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Sample records for alpaca vicugna pacos

  1. Toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Johnson, James E; Hanson, Margaret A; Pierce, Virginia

    2014-06-01

    A near-full-term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. Within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. Both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex and medulla associated with protozoal tissue cysts. Protozoa in brain and kidneys were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on immunoreactivity to T. gondii polyclonal antibodies that stain both tachyzoites and tissue cysts and BAG1 T. gondii antibodies that are bradyzoite specific. The tissue cysts exhibited intense positivity to T. gondii and mild immunoreactivity to Neospora caninum antibodies. The dam had a high antibody titer (1 : 12,800) to T. gondii and low titer (1 : 100) to N. caninum using their respective agglutination tests. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in alpaca.

  2. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  3. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HYUGA, Ayako; MATSUMOTO, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts of Eimeria punoensis and/or E. alpacae were found in 69.8%, E. lamae in 1.9% and E. macusaniensis in 7.5%. We found that alpacas raised in Japan have gastrointestinal parasitic fauna similar to those in other countries. PMID:26725443

  4. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  5. The Genetic Inheritance of the Blue-eyed White Phenotype in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Warren E.; Appleton, Belinda R.

    2014-01-01

    White-spotting patterns in mammals can be caused by mutations in the gene KIT, whose protein is necessary for the normal migration and survival of melanocytes from the neural crest. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) blue-eyed white (BEW) phenotype is characterized by 2 blue eyes and a solid white coat over the whole body. Breeders hypothesize that the BEW phenotype in alpacas is caused by the combination of the gene causing gray fleece and a white-spotting gene. We performed an association study using KIT flanking and intragenic markers with 40 unrelated alpacas, of which 17 were BEW. Two microsatellite alleles at KIT-related markers were significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with the BEW phenotype (bew1 and bew2). In a larger cohort of 171 related individuals, we identify an abundance of an allele (bew1) in gray animals and the occurrence of bew2 homozygotes that are solid white with pigmented eyes. Association tests accounting for population structure and familial relatedness are consistent with a proposed model where these alleles are in linkage disequilibrium with a mutation or mutations that contribute to the BEW phenotype and to individual differences in fleece color. PMID:23144493

  6. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  7. Presence and distribution of urocortin and its receptors in the epididymis of alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Ciarcia, R; Vittoria, A; Mirabella, N

    2015-02-01

    Urocortin 1 (UCN) is a 40-amino acid peptide belonging to the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) family. The biological effects of this peptide are modulated by binding two G-coupled receptors named CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) and CRH receptor 2 (CRHR2). CRHR2 has high affinity for UCN. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 in the epididymis of the South America camelid Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry. Tissue extracts of the organ reacted with the anti-UCN, anti-CRHR1 and anti-CRHR2 antibodies, recognizing in all the cases a single specific protein band. UCN- and CRHR2-immunoreactivities (IRs) were found in the cytoplasm of the principal cells (PCs) of the caput epididymis. A prevalent supranuclear localization of granular-shaped positive material was observed. CRHR1-IR was observed in the fibromuscular stromal cells encircling the tubules and in the smooth musculature of the blood vessels throughout the three epididymal segments. In addition, in the cauda, CRHR1-IR was observed in some apical epithelial cells (ACs) which were morphologically similar to apical mitochondria-rich cells (AMRCs). These results suggest that UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 are expressed in the alpaca epididymis and that CRH-related peptides might play multiple roles in maturation and storage of spermatozoa.

  8. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex.

  9. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Casey, Sarah Jane; Zajac, Anne Marie; Wildeus, Stephen Arthur; Lindsay, David Scott; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Oliveira, Solange; Kwok, Oliver Chun Hung; Su, Chunlei

    2014-12-01

    Alpacas are important to the economy of several countries. Little is known of Toxoplasma gondii infection in alpacas worldwide. In the present study, T. gondii was isolated and genetically characterized from alpacas for the first time. Alpacas (n = 16) and rams (n = 12) pastured on a farm in Virginia, USA, were examined at necropsy. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined by the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1:25) and found in 6 of 16 alpacas with titers of 1:100 (2 alpaca), 1:400 (2 alpacas), 1:800 (1 alpaca), and 1:1,600 (1 alpaca), and 5 of 12 rams in titers of 1:50 in one, 1:400 in one, 1:800 in one, 1:1,600 in one, and 1:3,200 in one. Tissues of all 16 alpacas were bioassayed in mice or in cats. Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive sheep by bioassay in mice. Genotyping using cell-cultured tachyzoites revealed four genotypes, including one for ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 (type III), one for genotype #3 (type II variant), one for genotype #170, and two for a new genotype designated as ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #230. Thus, four of the five T. gondii isolates in the present study belonged to different genotypes. These results indicate a higher genetic diversity among T. gondii isolates circulating in the USA than previously realized.

  10. Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuju; He, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Junbing; He, Junping; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; Geng, Jianjun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling has been considered as a key pathway in both melanocyte development and melanogenesis. To understand better the expression patterns and tissue distribution characterization of HGF and its receptor c-Met in skin of white versus brown alpaca (Vicugna pacos), we detected the tissue distribution of HGF and c-Met using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the expression patterns by using Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that HGF staining robustly increased in the dermal papilla and mesenchymal cells of white alpaca skin compared with that of brown. However, c-Met staining showed strongly positive result, particularly inhair matrix and root sheath in brown alpaca skin. Western blot and qPCR results suggested that HGF and c-Met were expressed at significantly high levels in white and brown alpaca skins, respectively, and protein and transcripts possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. The results suggested that HGF/c-Met signaling functions in alpaca coat color formation offer essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of HGF/c-Met signaling in pigment formation.

  11. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  12. Characterization of functional variables in epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm using imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Ugarelli, Alejandra; Evangelista-Vargas, Shirley

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal alpaca sperm represent an alternative model for the study of alpaca semen. The objective of this study was to characterize the normal values of some functional variables in epididymal alpaca sperm using imaging flow cytometry. Alpaca testicles (n=150) were processed and sperm were recovered from the cauda epididymides. Only 76 samples with acceptable motility and sperm count were considered for assessment by imaging flow cytometry. Acrosome integrity and integrity/viability were assessed by FITC-PSA/PI and FITC-PNA/PI. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using BODIPY 581/591 C11. Results show that the mean values for acrosome-intact sperm were 95.03±6.39% and 93.34±7.96%, using FITC-PSA and FITC-PNA, respectively. The mean values for acrosome-intact viable sperm were 60.58±12.12% with FITC-PSA/PI and 58.81±12.94% with FITC-PNA/PI. Greater MMP was detected in 65.03±15.92% and 59.52±19.19%, using MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was 0.84±0.95%. Evaluation of acrosome-intact and acrosome-intact viable sperm with FITC-PSA/PI compared with. FITC-PNA/PI or MMP with MitoTracker CMXRos compared with MitoTracker Deep Red FM were correlated (P<0.05). The MMP using MitoTracker CMXRos was the only variable correlated (P<0.05) with sperm motility (r=0.3979). This report provides a basis for future research related to alpaca semen using the epididymal sperm model.

  13. Characterization of functional variables in epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm using imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Ugarelli, Alejandra; Evangelista-Vargas, Shirley

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal alpaca sperm represent an alternative model for the study of alpaca semen. The objective of this study was to characterize the normal values of some functional variables in epididymal alpaca sperm using imaging flow cytometry. Alpaca testicles (n=150) were processed and sperm were recovered from the cauda epididymides. Only 76 samples with acceptable motility and sperm count were considered for assessment by imaging flow cytometry. Acrosome integrity and integrity/viability were assessed by FITC-PSA/PI and FITC-PNA/PI. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using BODIPY 581/591 C11. Results show that the mean values for acrosome-intact sperm were 95.03±6.39% and 93.34±7.96%, using FITC-PSA and FITC-PNA, respectively. The mean values for acrosome-intact viable sperm were 60.58±12.12% with FITC-PSA/PI and 58.81±12.94% with FITC-PNA/PI. Greater MMP was detected in 65.03±15.92% and 59.52±19.19%, using MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was 0.84±0.95%. Evaluation of acrosome-intact and acrosome-intact viable sperm with FITC-PSA/PI compared with. FITC-PNA/PI or MMP with MitoTracker CMXRos compared with MitoTracker Deep Red FM were correlated (P<0.05). The MMP using MitoTracker CMXRos was the only variable correlated (P<0.05) with sperm motility (r=0.3979). This report provides a basis for future research related to alpaca semen using the epididymal sperm model. PMID:27577979

  14. Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended.

  15. Biochemical and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) uterine horn fluid during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, M E; Apichela, S A; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Stelletta, C

    2015-02-01

    South American camelids show high embryo loss rate, during the first 60 days of pregnancy. One of the factors which may be related to this situation is that over 98% of the embryos implant in the left uterine horn (LUH) even though both ovaries contribute similarly to ovulation. There is scarce information about the uterine environment of female camelids at any physiological state that could explain the capability of the LUH to attract the embryo and maintain pregnancy. We describe, for the first time, the biochemical and protein profile of uterine fluid (UF), addressing the right and LUH environment in non-pregnant and pregnant alpacas. Different substrates, electrolytes and metabolites were assayed in both uterine horn fluids. Small changes were observed in glucose and total protein levels, which were more noticeable during pregnancy. In addition, 10 specific proteins were found in the left horn fluid in 5-week-pregnant alpacas, and two protein bands were identified in non-pregnant alpaca right horn fluid. These results would provide basic information for identification of possible markers for pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive diseases and hormone-treated animals evaluation and hence contributing to improve the pregnancy rate.

  16. Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Fan, R; Shi, Z; Ji, K; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Herrid, M; Zhang, Q; Yao, J; Smith, G W; Dong, C

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coat colors in animals are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and coat color in mammals. In a previous study, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles in alpaca skin with brown and white coat color and identified a novel miRNA (named lpa-miR-nov-66) that is expressed significantly higher in white skin compared to brown skin. The present study was conducted to determine the functional roles of this novel miRNA in the regulation of melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. lpa-miR-nov-66 is predicted to target the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) gene based on presence of a binding site in the sGC coding sequence (CDS). Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in alpaca melanocyes upregulated the expression of sGC both at the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocyes also resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Our ELISA assays showed increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) but decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in melanocytes overexpressing lpa-miR-nov-66. In addition, overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 also reduced melanin production in cultured melanocytes. Results support a role of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocytes by directly or indirectly targeting , which regulates melanogenesis via the cAMP pathway. PMID:26020184

  17. Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Fan, R; Shi, Z; Ji, K; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Herrid, M; Zhang, Q; Yao, J; Smith, G W; Dong, C

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coat colors in animals are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and coat color in mammals. In a previous study, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles in alpaca skin with brown and white coat color and identified a novel miRNA (named lpa-miR-nov-66) that is expressed significantly higher in white skin compared to brown skin. The present study was conducted to determine the functional roles of this novel miRNA in the regulation of melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. lpa-miR-nov-66 is predicted to target the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) gene based on presence of a binding site in the sGC coding sequence (CDS). Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in alpaca melanocyes upregulated the expression of sGC both at the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocyes also resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Our ELISA assays showed increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) but decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in melanocytes overexpressing lpa-miR-nov-66. In addition, overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 also reduced melanin production in cultured melanocytes. Results support a role of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocytes by directly or indirectly targeting , which regulates melanogenesis via the cAMP pathway.

  18. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production.

  19. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

    PubMed

    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue.

  20. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

    PubMed

    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue. PMID:25981447

  1. Biochemical composition and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Miceli, D C; Stelletta, C

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge and assessment of the constituents of the oviductal fluid (OF) in camelids is necessary for a correct formulation of specific culture media for the development of reproductive biotechnology. This study is the first describing the biochemical composition and SDS-PAGE protein profile of alpaca oviductal fluid in non-pregnant animals and animals that have completed the first month and second month of gestation. Samples were also classified into oviducts that were ipsilateral or contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. No differences were found between both oviducts, whereas pregnant and non-pregnant females displayed significant differences in the biochemical composition and protein profile of the oviductal fluid. Relative albumin content was higher in non-pregnant females. Relative creatinine content in OF from females that have completed the second month of gestation was lower than non-pregnant females and females that have completed the first month of gestation. Ion Na(+) concentration was higher in OF from non-pregnant females when compared with pregnant ones. The protein profile of non-pregnant females showed five protein bands of 70, 42, 25, 24 and 19kDa that were significantly more intense compared with pregnant animals. Bands were identified as moesin, actin cytoplasmic 2, hydroxypyruvate isomerase, ferritin light chain and peroxiredoxin-6 with MALDI/MS. Our results encourage more thorough future studies, in order to unravel the complex reproductive processes of the South American camelid oviduct.

  2. [Cowpox virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and pathological changes].

    PubMed

    Goerigk, D; Theuß, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A

    2014-01-01

    Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection.

  3. Presence, distribution and steroidogenic effect of the peptides orexin A and receptor 1 for orexins in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giovanna; Assisi, Loredana; Squillacioti, Caterina; Paino, Salvatore; Mirabella, Nicola; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The orexins A (oxA) and B are peptides discovered in the rat hypothalamus and successively found in some peripheral organs of the mammalian body. They binds two protein G-coupled receptors defined receptor 1 (ox1r) and 2 for orexins, the first of which is highly specific for oxA while the second binds both the peptides with equal affinity. This work aimed to detect the presence of oxA and ox1r in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and investigate the role played by them on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The species alpaca acquired, in the last years, increasing zootechnical interest for the quality of the wool produced and its breeding spread from the country of origin to USA, Australia and Europe. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to detect oxA in Leydig and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, resting spermatocytes, round and oval spermatids. Ox1r-immunoreactivity was found in Leydig cells and round, oval and elongated spermatids. The expression of the two peptides in tissue extracts was established by using Western blotting technique. Such results demonstrated that in the alpaca testis exists in a cellular complex able to produce and/or internalize oxA. Finally, the effect of oxA on steroidogenesis was investigated by means of in vitro cultured thin testis slices which were added with oxA or/and Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a steroidolitic agent basally produced by the Sertoli cell. OxA evoked increase of testosterone production while MIS a decrease. The consecutive addition of oxA and MIS, or vice versa, highlighted an antagonistic interplay between the two substances which has been thought to be the main molecular event at the basis of the oxA-stimulated steroidogenesis mechanism.

  4. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  5. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries) grazed on pasture in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive s...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures.

  7. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  8. Expression of orexin A and its receptor 1 in the epididymis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Paino, S; Mirabella, N; Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Vittoria, A

    2014-02-01

    Orexins A (ox A) and B are two peptides originally discovered in neurons of rat hypothalamus, and later found in different cellular types of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts. They arise from the proteolytic cleavage of a common precursor molecule, prepro-orexin, and bind to two receptors, namely receptor 1 (ox1r) and receptor 2 for orexins, that show different binding affinity. The central role of the two peptides has been extensively studied, whereas their activity in the periphery is still poorly known. Here, we investigated the presence of ox A and ox1r in the epididymis of a South American camelid species, the alpaca, by immunohistochemistry, and we also assessed the expression of prepro-orexin and ox1r in tissue extracts by Western blotting analysis. Ox A- and ox1r-immunoreactivity was found in the cytoplasm of principal cells of the caput epididymis. A prevalent supranuclear localization of granular-shaped positive material was observed. No positivity was present in the other cytotypes of epididymis. The expression of two peptides with molecular weight corresponding to those of prepro-orexin and ox1r, respectively, was detected in the tissue extracts from the organ.

  9. Vγ9 and Vδ2 T cell antigen receptor genes and butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) emerged with placental mammals and are concomitantly preserved in selected species like alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Mohindar M; Göbel, Thomas W; Starick, Lisa; Walter, Lutz; Herrmann, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognize phosphorylated products of isoprenoid metabolism (phosphoantigens) PAg with TCR comprising Vγ9JP γ-chains and Vδ2 δ-chains dependent on butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) expressed by antigen-presenting cells. They are massively activated in many infections and show anti-tumor activity and so far, they have been considered to exist only in higher primates. We performed a comprehensive analysis of databases and identified the three genes in species of both placental magnorders, but not in rodents. The common occurrence or loss of in silico translatable Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes suggested their co-evolution based on a functional relationship. In the peripheral lymphocytes of alpaca (Vicugna pacos), characteristic Vγ9JP rearrangements and in-frame Vδ2 rearrangements were found and could be co-expressed in a TCR-negative mouse T cell hybridoma where they rescued CD3 expression and function. Finally, database sequence analysis of the extracellular domain of alpaca BTN3 revealed complete conservation of proposed PAg binding residues of human BTN3A1. In summary, we show emergence and preservation of Vγ9 and Vδ2 TCR genes with the gene of the putative antigen-presenting molecule BTN3 in placental mammals and lay the ground for analysis of alpaca as candidate for a first non-primate species to possess Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.

  10. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-03-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of cellular and serological diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Bezos, Javier; Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Romero, Beatriz; Rueda, Paloma; López, Lissette; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in llamas and alpacas has gained importance in recent years since they are imported into the European Union mainly for serving as pets and for production of natural fibre. The intradermal tuberculin test has been widely used for diagnosis of TB in these species showing lack of sensitivity (Se) although little information has been previously reported evaluating the effect on its performance of different PPD inoculation sites and time of readings. Moreover, different cost-effective serological assays have been developed in the recent years for TB diagnosis in camelids obtaining a variety of results and, for this reason, new assays still being developed. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the performance of the intradermal tuberculin test using different inoculation sites (axillary, prescapular and cervical) and times of reading (72 and 120 h) and (2) to test a novel serological assay based on MPB83 antigen in a Mycobacterium bovis naturally infected alpaca herd in Spain. In regards to skin test, single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test at the prescapular site and reading at 72 h showed the highest proportion of test-positive-culture positive animals among all culture positive animals (T+/C+), ranging from 53.8% (95% CI, 37.2-69.9) to 80% (95% CI, 44.4-97.5) using a more stringent interpretation than typically prescribed although, in general, low T+/C+ was achieved using both SIT and single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) tests alone. T+/C+ of the serological assay increased using samples collected 15-30 days after PPD injection [76.9% (95% CI, 60.7-88.9) - 100% (95% CI, 69.2-100)]. The best results of T+/C+ were obtained applying in parallel the most sensitive SIT test and serology using samples collected 15-30 days after PPD inoculation [90% (95% CI, 55.5-99.7)-100% (95% CI, 69.2-100)]. Therefore implementation of serology in parallel with the most sensitive skin test could maximize the detection of infected animals.

  12. Tuberculosis in Alpacas (Lama pacos) Caused by Mycobacterium bovis▿

    PubMed Central

    García-Bocanegra, I.; Barranco, I.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I. M.; Pérez, B.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Ruiz-Villamayor, E.; Perea, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes. PMID:20237097

  13. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis liver abscess in a mature alpaca (Lama pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Sprake, Philippa; Gold, Jenifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A mature female alpaca was evaluated for weight loss and a 10-day history of anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal distension, and ventral edema. Ultrasonography revealed a hepatic mass, culture of which identified Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This is the first reported case of an internal caseous lymphadenitis lesion resulting in clinical disease in a camelid. PMID:23024384

  14. Factors affecting in vitro maturation of alpaca (Lama paco) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, Ca; Coffman, Ea; Coutinho da Silva, Ma; Forshey, Bs; Pinto, Crf

    2014-11-10

    The present study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design examining age (old vs. young), follicle size (≥2mm vs. <2mm) and media supplementation (with or without fetal bovine serum [FBS]) to determine factors that might affect in vitro maturation of alpaca oocytes. We hypothesized that oocytes collected from follicles ≥2mm from young alpacas and incubated in maturation media supplemented with FBS would have greater maturation rates than those incubated in any other factorial combination. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of 11 young alpacas (<10 years old) and 14 old alpacas (>11 years old). Oocytes were classified as morphologically normal oocytes (MNO) and deemed suitable for incubation if ≥3 compact layers of cumulus cells and a homogeneous, evenly granulated cytoplasm were observed. Oocytes from each group of follicle sizes were incubated separately and halves of each group were randomly divided and incubated 24h in chemically defined maturation media with or without 10% FBS. Maturation was defined as the visualization of a polar body at the end of the incubation period. Overall, a greater proportion of MNO were collected from follicles ≥2mm than that obtained from smaller follicles, 55% (136/247) vs. 29.6% (162/547), respectively (P<0.05). A greater proportion of oocytes reached maturation when collected from ≥2mm follicles 36% (49/136) than from <2mm follicles 8% (13/162) (P<0.05). For oocytes obtained from ≥2mm follicles of old alpacas, a greater proportion reached maturation when incubated in media supplemented with FBS than when incubated without FBS; 57.6% (19/33) vs. 18.2% (6/33), respectively (P<0.05).

  15. Mapping of neurotensin in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

    PubMed

    de Souza, E; Aguilar, L A; Díaz-Cabiale, Z; Narváez, J A; Coveñas, R

    2014-08-01

    We studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibres containing neurotensin (NT) in the brainstem of the alpaca using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Immunoreactive fibres were widely distributed throughout the brainstem, whereas the distribution of cell bodies was less widespread. Immunoreactive perikarya were only found in the mesencephalic and bulbar reticular formation, periaqueductal grey, nucleus of the solitary tract, laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus and in the inferior colliculus. A high density of fibres containing NT was found in the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, locus coeruleus, inferior colliculus, inter-peduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, reticular formation of the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata, nucleus of the solitary tract, laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, inferior central nucleus and in the tegmental reticular nucleus. The widespread distribution indicates that NT might be involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem; this must be investigated in the future as alpacas lives from 0 m above sea level to altitudes of up 5000 m and hence the involvement of this neuropeptide in special and unique regulatory physiological mechanisms could be suggested.

  16. A comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Perelman, Polina; Das, Pranab J; Pontius, Joan; Chowdhary, Renuka; Owens, Elaine; Johnson, Warren E; Merriwether, David A; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis of the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) has progressed slowly compared to other domestic species. Here, we report the development of the first comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and CHORI-246 BAC library clones. The map is comprised of 230 linearly ordered markers distributed among all 36 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes. For the first time, markers were assigned to LPA14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. Additionally, 86 genes from 15 alpaca chromosomes were mapped in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius, CDR), demonstrating exceptional synteny and linkage conservation between the 2 camelid genomes. Cytogenetic mapping of 191 protein-coding genes improved and refined the known Zoo-FISH homologies between camelids and humans: we discovered new homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) corresponding to HSA1-LPA/CDR11, HSA4-LPA/CDR31 and HSA7-LPA/CDR36, and revised the location of breakpoints for others. Overall, gene mapping was in good agreement with the Zoo-FISH and revealed remarkable evolutionary conservation of gene order within many human-camelid HSBs. Most importantly, 91 FISH-mapped markers effectively integrated the alpaca whole-genome sequence and the radiation hybrid maps with physical chromosomes, thus facilitating the improvement of the sequence assembly and the discovery of genes of biological importance.

  17. Systemic Candida albicans infection in two alpacas (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Kramer, K; Haist, V; Roth, C; Schröder, C; Siesenhop, U; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

    2008-01-01

    Systemic Candida albicans infection was diagnosed in two adult alpaca stallions originating from different herds. Case 1 had a history of chronic dermatitis with unknown aetiology that had been treated long-term with glucocorticoids. Case 2 had suffered from transient facial paralysis and psoroptic mange of the external ear. Both animals died suddenly after recovering from their initial disorders. Necropsy examination of case 1 revealed multifocal erosive dermatitis, thoracic and abdominal serofibrinous effusions, and multiple suppurative foci in lung, myocardium, kidney, pancreas and brain. Case 2 had multiple ulcers of the third gastric compartment and focal suppurative nephritis. Additionally, moderate depletion of lymphoid organs was observed in both animals. Histologically, suppurative to necrotizing inflammation with necrotizing vasculitis was present in the grossly affected organs of both animals. Yeast, pseudohyphae and branching hyphae were present within these lesions and C. albicans was isolated from lesional tissue of both animals. The primary site of Candida invasion was not determined in case 1, but the most likely portal of entry in case 2 was the gastric ulcers. Depletion of lymphoid tissue suggested a possible underlying immune suppression in both animals.

  18. Mapping of tyrosine hydroxylase in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem and colocalization with CGRP.

    PubMed

    Marcos, P; Arroyo-Jimenez, M M; Lozano, G; Aguilar, L A; Coveñas, R

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the brainstem of alpaca (Lama pacos) has been analysed using immunohistochemical methods. The following catecholaminergic cell nuclei have been detected: A1, C1, A2, C2 and area postrema in the medulla oblongata; A5, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons; as have several mesencephalic groups: A8, A9l, A9m, A9v, A9pc, A10, A10c, A10d and A10dc. This nuclear parcellation differs from that found in rodents, but agrees with the results reported in other members of the Artiodactyla order, such as giraffe or pig, and with the catecholaminergic distribution detected in species of other mammalian orders. Thus, these findings support the hypothesis that the animals included in the same order show the same nuclear complement in the neuromodulatory systems. In addition, it seems that other species share the same catecholaminergic groups as the alpaca, suggesting that a specific nuclear disposition was important and worth maintaining throughout evolution. Moreover, the distribution of TH has been compared with that of CGRP by double immunohistochemistry. Double-labelled neurons were very isolated and observed only in a few catecholaminergic groups: A1 and C2 in the medulla oblongata, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons, and A9l in the mesencephalon. However, interaction between TH and CGRP may be possible in more brainstem regions, particularly the area postrema. This interaction may prove important in the regulation of the specific cardiovascular control of alpacas given their morphological characteristics.

  19. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information rega...

  20. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and tissue distribution analysis of Slc7a11 gene in alpaca (Lama paco) skins associated with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xue; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Liangyan; Song, Yunfei; Zhang, Danli; Ji, Yuankai; Li, Xuejun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-01-25

    Slc7a11 encoding solute carrier family 7 member 11 (amionic amino acid transporter light chain, xCT), has been identified to be a critical genetic regulator of pheomelanin synthesis in hair and melanocytes. To better understand the molecular characterization of Slc7a11 and the expression patterns in skin of white versus brown alpaca (lama paco), we cloned the full length coding sequence (CDS) of alpaca Slc7a11 gene and analyzed the expression patterns using Real Time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The full length CDS of 1512bp encodes a 503 amino acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that alpaca xCT contains 12 transmembrane regions consistent with the highly conserved amino acid permease (AA_permease_2) domain similar to other vertebrates. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that alpaca xCT had the highest identity and shared the same branch with Camelus ferus. Real Time PCR and Western blotting suggested that xCT was expressed at significantly high levels in brown alpaca skin, and transcripts and protein possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that xCT staining was robustly increased in the matrix and root sheath of brown alpaca skin compared with that of white. These results suggest that Slc7a11 functions in alpaca coat color regulation and offer essential information for further exploration on the role of Slc7a11 in melanogenesis. PMID:25455099

  1. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and tissue distribution analysis of Slc7a11 gene in alpaca (Lama paco) skins associated with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xue; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Liangyan; Song, Yunfei; Zhang, Danli; Ji, Yuankai; Li, Xuejun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-01-25

    Slc7a11 encoding solute carrier family 7 member 11 (amionic amino acid transporter light chain, xCT), has been identified to be a critical genetic regulator of pheomelanin synthesis in hair and melanocytes. To better understand the molecular characterization of Slc7a11 and the expression patterns in skin of white versus brown alpaca (lama paco), we cloned the full length coding sequence (CDS) of alpaca Slc7a11 gene and analyzed the expression patterns using Real Time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The full length CDS of 1512bp encodes a 503 amino acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that alpaca xCT contains 12 transmembrane regions consistent with the highly conserved amino acid permease (AA_permease_2) domain similar to other vertebrates. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that alpaca xCT had the highest identity and shared the same branch with Camelus ferus. Real Time PCR and Western blotting suggested that xCT was expressed at significantly high levels in brown alpaca skin, and transcripts and protein possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that xCT staining was robustly increased in the matrix and root sheath of brown alpaca skin compared with that of white. These results suggest that Slc7a11 functions in alpaca coat color regulation and offer essential information for further exploration on the role of Slc7a11 in melanogenesis.

  2. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  3. Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Eliana; Sánchez, Manuel Lisardo; Aguilar, Luís Ángel; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Ángel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca brainstem. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the whole brainstem: 34 brainstem nuclei/regions showed a high or a moderate density of these fibers. Perikarya containing the peptide were widely distributed throughout the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. Cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) were observed in the lateral and medial divisions of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, reticular formation (mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata), inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, and in the substantia nigra. This widespread distribution indicates that somatostatin-28 (1-12) is involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem.

  4. Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Akazawa, Yoko; Takashima, Mizuki; Hagihara, Yosihisa; Inoue, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ogawa, Ryu; Inoue, Seiya; Ito, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning.

  5. Characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from llama and alpaca.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Anderson, David; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2013-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes a variety of infections termed necrobacillosis. There are 2 subspecies of F. necrophorum (subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme) that differ morphologically and biochemically and in virulence. Leukotoxin, a secreted protein, is considered to be the major virulence factor. In camelids, F. necrophorum causes a variety of infections, generally involving the lips, tongue, pharynx, interdigital spaces, foot pad, larynx, mandible, or maxillary bones. The objective of the current study was to characterize the presumptive Fusobacterium isolates from a variety of necrotic infections in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and determine whether the strains possess leukotoxin activities. A total of 7 isolates from alpaca and 2 isolates from llama were characterized. Based on growth characteristics in broth culture, and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analyses, all 9 isolates belonged to subsp. necrophorum and possessed the putative hemagglutinin gene. Western blot analysis with antileukotoxin antibodies raised in rabbit showed the presence of leukotoxin protein in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Furthermore, flow cytometry of the culture supernatants demonstrated cytotoxicity to bovine and alpaca polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The extent of cytotoxicity to either alpaca or bovine PMNs differed among camelid strains. The cytotoxicity of many of the camelid strains was higher (P < 0.05) toward alpaca PMNs compared to bovine PMNs. Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from llama and alpaca are similar to bovine isolates, and leukotoxin may be a major virulence factor.

  6. Mapping of tyrosine hydroxylase in the diencephalon of alpaca (Lama pacos) and co-distribution with somatostatin-28 (1-12).

    PubMed

    Marcos, P; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M; Lozano, G; González-Fuentes, J; Lagartos-Donate, M J; Aguilar, L A; Coveñas, R

    2013-05-01

    Based on previous work describing the distribution of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the male alpaca (Lama pacos) diencephalon, and owing to the well known interactions between this peptide and the catecholaminergic system, the aims of this work are (1) to describe the distribution of putative catecholaminergic cell groups in the alpaca diencephalon and (2) to study the possible morphological basis of the interactions between these substances in the diencephalon of the alpaca by using double immunohistochemistry methods. Thus, the distribution of catecholaminergic cell groups in the alpaca diencephalon agrees with that previously described in the diencephalon of other mammalian species of the same order: the A11, A12, A13, A14 and A15d cell groups have been identified; however, we have observed an additional hitherto undescribed cell group containing tyrosine hydroxylase in the medial habenula. In addition, double-labelling procedures did not reveal neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase and somatostatin, suggesting that the hypothalamic interactions between catecholamines and somatostatin at intra-cellular level must be carried out by a somatostatin molecule other than fragment (1-12). Otherwise, the overlapping distribution patterns of these substances would suggest some interconnections between groups of chemospecific neurons. These results could be the starting point for future studies on hypothalamic functions in alpacas, for example those concerning reproductive control, since other physiological studies have suggested that this species could have different regulatory mechanisms from other mammalian species. Our results support the Manger hypothesis that the same nuclear complement of neural systems exists in the brain of species of the same order.

  7. Genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca.

    PubMed Central

    Kadwell, M.; Fernandez, M.; Stanley, H. F.; Baldi, R.; Wheeler, J. C.; Rosadio, R.; Bruford, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    The origins of South America's domestic alpaca and llama remain controversial due to hybridization, near extirpation during the Spanish conquest and difficulties in archaeological interpretation. Traditionally, the ancestry of both forms is attributed to the guanaco, while the vicuña is assumed never to have been domesticated. Recent research has, however, linked the alpaca to the vicuña, dating domestication to 6000-7000 years before present in the Peruvian Andes. Here, we examine in detail the genetic relationships between the South American camelids in order to determine the origins of the domestic forms, using mitochondrial (mt) and microsatellite DNA. MtDNA analysis places 80% of llama and alpaca sequences in the guanaco lineage, with those possessing vicuña mtDNA being nearly all alpaca or alpaca-vicuña hybrids. We also examined four microsatellites in wild known-provenance vicuña and guanaco, including two loci with non-overlapping allele size ranges in the wild species. In contrast to the mtDNA, these markers show high genetic similarity between alpaca and vicuña, and between llama and guanaco, although bidirectional hybridization is also revealed. Finally, combined marker analysis on a subset of samples confirms the microsatellite interpretation and suggests that the alpaca is descended from the vicuña, and should be reclassified as Vicugna pacos. This result has major implications for the future management of wild and domestic camelids in South America. PMID:11749713

  8. Assessment of sperm function parameters and DNA fragmentation in ejaculated alpaca sperm (Lama pacos) by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cheuquemán, C; Merino, O; Giojalas, L; Von Baer, A; Sánchez, R; Risopatrón, J

    2013-06-01

    Flow cytometry has been shown to be an accurate and highly reproducible tool for the analysis of sperm function. The main objective of this study was to assess sperm function parameters in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. Semen samples were collected from six alpaca males and processed for flow cytometric analysis of sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity using SYBR-14⁄PI staining; acrosomal membrane integrity using FITC-conjugated Pisum Sativum Agglutinin⁄PI labelling; mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) by staining with JC-1 and DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI) by TUNEL. The results indicate that the mean value for sperm viability was 57 ± 8 %. Spermatozoa with intact acrosome membrane was 87.9 ± 5%, and viable sperm with intact acrosomal membrane was 46.8 ± 9%, high mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was detected in 66.32 ± 9.51% of spermatozoa and mean DFI value was 0.91 ± 0.9%. The DFI was inversely correlated with high Δψm (p = 0.04; r = -0.41) and with plasma membrane integrity (p = 0.01; r = -0.47). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the assessment on the same sample of several parameters of sperm function in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry.

  9. Assessment of sperm function parameters and DNA fragmentation in ejaculated alpaca sperm (Lama pacos) by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cheuquemán, C; Merino, O; Giojalas, L; Von Baer, A; Sánchez, R; Risopatrón, J

    2013-06-01

    Flow cytometry has been shown to be an accurate and highly reproducible tool for the analysis of sperm function. The main objective of this study was to assess sperm function parameters in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. Semen samples were collected from six alpaca males and processed for flow cytometric analysis of sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity using SYBR-14⁄PI staining; acrosomal membrane integrity using FITC-conjugated Pisum Sativum Agglutinin⁄PI labelling; mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) by staining with JC-1 and DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI) by TUNEL. The results indicate that the mean value for sperm viability was 57 ± 8 %. Spermatozoa with intact acrosome membrane was 87.9 ± 5%, and viable sperm with intact acrosomal membrane was 46.8 ± 9%, high mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was detected in 66.32 ± 9.51% of spermatozoa and mean DFI value was 0.91 ± 0.9%. The DFI was inversely correlated with high Δψm (p = 0.04; r = -0.41) and with plasma membrane integrity (p = 0.01; r = -0.47). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the assessment on the same sample of several parameters of sperm function in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. PMID:23082871

  10. Immunohistochemical mapping of pro-opiomelanocortin- and pro-dynorphin-derived peptides in the alpaca (Lama pacos) diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Manso, B; Sánchez, M L; Medina, L E; Aguilar, L A; Díaz-Cabiale, Z; Narváez, J A; Coveñas, R

    2014-09-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibres containing non-opioid peptides (adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and opioid peptides (beta-endorphin (1-27), alpha-neo-endorphin, leucine-enkephalin) in the alpaca diencephalon. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were found. Perikarya containing the other four peptides were observed exclusively in the hypothalamus and their distribution was restricted. Perikarya containing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin showed a more widespread distribution than those containing leucine-enkephalin or beta-endorphin (1-27). Cell bodies containing pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were observed in the arcuate nucleus, anterior and lateral hypothalamic areas and in the ventromedial and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei, whereas perikarya containing alpha-neo-endorphin (a pro-dynorphin-derived peptide) were found in the arcuate nucleus, dorsal and lateral hypothalamic areas, and in the paraventricular, ventromedial and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei. Immunoreactive cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin were found in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactive fibres expressing pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were more numerous than those expressing pro-dynorphin-derived peptides. A close anatomical relationship was observed: in all the diencephalic nuclei in which beta-endorphin (1-27)-immunoreactive fibres were found, fibres containing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin were also observed. Fibres containing beta-endorphin (1-27), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin were widely distributed throughout the diencephalon, but fibres containing ACTH or leucine-enkephalin showed a moderate distribution. The distribution of the five peptides studied here is also compared with that reported previously in

  11. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare.

  12. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used, however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and name the...

  13. Characterization of the humoral immune response in alpacas (Lama pacos) experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica against cysteine proteinases Fas1 and Fas2 and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Timoteo, O; Maco, V; Maco, V; Neyra, V; Yi, P J; Leguía, G; Espinoza, J R

    2005-06-15

    A characterization of the humoral immune response of alpacas to Fasciola hepatica Fas1 and Fas2 antigens, two abundant cysteine proteinases in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products, was performed over the course of 6 months of experimental infection. Six adult alpacas aged 1-2 years old received a single dose of 200 F. hepatica metacercariae; two non-infected alpacas were kept as control group. All infected animals shed eggs 8 weeks post-infection (PI) and the number of flukes recovered at necropsy averaged 41+/-4. The livers of infected animals showed regions with chronic inflammation, granuloma containing parasite eggs, necrosis and cirrhosis. Peripheral eosinophilia in infected animals was greatly enhanced 6 weeks post-infection and later. A single peak of serum glutamic piruvic transaminase (SGPT) was observed 4 weeks PI and serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) elevated 3 weeks PI and later. Circulating IgG Abs against Fas1 and Fas2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fas2-ELISA detected the infection 10 days PI reaching to highest titer on 7-8 weeks PI and kept elevated, until the end of infection. Fas1-ELISA detected the infection 2 weeks PI and followed the same pattern as Fas2-ELISA. Anti Fas2 IgG Abs were in higher titers and showed stronger avidity than anti Fas1 IgG Abs. In addition, rabbit IgG antibodies raised against cysteine proteinase Fas2 showed infiltration of this parasite antigen associated to the degradation of bile ducts and liver parenchyma of infected alpacas. In the present study we have established a F. hepatica experimental infection of alpacas, Fas2 appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of the liver damage in alpacas caused by the liver fluke. Infected alpacas elicited a strong humoral immune response against fluke cysteine proteinases Fas1 and Fas2, which might be considered as candidates for immunodiagnosis and vaccine development against fasciolosis in alpacas.

  14. Ovarian dysgenesis in an alpaca with a minute chromosome 36.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Elizabeth; Kutzler, Michelle; Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year-old female alpaca (Lama pacos [LPA]) was presented to the Oregon State Veterinary Teaching Hospital for failure to display receptive behavior to males. Although no abnormalities were found on physical examination, transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tract revealed uterine hypoplasia and ovarian dysgenesis. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a normal female 74,XX karyotype with 1 exceptionally small (minute) homologue of autosome LPA36. Chromosome analysis by Giemsa staining and DAPI- and C-banding revealed that the minute LPA36 was submetacentric, AT-rich, and largely heterochromatic. Because of the small size and lack of molecular markers, it was not possible to identify the origin of the minute. There is a need to improve molecular cytogenetic tools to further study the phenomenon of this minute chromosome and its relation to female reproduction in alpacas and llamas.

  15. Urogenital leiomyosarcoma in an alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y.; Poulsen, Keith P.; McGuirk, Sheila M.; Livesey, Michael A.; Koch, Christoph; Perrier, Melanie P.; Pinkerton, Marie E.

    2010-01-01

    A mass in the pelvic canal of a 4-year-old pregnant alpaca hembra diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract was confirmed by biopsy. Following a tube cystotomy, the alpaca was presented 33 d later, 2 d after the tube cystotomy had been dislodged. A dead cria was delivered by caesarean section. PMID:21358933

  16. 50 CFR 23.75 - How can I trade internationally in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)? 23.75 Section 23.75 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  17. Cantharidin toxicosis in 2 alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; De Souza, Patricia; Genova, Suzanne G.; Morgan, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult alpacas were presented for recumbency and reluctance to rise. Cantharidin toxicosis was suspected based on clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of gastric contents and urine. Despite medical treatment, neither alpaca survived. Blister beetle toxicosis has not been previously described in camelids. Challenges in treatment of affected ruminants or pseudoruminants are noted. PMID:24155427

  18. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective.

  19. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective. PMID:26930223

  20. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  1. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S.; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnostic tests verified their status. Bovine viral diarrhea virus Type 1b transient infections produced only mild signs of disease in BVDV naïve alpacas. Viremia was detected in whole blood, but viral shedding during the acute phase was not detected and antibody appeared to be protective upon re-exposure to the virus. PMID:21629418

  2. PACO: PArticle COunting Method To Enforce Concentrations in Dynamic Simulations.

    PubMed

    Berti, Claudio; Furini, Simone; Gillespie, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    We present PACO, a computationally efficient method for concentration boundary conditions in nonequilibrium particle simulations. Because it requires only particle counting, its computational effort is significantly smaller than other methods. PACO enables Brownian dynamics simulations of micromolar electrolytes (3 orders of magnitude lower than previously simulated). PACO for Brownian dynamics is integrated in the BROWNIES package (www.phys.rush.edu/BROWNIES). We also introduce a molecular dynamics PACO implementation that allows for very accurate control of concentration gradients.

  3. [Pyometra and persistent hymen in an alpaca].

    PubMed

    Egloff, C; Gerspach, C; Rütten, M; Dettwiler, M; Reichler, I; Bleul, U

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old female alpaca was referred to the hospital because of tenesmus. Clinical examination revealed a habitual vaginal prolapse with tenesmus during urination and defecation. On vaginoscopic examination a persistent hymen was detected. Ultrasonography of the caudal abdomen showed an echogenic fluid-filled uterus. A diagnostic laparotomy led to diagnosis of pyometra. Following ovariohysterectomy, the recovery was uneventful. One and a half years later the alpaca was again admitted to the hospital because of colic. Based on the findings, a tentative prognosis was provided and the alpaca was euthanized at the request of the owner. At necropsy, a haemorrhagic infarction of a jejunal loop was found due to incarceration in a fibrous adhesion between the vaginal stump and small intestine.

  4. Calcific band keratopathy in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Pucket, Jonathan D; Boileau, Melanie J; Sula, Mee Ja M

    2014-07-01

    A 4-year-old female Suri alpaca was presented for evaluation of acute onset weakness, lethargy, and recent development of opacities in both eyes. On ophthalmic examination, bilaterally symmetrical corneal opacities were noted along the interpalpebral fissures with a few corneal blood vessels intermingled. A presumed diagnosis of calcific band keratopathy was made based on location and appearance. The patient was euthanized a short while after diagnosis due to reasons unrelated to the eyes and histologic examination of the corneas revealed subepithelial calcium and vascularization, consistent with calcific band keratopathy. This case report is the first to document this ocular condition in an alpaca.

  5. Bilateral renal agenesis in an alpaca cria

    PubMed Central

    Gerard, Mathew P.; Spaulding, Kathy A.; Geissler, Kyleigh A.; Anderson, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 3-day-old male alpaca cria was presented for lack of vigor and failure to urinate since birth. Based on the history, laboratory data, ultrasonographs, surgical findings, and postmortem examination, the cria was diagnosed with bilateral renal agenesis and hypoplastic bladder, a congenital condition rarely seen in veterinary medicine. PMID:16579043

  6. Congenital nasolacrimal atresia in 4 alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Breaux, Carrie B.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2011-01-01

    Four alpacas, 2 wk to 1 y of age, were diagnosed with congenital atresia of the nasal puncta of the nasolacrimal duct. Dacryocystorhinography confirmed and localized the atresia. All animals were treated successfully by surgical creation of nasal puncta and patency was ensured by placement of a surgical stent for several weeks. PMID:21629429

  7. Suspect copper toxicity in an alpaca.

    PubMed Central

    Carmalt, J L; Baptiste, K E; Blakley, B

    2001-01-01

    An alpaca presented in lateral recumbency and subsequently died. On necropsy examination the liver showed severe, widespread, periacinar hepatocellular necrosis, staining positive to a rhodamine stain for copper. Hepatic copper concentration was elevated. Copper toxicity in the camelid is difficult to diagnose, since the classical hemolytic crisis is not observed. PMID:11467185

  8. Thermoregulation of alpacas bred in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello, Silvana; Formis, Elena; Barbieri, Sara

    2011-03-01

    The present study monitored daily and seasonal variations of rectal temperature in response to different environmental temperatures in alpacas bred in the Italian Apennines at 300 m a.s.l. In each season, the rectal temperature of 33 clinically healthy alpacas was measured three times/day (morning, midday, afternoon). Ambient temperatures were also recorded. Rectal temperatures ranged from a minimum value of 35.1 to a maximum of 39.4°C, with a maximum daily thermal excursion (ΔTrec) of 3.2°C. Temperatures increased throughout the day, with highly significant differences recorded in both young and adult animals between all the time bands ( P < 0.001). These differences were particularly dramatic for adults in summer, when the mean rectal temperature in the morning was 36.3 ± 0.13°C, probably as a consequence of recent shearing. Significant ΔTrec differences were recorded depending on the season in both young and adult animals ( P < 0.001), with the highest ΔTrec values recorded in summer (although the highest daily ambient excursion value was recorded in winter). In conclusion, similarly to alpacas bred in their natural environment, alpacas bred in Italy show a wide thermal neutrality zone, which is probably an adaptive response, that allows the animals to save energy. In the Italian Apennines, in order to prevent situations of hypothermia, with possible detrimental effects on alpacas' health and welfare, shearing should be carried out only in warm seasons.

  9. Uterine torsion and cesarean section in llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David E

    2009-07-01

    Dystocia occurs infrequently in llamas and alpacas. Uterine torsion is one of the more common causes of dystocia that requires veterinary care. Cesarean section may be required to resolve dystocia or uterine torsion. Correction of uterine torsion is most often successful without laparotomy. Laparotomy and cesarean section can be performed successfully in llamas and alpacas in field settings. This article discusses the indications, techniques, and expected outcomes of uterine torsion and cesarean section when performed in llamas or alpacas.

  10. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L; Krause, Philip R; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  11. Antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) population in the Argentinean Andean altiplano.

    PubMed

    Marcoppido, Gisela; Parreño, Viviana; Vilá, Bibiana

    2010-04-01

    Serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (Ab) to rotavirus (RV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), bluetongue virus (BTV), equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and influenza A virus equine (EIV). Samples were collected in Cieneguillas Province of Jujuy, in northern Argentina. Feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate RV shedding. Llamas (Lama glama) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) from the area studied also were tested for antibodies to these viruses. Antibodies against RV (100%) and BPIV-3 (37%) were detected in the vicuñas sampled. No RV antigen was detected in any of the fecal samples tested. One vicuña was positive for Ab to BHV-1 (0.8%) and another for BVDV-1 (0.8%). The Ab prevalences detected in llamas were: 100% (16/16) for RV, 47% (8/17) for BPIV-3, 17.6% (3/17) for BHV-1, and 5.9% (1/17) for BVDV-1. However, domestic cattle had high antibody prevalences for RV and BPIV-3, 100% (13/13) and 73% (11/15), respectively, but were negative for Ab to BHV-1 and BVDV. No antibodies against FMDV, BTV, EHV-1, or EIV were detected in wild vicuñas or domestic species. Because no data of viral circulation on wild vicuñas are available, this report represents the first evidence of viral infection in wild vicuñas from the Argentinean Andean Puna.

