EOS 2009]. The last major rhyolite eruption previous to Chaitén was in 1912 at Novarupta (Alaska), the largest volcanic eruption in the 20th century. Because of the historically rare and explosive nature of rhyolite eruptions and because of the surprisingly short warning before the eruption at Chaitén volcano any information about the workings of the magmatic system at Chaitén, and rhyolitic systems in general, is important from both the scientific and hazards perspectives. We present surface deformation observations related to the Chaitén eruption based on radar interferometry data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) DAICHI (ALOS) satellite. The data comes from both ascending and descending orbits with incidence angles of ~39° from vertical which show over 40 cm of change in range. We model this data to infer three deformation sources: 1) a deep dipping, collapsing, sill-like reservoir that originates under Michimahuida volcano, located ~15 km east of Chaitén, 2) an inflated dike that connects the sill-like reservoir to the surface at Chaitén, and 3) a narrow vertical conduit that connects both the sill-like reservoir and the dike to the surface at Chaitén. CMT data from the Global CMT Project (www.globalcmt.org) and shallow seismicity beneath Chaitén in 2005 [Lange et al., Tectonophys. 2008] are in good agreement with this 3-body model. We propose that melt was extracted from beneath Michimahuida filling the sill-like reservoir until Chaitén began erupting through the narrow conduit. This was followed shortly by a catastrophic Plinian eruption resulting from diking of highly mobile, hydrous rhyolitic melt.