  12. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  13. ALPACA: An Inexpensive but Uniquely Powerful Imaging Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin P.; ALPACA Consortium

    2006-12-01

    ALPACA (Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Astrophysics, Cosmology and Asteroids) is an 8-meter optical telescope destined for Cerro Tololo and designed to scan a strip of sky passing overhead and extending over 1000 square degrees. The imaging survey will be conducted in five photometric bands covering the optical waveband and allow for photometric descrimination of many source types, including supernova types and asteroid categories, and allow photometric redshift determination for both galaxies and supernovae. The ALPACA is intended to extend over at least a three years and reach a cumulative point-source detection of about 28th magnitude AB at 10-sigma. ALPACA will deliver nightly photometry for many classes of variable and moving objects. Most crucial, perhaps, will be the exquisitely deep, numerous and well-sampled multiband lightcurve sample for supernova, particularly SNe Ia to redshifts z 0.8. This is an excellent redshift range for dark energy model descrimination, but also can be used for unprecedentedly sensitive tests and improvements of the SN Ia standard candle relation. There are many other superlative projects that will be conducted with ALPACA data, including studies of high redshift galaxies, quasars and AGN, large scale structure, novae, variable stars, Galactic Bulge microlensing, Galactic structure, stellar populations, extrasolar planets, Kuiper Belt objects, Near-Earth objects and many other classes of targets. ALPACA is based on the 6-meter LZT (Large Zenith Telescope), which is currently operating in British Columbia and producing largely seeing-limited imaging. ALPACA has undergone conceptual design review and is now under design. Seeing tests are underway at sites on Cerro Tololo. We hope to achieve first light on ALPACA by late 2009. Proto-ALPACA is a stage of the project with the full-sized telescope with a smaller field of view, and will be first operational. ALPACA might eventually add instrumentation; a multiobject spectrograph is

  14. Pharmacokinetics of intrarectal omeprazole in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Marmulak, T; Stanley, S; Kass, P H; Wiebe, V; McKemie, D; Pusterla, N

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole in three different vehicles when administered rectally to six alpacas. Alpacas were given single doses of omeprazole (4 mg/kg) in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over design with a 1 week washout period. Omeprazole formulations consisted of (1) Treatment A: omeprazole paste mixed in surgical lubricant (2) Treatment B: omeprazole capsule contents in 8.4% sodium bicarbonate and (3) Treatment C: omeprazole capsule contents in surgical lubricant and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution. Plasma samples were drawn at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 300 and 480 min. Omeprazole plasma concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic results demonstrated median peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 7.35 (3.2-15.2), 7.30 (1.7-10.9) and 8.65 (1.8-19.3) ng/mL and median area under the concentration curve (AUC((0-180))) of 747 (237-1681) min x ng/mL, 552.9 (39-1063) min x ng/mL, and 972 (107-1841) min x ng/mL for treatments A, B and C, respectively. The median half-lives were similar between groups: 38, 50, and 53 min. As a result of the low measured omeprazole plasma concentrations, it is assumed that rectal absorption of omeprazole is poor in alpacas and not an effective route of administration. PMID:20646199

  15. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  16. PACo: A Novel Procrustes Application to Cophylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Blasco-Costa, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    We present Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny (PACo), a novel statistical tool to test for congruence between phylogenetic trees, or between phylogenetic distance matrices of associated taxa. Unlike previous tests, PACo evaluates the dependence of one phylogeny upon the other. This makes it especially appropriate to test the classical coevolutionary model that assumes that parasites that spend part of their life in or on their hosts track the phylogeny of their hosts. The new method does not require fully resolved phylogenies and allows for multiple host-parasite associations. PACo produces a Procrustes superimposition plot enabling a graphical assessment of the fit of the parasite phylogeny onto the host phylogeny and a goodness-of-fit statistic, whose significance is established by randomization of the host-parasite association data. The contribution of each individual host-parasite association to the global fit is measured by means of jackknife estimation of their respective squared residuals and confidence intervals associated to each host-parasite link. We carried out different simulations to evaluate the performance of PACo in terms of Type I and Type II errors with respect to two similar published tests. In most instances, PACo performed at least as well as the other tests and showed higher overall statistical power. In addition, the jackknife estimation of squared residuals enabled more elaborate validations about the nature of individual links than the ParaFitLink1 test of the program ParaFit. In order to demonstrate how it can be used in real biological situations, we applied PACo to two published studies using a script written in the public-domain statistical software R. PMID:23580325

  17. A three-step approach to minimise the impact of a mining site on vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and to restore landscape connectivity.

    PubMed

    Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Galaz, José Luis; Cadorzo, César; Lagunas, Héctor

    2016-07-01

    Resource extraction projects generate a diversity of negative effects on the environment that are difficult to predict and mitigate. Consequently, adaptive management approaches have been advocated to develop effective responses to impacts that were not predicted. Mammal populations living in or around mine sites are frequently of management concern; yet, there is a dearth of published information on how to minimise the negative effects of different phases of mining operations on them. Here, we present the case study of a copper mine in the Chilean Altiplano, which caused roadkills of the protected vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). This issue led to a three-step solution being implemented: (1) the initial identification of the problem and implementation of an emergency response, (2) the scientific analysis for decision making and (3) the planning and informed implementation of responses for different future scenarios and timescales. The measures taken under each of these steps provide examples of environmental management approaches that make use of scientific information to develop integrated management responses. In brief, our case study showed how (1) the timescale and the necessity/urgency of the case were addressed, (2) the various stakeholders involved were taken into account and (3) changes were included into the physical, human and organisational elements of the company to achieve the stated objectives. PMID:27300165

  18. A three-step approach to minimise the impact of a mining site on vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and to restore landscape connectivity.

    PubMed

    Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Galaz, José Luis; Cadorzo, César; Lagunas, Héctor

    2016-07-01

    Resource extraction projects generate a diversity of negative effects on the environment that are difficult to predict and mitigate. Consequently, adaptive management approaches have been advocated to develop effective responses to impacts that were not predicted. Mammal populations living in or around mine sites are frequently of management concern; yet, there is a dearth of published information on how to minimise the negative effects of different phases of mining operations on them. Here, we present the case study of a copper mine in the Chilean Altiplano, which caused roadkills of the protected vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). This issue led to a three-step solution being implemented: (1) the initial identification of the problem and implementation of an emergency response, (2) the scientific analysis for decision making and (3) the planning and informed implementation of responses for different future scenarios and timescales. The measures taken under each of these steps provide examples of environmental management approaches that make use of scientific information to develop integrated management responses. In brief, our case study showed how (1) the timescale and the necessity/urgency of the case were addressed, (2) the various stakeholders involved were taken into account and (3) changes were included into the physical, human and organisational elements of the company to achieve the stated objectives.

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in alpaca: abortion and persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Carman, Susy; Carr, Nancy; DeLay, Josepha; Baxi, Mohit; Deregt, Dirk; Hazlett, Murray

    2005-11-01

    An alpaca herd in eastern Ontario experienced vague signs of illness, including anorexia and lethargy in 9 animals, 2.5 months after the addition of a chronically ill cria and his dam to the farm. Subsequently 2 alpaca had early pregnancy loss; one aborted at 5.5 months gestation and the other at 7 months gestation. Seventeen were found to have serum antibody to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), with highest titers to BVDV type 1. The fetus that was aborted at 5.5 months gestation, 3 months after the clinical outbreak, was found to be positive for BVDV on immunohistochemical staining, and noncytopathic BVDV type 1b was isolated. Of the 13 cria born alive that season, a single male underweight alpaca cria, born 9 months after the clinical illnesses, was infected with BVDV type 1b. The cria was positive for BVDV at birth, at 3 and 26 days of age and continued to be positive for noncytopathic BVDV using virus isolation, nested reverse transcription PCR, antigen detection ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining until euthanasia at 46 days of age. The cria remained serum antibody negative to both BVDV type 1 and type 2. A diagnosis of persistent infection was made. This is the first report describing persistent infection with BVDV in an alpaca cria. PMID:16475521

  20. The expression of KRT2 and its effect on melanogenesis in alpaca skins.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yucong; Song, Yajun; Geng, Qingling; Ding, Zengfeng; Qin, Yilong; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng; Geng, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the keratin 2 (KRT2) on alpaca melanocyte in vivo and vitro, the immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and alpaca melanocytes transfection methods were used. The results showed that mRNA and protein expression of KRT2 was highly expressed in brown skin in comparison with that in white skin. Moreover, we found that KRT2 was expressed in alpaca melanocytes in vitro by immunocytochemistry. After transfection with KRT2 in alpaca melanocytes, the relative mRNA and protein expression of KRT2, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) in alpaca skin melanocytes was increased with significant differences; a further result was the increase of melanin production. The results suggested that KRT2 functions in alpaca hair color formation, which offered an essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of melanogenesis. PMID:27265811

  1. The expression of KRT2 and its effect on melanogenesis in alpaca skins.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yucong; Song, Yajun; Geng, Qingling; Ding, Zengfeng; Qin, Yilong; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng; Geng, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the keratin 2 (KRT2) on alpaca melanocyte in vivo and vitro, the immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and alpaca melanocytes transfection methods were used. The results showed that mRNA and protein expression of KRT2 was highly expressed in brown skin in comparison with that in white skin. Moreover, we found that KRT2 was expressed in alpaca melanocytes in vitro by immunocytochemistry. After transfection with KRT2 in alpaca melanocytes, the relative mRNA and protein expression of KRT2, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) in alpaca skin melanocytes was increased with significant differences; a further result was the increase of melanin production. The results suggested that KRT2 functions in alpaca hair color formation, which offered an essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of melanogenesis.

  2. Generation and Characterization of the First Immortalized Alpaca Cell Line Suitable for Diagnostic and Immunization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, Valentina; Jacca, Sarah; Sassu, Elena L.; Stellari, Fabio F.; van Santen, Vicky L.; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs) was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry. PMID:25140515

  3. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Valentina; Jacca, Sarah; Sassu, Elena L; Stellari, Fabio F; van Santen, Vicky L; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs) was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  4. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  5. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  6. Effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride anesthesia in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Reza; Odoi, Agricola; Doherty, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of IM administration of a tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride (TZ) combination with either dexmedetomidine hydrochloride or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS) on the motor response to claw clamping, selected cardiorespiratory variables, and quality of recovery from anesthesia in alpacas. ANIMALS 5 adult sexually intact male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was given the TZ combination (2 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (5 [D5], 10 [D10], 15 [D15], or 20 [D20] µg/kg) or SS IM at 1-week intervals (5 experiments); motor response to claw clamping was assessed, and characteristics of anesthesia, recovery from anesthesia, and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded. RESULTS Mean ± SEM duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping was longest when alpacas received treatments D15 (30.9 ± 5.9 minutes) and D20 (40.8 ± 5.9 minutes). Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer with dexmedetomidine administration. The longest time (81.3 ± 10.4 minutes) to standing was observed when alpacas received treatment D20. Following treatment SS, 4 alpacas moved in response to claw clamping at the 5-minute time point. Heart rate decreased from pretreatment values in all alpacas when dexmedetomidine was administered. Treatments D10, D15, and D20 decreased Pao2, compared with treatment SS, during the first 15 minutes. During recovery, muscle stiffness and multiple efforts to regain a sternal position were observed in 3 SS-treated and 1 D5-treated alpacas; all other recoveries were graded as excellent. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In TZ-anesthetized alpacas, dexmedetomidine (10, 15, and 20 µg/kg) administered IM increased the duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping, compared with the effect of SS. PMID:27668576

  7. Serologic response in eight alpacas vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine during a public health response to a rabid alpaca in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ryan M; Niezgoda, Michael; Waggoner, Emily A; Blanton, Jesse Dean; Radcliffe, Rachel A

    2016-09-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A female alpaca, kept at pasture with 12 other female alpacas, 2 crias, and 5 goats, was evaluated because of clinical signs of aggression. CLINICAL FINDINGS The clinical signs of aggression progressed to include biting at other animals as well as disorientation. Three days later, the alpaca was euthanized because of suspicion of rabies virus infection. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME No physical injuries were found at necropsy. Brain tissue specimens were confirmed positive for rabies on the basis of direct fluorescent antibody test results. Molecular typing identified the rabies virus variant as one that is enzootic in raccoons. The farm was placed under quarantine, restricting movement of animals on and off the property for 6 months. To prevent further rabies cases, 14 alpacas (12 adults and 2 crias) were vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine. Of the 14 vaccinated alpacas, 8 had paired serum samples obtained immediately before and 21 days after vaccination; all 8 alpacas had adequate serum antirabies antibody production in response to rabies vaccination. As a result of an adequate serologic response, the quarantine was reduced to 3 months. In the year after the index rabies case, no other animals on the farm developed rabies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Extralabel use of rabies vaccines in camelids was used in the face of a public health investigation. This report provides an example of handling of a rabies case for future public health investigations, which will undoubtedly need to develop ad-hoc rabies vaccination recommendations on the basis of the unique characteristics of the event.

  8. Serologic response in eight alpacas vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine during a public health response to a rabid alpaca in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ryan M; Niezgoda, Michael; Waggoner, Emily A; Blanton, Jesse Dean; Radcliffe, Rachel A

    2016-09-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A female alpaca, kept at pasture with 12 other female alpacas, 2 crias, and 5 goats, was evaluated because of clinical signs of aggression. CLINICAL FINDINGS The clinical signs of aggression progressed to include biting at other animals as well as disorientation. Three days later, the alpaca was euthanized because of suspicion of rabies virus infection. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME No physical injuries were found at necropsy. Brain tissue specimens were confirmed positive for rabies on the basis of direct fluorescent antibody test results. Molecular typing identified the rabies virus variant as one that is enzootic in raccoons. The farm was placed under quarantine, restricting movement of animals on and off the property for 6 months. To prevent further rabies cases, 14 alpacas (12 adults and 2 crias) were vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine. Of the 14 vaccinated alpacas, 8 had paired serum samples obtained immediately before and 21 days after vaccination; all 8 alpacas had adequate serum antirabies antibody production in response to rabies vaccination. As a result of an adequate serologic response, the quarantine was reduced to 3 months. In the year after the index rabies case, no other animals on the farm developed rabies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Extralabel use of rabies vaccines in camelids was used in the face of a public health investigation. This report provides an example of handling of a rabies case for future public health investigations, which will undoubtedly need to develop ad-hoc rabies vaccination recommendations on the basis of the unique characteristics of the event. PMID:27585106

  9. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from BVDV infected alpacas in North America.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung G; Anderson, Renee R; Yu, Jin Z; Zylich, Nancy C; Kinde, Hailu; Carman, Suzanne; Bedenice, Daniela; Dubovi, Edward J

    2009-05-12

    Over a three-year period, 2004-2007, greater than 12,000 alpacas in the United States were screened by real-time RT-PCR to identify alpacas persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A total of 46 BVD viruses were isolated from PI alpacas or diagnostic samples from alpacas. Forty-three US alpaca BVDV isolates and 3 Canadian isolates were analyzed by comparison of nucleotide sequences of two viral genomic regions, the 5'-UTR and the N(pro) gene to determine their genetic relatedness. All 46 alpaca BVDV isolates from 8 different states of the US and Canada were genotype 1b with > or =99% nt identity in the 290-base 5'-UTR region with the exception of one Canadian isolate. In contrast, 21 bovine BVDV isolates collected during the same period were grouped into the typical 3 genotypes, 1a, 1b, and 2, respectively. Forty five alpaca BVDV isolates formed a distinctive cluster separated from closely related bovine genotype 1b isolates by phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR region. Comparison of the 504-base N(pro) gene sequences of 32 alpaca isolates also assigned them all to type 1b in a similar fashion as observed with the 5'-UTR region. The results suggest that unique genotypes of bovine BVDV 1b may be maintained in the alpaca population even though camelids are susceptible to infection by other genotypes. Further studies are needed to address why alpacas were predominantly infected with genotype 1b BVDV isolates and how bovine BVD viruses evolved to infect alpacas.

  10. PaCO2 in Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial (SUPPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Wrage, Lisa A.; Das, Abhik; Laughon, Matthew; Cotten, C. Michael; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of PaCO2 with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (sIVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18–22 months in premature infants. Design Secondary exploratory data analysis of SUPPORT. Setting Multiple referral NICUs. Patients 1316 infants 24 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks gestation randomized to different oxygenation (SpO2 target 85–89% vs 91–95%) and ventilation strategies. Main Outcome Measures Blood gases from postnatal days 0–14 were analyzed. Five PaCO2 variables were defined: minimum [Min], maximum [Max], standard deviation, average (time-weighted), and a 4 level categorical variable (hypercapnic [highest quartile of Max PaCO2], hypocapnic [lowest quartile of Min PaCO2], fluctuators [both hypercapnia and hypocapnia], and normocapnic [middle two quartiles of Max and Min PaCO2]). PaCO2 variables were compared for infants with and without sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for adjusted results. Results sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death) were associated with hypercapnic infants and fluctuators. Association of Max PaCO2 and outcomes persisted after adjustment (Per 10 mmHg increase: sIVH/death: OR 1.27 [1.13–1.41]; BPD/death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44]; NDI/death: OR 1.23 [1.10–1.38], Death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44], all p <0.001). No interaction was found between PaCO2 category and SpO2 treatment group for sIVH/death, NDI/death, or death. Max PaCO2 was positively correlated with maximum FiO2 (rs0.55, p<0.0001) & ventilator days (rs0.61, p<0.0001). Conclusions Higher PaCO2 was an independent predictor of sIVH/death, BPD/death, and NDI/death. Further trials are needed to evaluate optimal PaCO2 targets for high risk infants. PMID:25425651

  11. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and subcutaneous cefovecin in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cox, S; Sommardahl, C; Seddighi, R; Videla, R; Hayes, J; Pistole, N; Hamill, M; Doherty, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose of 8 mg/kg to alpacas. Bacterial infections requiring long-term antibiotic therapy such as neonatal bacteremia, pneumonia, peritonitis, dental, and uterine infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. However, few antimicrobials have been evaluated and proven to have favorable pharmacokinetics for therapeutic use. Most antimicrobials that are currently used require daily injections for many days. Cefovecin is a long-acting cephalosporin that is formulated for subcutaneous administration, and its long-elimination half-life allows for 14-day dosing intervals in dogs and cats. The properties of cefovecin may be advantageous for medical treatment of camelids due to its broad spectrum, route of administration, and long duration of activity. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of antimicrobial drugs in camelids is essential for the proper treatment and prevention of bacterial disease, and to minimize development of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains due to inadequate antibiotic concentrations. Cefovecin mean half-life, volume of distribution at steady-state, and clearance after intravenous administration were 10.3 h, 86 mL/kg, and 7.07 mL·h/kg. The bioavailability was 143%, while half-life, C(max), and T(max) were 16.9 h, 108 μg/mL, and 2.8 h following subcutaneous administration. In the absence of additional microbial susceptibility data for alpaca pathogens, the current cefovecin dosage regimen prescribed for dogs (8 mg/kg SC every 14 days) may need to be optimized for the treatment of infections in this species.

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  13. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  14. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Stacy H; Mathews, Lindsey A; Firshman, Anna M; Quandt, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult.

  15. Nutrient composition and technological quality of meat from alpacas reared in Peru.

    PubMed

    Salvá, Bettit K; Zumalacárregui, José M; Figueira, Ana C; Osorio, María T; Mateo, Javier

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge on alpaca meat quality characteristics. Twenty Huacaya breed alpacas, reared under a traditional unspecialized production system at the Andean region of Peru, were slaughtered at ages between 18 and 24months. Analyses were carried out on Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle (LTLM), unless otherwise specified. These included composition parameters: moisture, fat, protein, ash, minerals, amino acids, fatty acid profile (of both LTLM and perirenal fat), retinol and tocopherol concentrations and myoglobin and collagen contents. Other meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, colour, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force. Alpaca LTLM was characterized by a low intramuscular fat content and mineral and amino acid compositions, polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and conjugated linoleic acid content comparable to those found for beef and sheep meat. However, specifically, alpaca meat showed a relatively high n-6 to n-3 (3.7) ratio and low vitamin E concentration. Values of alpaca meat technological quality parameters were in the ranges reported for more conventional red meats, the exception being a lower b(∗) value.

  16. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Adney, Danielle R.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  17. High follicle density does not decrease sweat gland density in Huacaya alpacas.

    PubMed

    Moore, K E; Maloney, S K; Blache, D

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high ambient temperatures, mammals lose heat evaporatively by either sweating from glands in the skin or by respiratory panting. Like other camelids, alpacas are thought to evaporate more water by sweating than panting, despite a thick fleece, unlike sheep which mostly pant in response to heat stress. Alpacas were brought to Australia to develop an alternative fibre industry to sheep wool. In Australia, alpacas can be exposed to ambient temperatures higher than in their native South America. As a young industry there is a great deal of variation in the quality and quantity of the fleece produced in the national flock. There is selection pressure towards animals with finer and denser fleeces. Because the fibre from secondary follicles is finer than that from primary follicles, selecting for finer fibres might alter the ratio of primary and secondary follicles. In turn the selection might alter sweat gland density because the sweat glands are associated with the primary follicle. Skin biopsy and fibre samples were obtained from the mid-section of 33 Huacaya alpacas and the skin sections were processed into horizontal sections at the sebaceous gland level. Total, primary, and secondary follicles and the number of sweat gland ducts were quantified. Fibre samples from each alpaca were further analysed for mean fibre diameter. The finer-fibred animals had a higher total follicle density (P<0.001) and more sweat glands (P<0.001) than the thicker-fibred animals. The fibre diameter and total follicle density were negatively correlated (R(2)=0.56, P<0.001). Given that the finer-fibred animals had higher follicle density and more sweat glands than animals with thicker fibres, we conclude that alpacas with high follicle density should not be limited for potential sweating ability.

  18. Retrospective Evaluation of Parenteral Nutrition in Alpacas: 22 Cases (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Clore, E.R.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Bedenice, D.; Buffington, C.A. Tony; Anderson, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition is an important method of nutritional support in hospitalized animals, but minimal information has been published on its use in camelids. Hypothesis/Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize the use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in alpacas, evaluate the formulations used, and determine potential complications. Animals Twenty-two alpacas hospitalized at the Tufts Cummings School for Veterinary Medicine (site 1: n = 8) and the Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (site 2: n = 14). Methods A retrospective analysis of all alpacas that received TPN between 2002 and 2008 was performed to assess clinical indications, clinical and clinicopathologic data, and outcome. Results The most common underlying diseases in animals receiving TPN were gastrointestinal dysfunction (n = 16), hepatic disease (n = 2), and neoplasia (n = 2). Several metabolic abnormalities were identified in animals (n = 20/22) before TPN was initiated, including lipemia (n = 12/22), hyperglycemia (11/22), and hypokalemia (n = 11/22). Median age was significantly lower for site 1 cases (0.1 years; range, 0.01–11.0) compared with those from site 2 (4.9 years; range, 0.1–13.7; P = .03). Animals at site 2 also had a longer duration of hospitalization (P = .01) and TPN administration (P = .004), as well as higher survival rate (P < .02). Twenty-one of 22 alpacas developed at least 1 complication during TPN administration. Metabolic complications were most prevalent (n = 21/22) and included hyperglycemia (n = 8/21), lipemia (n = 7/21), hypokalemia (n = 3/21), and refeeding syndrome (n = 3/21). Conclusions and Clinical Importance TPN is a feasible method of nutritional support for alpacas when enteral feeding is not possible. Prospective studies are warranted to determine optimal TPN formulations for alpacas. PMID:21418323

  19. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  1. Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shen; Yu, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Hai-Dong, Wang; Jian-Shan, Xie; Shu-Yuan, Gao; Jia-Qi, Cheng; Xiu-Ju, Yu; Ting, Wang; Chang-Sheng, Dong; Xiao-Yan, He

    2016-02-10

    The young male alpaca ear and the back skins were used to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor receptor-β I (TGFβR I) on alpaca hair follicles and hair growth. The expression level and location of TGFβR I in alpaca ear and dorsal skin were detected through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and paraffin section immunohistochemical technique (ICC-P). The results shown TGFβR I was lower expression in back skin compared to ear skin and the mean density of the positive reaction in ear skin was significantly higher than back skin. The targeted relationship with let-7b was detected using the dual-luciferase reporter vector of TGFβR I, which showed a significant target relationship between let-7b and TGFβR I. After transfection with let-7b eukaryotic expression vector, the relative mRNA expression of TGFβR I in alpaca skin fibroblasts did not differ, while the relative protein level was significantly decreased. In summary, a higher TGFβR I expression level in the ear skin suggests that TGFβR I may inhibit coat hair elongation. Further studies showed TGFβR I protein was downregulated by let-7b through transcriptional repression.

  2. Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in Alpacas on Two Maryland Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty one fecal samples were collected from adult alpacas and crias (ages 10 wk to 10 yr) on two farms in central Maryland. The farms raised both suri (silky-haired) and huacaya (crimpy-haired) breeds. Females and crias were housed together on pasture, whereas older/breeding males were maintained o...

  3. Ventricular septal defect and double-chambered right ventricle in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Poser, Helen; Dalla Pria, Angela; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Stelletta, Calogero; Berlanda, Michele; Guglielmini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    A 20-month-old male alpaca was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur evident since birth. Echocardiography identified a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and a fibro-muscular band causing a stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. Right ventricular catheterization and selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of VSD and double-chambered right ventricle with bidirectional shunting.

  4. Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Jennifer H; Edmondson, Misty A; Wolfe, Dwight F; Bayne, Jenna E

    2015-07-01

    A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved.

  5. Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Jennifer H.; Edmondson, Misty A.; Wolfe, Dwight F.; Bayne, Jenna E.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved. PMID:26130840

  6. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  7. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    PubMed

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  9. Goniometrie evaluation of standing extension and maximum flexion joint angles of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Walters, Amy L; Semevolos, Stacy A; Baker, Rose E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine and compare mean standing extension and maximum flexion angles of various joints in healthy adult alpacas and llamas, and determine the reliability of goniometric data within and between 2 observers for each joint of interest. SAMPLE 6 healthy adult llamas and 6 healthy adult alpacas. PROCEDURES The shoulder joint, elbow joint, carpal, and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the forelimbs and the hip joint, stifle joint, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the hind limbs were investigated. Each articulation was measured with a universal goniometer by 2 observers, who each obtained 2 measurements when each joint was maintained in standing extension and in maximal passive flexion. Two sample (unpaired) t tests were performed for comparisons of mean standing extension and maximum passive flexion angles between alpacas and llamas. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for each articulation to assess interobserver and intra-observer reliability of measurements. RESULTS Llamas had larger mean standing extension angles than alpacas for the tarsal and elbow joint, but there were no significant differences between species for all other joints. For all joints, flexion measurements did not differ significantly between the 2 species. For most joints, the reliability of goniometric data between observers was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.6 to 0.95) CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Except for the elbow joint and tarsus in extension, the angle of limb articulations during flexion and extension can be considered similar for alpacas and llamas. These measurements have relevance for veterinary surgeons when assessing joint mobility and conformation and determining appropriate angles for arthrodesis. PMID:27580112

  10. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia

    PubMed Central

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Mathews, Lindsey A.; Firshman, Anna M.; Quandt, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. PMID:25829556

  11. The alpaca melanocortin 1 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Renieri, Carlo; La Manna, Vincenzo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3'UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation.

  12. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas.

  13. [Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of an urachal fistula in an alpaca cria. A case report].

    PubMed

    Kubus, K; Wöckel, A; Felton, C; Schwarzenberger, J; Sobiraj, A

    2015-01-01

    Urachal fistula is a neonatal condition. There are two reported forms: a congenital and an acquired form. We describe the case of a 6-hour-old female alpaca cria that was presented with a damp umbilicus and a meconium impaction. Conservative treatment of the urachal fistula with local and systemic medication was unsuccessful after 6 days; therefore, a resection of the umbilicus under general anaesthesia was performed. Reconvalescence was uneventful.

  14. Effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Doherty, Thomas J.; da Cunha, Anderson F.; Leonardi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in alpacas. Eight healthy, intact male, adult alpacas were studied on 2 separate occasions. Anesthesia was induced with SEVO, and baseline MAC (MACB) determination began 45 min after induction. After MACB determination, alpacas were randomly given either an intravenous (IV) loading dose (LD) and infusion of saline or a loading dose [ketamine = 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW); lidocaine = 2 mg/kg BW] and an infusion of ketamine (25 μg/kg BW per minute) in combination with lidocaine (50 μg/kg BW per minute), and MACSEVO was re-determined (MACT). Quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were also evaluated. Mean MACB was 1.88% ± 0.13% and 1.89% ± 0.14% for the saline and ketamine + lidocaine groups, respectively. Ketamine and lidocaine administration decreased (P < 0.05) MACB by 57% and mean MACT was 0.83% ± 0.10%. Saline administration did not change MACB. Time to determine MACB and MACT was not significantly different between the treatments. The quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were not different between groups. The infusion of ketamine combined with lidocaine significantly decreased MACSEVO by 57% and did not adversely affect time-to-standing or quality of recovery. PMID:27127341

  15. The alpaca agouti gene: genomic locus, transcripts and causative mutations of eumelanic and pheomelanic coat color.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Renieri, Carlo; La Manna, Vincenzo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2013-06-01

    The agouti gene encodes the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) which regulates pheomelanin and eumelanin synthesis in mammals. To investigate the role of agouti in coat color variation of alpaca, we characterized the agouti gene and identified three mutations potentially involved with the determinism of eumelanic and pheomelanic phenotypes. The exon-4 hosts the mutations g.3836C>T, g.3896G>A and g.3866_3923del57. Further analysis of these mutations revealed two genotypes for black animals. The reverse transcription analysis of mRNA purified from skin biopsies of alpaca revealed the presence of three transcripts with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) and color specific expression. The white specific transcript, possibly originating from a duplication event (intra-chromosomal recombination) of the agouti gene is characterise by a 5'UTR containing 142bp of the NCOA6 gene sequence. Furthermore, the relative level expression analysis of mRNA demonstrates that the agouti gene has up-regulated expression in white skin, suggesting a pleiotropic effect of agouti in the white phenotype. Our findings refine the structure of the agouti locus and transcripts and provide additional information in order to understand the role of agouti in the pigmentation of alpaca.

  16. The effects of IGF1 on the melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuaipeng; Liu, Yu; Yang, Shanshan; Ji, Kaiyuan; Liu, Xuexian; Zhang, Junzhen; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) on alpaca melanocyte in vitro, different dosees of IGF1 (0, 10, 20, 40 ng/ml) were added in the medium of alpaca melanocyte. The RTCA machine was used to monitor the proliferation, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot to test the relative gene expression, ELISA to test cAMP production, and spectrum method to test the melanin production. The results showed that compared to the normal melanocyte, the proliferation of melanocytes was increased within 60 h following adding IGF1. It also showed that cAMP content produced by melanocytes was increased, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TYRP2) expression was increased, and melanin production with most obvious change in 10 ng/ml supplementary group, when compared with the control group. The results suggested that IGF1 with the dose of 10 ng/ml had the important effects on the melanogenesis in alpaca melanocyte by the cAMP pathway.

  17. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  18. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants. PMID:26572928

  19. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased.

  20. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  1. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  2. Absorption and disposition of florfenicol after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Werle, Nicholas; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to define disposition and systemic availability of florfenicol in alpacas. Administration of 20 mg/kg doses to 8 male alpacas by i.v., i.m. and s.c. routes was performed by randomized, 3-way crossover design. Clearance and steady state volumes (Vdss) after i.v. injection were 5 ml/min/kg and 775 ml/kg respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) and terminal phase half-life (T1/2λz) were 2.8 h and 2 h respectively. Maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) after i.m. were higher than s.c. administration (p = 0.034). After s.c. dosing, T1/2λz and MRT were greater than after i.m. injection (p < 0.001; p = 0.006 respectively). Mean absorption time (MAT) after s.c. dosing was also prolonged (p = 0.006). Fractional absorption of florfenicol after i.m. and s.c. was not different (p > 0.05). Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 µg/ml for 20 h after i.m. dosing. Differences in rate and extent of florfenicol absorption after extravascular dosing could influence therapeutic outcomes.

  3. Multivariate analysis of the volumetric capnograph for PaCO2 estimation

    PubMed Central

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Baker, William L; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Mittal, Sumit; Watkins, Taylor; Salinas, Jose; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: End-tidal CO2 (eTCO2) can be used to estimate the arterial CO2 (PaCO2) under steady-state conditions, but that relationship deteriorates during hemodynamic or respiratory instability. We developed a multivariate method to improve our ability to estimate the PaCO2, by using additional information contained in the volumetric capnograph (Vcap) waveform. We tested this approach using data from a porcine model of chest trauma/hemorrhage. Methods: This experiment consisted of 3 stages: pre-injury, injury/resuscitation, and post-injury. In stage I, anesthetized pigs (n=26) underwent ventilator maneuvers (tidal volume and respiratory rate) to induce hypo-or hyper-ventilation. In stage II, pigs underwent either (A) unilateral pulmonary contusion, hemorrhage, and resuscitation (n=13); or (B) bilateral pulmonary contusion (n=13) followed by 30 min of monitoring. In stage III, the ventilator maneuvers were repeated. The following Vcap features were measured: eTCO2, phase 2 slope (p2m), phase 3 slope (p3m), and inter-breath interval. The data were fit to 2 models: (1) multivariate linear regression and (2) a machine-learning model (M5P). Results: 1750 10-breath sets were analyzed. Univariate models employing eTCO2 alone were adequate during stages I and III. During stage II, mean error for the linear model was -8.44 mmHg (R2=0.14, P<0.001) and for M5P it was -5.98 mmHg (R2=0.13, P<0.01). By adding Vcap features, all models exhibited improvement. In stage II, the mean error of the linear model improved to -4.64 mmHg (R2=0.11, P<0.01), and that of the M5P model improved to -1.62 mmHg (R2=0.25, P<0.01). Conclusions: By incorporating Vcap waveform features, multivariate methods modestly improved PaCO2 estimation, especially during periods of hemodynamic and respiratory instability. Further work would be needed to produce a clinically useful CO2 monitoring system under these challenging conditions. PMID:26550531

  4. New toxics, new poverty: a social understanding of the freebase cocaine/Paco in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Epele, María E

    2011-01-01

    Included within the field of research on changes in drug use patterns and vulnerability are conditions of emergency related to economic crisis, wars, and political conflict. This study addresses the complex connections between the rapid propagation of freebase cocaine (FBC)-locally known as "pasta base" or "Paco" in Argentina and the normalization of the consequences of Argentina's 2001-2002 political-economic crisis. On the basis of the results of an ethnographic study carried out in three neighborhoods of the Greater Buenos Aires area between 2001 and 2005, this article aims to analyze how changes in the material and social living conditions are interrelated with the high toxicity of FBC/Paco and engender the emerging compulsion of its consumption and deterioration to the bodies, subjectivities, and social activities of active drug users from these shantytowns. By analyzing the changes in transactions directly or indirectly involving drugs-specifically those ranging from cocaine to FBC/Paco-we can argue how structural poverty, "new poverty," is not only associated with the expansion of FBC/Paco but is also shaped by its use, modes of consumption, associated health problems, and sufferings.

  5. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B.

  6. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. PMID:25683297

  7. Expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), ALK5, and claudin-11 in adult alpaca testis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing Yun; Gao, Zhen Zhen; Zhao, Li; He, Jun Ping; Dong, Cheng Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is an oocyte-derived factor critical for folliculogenesis. Recently, in vitro data showed that GDF9 inhibited the localization of tight junction (TJ) proteins, suggesting that GDF9 could potentially regulate spermatogenesis in vivo, via inhibition of Sertoli cell TJ function. The purpose of the present study was to determine the expression and localization of GDF9, its receptor, ALK5, and its latent target protein, claudin-11 (one of TJ proteins) in adult alpaca testis using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting results demonstrated that GDF9, ALK5 and claudin-11 were expressed in the adult alpaca testis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that GDF9 was expressed stage-specifically in the cytoplasm of pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids of the adult alpaca seminiferous epithelium. Type I receptor, ALK5 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of round spermatids and Leydig cells, and to a lesser extent in the cytoplasm of pachytene spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. Its latent target protein, claudin-11, was perpendicular or parallel to the basal lamina in the basal part of Sertoli cells. These results indicated that GDF9, as a paracrine and autocrine growth factor derived from round spermatids and pachytene spermatocytes, is involved in regulating spermatogenesis via action on germ cells or somatic cells (i.e. Leydig cells, Sertoli cells).

  8. Dense plasma focus PACO as a hard X-ray emitter: a study on the radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supán, L.; Guichón, S.; Milanese, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Moroso, R.; Acuña, H.; Malamud, F.

    2014-05-01

    The radiation in the X-ray range detected outside the vacuum chamber of the dense plasma focus (DPF) PACO, are produced on the anode zone. The zone of emission is studied in a shot-to-shot analysis, using pure deuterium as filling gas. We present a diagnostic method to determine the place and size of the hard X-ray source by image analysis of high density radiography plates.

  9. Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis.

    PubMed

    Agbedanu, Prince N; Anderson, Kristi L; Brewer, Matthew T; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-09-15

    Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies

  10. Mandibular corpus bone strain in goats and alpacas: implications for understanding the biomechanics of mandibular form in selenodont artiodactyls.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Hylander, William L

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify the functional and biomechanical relationship between jaw morphology and in vivo masticatory loading in selenodont artiodactyls. We compare in vivo strains from the mandibular corpus of goats and alpacas to predicted strain patterns derived from biomechanical models for mandibular corpus loading during mastication. Peak shear strains in both species average 600-700 microepsilon on the working side and approximately 450 microepsilon on the balancing side. Maximum principal tension in goats and alpacas is directed at approximately 30 degrees dorsocaudally relative to the long axis of the corpus on the working side and approximately perpendicular to the long axis on the balancing side. Strain patterns in both species indicate primarily torsion of the working-side corpus about the long axis and parasagittal bending and/or lateral transverse bending of the balancing-side corpus. Interpretation of the strain patterns is consistent with comparative biomechanical analyses of jaw morphology suggesting that in goats, the balancing-side mandibular corpus is parasagittally bent whereas in alpacas it experiences lateral transverse bending. However, in light of higher working-side corpus strains, biomechanical explanations of mandibular form also need to consider that torsion influences relative corpus size and shape. Furthermore, the complex combination of loads that occur along the selenodont artiodactyl mandibular corpus during the power stroke has two implications. First, added clarification of these loading patterns requires in vivo approaches for elucidating biomechanical links between mandibular corpus morphology and masticatory loading. Second, morphometric approaches may be limited in their ability to accurately infer masticatory loading regimes of selenodont artiodactyl jaws.

  11. Effect of the addition of two superoxide dismutase analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Acosta, Alexei Santiani; Evangelista, Shirley; Vargas, Shirley Evangelista; Valdivia, Martha; Cuya, Martha Valdivia; Risopatrón, Jennie; González, Jennie Risopatrón; Sánchez, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Raúl Sánchez

    2013-03-15

    The main objective was to study the effects, on sperm function, of the addition of two superoxide dismutase (SOD) analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation. Twelve alpaca semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina and then diluted at a 1:3 ratio in an extender based on skim milk, egg yolk, and fructose. Each semen sample was divided into three equal parts to form the following groups: control, Tempo (1 mM), and Tempol (1 mM). Groups were cooled to 5 °C in 90 minutes (-1 °C in 3 minutes); when samples reached approximately 10 °C, SOD analogues were added to the respective groups. At 5 °C, ethylene glycol (final concentration, 0.1 M) was added to each group. After 30 minutes at 5 °C, samples were loaded in 0.25 mL plastic straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapor for 15 minutes, and then plunged. Percentages of sperm motility, functional sperm membrane integrity, and viable sperm with intact acrosomes were evaluated before and after freeze-thaw using visual analysis, the hypoosmotic swelling test, and the double-stain trypan blue/giemsa technique, respectively. The Terminal deoxymucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling assay was performed for evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed sperm. Sperm motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the Tempol and Tempo groups than in the control group (mean, 22.1%, 19.7%, and 11.2%, respectively), with similar results for functional sperm membrane integrity. Additionally, DNA fragmentation was lower (P < 0.05) in the Tempol group (16.7%) than in the control group (38.8%). Viable sperm with intact acrosomes were not affected by the use of SOD analogues. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.58) between DNA fragmentation of alpaca sperm and sperm motility after freeze-thawing, but DNA damage was neither related to functional membrane integrity nor viable sperm with intact acrosomes. We concluded that DNA fragmentation and loss of motility during cryopreservation of

  12. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  13. Weighting fibre and morphological traits in a genetic index for an alpaca breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I; Pérez-Cabal, M A; Burgos, A; Morante, R

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, the fibre diameter (FD) is considered the main selection objective in alpaca populations all over the world. International Committee for Animal Recording recommendations define the FD and its CV as the first two traits to be considered in breeding programmes for this specie. In addition to these main criteria, other selection criteria of economic value used are comfort factor (CF) or standard deviation (s.d.); also other less important traits being used as selection objectives are these morphological traits: density (DE), crimp (CR) or lock structure (LS) for, respectively, Huacaya (HU) and Suri (SU) ecotypes, head (HE), coverage (CO) and balance (BA). The goal of this study was to establish how to implement a combined selection index starting from genetic parameters and to study the expected correlation between genetic trends by considering different alternative procedures of weighting all the involved traits, and the consequences of a wrongly proceeding way. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from the data set belonging to the PACOMARCA experimental farm for SU and HU. Two approaches were used to check the consequences of a set of subjective weights essayed. The coefficients of selection indexes were obtained for two sets of reference weights. In addition, equivalent weights were drawn if applied those reference values as coefficients of hypothetical selection indexes directly on phenotypes; relative expected genetic responses were computed in different cases. Results showed that almost in all cases for both ecotypes, the weight applied to CF should be surprisingly negative. Concerning genetic responses, only CO was compromised in some cases for the HU ecotype. The essayed methodology allowed explaining the differences between ecotypes in the genetic trends. The proposed methodology was shown to be effective to study the relative importance of the traits granted by the manager of a breeding scheme.

  14. Weighting fibre and morphological traits in a genetic index for an alpaca breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I; Pérez-Cabal, M A; Burgos, A; Morante, R

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, the fibre diameter (FD) is considered the main selection objective in alpaca populations all over the world. International Committee for Animal Recording recommendations define the FD and its CV as the first two traits to be considered in breeding programmes for this specie. In addition to these main criteria, other selection criteria of economic value used are comfort factor (CF) or standard deviation (s.d.); also other less important traits being used as selection objectives are these morphological traits: density (DE), crimp (CR) or lock structure (LS) for, respectively, Huacaya (HU) and Suri (SU) ecotypes, head (HE), coverage (CO) and balance (BA). The goal of this study was to establish how to implement a combined selection index starting from genetic parameters and to study the expected correlation between genetic trends by considering different alternative procedures of weighting all the involved traits, and the consequences of a wrongly proceeding way. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from the data set belonging to the PACOMARCA experimental farm for SU and HU. Two approaches were used to check the consequences of a set of subjective weights essayed. The coefficients of selection indexes were obtained for two sets of reference weights. In addition, equivalent weights were drawn if applied those reference values as coefficients of hypothetical selection indexes directly on phenotypes; relative expected genetic responses were computed in different cases. Results showed that almost in all cases for both ecotypes, the weight applied to CF should be surprisingly negative. Concerning genetic responses, only CO was compromised in some cases for the HU ecotype. The essayed methodology allowed explaining the differences between ecotypes in the genetic trends. The proposed methodology was shown to be effective to study the relative importance of the traits granted by the manager of a breeding scheme. PMID:24423382

  15. Development and utilization of camelid VHH antibodies from alpaca for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether detection.

    PubMed

    Bever, Candace R S; Majkova, Zuzana; Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian; McCoy, Mark; Wang, Yanru; Dechant, Julie; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRNA coding for the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) were isolated, transcribed to cDNA, and cloned into a phagemid vector for phage display library construction. Selection of VHHs recognizing BDE-47 was achieved by panning under carefully modified conditions. The assay sensitivity for detecting BDE-47 was down to the part-per-billion (microgram per liter) level. Cross-reactivity analyses confirmed that this method was highly selective for BDE-47 and selected hydroxylated metabolites. When exposed to elevated temperatures, the camelid VHH antibodies retained more reactivity than a polyclonal antibody developed to the same target analyte. The use of this VHH antibody reagent immobilized onto a Au electrode for impedance biosensing demonstrates the increased versatility of VHH antibodies.

  16. The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2013-05-01

    In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (P<0.001) although papain was most effective, completely eliminating viscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (P<0.001). These findings suggest that proteins, not GAGs are the main cause of alpaca seminal plasma viscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation.

  17. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  18. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of alpha-MSH to stimulate alpha-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to alpha-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm(2) of UVB; the UV+L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 microM L-NAME (every 6h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of alpha-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the alpha-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance alpha-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete alpha-MSH to enhance the alpha-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  19. Underlying Mechanisms for Coexisting Central and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Nocturnal PaCO2 and Poor Sleep Quality Are Key Issues.

    PubMed

    Contal, Olivier; Pépin, Jean Louis; Borel, Jean Christian; Espa, Fabrice; Perrig, Stephen; Lücker, Lise-Margrit; Adler, Dan; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Lador, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Coexisting central and obstructive sleep apnea is a challenging clinical situation. We report a case exhibiting an overnight shift from obstructive to central events. The central sleep apnea component was related to sleep instability, hyperventilation and low nocturnal PaCO2. Both types of respiratory events were successfully treated with adaptive servoventilation.

  20. Evaluation of production and reproduction of sheep, goat and alpaca genotypes in the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program.

    PubMed

    Bradford, G E; Burfening, P J; Cartwright, T C

    1989-11-01

    Research has been conducted as part of the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program (SR-CRSP) on evaluation of genetic resources and methods of effecting genetic improvement of small ruminants in the participating countries. In Kenya, the focus has been on development of a dual-purpose goat for milk and meat production in farming areas, utilizing two locally adapted breeds, Galla and East African, and two imported dairy breeds, Anglo-Nubian and Toggenburg, into a single stock. That research now has reached the stage of field testing. In Morocco, the performance of a highly prolific breed of sheep, the D'Man, and of a less prolific but larger breed, commonly raised under extensive management, the Sardi, and of their F1, F2 and backcross progeny has been evaluated for several reproduction and growth traits. Prolificacy of the D'Man was transmitted additively, but there was favorable heterosis for age at puberty, fertility and growth rate, resulting in substantial heterosis in total performance. In Indonesia, a high degree of variability in prolificacy in sheep appears to be due to segregation of a gene with large effect on ovulation rate, similar in some respects to the Booroola gene. In Peru, work has involved evaluation of effectiveness of current selection programs and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters, in unimproved and improved types of sheep, with a limited amount of work also on alpacas. Fiber production is the principal economic trait in alpacas. There also has been work on evaluation of hair sheep in Brazil, Kenya and Indonesia.

  1. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-02-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55% of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively), and that the overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the appearance of a distinct fine mode

  2. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis. PMID:22950328

  3. Anti-idiotypic nanobody as citrinin mimotope from a naive alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody library.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Xiong, Liang; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    Compared with peptide-based mimotope, anti-idiotypic antibodies (AIds) are considered as promising biosynthetic surrogate antigen because these antibodies display stable protein conformation. Nevertheless, conventional AIds are generated by immunizing animals with heterologous idiotypic antibody in vivo; isolated AIds commonly exhibit a higher affinity to primary antibodies than target analytes because AIds undergo an affinity-matured process during immune responses, resulting in low sensitivity in competitive immunoassay. In the present study, an anti-citrinin monoclonal antibody (anti-CIT McAb) was designed as primary antibody; one β-type AI alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody (β-AI VHH) was selected as a citrinin (CIT) surrogate from a naive phage-displayed VHH library. The affinity constant (K D) of obtained β-AI VHH to anti-CIT McAb (160 nM) is 2.35 times lower than that of CIT and ovalbumin conjugates (CIT-OVA) to anti-CIT McAb (68 nM). The developed VHH-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (V-ELISA) can be used to perform dynamic linear detection of CIT in 10% (v/v) methanol/PBS from 5.0 to 300.0 ng/mL, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 44.6 ng/mL (n = 3); this result was twice as good as that of indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA, IC50 = 96.2 ng/mL) with CIT-OVA as a coating antigen. Moreover, the precision of V-ELISA was evaluated by analyzing average recoveries and coefficient of variations of CIT-spiked cereal sample; the reliability of V-ELISA was also validated with a conventional ic-ELISA. In summary, the proposed strategy has a great potential for panning other β-AI VHH toward small organic molecules from a naive VHH library.

  4. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively). The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation

  5. Development and Utilization of Camelid VHH Antibodies from Alpaca for 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabrominated Diphenyl Ether Detection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRNA coding for the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) were isolated, transcribed to cDNA, and cloned into a phagemid vector for phage display library construction. Selection of VHHs recognizing BDE-47 was achieved by panning under carefully modified conditions. The assay sensitivity for detecting BDE-47 was down to the part-per-billion (microgram per liter) level. Cross-reactivity analyses confirmed that this method was highly selective for BDE-47 and selected hydroxylated metabolites. When exposed to elevated temperatures, the camelid VHH antibodies retained more reactivity than a polyclonal antibody developed to the same target analyte. The use of this VHH antibody reagent immobilized onto a Au electrode for impedance biosensing demonstrates the increased versatility of VHH antibodies. PMID:25005746

  6. Characterization and Selection of 3-(1-Naphthoyl)-Indole Derivative-Specific Alpaca VHH Antibodies Using a Phage Display Library.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Murakami, Akikazu; Yoshida, Maiko; Muraoka, Jin; Wakai, Junko; Kenjyou, Noriko; Ito, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    A new alpaca VHH antibody library against 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives was developed from alpaca immunized with 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Hep-KLH) protein conjugates as the immunogen. From this library, two 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivative-specific clones, named NN01 and NN02, were isolated using biopanning technology. The binding specificity of these clones was confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Based on the results of c-ELISA, a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of these two VHH antibodies, NN01 and NN02, in the case of 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid (Hep; one of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives) as an inhibitor exhibited an approximate 3 × 10(-7) M and 6 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Thus, VHH antibodies produced in this study could be considered a useful tool for the detection of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives. PMID:27556911

  7. Vitrification of in vitro mature alpaca oocyte: effect of ethylene glycol concentration and time of exposure in the equilibration and vitrification solutions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Landeo, L; Mendoza, J; Artica, M; Correa, J E; Silva, M; Miragaya, M; Ratto, M H

    2013-12-01

    The effect of different ethylene glycol concentrations, times of exposure and vitrification procedure on viability, cleavage and blastocyst rate of in vitro matured alpaca oocytes chemically activated after vitrification was analyzed. In Experiment 1, oocytes were incubated for 12-15 min with different concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG) in the equilibration solution (ES) followed by chemical activation and in vitro cultured for 8 days to determine oocyte viability, cleavage and blastocyst rates. In Experiment 2, oocytes were incubated in the equilibration solution containing 4% of EG for 12-15 min and then randomly assigned to vitrification solutions containing 25, 35 or 45% of EG for 30s, vitrified and stored at -196°C. In Experiment 3, oocytes were incubated in the equilibration solution containing 4% of EG for 12-15 min and then randomly assigned to the vitrification solution containing 35% of EG for 15, 30 or 45s, vitrified and stored at -196°C. For Experiments 2 and 3, non-vitrified and vitrified oocytes were activated and cultured in vitro. In Experiment 1, oocyte viability was lowest at concentrations of 6 or 8%, intermediate at 2 or 4% and highest at 0% of EG. Oocyte viability and cleavage rate were affected by EG concentration, time of exposure in the vitrification solution or vitrification procedure in Experiment 2 and 3. Alpaca oocytes were viable after vitrification, given that oocyte viability, cleavage and blastocyst rate were affected by the vitrification procedure, EG concentration and time of exposure in the equilibration and vitrification solutions.

  8. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations.

  9. Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Wang, H D; Shen, Y; Liu, N; Cao, J; Yu, X J; Dong, C S; He, X Y

    2015-10-29

    MicroRNAs are very small endogenous RNA molecules that play a crucial role in an array of biological processes, including regulation of skin morphogenesis. The microRNA let-7b is thought to modulate animal hair growth, by binding target genes that encode growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) has been previously reported to be involved in the initiation of the catagen phase of hair growth. In this study, we combined previous reports with bioinformatic analysis techniques to identify and validate FGF5 and, using lucerifase assay, confirmed targeted binding of let-7b to FGF5. To investigate the interaction between let-7b and FGF5, alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with let-7b over-expression vectors, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF5 and the gene encoding its receptor, FGFR1, were evaluated. Levels of FGF5 mRNA and protein were remarkably lower in transfected groups, as compared to controls. In summary, this study confirmed that let-7b acts as a regulator of skin morphogenesis, by directly targeting FGF5 and down-regulating its expression. It provides the evidence of hair growth regulated by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production.

  10. Carbon mineralization and soil fertility at high altitude grasslands in the Bolivian Andean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, R.; Muñoz, M. A.; Faz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The high grasslands of Apolobamba provide a natural habitat for a high number of wild and domestic camelids such as vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and alpaca (Lama pacos) in Bolivia. Because of the importance of the camelid raising for the Apolobambás inhabitant economy, it is fundamental to determine the natural resources condition and their availability for the camelid support. The soil organic matter plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the soil fertility at high grasslands. On the other hand, soil respiration is the primary pathway for CO2 fixed by plants returning to the atmosphere and its study is essential to evaluate the soil organic matter mineralization and the global C cycle. Based on this, the objectives of this research were to: (i) evaluate the soil fertility and (ii) determine soil organic matter mineralization on the basis of CO2 releases in Apolobamba. Regarding the lastly vicuna censuses carried out in the studied area, eight representative zones with dissimilar vicuna densities were selected. Other characteristics were also considered to select the study zones: (1) alpaca densities, (2) vegetation communities (3) plant cover and (4) landscape and geo-morphological description. Soil samples from different samplings were collected. Soil respiration was determined at two temperatures: 15 °C (based on the highest atmosphere temperature that was registered in the area) and 25 °C, in order to monitor the increase in soil respiration (Q10). The physico-chemical soil results pointed out the good soil fertility. However, erosive processes could be taken place likely caused by the alpaca grazing. High total organic carbon contents were observed corresponding to the highest soil respiration at 15 °C. This observation was supported by the relationship found between the total organic carbon and the soil respiration. A noticeable increase of the soil respiration when the temperature increased 10 °C was reported (from 1083 ± 47 g C m-2 yr-1 at 15 °C to

  11. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2).

    PubMed

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  12. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    PubMed Central

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  13. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles.

  14. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life

  15. Pastoralism in Northern Peru during Pre-Hispanic Times: Insights from the Mochica Period (100–800 AD) Based on Stable Isotopic Analysis of Domestic Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Franco Jordán, Régulo; Sánchez, Segundo Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol) and bone structural carbonate (δ13Cbone and δ18Obone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ13Cenamel and δ18Oenamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ18Obone and δ18Oenamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life of the Mochicas is also

  16. Soil organic carbon in Apolobamba (Bolivia): Quantity and quality of the reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M. Á.; Faz, A.

    2009-04-01

    Global carbon cycle mainly depends on the soil organic matter (SOM). Some reducction of climatic impact techiques are related to the increase of the soil organic carbon (SOC) contents in order to elevate atmospherical carbon inputs. Kinetic mechanisms of the SOC are differents due to the complex interation between biological, physical and chemical processes in the soil. For a full understanding of the SOM contribution to the carbon cycle in the soil, the SOC contents should be addressed. The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) is an endangered species which belongs to camelid family. Its natural habitat is located in highland grasses in the Andes Montain Range, above 4,000 m.a.s.l. In Bolivia the vicuna is distributed around some andean regions such as Apolobamba. It is a protected area located in the Northwest of Bolivia where native inhabitants carry out a sustainable management of the vicuna. This activity is considered within a programme to improve economical conditions in the area. The vicuna lives in the same habitat than other cattle camelid like alpaca (Lama pacos). The soil is an essential natural resource in the vicuna development and the biodiversity conservation due to its role to support the native vegetation in Apolobamba. The objectives of this research were: (i) the quantification of SOC contents, (ii) the study of the SOC quality and (iii) the determination of the soil degradation degree in some zones in Apolobamba. Eight zones or census places, separated areas with geographic accidents, with different vicuna and alpaca densities were selected: Ulla-Ulla and Killu (low density), Ucha-Ucha and Wakampata (medium density), Sucondori and Caballchiñuni (high density) and Puyo-Puyo and Japu (very high density). One soil profile was taken and three sampling plots were determined in each zone. Three sampling points were selected in each plot and surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface samples (5-15 cm) were collected. Total carbon, total organic carbon (TOC) and water

  17. The Vγ9Vδ2 T Cell Antigen Receptor and Butyrophilin-3 A1: Models of Interaction, the Possibility of Co-Evolution, and the Case of Dendritic Epidermal T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Mohindar M.; Herrmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Most circulating human gamma delta T cells are Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Their hallmark is the expression of T cell antigen receptors (TCR) whose γ-chains show a Vγ9-JP (Vγ2-Jγ1.2) rearrangement and are paired with Vδ2-containing δ-chains, a dominant TCR configuration, which until recently seemed to occur in primates only. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to phosphoantigens (PAg) such as (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), which is produced by many pathogens and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which accumulates in certain tumors or cells treated with aminobisphosphonates such as zoledronate. A prerequisite for PAg-induced activation is the contact of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with cells expressing butyrophilin-3 A1 (BTN3A1). We will first critically review models of how BTN3 might act in PAg-mediated Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation and then address putative co-evolution of Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes. In those rodent and lagomorphs used as animal models, all three genes are lost but a data-base analysis showed that they emerged together with placental mammals. A strong concomitant conservation of functional Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes in other species suggests co-evolution of these three genes. A detailed analysis was performed for the new world camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos). It provides an excellent candidate for a non-primate species with presumably functional Vγ9Vδ2 T cells since TCR rearrangements share features characteristic for PAg-reactive primate Vγ9Vδ2 TCR and proposed PAg-binding sites of BTN3A1 have been conserved. Finally, we analyze the possible functional relationship between the butyrophilin-family member Skint1 and the γδ TCR-V genes used by murine dendritic epithelial T cells (DETC). Among placental mammals, we identify five rodents, the cow, a bat, and the cape golden mole as the only species concomitantly possessing potentially functional homologs of murine Vγ3, Vδ4 genes, and Skint1 gene and suggest to search for DETC like cells in these

  18. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  19. Soil organic matter stabilization in grazing highland soils from the Andean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M. A.; Faz, A.; Zornoza, R.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands comprise approximately 40% of the earth's land area and play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Apolobamba is a grazing highland located in the Andean Plateau where sustainable vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) management programme is carried out. Understanding the soil properties and the organic matter dynamics is fundamental to determine the grazing impacts in the carbon reservoirs. However, the labile and recalcitrant fractions of C have not been widely studied under field conditions, especially in high grasslands. The objectives of this survey were to: (i) achieve a soil characterization through general physico-chemical properties and (ii) study soil organic matter stabilization through recalcitrant and labile carbon budgets in Apolobamba. Regarding the lastly vicuna censuses carried out in the studied area, eight representative zones with different vicuna densities were selected and soil samples were collected. Other characteristics were also considered to select the study zones: (1) alpaca densities, (2) vegetation communities (3) plant cover and (4) landscape and geo-morphological description. Recalcitrant and water soluble organic carbon were determined as well as recalcitrant index. General soil characterization showed strongly acid and no saline soils with high cation exchange capacity and sandy-loam and loam textures. Total nitrogen contents indicated no limitation for the native vegetation growth. In general, no relationships were found among general soil properties, vicuna and alpaca densities; however, zones with highest alpaca density could be prone to soil erosion based on the available P distribution and the texture results. Additionally, a negative alpaca grazing influence in the soil organic carbon stocks was observed. On the other hand, high soil recalcitrant carbon contents (3.7 ± 0.3 kg m-2) and recalcitrance index (0.8 ± 0.1) were found. Likewise, labile C exhibited similar values to those obtained from researchers conducted in

  20. Vigilance behaviour of the year-round territorial vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) outside the breeding season: influence of group size, social factors and distance to a water source.

    PubMed

    Torres, M Eugenia Mosca; Puig, Silvia; Novillo, Agustina; Ovejero, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    We conducted focal observations of vicuña, a year-around territorial mammal, to compare vigilance behaviour between territorial and bachelor males outside the reproductive season. We hypothesized that the time spent vigilant would depend on male social status, considering the potential effects of several variables: sampling year, group size, distances to the nearest neighbour and to a vega (mountain wetland). We fit GLM models to assess how these variables, and their interactions, affected time allocation of territorial and bachelor males. We found non significant differences between territorial and bachelor males in the time devoted to vigilance behaviour. Vigilance of territorial males was influenced by the sampling year and the distance to the vega. In turn, vigilance in bachelor males was influenced mainly by the sampling year, the group size and the distance to the vega. Our results suggest that sampling year and distance to the vega are more important than social factors in conditioning the behaviour of male vicuñas, during the non-reproductive season. Future studies of behaviour in water-dependant ungulates, should consider the influence of water and forage availabilities, and the interactions between group size and other variables.

  1. Spontaneous fluctuations in cerebral blood flow regulation: contribution of PaCO2.

    PubMed

    Panerai, R B; Dineen, N E; Brodie, F G; Robinson, T G

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the temporal variability of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA), the transient response of cerebral blood flow to rapid changes in arterial blood pressure, a new approach was introduced to improve the temporal resolution of dynamic CA assessment. Continuous bilateral recordings of cerebral blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler, middle cerebral artery), end-tidal Pco(2) (Pet(CO(2)), infrared capnograph), and blood pressure (Finapres) were obtained at rest and during breath hold in 30 young subjects (25 ± 6 yr old) and 30 older subjects (64 ± 4 yr old). Time-varying estimates of the autoregulation index [ARI(t)] were obtained with an autoregressive-moving average model with coefficients expanded by orthogonal decomposition. The temporal pattern of ARI(t) varied inversely with Pet(CO(2)), decreasing with hypercapnia. At rest, ARI(t) showed spontaneous fluctuations that were significantly different from noise and significantly correlated with spontaneous fluctuations in Pet(CO(2)) in the majority of recordings (young: 72% and old: 65%). No significant differences were found in ARI(t) due to aging. This new approach to improve the temporal resolution of dynamic CA parameters allows the identification of physiologically meaningful fluctuations in dynamic CA efficiency at rest and in response to changes in arterial CO(2). PMID:20884837

  2. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  3. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids. PMID:27529994

  4. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Huber, Michael J; Parker, Jill E; Semevolos, Stacy A

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in success after a single surgical procedure. A greater degree of angulation (> 19°, P = 0.02) and younger age at surgery (< 4 months, P = 0.03) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. Overall, 74% of limbs straightened, 15% overcorrected, and 11% had persistent valgus following surgical intervention. To straighten, 22% of limbs required multiple procedures, not including implant removal. According to owners, valgus returned following implant removal in 4 limbs that had straightened after surgery.

  5. Methane emission by camelids.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  6. Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.

  7. Carbon dioxide monitoring during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery in severely obese patients: transcutaneous versus end-tidal techniques.

    PubMed

    Dion, Joanna M; McKee, Chris; Tobias, Joseph D; Herz, Daniel; Sohner, Paul; Teich, Steven; Michalsky, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Various factors including severe obesity or increases in intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy can lead to inaccuracies in end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) monitoring. The current study prospectively compares ET and transcutaneous (TC) CO2 monitoring in severely obese adolescents and young adults during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery. Carbon dioxide was measured with both ET and TC devices during insufflation and laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The differences between each measure (PETCO2 and TC-CO2) and the PaCO2 were compared using a non-paired t test, Fisher's exact test, and a Bland-Altman analysis. The study cohort included 25 adolescents with a mean body mass index of 50.2 kg/m2 undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. There was no difference in the absolute difference between the TC-CO2 and PaCO2 (3.2±3.0 mmHg) and the absolute difference between the PETCO2 and PaCO2 (3.7±2.5 mmHg). The bias and precision were 0.3 and 4.3 mmHg for TC monitoring versus PaCO2 and 3.2 and 3.2 mmHg for ET monitoring versus PaCO2. In the young severely obese population both TC and PETCO2 monitoring can be used to effectively estimate PaCO2. The correlation of PaCO2 to TC-CO2 is good, and similar to the correlation of PaCO2 to PETCO2. In this population, both of these non-invasive measures of PaCO2 can be used to monitor ventilation and minimize arterial blood gas sampling.

  8. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Stirling, J; Griffith, M; Blair, I; Cormican, M; Dooley, J S G; Goldsmith, C E; Glover, S G; Loughrey, A; Lowery, C J; Matsuda, M; McClurg, R; McCorry, K; McDowell, D; McMahon, A; Cherie Millar, B; Nagano, Y; Rao, J R; Rooney, P J; Smyth, M; Snelling, W J; Xu, J; Moore, J E

    2008-04-01

    Faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, as well as Arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in Belfast Zoological Gardens, during July-September 2006. Thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (11 of 44; 25%). Yersinia spp. were isolated from seven animal species (seven of 44; 15.9%) and included, Yersinia enterocolitica (five of seven isolates; 71.4%) and one isolate each of Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia kristensenii. Only one isolate of Salmonella was obtained throughout the entire study, which was an isolate of Salmonella dublin (O 1,9,12: H g, p), originating from tiger faeces after enrichment. None of the animal species found in public contact areas of the zoo were positive for any gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Also, water from the lake in the centre of the grounds, was examined for the same bacterial pathogens and was found to contain C. jejuni. This study is the first report on the isolation of a number of important bacterial pathogens from a variety of novel host species, C. jejuni from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), C. lari from a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Y. kristensenii from a vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) and Y. enterocolitica from a maned wolf and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the faeces of animals in public contact areas of the zoo were not positive for the bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens examined. This is reassuring for the public health of visitors, particularly children, who enjoy this educational and recreational resource.

  10. Cerebral blood flow decreases with time whereas cerebral oxygen consumption remains stable during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Prough, D.S.; Rogers, A.T.; Stump, D.A.; Roy, R.C.; Cordell, A.R.; Phipps, J.; Taylor, C.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Recent investigations demonstrate that cerebral blood flow (CBF) progressively declines during hypothermic, nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). If CBF declines because of brain cooling, the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) should decline in parallel with the reduction in CBF. Therefore we studied the response of CBF, the cerebral arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-VDcereO2) and CMRO2 as a function of the duration of CPB in humans. To do this, we compared the cerebrovascular response to changes in the PaCO2. Because sequential CBF measurements using xenon 133 (133Xe) clearance must be separated by 15-25 min, we hypothesized that a time-dependent decline in CBF would accentuate the CBF reduction caused by a decrease in PaCO2, but would blunt the CBF increase associated with a rise in PaCO2. We measured CBF in 25 patients and calculated the cerebral arteriovenous oxygen content difference using radial arterial and jugular venous bulb blood samples. Patients were randomly assigned to management within either a lower (32-48 mm Hg) or higher (50-71 mm Hg) range of PaCO2 uncorrected for temperature. Each patient underwent two randomly ordered sets of measurements, one at a lower PaCO2 and the other at a higher PaCO2 within the respective ranges. Cerebrovascular responsiveness to changes in PaCO2 was calculated as specific reactivity (SR), the change in CBF divided by the change in PaCO2, expressed in mL.100 g-1.min-1.mm Hg-1.

  11. Acid-base balance in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) during involuntary submergence.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Jones, D R

    1987-02-01

    Measurements of all the major independent variables [arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2); strong-ion difference ([SID]), and total protein content, which approximate total weak acid concentration in plasma] are essential for understanding changes in acid-base balance in plasma. During involuntary submergence of 1, 2, or 4 min, PaCO2 in ducks increased and arterial pH (pHa) decreased. During 1-min dives there were no significant changes in any strong ions. In both 2- and 4-min dives, there was a significant increase in [lactate-], but because of an increase in equal magnitude of [Na+], [SID] did not change. During recovery from all dives the plasma remained acidotic for several minutes, although PaCO2 fell below predive levels in less than 1 min. [Lactate-] increased in the recovery period. There were no changes in total protein content during submergence or recovery. Breathing 100% O2 before 2-min dives caused a reduction in [lactate-] production and release during and after the dive, although due to a marked increased in PaCO2, pHa fell as low as in 4-min dives after breathing air. After 1 min of recovery, pHa returned to normal along with the restoration of the predive level of PaCO2. We conclude that the acidosis during involuntary submergence is due solely to an increase in PaCO2, whereas in recovery it is caused by decreased [SID]. PMID:3101522

  12. Acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides act as antagonists against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death via Bcl-2/Bax signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Hao, Cui; Gao, Lixia; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Wei; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Chunxia

    2015-03-12

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4) D-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs) and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs) were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with the PACOs markedly inhibited glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The PACOs were better glutamate antagonists compared to the COSs and the NACOs, suggesting the peracetylation is essential for the neuroprotective effects of chitosan oligosaccharides. In addition, the PACOs pretreatment significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species production. It also attenuated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies indicated that the PACOs inhibited glutamate-induced cell death by preventing apoptosis through depressing the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that PACOs might be promising antagonists against glutamate-induced neural cell death.

  13. Acetylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Act as Antagonists against Glutamate-Induced PC12 Cell Death via Bcl-2/Bax Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Cui; Gao, Lixia; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Wei; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4) d-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs) and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs) were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with the PACOs markedly inhibited glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The PACOs were better glutamate antagonists compared to the COSs and the NACOs, suggesting the peracetylation is essential for the neuroprotective effects of chitosan oligosaccharides. In addition, the PACOs pretreatment significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species production. It also attenuated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies indicated that the PACOs inhibited glutamate-induced cell death by preventing apoptosis through depressing the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that PACOs might be promising antagonists against glutamate-induced neural cell death. PMID:25775423

  14. Pulmonary Arterial Lesions in New World Camelids in Association With Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    PubMed

    Hilbe, M; Robert, N; Pospischil, A; Gerspach, C

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, dicrocoeliasis is regarded as the most significant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas. Fasciola hepatica infestation is also a problem but less common. The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the lungs of New World camelids (NWCs) for evidence of arterial hypertension in association with liver changes due to liver fluke infestation. The lungs of 20 llamas and 20 alpacas with liver fluke infestation were histologically evaluated. The hematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson (VG)-elastica stains as well as immunohistology for the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were used to visualize the structures of arterial walls. Parasitology of fecal matter (11 llamas and 17 alpacas) confirmed that most of these animals were infested with both Dicrocoelium dendriticum and other gastrointestinal parasites. In most cases (10/12 llamas, 4/6 alpacas), liver enzyme activity in serum was elevated. Histologically, arteries in the lungs of 9 of 20 llamas (45%) and 3 of 20 alpacas (15%) showed severe intimal and adventitial and slight to moderate medial thickening, which was confirmed with α-SMA and VG-elastica staining. All animals exhibited typical liver changes, such as fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, in association with the presence of liver flukes. This study shows that liver flukes can induce proliferative changes in lung arteries in NWCs that resemble those seen with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to liver parasites in humans. However, the degree of liver fluke infestation was not correlated with the extent of liver damage, or with the amount of thoracic or abdominal effusion or pulmonary arterial changes.

  15. [Gasometric values reported in healthy subjects from the Mexican population: review and analysis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martínez, S O; Pérez-Padilla, J R

    1992-01-01

    We do not know the normal relationship between altitude and PaCO2 in Mexico. We collected and analyzed the reports of reference values for gasometry in Mexico City (2240 m above sea level and a mean barometric pressure of 585 Torr) and other places in the country. The reports include arterial, capillary and expired gases in children and adults, with measurements done in resting and exercising subjects, breathing room air and 100% oxygen. In Mexico City we found 18 studies in normal subjects reporting a mean PaCO2 ranging from 25.5 to 38.4 Torr. Averaging arterial studies from children and adults, adjusting for the number of subjects studied, and discarding data with mean pH below 7.37 or above 7.43 (suggesting non steady state), 10 studies with a total of 581 subjects have the following average values (Torr, means and SD): PaCO2 = 31.1 +/- 2.6, PaO2 = 67.7 +/- 2.6, calculated PAO2 and P(A-a)O2 73.6 +/- 3.3 y 6.1 +/- 3.7 respectively. The PaCO2 found was much lower than that reported for native Peruvians in the Andes who have a mean PaCO2 of 37.8 Torr at an altitude of 2390 m, and a mean PaCO2 of 33.0 Torr only at 4860 m above the sea level. On the other hand, the average values in Mexico are similar to those found in North Americans who have a mean PACO2 of 33.1 Torr at 2131 m of altitude, a mean PACO2 of 30.7 at 2371 m and a mean PaCO2 of 31 Torr at 2238 m. Normal values for gasometry in Mexico are scarce and some of the existing ones are erroneous probably due to lack of adequate calibrations and to poor quality control. Values of PaCO2 in Mexico are more similar to those found in the USA than to those found in Peruvian natives. PMID:1488580

  16. Heterogeneity of cerebral vasoreactivity in preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Pryds, O.; Greisen, G.; Lou, H.; Friis-Hansen, B. )

    1989-10-01

    The reaction of cerebral blood flow to acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and mean arterial blood pressure was determined in 57 preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation (mean gestational age 30.1 weeks) during the first 48 hours of life. All infants had normal brain sonograms at the time of the investigation. In each infant, global cerebral blood flow was determined by xenon-133 clearance two to five times within a few hours at different levels of PaCO2. Changes in PaCO2 followed adjustments of the ventilator settings. Arterial oxygen pressure was intended to be kept constant, and mean arterial blood pressure fluctuated spontaneously between measurements. The data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression, with changes in global cerebral blood flow, PaCO2, mean arterial blood pressure, and postnatal age or intracranial hemorrhage used as variables. In infants with persistently normal brain sonograms, the global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity was markedly lower during the first day of life (mean 11.2% to 11.8%/kPa PaCO2) compared with the second day of life (mean 32.6/kPa PaCO2), and pressure-flow autoregulation was preserved. Similarly, global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity and pressure-flow autoregulation were present in infants in whom mild intracranial hemorrhage developed after the study. In contrast, global cerebral blood flow reactivity to changes in PaCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure was absent in infants in whom ultrasonographic signs of severe intracranial hemorrhage subsequently developed. These infants also had about 20% lower global cerebral blood flow before hemorrhage, in comparison with infants whose sonograms were normal, a finding that suggests functional disturbances of cerebral blood flow regulation.

  17. Dependence of BOLD signal fluctuation on arterial blood CO2 and O2: Implication for resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Fatima A; Yeow, Ling Yun; Biswal, Bharat; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang

    2015-08-15

    Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal is known to be modulated by the CO2 level. Typically only end-tidal CO2, rather than the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (paCO2), was measured while the arterial partial pressure of O2 (paO2) level was not controlled due to free breathing, making their contribution not separable. Especially, the influences of paO2 and paCO2 on resting-state functional connectivity are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between paCO2 and resting as well as stimulus-evoked BOLD signals under hyperoxic and hypercapnic manipulation with tight control of arterial paO2. Rats under isoflurane anesthesia were subjected to six inspired gas conditions: 47% O2 in air (Normal), adding 1%, 2% or 5% CO2, carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2), and 100% O2. Somatosensory BOLD activation was significantly increased under 100% O2, while reduced with increased paCO2 levels. However, while resting BOLD connectivity pattern expanded and bilateral correlation increased under 100% O2, the correlation coefficient between the left and right somatosensory cortex was generally not dependent on paCO2 or paO2. Interestingly, the correlation in 0.04-0.07Hz range significantly increased with CO2 levels. Intracortical electrophysiological recordings showed a similar trend as the BOLD but the neurovascular coupling varied. The results suggest that paO2 and paCO2 together rather than paCO2 alone alter the BOLD signal. The response is not purely vascular in nature but has strong neuronal origins. This should be taken into consideration when designing calibrated BOLD experiment and interpreting functional connectivity data especially in aging, under drug, or neurological disorders.

  18. Measuring the human ventilatory and cerebral blood flow response to CO2: a technical consideration for the end-tidal-to-arterial gas gradient.

    PubMed

    Tymko, Michael M; Hoiland, Ryan L; Kuca, Tomas; Boulet, Lindsey M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Pinske, Bryenna K; Williams, Alexandra M; Foster, Glen E

    2016-01-15

    Our aim was to quantify the end-tidal-to-arterial gas gradients for O2 (PET-PaO2) and CO2 (Pa-PETCO2) during a CO2 reactivity test to determine their influence on the cerebrovascular (CVR) and ventilatory (HCVR) response in subjects with (PFO+, n = 8) and without (PFO-, n = 7) a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We hypothesized that 1) the Pa-PETCO2 would be greater in hypoxia compared with normoxia, 2) the Pa-PETCO2 would be similar, whereas the PET-PaO2 gradient would be greater in those with a PFO, 3) the HCVR and CVR would be underestimated when plotted against PETCO2 compared with PaCO2, and 4) previously derived prediction algorithms will accurately target PaCO2. PETCO2 was controlled by dynamic end-tidal forcing in steady-state steps of -8, -4, 0, +4, and +8 mmHg from baseline in normoxia and hypoxia. Minute ventilation (V̇E), internal carotid artery blood flow (Q̇ICA), middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), and temperature corrected end-tidal and arterial blood gases were measured throughout experimentation. HCVR and CVR were calculated using linear regression analysis by indexing V̇E and relative changes in Q̇ICA, and MCAv against PETCO2, predicted PaCO2, and measured PaCO2. The Pa-PETCO2 was similar between hypoxia and normoxia and PFO+ and PFO-. The PET-PaO2 was greater in PFO+ by 2.1 mmHg during normoxia (P = 0.003). HCVR and CVR plotted against PETCO2 underestimated HCVR and CVR indexed against PaCO2 in normoxia and hypoxia. Our PaCO2 prediction equation modestly improved estimates of HCVR and CVR. In summary, care must be taken when indexing reactivity measures to PETCO2 compared with PaCO2.

  19. Monitoring of the ventilatory status of anesthetized birds of prey by using end-tidal carbon dioxide measured with a microstream capnometer.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Rondenay, Yves; Fitzgerald, Guy; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-03-01

    The relationship between end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and blood pH in isoflurane-anesthetized raptors was evaluated. PaCO2 and pH were determined in serial arterial samples from isoflurane anesthetized birds and compared with concurrent end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured with a Microstream sidestream capnograph. Forty-eight paired samples, taken from 11 birds of prey (weighing 416-2,062 g), were used to determine correlations coefficients between PaCO2 and PETCO2, and between PETCO2 and pH. Limits of agreement between PaCO2 and PETCO2 also were calculated. Strong correlations were observed between PaCO2 and PETCO2 (r = 0.94; P < 0.0001) as well as between PETCO2 and pH (r = -0.90; P < 0.0001). However, the level of agreement between PaCO2 and PETCO2 varied considerably. Low values of PETCO2, ranging from 18 to 29 mm Hg, exceeded the concomitantly measured values of PaCO2 by an average of 6.0 mm Hg (6.0 +/- 1.9 mm Hg; mean +/- SD). Conversely, high values of PETCO2, ranging from 50 to 63 mm Hg, were on average 7.6 mm Hg (7.6 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) lower than values of PaCO2. In the 30 to 49 mm Hg range for PETCO2, the difference between PETCO2 and PaCO2 was on average 1.0 mm Hg (1.0 +/- 8.5 mm Hg). These results suggest that the capnograph used provided a sufficiently accurate estimation of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide for birds weighing > 400 g and receiving manual positive ventilation with a Bain system. In our study, the linear relationship observed between the pH and the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide suggested that the monitoring of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide also can be useful to prevent respiratory acidosis. PMID:17469268

  20. Can Transcutaneous CO2 Tension Be Used to Calculate Ventilatory Dead Space? A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, Pradeep H; Geeti, Adiba A; Darr, Umer M; Kaufman, David A

    2016-01-01

    Dead space fraction (V d/V t) measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of V d/V t. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had V d/V t calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2. The mean V d/V t calculated using PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively, with a strong positive correlation between the two methods of calculation (Pearson's correlation = 0.87, p < 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -0.05 (95% CI: -0.01 to -0.09) between the two methods. PtcCO2 measurements can provide a noninvasive means to measure V d/V t, thus accessing important physiologic information and prognostic assessment in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:27688911

  1. Can Transcutaneous CO2 Tension Be Used to Calculate Ventilatory Dead Space? A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Geeti, Adiba A.; Darr, Umer M.; Kaufman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Dead space fraction (Vd/Vt) measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of Vd/Vt. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had Vd/Vt calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2. The mean Vd/Vt calculated using PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively, with a strong positive correlation between the two methods of calculation (Pearson's correlation = 0.87, p < 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of −0.05 (95% CI: −0.01 to −0.09) between the two methods. PtcCO2 measurements can provide a noninvasive means to measure Vd/Vt, thus accessing important physiologic information and prognostic assessment in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:27688911

  2. Can Transcutaneous CO2 Tension Be Used to Calculate Ventilatory Dead Space? A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Geeti, Adiba A.; Darr, Umer M.; Kaufman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Dead space fraction (Vd/Vt) measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of Vd/Vt. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had Vd/Vt calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2. The mean Vd/Vt calculated using PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively, with a strong positive correlation between the two methods of calculation (Pearson's correlation = 0.87, p < 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of −0.05 (95% CI: −0.01 to −0.09) between the two methods. PtcCO2 measurements can provide a noninvasive means to measure Vd/Vt, thus accessing important physiologic information and prognostic assessment in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

  3. Ventilatory and blood gas dynamics at onset and offset of exercise in the pony.

    PubMed

    Powers, S K; Beadle, R E; Thompson, D; Lawler, J

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to examine the temporal pattern of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) to assess the relationship between alveolar ventilation (VA) and CO2 return to the lung at the onset and offset of submaximal treadmill exercise. Five healthy ponies exercised for 8 min at two work rates: 50 m/min 6% grade and 70 m/min 12% grade. PaCO2 decreased (P less than 0.05) below resting values within 1 min after commencement of exercise at both work rates and reached a nadir at 90 s. PaCO2 decreased maximally by 2.5 and 3.5 Torr at the low and moderate rate, respectively. After the nadir, PaCO2 increased across time during both work rates and reached values that were not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from rest at minute 4 of exercise. Partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood and arterial pH reflected hyperventilation during the first 3 min of exercise. At the termination of exercise PaCO2 increased (1.5 Torr) above rest (P less than 0.05), reaching a zenith at 2-3 min of recovery. These data suggest that VA and CO2 flow to the lung are not tightly matched at the onset and offset of exercise in the pony and thus challenges the traditional concept of blood gas homeostasis during muscular exercise.

  4. Effect of work intensity on time delay in mediation of ventilation by arterial carbon dioxide during recovery from impulse exercise.

    PubMed

    Afroundeh, R; Arimitsu, T; Yamanaka, R; Lian, C S; Shirakawa, K; Yunoki, T; Yano, T

    2014-01-01

    Time delay in the mediation of ventilation (V(.)E) by arterial CO(2) pressure (PaCO(2)) was studied during recovery from short impulse-like exercises with different work loads of recovery. Subjects performed two tests including 10-s impulse like exercise with work load of 200 watts and 15-min recovery with 25 watts in test one and 50 watts in test two. V(.)E, end tidal CO(2) pressure (PETCO(2)) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during rest, warming up, exercise and recovery. PaCO(2) was estimated from PETCO(2) and tidal volume (V(T)). Results showed that predicted arterial CO(2) pressure (PaCO(2 pre)) increased during recovery in both tests. In both tests, V(.)E increased and peaked at the end of exercise. V(.)E decreased in the first few seconds of recovery but started to increase again. The highest correlation coefficient between PaCO(2 pre) and V(.)E was obtained in the time delay of 7 s (r=0.854) in test one and in time delays of 6 s (r=0.451) and 31 s (r=0.567) in test two. HR was significantly higher in test two than in test one. These results indicate that PaCO(2 pre) drives V(.)E with a time delay and that higher work intensity induces a shorter time delay. PMID:24702492

  5. Determinants of oxygen uptake during sodium bicarbonate infusion.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R W; Sullivan, S F

    1978-09-01

    Steady-state passive hyperventilation alkalosis produces a predictable increase in oxygen uptake (VO2) proportional to the change in arterial pH (pHa) while variable changes in VO2 have been reported during alkali infusion. To compare metabolic with respiratory alkalosis 17 dogs were anesthetized with halothane and their VO2 response to respiratory alkalosis evaluated by hyperventilation. The pHa measured during this phase was duplicated during the later continuous infusion of NaHCO3 at which time either 1) ventilation was held constant at the control level, allowing arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) to rise as a consequence of the bicarbonate dissociation, or 2) PaCO2 was held constant by servo control of ventilation. Hyperventilation (pHa 7.6, PaCO2 13 Torr) produced an average increase in VO2 of 24%. During the bicarbonate infusion at constant ventilation (pHa 7.6, PaCO2 45 Torr) VO2 increased only 7%; however, when PACO2 was held constant by servo ventilation VO2 increased 21% above control. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic alkalosis produce similar increases in VO2 when steady-state acid-base conditions are achieved. PMID:29867

  6. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    PubMed

    Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds.

  7. 9 CFR 130.2 - User fees for individual animals and certain birds quarantined in the APHIS-owned or -operated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... grams 18.00 19.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 Domestic or zoo animals (except equines, birds, and poultry): Bison, bulls, camels, cattle, or zoo animals 144.00 149.00 153.00 158.00 162.00 All others, including, but not limited to, alpacas, llamas, goats, sheep, and swine 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Equines (including...

  8. 9 CFR 130.2 - User fees for individual animals and certain birds quarantined in the APHIS-owned or -operated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... grams 18.00 19.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 Domestic or zoo animals (except equines, birds, and poultry): Bison, bulls, camels, cattle, or zoo animals 144.00 149.00 153.00 158.00 162.00 All others, including, but not limited to, alpacas, llamas, goats, sheep, and swine 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Equines (including...

  9. 9 CFR 130.2 - User fees for individual animals and certain birds quarantined in the APHIS-owned or -operated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... grams 18.00 19.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 Domestic or zoo animals (except equines, birds, and poultry): Bison, bulls, camels, cattle, or zoo animals 144.00 149.00 153.00 158.00 162.00 All others, including, but not limited to, alpacas, llamas, goats, sheep, and swine 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Equines (including...

  10. 9 CFR 130.2 - User fees for individual animals and certain birds quarantined in the APHIS-owned or -operated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... grams 18.00 19.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 Domestic or zoo animals (except equines, birds, and poultry): Bison, bulls, camels, cattle, or zoo animals 144.00 149.00 153.00 158.00 162.00 All others, including, but not limited to, alpacas, llamas, goats, sheep, and swine 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Equines (including...

  11. 9 CFR 130.2 - User fees for individual animals and certain birds quarantined in the APHIS-owned or -operated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... grams 18.00 19.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 Domestic or zoo animals (except equines, birds, and poultry): Bison, bulls, camels, cattle, or zoo animals 144.00 149.00 153.00 158.00 162.00 All others, including, but not limited to, alpacas, llamas, goats, sheep, and swine 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Equines (including...

  12. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin.

  13. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin. PMID:26904899

  14. The relationship between oxygenator exhaust P(CO2) and arterial P(CO2) during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Graham, J M; Gibbs, N M; Weightman, W M; Sheminant, M R

    2005-08-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in oxygenator arterial blood (P(a)CO2) can be estimated from the partial pressure of gas exhausting from the oxygenator (P(E)CO2). Our hypothesis is that P(E)CO2 may be used to estimate P(a)CO2 with limits of agreement within 7 mmHg above and below the bias. (This is the reported relationship between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide during positive pressure ventilation in supine patients.) During hypothermic (28-32 degrees C) cardiopulmonary bypass using a Terumo Capiox SX membrane oxygenator, 80 oxygenator arterial blood samples were collected from 32 patients during cooling, stable hypothermia, and rewarming as per our usual clinical care. The P(a)CO2 of oxygenator arterial blood at actual patient blood temperature was estimated by temperature correction of the oxygenator arterial blood sample measured in the laboratory at 37 degrees C. P(E)CO2 was measured by connecting a capnograph end-to-side to the oxygenator exhaust outlet. We used an alpha-stat approach to cardiopulmonary bypass management. The mean difference between P(E)CO2 and P(a)CO2 was 0.6 mmHg, with limits of agreement (+/-2 SD) between -5 to +6 mmHg. P(E)CO2 tended to underestimate P(a)CO2 at low arterial temperatures, and overestimate at high arterial temperatures. We have demonstrated that P(E)CO2 can be used to estimate P(a)CO2 during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass using a Terumo Capiox SX oxygenator with a degree of accuracy similar to that associated with the use of end-tidal carbon dioxide measurement during positive pressure ventilation in anaesthetized, supine patients. PMID:16119486

  15. [Electro-encephalographic study of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate dialysis and acetate dialysis].

    PubMed

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during AHD and BHD in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms could be found only during the course of BHD. However, in AHD, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing down, dysrythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during AHD was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called "disequilibrium" causing a cessation of dialysis in 3 patients.

  16. Electroencephalogram investigations of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate and acetate dialysis.

    PubMed

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during acetate and bicarbonate dialysis in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms was found only during the course of bicarbonate dialysis. However, in acetate dialysis, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2), we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing, dysrhythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during acetate dialysis was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called 'disequilibrium' causing a cessation of dialysis in three patients.

  17. Effect of external chest wall oscillation on gas exchange in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Dolmage, T E; De Rosie, J A; Avendano, M A; Goldstein, R S

    1995-02-01

    Effective gas exchange can be maintained in animals without the need for endotracheal intubation using external chest wall oscillation (ECWO). The clinical application of this technique has been limited by equipment which was either impractical or uncomfortable. We evaluated a prototype of a new oscillator in which an oscillatory profile of negative and positive pressure was imposed on a negative baseline pressure within a cuirass. In seven healthy subjects, we identified an oscillatory cuirass pressure that could effectively ventilate but would not result in severe hypocapnia over 5 min. We then measured the influence of changing the frequency of oscillation (fo) on PaCO2 and spontaneous ventilation. Lastly, we evaluated the capability of this prototype to achieve targeted changes in chamber pressure. Subjects were ventilated with an inspiratory chamber pressure of -20 +/- 4 cm H2O, an expiratory chamber pressure of 5 cm H2O and an inspiratory-expiratory ratio of 1:1 at 9 oscillatory frequencies (fo: 1 to 5 Hz at 0.5-Hz increments). Each subject was ventilated for 5 min with consecutive periods of ECWO being separated from each other by 10 min of unassisted breathing. Oscillatory tidal volume (Vo) was sampled and PaCO2 was determined from the expired carbon dioxide concentration (FECO2) measured at the mouth. The change in PaCO2 (delta PaCO2) was the difference in PaCO2 immediately before and after ECWO. We found that delta PaCO2 and Vo were inversely related to fo. At 1 Hz the delta PaCO2 was -13 +/- 1 mm Hg and Vo was 344 +/- 34 mL in the absence of spontaneous breathing (fb = 0). At 3 Hz and above, at the chamber pressures used, the delta PaCO2 was small (-1 to -2 mm Hg) and the Vo was less than the predicted dead space. Subjects breathed spontaneously but at a frequency below that of their resting fb. With this prototype, chamber pressure changes up to 30 cm H2O could be accurately achieved at 1, 2.5, and 4 Hz. In conclusion, ECWO can provide effective

  18. Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae), with notes on Rickettsia infection.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina. PMID:27406395

  19. Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae), with notes on Rickettsia infection.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina.

  20. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuña in Peru.

    PubMed

    Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez

    2007-02-01

    The vicuña's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was 566/kg dollars, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuña grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuña has little value for poachers, so shearing vicuñas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuña fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuña in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicuñas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicuñas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable.

  1. Low habitat overlap at landscape scale between wild camelids and feral donkeys in the Chilean desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo, Juan E.; González, Benito A.; Mata, Cristina; Vielma, André; Donoso, Denise S.; Fuentes, Nicolás; Estades, Cristián F.

    2016-01-01

    Feral domestic ungulates may compete with the populations of wild herbivores with which they coexist, particularly so in arid regions. The potential competition between wild camelids and feral donkeys at the eastern sector of the Atacama Desert is evaluated in terms of their coincidence or segregation in habitat use and complemented with a comparison of reproductive output (yearling/adult ratio) of vicuña family groups in the proximity vs. distant from donkey observations. Habitat use of wild camelids and donkeys was sampled driving some 1250 km of roads and tracks at the dry and wet seasons. There were 221 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) sightings, 77 for donkeys (Equus asinus), 25 for guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and 8 for hybrids between guanacos and domestic llamas (Lama glama), as well as 174 randomly selected control locations. By means of Generalised Discriminant Analysis and Analysis of Variance we show that all ungulates actively select their habitat, with significant differences between use and availability in the area. Donkeys are relatively abundant in comparison with camelids and coincide broadly with both of them across the altitudinal gradient, but they fall between them in local scale habitat selection and do not seem to force their displacement from their preferred habitats. Thus donkeys occur preferentially on slopes with a high cover of tall shrubs, whereas vicuñas use valley bottoms with grass and guanacos the upper slope zones with grass. The potential for competition between donkeys and wild camelids is thus limited and it does not affect the reproductive output of vicuña in this region. Therefore, with the present knowledge we suggest that population control is not currently merited for feral donkeys.

  2. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuña in Peru.

    PubMed

    Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez

    2007-02-01

    The vicuña's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was 566/kg dollars, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuña grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuña has little value for poachers, so shearing vicuñas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuña fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuña in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicuñas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicuñas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable. PMID:17298515

  3. Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

    Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

  4. Mean alveolar gases and alveolar-arterial gradients in pulmonary patients.

    PubMed

    Luft, U C; Loeppky, J A; Mostyn, E M

    1979-03-01

    In view of uncertainties about the best way to estimate mean alveolar gases in patients with ventilation-perfusion inequalities, three different methods were evaluated on 54 patients. 1) O2 and CO2 were recorded by mass spectrometer on an O2 (x)-CO2 (y) diagram. The coordinates at the intersect of the expiratory record with the mixed expired R line (RE) ives the mean alveolar values (PAo2 and PAco2. 2)pa'co2 was calculated with the Bohr equation using a predicted anatomic dead space and PA'o2 was derived with the alveolar equation. 3) End-tidal (ET) P02 were averaged over 1 min at rest in steady state. Mean RET calculated from 3 was identical with RE. Mean values for PAco2, PA'CO2. and PETco2 differed by less that 1 Torr, but the variance was least with the end-tidal method. There was a highly significant correlation between delta aAPco2 using PETco2 and VD/VT, better than with either of the other methods. The end-tidal measurement appears to give the best approximation of mean alveolar gas in pulmonary patients.

  5. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the ... oxygen (PaO2): 75 - 100 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2): 38 - 42 mmHg Arterial blood pH: 7. ...

  6. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  7. Renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders.

    PubMed

    Madias, Nicolaos E

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory acid-base disorders are those abnormalities in acid-base equilibrium that are expressed as primary changes in the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). An increase in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) acidifies body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory acidosis. By contrast, a decrease in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) alkalinizes body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory alkalosis. The impact on systemic acidity of these primary changes in PaCO2 is ameliorated by secondary, directional changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that occur in 2 stages. Acutely, hypercapnia or hypocapnia yields relatively small changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that originate virtually exclusively from titration of the body's nonbicarbonate buffers. During sustained hypercapnia or hypocapnia, much larger changes in plasma [HCO3¯] occur that reflect adjustments in renal acidification mechanisms. Consequently, the deviation of systemic acidity from normal is smaller in the chronic forms of these disorders. Here we provide an overview of the renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders. We also identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  8. Human respiration at rest in rapid compression and at high pressures and gas densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelfand, R.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Strauss, R.; Clark, J. M.; Puglia, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The ventilation (V), end-tidal PCO2 (PACO2), and CO2 elimination rate were determined in men at rest breathing CO2-free gas over the pressure range 1-50 ATA and the gas density range 0.4-25 g/l, during slow and rapid compressions, at stable elevated ambient pressures and during slow decompressions. Progressive increase in pulmonary gas flow resistance due to elevation of ambient pressure and inspired gas density to the He-O2 equivalent of 5000 feet of seawater was found to produce a complex pattern of change in PACO2. It was found that as both ambient pressure and pulmonary gas flow resistance were progressively raised, PACO2 at first increased, went through a maximum, and then declined towards values near the 1 ATA level. It is concluded that this pattern of PACO2 change results from the interaction on ventilation of the increase in pulmonary resistance due to the elevation of gas density with the increase in respiratory drive postulated as due to generalized central nervous system excitation associated with exposure to high hydrostatic pressure. It is suggested that a similar interaction exists between increased gas flow resistance and the increase in respiratory drive related to nitrogen partial pressure and the resulting narcosis.

  9. Voluntary suppression of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation mitigates the reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Ikebe, Yusuke; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-04-15

    Hyperthermia during prolonged exercise leads to hyperventilation, which can reduce arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 ) and, in turn, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and thermoregulatory response. We investigated 1) whether humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise and 2) the effects of voluntary breathing control on PaCO2 , CBF, sweating, and skin blood flow. Twelve male subjects performed two exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C, 50% relative humidity) for up to 60 min. Throughout the exercise, subjects breathed normally (normal-breathing trial) or they tried to control their minute ventilation (respiratory frequency was timed with a metronome, and target tidal volumes were displayed on a monitor) to the level reached after 5 min of exercise (controlled-breathing trial). Plotting ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses against esophageal temperature (Tes) showed that minute ventilation increased linearly with rising Tes during normal breathing, whereas controlled breathing attenuated the increased ventilation (increase in minute ventilation from the onset of controlled breathing: 7.4 vs. 1.6 l/min at +1.1°C Tes; P < 0.001). Normal breathing led to decreases in estimated PaCO2 and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAV) with rising Tes, but controlled breathing attenuated those reductions (estimated PaCO2 -3.4 vs. -0.8 mmHg; MCAV -10.4 vs. -3.9 cm/s at +1.1°C Tes; P = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively). Controlled breathing had no significant effect on chest sweating or forearm vascular conductance (P = 0.67 and 0.91, respectively). Our results indicate that humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise, and this suppression mitigates changes in PaCO2 and CBF.

  10. A comparison of the effects of hydromorphone HCl and a novel extended release hydromorphone on arterial blood gas values in conscious healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, L.A.; Schmidt, B.K.; Krugner-Higby, L.A.; Smith, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate arterial blood gases in dogs that were given hydromorphone or extended release liposome-encapsulated hydromorphone (LEH). Dogs were randomly administered LEH, n = 6, (2.0 mg kg−1), hydromorphone, n = 6, (0.2 mg kg−1) or a placebo of blank liposomes, n = 3, subcutaneously on separate occasions. Arterial blood samples were drawn at serial time points over a 6-h time period for blood gas analysis. There was no change from baseline values in PaCO2, PaO2, (HCO3−), pH, and SBEc in the dogs that received the placebo. Administration of hydromorphone resulted in significant increases in PaCO2 (maximum (mean + SD] 44.4 + 1.1 mm of Hg) and significant decreases in PaCO2 (minimum (mean + SD) 82.4 + 4.7 mm of Hg) and pH (minimum (mean + SD) 7.31 + 0.01) compared with baseline. Administration of LEH resulted in significant increases in PaCO2 (maximum (mean + SD) 44.6 + 0.9 mm of Hg) and significant decreases in PaO2 (minimum (mean + SD) 84.8 + 2.6 mm of Hg) and pH (minimum (mean + SD) 7.34 + 0.02) compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between these two groups at any time point. The changes observed in PaCO2, PaO2, and pH, however, were within clinically acceptable limits for healthy dogs. LEH was determined to cause moderate changes in arterial blood gas values similar to those caused by hydromorphone. PMID:19692102

  11. The mitochondrial genome of the sperm whale and a new molecular reference for estimating eutherian divergence dates.

    PubMed

    Arnason, U; Gullberg, A; Gretarsdottir, S; Ursing, B; Janke, A

    2000-06-01

    Extant cetaceans are systematically divided into two suborders: Mysticeti (baleen whales) and Odontoceti (toothed whales). In this study, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of an odontocete, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), and included it in phylogenetic analyses together with the previously sequenced complete mtDNAs of two mysticetes (the fin and blue whales) and a number of other mammals, including five artiodactyls (the hippopotamus, cow, sheep, alpaca, and pig). The most strongly supported cetartiodactyl relationship was: outgroup,((pig, alpaca), ((cow, sheep),(hippopotamus,(sperm whale,(baleen whales))))). As in previous analyses of complete mtDNAs, the sister-group relationship between the hippopotamus and the whales received strong support, making both Artiodactyla and Suiformes (pigs, peccaries, and hippopotamuses) paraphyletic. In addition, the analyses identified a sister-group relationship between Suina (the pig) and Tylopoda (the alpaca), although this relationship was not strongly supported. The paleontological records of both mysticetes and odontocetes extend into the Oligocene, suggesting that the mysticete and odontocete lineages diverged 32-34 million years before present (MYBP). Use of this divergence date and the complete mtDNAs of the sperm whale and the two baleen whales allowed the establishment of a new molecular reference, O/M-33, for dating other eutherian divergences. There was a general consistency between O/M-33 and the two previously established eutherian references, A/C-60 and E/R-50. Cetacean (whale) origin, i.e., the divergence between the hippopotamus and the cetaceans, was dated to approximately 55 MYBP, while basal artiodactyl divergences were dated to >/=65 MYBP. Molecular estimates of Tertiary eutherian divergences were consistent with the fossil record.

  12. Neosporosis in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  13. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations project: the spectrally selected sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaldi, Anna; Bonavera, Laura; Massardi, Marcella; De Zotti, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    The Planck Australia Telescope Compact Array (Planck-ATCA) Co-eval Observations (PACO) have provided multi-frequency (5-40 GHz) flux density measurements of complete samples of Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) radio sources at frequencies below and overlapping with Planck frequency bands, almost simultaneously with Planck observations. In this work we analyse the data in total intensity for the spectrally selected PACO sample, a complete sample of 69 sources brighter than S20 GHz = 200 mJy selected from the AT20G survey catalogue to be inverted or upturning between 5 and 20 GHz. We study the spectral behaviour and variability of the sample. We use the variability between AT20G (2004-2007) and PACO (2009-2010) epochs to discriminate between candidate High-Frequency Peakers (HFPs) and candidate blazars. The HFPs picked up by our selection criteria have spectral peaks >10 GHz in the observer frame and turn out to be rare (<0.5 per cent of the S20 GHz ≥ 200 mJy sources), consistent with the short duration of this phase implied by the `youth' scenario. Most (≃ 89 per cent) of blazar candidates have remarkably smooth spectra, well described by a double power law, suggesting that the emission in the PACO frequency range is dominated by a single emitting region. Sources with peaked PACO spectra show a decrease of the peak frequency with time at a mean rate of -3 ± 2 GHz yr-1 on an average time-scale of <τ> = 2.1 ± 0.5 yr (median: τmedian = 1.3 yr). The 5-20 GHz spectral indices show a systematic decrease from AT20G to PACO. At higher frequencies spectral indices steepen: the median α4030 is steeper than the median α205 by δα = 0.6. Taking further into account the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data we find that the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), νS(ν), of most of our blazars peak at νSEDp < 105 GHz; the median peak wavelength is λSEDp ≃ 93 μm. Only six have νSEDp > 105 GHz.

  14. Application of high-frequency ventilation to treatment of chemical-warfare casualties: Animal and theoretical studies (application of high-frequency transtracheal jet ventilation to treatment of chemical-warfare casualties). Final report, March 1983-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Abbrecht, P.H.; Bryant, H.J.; Kyle, R.

    1987-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of transtracheal jet ventilation in organophosphate-challenged animals. Preliminary studies were done in normal canines to define the effects of ventilator operating parameters on respiratory gas exchange. Nine normal dogs, anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, were ventilated through an eight gauge cricothyrotomy cannula using a controller that allowed separate setting of drive pressure, duty cycle, and frequency. Arterial (partial pressure of oxygen) and (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) were measured after achieving steady state gas exchange at 15-22 different combinations of drive pressure, duty cycle, and frequency in each dog. There were slight increases in PaCO2 and larger decreases in arterial oxygen partial pressure as frequency was increased from 10 to 200 cycles/min. Increases in drive pressure and duty cycle resulted in reductions in PaCO2 and increases in PaO2.

  15. [Comparative studies of the postoperative phase following opioid analgesia using fentanyl and alfentanil within the scope of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Schockenhoff, B; Daub, D; Stadermann, D; Hohaus, J

    1987-02-01

    30 patients (ASA Class I-III) received opioid analgesia with fentanyl and alfentanil for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Average doses were 0.41 mg for fentanyl and 4.14 mg for alfentanil. Blood pressure, respiratory frequency, and blood gases were investigated postoperatively until the 240th min under spontaneous breathing of room air. Blood pressure varied less than 10% from initial values in both groups. The respiratory rate decreased by 13% in the alfentanil group and by 20% in the fentanyl group until the 120th min. The blood gases (paCO2, paO2) showed a slow increase of about 10% in the paCO2 in both groups. The paO2 lay at 5.8% below the baseline after 240 min in the fentanyl group and there was roughly 3% below the baseline after 60 min in the alfentanil group.

  16. Dense Plasma Focus as Collimated Source of D-D Fusion Neutron Beams for Irradiation Experiences and Study of Emitted Radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Milanese, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Moroso, R.; Guichon, S.; Supan, J.

    2008-04-07

    A 'table-top' 2 kJ, 250 kA plasma focus, the PACO (Plasma AutoConfinado), designed by the Dense Plasma Group of IFAS is used in its optimum regime for neutron yield for obtaining collimated pulsed neutron beams (100 ns). A simple and low-cost shielding arrangement was developed in order to fully eliminate the 2.45 MeV neutrons generated in the PACO device (10{sup 8} per shot at 31 kV, 1-2 mbar). Conventional neutron diagnostics: scintillator-photomultiplier (S-PMT), silver activation counters (SAC), etc., are used to determine the minimum width of the shielding walls. Emission of very hard electromagnetic pulses is also studied. Collimation using lead and copper plates is made to determine the localization of the very hard X-ray source. The maximum energy of the continuum photon distribution is estimated in 0,6 MeV using a system of filters.

  17. Arterial blood gas tensions during exercise in a horse with laryngeal hemiplegia, before and after corrective surgery.

    PubMed

    Bayly, W M; Grant, B D; Modransky, P D

    1984-03-01

    Arterial blood samples were collected during maximal exercise over 1.6 km in a thoroughbred horse with left laryngeal hemiplegia. Acid-base and blood gas measurements were performed on each sample and compared to the results from samples which were similarly collected 48 hours after laryngoplasty surgery was performed. Before surgery, the PaO2 was 53.2 mm Hg and the PaCO2 was 58.1 mm Hg after 1.6 km. After surgery, the corresponding results were 83.6 mm Hg (PaO2) and 39.0 mm Hg (PaCO2). There was no significant difference in the times taken for each gallop. The exercise intolerance associated with laryngeal paralysis may be caused by an increase in the oxygen cost of breathing.

  18. An efficient local improvement operator for the multi-objective wireless sensor network deployment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Guillermo; Luna, Francisco; Nebro, Antonio J.; Alba, Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Wireless sensor network layout, also known as sensor node deployment, is a complex NP-complete optimization task that determines most of the functioning features of a wireless sensor network. Coverage, connectivity and lifetime (handled through its opposing parameter, power consumption), are three of the most important characteristics of the service, and are taken into consideration in this article within a multi-objective approach of the problem. Leveraging on the specific properties of the wireless sensor nodes and networks, the Proximity Avoidance Coverage-preserving Operator (PACO) for local improvement is presented, described and tested. The testbed consists of a set of state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithms with different configurations, and problem instances of varying size. In all the scenarios, and more specially in the algorithmic settings that already produce high performance solutions, PACO has proven to be a robust enhancement to the raw optimization technique, without requiring additional computation, that easily scales through problem complexity.

  19. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  20. Testing Dark Energy with the Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, M.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Crotts, A.; Blake, C.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-meter liquid mirror telescope surveying ˜ 1000 deg2 of the southern-hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that will nonetheless deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consists of nightly, high signal-to-noise, multiband light curves of SN Ia. At the end of the three-year run ALPACA is expected to collect ˜ 100,000 SN Ia up to z ˜ 1. This will allow accurate calibration of the standard-candle relation and reduce the systematic uncertainties. The survey will also provide several other datasets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SN Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two datasets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters with minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak lensing measurements.

  1. Testing dark energy with the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; LoVerde, Marilena; Crotts, Arlin; Blake, Chris

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-m liquid-mirror telescope surveying ~1000deg2 of the Southern hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that none the less will deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consist of nightly, high signal-to-noise ratio, multiband light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). At the end of the 3-yr run, ALPACA is expected to collect >~100000 SNe Ia up to z ~ 1. This will allow us to reduce present systematic uncertainties affecting the standard-candle relation. The survey will also provide several other data sets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak-lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis, we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SNe Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two data sets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters under minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak-lensing measurements.

  2. End-tidal CO2 in some aquatic mammals of large size.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Seguin, Julie

    2009-01-01

    While resting on land or at the water surface, the breathing frequency (f) of aquatic mammals of medium and large size is lower than in terrestrial mammals of similar body weight (W), the difference widening with the increase in W. The allometric function for aquatic mammals is f proportional to W(-0.42) (f, breaths/min, W, kg) and that of terrestrial species is f proportional to W(-0.25). We asked whether or not resting breathing at such low f would entail high values of alveolar CO2. End-tidal alveolar CO2 pressure, taken as representative of alveolar CO2 pressure, PaCO2, was measured from the expired gas during resting breathing in captive specimens of aquatic species trained to rest in proximity of their keepers, either on land (walrus and sea lion) or at the water surface (dolphin, orca, beluga and hippopotamus). Their f during the recordings ranged from less than 1 (orca) to 6 (walrus) breaths/min. The average PaCO2 values ranged from 32 to 42 mm Hg, the peaks being a few mm Hg higher. These values were similar or slightly higher than literature data of many terrestrial species, with no relation to the animal f or W. The quasi-normality of PaCO2 in large aquatic species breathing at rest, despite their exceptionally low f and normal metabolism, can be explained mainly by two factors, their large tidal volume/W, about three times the average terrestrial value, and their peculiar breathing pattern with sustained high lung volume during the expiratory pause. This latter is key in avoiding a substantial rise in PaCO2 during the inter-breath pause. PMID:19026528

  3. Long-term gas exchange characteristics as markers of deterioration in patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) the architecture of the developing lungs and the ventilation of lung units are progressively affected, influencing intrapulmonary gas mixing and gas exchange. We examined the long-term course of blood gas measurements in relation to characteristics of lung function and the influence of different CFTR genotype upon this process. Methods Serial annual measurements of PaO2 and PaCO2 assessed in relation to lung function, providing functional residual capacity (FRCpleth), lung clearance index (LCI), trapped gas (VTG), airway resistance (sReff), and forced expiratory indices (FEV1, FEF50), were collected in 178 children (88 males; 90 females) with CF, over an age range of 5 to 18 years. Linear mixed model analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to define predominant lung function parameters influencing oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. Results PaO2 decreased linearly from age 5 to 18 years, and was mainly associated with FRCpleth, (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.001), FEF50 (p < 0.002), and LCI (p < 0.002), indicating that oxygenation was associated with the degree of pulmonary hyperinflation, ventilation inhomogeneities and impeded airway function. PaCO2 showed a transitory phase of low PaCO2 values, mainly during the age range of 5 to 12 years. Both PaO2 and PaCO2 presented with different progression slopes within specific CFTR genotypes. Conclusion In the long-term evaluation of gas exchange characteristics, an association with different lung function patterns was found and was closely related to specific genotypes. Early examination of blood gases may reveal hypocarbia, presumably reflecting compensatory mechanisms to improve oxygenation. PMID:19909502

  4. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Tae; Okano, Shozo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation frequency, 14 times/min. Respiration was regulated so that the PaCO2 was approximately 35 to 40 mmHg before the start of the experiment. PP with CO2 (intraperitoneal pressure 15 mmHg) and a postural change (15°C) was performed during the experiment. As parameters of circulatory kinetics, heart rate (HR), mean aortic pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), femoral venous pressure (FVP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured. As parameters of respiratory kinetics, airway pressure (PAW) and blood gas (BG) were measured. There were significant increases in HR, MAP, MPAP, CVP, FVP, CO, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the horizontal position. There were significant increases in CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the Trendelenburg position. There were significant increases in the MPAP, CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the inverse Trendelenburg position. There was a significant difference in FVP after PP between the Trendelenburg position and inverse Trendelenburg position. The results of this experiment suggest that appropriate anesthesia control, such as changing the ventilation conditions after PP, is required for laparoscopic surgery under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane. PMID:26027843

  5. [Visual evoked potentials (VEP) in anesthesia and intensive care].

    PubMed

    Russ, W; Krumholz, W; Hempelmann, G

    1984-03-01

    Methodological considerations and different stimulation techniques of visual evoked potentials (VEP) are described. VEP can provide information about neurological function during anaesthesia, surgery and in the unconscious patient after head injury. The feasibility of the method for intraoperative monitoring in neuro- and cardiac surgery and the influence of general anaesthetics and other contributing factors such as temperature, paCO2, pO2, part are discussed.

  6. Blood-gas equilibration of CO2 and O2 in lungs of awake dogs during prolonged rebreathing.

    PubMed

    Scotto, P; Rieke, H; Schmitt, H J; Meyer, M; Piiper, J

    1984-11-01

    To reinvestigate the blood-gas CO2 equilibrium in lungs, rebreathing experiments were performed in five unanesthetized dogs prepared with a chronic tracheostomy and an exteriorized carotid loop. The rebreathing bag was initially filled with a gas mixture containing 6-8% CO2, 12, 21, or 39% O2, and 1% He in N2. During 4-6 min of rebreathing PO2 in the bag was kept constant by a controlled supply of O2 while PCO2 rose steadily from approximately 40 to 75 Torr. Spot samples of arterial blood were taken from the carotid loop; their PCO2 and PO2 were measured by electrodes and compared with the simultaneous values of end-tidal gas read from a mass spectrometer record. The mean end-tidal-to-arterial PO2 differences averaging 16, 4, and 0 Torr with bag PO2 about 260, 130, and 75 Torr, respectively, were in accordance with a venous admixture of about 1%. No substantial PCO2 differences between arterial blood and end-tidal gas (PaCO2 - PE'CO2) were found. The mean PaCO2 - PE'CO2 of 266 measurements in 70 rebreathing periods was -0.4 +/- 1.4 (SD) Torr. There was no correlation between PaCO2 - PE'CO2 and the level of arterial PCO2 or PO2. The mean PaCO2 - PE'CO2 became +0.1 Torr when the blood transit time from lungs to carotid artery (estimated at 6 s) and the rate of rise of bag PCO2 (4.5 Torr/min) were taken into account. These experimental results do not confirm the presence of significant PCO2 differences between arterial blood and alveolar gas in rebreathing equilibrium.

  7. Ventilation is unstable during drowsiness before sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Stuart; Morrell, Mary J; Cordingley, Jeremy J; Semple, Stephen J

    2005-11-01

    Ventilation is unstable during drowsiness before sleep onset. We have studied the effects of transitory changes in cerebral state during drowsiness on breath duration and lung volume in eight healthy subjects in the absence of changes in airway resistance and fluctuations of ventilation and CO2 tension, characteristic of the onset of non-rapid eye movement sleep. A volume-cycled ventilator in the assist control mode was used to maintain CO2 tension close to that when awake. Changes in cerebral state were determined by the EEG on a breath-by-breath basis and classified as alpha or theta breaths. Breath duration and the pause in gas flow between the end of expiratory airflow and the next breath were computed for two alpha breaths which preceded a theta breath and for the theta breath itself. The group mean (SD) results for this alpha-to-theta transition was associated with a prolongation in breath duration from 5.2 (SD 1.3) to 13.0 s (SD 2.1) and expiratory pause from 0.7 (SD 0.4) to 7.5 s (SD 2.2). Because the changes in arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) are unknown during the theta breaths, we made in two subjects a continuous record of PaCO2 in the radial artery. PaCO2 remained constant from the alpha breaths through to the expiratory period of the theta breath by which time the duration of breath was already prolonged, representing an immediate and altered ventilatory response to the prevailing PaCO2. In the eight subjects, the CO2 tension awake was 39.6 Torr (SD 2.3) and on assisted ventilation 38.0 Torr (1.4). We conclude that the ventilatory instability recorded in the present experiments is due to the apneic threshold for CO2 being at or just below that when awake.

  8. Cardiac or pulmonary dyspnea in patients admitted to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Malas, O; Cağlayan, B; Fidan, A; Ocal, Z; Ozdoğan, S; Torun, E

    2003-12-01

    A simple and quick way of discrimination between cardiac and pulmonary causes of dyspnea is essential in patients admitted to the emergency department. We aimed to assess the utility of easily applicable diagnostic tools in the differential diagnosis of cardiac and pulmonary causes of dyspnea in patients presenting with shortness of breath. Clinical and radiologic evaluation, peak expiratory flow (PEF), PaO2, PaCO2 measurements were performed in 94 patients admitted to the emergency room with dyspnea. All the patients were hospitalized for accurate diagnosis and later were categorized into cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea groups. PEF, %PEF (percent of predicted PEF), dyspnea differentiation index (DDI = PEF x PaO2/1000), %DDI (%PEF x PaO2/1000), PaO2 and PaCO2 measurements were compared between the two groups. When cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea groups were compared, considering 1.6 as the cut-off value for DDI, measurements above this value imply cardiac pathology with 76.7% sensitivity and 67.2% specificity. The sensitivity and specificity for cardiac dyspnea calculated according to the cut-off values were 96.7% and 40.6% for %DDI; 86.7% and 60.9% for PEF; 86.7% and 54.7% for %PEF; 66.7 and 68.7 for PaO2. Also for pulmonary dyspnea, sensitivity and specificity values for PaCO2 were 50% and 93%. We conclude that DDI, %DDI, PEF, %PEF, PaO2 and PaCO2 are simple and easily applicable tools for differential diagnosis of cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea. Adjunctive utility of these tests in the emergency department with clinical and radiologic evaluation contributes to this discrimination.

  9. Spatial flow-volume dissociation of the cerebral microcirculatory response to mild hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Stefanovic, Bojana; Koretsky, Alan P; Silva, Afonso C

    2006-08-15

    The spatial and temporal response of the cerebral microcirculation to mild hypercapnia was investigated via two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. Cortical vessels, traversing the top 200 microm of somatosensory cortex, were visualized in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats equipped with a cranial window. Intraluminal vessel diameters, transit times of fluorescent dextrans and red blood cells (RBC) velocities in individual capillaries were measured under normocapnic (PaCO2= 32.6 +/- 2.6 mm Hg) and slightly hypercapnic (PaCO2= 45 +/- 7 mm Hg) conditions. This gentle increase in PaCO2 was sufficient to produce robust and significant increases in both arterial and venous vessel diameters, concomitant to decreases in transit times of a bolus of dye from artery to venule (14%, P < 0.05) and from artery to vein (27%, P < 0.05). On the whole, capillaries exhibited a significant increase in diameter (16 +/- 33%, P < 0.001, n = 393) and a substantial increase in RBC velocities (75 +/- 114%, P < 0.001, n = 46) with hypercapnia. However, the response of the cerebral microvasculature to modest increases in PaCO2 was spatially heterogeneous. The maximal relative dilatation (range: 5-77%; mean +/- SD: 25 +/- 34%, P < 0.001, n = 271) occurred in the smallest capillaries (1.6 microm-4.0 microm resting diameter), while medium and larger capillaries (4.4 microm-6.8 microm resting diameter) showed no significant changes in diameter (P > 0.08, n = 122). In contrast, on average, RBC velocities increased less in the smaller capillaries (39 +/- 5%, P < 0.002, n = 22) than in the medium and larger capillaries (107 +/- 142%, P < 0.003, n = 24). Thus, the changes in capillary RBC velocities were spatially distinct from the observed volumetric changes and occurred to homogenize cerebral blood flow along capillaries of all diameters.

  10. Re-inspiration of CO2 from ventilator circuit: effects of circuit flushing and aspiration of dead space up to high respiratory rate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Dead space negatively influences carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination, particularly at high respiratory rates (RR) used at low tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Aspiration of dead space (ASPIDS), a known method for dead space reduction, comprises two mechanisms activated during late expiration: aspiration of gas from the tip of the tracheal tube and gas injection through the inspiratory line - circuit flushing. The objective was to study the efficiency of circuit flushing alone and of ASPIDS at wide combinations of RR and tidal volume (VT) in anaesthetized pigs. The hypothesis was tested that circuit flushing and ASPIDS are particularly efficient at high RR. Methods In Part 1 of the study, RR and VT were, with a computer-controlled ventilator, modified for one breath at a time without changing minute ventilation. Proximal dead space in a y-piece and ventilator tubing (VDaw, prox) was measured. In part two, changes in CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) during prolonged periods of circuit flushing and ASPIDS were studied at RR 20, 40 and 60 minutes-1. Results In Part 1, VDaw, prox was 7.6 ± 0.5% of VT at RR 10 minutes-1 and 16 ± 2.5% at RR 60 minutes-1. In Part 2, circuit flushing reduced PaCO2 by 20% at RR 40 minutes-1 and by 26% at RR 60 minutes-1. ASPIDS reduced PaCO2 by 33% at RR 40 minutes-1 and by 41% at RR 60 minutes-1. Conclusions At high RR, re-breathing of CO2 from the y-piece and tubing becomes important. Circuit flushing and ASPIDS, which significantly reduce tubing dead space and PaCO2, merit further clinical studies. PMID:20420671

  11. Clinical evaluation of an instrument to measure carbon dioxide tension at the oxygenator gas outlet in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Frode; Høgetveit, Jan Olav; Pedersen, Thore H

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the clinical testing of a new capnograph designed to measure the carbon dioxide tension at the oxygenator exhaust outlet in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). During CPB, there is a need for reliable, accurate and instant estimates of the arterial blood CO2 tension (PaCO2) in the patient. Currently, the standard practice for measuring PaCO2 involves the manual collection of intermittent blood samples, followed by a separate analysis performed by a blood gas analyser. Probes for inline blood gas measurement exist, but they are expensive and, thus, unsuitable for routine use. A well-known method is to measure PexCO2, ie, the partial pressure of CO2 in the exhaust gas output from the oxygenator and use this as an indirect estimate for PaCO2. Based on a commercially available CO2 sensor circuit board, a laminar flow capnograph was developed. A standard sample line with integrated water trap was connected to the oxygenator exhaust port. Fifty patients were divided into six different groups with respect to oxygenator type and temperature range. Both arterial and venous blood gas samples were drawn from the CPB circuit at various temperatures. Alfa-stat corrected pCO2 values were obtained by running a linear regression for each group based on the arterial temperature and then correcting the PexCO2 accordingly. The accuracy of the six groups was found to be (+/- SD): +/- 4.3, +/- 4.8, +/- 5.7, +/- 1.0, +/- 3.7 and +/- 2.1%. These results suggest that oxygenator exhaust capnography is a simple, inexpensive and reliable method of estimating the PaCO2 in both adult and pediatric patients at all relevant-temperatures. PMID:16485695

  12. Comparison of end-tidal CO2 measured by transportable capnometer (EMMA™ capnograph) and arterial pCO2 in general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Woo; Choi, Hey Ran; Bang, Si Ra; Lee, Jeong-Wook

    2016-10-01

    An end-tidal CO2 monitor (capnometer) is used most often as a noninvasive substitute for PaCO2 in anesthesia, anesthetic recovery, and intensive care. Additionally, the wide spread on-site use of portable capnometers in emergency and trauma situations is now observed. This study was conducted to compare PaCO2 measurement between the EMMA™ portable-capnometer and sidestream capnometry. End-tidal CO2 (portable capnometer: EMMA™ capnograph, side stream capnometry module: Datex-Ohmeda S5 Anesthesia Monitor) levels were recorded at the time of arterial blood gas sampling of patients undergoing general anesthesia. Data were compared using the Bland and Altman method, and by evaluating the clinical significance performed by calculating the percent error (%). A total of 100 data were obtained from 35 patients. The bias of PaCO2 and portable capnometer was 6.0 mmHg, where the upper and lower limits of the agreement were 11.8 and 0.3 mmHg, respectively. The percent error was 18.0 %. The bias of side stream capnometry and portable capnometer was 2.2 mmHg, where the upper and the lower limits of the agreement were 6.0 and -1.6 mmHg, respectively. The percent error was 13.0 %. Significant differences between the PETCO2 and PaCO2 values of the EMMA™ portable-capnometer were not observed for patients undergoing general anesthesia. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02184728. PMID:26264607

  13. Effects of high-frequency chest wall oscillation on respiratory control in humans.

    PubMed

    Khoo, M C; Gelmont, D; Howell, S; Johnson, R; Yang, F; Chang, H K

    1989-05-01

    We studied the spontaneous breathing patterns of 10 normal adult volunteers during high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO), accomplished by inflating and deflating a vest worn around each subject's thorax at 2.5 Hz. Tidal volumes generated by HFCWO averaged 100 ml. Mean vest pressure was maintained at approximately 35 cm H2O throughout each experiment, even when HFCWO was not applied. During HFCWO, subjects were instructed occasionally to exhale deeply to obtain end-tidal samples representative of PACO2. HFCWO increased the breath-to-breath variability of spontaneous respiration in all subjects, prolonging expiratory pauses and producing short apneas in some cases. PACO2 decreased significantly (p less than 0.05). The effects on minute ventilation, tidal volume, and inspiratory and expiratory durations remained variable across subjects, even when differences in PACO2 between control and HFCWO states were reduced through inhalation of a low CO2 mixture. None of the changes were statistically significant, although average expiratory duration increased by 29%. Ventilatory responses to CO2 with and without HFCWO were also measured. Normocapnic (PACO2 = 40 mm Hg) ventilatory drive increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in six subjects (Type 1 response) and decreased substantially in the others (Type 2 response); with hypercapnia, the changes in drive were attenuated in both groups. Consequently, CO2 sensitivity decreased in Type 1 subjects and increased in Type 2 subjects. A simple analysis based on this result shows that with HFCWO, Type 2 subjects breathing air will tend to have a lower spontaneous minute ventilation and become hypercapnic. Type 1 subjects will become hypocapnic, but minute ventilation may be higher or lower than control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Effects of Noninvasive Positive-Pressure Ventilation with Different Interfaces in Patients with Hypoxemia after Surgery for Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Sun, Lizhong; Liu, Nan; Hou, Xiaotong; Wang, Hong; Jia, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypoxemia is a severe perioperative complication that can substantially increase intensive care unit and hospital stay and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in patients with hypoxemia after surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection, and to compare the effects of helmet and mask NIPPV. Material/Methods We recruited 40 patients who developed hypoxemia within 24 h after extubation after surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection in the Beijing Anzhen Hospital. The patients were randomly divided into the helmet and mask NIPPV groups. The primary endpoints were blood oxygenation levels at 1 and 6 h after initiation and at the end of the treatment. The secondary endpoint was patient outcome, including mortality; incidence of pulmonary atelectasis, pneumonia, re-intubation, and sepsis; and length of ICU and hospital stays. Results NIPPV improved oxygenation in both groups. Compared with pretreatment levels, the oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), PaO2, PaCO2, and respiratory rate (RR) improved in the initial (0–1 h), maintenance (1–6 h), and end stages of the treatment (P<0.05). Compared with mask ventilation, helmet ventilation better improved pH, PaO2, SpO2, PaO2/FiO2, and decreased PaCO2 in the 3 stages (P<0.05). The incidence of major complications, including flatulence, intolerance, and facial pressure sores, was significantly lower with helmet ventilation. Conclusions NIPPV effectively improved oxygenation and reduced PaCO2 in patients who developed hypoxemia soon after extubation following surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection. Compared with mask NIPPV, helmet NIPPV more rapidly increased PaO2 and reduced PaCO2, increased patient tolerance and comfort, and reduced complications. PMID:26250834

  15. Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor Max; Baldwin, Heather J.; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim; Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Maganga, Gael Darren; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira; Leroy, Eric M.; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia; Poon, Leo L. M.; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3′ end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E. IMPORTANCE The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive genetic evidence for an evolutionary origin of the common cold virus HCoV-229E in

  16. Predictive Factors for the Effect of Treatment by Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Respiratory Failure as a Result of Acute Exacerbation of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pejkovska, Sava; Kaeva, Biserka Jovkovska; Goseva, Zlatica; Arsovski, Zoran; Janeva, Jelena Jovanovska; Zeynel, Sead

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) applies ventilator support through the patient’s upper airway using a mask. AIM: The aim of the study is to define factors that will point out an increased risk of NIV failure in patients with exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients over the age of 40, treated with NIV, were prospectively recruited. After data processing, the patients were divided into two groups: 1) successful NIV treatment group; 2) failed NIV treatment group. RESULTS: On admission arterial pH and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) levels were lower (pH: p < 0.05, GCS: p < 0.05), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) score and PaCO2 were higher (p < 0.05) in the NIV failure group. Arterial pH was lower (p < 0.05) and PaCO2 and respiratory rate were higher (p < 0.05) after 1h, and arterial pH was lower (p < 0.05) and PaCO2 (p < 0.05), respiratory and heart rate were higher (p < 0.05) after 4h in the NIV failure group. CONCLUSION: Measurement and monitoring of certain parameters may be of value in terms of predicting the effectiveness of NIV treatment. PMID:27275303

  17. [Fallacies in arterial blood gas interpretation].

    PubMed

    Thurnheer, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) is a valuable diagnostic tool in daily clinical practice. It yields information about oxygenation, ventilation and acid-base status. ABGAs should always be interpreted within a clinical context. If a result is absolutely not compatible with a clinical situation, the probe should be repeated or prompt further differential diagnoses. A probe should be free of air bubbles and be rapidly proceeded in the laboratory. Body temperature and fraction of inspired oxygen are mandatory prerequisites for adequate interpretation. With CO-oximetry, not only oxygenated hemoglobin but also carboxihemoglobin and met-hemoglobin content can be measured in the case of a suspected intoxication. For the assessment of ventilation, PaCO2 must be interpreted in the context of PaO2, as already a "normal value" of PaCO2 may indicate severe ventilator failure in a patient with hypoxemia. A normal pH does not exclude acid-base disorders, PaCO2 and bicarbonate must also be taken into account. When FIO2 is changed, steady state conditions must be awaited before a next control especially in the case of ventilation-perfusion mismatch, e. g. in COPD, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism. In a hypoxic state, immediate application of oxygen is warranted, in hypercapnia, ventilation should be increased. In acid-base disorders, treatment of the underlying disease is most often conducive.

  18. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces) with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 <10 kPa) with nine animals having marked hypoxemia (PaO2 5.5-8 kPa). All moose were acidemic (ph<7.35) with nine moose having marked acidemia (pH<7.20). For PaCO2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa) and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa). Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen. PMID:23276208

  19. [Efficacy and safety of the use of levodropropizine in patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Gunella, G; Zanasi, A; Massimo Vanasia, C B

    1991-02-28

    Efficacy and tolerability of an antitussive drug, levodropropizine, in 21 adult patients with interstitial lung disorders was evaluated in this study. Levodropropizine dosage was 60 mg t.i.d. for four days of therapy. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the antitussive therapy and, on the other hand, the tolerability of levodropropizine in these patients, monitoring PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values. The changes in cough frequency (34.1 +/- 5.6 20.4 +/- 5.4 mean +/- d.s. before and after treatment) and the overall efficacy judgment as reported by the doctor indicate a decrease in cough as confirmed by the significance of Kruskal-Wallis test (p less than 0.05). Furthermore the tolerability has been excellent, because the PaO2, PaCo2 ad pH values before and after treatment were unchanged (PaO2 mmHg: basal 71 +/- 16.6, after treatment 73.8 +/- 14.2; PaCO2 mmHg: basal 36.6 +/- 5, after treatment 36.6 +/- 4.6; pH basal 7.4 +/- 0.03, after treatment 7.4 +/- 0.02).

  20. The effect of hypercapnia and hypercapnia associated with central cooling on breathing in unanesthetized fetal lambs.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, I M; Maertzdorf, W J; De Jong, D S; Hanson, M A; Blanco, C E

    1997-01-01

    In utero breathing activity is present periodically, but it must become continuous at birth. We investigated the effect of hypercapnia and of hypercapnia combined with central cooling on fetal breathing in seven chronically instrumented fetal lambs of 131-134-d gestation, using an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system to control fetal blood gases and fetal temperature. During fetal hypercapnia (from a partial pressure of arterial CO2 (Paco2) 6.18 +/- 0.11 kPa to Paco2 7.39 +/- 0.15 kPa) frequency, amplitude, and incidence of fetal breathing movements during low voltage electrocortical activity (LV ECoG) increased significantly compared with isocapnic control on ECMO, but breathing remained absent during high voltage electrocortical activity (HV ECoG). During hypercapnia accompanied by central cooling (Paco2 7.90 +/- 0.13 kPa, temperature decreased by 2.1 degrees C) there were similar changes in fetal breathing movements during LV ECoG, but in four out of seven fetuses fetal breathing movements continued throughout HV ECoG. Hypercapnia accompanied by central cooling can thus override the inhibitory effects of HV ECoG on fetal breathing movements. This may be due to changes in sensitivity to CO2 produced by an increase in afferent input to the CNS.

  1. Partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal using a standard continuous renal replacement therapy device: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Jean-Marie; Barbot, Olivier; Thevenot, Florence; de Matteis, Olivier; Benayoun, Laurent; Leibinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of partial extracorporeal CO2 removal (PECCO2R) using a standard continuous renal replacement (CRRT) device with a pediatric oxygenation membrane introduced into the circuit in a serial manner. In this retrospective single-center study, we have studied mechanically ventilated patients with persistent significant respiratory acidosis and acute renal failure requiring ongoing CRRT. Sixteen patients were treated with our PECCO2R device. PaCO2 and arterial pH were measured before as well as at 6 and 12 hours after PECCO2R implementation. Hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored. Our PECCO2R system was efficient to significantly reduce PaCO2 and increase arterial pH. The median PaCO2 before treatment was 77 mm Hg (59-112) with a median reduction of 24 mm Hg after 6 hours and 30 mm Hg after 12 hours (31% and 39%, respectively). The median pH increase was 0.16 at 6 hours and 0.23 at 12 hours. Partial extracorporeal CO2 removal treatment had no effect on oxygenation. No complication was observed. Our PECCO2R approach based on the simple introduction of a pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation membrane into the circuit of a standard CRRT device is easy to implement, safe, and efficient to improve respiratory acidosis.

  2. Do over 200 million healthy altitude residents really suffer from chronic Acid-base disorders?

    PubMed

    Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo; Zubieta-Castillo, Gustavo; Zubieta-Calleja, Luis; Ardaya-Zubieta, Gustavo; Paulev, Poul-Erik

    2011-01-01

    As the oxygen tension of inspired air falls with increasing altitude in normal subjects, hyperventilation ensues. This acute respiratory alkalosis, induces increased renal excretion of bicarbonate, returning the pH back to normal, giving rise to compensated respiratory alkalosis or chronic hypocapnia. It seems a contradiction that so many normal people at high altitude should permanently live as chronic acid-base patients. Blood gas analyses of 1,865 subjects at 3,510 m, reported a P(a)CO(2) (arterial carbon dioxide tension ± SEM) = 29.4 ± 0.16 mmHg and pH = 7.40 ± 0.005. Base excess, calculated with the Van Slyke sea level equation, is -5 mM (milliMolar or mmol/l) as an average, suggesting chronic hypocapnia. THID, a new term replacing "Base Excess" is determined by titration to a pH of 7.40 at a P(a)CO(2) of 5.33 kPa (40 mmHg) at sea level, oxygen saturated and at 37°C blood temperature. Since our new modified Van Slyke equations operate with normal values for P(a)CO(2) at the actual altitude, a calculation of THID will always result in normal values-that is, zero.

  3. The relationship between cerebral and somatic oxygenation and superior and inferior vena cava flow, arterial oxygenation and pressure in infants during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    White, M C; Edgell, D; Li, J; Wang, J; Holtby, H

    2009-03-01

    We investigated blood flow and regional oxygenation (rSO(2)) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Twenty infants (mean (SD) age 5 (3) months, weight 5.4 (1.6) kg) were prospectively studied. Total CPB and superior vena cava (SVC) flow were measured using Transonic Bypass Flowmeters, inferior vena cava (IVC) flow derived arithmetically and rSO(2) measured using Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy. Mean SVC flow was 51.3 (14.8) ml.kg(-1).min(-1) and mean IVC flow 62.5 (19.0) ml.kg(-1).min(-1). Mean cerebral rSO(2) was 71 (11)% and somatic rSO(2) 55 (13)%. Cerebral and somatic rSO(2) showed no correlation with SVC and IVC flow. Cerebral rSO(2) showed a positive correlation with P(a)co(2), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and haematocrit (p < 0.0001). Somatic rSO(2) showed a positive correlation with MAP and haematocrit (p = 0.01, p = 0.02). In conclusion, the distribution of blood flow during CPB varies. The most important factor affecting this is P(a)CO(2). Cerebral and somatic oxygenation are unaffected by flow but significantly influenced by MAP, haematocrit and P(a)CO(2). PMID:19302636

  4. [Efficacy and safety of the use of levodropropizine in patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Gunella, G; Zanasi, A; Massimo Vanasia, C B

    1991-02-28

    Efficacy and tolerability of an antitussive drug, levodropropizine, in 21 adult patients with interstitial lung disorders was evaluated in this study. Levodropropizine dosage was 60 mg t.i.d. for four days of therapy. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the antitussive therapy and, on the other hand, the tolerability of levodropropizine in these patients, monitoring PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values. The changes in cough frequency (34.1 +/- 5.6 20.4 +/- 5.4 mean +/- d.s. before and after treatment) and the overall efficacy judgment as reported by the doctor indicate a decrease in cough as confirmed by the significance of Kruskal-Wallis test (p less than 0.05). Furthermore the tolerability has been excellent, because the PaO2, PaCo2 ad pH values before and after treatment were unchanged (PaO2 mmHg: basal 71 +/- 16.6, after treatment 73.8 +/- 14.2; PaCO2 mmHg: basal 36.6 +/- 5, after treatment 36.6 +/- 4.6; pH basal 7.4 +/- 0.03, after treatment 7.4 +/- 0.02). PMID:1827388

  5. Effects of a heat and moisture exchanger on carbon dioxide equilibrium during mechanical ventilation with the Bain circuit.

    PubMed

    Romano, E; Gullo, A; Vacri, A; Bonifacio, R; Caristi, D

    1987-05-01

    The introduction of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) into the anaesthetic circuit may cause a rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) tension through an increase in dead space. We studied the effects of the Ultipor Pall BB50 filter included 'in series' in the Bain circuit on CO2 equilibrium. Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) was measured in 81 patients scheduled for elective surgery before and after the insertion of the filter. Results showed that: females were always more hyperventilated than males when fresh gas flow was set at 70 ml kg-1 ideal body weight; the inclusion of the filter increased the PaCO2 in the group as a whole (the difference was statistically, but not clinically, significant); PaCO2 increased after the application of the filter only in females; the effects of the filter were completely independent of the patient's age. It is concluded that the use of the Ultipor Pall BB50 filter is a safe procedure during mechanical ventilation with the Bain breathing system and there is no need to modify ventilation.

  6. Identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the pacidamycin group of peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjun; Ostash, Bohdan; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacidamycins are a family of uridyl tetra/pentapeptide antibiotics that act on the translocase MraY to block bacterial cell wall assembly. To elucidate the biosynthetic logic of pacidamcyins, a putative gene cluster was identified by 454 shotgun genome sequencing of the producer Streptomyces coeruleorubidus NRRL 18370. The 31-kb gene cluster encodes 22 proteins (PacA-V), including highly dissociated nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) modules and a variety of tailoring enzymes. Gene deletions confirmed that two NRPSs, PacP and PacO, are required for the biosynthesis of pacidamycins. Heterologous expression and in vitro assays of PacL, PacO, and PacP established reversible formation of m-Tyr-AMP, l-Ala-AMP, and diaminopropionyl-AMP, respectively, consistent with the amino acids found in pacidamycin scaffolds. The unusual Ala4-Phe5 dipeptidyl ureido linkage was formed during in vitro assays containing purified PacL, PacJ, PacN, and PacO. Both the genetic and enzymatic studies validate identification of the biosynthetic genes for this subclass of uridyl peptide antibiotics and provide the basis for future mechanistic study of their biosynthesis. PMID:20826445

  7. Expiratory washout versus optimization of mechanical ventilation during permissive hypercapnia in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richecoeur, J; Lu, Q; Vieira, S R; Puybasset, L; Kalfon, P; Coriat, P; Rouby, J J

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three ventilatory techniques for reducing PaCO2 in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with permissive hypercapnia: (1) expiratory washout alone at a flow of 15 L/min, (2) optimized mechanical ventilation defined as an increase in the respiratory frequency to the maximal rate possible without development of intrinsic positive end- expiratory pressure (PEEP) combined with a reduction of the instrumental dead space, and (3) the combination of both methods. Tidal volume was set according to the pressure-volume curve in order to obtain an inspiratory plateau airway pressure equal to the upper inflection point minus 2 cm H2O after setting the PEEP at 2 cm H2O above the lower inflection point and was kept constant throughout the study. The three modalities were compared at the same inspiratory plateau airway pressure through an adjustment of the extrinsic PEEP. During conventional mechanical ventilation using a respiratory frequency of 18 breaths/min, respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 = 84 +/- 24 mm Hg and pH = 7.21 +/- 0.12) was observed. Expiratory washout and optimized mechanical ventilation (respiratory frequency of 30 +/- 4 breaths/min) had similar effects on CO2 elimination (DeltaPaCO2 = -28 +/- 11% versus -27 +/- 12%). A further decrease in PaCO2 was observed when both methods were combined (DeltaPaCO2 = -46 +/- 7%). Extrinsic PEEP had to be reduced by 5.3 +/- 2.1 cm H2O during expiratory washout and by 7.3 +/- 1.3 cm H2O during the combination of the two modes, whereas it remained unchanged during optimized mechanical ventilation alone. In conclusion, increasing respiratory rate and reducing instrumental dead space during conventional mechanical ventilation is as efficient as expiratory washout to reduce PaCO2 in patients with severe ARDS and permissive hypercapnia. When used in combination, both techniques have additive effects and result in PaCO2 levels close to normal values. PMID:10390383

  8. The correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial blood gas parameters in patients evaluated for metabolic acid-base disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Ghazaleh Doostkhah; Sharifi, Mohammad Davood; Deloei, Morteza Talebi; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Reihani, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The analysis of arterial blood gas (ABG) is an invasive procedure that is used frequently in the emergency department (ED) to evaluate the acid-base status of critically-ill patients. However, capnometry is an alternative procedure that has been used in recent years to determine the metabolic status of patients’ blood. Considering the correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) identified in the previous studies and the strong correlation between PaCO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3−), we assumed that ETCO2 might be a useful parameter in predicting the presence of metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between ETCO2 and the parameters of ABG in adult patients who were likely present metabolic acid-base disturbances in the Emergency Department of Imam Reza Hospital, the largest academic hospital in Mashhad in northeast Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during six months on 62 adult patients who presented with suspected metabolic acid-base disorders to the ED. The exclusion criteria were patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, loss of consciousness, intubated patients, and those who were unable to tolerate capnography. The patients’ demographic information and vital signs were recorded. Also, ABG and ETCO2 results were recorded. The Pearson product moment correlation analysis and linear regression were used to determine the correlation between ETCO2 and ABG parameters. Results: Sixty-four patients were enrolled, consisting of 37 men and 27 women with a mean age of 55.4 ± 22.7 years. The most common complaints presented were nausea and vomiting (n = 24). The average value for ETCO2 was 26.2 ± 6.1. There were significant linear correlations between ETCO2 level, pH (r = 0.368), HCO3− (r = 0.869), PaCO2 (r = 0.795), and Base Excess (B.E.) (r = 0.346). HCO3 and PaCO2 were the significant predictor values for ETCO2 (linear

  9. Porcine MAP3K5 analysis: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variations associated with residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Pu, L; Zhang, L C; Zhang, J S; Song, X; Wang, L G; Liang, J; Zhang, Y B; Liu, X; Yan, H; Zhang, T; Yue, J W; Li, N; Wu, Q Q; Wang, L X

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively. The deduced MAP3K5 protein sequence contains two conserved domains: a DUF4071 domain and a protein kinase domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that porcine MAP3K5 forms a separate branch to vicugna and camel MAP3K5. Tissue expression analysis using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that MAP3K5 was expressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, pancrea, ileum, and stomach tissues. Copy number variation was detected for porcine MAP3K5 and validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, a significant increase in average copy number was detected in the low RFI group when compared to the high RFI group in a Duroc pig population. These results provide useful information regarding the influence of MAP3K5 on RFI in pigs. PMID:27525933

  10. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing.

    PubMed

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Lecu, Alexis; Waters, W Ray; Posthaus, Horst; Bodmer, Thomas; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Aloisio, Fabio; Graubner, Claudia; Grosclaude, Eléonore; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Schiller, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs) which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:22567544

  11. Model selection as a science driver for dark energy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Liddle, Andrew R.; Kunz, Martin

    2006-07-01

    A key science goal of upcoming dark energy surveys is to seek time-evolution of the dark energy. This problem is one of model selection, where the aim is to differentiate between cosmological models with different numbers of parameters. However, the power of these surveys is traditionally assessed by estimating their ability to constrain parameters, which is a different statistical problem. In this paper, we use Bayesian model selection techniques, specifically forecasting of the Bayes factors, to compare the abilities of different proposed surveys in discovering dark energy evolution. We consider six experiments - supernova luminosity measurements by the Supernova Legacy Survey, SNAP, JEDI and ALPACA, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by WFMOS and JEDI - and use Bayes factor plots to compare their statistical constraining power. The concept of Bayes factor forecasting has much broader applicability than dark energy surveys.

  12. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  13. High altitude artisanal small-scale gold mines are hot spots for Mercury in soils and plants.

    PubMed

    Terán-Mita, Tania A; Faz, Angel; Salvador, Flor; Arocena, Joselito M; Acosta, Jose A

    2013-02-01

    Mercury releases from artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) condense and settle on plants, soils and water bodies. We collected soil and plant samples to add knowledge to the likely transfer of Hg from soils into plants and eventually predict Hg accumulation in livestock around ASGM in Bolivia. Mean contents of Hg in soils range from 0.5 to 48.6 mg Hg kg(-1) soil (5× to 60× more compared to control sites) and exceeded the soil Hg threshold levels in some European countries. The Hg contents ranged from 0.6 to 18 and 0.2 to 28.3 mg Hg kg(-1) leaf and root, respectively. The high Hg in Poaceae and Rosaceae may elevate Hg accumulation into the food chain because llama and alpaca solely thrive on these plants for food. Erosion of soils around ASGM in Bolivia contributes to the Hg contamination in lower reaches of the Amazon basin.

  14. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185

  16. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  17. Comparative studies of water permeability of red blood cells from humans and over 30 animal species: an overview of 20 years of collaboration with Philip Kuchel.

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    NMR measurements of the diffusional permeability of the human adult red blood cell (RBC) membrane to water (P(d)) and of the activation energy (E(a,d)) of the process furnished values of P(d) ~ 4 × 10(-3) cm/s at 25 °C and ~6.1 × 10(-3) cm/s at 37 °C, and E(a,d) ~ 26 kJ/mol. Comparative NMR measurements for other species showed: (1) monotremes (echidna and platypus), chicken, little penguin, and saltwater crocodile have the lowest P(d) values; (2) sheep, cow, and elephant have P(d) values lower than human P(d) values; (3) cat, horse, alpaca, and camel have P(d) values close to those of humans; (4) guinea pig, dog, dingo, agile wallaby, red-necked wallaby, Eastern grey kangaroo, and red kangaroo have P(d) values higher than those of humans; (5) mouse, rat, rabbit, and "small and medium size" marsupials have the highest values of P(d) (>8.0 × 10(-3) cm/s at 25 °C and >10.0 × 10(-3) cm/s at 37 °C). There are peculiarities of E(a,d) values for the RBCs from different species. The maximum inhibition of diffusional permeability of RBCs induced by incubation with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate varied between 0% (for the chicken and little penguin) to ~50% (for human, mouse, cat, sheep, horse, camel, and Indian elephant), and ~60-75% (for rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, alpaca, and all marsupials). These results indicate that no water channel proteins (WCPs) or aquaporins are present in the membrane of RBCs from monotremes (echidna, platypus), chicken, little penguin and saltwater crocodile whereas WCPs from the membranes of RBCs from marsupials have peculiarities. PMID:23104624

  18. Generation of a Nanobody Targeting the Paraflagellar Rod Protein of Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Obishakin, Emmanuel; Stijlemans, Benoit; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Devreese, Bart; Muldermans, Serge; Bastin, Philippe; Magez, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause diseases in humans and livestock for which no vaccines are available. Disease eradication requires sensitive diagnostic tools and efficient treatment strategies. Immunodiagnostics based on antigen detection are preferable to antibody detection because the latter cannot differentiate between active infection and cure. Classical monoclonal antibodies are inaccessible to cryptic epitopes (based on their size-150 kDa), costly to produce and require cold chain maintenance, a condition that is difficult to achieve in trypanosomiasis endemic regions, which are mostly rural. Nanobodies are recombinant, heat-stable, small-sized (15 kDa), antigen-specific, single-domain, variable fragments derived from heavy chain-only antibodies in camelids. Because of numerous advantages over classical antibodies, we investigated the use of nanobodies for the targeting of trypanosome-specific antigens and diagnostic potential. An alpaca was immunized using lysates of Trypanosoma evansi. Using phage display and bio-panning techniques, a cross-reactive nanobody (Nb392) targeting all trypanosome species and isolates tested was selected. Imunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry assays were combined to identify the target recognized. Nb392 targets paraflagellar rod protein (PFR1) of T. evansi, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. Two different RNAi mutants with defective PFR assembly (PFR2RNAi and KIF9BRNAi) were used to confirm its specificity. In conclusion, using a complex protein mixture for alpaca immunization, we generated a highly specific nanobody (Nb392) that targets a conserved trypanosome protein, i.e., PFR1 in the flagella of trypanosomes. Nb392 is an excellent marker for the PFR and can be useful in the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. In addition, as demonstrated, Nb392 can be a useful research or PFR protein isolation tool. PMID:25551637

  19. Large Animal Model of Pumpless Arteriovenous Extracorporeal CO₂ Removal Using Room Air via Subclavian Vessels.

    PubMed

    Witer, Lucas J; Howard, Ryan A; Trahanas, John M; Bryner, Benjamin S; Alghanem, Fares; Hoffman, Hayley R; Cornell, Marie S; Bartlett, Robert H; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    End-stage lung disease (ESLD) causes progressive hypercapnia and dyspnea and impacts quality of life. Many extracorporeal support (ECS) configurations for CO2 removal resolve symptoms but limit ambulation. An ovine model of pumpless ECS using subclavian vessels was developed to allow for ambulatory support. Vascular grafts were anastomosed to the left subclavian vessels in four healthy sheep. A low-resistance membrane oxygenator was attached in an arteriovenous (AV) configuration. Device function was evaluated in each animal while awake and spontaneously breathing and while mechanically ventilated with hypercapnia induced. Sweep gas (FiO2 = 0.21) to the device was increased from 0 to 15 L/min, and arterial and postdevice blood gases, as well as postdevice air, were sampled. Hemodynamics remained stable with average AV shunt flows of 1.34 ± 0.14 L/min. In awake animals, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 1.0 ml/kg/min at maximum sweep gas flow. Respiratory rate decreased from 60 ± 25 at baseline to 30 ± 11 breaths per minute. In animals with induced hypercapnia, PaCO2 increased to 73.9 ± 15.1. At maximum sweep gas flow, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 0.4 ml/kg/min and PaCO2 decreased to 49.1 ± 6.7 mm Hg. Subclavian AV access is effective in lowering PaCO2 and respiratory rate and is potentially an effective ambulatory destination therapy for ESLD patients.

  20. Effects of ventriculectomy, prosthetic laryngoplasty, and exercise on upper airway function in horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Shappell, K K; Derksen, F J; Stick, J A; Robinson, N E

    1988-10-01

    Effects of ventriculectomy and prosthetic laryngoplasty on upper airway flow mechanics and blood gas tensions in exercising horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia were assessed. Five adult horses were trained to stand, trot (4.5 m/s), and gallop (7.2 m/s) on a treadmill (6.38 degrees incline). Inspiratory and expiratory airflows (VImax, VEmax, respectively) were measured using a 15.2-cm diameter pneumotachograph in a face mask. Inspiratory and expiratory transupper airway pressures (PuI, PuE, respectively) were determined as pressure differences between barometric pressure and lateral tracheal pressure. Blood collected from exteriorized carotid arteries was analyzed for PaO2, PaCO2, pH, hemoglobin (Hb) content, and HCO3- values. Heart rate (HR) was determined with an HR monitor. Measurements were made with horses standing, trotting, and galloping before left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (LRLN; base line), 14 days after LRLN, 30 days after ventriculectomy (44 days after LRLN), and 14 days after prosthetic laryngoplasty (58 days after LRLN). Before LRLN (base line), increasing treadmill speed for horses from standing to the trot and gallop progressively increased HR, respiratory frequency, VImax, VEmax, PuI, PuE, Hb, and PaCO2 values and decreased PaO2, pH, and HCO3- values; inspiratory and expiratory impedances were unchanged. After LRLN, inspiratory impedance and PuI were significantly (P less than 0.05) increased in horses at the trot and gallop, and PaCO2 was significantly increased in horses at the gallop. The VImax and respiratory frequency were significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased in horses at the gallop. Left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy had no effect on PuE, VEmax, HR, PaO2, pH, Hb, or expiratory impedance values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. “Large Animal Model of Pumpless Arteriovenous Extracorporeal CO2 Removal Using Room Air Via Subclavian Vessels”

    PubMed Central

    Witer, Lucas; Howard, Ryan; Trahanas, John; Bryner, Benjamin S.; Alghanem, Fares; Hoffman, Hayley R.; Cornell, Marie S.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    End-stage lung disease (ESLD) causes progressive hypercapnia, dyspnea, and impacts quality of life. Many extracorporeal support (ECS) configurations for CO2 removal resolve symptoms but limit ambulation. An ovine model of pumpless ECS using subclavian vessels was developed to allow for ambulatory support. Vascular grafts were anastomosed to the left subclavian vessels in four healthy sheep. A low-resistance membrane oxygenator was attached in an arteriovenous (AV) configuration. Device function was evaluated in each animal while awake and spontaneously breathing, and while mechanically ventilated with hypercapnia induced. Sweep gas (FiO2=0.21) to the device was increased from 0-15 L/min and arterial and post-device blood gases, as well as post-device air, were sampled. Hemodynamics remained stable with average AV shunt flows of 1.34±0.14 L/min.. In awake animals, CO2 removal was 3.4±1.0 mL/kg/min at maximum sweep gas flow. Respiratory rate decreased from 60±25 at baseline to 30±11 breaths per minute. In animals with induced hypercapnia, PaCO2 increased to 73.9±15.1. At maximum sweep gas flow, CO2 removal was 3.4±0.4 mL/kg/min and PaCO2 decreased to 49.1±6.7 mmHg. Subclavian AV access is effective in lowering PaCO2 and respiratory rate, and is potentially an effective ambulatory destination therapy for ESLD patients. PMID:26461241

  2. Use of arterial blood gas analysis as a superior method for evaluating respiratory function in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Eatwell, K; Mancinelli, E; Hedley, J; Benato, L; Shaw, D J; Self, I; Meredith, A

    A retrospective study compared invasive (arterial blood gas analysis) and non-invasive (capnography and pulse oximetry) methods of monitoring respiratory function in conscious rabbits. Arterial samples from 50 healthy dwarf lop rabbits, presenting for routine surgical neutering, were analysed on a point-of-care blood gas analysis machine. Reference intervals were obtained for pH (7.35-7.54), PaCO2 (mm Hg) (25.29-40.37), PaO2 (mm Hg) (50.3-98.2), base excess (mmol/l) (6.7-6.5), HCO3 (mmol/l) (17.96-29.41), TCO2 (mmol/l) (18.9-30.5). SaO2 (per cent) (88.8-98.0), Na (mmol/l) (137.6-145.2), K (mmol/l) (3.28-4.87), iCal (mmol/l) (1.64-1.94), glucose (mmol/l) (6.23-10.53), haematocrit (per cent) (23.3-40.2) and haemoglobin (mg/dl) (7.91-13.63). Pulse oximetry (SPO2) and capnography (ETCO2) readings were taken concurrently. There was no statistically significant relationship between SPO2 and SaO2 with a mean difference between SPO2 and SaO2 of 8.22 per cent. There was a statistically significant relationship between ETCO2 vs PaCO2, but a wide range of ETCO2 values were observed for a given PaCO2. The mean difference between these was 16.16 mm Hg. The study has provided reference intervals for arterial blood gas analysis in rabbits and demonstrated that capnography and pulse oximetry readings should not be relied upon in conscious rabbits as a guide to ventilation and oxygenation.

  3. The effect of heating insufflation gas on acid-base alterations and core temperature during laparoscopic major abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Cheon; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Hee-Dong; Kwon, Il Won

    2011-01-01

    Background Carbon dioxide (CO2) has different biophysical properties under different thermal conditions, which may affect its rate of absorption in the blood and the related adverse events. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of heating of CO2 on acid-base balance using Stewart's physiochemical approach, and body temperature during laparoscopy. Methods Thirty adult patients undergoing laparoscopic major abdominal surgery were randomized to receive either room temperature CO2 (control group, n = 15) or heated CO2 (heated group, n = 15). The acid-base parameters were measured 10 min after the induction of anesthesia (T1), 40 min after pneumoperitoneum (T2), at the end of surgery (T3) and 1 h after surgery (T4). Body temperature was measured at 15-min intervals until the end of the surgery. Results There were no significant differences in pH, PaCO2, the apparent strong ion difference, the strong ion gap, bicarbonate ion, or lactate between two groups throughout the whole investigation period. At T2, pH was decreased whereas PaCO2 was increased in both groups compared with T1 but these changes were not significantly different. Body temperatures in the heated group were significantly higher than those in the control group from 30 to 90 min after pneumoperitoneum. Conclusions The heating of insufflating CO2 did not affect changes in the acid-base status and PaCO2 in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery when the ventilator was set to maintain constant end-tidal CO2. However, the heated CO2 reduced the decrease in the core body temperature 30 min after the pneumoperitoneum. PMID:22110878

  4. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p < 0.05). In conclusion, with a moderate change in the arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  5. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1997-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p < 0.05). In conclusion, with a moderate change in the arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  6. Cerebral pressure-flow and metabolic responses to sustained hypoxia: effect of CO2.

    PubMed

    Yang, S P; Bergö, G W; Krasney, E; Krasney, J A

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the role of CO2 in the cerebral hemodynamic, metabolic, and fluid shift responses in a conscious sheep model of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Ewes were instrumented chronically with left ventricular, aortic, inferior vena cava, sagittal sinus, and epidural catheters and exposed to 96 h of hypoxia in an environmental chamber in two groups: 1) hypocapnic [HH; n = 12; arterial PO2 (PaO2) = 40 Torr, arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) = 27 Torr] and 2) eucapnic (EH; n = 9; PaCO2 = 40 Torr, PaCO2 = 37 Torr). AMS, estimated from food and water intakes and behavior, occurred in 9 of 12 HH and 9 of 9 EH sheep. Intracranial pressure (Picp) and the pressure gradient between Picp and sagittal sinus (Psag) increased in AMS sheep only. Total and regional cerebral blood flows, except in the choroid plexus (Qcp), were elevated significantly (P < 0.05) throughout hypoxia in all sheep; cerebral blood flow was greater in EH sheep (P < 0.05). Qcp decreased in HH (P < 0.05) but remained unchanged in EH sheep. Cerebral O2 and glucose uptakes were not altered in either group. Brain edema, reflected by elevated wet-to-dry tissue weight ratios (P < 0.0001), occurred only in AMS sheep. We conclude 1) AMS is associated with cerebral edema and normal brain aerobic metabolism, 2) decreased Qcp and increased Picp-Psag gradients during HH likely compensate the increased intracranial volume in AMS, and 3) CO2 supplementation at constant PaO2 did not reduce AMS, Picp, or brain tissue edema.

  7. Rumbling Orchids: How To Assess Divergent Evolution Between Chloroplast Endosymbionts and the Nuclear Host.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Gottschling, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships inferred from multilocus organellar and nuclear DNA data are often difficult to resolve because of evolutionary conflicts among gene trees. However, conflicting or "outlier" associations (i.e., linked pairs of "operational terminal units" in two phylogenies) among these data sets often provide valuable information on evolutionary processes such as chloroplast capture following hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and horizontal gene transfer. Statistical tools that to date have been used in cophylogenetic studies only also have the potential to test for the degree of topological congruence between organellar and nuclear data sets and reliably detect outlier associations. Two distance-based methods, namely ParaFit and Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny (PACo), were used in conjunction to detect those outliers contributing to conflicting phylogenies independently derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. We explored their efficiency of retrieving outlier associations, and the impact of input data (unit branch length and additive trees) between data sets, by using several simulation approaches. To test their performance using real data sets, we additionally inferred the phylogenetic relationships within Neotropical Catasetinae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae), which is a suitable group to investigate phylogenetic incongruence because of hybridization processes between some of its constituent species. A comparison between trees derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data reflected strong, well-supported incongruence within Catasetum, Cycnoches, and Mormodes. As a result, outliers among chloroplast and nuclear data sets, and in experimental simulations, were successfully detected by PACo when using patristic distance matrices obtained from phylograms, but not from unit branch length trees. The performance of ParaFit was overall inferior compared to PACo, using either phylograms or unit branch lengths as input data. Because

  8. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    PubMed

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration.

  9. Non-invasive ventilation in obesity hypoventilation syndrome without severe obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Caballero, Candela; Barrot, Emilia; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Alonso-Álvarez, Maria L; Gomez-Garcia, Teresa; González, Mónica; López-Martín, Soledad; De Lucas, Pilar; Marin, José M; Marti, Sergi; Díaz-Cambriles, Trinidad; Chiner, Eusebi; Egea, Carlos; Miranda, Erika; Mokhlesi, Babak; García-Ledesma, Estefanía; Sánchez-Quiroga, M-Ángeles; Ordax, Estrella; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Troncoso, Maria F; Martinez-Martinez, Maria-Ángeles; Cantalejo, Olga; Ojeda, Elena; Carrizo, Santiago J; Gallego, Begoña; Pallero, Mercedes; Ramón, M Antonia; Díaz-de-Atauri, Josefa; Muñoz-Méndez, Jesús; Senent, Cristina; Sancho-Chust, Jose N; Ribas-Solís, Francisco J; Romero, Auxiliadora; Benítez, José M; Sanchez-Gómez, Jesús; Golpe, Rafael; Santiago-Recuerda, Ana; Gomez, Silvia; Bengoa, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an effective form of treatment in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) who have concomitant severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, there is a paucity of evidence on the efficacy of NIV in patients with OHS without severe OSA. We performed a multicentre randomised clinical trial to determine the comparative efficacy of NIV versus lifestyle modification (control group) using daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) as the main outcome measure. Methods Between May 2009 and December 2014 we sequentially screened patients with OHS without severe OSA. Participants were randomised to NIV versus lifestyle modification and were followed for 2 months. Arterial blood gas parameters, clinical symptoms, health-related quality of life assessments, polysomnography, spirometry, 6-min walk distance test, blood pressure measurements and healthcare resource utilisation were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using intention-to-treat analysis. Results A total of 365 patients were screened of whom 58 were excluded. Severe OSA was present in 221 and the remaining 86 patients without severe OSA were randomised. NIV led to a significantly larger improvement in PaCO2 of −6 (95% CI −7.7 to −4.2) mm Hg versus −2.8 (95% CI −4.3 to −1.3) mm Hg, (p<0.001) and serum bicarbonate of −3.4 (95% CI −4.5 to −2.3) versus −1 (95% CI −1.7 to −0.2 95% CI)  mmol/L (p<0.001). PaCO2 change adjusted for NIV compliance did not further improve the inter-group statistical significance. Sleepiness, some health-related quality of life assessments and polysomnographic parameters improved significantly more with NIV than with lifestyle modification. Additionally, there was a tendency towards lower healthcare resource utilisation in the NIV group. Conclusions NIV is more effective than lifestyle modification in improving daytime PaCO2, sleepiness and polysomnographic parameters. Long

  10. A comparative study of early and late extubation following transoral odontoidectomy and posterior fixation

    PubMed Central

    Marda, Manish; Pandia, Mihir Prakash; Rath, Girija Prasad; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Dash, Harihara

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Elective ventilation is the usual practice after transoral odontoidectomy (TOO) and posterior fixation. This practice of elective ventilation is not based on any evidence. The primary objective of our study was to find out the difference in oxygenation and ventilation in patients extubated early compared to those extubated late after TOO and posterior fixation. The secondary objectives were to compare the length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/hospital stay and pulmonary complications between the two groups. Material and Methods: After TOO and posterior fixation, patients were either extubated in the operating room (Group E) or extubated next day (Group D). The oxygenation (PaO2:FiO2 ratio) and ventilation (PaCO2) of the two groups before surgery, at 30 min and at 6/12/24 and 48 h after extubation were compared. Complications, durations of ICU and hospital stay were noted. Results: The base-line PaO2:FiO2 and PaCO2 was comparable between the groups. No significant change in the PaO2:FiO2 was noted in the postoperative period in either group as compared to the preoperative values. Except for at 12 h after surgery, there was no significant difference between the two groups at various time intervals. No significant change in the PaCO2 level was seen during the study period in either group. PaCO2 measured at 30 min after surgery was more in Group E (37.5 ± 3.2 mmHg in Group E vs. 34.6 ± 2.9 mmHg in Group D), otherwise there was no significant difference between the two groups at various time intervals. One patient in Group E (7.1%) and two patients in Group D (13%) developed postoperative respiratory complication, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean ICU stay (Group D = 42 ± 25 h vs. Group E = 25.1 ± 16.9 h) and mean hospital stay (Group D = 9.9 ± 4 days vs. Group E = 7.6 ± 2.2 days) were longer in Group D patients. Conclusion: Ventilation and oxygenation in the postoperative period in patients undergoing TOO and

  11. Cluster analysis of respiratory time series.

    PubMed

    Adams, J M; Attinger, E O; Attinger, F M

    1978-03-01

    We have investigated the respiratory control system with the hypothesis that, although many variables such as minute ventilation (VI), tidal volume (VT), breathing period (TT), inspiratory duration (TI), and expiratory duration (TE) may be observed, the controller functions more simply by manipulating only 2 or 3 of these. Thus, if tidal volume is the only independent variable, TI being determined by the "off-switch" threshold, these variables should have very similar time courses. Anesthetized dogs were subjected to CO2 breathing and carotid sinus perfusion to stimulate both chemoreceptors. The time series of the variables VI, VT, TT, TE, and TI as well as PACO2 were determined on a breath by breath basis. Derived characteristics of these time series were compared using Cluster Analysis and the latent dimensionality of respiratory control determined by Factor Analysis. The characteristics of the time series clustered into 4 groups: magnitude (of the response), speed, variability and relative change. One respiratory factor accounted for 86% of the variance for the variability characteristics, 2 factors for magnitude (91%) and relative change (85%) and 3 factors for speed (89%). The respiratory variables were analysed for each of the 4 groups of characteristics with the following results: VT and TI clustered together only for the magnitude and relative change characteristics where as TT and TE clustered closely for all four characteristics. One latent factor was associated with the [TT-TE] group and the other usually with PACO2.

  12. Per- and postoperative changes in the arterio-venous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) in patients subjected to craniotomy for cerebral tumours.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, J; Elkjaer, S; Cold, G; Herlevsen, P; Melsen, N C; Engberg, M; Hove, B; Astrup, J

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients with supratentorial cerebral tumours were subjected to craniotomy under thiopentone, fentanyl, nitrous oxide, halothane anaesthesia during moderate hypocapnia (PaCO2 level 4.0 kPa). The arterio-venous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) was measured peroperatively, and repeatedly during the first three hours after extubation. Peroperatively the level of AVDO2 averaged 8.0 vol% during opening of the dura, and decreased to 7.0 vol% during closure of the dura (P less than 0.05). Immediately after extubation the AVDO2 decreased to 4.3 vol% (P less than 0.05), and during the next 3 hours a gradual increase to 5.8 vol% (P less than 0.05) was disclosed. In individual cases the postoperative changes in AVDO2 correlated fairly well with changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), but other factors including duration of the operation, age of the patients, size of the tumour, level of PaCO2 and adaptation to prolonged hyperventilation during operation are supposed to be responsible for the low levels of AVDO2 observed in the postoperative period. PMID:2603775

  13. Effects of the neutral gas density distribution in a DPF neutron yield

    SciTech Connect

    Milanese, M.; Moroso, R.; Pouzo, J.

    1996-12-31

    The dense plasma gives an average neutron yield Y = 2 {times} 10{sup 8} when it is operated using D{sub 2} at an homogeneous pressure p = 1.5 mb in the discharge chamber, in this p-static operation, the frequency of good shots (Y > 10{sup 7}) is f {approx} 50%. In this work the authors show the results on Y and f when PACO is operated in gas-puff way with two different modalities: (1) A gas cloud is injected into the vacuum, from a set of holes distributed in a diameter of the inner electrode near the Pyrex insulator. The gas is introduced from the back of the hollow inner electrode by means of a fast valve. The cloud expands in the interelectrode space, and reaches the extreme of the coaxial cavity in some hundreds of microseconds from the valve aperture instant. In this way of operation the value of Y remains similar to the p-static operation, but the frequency f is improved up to f {approx} 80%. (2) With a relative low value of p in the discharge chamber a jet of high density D{sub 2} is injected along the axis from the inner electrode just in the focus zone. The jet is produced with a nozzle designed in order to obtain subsonic velocity, and the gas is injected through the same fast valve. In this jet operation mode the PACO performance was improved, reaching f {approx} 70% and Y {approx} 10{sup 9}.

  14. A genetic biosensor for identification of transcriptional repressors of target promoters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weishan; Li, Xiao; Li, Yue; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Keqiang; Yang, Keqian

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional repressors provide widespread biological significance in the regulation of gene expression. However, in prokaryotes, it is particularly difficult to find transcriptional repressors that recognize specific target promoters on genome-scale. To address this need, a genetic biosensor for identifying repressors of target promoters was developed in Escherichia coli from a de novo designed genetic circuit. This circuit can convert the negative input of repressors into positive output of reporters, thereby facilitating the selection and identification of repressors. After evaluating the sensitivity and bias, the biosensor was used to identify the repressors of scbA and aco promoters (PscbA and Paco), which control the transcription of signalling molecule synthase genes in Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces avermitilis, respectively. Two previously unknown repressors of PscbA were identified from a library of TetR family regulators in S. coelicolor, and three novel repressors of Paco were identified from a genomic library of S. avermitilis. Further in vivo and in vitro experiments confirmed that these newly identified repressors attenuated the transcription of their target promoters by direct binding. Overall, the genetic biosensor developed here presents an innovative and powerful strategy that could be applied for identifying genome-wide unknown repressors of promoters in bacteria. PMID:26510468

  15. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations project: analysis of radio source properties between 5 and 217 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massardi, Marcella; Bonaldi, Anna; Bonavera, Laura; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Galluzzi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project has yielded observations of 464 sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) between 4.5 and 40 GHz. The main purpose of the project was to investigate the spectral properties of mm-selected radio sources at frequencies below and overlapping with the ESA's Planck satellite frequency bands, minimizing the variability effects by observing almost simultaneously with the first two Planck all-sky surveys. In this paper we present the whole catalogue of observations in total intensity. By comparing PACO with the various measures of Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) flux densities we found the best consistency with the PCCS `detection pipeline' photometry (DETFLUX) that we used to investigate the spectral properties of sources from 5 to 217 GHz. Of our sources, 91 per cent have remarkably smooth spectrum, well described by a double power-law over the full range. This suggests a single emitting region, at variance with the notion that `flat' spectra result from the superposition of the emissions from different compact regions, self-absorbed up to different frequencies. Most of the objects show a spectral steepening above ≃30 GHz, consistent with synchrotron emission becoming optically thin. Thus, the classical dichotomy between flat-spectrum/compact and steep-spectrum/extended radio sources, well established at cm wavelengths, breaks down at mm wavelengths. The mm-wave spectra do not show indications of the spectral break expected as the effect of `electron ageing', suggesting young source ages.

  16. Physiological response to increasing levels of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA).

    PubMed

    Lecomte, François; Brander, Lukas; Jalde, Fredrick; Beck, Jennifer; Qui, Haibo; Elie, Caroline; Slutsky, Arthur S; Brunet, Fabrice; Sinderby, Christer

    2009-04-30

    This study evaluated the response to increasing levels of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), a mode converting electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) into pressure, regulated by a proportionality constant called the NAVA level. Fourteen rabbits were studied during baseline, resistive loading and ramp increases of the NAVA level. EAdi, airway (Paw) and esophageal pressure (Pes), Pes pressure time product (PTPes), breathing pattern, and blood gases were measured. Resistive loading increased PTPes and EAdi. P(a)(CO)(2) increased with high load but not during low load. Increasing NAVA levels increased Paw until a breakpoint where the Paw increase was reduced despite increasing NAVA level. At this breakpoint, Pes, PTPes, EAdi, and P(a)(CO)(2) were similar to baseline. Further increase of the NAVA level reduced Pes, PTPes and EAdi without changes in ventilation. In conclusion, observing the trend in Paw during a ramp increase of the NAVA level allows determination of a level where the inspiratory effort matches unloaded conditions. PMID:19429528

  17. Double lumen bi-cava cannula for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as bridge to lung transplantation in non-intubated patient.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jérémie; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Santelmo, Nicola; Massard, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for refractory respiratory failure. Normally, ECMO is implanted in intubated patients as a last resort. We report the case of a non-intubated patient who benefited from veno-venous (VV) ECMO. A 35-year old cystic fibrosis man presented a severe respiratory decompensation with refractory hypercapnia. We opted for an ECMO instead of mechanical ventilation (MV). We implanted a double lumen bi-cava cannula (DLC) (Avalon Elite(TM)) in the right jugular vein. Before ECMO implantation, the patient presented refractory respiratory failure (pH = 7.1, PaO(2) = 83 mmHg, PaCO(2 )= 103 mmHg). We proposed that the patient be placed on the high emergency lung transplantation waiting list after failure to wean him from ECMO. This registration was effective 10 days after ECMO implantation. The patient was grafted the next day. Under ECMO, mean PaO(2), PaCO(2) and TCA were 80.6 ± 14.2, 53.8 ± 6.4 mmHg and 56.2 ± 9.7 s, respectively. The patient could eat, drink, talk and practice chest physiotherapy. The evolution was uneventful under ECMO. Weaning from ECMO was done in the operating theatre after transplantation. VV ECMO with DLC is safe and feasible in non-intubated patients. It avoids potential complications of MV, and allows respiratory assistance as bridge to transplantation. PMID:22108944

  18. Dyspnea in acute bronchial asthma in an emergency room.

    PubMed

    Kunitoh, H; Watanabe, K; Sajima, Y

    1994-03-01

    Pulmonary function, arterial blood gases, and pulse rate were prospectively compared with dyspnea perceived by patients before and after emergency room treatment for acute asthma in 83 episodes. Subjective degree of dyspnea was rated on a modified Borg scale. Before treatment, all spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate) and arterial blood gas (PaO2, PaCO2, and bicarbonate) data as well as pulse rate were significantly correlated with modified Borg scale, but only PaCO2 showed significant correlation (P < .001) in a multivariate analysis. After treatment, only PaO2 was significantly correlated with modified Borg scale (P = .008) in a multivariate analysis, and pulse rate showed correlation of borderline significance (P = .06). In another 37 episodes of relapsed acute asthma, the correlations between laboratory data and modified Borg scale were very weak, especially after treatment. We conclude that dyspnea expressed by asthmatic patients in an emergency room might be reflecting different mechanisms as treatment is performed. Although it should be one useful guide in emergency evaluation, it must be recognized that dyspnea in the same patient could mean different abnormalities.

  19. Breathing in thin air: acclimatization to altitude in ducks.

    PubMed

    Powell, Frank L; Shams, Hashim; Hempleman, Steven C; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2004-12-15

    We measured ventilation (VI) and arterial blood gases in Pekin ducks during acclimatization to 3800 m altitude for 1-90 days. Four experimental series were conducted over 4 years using both natural altitude and a hypobaric chamber. PaCO2 decreased to 3.5 Torr, relative to the value measured during acute hypoxia after 1 day and remained at this level for up to 90 days. However, PaO2 did not increase. Arterial pH showed an unexpected metabolic alkalosis during the first hours at altitude but after 3 days, a metabolic acidosis partially compensated the respiratory alkalosis and pHa was constant thereafter. When normoxia was restored after hypoxia, PaCO2 was 5.5 Torr less than the original normoxic control value, but PaO2 was not increased. VI showed variable changes during acclimatization but if metabolic rate was constant in our study, as reported by others, then effective parabronchial V(VP) increased during acclimatization. Increased VP tends to restore PaO2 toward normoxic levels and decreases adverse effects of gas exchange limitation, which apparently increased during acclimatization in ducks.

  20. Cardiovascular responses to hypoxia and anaemia in the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Johnnie B; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2003-03-01

    Amphibians exhibit cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia and, although several oxygen-sensitive chemoreceptor sites have been identified, the specific oxygen stimulus that triggers these responses remains controversial. This study investigates whether the cardiovascular response to oxygen shortage correlates with decreased oxygen partial pressure of arterial blood (Pa(O(2))) or reduced oxygen concentration ([O(2)]) in toads. Toads, equipped with blood flow probes and an arterial catheter, were exposed to graded hypoxia [fraction of oxygen in the inspired air (FI(O(2)))=0.21, 0.15, 0.10, 0.07 and 0.05] before and after reductions in arterial [O(2)] by isovolemic anaemia that reduced haematocrit by approximately 50%. Toads responded to hypoxia by increasing heart rate (fH) and pulmocutaneous blood flow (Q(pc)) and reducing the net cardiac right-to-left-shunt. When arterial [O(2)] was reduced by anaemia, the toads exhibited a similar cardiovascular response to that observed in hypoxia. While arterial CO(2) partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreased significantly during hypoxia, indicative of increased alveolar ventilation, anaemia did not alter Pa(CO(2))). This suggests that reductions in [O(2)] mediate cardiovascular adjustments, while ventilatory responses are caused by reduced Pa(O(2)).

  1. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure

    PubMed Central

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Stolker, Robert J; Visser, Gerhard H; Weyland, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2-induced changes in CBF, CVR, CPPe, ZFP, and RAP is not fully understood. In a controlled crossover trial, we investigated 10 anesthetized patients aiming at PaCO2 levels of 30, 37, 43, and 50 mm Hg. Cerebral blood flow was measured with a modified Kety-Schmidt-technique. Zero flow pressure and RAP was estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure–flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP, CVR as the ratio CPPe/CBF. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way RM-ANOVA. When comparing hypocapnia with hypercapnia, CBF showed a significant exponential reduction by 55% and mean VMCA by 41%. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure linearly decreased by 17% while ZFP increased from 14 to 29 mm Hg. Cerebrovascular resistance increased by 96% and RAP by 39% despite these concordant changes in mean CVR and Doppler-derived RAP correlation between these variables was weak (r=0.43). In conclusion, under general anesthesia hypocapnia-induced reduction in CBF is caused by both an increase in CVR and a decrease in CPPe, as a consequence of an increase in ZFP. PMID:25873428

  2. Relationship between swallowing function and gas exchange during day and night in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, S; Ishii, T; Matsuse, T

    2001-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are likely to exhibit an impaired swallowing reflex. However, mechanisms of disturbed swallowing reflex have not been determined. Because the upper-airway function is inhibited by hypoxia and hypercapnia, we examined the relationship between the swallowing function and gas exchange during day and night in patients with OSAS. Twenty-four patients with OSAS and 24 age-matched controls were studied. OSAS was diagnosed from overnight polysomnography. The swallowing reflex was judged by the latent time (LT) for swallowing following bolus injection of distilled water at the suprapharynx, the inspiratory suppression time (IST) from swallowing termination to the next onset of inspiration, and the threshold for evoking the swallowing response in terms of a volume of water (TV). Whereas the LT values are positively correlated with PaCO2 but not with PaO2 during the day, the values of IST and TV were not associated with daytime PaCO2 or PaO2. Nocturnal nadir SaO2 was correlated with LT, IST, and TV. These results indicate that oxyhemoglobin desaturation and hypercapnia may be associated with one of the mechanisms of the impaired swallowing function in patients with OSAS. PMID:11720400

  3. Cerebral tissue oxygenation index in very premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Naulaers, G; Morren, G; Van Huffel, S; Casaer, P; Devlieger, H

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To describe normal values of the cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) in premature infants. Methods: TOI was measured by spatially resolved spectroscopy in preterm infants on the first 3 days of life. Infants with an abnormal cranial ultrasound were excluded. Other simultaneously measured variables were PaO2, PaCO2, pH, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, haemoglobin, glycaemia, and peripheral oxygen saturation. Results: Fifteen patients with a median postmenstrual age of 28 weeks were measured. There was a significant increase in median TOI over the first 3 days of life: 57% on day 1, 66.1% on day 2, and 76.1% on day 3. Multiple regression analysis showed no correlation between TOI and postmenstrual age, peripheral oxygen saturation, mean arterial blood pressure, PaO2, PaCO2, and haemoglobin concentration. Conclusion: Cerebral TOI increases significantly in the first 3 days of life in premature babies. This increase probably reflects the increase in cerebral blood flow at this time. PMID:12390989

  4. PubMed Central

    Dupras, J; Vachon, P; Cuvelliez, S; Blais, D

    2001-01-01

    In this study, anesthesia levels obtained with tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) and ketamine-midazolam (KM) with or without xylazine (X) were compared in rabbits. Reflexes (corneal, palpebral and withdrawal), blood parameters (PaO2, PaCO2, pH and ions HCO3-), cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure) and body temperature were evaluated before and after the injections of the anesthetic combination in the same rabbits (n = 10). With KM and TZ, no suppression of reflexes occurred. The body temperature and pH decreased and HCO3- increased similarly to KMX et TZX. Some physiological and blood parameters were less (PAM, PaCO2) and not (PaO2) affected comparatively to KMX et TZX. These protocols were of short duration of action and did not offer any anesthesia or analgesia. Therefore, their utilization should be restricted to short procedures where no painful manipulations are performed. Ketamine-midazolam-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine on the other hand are indicated for interventions that require anesthesia. With these combinations, all reflexes were absent for 30-45 and 60-90 min following injections of KMX et TZX, respectively. However, these combinations induce cardiac depression, as well as a decrease of all measured blood parameters and body temperature and a reduction of PaO2. Supplementation with oxygen is recommended with the introduction of xylazine in the protocol. PMID:11424577

  5. Reduced oxygen diffusion across the shell of Gray gull (Larus modestus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Monge, C C; Ostojic, H; Aguilar, R; Cifuentes, V

    2000-01-01

    Gray gulls, Larus modestus, nest 1500 m above sea level in northern Chile's Atacama Desert, one of the driest in the world. Their eggshell gas permeability, one third of that found in other Larus species, is an adaptation that reduces water loss, but at the expense of oxygen diffusion into the air cell with resultant hypoxia and reduced metabolic rate. This contrasts with characteristics found in birds nesting at very high altitudes where oxygen diffusion across the egg shell is maximized at the expense of water conservation. The oxygen consumption (MO2) of Larus modestus is 66% that of Larus argentatus; the oxygen conductance (GO2) is equivalent to 48% of that obtained in 5 other bird species. The oxygen partial pressure (PAO2) in the air chamber of Larus modestus (84 Torr) is lower than that of 10 other bird species whose average (PAO2) is 106 Torr. The CO2 partial pressure (PACO2) in the air chamber of Larus modestus is 68 Torr, a higher value than that found in 9 other bird species whose average (PACO2) is 39 Torr.

  6. The value of ETCO2 measurement for COPD patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Mutlu; Goksu, Erkan; Eray, Oktay; Isik, Soner; Sayrac, Ali Vefa; Yigit, Ozlem Erken; Rinnert, Stephan

    2011-02-01

    We aimed to determine the value of sidestream end-tidal carbon dioxide (SS-ETCO2) measurement in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the emergency department. Cross-sectional associations between ETCO2 and PaCO2 were examined in the study. This prospective cross-sectional study has been carried out over a 3-month period in a tertiary care university hospital emergency department with an annual census of 75 000 visits. During the study period, simultaneous SS-ETCO2 measurement using a Medlab Cap 10 sidestream capnograph was performed on every COPD patient requiring arterial blood gas analysis. The demographics, diagnosis, vital signs, laboratory test results and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. SS-ETCO2 measurement and arterial blood gas analysis were carried out on 118 patients. Mean arterial PCO2 levels were 43.24±14.73 and mean ETCO2 levels were 34.23±10.86 mmHg. Agreement between PCO2 and ETCO2 measurements was 8.4 mmHg and a precision of 11.1 mmHg.As there is only a moderate correlation between PCO2 and ETCO2 levels in COPD patients, ETCO2 measurement should not be considered as a part of the decision-making process to predict PaCO2 level in COPD patients. PMID:20224417

  7. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic responses to sustained hypercapnia in awake sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, S P; Krasney, J A

    1995-01-01

    This investigation determined the effects of sustained hypercapnia on cerebral blood flow (CBF; radiolabeled microspheres), cerebral metabolic rates for O2 and glucose (CMRO2 and CMRglc), and brain water content in conscious sheep instrumented with aortic, left ventricular, vena cava, and brain sagittal sinus catheters. PaCO2 was elevated from 38 +/- 3 to 53 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) mm Hg and PaO2 from 109 +/- 7 to 131 +/- 4 mm Hg for 96 h in an environmental chamber. Hypercapnia did not alter sheep behavior, food and water intake, arterial pressures, core temperature, or brain lactate release. Total and regional CBF and CBF/CMRO2 reached peak values at 1 h and then readjusted, to stabilize at lower, but still elevated levels at 24 h and thereafter. CMRO2 and CMRglc increased at 6 h and thereafter during hypercapnia. PaCO2, CBF, CMRO2, and CMRglc remained elevated at 3 h after restoration to room air, while CBF/CMRO2 returned to the control value. Frontal and occipital lobe wet-to-dry weight ratios increased modestly but significantly after hypercapnic exposure. It is concluded that sustained hypercapnia induces stable and nonadapting increases in both CBF and brain metabolism that persist for at least 3 h after restoration to room air in association with hypoventilization and modest elevations of brain water.

  8. Hormonal and electrolyte responses of conscious sheep to 96 h of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Curran-Everett, D C; Claybaugh, J R; Miki, K; Hong, S K; Krasney, J A

    1988-08-01

    Hypoxia alters the relationship of aldosterone secretion to plasma renin activity. The potential role plasma electrolytes play in this modification is not clear. This study analyzed the interrelationships among renin, aldosterone, vasopressin (ADH), and plasma electrolytes during 96 h of normobaric hypoxia. Eight ewes were exposed, in discrete experiments, to hypocapnic hypoxia [arterial O2 tension (PaO2) 37-42 mmHg, arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) 26-28 mmHg] and eucapnic hypoxia (PaO2 40-43 mmHg, PaCO2 28-31 mmHg) by N2 dilution in an environmental chamber. Urine output (24 h) was measured, and arterial plasma samples were collected during the normoxic control period and at 24-h intervals of hypoxia. Plasma Na+, K+, renin, and ADH levels did not change from the normoxic values during either hypocapnic or eucapnic hypoxia. However, urinary aldosterone excretion [critical significance (alpha) less than 0.046] and K+ excretion (alpha less than 0.046) decreased markedly during each type of hypoxia. All sheep developed a pronounced negative K+ balance by 96 h of hypoxia. These data suggest that plasma K+ concentration is preserved by movement of K+ out of the intracellular compartment; this change in K+ distribution may inhibit aldosterone secretion during hypoxia.

  9. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    PubMed

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.

  10. Absence of long-term modulation of ventilation by dead-space loading during moderate exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, A J; Herrold, N; Turner, A P; Wilson, J; Ward, S A

    2005-01-01

    The stability of arterial PCO(2) (P(a)CO(2)) during moderate exercise in humans suggests a CO(2)-linked control that matches ventilation (V(E)) to pulmonary CO(2) clearance (VCO(2)). An alternative view is that V(E) is subject to long-term modulation (LTM) induced by "hyperpnoeic history". LTM has been reported with associative conditioning via dead-space (V(D)) loading in exercising goats (Martin and Mitchell 1993). Whether this prevails in humans is less clear, which may reflect differences in study design (e.g. subject familiarisation; V(D) load; whether or not V(E) is expressed relative to VCO(2); choice of P(a)CO(2) estimator). After familiarisation, nine healthy males performed moderate constant-load cycle-ergometry (20 W-80 W-20 W; P(a)CO(2) estimator) was 5.53 (0.48) kPa [41.5 (3.6) mmHg] versus 5.59 (0.49) kPa [41.9 (3.7) mmHg]; the capital EF, Cyrillic1 V(E) increment was 4.2 (2.9) l min(-1) versus 5.2 (1.9) l min(-1); the capital EF, Cyrillic2 V(E) time-constant (tau) was 64.4 (24.1) s versus 64.1 (25.3) s; tauV(E)/tauVCO(2) was 1.12 (0.04) versus 1.10 (0.04); and the V(E)-VCO(2) slope was 21.7 (3.4) versus 21.2 (3.2). In conclusion, we could find no evidence to support ventilatory control during moderate exercise being influenced by hyperpnoeic history associated with dead-space loading in humans.

  11. AB 4. Lung function and disability in patients with ALS at the time of respiratory assessment

    PubMed Central

    Siopi, Dimitra; Perantoni, Eleni; Michailidis, Vasilis; Alexiadis, Alexandros; Mourouzidou, Vasiliki; Tsara, Venetia

    2012-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) affects the respiratory function of patients throughout the disease progress. Prompt diagnosis of pulmonary involvement is important in order to decide the ventilator support of the patients. Patients and methods We studied 54 ALS patients, who visit our chest department because of respiratory symptoms, by spirometry, arterial blood gases and respiratory muscle strength assessment (MIP, MEP). Time from diagnosis, ALSFS and demographic characteristics of all subjects were recorded. Results The time elapsed between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of ALS was 12.2±16 months and the time between diagnosis and the first assessment of respiratory function was 13.9±11 month. Twenty four patients presented with medullary symptoms. Pulmonary examination took place after 13.3±18.8 months from the diagnosis and after 10±7.3 months in patients with peripheral symptoms. Statistical significant correlation was observed between ALSFS and the time elapsed until the respiratory system examination (r=–0.483, P<0.05). Respiratory function measurements were: FVC 53.8±23%, FEV1 53.6±24%, PaO2 71.6±13.5 mmHg, PaCO2 43.4±9.2 mmHg, MIP 28.4±21 cmH2O, MEP 39.1±22.1 cmH2O. Seven patients had been hospitalized in ICU because of acute respiratory failure. They had statistical significant higher PaCO2 (P<0.05) than the other patients. Twenty nine patients accepted to use non invasive ventilation (NIV). Statistical significant difference was noted in ALSFS (P<0.05) in FVC (P<0.05), PaCO2 (P<0.001) PaO2 (P<0.01) between them and the rest of the group. Conclusions The baseline examination of pulmonary function in ALS patients was overdue, even in patients with medullary symptoms. Physical and respiratory functions were both reduced. Physicians related to ALS disease should be vigilant aiming at the prompt management of the respiratory consequences during the disease progress.

  12. The Effects of Lung Protective Ventilation or Hypercapnic Acidosis on Gas Exchange and Lung Injury in Surfactant Deficient Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hummler, Helmut D.; Banke, Katharina; Wolfson, Marla R.; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Ebsen, Michael; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Fuchs, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background Permissive hypercapnia has been shown to reduce lung injury in subjects with surfactant deficiency. Experimental studies suggest that hypercapnic acidosis by itself rather than decreased tidal volume may be a key protective factor. Objectives To study the differential effects of a lung protective ventilatory strategy or hypercapnic acidosis on gas exchange, hemodynamics and lung injury in an animal model of surfactant deficiency. Methods 30 anesthetized, surfactant-depleted rabbits were mechanically ventilated (FiO2 = 0.8, PEEP = 7cmH2O) and randomized into three groups: Normoventilation-Normocapnia (NN)-group: tidal volume (Vt) = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 40 mmHg; Normoventilation-Hypercapnia (NH)-group: Vt = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg by increasing FiCO2; and a Hypoventilation-Hypercapnia (HH)-group: Vt = 4.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg. Plasma lactate and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured every 2 h. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h to perform bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), to measure lung wet-to-dry weight, lung tissue IL-8, and to obtain lung histology. Results PaO2 was significantly higher in the HH-group compared to the NN-group (p<0.05), with values of the NH-group between the HH- and NN-groups. Other markers of lung injury (wet-dry-weight, BAL-Protein, histology-score, plasma-IL-8 and lung tissue IL-8) resulted in significantly lower values for the HH-group compared to the NN-group and trends for the NH-group towards lower values compared to the NN-group. Lactate was significantly lower in both hypercapnia groups compared to the NN-group. Conclusion Whereas hypercapnic acidosis may have some beneficial effects, a significant effect on lung injury and systemic inflammatory response is dependent upon a lower tidal volume rather than resultant arterial CO2 tensions and pH alone. PMID:26840779

  13. Improved packing of protein side chains with parallel ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The accurate packing of protein side chains is important for many computational biology problems, such as ab initio protein structure prediction, homology modelling, and protein design and ligand docking applications. Many of existing solutions are modelled as a computational optimisation problem. As well as the design of search algorithms, most solutions suffer from an inaccurate energy function for judging whether a prediction is good or bad. Even if the search has found the lowest energy, there is no certainty of obtaining the protein structures with correct side chains. Methods We present a side-chain modelling method, pacoPacker, which uses a parallel ant colony optimisation strategy based on sharing a single pheromone matrix. This parallel approach combines different sources of energy functions and generates protein side-chain conformations with the lowest energies jointly determined by the various energy functions. We further optimised the selected rotamers to construct subrotamer by rotamer minimisation, which reasonably improved the discreteness of the rotamer library. Results We focused on improving the accuracy of side-chain conformation prediction. For a testing set of 442 proteins, 87.19% of X1 and 77.11% of X12 angles were predicted correctly within 40° of the X-ray positions. We compared the accuracy of pacoPacker with state-of-the-art methods, such as CIS-RR and SCWRL4. We analysed the results from different perspectives, in terms of protein chain and individual residues. In this comprehensive benchmark testing, 51.5% of proteins within a length of 400 amino acids predicted by pacoPacker were superior to the results of CIS-RR and SCWRL4 simultaneously. Finally, we also showed the advantage of using the subrotamers strategy. All results confirmed that our parallel approach is competitive to state-of-the-art solutions for packing side chains. Conclusions This parallel approach combines various sources of searching intelligence and energy

  14. Predictors of nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Corda, Luciano; Novali, Mauro; Montemurro, Luigi Taranto; La Piana, Giuseppe Emanuele; Redolfi, Stefania; Braghini, Alessia; Modina, Denise; Pini, Laura; Tantucci, Claudio

    2011-12-15

    It would be useful to detect predictors of marked nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation (NOD) among COPD patients, who do not have respiratory failure when awake and sleep apnea (SA). Stable COPD patients with awake Pa(O2) ≥ 60 mmHg and Pa(CO2) ≤ 45 mmHg underwent cardio-respiratory polysomnography to exclude SA and to assess NOD. The patients that spent more than 30% of night time with Sp(O2) < 90%, were defined desaturators (D), and the others non desaturators (ND). Pulmonary function testing was performed to determine lung volumes, maximal flow rates, lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (P(Imax) and P(Emax)). Negative expiratory pressure test was performed to assess tidal expiratory flow limitation. Supine pharyngometry was performed to determine upper airway size, shuttle walking test to assess exercise desaturation. Twenty-one patients were included in the study (18 male, age 66.0±7.2 years, Body Mass Index 25.9±4.4 kg/m(2), FEV(1) 47.2±16.4% pred., Pa(O2) 74.7±6.9 mmHg, Pa(CO2) 40.3±3.4 mmHg): 10 were D and 11 ND. Significant differences between the two groups were found in diurnal Pa(CO2) (D: 42.4±3.0 vs. ND: 38.3±2.6mmHg; p<0.01), diurnal Sp(O2) (D: 94.0±1.5 vs. ND: 95.9±0.9%; p<0.01), inspiratory capacity (IC) (D: 69.6±11.9 vs. ND: 87.0±17.7% pred.; p<0.05), and oro-pharyngeal junction area (OPJ) (D: 0.8±0.2 vs. ND: 1.2±0.3 cm(2); p<0.01). Among parameters related to marked NOD at the univariate analysis, [Formula: see text] and OPJ remained as independent predictors after stepwise multiple regression analysis. These findings indicate that previously unrecognized factors such as smaller upper airway caliber and lung dynamic hyperinflation are associated with marked NOD in stable COPD patients without daytime respiratory failure and SA. PMID:21864725

  15. Measurement of cardiac output by carbon dioxide rebreathing methods.

    PubMed

    Heigenhauser, G J; Jones, N L

    1989-06-01

    Cardiac output may be measured noninvasively by applying the Fick principle to CO2; CO2 output is measured by expired gas analysis and the veno-arterial CO2 content difference is obtained from estimates of PVCO2 and PaCO2. PVCO2 is determined using the lung as a tonometer for the equilibration of CO2; two main methods are available. In the Defares or exponential method, a low concentration of CO2 is initially rebreathed. Complete equilibration is not reached between the lung and rebreathing bag and the PvCO2 is calculated as the asymptote of the exponential rise in PETCO2 during rebreathing and prior to recirculation. Even though several mathematical methods can be used to calculate PvCO2, the most precise is an iterative statistical analysis to obtain the best-fit curve for PETCO2 with time, from which PvCO2 is obtained from PETCO2 at 20 seconds after the start of rebreathing. In the Collier or equilibrium method, a bag having CO2 concentration higher than PvCO2 is rebreathed. If an appropriate initial bag volume CO2 has been selected, equilibration will occur in the lung-bag system, recognized as a plateau in the PCO2 rebreathing record. If a plateau is not obtained, PvCO2 can be estimated by extrapolating the line joining the points of expired PCO2 during the 8th and 12th seconds of rebreathing to that of the 20th second. With the equilibrium method, the plateau PCO2 is systematically higher than PvCO2 (downstream effect) and a correction is applied to obtain PvCO2. PaCO2 can be estimated from PETCO2 or from the mixed-expired PCO2 and an assumed physiologic dead space, except in patients with abnormal lung function, in whom PaCO2 must be measured directly. The content of CO2 in blood may be calculated from PCO2 by the equation: In(CCO2) = [0.396 X In(PCO2)] + 2.38 More complex algorithms are available to calculate CCO2 if the pH, hemoglobin, and arterial O2 saturation are widely divergent from resting values. The indirect Fick method applied to CO2 during

  16. The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those

  17. Changes of Arterial Blood Gases After Different Ranges of Surgical Lung Resection

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years there has been increase in the number of patients who need thoracic surgery – first of all different types of pulmonary resection because of primary bronchial cancer, and very often among patients whose lung function is impaired due to different degree of bronchial obstruction so it is necessary to assess functional status before and after lung surgery to avoid the development of respiratory insufficiency. Objective: To show the changes in the level of arterial blood gases after various ranges of lung resection. Material and methods: The study was done on 71 patients surgically treated at the Clinic for Thoracic Surgery KCU Sarajevo, who were previously treated at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01. 06. 2009. to 01. 09. 2011. Different types of lung resection were made. Patients whose percentage of ppoFEV1 was (prognosed postoperative FEV1) was less than 30% of normal values of FEV1 for that patients were not given a permission for lung resection. We monitored the changes in levels-partial pressures of blood gases (PaO2, PaCO2 and SaO2) one and two months after resection and compared them to preoperative values. As there were no significant differences between the values obtained one and two months after surgery, in the results we showed arterial blood gas analysis obtained two months after surgical resection. Results were statistically analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft Office Excel. Statistical significance was determined at an interval of 95%. Results: In 59 patients (83%) there was an increase, and in 12 patients (17%) there was a decrease of PaO2, compared to preoperative values. In 58 patients (82%) there was a decrease, and in 13 patients (18%) there was an increase in PaCO2, compared to preoperative values. For all subjects (group as whole): The value of the PaO2 was significantly increased after lung surgery compared to preoperative values (p <0.05) so is the value of the SaO2%. The value

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Combined Extracorporeal Co2 Removal and Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Acute Kidney Injury: The Pulmonary and Renal Support in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Study*

    PubMed Central

    Castanier, Matthias; Signouret, Thomas; Soundaravelou, Rettinavelou; Lepidi, Anne; Seghboyan, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of combining extracorporeal Co2 removal with continuous renal replacement therapy in patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury. Design: Prospective human observational study. Settings: Patients received volume-controlled mechanical ventilation according to the acute respiratory distress syndrome net protocol. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration therapy was titrated to maintain maximum blood flow and an effluent flow of 45 mL/kg/h with 33% predilution. Patients: Eleven patients presenting with both acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury required renal replacement therapy. Interventions: A membrane oxygenator (0.65 m2) was inserted within the hemofiltration circuit, either upstream (n = 7) or downstream (n = 5) of the hemofilter. Baseline corresponded to tidal volume 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight without extracorporeal Co2 removal. The primary endpoint was 20% reduction in Paco2 at 20 minutes after extracorporeal Co2 removal initiation. Tidal volume was subsequently reduced to 4 mL/kg for the remaining 72 hours. Measurements and Main Results: Twelve combined therapies were conducted in the 11 patients. Age was 70 ± 9 years, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 69 ± 13, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 14 ± 4, lung injury score was 3 ± 0.5, and Pao2/Fio2 was 135 ± 41. Adding extracorporeal Co2 removal at tidal volume 6 mL/kg decreased Paco2 by 21% (95% CI, 17–25%), from 47 ± 11 to 37 ± 8 Torr (p < 0.001). Lowering tidal volume to 4 mL/kg reduced minute ventilation from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 5.2 ± 1.1 L/min and plateau pressure from 25 ± 4 to 21 ± 3 cm H2O and raised Paco2 from 37 ± 8 to 48 ± 10 Torr (all p < 0.001). On an average of both positions, the oxygenator’s blood flow was 410 ± 30 mL/min and the Co2 removal rate was 83 ± 20 mL/min. The oxygenator blood flow (p <0.001) and the Co2 removal rate (p = 0.083) were higher when

  19. Effect of ABT-627 (A-147627), a potent selective ETA receptor antagonist, on the cardiopulmonary profile of newborn lambs with surgically-induced diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Mélanie; Battistini, Bruno; Jean, Sonia; Crochetière, Josiane; Fournier, Louis; Wessale, Jerry; Opgenorth, Terry J; Cloutier, Raymond; Major, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Postnatal mortality in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is mainly related to the associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to right-to-left shunting. Endothelins (ETs) are potent vasoconstrictors and pro-mitogenic peptides. Strong evidences support their participation in CDH and in the etiology of PH via the activation of ETA receptors (ETA-Rs). Evaluation of the effect of ABT-627, a selective non-peptidic ETA-R antagonist, given from −15 to 210 min post-delivery (1 mg kg−1 bolus +0.01 mg kg−1 h−1 infusion, i.v.), was conducted in the lamb model of CDH. Severity of CDH was assessed in comparison to untreated controls (n=5). Untreated CDH lambs (n=7) had a higher mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP; P<0.0001), lower mean blood pressure (MBP; P=0.0004), higher MPAP / MBP ratio (P<0.0001), lower arterial pH (P<0.0001), higher paCO2 (P<0.0001), lower paO2 (P<0.0001) and lower post-ductal pulsatile SaO2 (P<0.0001) than untreated controls. Treated controls (n=7) showed a higher MPAP, lower MBP, higher MPAP/MBP ratio, lower arterial pH, higher paCO2, lower paO2, lower post-ductal pulsatile SaO2 and lower plasmatic ir-ET ratios compared to untreated controls (P<0.0001). Treated CDH lambs (n=8) showed a higher MBP (P<0.0001), lower MPAP / MBP ratio (P<0.0001), higher arterial pH (P<0.0001), lower paCO2 (P<0.0001), higher paO2 (P=0.0228), higher post-ductal pulsatile SaO2 (P=0.0016) and lower plasmatic ir-ET ratios (P=0.0247) when compared to untreated CDH lambs. These observations revealed that, although acute perinatal treatment with a selective non-peptidic ETA-R antagonist had some adverse effects in controls, it attenuated the progressive cardiopulmonary deterioration that occurred after birth in CDH lambs. PMID:11739244

  20. [The clinical and microbiological comparison of the use of heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchanger filters with Booster in mechanically ventilated patients].

    PubMed

    Nadir Oziş, Türkan; Ozcan Kanat, Derya; Oğuzülgen, Ipek Kivilcim; Aydoğdu, Müge; Hizel, Kenan; Gürsel, Gül

    2009-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units that is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, hospitalization and increased health-care costs. Various humidifiers can be used for humidification during mechanical ventilation. Many studies were conducted to identify the effects of two different humidifiers, i.e. heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchanger filters (HME), on VAP development; and HME filters were found to decrease the VAP frequency. In this study we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of heated humidifiers and HME-Booster. Heated humidifier with conventional microbiologic filter (CMF-HH) or HME-Booster were used in randomization to 41 mechanically ventilated patients of our intensive care unit, and patients were divided into two groups as group 1 receiving CMF-HH (20 patients) and group 2 (21 patients) receiving HME-Booster. Daily secretion scores, endotracheal tube occlusion due to secretions, VAP development rate for the assessment of microbiological safety of humidifiers and differences in PETCO(2) and PaCO(2) values for the assessment of their effect on arterial blood gas were recorded prospectively. The measurement of PETCO(2) and PaCO(2) values were performed with the presence of humidifiers and after removing them in both groups. In both groups with the removal of CMF-HH and HME-Booster, a decrease in PETCO(2) value was identified, but the decrease in group 2 was statistically significant (p= 0.016). The decrease in PaCO(2) after removal of humidifiers was greater in group 2 than in group 1, but the difference was not significant (p> 0.05).The rate of VAP and endotracheal tube occlusion was not significantly different between the groups. The mean secretion score was lower in group 1 (p= 0.041). In conclusion, although both humidifiers have similar microbiological effects, heated humidifiers could be preferred particularly for the patients with an underlying chronic

  1. [The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Includes bibliographies and index].

    PubMed

    Ito, Eiki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Board of Directors published the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition (ICSD -3) in 2014. In the 3rd edition, the most drastic change in the content was the unity of secondary insomnia categories into single "chronic insomnia" category. In the central disorders of hypersomnolence section, the nomenclature for narcolepsy was changed to narcolepsy type 1 and type 2. In the sleep related breathing disorder section, several new diagnostic categories were added, and diagnosis of a sleep related hypoventilation disorder was set to require the confirmation of elevated PaCO2. This manuscript overviews the differences and the similarities in the content between the ICSD-3 and the former edition.

  2. The upper airway in sleep-disordered breathing: UA in SDB.

    PubMed

    Taranto Montemurro, L; Kasai, T

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a common condition and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the pathogenesis of SDB remains to be elucidated. In general, SDB is divided into two forms, obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). OSA results from the sleep-related collapse of the upper airway (UA) in association with multiple factors like race, gender, obesity and UA dimensions. CSA primarily results from a fall in PaCO2 to a level below the apnea threshold during sleep through the reflex inhibition of central respiratory drive. It has been reported that UA alterations (i.e., collapse or dilation) can be observed in CSA. This review highlights the roles of the UA in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of SDB. PMID:24572450

  3. Vocal Cord Paralysis and Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in a Patient with Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pıhtılı, Aylin; Bingol, Züleyha; Durmuş, Hacer; Parman, Yeşim; Kıyan, Esen

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a patient case with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) who presented with vocal cord paralysis (VCP). A 60-year-old man with FAP (Gly89Gln) presented with hoarseness and snoring for the previous two years. A chest X-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly and bilateral diaphragmatic elevation. The findings of a restrictive pattern on spirometry and daytime hypercapnia were consistent with respiratory muscle weakness related to neuropathy [forced expiratory volume (FEV1): 38%, forced vital capacity (FVC): 39%, FEV1/FVC: 77, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2): 80 mmHg, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2): 52 mmHg]. An ear-nose-throat examination showed VCP. Polysomnography revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). FAP may cause OSA by VCP and hypercapnic respiratory failure by respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, an ear-nose-throat examination, spirometry, arterial blood gases analysis and polysomnography are important for these patients.

  4. Unusual case of acute tracheal injury complicated by application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP).

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Asif Masroor; Mbarushimana, Simon; Faheem, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Blunt neck trauma can be caused by a variety of injuries such as deceleration, road traffic accidents and crush injuries. The worst scenario is airway rupture. We report an unusual case of acute tracheal injury in a 34-year-old Irish man who presented with a history of strangulation while working with a tractor. On arrival, he had one episode of mild haemoptysis and reported pain around the base of the neck and voice hoarseness. His chest X-ray revealed pneumopericardium and CT of thorax showed airway oedema. After elective intubation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H2O caused deterioration in his clinical condition with increasing surgical emphysema and rise of carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), which was completely reversed after stopping PEEP. This case shows how PEEP and intermittent positive pressure ventilation can worsen air leak and compromise stability in patients with acute tracheal injury. PMID:25398917

  5. Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.

    PubMed

    Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge. PMID:25518800

  6. Standardized Postnatal Management of Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in Europe: The CDH EURO Consortium Consensus - 2015 Update.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Kitty G; Reiss, Irwin K M; Greenough, Anne; Capolupo, Irma; Urlesberger, Berndt; Wessel, Lucas; Storme, Laurent; Deprest, Jan; Schaible, Thomas; van Heijst, Arno; Tibboel, Dick

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) EURO Consortium published a standardized neonatal treatment protocol. Five years later, the number of participating centers has been raised from 13 to 22. In this article the relevant literature is updated, and consensus has been reached between the members of the CDH EURO Consortium. Key updated recommendations are: (1) planned delivery after a gestational age of 39 weeks in a high-volume tertiary center; (2) neuromuscular blocking agents to be avoided during initial treatment in the delivery room; (3) adapt treatment to reach a preductal saturation of between 80 and 95% and postductal saturation >70%; (4) target PaCO2 to be between 50 and 70 mm Hg; (5) conventional mechanical ventilation to be the optimal initial ventilation strategy, and (6) intravenous sildenafil to be considered in CDH patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. This article represents the current opinion of all consortium members in Europe for the optimal neonatal treatment of CDH. PMID:27077664

  7. Pulmonary function in mechanically-ventilated patients during 24-hour use of a hygroscopic condensor humidifier.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R; Anderson, H R; Silver, R M; Schuler, F R; Coleman, R E

    1983-11-01

    Hygroscopic condensor humidifiers (HCH) are reportedly capable of humidifying even the driest of ventilator source gases with at least 30 mg H2O/liter of ventilation. To assess the adequacy of the HCH during mechanical ventilation, we studied 26 patients over a 72-hour period (alternating 24-hour periods of humidification by a conventional cascade and the HCH). In these patients, we found no significant difference in static lung compliance, airway resistance, PaO2, and PaCO2 on either system. Additionally, estimates of sputum volume (over a four-hour collection period) and clearance of aerosolized 99mTc labelled DTPA (in five of these patients) also showed no significant differences between the two systems. We conclude that the HCH is capable of supplying necessary heat and moisture to most mechanically-ventilated patients for at least a period of 24 hours.

  8. Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.

    PubMed

    Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge.

  9. Pseudocospeciation of the mycoparasite Cosmospora with their fungal hosts.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Cesar S; Hirooka, Yuuri; Chaverri, Priscila

    2016-03-01

    Species of Cosmospora are parasites of other fungi (mycoparasites), including species belonging to the Xylariales. Based on prior taxonomic work, these fungi were determined to be highly host specific. We suspected that the association of Cosmospora and their hosts could not be a result of random chance, and tested the cospeciation of Cosmospora and the their hosts with contemporary methods (e.g., ParaFit, PACo, and Jane). The cophylogeny of Cosmospora and their hosts was found to be congruent, but only host-parasite links in more recent evolutionary lineages of the host were determined as coevolutionary. Reconciliation reconstructions determined at least five host-switch events early in the evolution of Cosmospora. Additionally, the rates of evolution between Cosmospora and their hosts were unequal. This pattern is more likely to be explained by pseudocospeciation (i.e., host switches followed by cospeciation), which also produces congruent cophylogenies. PMID:27087926

  10. Arterial blood gases, pulmonary function and pathology in rats exposed to 0. 75 or 1. 0 ppM ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.

    1980-06-01

    Arterial blood gases, residual lung volume (RV), deflation pressure volume (PV) curves, pulmonary pathology and body weight changes were studied in rats exposed up to 14 days to either 0.75 or 1.0 ppM ozone. Arterial PO2 and body weights decreased progressively with length of exposure while PaCO2 and RV increased. The slope of the PV curve decreased in all groups exposed to ozone. Pathological changes in the lung increased in severity with concentration and length of exposure. The present findings have shown that arterial blood gas measurements represent a sensitive index of altered lung function in rats, a species very sensitive to ozone exposure.

  11. Total parenteral nutrition-induced cyclic hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Jannace, P W; Lerman, R H; Dennis, R C; Aalyson, M; Yeston, N S

    1988-07-01

    Excessive rates of carbohydrate infusion during total parenteral nutrition (TPN) have been reported to cause hypercapnia leading to respiratory failure or inability to wean from a ventilator. This case history illustrates the hitherto unreported syndrome of cyclic hypercapnia resulting from high rates of carbohydrate infusion during peak TPN flow rates when TPN was provided in a cyclic fashion. The patient was given TPN daily over an 18 1/2-h period followed by 5 1/2 h without nutritional support. Elevated CO2 production, increased respiratory quotient, hypercapnia, and inability to wean from a ventilator occurred during peak cycle TPN flow rates. When the same carbohydrate load was infused continuously over a 24-h period, CO2 production, respiratory quotient and PaCO2 were reduced. The patient was then able to tolerate periods of unassisted ventilation.

  12. Diurnal hypercapnia in patients with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2010-03-01

    Subjects with progressive neuromuscular diseases undergo a typical sequence of respiratory compromise, leading from normal unassisted gas exchange to nocturnal hypoventilation with normal daytime gas exchange, and eventually to respiratory failure requiring continuous ventilatory support. Several different abnormalities in respiratory pump function have been described to explain the development of respiratory failure in subjects with neuromuscular weakness. Early in the progression of respiratory failure, the use of nocturnal assisted ventilation can reverse both night- and day-time hypercapnia. Eventually, however, diurnal hypercapnia will persist despite correction of nocturnal hypoventilation. The likely beneficial effects of mechanical ventilatory support include resting fatigue-prone respiratory muscles and resetting of the central chemoreceptors to PaCO(2). Recent experience shows that select patients who require daytime ventilation can be supported with non-invasive ventilation continuously to correct gas exchange abnormalities while avoiding detrimental aspects of tracheostomy placement.

  13. The upper airway in sleep-disordered breathing: UA in SDB.

    PubMed

    Taranto Montemurro, L; Kasai, T

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a common condition and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the pathogenesis of SDB remains to be elucidated. In general, SDB is divided into two forms, obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). OSA results from the sleep-related collapse of the upper airway (UA) in association with multiple factors like race, gender, obesity and UA dimensions. CSA primarily results from a fall in PaCO2 to a level below the apnea threshold during sleep through the reflex inhibition of central respiratory drive. It has been reported that UA alterations (i.e., collapse or dilation) can be observed in CSA. This review highlights the roles of the UA in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of SDB.

  14. Fascioliasis of livestock and snail host for Fasciola in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Arandia, R; Morales, G; Medina, G

    1975-01-01

    Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica was a serious problem for sheep and alpacas in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia. In some provinces close to Lake Titicaca, the raising of sheep was forced to discontinue, because infection with the fluke made it unprofitable and almost impossible. It was proved that in the Altiplano Region, two species of freshwater snails, Lymnaea viatrix and L. cubensis var., served as intermediate hosts for F. hepatica. In some subtropical areas of Bolivia, these snails could not be found, although other Lymnaea sp. was widely distributed there. As it is possible for Lymnaea sp. to be intermediate host for the fluke, further studies are required on the identification. Acute fascioliasis of sheep occurred in the Altiplano Region principally during a period from May to July, or the dry season. In some areas, the mortality rate of infected sheep was roughly estimated as 15 to 25% annually. Contamination with Fasciola metacercariae of herbage and semi-aquatic plants grown in a swamp in one of these areas was biologically assessed, using guinea pigs. Plants of Compositae and Eleocharis sp. were contaminated most intensely and those of Senicio sp. and Vallisneria sp. carried a fairly large number of cysts, while plants of Scirpus sp. and Ranunclaceae carried only a few cysts. No signs of Fasciola infection were observed in any animal given the plants of Liliaceae.

  15. From single nucleotide substitutions up to chromosomal deletions: genetic pause of leucism-associated disorders in animals.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Katharina; Erhardt, Georg; Lühken, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Leucism is characterized by a complete or partial white skin and hair in combination with pigmented irides, which can be vivid blue or heterochromatic. This is due to a complete or partial lack of melanocytes. The underlying pathogenesis is a disturbed emigration or differentiation of neural crest-derived cells. Therefore, leucistic phenotypes can be associated with defects, which mainly impair sensory organs and nerves. In humans, a well-known example is the Waardenburg syndrome. Leucism-associated disorders were also described in mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, mink, cat, dog, pig, sheep, llama, alpaca, cattle and horse. In some of these species already identified causal mutations affect the genes EDN3, EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3, SILV and SOX10. Defect alleles represent different types of genetic variation, ranging from single nucleotide substitutions up to larger chromosomal deletions. Some of the defect alleles produce desired coat color patterns. In some but not all cases, available genetic tests enable breeders to avoid production of animals affected by a leucism-associated disorder. PMID:27529988

  16. Endoparasites of exotic ungulates from the Giraffidae and Camelidae families kept ex situ.

    PubMed

    Nosal, Paweł; Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wyrobisz, Anna; Skotnicki, Józef; Basiaga, Marta; Plucińska, Natalia E

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes and camels are popular attractions at zoological gardens. In order to present the diversity of parasites infecting exotic ungulates from zoos, faecal samples from three giraffes and six camels from both the Silesian Zoological Garden in Chorzów, and Kraków Zoological Garden, were examined. The research was carried out over a ten-month period in 2013 and 2014. In total, 100 faecal samples from 18 animals were analysed with the use of the McMaster method. Moreover, coccidian oocysts were incubated to investigate their development and larvoscopic examination was conducted to detect the presence of nematode species. Giraffes were infected with coccidia from the genus Eimeria, and gastrointestinal nematodes from the Strongylida order, and Trichuris and Aonhotheca genera. One male giraffe was uninfected. The level of infection in giraffes was low when compared to camels kept in both of the zoos. Limited contact with other animal species contributed greatly to the lower level of infection in camels from Kraków Zoo than those from Chorzów, which were kept in the same enclosure as alpacas and Shetland ponies.

  17. A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of aflatoxins based on a VHH surrogate standard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wen

    2016-09-01

    A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxins was developed using an anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 as surrogate standard. Anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 was generated by immunizing an alpaca with anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibody 1C11. This assay was used to detect aflatoxins in agro-products after a simple extraction with 75 % methanol/H2O. Aflatoxin concentration was calculated by a two-step approach: the concentration of VHH 2-5 was first obtained by a four-parameter logistic regression from the detected absorbance value at 450 nm, and then converted to aflatoxin concentration by a linear equation. The assay exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.015 ng mL(-1), which is better than or comparable with conventional immunoassays. The performance of our VHH surrogate-based ELISA was further validated with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for total aflatoxins determination in 20 naturally contaminated peanut samples, displaying a good correlation (R (2) = 0.988). In conclusion, the proposed assay represents a first example applying an anti-idiotype VHH antibody as a standard surrogate in ELISA. With the advantages of high stability and ease of production, the VHH antibody-based standard surrogate can be extended in the future to immunoassays for other highly toxic compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. A novel nanobody specific for respiratory surfactant protein A has potential for lung targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-Mei; He, Xian; Li, Nan; Yu, Feng; Hu, Yang; Wang, Liu-Sheng; Zhang, Peng; Du, Yu-Kui; Du, Shan-Shan; Yin, Zhao-Fang; Wei, Ya-Ru; Mulet, Xavier; Coia, Greg; Weng, Dong; He, Jian-Hua; Wu, Min; Li, Hui-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lung-targeting drugs are thought to be potential therapies of refractory lung diseases by maximizing local drug concentrations in the lung to avoid systemic circulation. However, a major limitation in developing lung-targeted drugs is the acquirement of lung-specific ligands. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA) is predominantly synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and may serve as a potential lung-targeting ligand. Here, we generated recombinant rat pulmonary SPA (rSPA) as an antigen and immunized an alpaca to produce two nanobodies (the smallest naturally occurring antibodies) specific for rSPA, designated Nb6 and Nb17. To assess these nanobodies’ potential for lung targeting, we evaluated their specificity to lung tissue and toxicity in mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that these anti-rSPA nanobodies selectively bound to rat lungs with high affinity. Furthermore, we intravenously injected fluorescein isothiocyanate-Nb17 in nude mice and observed its preferential accumulation in the lung to other tissues, suggesting high affinity of the nanobody for the lung. Studying acute and chronic toxicity of Nb17 revealed its safety in rats without causing apparent histological alterations. Collectively, we have generated and characterized lung-specific nanobodies, which may be applicable for lung drug delivery. PMID:25926731

  19. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3' UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  20. Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

    2008-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections. PMID:18987224

  1. Episodic molecular evolution of pituitary growth hormone in Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Maniou, Zoitsa; Wallis, O Caryl; Wallis, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The sequence of growth hormone (GH) is generally strongly conserved in mammals, but episodes of rapid change occurred during the evolution of primates and artiodactyls, when the rate of GH evolution apparently increased substantially. As a result the sequences of higher primate and ruminant GHs differ markedly from sequences of other mammalian GHs. In order to increase knowledge of GH evolution in Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla plus Cetacea) we have cloned and characterized GH genes from camel (Camelus dromedarius), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), using genomic DNA and a polymerase chain reaction technique. As in other mammals, these GH genes comprise five exons and four introns. Two very similar GH gene sequences (encoding identical proteins) were found in each of hippopotamus and giraffe. The deduced sequence for the mature hippopotamus GH is identical to that of dolphin, in accord with current ideas of a close relationship between Cetacea and Hippopotamidae. The sequence of camel GH is identical to that reported previously for alpaca GH. The sequence of giraffe GH is very similar to that of other ruminants but differs from that of nonruminant cetartiodactyls at about 18 residues. The results demonstrate that the apparent burst of rapid evolution of GH occurred largely after the separation of the line leading to ruminants from other cetartiodactyls. PMID:15461431

  2. Masticatory motor pattern in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a comparison of jaw movements in marsupial and placental herbivores.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Alfred Walter; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Skinner, Jayne

    2010-11-01

    Do closely related marsupial herbivores (Diprotodontia) conserve a common masticatory motor pattern or are motor patterns linked to the structure and function of the masticatory apparatus? We recorded the sequence and duration of activity of the individual jaw closing muscles during rhythmic chewing in koalas and then compared their motor pattern with that of their closest extant relatives, wombats, and their more distant marsupial relatives, macropodoids. These three lineages prove to have fundamentally different motor patterns and jaw movements during mastication. Each motor pattern represents independent modifications of an earlier motor pattern that was probably present in an ancestral diprotodontian. We show that koalas evolved a motor program that is in many aspects similar to that of placental herbivores with a fused mandibular symphysis (artiodactyls, perissodactyls, and higher primates) and almost identical to one artiodactyl, viz. alpacas. Anatomically, koalas are convergent on placental herbivores because they lost the inflected mandibular angle and large external part of the medial pterygoid muscle characteristic of other marsupials. We support the view that many different motor programs evolved for the control of transverse jaw movements, but identical motor programs for the control of transverse jaw movements can evolve independently in distantly related taxa. PMID:20683866

  3. Genomic Data from Extinct North American Camelops Revise Camel Evolutionary History.

    PubMed

    Heintzman, Peter D; Zazula, Grant D; Cahill, James A; Reyes, Alberto V; MacPhee, Ross D E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. However, a number of enigmatic Quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for DNA preservation. Here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late Pleistocene western camel, Camelops cf. hesternus, a species that was distributed across central and western North America until its extinction approximately 13,000 years ago. Despite a modal sequence length of only around 35 base pairs, we reconstructed high-coverage complete mitochondrial genomes and low-coverage partial nuclear genomes for each specimen. We find that Camelops is sister to African and Asian bactrian and dromedary camels, to the exclusion of South American camelids (llamas, guanacos, alpacas, and vicuñas). These results contradict previous morphology-based phylogenetic models for Camelops, which suggest instead a closer relationship between Camelops and the South American camelids. The molecular data imply a Late Miocene divergence of the Camelops clade from lineages that separately gave rise to the extant camels of Eurasia. Our results demonstrate the increasing capacity of modern paleogenomic methods to resolve evolutionary relationships among distantly related lineages. PMID:26037535

  4. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3′ UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  5. Endoparasites of exotic ungulates from the Giraffidae and Camelidae families kept ex situ.

    PubMed

    Nosal, Paweł; Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wyrobisz, Anna; Skotnicki, Józef; Basiaga, Marta; Plucińska, Natalia E

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes and camels are popular attractions at zoological gardens. In order to present the diversity of parasites infecting exotic ungulates from zoos, faecal samples from three giraffes and six camels from both the Silesian Zoological Garden in Chorzów, and Kraków Zoological Garden, were examined. The research was carried out over a ten-month period in 2013 and 2014. In total, 100 faecal samples from 18 animals were analysed with the use of the McMaster method. Moreover, coccidian oocysts were incubated to investigate their development and larvoscopic examination was conducted to detect the presence of nematode species. Giraffes were infected with coccidia from the genus Eimeria, and gastrointestinal nematodes from the Strongylida order, and Trichuris and Aonhotheca genera. One male giraffe was uninfected. The level of infection in giraffes was low when compared to camels kept in both of the zoos. Limited contact with other animal species contributed greatly to the lower level of infection in camels from Kraków Zoo than those from Chorzów, which were kept in the same enclosure as alpacas and Shetland ponies. PMID:27262960

  6. Infectious diseases of New-World camelids (NWC).

    PubMed

    Thedford, T R; Johnson, L W

    1989-03-01

    Although there are notable infectious conditions that are capable of producing clinical disease in the NWC, overall, these species are quite healthy. Of the bacterial diseases, enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens types C and D would be deemed the most significant in North America, while type A also would be regarded as important in South America. Other important bacterial infections of potential concern are tuberculosis, Johne's disease, anthrax, malignant edema, actinomycosis, tetanus, and the South American condition referred to as alpaca fever, which, to date, has not been observed in North America. Fungal infections include classical ringworm, principally caused by Trichophyton spp., and the cases of coccidioidomycosis that are associated with the arid desert lands of the southwestern United States. Most notable of naturally occurring viral infections in the NWC would be rabies, ecthyma, and a recently described blindness neuropathy that has been associated with the equine herpesvirus I. NWC can be infected experimentally with agents causing hoof-and-mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis, but naturally occurring cases do not seem to occur. Serological evidence of exposure to many viral agents, including blue tongue, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus I, bovine viral diarrhea, influenza A, and rotavirus, has been demonstrated; however, no clinical disease associated with these agents, as yet, is apparent. PMID:2647231

  7. A Model-independent Photometric Redshift Estimator for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun

    2007-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as cosmological standard candles is fundamental in modern observational cosmology. In this Letter, we derive a simple empirical photometric redshift estimator for SNe Ia using a training set of SNe Ia with multiband (griz) light curves and spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This estimator is analytical and model-independent it does not use spectral templates. We use all the available SNe Ia from SNLS with near-maximum photometry in griz (a total of 40 SNe Ia) to train and test our photometric redshift estimator. The difference between the estimated redshifts zphot and the spectroscopic redshifts zspec, (zphot-zspec)/(1+zspec), has rms dispersions of 0.031 for 20 SNe Ia used in the training set, and 0.050 for 20 SNe Ia not used in the training set. The dispersion is of the same order of magnitude as the flux uncertainties at peak brightness for the SNe Ia. There are no outliers. This photometric redshift estimator should significantly enhance the ability of observers to accurately target high-redshift SNe Ia for spectroscopy in ongoing surveys. It will also dramatically boost the cosmological impact of very large future supernova surveys, such as those planned for the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe for Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Asteroids (ALPACA) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

  8. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  9. Effects of eye-glasses, hair, headgear, and clothing on measured head-related transfer functions Part Ib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, Klaus A. J.

    2003-10-01

    Extensive head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements show high HRTF repeatability, consequences of different measurement methods, and conditions covering the whole three-dimensional space [Riederer, J. Audio Eng. Soc. (Abstracts) 46, 1036 (1998), preprint 4846]. This study concentrates on specific effects on HRTFs carefully re-measured on the same Cortex dummy head applying Sennheiser KE4-211-2 microphones at its silicone putty blocked ear-canal entrances, employing 252 sound incidents including seven elevations. The effects of five different wigs (synthetic, natural, thick, thin, long and short hair) with varied hairstyles, four hats (cap, bicycle helmet, mens and womens trilby), clothes (alpaca pullover, bicycling drymax-jacket) and spectacles were investigated under 28 combinations. The influences are highly dependent on direction, frequency, and case. Clothes and eye-glasses affect minimally HRTF; hair has a stronger effect, depending on the actual hairdo (typically above 7 kHz). Hats alter intensively HRTFs (typically above 5 kHz), depending on the model. The measurements give deeper insight to the development of idiosyncratic features in binaural localization cues. The second part of the study addresses their perceptual effects [Riederer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue]. [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation; thanks to Finnish Broadcasting Company, Mr. Hellstrom; Mrs. Chen.

  10. A new survivin tracer tracks, delocalizes and captures endogenous survivin at different subcellular locations and in distinct organelles

    PubMed Central

    Beghein, Els; Van Audenhove, Isabel; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Verhelle, Adriaan; De Ganck, Ariane; Gettemans, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Survivin, the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, plays a central role during mitosis and exerts a cytoprotective function. Survivin is highly expressed in most cancer types and contributes to multiple facets of carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying its highly diverse functions need to be extensively explored, which is crucial for rational design of future personalized therapeutics. In this study, we have generated an alpaca survivin nanobody (SVVNb8) that binds with low nanomolar affinity to its target. When expressed as an intrabody in HeLa cells, SVVNb8 faithfully tracks survivin during different phases of mitosis without interfering with survivin function. Furthermore, coupling SVVNb8 with a subcellular delocalization tag efficiently redirects endogenous survivin towards the nucleus, the cytoplasm, peroxisomes and even to the intermembrane space of mitochondria where it presumably interacts with resident mitochondrial survivin. Based on our findings, we believe that SVVNb8 is an excellent instrument to further elucidate survivin biology and topography, and can serve as a model system to investigate mitochondrial and peroxisomal (survivin) protein import. PMID:27514728

  11. A single domain antibody fragment that recognizes the adaptor ASC defines the role of ASC domains in inflammasome assembly.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Florian I; Lu, Alvin; Chen, Jeff W; Ruan, Jianbin; Tang, Catherine; Wu, Hao; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2016-05-01

    Myeloid cells assemble inflammasomes in response to infection or cell damage; cytosolic sensors activate pro-caspase-1, indirectly for the most part, via the adaptors ASC and NLRC4. This leads to secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and pyroptosis. To explore complex formation under physiological conditions, we generated an alpaca single domain antibody, VHHASC, which specifically recognizes the CARD of human ASC via its type II interface. VHHASC not only impairs ASC(CARD) interactions in vitro, but also inhibits inflammasome activation in response to NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP triggers when expressed in living cells, highlighting a role of ASC in all three types of inflammasomes. VHHASC leaves the Pyrin domain of ASC functional and stabilizes a filamentous intermediate of inflammasome activation. Incorporation of VHHASC-EGFP into these structures allowed the visualization of endogenous ASC(PYD) filaments for the first time. These data revealed that cross-linking of ASC(PYD) filaments via ASC(CARD) mediates the assembly of ASC foci. PMID:27069117

  12. Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

    2008-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections.

  13. Masticatory motor pattern in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a comparison of jaw movements in marsupial and placental herbivores.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Alfred Walter; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Skinner, Jayne

    2010-11-01

    Do closely related marsupial herbivores (Diprotodontia) conserve a common masticatory motor pattern or are motor patterns linked to the structure and function of the masticatory apparatus? We recorded the sequence and duration of activity of the individual jaw closing muscles during rhythmic chewing in koalas and then compared their motor pattern with that of their closest extant relatives, wombats, and their more distant marsupial relatives, macropodoids. These three lineages prove to have fundamentally different motor patterns and jaw movements during mastication. Each motor pattern represents independent modifications of an earlier motor pattern that was probably present in an ancestral diprotodontian. We show that koalas evolved a motor program that is in many aspects similar to that of placental herbivores with a fused mandibular symphysis (artiodactyls, perissodactyls, and higher primates) and almost identical to one artiodactyl, viz. alpacas. Anatomically, koalas are convergent on placental herbivores because they lost the inflected mandibular angle and large external part of the medial pterygoid muscle characteristic of other marsupials. We support the view that many different motor programs evolved for the control of transverse jaw movements, but identical motor programs for the control of transverse jaw movements can evolve independently in distantly related taxa.

  14. Noninvasive imaging of immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Keliher, Edmund J.; Bilate, Angelina M.; Duarte, Joao N.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Jacobsen, Johanne Tracey; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Swee, Lee Kim; Victora, Gabriel D.; Weissleder, Ralph; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2015-01-01

    At their margins, tumors often contain neutrophils, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages, which express class II MHC and CD11b products. The interplay between stromal cells, tumor cells, and migratory cells such as lymphocytes creates opportunities for noninvasive imaging of immune responses. We developed alpaca-derived antibody fragments specific for mouse class II MHC and CD11b products, expressed on the surface of a variety of myeloid cells. We validated these reagents by flow cytometry and two-photon microscopy to obtain images at cellular resolution. To enable noninvasive imaging of the targeted cell populations, we developed a method to site-specifically label VHHs [the variable domain (VH) of a camelid heavy-chain only antibody] with 18F or 64Cu. Radiolabeled VHHs rapidly cleared the circulation (t1/2 ≈ 20 min) and clearly visualized lymphoid organs. We used VHHs to explore the possibility of imaging inflammation in both xenogeneic and syngeneic tumor models, which resulted in detection of tumors with remarkable specificity. We also imaged the infiltration of myeloid cells upon injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant. Both anti-class II MHC and anti-CD11b VHHs detected inflammation with excellent specificity. Given the ease of manufacture and labeling of VHHs, we believe that this method could transform the manner in which antitumor responses and/or infectious events may be tracked. PMID:25902531

  15. A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of aflatoxins based on a VHH surrogate standard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wen

    2016-09-01

    A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxins was developed using an anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 as surrogate standard. Anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 was generated by immunizing an alpaca with anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibody 1C11. This assay was used to detect aflatoxins in agro-products after a simple extraction with 75 % methanol/H2O. Aflatoxin concentration was calculated by a two-step approach: the concentration of VHH 2-5 was first obtained by a four-parameter logistic regression from the detected absorbance value at 450 nm, and then converted to aflatoxin concentration by a linear equation. The assay exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.015 ng mL(-1), which is better than or comparable with conventional immunoassays. The performance of our VHH surrogate-based ELISA was further validated with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for total aflatoxins determination in 20 naturally contaminated peanut samples, displaying a good correlation (R (2) = 0.988). In conclusion, the proposed assay represents a first example applying an anti-idiotype VHH antibody as a standard surrogate in ELISA. With the advantages of high stability and ease of production, the VHH antibody-based standard surrogate can be extended in the future to immunoassays for other highly toxic compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27002610

  16. Identification and characterization of species-specific nanobodies for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in milk.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhui; Chen, Qi; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Xu, Yang; Hu, Na; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-15

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM), one of the eight species belonging to the genus Listeria, is pathogenic for both humans and animals. In this study, two novel LM-specific clones, designated L5-78 and L5-79, were isolated from a phage display antibody library that was derived from the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) of non-immunized alpaca. These two clones were expressed, purified, and characterized. Results showed that both isolated VHHs recognize three serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b), which are responsible for more than 95% of documented human listeriosis cases. The recombinant VHHs possess high thermal stability, pH tolerance, and urea resistance. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the VHH clone L5-79 and a monoclonal antibody was developed to detect LM in pasteurized milk, with a detection limit of 1 × 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. These findings indicated that the species-specific VHHs could be directly isolated from the non-immunized library with a properly designed panning strategy and VHH could be a new source for possible diagnosis/detection of foodborne pathogens in food because it was shown to be highly specific and stable. PMID:26456330

  17. Heterologous Antigen Selection of Camelid Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies against Tetrabromobisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a ubiquitous flame retardant. A high-throughput immunoassay would allow for monitoring of human and environmental exposures as a part of risk assessment. Naturally occurring antibodies in camelids that are devoid of light chain, show great promise as an efficient tool in monitoring environmental contaminants, but they have been rarely used for small molecules. An alpaca was immunized with a TBBPA hapten coupled to thyroglobulin and a variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) T3–15 highly selective for TBBPA was isolated from a phage displayed VHH library using heterologous coating antigens. Compared to the VHHs isolated using homologous antigens, VHH T3–15 had about a 10-fold improvement in sensitivity in an immunoassay. This assay, under the optimized conditions of 10% methanol in the assay buffer (pH 7.4), had an IC50 for TBBPA of 0.40 ng mL–1 and negligible cross reactivity (<0.1%) with other tested analogues. After heating the VHH at 90 °C for 90 min about 20% of the affinity for coating antigen T3-BSA remained. The recoveries of TBBPA from spiked soil and fetal bovine serum samples ranged from 90.3% to 110.7% by ELISA and agreed well with a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. We conclude the many advantages of VHH make them attractive for the development of immunoassays to small molecules. PMID:25068372

  18. Dead space reduction by Kolobow's endotracheal tube does not justify the waiving of volume monitoring in small, ventilated lungs.

    PubMed

    Proquitté, Hans; Wendel, Rena; Roehr, Charles C; Wauer, Roland R; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2014-12-01

    In ventilated preterm infants the flow sensor contributes significantly to the total apparatus dead space, which may impair gas exchange. The aim of the study was to quantify to which extent a dead space reduced Kolobow tube (KB) without flow sensor improves the gas exchange compared with a conventional ventilator circuit with flow sensor [Babylog 8000 (BL)]. In a cross-over trial in 14 tracheotomized, surfactant-depleted (saline lavage) and mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (age <12 h; body weight 705-1200 g) BL and KB was applied alternately for 15 min and blood gases were recorded. The inner diameter of the endotracheal tube was 3.6 mm and the apparatus dead space of BL and KB including the endotracheal tube were 3.0 and 1.34 mL. Despite a 50 % apparatus dead space reduction with KB compared to BL statistically significant improvements were only observed for body weights <900 g. In this weight group median paCO2 was decreased by 5 mmHg (p < 0.01), whereas the improvement decreased with decreasing baseline paCO2. Furthermore, median paO2 was increased by 4 mmHg (p < 0.05) and O2 saturation was increased by 2.5 % (p < 0.05). No significant changes were seen in the circulatory parameters. In very small, ventilated lungs the use of KB improved the gas exchange; however, the improvement was moderate and does not justify the waiving of volume monitoring.

  19. Effects of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Horses Anesthetized with Total Intravenous Anesthesia Using Combination of Medetomidine, Lidocaine, Butorphanol and Propofol (MLBP-TIVA)

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; NAGARO, Tsukasa; SUDO, Kanako; ITAMI, Takaharu; UMAR, Mohammed Ahamed; MIYOSHI, Kenjirou; SANO, Tadashi; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33–35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27–30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114–123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28–29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19–21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO2 pressure [PaCO2]: 84–103 mmHg and arterial O2 pressure [PaO2]: 155–172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO2: 42–50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO2: 395–419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29–31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17–21 l /min, MABP: 111–123 mmHg, MPAP: 27–30 mmHg and MRAP: 15–16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrovascular Reactivity to Carbon Dioxide in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Renata F.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Henning, Erica C.; Nascimento, George C.; Tannús, Alberto; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension afflicts 25% of the general population and over 50% of the elderly. In the present work, arterial spin labeling MRI was used to non-invasively quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance and CO2 reactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), at two different ages (3 months and 10 months) and under the effects of two anesthetics, α-chloralose and 2% isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Repeated CBF measurements were highly consistent, differing by less than 10% and 18% within and across animals, respectively. Under α-chloralose, whole brain CBF at normocapnia did not differ between groups (young WKY: 61±3ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 62±4ml/100g/min; young SHR: 70±9ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 69±8ml/100g/min), indicating normal cerebral autoregulation in SHR. At hypercapnia, CBF values increased significantly, and a linear relationship between CBF and PaCO2 levels was observed. In contrast, 2% isoflurane impaired cerebral autoregulation. Whole brain CBF in SHR was significantly higher than in WKY rats at normocapnia (young SHR: 139±25ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 104±23ml/100g/min; young WKY: 55±9ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 71±19ml/100g/min). CBF values increased significantly with increasing CO2; however, there was a clear saturation of CBF at PaCO2 levels greater than 70 mmHg in both young and adult rats, regardless of absolute CBF values, suggesting that isoflurane interferes with the vasodilatory mechanisms of CO2. This behavior was observed for both cortical and subcortical structures. Under either anesthetic, CO2 reactivity values in adult SHR were decreased, confirming that hypertension, when combined with age, increases cerebrovascular resistance and reduces cerebrovascular compliance. PMID:21708273

  1. Chronic effort dyspnea explained by lung function tests and by HRCT and CRX radiographic patterns in COPD: a post-hoc analysis in 51 patients.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Carlo; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Maluccio, Nazzarena Maria; Mariani, Laura; Lavorini, Federico; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a post-hoc analysis of a previous study performed to investigate the relationship between computerized tomography (CT) and lung function in 51 outpatients with mild-to-moderate COPD. We studied whether changes in lung function and radiographic patterns may help to explain dyspnea, the most disturbing symptom in patients with COPD. The Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale shows, by univariate analysis, a similar strength of association to CT expiratory lung density and to DL(CO), a functional index of lung parenchymal loss. The MRC dyspnea scale shows a somewhat less strength of association with a small vertical heart on plain chest films. In multivariate analysis, the model with the strongest association to the MRC dyspnea scale (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) contains 4 explanatory variables (DL(CO), FRC, PaCO(2), and radiographic pattern of pulmonary hypertension). We suggest that diffusing capacity reflects the emphysematous component of hyperinflation, associated by definition with destruction of terminal airspace walls, as distinct from the air trapping component, which is ascribed to airway obstruction and associated with FRC. PaCO(2) mainly reflects the ventilatory components, i.e., ventilatory drive and ventilatory constraints, of pulmonary gas exchange in COPD, while radiographic pattern of pulmonary hypertension likely reflects hypoxic vascular changes, which depend mainly on ventilation/perfusion mismatch and give rise to pulmonary arterial hypertension that may contribute per se to dyspnea. In conclusion, our analysis points out that chronic effort dyspnea variance may account for up to 58% (r(2) = 0.58) by lung function tests and radiographic patterns. Thus, about 42% of the MRC dyspnea variance remains unexplained by this model. On the other hand, dyspnea ascertainment is dependent on subjective behavior and evaluation and in tests is influenced by individual performance and perception. For example in the 6-minute walk test, a similar or

  2. Alveolar data in healthy, awake neonates during spontaneous ventilation: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Lagneaux, D; Mossay, C; Geubelle, F; Christiaens, G

    1988-01-01

    A computerized method for the measurement of alveolar ventilation (VA) and the mean alveolar partial pressures of CO2 and O2 is described and tested in healthy, awake fullterm (FT) newborns and preterm (PT) infants (postnatal age 40 days). This study emphasizes the technical pitfalls generally encountered when dealing with very small infants. A sensitive pneumotachograph with a small dead space volume and a low-flow sampling system for the gas analyzer are minimum requirements. Under these technical conditions, the major problem is the scanning time of the mass spectrometer (50 Hz), which fixes the time constant, as well as the digitization sampling rate of the gas signals. This rate was not sufficient when the respiratory rate was above 90 min-1. As critical visual evaluation of each breath is required, fully automatic access to mean alveolar data is not possible. The mean dead-space volume in both FT and PT infants was 2 ml.kg-1, with a VD/VT ratio of 0.3. The mean alveolar point was 2/3 VT, as found in adults. When expressed as ml.min-1.kg-1, VA appeared to be higher than in other studies, but related to the metabolic requirements. (VCO2 = 7.8 +/- 0.2 ml.min-1.kg-1 and VO2 = 8.0 +/- 0.2 ml.min-1.kg-1), in accordance with the state of vigilance of the neonates. Indeed, the PACO2 values, which depend on the ratio VCO2/VA, are in agreement with the values of PaCO2 generally considered normal in healthy newborns over 1 week of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3237450

  3. Physiological dead space and effective parabronchial ventilation in ducks.

    PubMed

    Hastings, R H; Powell, F L

    1986-01-01

    Gas exchange in avian lungs is described by a cross-current model that has several differences from the alevolar model of mammalian gas exchange [e.g., end-expired PCO2 greater than arterial PCO2 (PaCO2)]. Consequently the methods available for estimating effective ventilation and physiological dead space (VDphys) in alveolar lungs are not suitable for an analysis of gas exchange in birds. We tested a method for measuring VDphys in birds that is functionally equivalent to the conventional alveolar VDphys. A cross-current O2-CO2 diagram was used to define the ideal expired point (PEi) and VDphys was calculated as from the equation, VDphys = [(PEiCO2--PECO2)/PEiCO2]. VT, where VT is tidal volume. In seven Pekin ducks VDphys was 13.8 ml greater than anatomic dead space and measured changes in the instrument dead space volume. VDphys also reflected changes in ventilation-perfusion inequality induced by temporary unilateral pulmonary arterial occlusion. Bohr dead space, calculated by substituting end-expired PCO2 for PEiCO2, was insensitive to such inhomogeneity. Enghoff dead space, calculated by substituting PaCO2 for PEiCO2, is theoretically incorrect for cross-current gas exchange and was often less than anatomic dead space. We conclude that VDphys is a useful index of avian gas exchange and propose a standard definition for effective parabronchial ventilation (VP) analogous to alveolar ventilation (i.e., VP = VE--VDphys, where VE is total ventilation).

  4. Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using combination of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol (MLBP-TIVA).

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Nagaro, Tsukasa; Sudo, Kanako; Itami, Takaharu; Umar, Mohammed Ahamed; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33-35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27-30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114-123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28-29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19-21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO(2) pressure [PaCO(2)]: 84-103 mmHg and arterial O(2) pressure [PaO(2)]: 155-172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO(2): 42-50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO(2): 395-419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29-31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17-21 l /min, MABP: 111-123 mmHg, MPAP: 27-30 mmHg and MRAP: 15-16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  5. Cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in young and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Hartwich, Doreen; Seifert, Thomas; Olesen, Niels D; McNulty, Clare L; Nielsen, Henning B; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Secher, Niels H

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism in 11 young (22 ± 1 years) and nine older (66 ± 2 years) individuals at rest and during cycling exercise at low (25% W(max)), moderate (50% Wmax), high (75% W(max)) and exhaustive (100% W(max)) workloads. Mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCA V(mean)), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (P(aCO2)) were measured. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular vein and brachial artery to determine concentration differences for oxygen (O2), glucose and lactate across the brain. The molar ratio between cerebral uptake of O2 versus carbohydrate (O2-carbohydrate index; O2/[glucose + 1/2 lactate]; OCI), the cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2) and changes in mitochondrial O2 tension ( P(mitoO2)) were calculated. 100% W(max) was ~33% lower in the older group. Exercise increased MAP and CO in both groups (P < 0.05 vs. rest), but at each intensity MAP was higher and CO lower in the older group (P < 0.05). MCA V(mean), P(aCO2) and cerebral vascular conductance index (MCA V(mean)/MAP) were lower in the older group at each exercise intensity (P < 0.05). In contrast, young and older individuals exhibited similar increases in CMRO2 (by ~30 μmol (100 g(-1)) min(-1)), and decreases in OCI (by ~1.5) and (by ~10 mmHg) during exercise at 75% W(max). Thus, despite the older group having reduced cerebral perfusion and maximal exercise capacity, cerebral oxygenation and uptake of lactate and glucose are similar during exercise in young and older individuals.

  6. Early postoperative cognitive recovery and gas exchange patterns after balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane in overweight and obese patients undergoing craniotomy: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Federico; Doronzio, Andrea; Cuzzone, Vincenzo; Caramia, Remo; Rosa, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    Overweight and obese patients are at especially high risk for delayed awakening after general surgery. Whether this risk also applies to cerebral neurosurgical procedures remains unclear. This study evaluated early postoperative cognitive recovery and gas exchange patterns, after balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane, in overweight and obese patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial expanding lesions. Fifty-six patients were consecutively enrolled, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups to receive balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test and the Rancho Los Amigos Scale and gas exchange patterns (pH, PaO2, and PaCO2) were recorded in all patients at 5 time-points: preoperatively and postoperatively, after patients reached an Aldrete score >or=9, at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Preoperative cognitive status was similar in the 2 treatment groups. Early postoperative cognitive recovery was more delayed and Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test scores at 15 and 30 minutes postanesthesia were lower in patients receiving sevoflurane-based anesthesia than in those receiving desflurane-based anesthesia (21.5+/-3.5 vs. 14.9+/-3.5) (P<0.005) and (26.9+/-0.7 vs. 21.5+/-1.4) (P<0.005), and the postoperative Rancho Los Amigos Scalegrade 8 showed a similar trend (25/28 patients 89% vs. 8/28 patients 28% (P<0.005) and 28/28 patients (100% vs. 13/28 patients 46%) (P<0.005). Similarly, gas-exchange analysis showed higher PaCO2 at 15 and 30 minutes and lower pH up to 45 minutes postextubation in patients receiving sevoflurane-based anesthesia. In overweight and obese patients undergoing craniotomy desflurane-based anesthesia allows earlier postoperative cognitive recovery and reversal to normocapnia and normal pH. PMID:19542997

  7. Rapamycin reverses paraquat-induced acute lung injury in a rat model through inhibition of NFκB activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Da; Ma, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Chen; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of rapamycin (RAPA) in paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung injury. Methods: Lung tissues were stained with HE and lung histology was observed. Mortality rate, and neutrophil and leukocyte count in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were recorded. Protein content in BALF was determined by Coomassie blue staining. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood were determined by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay, pyrogallol autoxidation method, and modified Haefman method, respectively. The NF-κB activity was measured by gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and pH values were measured by automated blood gas analyzer. Results: HE staining results demonstrated RAPA alleviated pathological changes of acute alveolitis in SD rats. Trend of protein content in BALF was PQ group > RAPA treatment group > control group (P < 0.05). Neutrophil and leukocyte count in RAPA treatment group was significantly lower than PQ group at 3, 5, and 7 days after injection (P < 0.05). Trend of MDA content was RAPA treatment group > PQ group > control group (P < 0.05). Trend of GSH-Px and SOD activity was control group > RAPA treatment group > PQ group (P < 0.05). Compared with PQ group, PaO2 in RAPA treatment group was markedly higher and PaCO2 was lower (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PQ-induced acute lung injury was effectively reversed with RAPA, through inhibition of NF-κB activation. PMID:26191153

  8. Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbeek, Alex; Mazouari, Khalil El; Desmyter, Aline; Blanchetot, Christophe; Hultberg, Anna; de Jonge, Natalie; Roovers, Rob C; Cambillau, Christian; Spinelli, Sylvia; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Verrips, Theo; de Haard, Hans J; Achour, Ikbel

    2015-01-01

    Camelid immunoglobulin variable (IGV) regions were found homologous to their human counterparts; however, the germline V repertoires of camelid heavy and light chains are still incomplete and their therapeutic potential is only beginning to be appreciated. We therefore leveraged the publicly available HTG and WGS databases of Lama pacos and Camelus ferus to retrieve the germline repertoire of V genes using human IGV genes as reference. In addition, we amplified IGKV and IGLV genes to uncover the V germline repertoire of Lama glama and sequenced BAC clones covering part of the Lama pacos IGK and IGL loci. Our in silico analysis showed that camelid counterparts of all human IGKV and IGLV families and most IGHV families could be identified, based on canonical structure and sequence homology. Interestingly, this sequence homology seemed largely restricted to the Ig V genes and was far less apparent in other genes: 6 therapeutically relevant target genes differed significantly from their human orthologs. This contributed to efficient immunization of llamas with the human proteins CD70, MET, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, resulting in large panels of functional antibodies. The in silico predicted human-homologous canonical folds of camelid-derived antibodies were confirmed by X-ray crystallography solving the structure of 2 selected camelid anti-CD70 and anti-MET antibodies. These antibodies showed identical fold combinations as found in the corresponding human germline V families, yielding binding site structures closely similar to those occurring in human antibodies. In conclusion, our results indicate that active immunization of camelids can be a powerful therapeutic antibody platform. PMID:26018625

  9. Liquid extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal: use of THAM (tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane) coupled to hemofiltration to control hypercapnic acidosis in a porcine model of protective mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Pablo; Lillo, Felipe; Soto, Dagoberto; Escobar, Leslie; Simon, Felipe; Hernández, Karina; Alegría, Leyla; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg-1·h-1 coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg-1·h-1. After 18-hours of treatment the THAM infusion was stopped but hemofiltration was kept on until 24-hours. The 2 other animals were treated with THAM but without hemofiltration. After 1-hour of treatment in THAM+HF, PaCO2 rapidly decreased from a median of 89.0 (IQR) (80.0, 98.0) to 71.3 (65.8, 82.0) mmHg (P<0.05), while pH increased from 7.12 (7.01, 7.15) to 7.29 (7.27, 7.30) (P<0.05). Thereafter PaCO2 remained stable between 60-70 mmHg, while pH increased above 7.4. After stopping THAM at 18 hours of treatment a profound rebound effect was observed with severe hypercapnic acidosis. The most important side effect we observed was hyperosmolality, which reached a maximum of 330 (328, 332) mOsm·kg H2O-1 at T18. The animals treated only with THAM developed severe hypercapnia, despite the fact that pH returned to normal values, and died after 12 hours. Control-group had an uneven evolution until the end of the experiment. A combined treatment with THAM coupled to hemofiltration may be an effective treatment to control severe hypercapnic acidosis.

  10. Different Respiratory Rates during Resuscitation in a Pediatric Animal Model of Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    López, Jorge; Fernández, Sarah N.; González, Rafael; Solana, María J.; Urbano, Javier; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Aims Actual resuscitation guidelines recommend 10 respirations per minute (rpm) for advanced pediatric life support. This respiratory rate (RR) is much lower than what is physiological for children. The aim of this study is to compare changes in ventilation, oxygenation, haemodynamics and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rates with three RR. Methods An experimental model of asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) in 46 piglets (around 9.5 kg) was performed. Resuscitation with three different RR (10, 20 and 30 rpm) was carried out. Haemodynamics and gasometrical data were obtained at 3, 9, 18 and 24 minutes after beginning of resuscitation. Measurements were compared between the three groups. Results No statistical differences were found in ROSC rate between the three RR (37.5%, 46.6% and 60% in the 10, 20 and 30 rpm group respectively P = 0.51). 20 and 30 rpm groups had lower PaCO2 values than 10 rpm group at 3 minutes (58 and 55 mmHg vs 75 mmHg P = 0.08). 30 rpm group had higher PaO2 (61 mmHg) at 3 minutes than 20 and 10 rpm groups (53 and 45 mmHg P = 0.05). No significant differences were found in haemodynamics or tissue perfusion between hyperventilated (PaCO2 <30 mmHg), normoventilated (30–50 mmHg) and hypoventilated (>50 mmHg) animals. PaO2 was significantly higher in hyperventilated (PaO2 153 mmHg) than in normoventilated (79 mmHg) and hypoventilated (47 mmHg) piglets (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms the hypothesis that higher RR achieves better oxygenation and ventilation without affecting haemodynamics. A higher RR is associated but not significantly with better ROSC rates. PMID:27618183

  11. Tissue Oxygenation Response to Mild Hypercapnia during Cardiopulmonary Bypass with Constant Pump Output

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Ozan; Sessler, Daniel I; DeLong, Diane; Keijner, Raymond; Ganzel, Brian; Doufas, Anthony G

    2006-01-01

    Background Tissue oxygenation is the primary determinant of wound infection risk. Mild hypercapnia markedly improves cutaneous, subcutaneous, and muscular tissue oxygenation in volunteers and patients. However, relative contributions of increased cardiac output and peripheral vasodilation to this response remains unknown. We thus tested the hypothesis that increased cardiac output is the dominant mechanism. Methods We recruited 10 ASA III patients, aged 40–65 years, undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for this crossover trial. After induction of anaesthesia, a Silastic tonometer was inserted subcutaneously in the upper arm. Subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was measured with both polarographic electrode and fluorescence-based systems. Oximeter probes were placed bilaterally on the forehead to monitor cerebral oxygenation. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, in random order patients were exposed to two arterial CO2 partial pressures for 30 minutes each: 35 (normocapnia) or 50 mmHg (hypercapnia). Bypass pump flow was kept constant throughout the measurement periods. Results Hypercapnia during bypass had essentially no effect on PaO2, mean arterial pressure, or tissue temperature. PaCO2 and pH differed significantly. Subcutaneous tissue oxygenation was virtually identical during the two PaCO2 periods (139 [50,163] vs. 145 [38,158], P=0.335) (median [range]). In contrast, cerebral oxygen saturation (our positive control measurement) was significantly less during normocapnia (57 [28,67]%) than hypercapnia (64 [37,89]%, P=0.025). Conclusions Mild hypercapnia, which normally markedly increases tissue oxygenation, did not do so during cardiopulmonary bypass with fixed pump output. This suggests that hypercapnia normally increases tissue oxygenation by increasing cardiac output rather than direct dilation of peripheral vessels. PMID:16675511

  12. Early postoperative cognitive recovery and gas exchange patterns after balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane in overweight and obese patients undergoing craniotomy: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Federico; Doronzio, Andrea; Cuzzone, Vincenzo; Caramia, Remo; Rosa, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    Overweight and obese patients are at especially high risk for delayed awakening after general surgery. Whether this risk also applies to cerebral neurosurgical procedures remains unclear. This study evaluated early postoperative cognitive recovery and gas exchange patterns, after balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane, in overweight and obese patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial expanding lesions. Fifty-six patients were consecutively enrolled, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups to receive balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test and the Rancho Los Amigos Scale and gas exchange patterns (pH, PaO2, and PaCO2) were recorded in all patients at 5 time-points: preoperatively and postoperatively, after patients reached an Aldrete score >or=9, at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Preoperative cognitive status was similar in the 2 treatment groups. Early postoperative cognitive recovery was more delayed and Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test scores at 15 and 30 minutes postanesthesia were lower in patients receiving sevoflurane-based anesthesia than in those receiving desflurane-based anesthesia (21.5+/-3.5 vs. 14.9+/-3.5) (P<0.005) and (26.9+/-0.7 vs. 21.5+/-1.4) (P<0.005), and the postoperative Rancho Los Amigos Scalegrade 8 showed a similar trend (25/28 patients 89% vs. 8/28 patients 28% (P<0.005) and 28/28 patients (100% vs. 13/28 patients 46%) (P<0.005). Similarly, gas-exchange analysis showed higher PaCO2 at 15 and 30 minutes and lower pH up to 45 minutes postextubation in patients receiving sevoflurane-based anesthesia. In overweight and obese patients undergoing craniotomy desflurane-based anesthesia allows earlier postoperative cognitive recovery and reversal to normocapnia and normal pH.

  13. Positive end expiratory pressure in acute and chronic respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Greenough, A; Chan, V; Hird, M F

    1992-03-01

    The optimum level of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) was determined in 16 infants with respiratory distress syndrome (median gestational age 29 weeks, median postnatal age 1 day) and in 16 infants with chronic respiratory distress (median gestational age 25 weeks, median postnatal age 15 days). All infants were studied at a PEEP sequence of 3, 0, 3, 6, and 3 cm H2O, all other ventilator parameters being kept constant. Each PEEP level was maintained for 20 minutes and at the end of each period arterial blood gas was checked. During acute respiratory distress syndrome there were no significant changes in oxygenation but arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) significantly decreased from a mean of 4.93 kPa at 3 cm H2O to 4.40 kPa at 0 cm H2O and increased to a mean of 5.87 kPa at 6 cm H2O. In the infants with chronic respiratory distress, oxygenation fell from a mean of 8.66 kPa at 3 cm H2O to 6.40 kPa at 0 cm H2O and improved at 6 cm H2O to a mean of 10.50 kPa. There were no significant changes in PaCO2. We conclude that addition of PEEP, up to 6 cm H2O, may be useful even after the first week of life. High levels of PEEP, however, have previously been reported, in certain infants, to result in circulatory disturbance. It is therefore important to assess the use of 6 cm H2O PEEP in a controlled study of longer term clinical outcome.

  14. Optimization of ventilator setting by flow and pressure waveforms analysis during noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of COPD: a multicentric randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The analysis of flow and pressure waveforms generated by ventilators can be useful in the optimization of patient-ventilator interactions, notably in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. To date, however, a real clinical benefit of this approach has not been proven. Methods The aim of the present randomized, multi-centric, controlled study was to compare optimized ventilation, driven by the analysis of flow and pressure waveforms, to standard ventilation (same physician, same initial ventilator setting, same time spent at the bedside while the ventilator screen was obscured with numerical data always available). The primary aim was the rate of pH normalization at two hours, while secondary aims were changes in PaCO2, respiratory rate and the patient's tolerance to ventilation (all parameters evaluated at baseline, 30, 120, 360 minutes and 24 hours after the beginning of ventilation). Seventy patients (35 for each group) with acute exacerbation of COPD were enrolled. Results Optimized ventilation led to a more rapid normalization of pH at two hours (51 vs. 26% of patients), to a significant improvement of the patient's tolerance to ventilation at two hours, and to a higher decrease of PaCO2 at two and six hours. Optimized ventilation induced physicians to use higher levels of external positive end-expiratory pressure, more sensitive inspiratory triggers and a faster speed of pressurization. Conclusions The analysis of the waveforms generated by ventilators has a significant positive effect on physiological and patient-centered outcomes during acute exacerbation of COPD. The acquisition of specific skills in this field should be encouraged. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01291303. PMID:22115190

  15. Assessment of the right ventricle by magnetic resonance imaging in chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, L W; Ridgway, J P; Biernacki, W; McRitchie, H; Muir, A L; Best, J J; MacNee, W

    1990-01-01

    Right ventricular wall and chamber volume were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 16 patients with stable chronic obstructive lung disease who subsequently underwent measurement of pulmonary haemodynamics by right heart catheterisation. The patients had a forced expiratory volume in one second of 0.7 (SD 0.3) litres, a forced vital capacity of 2.4 (1.0) l, an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) of 6.5 (1.3) kPa, an arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) of 6.5 (1.0) kPa, and a mean pulmonary arterial pressure 30 (10) mm Hg. The mean right ventricular free wall volume was 57.1 (22.6) cm3, compared with a mean value of 115.0 (44.3) cm3 for the left ventricle and interventricular septal volume. The right ventricular chamber volume at end systole was 44.8 (23.4) cm3, whereas the left ventricular end systolic chamber volume was 51.1 (35.1) cm3. The right ventricular free wall volume correlated with the right ventricular chamber volume (r = 0.71), systolic (r = 0.74) and mean (r = 0.72) pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.67), and PaCO2 (r = 0.56). There was no significant correlation between the right ventricular free wall volume and PaO2 or the right ventricular ejection fraction, measured by radionuclide ventriculography. Assessment of the right ventricle by magnetic resonance imaging may help to better define patients with cor pulmonable and assess the long term effects of treatment in such patients. Images PMID:2402721

  16. Association between radiological findings and total and regional function in emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Nairn, Jean R.; Prime, F. J.; Simon, G.

    1969-01-01

    Tests of overall and regional lung function using xenon-133 with fixed counters were carried out on 49 patients who were judged on specified radiological grounds to have emphysema: 31 of them also had clinical evidence of chronic bronchitis. The radiological extent of the disease was classified as generalized, extensive localized or localized. The results of the tests were compared with the radiographic extent of the disease and with the local radiographic appearances. Derangements of total lung function agreed well with the radiological extent of the disease; in particular, the average level of Paco2 was lower than that predicted from the F.E.V.1 when generalized and extensive localized emphysema were present. Co-existing chronic bronchitis was associated with higher levels of Paco2. The resting Pao2 was higher if one or both lower regions were normally ventilated despite unevenness of ventilation elsewhere, emphasizing the importance of the lower lung regions in determining the overall V/Q of the lungs. Regional derangements of ventilation coincided fairly well with the radiographic distribution of vascular narrowing or loss but the blood flow was found to be diminished in less than 5% of upper and middle regions with radiological changes. Ventilation was impaired in parts of the lungs where the vascular shadows were apparently normal. This finding was attributed to the effects of chronic bronchitis, because it was also found in seven patients with this disease who did not have radiographic evidence of emphysema; in these, impairment of ventilation in the middle and lower regions was a salient feature. PMID:5821623

  17. Peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine: new insight into mechanisms of extreme apnea.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anthony R; Dujic, Zeljko; Hoiland, Ryan L; Barak, Otto F; Madden, Dennis; Drvis, Ivan; Stembridge, Mike; MacLeod, David B; MacLeod, Douglas M; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine on maximal apnea time, and the related hemodynamic and cerebrovascular responses in elite apnea divers. In a randomized order, participants performed a maximal apnea while receiving either intravenous 2 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1) dopamine or volume-matched saline (placebo). The chemoreflex and hemodynamic response to dopamine was also assessed during hypoxia [arterial O2 tension, (PaO2 ) ∼35 mmHg] and mild hypercapnia [arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2 ) ∼46 mmHg] that mimicked the latter parts of apnea. Outcome measures included apnea duration, arterial blood gases (radial), heart rate (HR, ECG), mean arterial pressure (MAP, intra-arterial), middle (MCAv) and posterior (PCAv) cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial ultrasound), internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral (VA) artery blood flow (ultrasound), and the chemoreflex responses. Although dopamine depressed the ventilatory response by 27 ± 41% (vs. placebo; P = 0.01), the maximal apnea duration was increased by only 5 ± 8% (P = 0.02). The PaCO2 and PaO2 at apnea breakpoint were similar (P > 0.05). When compared with placebo, dopamine increased HR and decreased MAP during both apnea and chemoreflex test (P all <0.05). At rest, dopamine compared with placebo dilated the ICA (3.0 ± 4.1%, P = 0.05) and VA (6.6 ± 5.0%, P < 0.01). During apnea and chemoreflex test, conductance of the cerebral vessels (ICA, VA, MCAv, PCAv) was increased with dopamine; however, flow (ICA and VA) was similar. At least in elite apnea divers, the small increase in apnea time and similar PaO2 at breakpoint (∼31 mmHg) suggest the apnea breakpoint is more related to PaO2 , rather than peripheral chemoreflex drive to breathe.

  18. Gas exchange by intratracheal insufflation in a ventilatory failure dog model.

    PubMed Central

    Gavriely, N; Eckmann, D; Grotberg, J B

    1992-01-01

    Respiratory insufficiency patients who need only partial ventilatory support are, nevertheless, intubated and connected to a respirator. In search of a partial respiratory assistance method we evaluated the gas exchange, mechanisms, and hemodynamic effects of intratracheal insufflation (ITI) via a narrow (0.2-cm) catheter. The effects of flow rate (0.05-0.2 liter/min per kg), catheter tip position (carina, bronchus, and trachea), and superimposed chest vibration at 22 Hz were studied in seven anesthetized and partially paralyzed dogs. ITI in the carina induced CO2 removal (VCO2) of 48 +/- 16 ml/min in the periods between breaths, which was 39% of the control VCO2. CO2 removal rates between breaths with ITI in a bronchus and in the trachea were 63 and 28% of control, respectively (P < 0.05). ITI at 0.15-0.2 liter/min per kg augmented total VCO2 by > 50% over control (P < 0.05) and decreased PaCO2 by 10% (P < 0.05) despite a 28% fall in VE and 32% lower work of breathing (P < 0.05). Adding vibration to ITI at 0.15 liter/min per kg induced VCO2 of 162 +/- 34 ml/min, which was significantly greater than control, while PaCO2 fell from 69 +/- 24 to 47 +/- 6 mmHg (P < 0.05), despite complete cessation of spontaneous breathing. ITI with or without vibration did not cause any hemodynamic changes, except for a fall in the shunt fraction from 14.6 +/- 9.9% to 5.8 +/- 2.8% with vibration. Thus, ITI at low flow rates can support respiration with no hemodynamic side effects. Adding chest vibration further enhances gas exchange and can provide total ventilation. Images PMID:1469093

  19. Acute but not chronic metabolic acidosis potentiates the acetylcholine-induced reduction in blood pressure: an endothelium-dependent effect.

    PubMed

    Celotto, A C; Ferreira, L G; Capellini, V K; Albuquerque, A A S; Rodrigues, A J; Evora, P R B

    2016-02-01

    Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control. PMID:26648089

  20. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to exercise in horses with various abnormalities of the upper respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    King, C M; Evans, D L; Rose, R J

    1994-05-01

    A standardised incremental exercise test was performed by 9 racehorses with idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH), 1 horse with maxillary sinus cysts, 1 horse with epiglottic entrapment, 1 horse with a lesion on the vocal folds, and 1 horse with pharyngitis. Two of the horses with ILH were retested after laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy. The findings were compared with those from 20 normal racehorses. Heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, arterial blood gases, stride frequency, oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production were assessed during treadmill exercise on a +10% slope. The group of horses with ILH had significantly (P < 0.01) lower peak VO2 values (136 +/- 5 ml/kg/min) than did the normal group (154 +/- 3 ml/klg/min). These values represent mean +/- sem. Horses with ILH also had significantly higher (P < 0.05) arterial carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) at 10 m/s and lower speeds at a heart rate of 200 bpm (V200) than the normal group. The horse with maxillary sinus cysts had higher PaCO2 tension at 10 m/s than normal, and abnormal values for several cardiorespiratory and metabolic indices. Horses with vocal fold lesions, aryepiglottic entrapment and pharyngitis had arterial blood gas and cardiorespiratory indices that were similar to those of normal horses. One horse which underwent corrective surgery for ILH showed improvements in arterial blood gases and cardiorespiratory indices during exercise, while the other horse had values which were the same as, or worse than, values before surgery. We conclude that the measurement of arterial blood gases and cardiorespiratory indices during treadmill exercise is useful in determining the effect on exercise capacity of various upper airway abnormalities in racehorses.

  1. Does ammonia trigger hyperventilation in the elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias suckleyi?

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Gudrun; Wood, Chris M

    2015-01-15

    We examined the ventilatory response of the spiny dogfish, to elevated internal or environmental ammonia. Sharks were injected via arterial catheters with ammonia solutions or their Na salt equivalents sufficient to increase plasma total ammonia concentration [TAmm]a by 3-5 fold from 145±21μM to 447±150μM using NH4HCO3 and a maximum of 766±100μM using (NH4)2SO4. (NH4)2SO4 caused a small increase in ventilation frequency (+14%) and a large increase in amplitude (+69%), while Na2SO4 did not. However, CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) also increased and arterial pHa and plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3(-)]a) decreased. NH4HCO3 caused a smaller increase in plasma ammonia resulting in a smaller but significant, short lived increases in ventilation frequency (+6%) and amplitude (36%), together with a rise in PaCO2 and [HCO3(-)]a. Injection with NaHCO3 which increased pHa and [HCO3(-)]a did not change ventilation. Plasma ammonia concentration correlated significantly with ventilation amplitude, while ventilation frequency showed a (negative) correlation with pHa. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (1500μM NH4HCO3) did not induce changes in ventilation until plasma [TAmm]a increased and ventilation amplitude (but not frequency) increased in parallel. We conclude that internal ammonia stimulates ventilation in spiny dogfish, especially amplitude or stroke volume, while environmental ammonia only stimulates ventilation after ammonia diffuses into the bloodstream.

  2. Positive end expiratory pressure in acute and chronic respiratory distress.

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, A; Chan, V; Hird, M F

    1992-01-01

    The optimum level of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) was determined in 16 infants with respiratory distress syndrome (median gestational age 29 weeks, median postnatal age 1 day) and in 16 infants with chronic respiratory distress (median gestational age 25 weeks, median postnatal age 15 days). All infants were studied at a PEEP sequence of 3, 0, 3, 6, and 3 cm H2O, all other ventilator parameters being kept constant. Each PEEP level was maintained for 20 minutes and at the end of each period arterial blood gas was checked. During acute respiratory distress syndrome there were no significant changes in oxygenation but arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) significantly decreased from a mean of 4.93 kPa at 3 cm H2O to 4.40 kPa at 0 cm H2O and increased to a mean of 5.87 kPa at 6 cm H2O. In the infants with chronic respiratory distress, oxygenation fell from a mean of 8.66 kPa at 3 cm H2O to 6.40 kPa at 0 cm H2O and improved at 6 cm H2O to a mean of 10.50 kPa. There were no significant changes in PaCO2. We conclude that addition of PEEP, up to 6 cm H2O, may be useful even after the first week of life. High levels of PEEP, however, have previously been reported, in certain infants, to result in circulatory disturbance. It is therefore important to assess the use of 6 cm H2O PEEP in a controlled study of longer term clinical outcome. PMID:1575557

  3. Cerebral blood flow and CO/sub 2/ reactivity in transient ischemic attacks: comparison between TIAs due to the ICA occlusion and ICA mild stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Y.; Kimura, K.; Yoneda, S.; Etani, H.; Asai, T.; Nakamura, M.; Abe, H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemispheric mean cerebral blood flow (CBF), together with its CO2 reactivity in response to hyperventilation, was investigated in 18 patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) by intraarterial 133Xe injection method in a subacute-chronic stage of the clinical course. In 8 patients, the lesion responsible for symptoms was regarded as unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, and in 10 patients, it was regarded as unilateral ICA mild stenosis (less than 50% stenosis in diameter). Resting flow values were significantly decreased in the affected hemisphere of TIA due to the ICA occlusion as compared with the unaffected hemisphere of the same patient, regarded as the relative control. It was not decreased in the affected hemisphere of TIA due to the ICA mild stenosis as compared with the control. With respect to the responsiveness of CBF to changes in PaCO2, it was preserved in both TIAs, due to the ICA occlusion and ICA mild stenosis. Vasoparalysis was not observed in either types of TIAs in the subacute-chronic stage. However, in the relationship of blood pressure and CO2 reactivity, expressed as delta CBF(%)/delta PaCO2, pressure-dependent CO2 reactivity as a group was observed with significance in 8 cases of TIA due to the ICA occlusion, while no such relationship was noted in 10 cases of TIA due to the ICA mild stenosis. Moreover, clinical features were different between TIAs due to the ICA occlusion and ICA mild stenosis, i.e., more typical, repeatable TIA (6.3 +/- 3.7 times) with shorter duration (less than 30 minutes) was observed in TIAs due to the ICA mild stenosis, while more prolonged, less repeatable TIA (2.4 +/- 1.4 times) was observed in TIAs due to fixed obstruction of the ICA. From these observations, two different possible mechanisms as to the pathogenesis of TIA might be expected.

  4. Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Martin, Laura; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009. Eighteen rhinoceros received butorphanol in the dart combination, and 22 rhinoceros had butorphanol administered intravenously within 15 min of darting. Body position, blood gas values, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were measured at two time points after darting, approximately 10 min apart (sample 1 mean collection time after darting, 9.4 +/- 2.7 min; sample 2 mean collection time, 18.6 +/- 2.8 min). A significant number of field-captured rhinoceros remained standing at the first sample period when butorphanol was administered in the dart. Higher median values for arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in combination with lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in standing versus recumbent rhinoceros suggested improved ventilation in this posture (P < 0.05). When the effect of time, body position, and age was controlled, median values for respiratory rate, lactate, and pH were better in rhinoceros that received butorphanol in the dart (P < 0.05). There was also a trend toward higher median values for SO2 and bicarbonate in rhinoceros receiving butorphanol in the dart. Intravenous administration of butorphanol resulted in significantly decreased median PaCO2 and heart rate in recumbent rhinoceros (P < 0.05) without changes in PaO2 between sample periods 1 and 2. However, rhinoceros remained hypoxemic during the short anesthetic procedure despite butorphanol administration. Preliminary results suggest that administration of butorphanol (either in the dart or intravenously) improves some metabolic parameters in free-ranging recumbent white rhinoceros without significantly affecting ventilation. It is hypothesized that this may be due to a lighter state of immobilization. Addition of butorphanol to the dart provides handling and physiologic

  5. Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation: effects of a new oxygen flow modulator on oxygenation and ventilation in pigs compared with a hand triggered emergency jet injector.

    PubMed

    Preussler, Niels-Peter; Schreiber, Torsten; Hüter, Lars; Gottschall, Reiner; Schubert, Harald; Rek, Helga; Karzai, Waheedullah; Schwarzkopf, Konrad

    2003-03-01

    The application of percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation for emergency ventilation depends on special equipment which is often not available outside the operating room. The oxygen flow modulator is a new specially designed device for emergency ventilation using a low pressure oxygen supply. We studied the effects of the new device in comparison with a hand triggered emergency jet injector on oxygenation and ventilation in six pigs (21+/-1 kg). The animals were anaesthetized, tracheally intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Following central venous and pulmonary artery catheterization, a Paratrend 7 sensor was placed in the left femoral artery for continuous measurements of PaO(2) and PaCO(2). Then an emergency transtracheal airway catheter was inserted into the trachea after surgical exposure. In randomized order each animal was ventilated via the transtracheal airway catheter with the hand triggered emergency jet injector (inspiratory/expiratory (I/E) ratio of 1:1; respiratory rate of 60 min(-1); driving pressure 1.5 bar; FjetO(2) 1.0) and the oxygen flow modulator (FiO(2) 1.0 at an oxygen flow of 15 l min(-1); respiratory rate of 60 min(-1); I/E ratio of approximately 1:1) for 15 min each. After each phase of the experiment respiratory and hemodynamic variables were measured. Whereas PaO(2) was not significantly different between the two devices, PaCO(2) was higher during the hand-triggered jet ventilation. Thus, the efficacy of the oxygen flow modulator during the experiment was comparable with the efficacy of the hand triggered emergency jet injector.

  6. Noninvasive ventilation: Are we overdoing it?

    PubMed Central

    Purwar, Sankalp; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Senthilkumar, R.; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Abraham, Babu K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) outside guideline recommendations is common. We audited use of NIV in our tertiary care critical care unit (CCU) to evaluate appropriateness of use and patient outcomes when used outside level I recommendations. Materials and Methods: Prospective observational study of all patients requiring NIV. Clinical parameters and arterial blood gases were recorded at initiation of NIV and 2 h later (or earlier if clinically warranted). NIV titration and decision to intubate were left to the discretion of treating intensivist. Patients were categorized into two groups: Group 1: Those with level I indications for use of NIV and group 2: All other levels of indications. Patients were followed until hospital discharge. Results: From January 2010 to June 2010, 1120 patients were admitted to the CCU. Of these 106 patients required NIV support with 40.6% (n = 43/106) being in group 1 and 59.4% (n = 63/106) in group 2. Of these 35.8% patients (38/106) failed NIV and required endotracheal intubation. NIV failure rates (41.27% vs. 27.91%; P = 0.02) and mortality (30.6% vs. 18.6%; P = 0.03) were significantly higher in group 2 patients. In a logistic regression analysis Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (P = 0.02), time on NIV before intubation (P = 0.001) and baseline PaCO2 levels (P = 0.01) were strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion: Noninvasive ventilation failure and mortality rates were significantly higher when used outside level I recommendations. APACHE II score, baseline PaCO2 and duration on NIV prior to intubation were predictors of increased mortality. PMID:25136188

  7. Cardiorespiratory effects of forced activity and digestion in toads.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm; Wang, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    Digestion and physical activity are associated with large and sometimes opposite changes in several physiological parameters. Gastric acid secretion during digestion causes increased levels of plasma bicarbonate ([HCO-3](pl)), whereas activity leads to a metabolic acidosis with increased lactate and decrease in plasma bicarbonate. Here we describe the combined effects of feeding and activity in the toad Bufo marinus to investigate whether the increased bicarbonate buffering capacity during digestion (the so-called alkaline tide) protects the acid-base disturbance during activity and enhances the subsequent recovery. In addition, we describe the changes in arterial oxygen levels and plasma ion composition, as well as rates of gas exchange, heart rates, and blood pressures. Toads were equipped with catheters in the femoral artery and divided into four experimental regimes: control, digestion, forced activity, and forced activity during the postprandial period (N=6 in each). Digestion induced a significant metabolic alkalosis with increased [HCO-3](pl) that was completely balanced by a respiratory acidosis; that is, increased arterial Pco(2) (P(a)co(2)), so that arterial pH (pH(a)) did not change. Forced activity led to a substantial reduction in pH(a) by 0.43 units, an increase in plasma lactate concentration by 12.5 mmol L(-1), and a reduction in [HCO-3](pl) of similar magnitude. While digesting animals had higher P(a)co(2) and [HCO-3](pl) at rest, the magnitude and duration of the changes in arterial acid-base parameters were similar to those of fasting animals, although the reduction in pH(a) was somewhat lower (0.32 units). In conclusion, while recovery from the acidosis following exercise did not seem to be affected by digestion, the alkaline tide did slightly dampen the reduction in pH(a) during activity.

  8. Respiratory effects of pregnancy and progesterone in Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Keith, I M; Bisgard, G E; Manohar, M; Klein, J; Bullard, V A

    1982-12-01

    Unanesthetized Jersey cows were studied during both pregnant (5-9 months) nonlactating states, and nonpregnant lactating states; and also following treatment with progesterone (Pr). The pH, PCO2 and PO2 of aortic blood, VE and f were measured and the mixed expired gas was analyzed. The following significant changes from the nonpregnant state occurred during pregnancy: PaCO2 = -3.2 mm Hg, pHa = +0.02 unit, VT = -0.44 L, f = +7 breaths/min, and VE/VCO2 = +9.7. Concomitant with the respiratory studies, serum Pr levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 11 nonpregnant and 5 pregnant cows, and in 6 nonpregnant, lactating cows prior to and on days 3, 5 and 10 of treatment with Pr (500 mg, i.m., twice daily). Minute ventilation (VE, L X min-1 X kg-1, BTPS) was positively correlated (r = +0.59) and PaCO2 was negatively correlated (r = -0.64) with endogenous serum Pr levels of non-pregnant and pregnant cows. However, exogenous Pr did not significantly alter these parameters or pHa, despite mean serum levels nearly twice (23.6 +/- 10.2 ng/ml) those observed in pregnant cows (12.7 +/- 3.7 ng/ml). The increased ventilation during pregnancy in Jersey cows, shown in this study, does not appear to be related to Pr as exogenous Pr failed to induce hyperventilation. The correlation of increased ventilation with endogenous Pr levels therefore suggests that the mode of in vivo Pr release, or different compound, simultaneously released, could be the stimulus.

  9. Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using combination of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol (MLBP-TIVA).

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Nagaro, Tsukasa; Sudo, Kanako; Itami, Takaharu; Umar, Mohammed Ahamed; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33-35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27-30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114-123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28-29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19-21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO(2) pressure [PaCO(2)]: 84-103 mmHg and arterial O(2) pressure [PaO(2)]: 155-172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO(2): 42-50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO(2): 395-419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29-31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17-21 l /min, MABP: 111-123 mmHg, MPAP: 27-30 mmHg and MRAP: 15-16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated.

  10. Safety and effectiveness of bubble continuous positive airway pressure in preterm neonates with respiratory distress

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, S.S.; Rajeev, A.; Adhikari, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (B-CPAP) as respiratory support for neonates are few. The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy and safety of B-CPAP in preterm neonates requiring respiratory support. Methods A prospective observation study was done on 50 preterm babies requiring respiratory support for mild to moderate respiratory distress. Support was given with short, nasal cannulae. Surfactant was administered when indicated. Monitoring was done clinically, with pulse oximeter, radiologically and with blood gases. Staff members were also asked their views. Follow-up was done for 3 months. Results The mean gestational age was 32.46 (+3.23) weeks and mean birth weight 1454.4 (+487.42) g. Respiratory Distress Syndrome was the commonest indication (30/50). The mean maximum pressure was 6.04 cm H2O and mean maximum FiO2 was 72.16%. Mean maximum paO2, paCO2 and mean minimum paCO2 were 92.93 mm Hg (+16.97), 52.36 mm Hg (+ 7.78) and 36.46 mm Hg (+ 4.95) respectively. Early initiation resulted in lesser duration of support. Failure rate was 30%. Apnoea, >1 dose surfactant and late initiation had a statistically higher incidence of failure. Main complications were skin abrasions (30%), feed intolerance (26%) and gastric distension (26%). Survival rate was 94%. 68% of staff felt that it was as easy to use and 88% felt it was more reliable than standard CPAP. Conclusions Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is safe, efficacious and easy to use in preterm neonates with mild to moderate respiratory distress. PMID:25382905

  11. Effect of long-term therapy with oral steroids on respiratory muscle function and ventilatory drive.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, E; Corsico, R; Rampulla, C; Ambrosino, N; Fracchia, C; Crotti, P; Rubini, F; Nava, S

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that chronic oral steroid therapy (ST) does not induce respiratory muscle dysfunction in normal and asthmatic subjects. As corticosteroids are sometimes chronically used in the treatment of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the aim of our study was to verify whether ST could cause respiratory muscle impairment and, since ST also affects the central nervous system, whether ST could influence the ventilatory pattern. We retrospectively studied 12 COPD patients (group A), on long-term therapy (for at least 4 consecutive months, range 4-18 months) with an oral steroid, deflazacort, 15 mg.d-1. The subjects were strictly matched, with regard to age, sex, height, weight, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), residual volume (RV), arterial oxygen tension (PaCO2), arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and pH, with 12 COPD patients (Group B) who had never taken oral steroids. To assess respiratory muscle strength, we measured maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures, while mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) was employed to assess neuromuscular drive; ventilatory pattern and airway impedence were also evaluated. Effectiveness of ST was confirmed by the plasmatic levels of endogenous cortisol. No significant differences were observed between the two groups with regard to MIP (A 72.2 +/- 9.7 vs B: 70 +/- 7.2 cmH2O) and MEP (A 91.6 +/- 10.5 vs B 94.4 +/- 7.6 cmH2O) whilst P0.1 was significantly higher in group A (2.6 +/- 0.3 cmH2O) than in group B (1.8 +/- 0.1 cmH2O). No significant differences were found among all the ventilatory parameters, but the impedence was significantly higher in group A.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8472057

  12. Comparison of the respiratory responses to external resistive loading and bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed Central

    Kelsen, S G; Prestel, T F; Cherniack, N S; Chester, E H; Deal, E C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of resistive loads applied at the mouth were compared to the effects of bronchospasm on ventilation, respiratory muscle force (occlusion pressure), and respiratory sensations in 6 normal and 11 asthmatic subjects breathing 100% O2. External resistive loads ranging from 0.65 to 13.33 cm H2O/liter per s were applied during both inspiration and expiration. Bronchospasm was induced by inhalation of aerosolized methacholine. Bronchospasm increased ventilation, inspiratory airflow, respiratory rate, and lowered PACO2. External resistive loading, on the other hand, reduced respiratory rate and inspiratory flow, but left ventilation and PACO2 unaltered. FRC increased to a greater extent with bronchospasm than external flow resistive loads. With both bronchospasm and external loading, occlusion pressure increased in proportion to the rise in resistance to airflow. However, the change in occlusion pressure produced by a given change in resistance and the absolute level of occlusion pressure at comparable levels of airway resistance were greater during bronchospasm than during external loading. These differences in occlusion pressure responses to the two forms of obstruction were not explained by differences in chemical drive or respiratory muscle mechanical advantage. Although the subjects' perception of the effort involved in breathing was heightened during both forms of obstruction to airflow, at any given level of resistance the sense of effort was greater with bronchospasm than external loading. Inputs from mechanoreceptors in the lungs (e.g., irritant receptors) and/or greater stimulation of chest wall mechanoreceptors as a result of increases in lung elastance may explain the differing responses elicited by the two forms of resistive loading. PMID:6787083

  13. Positive End-expiratory Pressure Titration after Alveolar Recruitment Directed by Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yun; Liu, Da-Wei; He, Huai-Wu; Zhao, Zhan-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a real-time bedside monitoring tool, which can reflect dynamic regional lung ventilation. The aim of the present study was to monitor regional gas distribution in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration using EIT. Methods: Eighteen ARDS patients under mechanical ventilation in Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January to April in 2014 were included in this prospective observational study. After recruitment maneuvers (RMs), decremental PEEP titration was performed from 20 cmH2O to 5 cmH2O in steps of 3 cmH2O every 5–10 min. Regional over-distension and recruitment were monitored with EIT. Results: After RMs, patient with arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) + carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) >400 mmHg with 100% of fractional inspired oxygen concentration were defined as RM responders. Thirteen ARDS patients was diagnosed as responders whose PaO2 + PaCO2 were higher than nonresponders (419 ± 44 mmHg vs. 170 ± 73 mmHg, P < 0.0001). In responders, PEEP mainly increased recruited pixels in dependent regions and over-distended pixels in nondependent regions. PEEP alleviated global inhomogeneity of tidal volume and end-expiratory lung volume. PEEP levels without significant alveolar derecruitment and over-distension were identified individually. Conclusions: After RMs, PEEP titration significantly affected regional gas distribution in lung, which could be monitored with EIT. EIT has the potential to optimize PEEP titration. PMID:26021494

  14. [Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation, gas exchanges and arterial blood gases during ramp exercise].

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Aguilaniu, B

    2012-10-01

    In response to ramp exercise, changes in ventilation, gas exchange and arterial blood gases, which are closely interrelated, reflect the two roles of ventilation: 1) providing O(2) and eliminating metabolic CO(2) (from rest to maximal exercise); and 2) contributing to acid-base balance by eliminating non metabolic CO(2) from the alkaline reserve (from the first ventilatory threshold [VT(1)] to maximal exercise). Hyperpnea before VT(1) increases gas exchanges as needed for aerobic metabolism without large changes in ventilatory equivalent of O(2) and CO(2) (VE/V(O2) or VE/V(CO2)), in P(O2) and P(CO2) in alveoli or arterial blood (except for a small widening of alveolo-arterial P(O2) gradient), and in bicarbonate concentration. In contrast, above VT(1), CO(2) is washed-out from the alkaline reserve due to the combined effect of the fall in PA(CO2) (because of hyperventilation) and in pH, and this helps maintaining acid-base balance. Pa(CO2) and bicarbonate concentration decrease while PA(O2) and VE/V(O2) increase, and V(CO2), which follows VE, becomes higher than V(O2). In healthy young subjects, but very seldom in patients, the end of exercise can occur after a second ventilatory threshold (VT(2)), which is the zone where the increase in V(CO2) fails to follow that in VE in spite of hyperventilation and acidosis because of the progressive depletion of the alkaline reserve.

  15. Comparative Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Propofol on US-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Neoplasm Under Monitored Anesthesia Care: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Joung, Kyoung-Woon; Choi, Seong-Soo; Jang, Dong-Min; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Lee, Hwa-Mi; Shim, Ji-Hoon; Won, Hyung-Jin; Shin, Yong-Moon; Kim, Pyo-Nyun; Song, Myung-Hee

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a useful and safe procedure for treating hepatic neoplasm. However, liver RFA causes severe pain, which thereby increases the demand for monitored anesthesia care (MAC). Here, we compared the efficacy and safety of propofol and dexmedetomidine, which are commonly administered during MAC when performing RFA to assess hepatic neoplasm.In this randomized controlled trial, 40 patients were randomly allocated to 2 groups for elective RFA. Patients received either dexmedetomidine (group D) or propofol (group P). Both groups received the continuous infusion of remifentanil for pain control. The primary outcomes were opioid consumption and differences in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) between pre- and postprocedure RFA. In addition, hemodynamic parameters, patient satisfaction, and interventional radiologist satisfaction were determined.There were significant differences in opioid consumption (50.1 ± 16.8 ng/kg/min [group D] vs 71.2 ± 18.7 ng/kg/min [group P]; P = 0.001) and delta PaCO2 (10.4 ± 6.4 mm Hg vs 17.2 ± 9.2 mm Hg, respectively; P = 0.016). Moreover, respiratory rates were significantly different between groups during RFA (P < 0.001). However, blood pressure and heart rate did not significantly change during RFA. Neither patient nor interventional radiologist satisfaction was significantly different between groups.Dexmedetomidine provides better respiratory stability and reduces opioid consumption in comparison with propofol when administered under MAC when performing RFA for hepatic neoplasm.

  16. Comparative Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Propofol on US-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Neoplasm Under Monitored Anesthesia Care

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Kyoung-Woon; Choi, Seong-Soo; Jang, Dong-Min; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Lee, Hwa-Mi; Shim, Ji-Hoon; Won, Hyung-Jin; Shin, Yong-Moon; Kim, Pyo-Nyun; Song, Myung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a useful and safe procedure for treating hepatic neoplasm. However, liver RFA causes severe pain, which thereby increases the demand for monitored anesthesia care (MAC). Here, we compared the efficacy and safety of propofol and dexmedetomidine, which are commonly administered during MAC when performing RFA to assess hepatic neoplasm. In this randomized controlled trial, 40 patients were randomly allocated to 2 groups for elective RFA. Patients received either dexmedetomidine (group D) or propofol (group P). Both groups received the continuous infusion of remifentanil for pain control. The primary outcomes were opioid consumption and differences in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) between pre- and postprocedure RFA. In addition, hemodynamic parameters, patient satisfaction, and interventional radiologist satisfaction were determined. There were significant differences in opioid consumption (50.1 ± 16.8 ng/kg/min [group D] vs 71.2 ± 18.7 ng/kg/min [group P]; P = 0.001) and delta PaCO2 (10.4 ± 6.4 mm Hg vs 17.2 ± 9.2 mm Hg, respectively; P = 0.016). Moreover, respiratory rates were significantly different between groups during RFA (P < 0.001). However, blood pressure and heart rate did not significantly change during RFA. Neither patient nor interventional radiologist satisfaction was significantly different between groups. Dexmedetomidine provides better respiratory stability and reduces opioid consumption in comparison with propofol when administered under MAC when performing RFA for hepatic neoplasm. PMID:26266387

  17. Prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Jan-Peter A H

    2007-12-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure exerted by cranial contents on the dural envelope. It comprises the partial pressures of brain, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Normal intracranial pressure is somewhere below 10 mmHg; it may increase as a result of traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, Reye's syndrome, hepatic coma, or other pathologies. When ICP increases above 20 mmHg it may damage neurons and jeopardize cerebral perfusion. If such a condition persists, treatment is indicated. Control of ICP requires measurement, which can only be performed invasively. Standard techniques include direct ventricular manometry or measurement in the parenchyma with electronic or fiberoptic devices. Displaying the time course of pressure (high-resolution ICP tonoscopy) allows assessment of the validity of the signal and identification of specific pathological findings, such as A-, B- and C-waves. When ICP is pathologically elevated--at or above 20-25 mmHg--it needs to be lowered. A range of treatment modalities is available and should be applied with consideration of the underlying cause. When intracranial hypertension is caused by hematoma, contusion, tumor, hygroma, hydrocephalus or pneumatocephalus, surgical treatment is indicated. In the absence of a surgically treatable condition, ICP may be controlled by correcting the patient's position, temperature, ventilation or hemodynamics. If intracranial hypertension persists, drainage of CSF via external drainage is most effective. Other first-tier options include induced hypocapnea (hyperventilation; paCO2 < 35 mmHg), hyperosmolar therapy (mannitol, hypertonic saline) and induced arterial hypertension (CPP concept). When autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is compromised, hyperoncotic treatment aimed at reducing vasogenic edema and intracranial blood volume may be applied. When intracranial hypertension persists, second-tier treatments may be indicated. These include 'forced hyperventilation' (paCO2 < 25 mm

  18. Acute but not chronic metabolic acidosis potentiates the acetylcholine-induced reduction in blood pressure: an endothelium-dependent effect

    PubMed Central

    Celotto, A.C.; Ferreira, L.G.; Capellini, V.K.; Albuquerque, A.A.S.; Rodrigues, A.J.; Evora, P.R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control. PMID:26648089

  19. Liquid extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal: use of THAM (tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane) coupled to hemofiltration to control hypercapnic acidosis in a porcine model of protective mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Pablo; Lillo, Felipe; Soto, Dagoberto; Escobar, Leslie; Simon, Felipe; Hernández, Karina; Alegría, Leyla; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg(-1)·h(-1) coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg(-1)·h(-1). After 18-hours of treatment the THAM infusion was stopped but hemofiltration was kept on until 24-hours. The 2 other animals were treated with THAM but without hemofiltration. After 1-hour of treatment in THAM+HF, PaCO2 rapidly decreased from a median of 89.0 (IQR) (80.0, 98.0) to 71.3 (65.8, 82.0) mmHg (P<0.05), while pH increased from 7.12 (7.01, 7.15) to 7.29 (7.27, 7.30) (P<0.05). Thereafter PaCO2 remained stable between 60-70 mmHg, while pH increased above 7.4. After stopping THAM at 18 hours of treatment a profound rebound effect was observed with severe hypercapnic acidosis. The most important side effect we observed was hyperosmolality, which reached a maximum of 330 (328, 332) mOsm·kg H2O(-1) at T18. The animals treated only with THAM developed severe hypercapnia, despite the fact that pH returned to normal values, and died after 12 hours. Control-group had an uneven evolution until the end of the experiment. A combined treatment with THAM coupled to hemofiltration may be an effective treatment to control severe hypercapnic acidosis.

  20. Low-intensity noninvasive ventilation: Lower pressure, more exacerbations of chronic respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Toru; Wakabayashi, Kiryo; Kimura, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kanako; Ikeda, Toshikazu; Yano, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) who are treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), a little is known regarding the effects of low-intensity NPPV (LI-NPPV) on the clinical course of CRF and the frequency of adjustments in these patients. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of LI-NPPV on the clinical course of patients with CRF as compared with patients who were treated with conventional NPPV (C-NPPV) and determined how frequently NPPV was adjusted during therapy. METHODS: Clinical data from 21 patients who received long-term NPPV were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the level of initial pressure support (PS): C-NPPV group (PS ≥ 10 cm H2O) and LI-NPPV group (PS < 10 cm H2O). RESULTS: Patients in the LI-NPPV group had significantly more exacerbations of CRF (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of patients who required adjustments of NPPV settings between the two groups. There was no significant difference in PaCO2 levels 1 month after the start of NPPV between the two groups; however, PaCO2 levels were significantly lower after 1 year in the C-group (P < 0.001). Seventy-one percent of LI-NPPV patients and 43% of C-NPPV patients needed NPPV adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be paid to CRF patients who are initially administered LI-NPPV; they should be carefully observed because they can develop more exacerbations of CRF than patients undergoing C-NPPV. If possible, higher initial PS should be administered to prevent CRF exacerbations. PMID:27168863

  1. Daytime mechanical ventilation in chronic respiratory insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Schönhofer, B; Geibel, M; Sonneborn, M; Haidl, P; Köhler, D

    1997-12-01

    Chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) is associated with nocturnal hypoventilation. Treatment with noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) performed overnight relieves symptoms of hypoventilation and improves daytime blood gases in CRI. In order to test whether the efficacy of NIMV depends on it being applied during sleep, we conducted a prospective case-controlled study comparing daytime mechanical ventilation (dMV) in awake patients with nocturnal mechanical ventilation (nMV) given in equal quantities. We enrolled 34 clinically stable patients (age 56.1+/-12.1 yrs, 20 females, 14 males) with CRI due to restrictive lung and chest wall disorders and neuromuscular disease. Using a prospective case-control design, matched subjects were allocated alternately to dMV and nMV. After 1 month of NIMV there was considerable symptomatic improvement in both dMV and nMV patients. There were no significant differences between groups in the improvement in daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) (dMV from 7.5+/-0.6 to 5.7+/-0.6 kPa; nMV from 7.2+/-0.5 to 5.8+/-0.5 kPa, p<0.0001) and during the unassisted spontaneous night-time ventilation in terms of transcutaneous Pa,CO2 (dMV from 8.4+/-1.2 to 6.6+/-0.7 kPa; nMV from 8.2+/-1.2 to 6.8+/-0.5 kPa, p<0.0001). We conclude that in many respects, when compared to nocturnal mechanical ventilation, daytime mechanical ventilation in awake patients is equally effective at reversing chronic respiratory insufficiency. Since long-term safety issues were not addressed in this study, we recommend that nocturnal mechanical ventilation should remain the modality of choice for noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

  2. A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Sulea, Traian; van Faassen, Henk; Hussack, Greg; Purisima, Enrico O; MacKenzie, C Roger; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and streptococcal protein G (SpG) affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs) are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species. PMID:27631624

  3. The adaptive evolution of the mammalian mitochondrial genome

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Rute R; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ramos, Maria João; Antunes, Agostinho

    2008-01-01

    Background The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures. Results Wide variation in the properties of amino acids were observed at functionally important regions of cytochrome b in species with more-specialized metabolic requirements (such as adaptation to low energy diet or large body size, such as in elephant, dugong, sloth, and pangolin, and adaptation to unusual oxygen requirements, for example diving in cetaceans, flying in bats, and living at high altitudes in alpacas). Signatures of adaptive variation in the NADH dehydrogenase complex were restricted to the loop regions of the transmembrane units which likely function as protons pumps. Evidence of adaptive variation in the cytochrome c oxidase complex was observed mostly at the interface between the mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits, perhaps evidence of co-evolution. The ATP8 subunit, which has an important role in the assembly of F0, exhibited the highest signal of adaptive variation. ATP6, which has an essential role in rotor performance, showed a high adaptive variation in predicted loop areas. Conclusion Our study provides insight into the adaptive evolution of the mtDNA genome in mammals and its implications for the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. We present a framework for future experimental characterization of the impact of specific mutations in the function, physiology, and interactions of the mtDNA encoded proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:18318906

  4. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world.

  5. VHH phage-based competitive real-time immuno-polymerase chain reaction for ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A in cereal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yang; Xiong, Yong-hua; Tu, Zhui; Li, Yan-ping; He, Zhen-yun; Qiu, Yu-lou; Fu, Jin-heng; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    Phage display-mediated immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PD-IPCR) is an ultrasensitive detection technology that combines the advantages of immuno-PCR and phage display. The phage particle, which displayed antibody fragments including single-chain fragment variable (scFv), variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH), and antigen-binding fragment (Fab) on the surface can be directly used in IPCR, supplying both the detection antibody and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template. In this work, we used ochratoxin A (OTA) as a model system to study the capacity of PD-IPCR in the detection of toxic small molecular weight compounds, especially mycotoxins. An alpaca-derived VHH library was constructed and subjected to four cycles of panning. In total, 16 clones with four unique sequences were selected by competitive binding with OTA. The clone VHH-28 resulted in the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.31 ng/mL in the phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and was selected to develop the VHH phage-based real-time immuno-PCR (RT-IPCR). The detection limit of the VHH phage-based RT-IPCR was 3.7 pg/L, with a linear range of 0.01-1000 pg/mL. This method was compared with conventional ELISA, and validation results indicated the reliability of VHH phage-based RT-IPCR in the detection of OTA in cereal samples. This study provides a new idea for the ultrasensitive detection of mycotoxins and other toxic small molecular weight compounds.

  6. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals. PMID:21141278

  7. A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kevin A.; Sulea, Traian; van Faassen, Henk; Hussack, Greg; Purisima, Enrico O.; MacKenzie, C. Roger; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and streptococcal protein G (SpG) affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs) are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species. PMID:27631624

  8. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  9. Effects of hair, clothing, and headgear on localization of three-dimensional sounds Part IIb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, Klaus A. J.

    2003-10-01

    Seven 20-25-year-old normal hearing (<=20 dBHL) native male-undergraduates listened twice to treatments of 85 virtual source locations in a large dark anechoic chamber. The 3-D-stimuli were anew-calculated white noise bursts, amplitude modulated (40-Hz sine), repeated after a pause (total duration 3×275=825 ms), HRTF-convolved and headphone-equalized (Sennheiser HD580). The HRTFs were measured from a Cortex dummy head wearing different garments: 1=alpaca pullover only; 2=1+curly pony-tailed thick-hair+eye-glasses 3=1+long thin-hair (ear-covering) 4=1+mens trilby; 5=2+bicycle helmet+jacket [Riederer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue]. Perceived directions were signified by placing a tailored digitizer-stylus over an illuminated ball darkened after the response. Subjects did the experiments during three days, each consisting of a 2-h session of several randomized sets with multiple breaks. Azimuth and elevation errors were investigated separately in factorial within-subjects ANOVA showing strong dependence p(<=0.004) on all main effects and interactions (garment, elevation, azimuth). The grand mean errors were approximately 16°-19°. Confused angles were retained around the +/-90°-interaural axis and cos(elev)-weighting was applied to azimuth errors. The total front-back/back-front confusion rate was 18.38% and up-down/down-up 12.21%. The confusions (except left-right/right-left, 2.07%) and reaction times depended strongly on azimuth (main effect) and garment (interaction). [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation.

  10. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals.

  11. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  13. An Anti-proteome Nanobody Library Approach Yields a Specific Immunoassay for Trypanosoma congolense Diagnosis Targeting Glycosomal Aldolase

    PubMed Central

    Odongo, Steven; Sterckx, Yann G. J.; Stijlemans, Benoît; Pillay, Davita; Baltz, Théo; Muyldermans, Serge; Magez, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases pose a severe worldwide threat to human and livestock health. While early diagnosis could enable prompt preventive interventions, the majority of diseases are found in rural settings where basic laboratory facilities are scarce. Under such field conditions, point-of-care immunoassays provide an appropriate solution for rapid and reliable diagnosis. The limiting steps in the development of the assay are the identification of a suitable target antigen and the selection of appropriate high affinity capture and detection antibodies. To meet these challenges, we describe the development of a Nanobody (Nb)-based antigen detection assay generated from a Nb library directed against the soluble proteome of an infectious agent. In this study, Trypanosoma congolense was chosen as a model system. Methodology/Principal Findings An alpaca was vaccinated with whole-parasite soluble proteome to generate a Nb library from which the most potent T. congolense specific Nb sandwich immunoassay (Nb474H-Nb474B) was selected. First, the Nb474-homologous sandwich ELISA (Nb474-ELISA) was shown to detect experimental infections with high Positive Predictive Value (98%), Sensitivity (87%) and Specificity (94%). Second, it was demonstrated under experimental conditions that the assay serves as test-of-cure after Berenil treatment. Finally, this assay allowed target antigen identification. The latter was independently purified through immuno-capturing from (i) T. congolense soluble proteome, (ii) T. congolense secretome preparation and (iii) sera of T. congolense infected mice. Subsequent mass spectrometry analysis identified the target as T. congolense glycosomal aldolase. Conclusions/Significance The results show that glycosomal aldolase is a candidate biomarker for active T. congolense infections. In addition, and by proof-of-principle, the data demonstrate that the Nb strategy devised here offers a unique approach to both diagnostic development and target

  14. A heterodimer of a VHH (variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only) antibody that inhibits anthrax toxin cell binding linked to a VHH antibody that blocks oligomer formation is highly protective in an anthrax spore challenge model.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Leysath, Clinton E; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Vrentas, Catherine; Crown, Devorah; Leppla, Stephen H; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2015-03-01

    Anthrax disease is caused by a toxin consisting of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Antibodies against PA have been shown to be protective against the disease. Variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs) with affinity for PA were obtained from immunized alpacas and screened for anthrax neutralizing activity in macrophage toxicity assays. Two classes of neutralizing VHHs were identified recognizing distinct, non-overlapping epitopes. One class recognizes domain 4 of PA at a well characterized neutralizing site through which PA binds to its cellular receptor. A second neutralizing VHH (JKH-C7) recognizes a novel epitope. This antibody inhibits conversion of the PA oligomer from "pre-pore" to its SDS and heat-resistant "pore" conformation while not preventing cleavage of full-length 83-kDa PA (PA83) by cell surface proteases to its oligomer-competent 63-kDa form (PA63). The antibody prevents endocytosis of the cell surface-generated PA63 subunit but not preformed PA63 oligomers formed in solution. JKH-C7 and the receptor-blocking VHH class (JIK-B8) were expressed as a heterodimeric VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA). This VNA displayed improved neutralizing potency in cell assays and protected mice from anthrax toxin challenge with much better efficacy than the separate component VHHs. The VNA protected virtually all mice when separately administered at a 1:1 ratio to toxin and protected mice against Bacillus anthracis spore infection. Thus, our studies show the potential of VNAs as anthrax therapeutics. Due to their simple and stable nature, VNAs should be amenable to genetic delivery or administration via respiratory routes.

  15. Anti-idiotypic VHH phage display-mediated immuno-PCR for ultrasensitive determination of mycotoxin zearalenone in cereals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianxian; He, Qinghua; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Shu, Mei; Tu, Zhui; Li, Yanping; Wang, Wei; Cao, Dongmei

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay is frequently used to analyze mycotoxin contamination. However, the introduction of mycotoxins or their conjugates in conventional immunoassay threatens the safety of individuals and the environment. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) can be used as alternative compounds to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies, which work as non-toxic surrogate reagents in immunoassay. In this work, anti-zearalenone (ZEN) monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as the target for biopanning anti-idiotypic VHH from a naïve alpaca VHH phage display library. After four panning cycles, one anti-idiotypic VHH phage clone (Z1) was isolated and the Z1 based phage ELISA for ZEN showed a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.25±0.02ng/mL, a linear range of 0.11-0.55ng/mL, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08ng/mL. Furthermore, the phage particles of Z1 were also applied to immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PD-IPCR), which supplied both the detection antigens and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) templates. Compared with that of phage ELISA, the LOD of Z1 based PD-IPCR was 12-fold improved, with a detection limit of 6.5pg/mL and a linear range of 0.01-100ng/mL. The proposed method was then validated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results showed the reliability of PD-IPCR for the determination of ZEN in cereal samples. The use of anti-idiotypic VHH phage as non-toxic surrogate and signal-amplification function of PCR make it a promising method for actual ZEN analysis in cereals. PMID:26592626

  16. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Olmos, Katheryne; Báez, John; Valenzuela, Nicomédes; Gahona, Joselyne; del Campo, Rosa; Silva, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer), and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%), followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors. PMID:25405007

  17. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Josephine G.; Morgan, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host–parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog) and 76% (for mouflon) of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse) and 77% (for llamas/alpacas) of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide evidence to answer

  18. Composition of milk from minor dairy animals and buffalo breeds: a biodiversity perspective.

    PubMed

    Medhammar, Elinor; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Nilsson, Emma; Charrondiere, Ute Ruth; Burlingame, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the nutrient composition for buffalo, mare, and dromedary camel milks at the level of breed, and species-level data for yak, mithun, musk ox, donkey, Bactrian camel, llama, alpaca, reindeer and moose milks. Average values of nutrients were calculated and compared. Interspecies values (g 100 g⁻¹) were 0.7-16.1 for total fat, 1.6-10.5 for protein, 2.6-6.6 for lactose, and 67.9-90.8 for water. Reindeer and moose milks had the highest fat and protein concentrations and the lowest lactose contents. Mare and donkey milks had the lowest protein and fat contents, in addition to showing the most appropriate fatty acid profile for human nutrition. Dromedary camel milk was most similar to cow milk in proximate composition. Moose milk was the richest in minerals, having values as high as 358 mg 100 g⁻¹ for calcium, 158 mg 100 g⁻¹ for sodium and 150 mg 100 g⁻¹ for phosphorus. Interbreed differences of 4 g 100 g⁻¹ were observed in total fat in buffalo, yak, mare and dromedary camel milks. Large interbreed differences were also present in the mineral contents in mare, buffalo and dromedary camel milks. By bringing together these compositional data, we hope to usefully widen the biodiversity knowledge base, which may contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of milk from underutilized dairy breeds and species, and to improved food and nutrition security, particularly in developing countries.

  19. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world. PMID:25577694

  20. Surra Sero K-SeT, a new immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Birhanu, Hadush; Rogé, Stijn; Simon, Thomas; Baelmans, Rudy; Gebrehiwot, Tadesse; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, infects different domestic and wild animals and has a wide geographical distribution. It is mechanically transmitted mainly by haematophagous flies. Parasitological techniques are commonly used for the diagnosis of surra but have limited sensitivity. Therefore, serodiagnosis based on the detection of T. evansi specific antibodies is recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Recently, we developed a new antibody detection test for the serodiagnosis of T. evansi infection, the Surra Sero K-SeT. Surra Sero K-SeT is an immunochromatographic test (ICT) that makes use of recombinant variant surface glycoprotein rVSG RoTat 1.2, produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In this study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Surra Sero K-SeT and the Card Agglutination Test for T. evansi Trypanosomososis (CATT/T. evansi) with immune trypanolysis (TL) as reference test on a total of 806 sera from camels, water buffaloes, horses, bovines, sheep, dogs and alpacas. Test agreement was highest between Surra Sero K-SeT and TL (κ=0.91, 95% CI 0.841-0.979) and somewhat lower between CATT/T. evansi and TL (κ=0.85, 95% CI 0.785-0.922) and Surra Sero K-SeT and CATT/T. evansi (κ=0.81, 95% CI 0.742-0.878). The Surra Sero K-SeT displayed a somewhat lower overall specificity than CATT/T. evansi (94.8% versus 98.3%, χ(2)=13.37, p<0.001) but a considerably higher sensitivity (98.1% versus 84.4%, χ(2)=33.39, p<0.001). We conclude that the Surra Sero K-SeT may become an alternative for the CATT/T. evansi for sensitive detection of antibodies against T. evansi in domestic animals.

  1. Development of an instrument to indirectly monitor arterial pCO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Høgetveit, Jan Olav; Kristiansen, Frode; Pedersen, Thore H

    2006-01-01

    Arterial blood carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) is important to the conduct of perfusion with alpha-stat or pH-stat strategy. Temperature changes during CBP complicate any attempts to monitor carbon dioxide tension in the exhaust outlet of an oxygenator (PexCO2) because CO2 becomes more soluble with decreasing temperatures. Normally, this would have been the obvious and easy choice of method to indirectly measure the patient's PaCO2. Several tests have been performed with ordinary capnographs modified to measure pCO2 at the oxygenator exhaust gas port. These tests have shown varying degrees of precision (Br I Anaesth 1999; 82(6): 843-46; 1 Extra-Corpor Technol 2003; 35(3): 218-23; Br JAnaesth 2000; 84: 536; J Extra-Corpor Technol 1994; 26: 64-67). Some of the best results have been achieved by Potger et al. (JExtra-Corpor Technol 2003; 35(3): 218-23), who found a strong correlation between the arterial temperature-corrected PexCO2 when using a standard capnograph monitoring the PaCO2 measured from a blood gas analyser (PbCO2). Our group has developed a new instrument, especially designed for oxygenator gas exhaust monitoring. The new instrument has automatic temperature correction, enabling it to show both original and corrected pCO2 values, simultaneously. Ordinary capnograph functions, such as zeroing, flow control and calibration routines, are included. The solution consists of a pCO2 sensor module, a temperature sensor, a water trap and a dedicated PC mounted on a heart-lung machine. Since the heart-lung machine was already equipped with a computer for data logging and a temperature sensor, only a box containing the pCO2 sensor module and the water trap had to be added. The PC uses a specially written program designed to collect data, make the necessary calculations and display the results on the computer screen. A temperature correction was developed based on a linear regression analysis for a data-set of 15 patients, assuming

  2. Blood gas values during intermittent positive pressure ventilation and spontaneous ventilation in 160 anesthetized horses positioned in lateral or dorsal recumbency.

    PubMed

    Day, T K; Gaynor, J S; Muir, W W; Bednarski, R M; Mason, D E

    1995-01-01

    One hundred sixty horses were anesthetized with xylazine, guaifenesin, thiamylal, and halothane for elective soft tissue and orthopedic procedures. Horses were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 40): Horses positioned in lateral (LRG1; n = 20) or dorsal (DRG1; n = 20) recumbency breathed spontaneously throughout anesthesia. Group 2 (n = 40): Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) was instituted throughout anesthesia in horses positioned in lateral (LRG2; n = 20) or dorsal (DRG2; n = 20) recumbency. Group 3 (n = 40): Horses positioned in lateral (LRG3; n = 20) or dorsal (DRG3; n = 20) recumbency breathed spontaneously for the first half of anesthesia and intermittent positive pressure ventilation was instituted for the second half of anesthesia. Group 4 (n = 40): Intermittent positive pressure ventilation was instituted for the first half of anesthesia in horses positioned in lateral (LRG4; n = 20) or dorsal (DRG4; n = 20) recumbency. Spontaneous ventilation (SV) occured for the second half of anesthesia. The mean time of anesthesia was not significantly different within or between groups. The mean time of SV and IPPV was not significantly different in groups 3 and 4. Variables analyzed included pH, PaCO2, PaO2, and P(A-a)O2 (calculated). Spontaneous ventilation resulted in significantly higher PaCO2 and P(A-a)O2 values and significantly lower PaO2 values in LRG1 and DRG1 horses compared with LRG2 and DRG2 horses. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation resulted in normocarbia and significantly lower P(A-a)O2 values in LRG2 and DRG2 horses. In LRG2 the PaO2 values significantly increased from 20 minutes after induction to the end of anesthesia. The PaO2 and P(A-a)O2 values were not significantly different from the beginning of anesthesia after IPPV in DRG2 or DRG3. The PaO2 values significantly decreased and the P(A-a)O2 values significantly increased after return to SV in horses in LRG4 and DRG4. The PaO2 values were lowest and the

  3. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity Following Acclimatization to High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Subudhi, Andrew W; Duffin, James; Lovering, Andrew T; Roach, Robert C; Kayser, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv) responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL), upon ascent (ALT1) and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16) to 5260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95 vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P = 0.024) and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5%/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P = 0.026) to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177, 95% CI [139, 215], P < 0.001; slope: 10.3%/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P = 0.003) compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P = 0.982), while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P = 0.001 vs. SL), indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude.

  4. Liquid extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal: use of THAM (tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane) coupled to hemofiltration to control hypercapnic acidosis in a porcine model of protective mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Pablo; Lillo, Felipe; Soto, Dagoberto; Escobar, Leslie; Simon, Felipe; Hernández, Karina; Alegría, Leyla; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg(-1)·h(-1) coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg(-1)·h(-1). After 18-hours of treatment the THAM infusion was stopped but hemofiltration was kept on until 24-hours. The 2 other animals were treated with THAM but without hemofiltration. After 1-hour of treatment in THAM+HF, PaCO2 rapidly decreased from a median of 89.0 (IQR) (80.0, 98.0) to 71.3 (65.8, 82.0) mmHg (P<0.05), while pH increased from 7.12 (7.01, 7.15) to 7.29 (7.27, 7.30) (P<0.05). Thereafter PaCO2 remained stable between 60-70 mmHg, while pH increased above 7.4. After stopping THAM at 18 hours of treatment a profound rebound effect was observed with severe hypercapnic acidosis. The most important side effect we observed was hyperosmolality, which reached a maximum of 330 (328, 332) mOsm·kg H2O(-1) at T18. The animals treated only with THAM developed severe hypercapnia, despite the fact that pH returned to normal values, and died after 12 hours. Control-group had an uneven evolution until the end of the experiment. A combined treatment with THAM coupled to hemofiltration may be an effective treatment to control severe hypercapnic acidosis. PMID:27648139

  5. Determinants of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transfer during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in an Experimental Model of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Silva, Débora Prudêncio e; Friedrich, Natalia; Barbosa, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has gained renewed interest in the treatment of respiratory failure since the advent of the modern polymethylpentene membranes. Limited information exists, however, on the performance of these membranes in terms of gas transfers during multiple organ failure (MOF). We investigated determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer as well as biochemical alterations after the circulation of blood through the circuit in a pig model under ECMO support before and after induction of MOF. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested before and after the induction of MOF with fecal peritonitis and saline lavage lung injury. In the multivariate analysis, oxygen transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 66, P<0.001) and a negative association with pre-membrane PaCO2 (slope = −0.96, P = 0.001) and SatO2 (slope = −1.7, P<0.001). Carbon dioxide transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 17, P<0.001), gas flow (slope = 33, P<0.001), pre-membrane PaCO2 (slope = 1.2, P<0.001) and a negative association with the hemoglobin (slope = −3.478, P = 0.042). We found an increase in pH in the baseline from 7.50[7.46,7.54] to 7.60[7.55,7.65] (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 7.19[6.92,7.32] to 7.41[7.13,7.5] (P<0.001). Likewise, the PCO2 fell in the baseline from 35 [32,39] to 25 [22,27] mmHg (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 59 [47,91] to 34 [28,45] mmHg (P<0.001). In conclusion, both oxygen and carbon dioxide transfers were significantly determined by blood flow. Oxygen transfer was modulated by the pre-membrane SatO2 and CO2, while carbon dioxide transfer was affected by the gas flow, pre-membrane CO2 and hemoglobin. PMID:23383011

  6. Cardiorespiratory and antinociceptive effects of two different doses of lidocaine administered to horses during a constant intravenous infusion of xylazine and ketamine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine during xylazine and ketamine anesthesia in horses and aimed to correlate these effects with cardiorespiratory variables, bispectral index (BIS) and plasma lidocaine concentrations. Six adult crossbred mares weighing 320–400 kg were anesthetized on three different occasions. Sedation was performed with xylazine (0.75 mg/kg IV) and anesthetic induction with guaifenesin (75 mg/kg IV) and ketamine (2 mg/kg IV). Anesthesia was maintained with 37.5 μg/kg/min of xylazine and 87.5 μg/kg/min of ketamine both administered intravenously for 75 min. The three treatments consisted of: lidocaine (loading dose: 5 mg/kg, CRI: 100 μg/kg/min; THL); lidocaine (loading dose: 2.5 mg/kg; CRI: 50 μg/kg/min: TLL); and saline (TS); all given 15 min after induction and maintained for 1 h. Antinociception was measured by response to electrical stimulation and bispectral index (BIS) was recorded during anesthesia. Parametric and non-parametric data were compared using ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls and Friedman tests, respectively. Results Plasma lidocaine concentrations peaked at the end of lidocaine loading dose and was greater in THL (9.61 ± 2.75 μg/mL) vs TLL (4.50 ± 3.34 μg/mL). Electrical noxious stimulation caused purposeful movement in all horses from TS, but no response in THL. The BIS was decreased in THL only and was less when compared to the other treatments throughout anesthesia. Blood pressure, PaO2 and PaCO2 increased and heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), pH, total plasma protein and temperature decreased during anesthesia in all treatments. PaCO2 and HR were greater and RR and pH less in THL compared to TLL and TS at 30 min during anesthesia. All recoveries were considered excellent. Time to standing was longer after THL (60 ± 20 min) than following TLL and TS (32 ± 17 and 30 ± 15 min, respectively

  7. Elective decompression of the left ventricle in pediatric patients may reduce the duration of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Best, Derek; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E; Millar, Johnny; Butt, Warwick

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of elective left heart decompression at the time of initiation of central venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) on VA ECMO duration and clinical outcomes in children in a single tertiary ECMO referral center with a large pediatric population from a national referral center for pediatric cardiac surgery. We studied 51 episodes of VA ECMO in a historical cohort of 49 pediatric patients treated between the years 1990 and 2013 in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. The cases had a variety of diagnoses including congenital cardiac abnormalities, sepsis, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathy. Left heart decompression as an elective treatment or an emergency intervention for left heart distension was effectively achieved by a number of methods, including left atrial venting, blade atrial septostomy, and left ventricular cannulation. Elective left heart decompression was associated with a reduction in time on ECMO (128 h) when compared with emergency decompression (236 h) (P = 0.013). Subgroup analysis showed that ECMO duration was greatest in noncardiac patients (elective 138 h, emergency 295 h; P = 0.02) and in patients who died despite both emergency decompression and ECMO (elective 133 h, emergency 354 h; P = 0.002). As the emergency cases had a lower pH, a higher PaCO2 , and a lower oxygenation index and were treated with a higher mean airway pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and respiratory rate prior to receiving VA ECMO, we undertook multivariate linear regression modeling to show that only PaCO2 and the timing of left heart decompression were associated with ECMO duration. However, elective left heart decompression was not associated with a reduction in length of PICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or duration of oxygen therapy. Elective left heart decompression was not associated with improved ECMO survival or survival to PICU discharge

  8. Elective decompression of the left ventricle in pediatric patients may reduce the duration of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Best, Derek; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E; Millar, Johnny; Butt, Warwick

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of elective left heart decompression at the time of initiation of central venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) on VA ECMO duration and clinical outcomes in children in a single tertiary ECMO referral center with a large pediatric population from a national referral center for pediatric cardiac surgery. We studied 51 episodes of VA ECMO in a historical cohort of 49 pediatric patients treated between the years 1990 and 2013 in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. The cases had a variety of diagnoses including congenital cardiac abnormalities, sepsis, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathy. Left heart decompression as an elective treatment or an emergency intervention for left heart distension was effectively achieved by a number of methods, including left atrial venting, blade atrial septostomy, and left ventricular cannulation. Elective left heart decompression was associated with a reduction in time on ECMO (128 h) when compared with emergency decompression (236 h) (P = 0.013). Subgroup analysis showed that ECMO duration was greatest in noncardiac patients (elective 138 h, emergency 295 h; P = 0.02) and in patients who died despite both emergency decompression and ECMO (elective 133 h, emergency 354 h; P = 0.002). As the emergency cases had a lower pH, a higher PaCO2 , and a lower oxygenation index and were treated with a higher mean airway pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and respiratory rate prior to receiving VA ECMO, we undertook multivariate linear regression modeling to show that only PaCO2 and the timing of left heart decompression were associated with ECMO duration. However, elective left heart decompression was not associated with a reduction in length of PICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or duration of oxygen therapy. Elective left heart decompression was not associated with improved ECMO survival or survival to PICU discharge

  9. Anesthetic management in atrial fibrillation ablation procedure: Adding non-invasive ventilation to deep sedation.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Francesco; Ripoli, Andrea; Formichi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic management of patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation has specific requirements. The feasibility of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) added to deep sedation procedure was evaluated. Seventy-two patients who underwent ablation procedure were retrospectively revised, performed with (57%) or without (43%) application of NIV (Respironic(®) latex-free total face mask connected to Garbin ventilator-Linde Inc.) during deep sedation (Midazolam 0.01-0.02 mg/kg, fentanyl 2.5-5 μg/kg and propofol: bolus dose 1-1.5 mg/kg, maintenance 2-4 mg/kg/h). In the two groups (NIV vs deep sedation), differences were detected in intraprocedural (pH 7.37 ± 0.05 vs 7.32 ± 0.05, p = 0.001; PaO2 117.10 ± 27.25 vs 148.17 ± 45.29, p = 0.004; PaCO2 43.37 ± 6.91 vs 49.33 ± 7.34, p = 0.002) and in percentage variation with respect to basal values (pH -0.52 ± 0.83 vs -1.44 ± 0.87, p = 0.002; PaCO2 7.21 ± 15.55 vs 34.91 ± 25.76, p = 0.001) of arterial blood gas parameters. Two episodes of respiratory complications, treated with application of NIV, were reported in deep sedation procedure. Endotracheal intubation was not necessary in any case. Adverse events related to electrophysiological procedures and recurrence of atrial fibrillation were recorded, respectively, in 36% and 29% of cases. NIV proved to be feasible in this context and maintained better respiratory homeostasis and better arterial blood gas balance when added to deep sedation. PMID:26937093

  10. Thoracic epidural anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy using either bupivacaine or a mixture of bupivacaine and clonidine: A comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Malti; Verma, A. P.; Kang, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Traditionally laparoscopic cholecystectomy is done under general anesthesia. But recently there is a growing interest to get it conducted under central neuraxial blockade. We conducted a clinical study comprising bupivacaine alone or a combination of bupivacaine and clonidine (2 μg/kg) in thoracic epidural anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The aim was to attenuate the undesirable hemodynamic changes due to pneumoperitoneum (PNO) and achieve a better qualitative blockade. Patients and Methods: After taking approval from Institutional Ethical Committee, 50 adult patients of ASA grade I and II were divided into two groups; group A where bupivacaine was given with 2 μg/kg of clonidine (Cloneon, Neon) and in group B bupivacaine (Anawin, Neon) was given with 1 ml of saline as placebo. Thoracic epidural was given at the T9-T10 or T10-T11 interspace to obtain a block of T4-L2 dermatome. Hemodynamic parameters like heart rate (HR), noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP), respiratory rate (RR), electrocardiogram (ECG), oxygen saturation (SpO2) and arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were monitored and readings were recorded before and 10 minutes (min.) after the blockade and then at 5 min, 15 min and 30 min after PNO and 15 min after exsufflation. Results: All the parameters of the patients in group A remained stable but the patients of group B showed an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR at 5, 15 and 30 min after PNO and 15 min after exsufflation as compared to Group A. PaCO2, SpO2 and RR values in both the groups were comparable. In group A, two patients complained of shoulder pain while in group B12 patients complained of shoulder pain. Conclusion: Thoracic epidural anesthesia for LC is a satisfactory alternative technique in selected cases. Addition of clonidine (2 μg/kg) to bupivacaine produces better qualitative anesthetic conditions. It prevents hemodynamic perturbations produced by pneumoperitoneum and also decreases

  11. Executive Function, Survival, and Hospitalization in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Longitudinal Analysis of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT)

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, James W.; Novotny, Paul; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Cognitive dysfunction has been demonstrated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but studies are limited to cross-sectional analyses or incompletely characterized populations. Objectives: We examined longitudinal changes in sensitive measures of executive function in a well-characterized population of patients with severe COPD. Methods: This study was performed on patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. To assess executive function, we analyzed trail making (TM) A and B times at enrollment in the trial (2,128 patients), and at 12 (731 patients) and 24 months (593 patients) after enrollment, adjusted for surgery, marriage status, age, education, income, depression, PaO2, PaCO2, and smoking. Associations with survival and hospitalizations were examined using Cox regression and linear regression models. Measurements and Main Results: The average age of the patients was 66.4 years, and the average FEV1 was 23.9% predicted. At the time of enrolment, 38% had executive dysfunction. Compared with those who did not, these patients were older, less educated, had higher oxygen use, higher PaCO2, worse quality of life as measured by the St. George’s Respiratory Quotient, reduced well-being, and lower social function. There was no significant change over 2 years in TM A or B times after adjustment for covariables. Changes in TM B times were modestly associated with survival, but changes in TM B − A times were not. Changes in TM scores were not associated with frequency of hospitalization. Lung function, PaO2, smoking, survival, and hospitalizations were not significantly different in those with executive dysfunction. Conclusions: In this large population of patients with severe emphysema and heavy cigarette smoking exposure, there was no significant decline over 2 years in cognitive executive function as measured by TM tests. There was no association between executive function impairment and frequency of hospitalization, and

  12. Protective effect of Xuebijing injection against acute lung injury induced by left ventricular ischemia/reperfusion in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    JI, MINGLI; WANG, YUXIA; WANG, LEI; CHEN, LIPING; LI, JING

    2016-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) is a Chinese herbal preparation. Previous studies have demonstrated that XBJ injection is able to inhibit the uncontrolled release of endogenous inflammatory mediators, attenuate inflammation, and alleviate organ damage. However, there are no relevant reports on the protective effect of XBJ against left ventricular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of XBJ on ALI induced by left ventricular I/R, and provide evidence for the clinical application of XBJ. In the present study, 120 healthy rabbits of mixed gender were randomly assigned to a normal control group, ischemia group, I/R group (I/RG) and XBJ-injection treatment group (TG). In addition, each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=10/subgroup), namely, 30 min pre-ischemia, 30 min post-ischemia and 30 min post-reperfusion subgroups. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from the jugularis externa and carotis communis of the rabbits at the three time points, and a blood gas analyzer was used to measure the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2). Following sacrifice, the lungs of the rabbits were removed and a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was immediately performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the BAL fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood. In addition, the lower lobe of the right lung was removed in order to measure the protein expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and TNF-α. The results demonstrated that in the rabbits of the TG PaO2 was increased, PaCO2 was decreased, the lung tissue congestion edema was attenuated, the expression levels of TNF-α in the peripheral blood and BALF were reduced and the protein expression levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α in the lung tissue samples were decreased, as compared with those in the I/RG rabbits. These

  13. Respiratory muscle strength and muscle endurance are not affected by acute metabolic acidemia.

    PubMed

    Nizet, Tessa A C; Heijdra, Yvonne F; van den Elshout, Frank J J; van de Ven, Marjo J T; Bosch, Frank H; Mulder, Paul H; Folgering, Hans Th M

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish ventilatory failure and hypercapnia. On the other hand, it is known that acute metabolic acidosis can also negatively affect (respiratory) muscle function and, therefore, could lead to a deterioration of respiratory failure. Moreover, we reasoned that the impact of metabolic acidosis on respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance could be more pronounced in COPD patients as compared to asthma patients and healthy subjects, due to already impaired respiratory muscle function. In this study, the effect of metabolic acidosis was studied on peripheral muscle strength, peripheral muscle endurance, airway resistance, and on arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)). Acute metabolic acidosis was induced by administration of ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl). The effect of metabolic acidosis was studied on inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength and on respiratory muscle endurance. Effects were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design in 15 healthy subjects (4 male; age 33.2 +/- 11.5 years; FEV(1) 108.3 +/- 16.2% predicted), 14 asthma patients (5 male; age 48.1 +/- 16.1 years; FEV(1) 101.6 +/- 15.3% predicted), and 15 moderate to severe COPD patients (9 male; age 62.8 +/- 6.8 years; FEV(1) 50.0 +/- 11.8% predicted). An acute metabolic acidemia of BE -3.1 mmol x L(-1) was induced. Acute metabolic acidemia did not significantly affect strength or endurance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, respectively. In all subjects airway resistance was significantly decreased after induction of metabolic acidemia (mean difference -0.1 kPa x sec x L(-1) [95%-CI: -0.1 - -0.02]. In COPD patients PaCO(2) was significantly lowered during metabolic acidemia (mean

  14. Comparison between Thoracic Epidural Block and Thoracic Paravertebral Block for Post Thoracotomy Pain Relief

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Soniya; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar; Chandra, Girish; Prakash, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative pain after thoracotomy is being considered one of the most severe pain and if not treated well, can result in various respiratory and other complications. Aim Present study was conducted with the aim to compare continuous thoracic epidural infusion with continuous paravertebral infusion for postoperative pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and four point observer ranking. The secondary outcomes measured were pulmonary functions and any complication like hypotension, bradycardia, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention and neurological complications if any. Materials and Methods Sixty patients of age group 18-60 years posted for anterolateral thoracotomy surgery for lung resection were randomised either to epidural or paravertebral group in this randomised prospective double blind study. In Epidural group 7.5ml bolus of 0.125% Bupivacaine with 50μg Fentanyl and in Paravertebral group 15ml bolus of 0.125% Bupivacaine with 50μg Fentanyl was given 30 minutes before the anticipated end of surgery. Bolus dose was followed by infusion of 0.125% Bupivacaine with 2μg/ml Fentanyl at the rate of 5 ml/hr in both groups. Parameters noted were Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Heart Rate (HR), Oxygen Saturation (SpO2), Arterial Blood Gas (PaCO2, P/F ratio), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Four Point Observer Ranking Scale (FPORS) for pain, number of sensory segments blocked (by checking for pinprick sensation), requirement of infusion top ups and rescue analgesia (Tramadol), pre and postoperative pulmonary function test {(Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV)1, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR)} and complications from start of infusion till 24 hours in the postoperative period. Results Both the techniques were effective in relieving pain but pain relief was significantly better with epidural. Postoperatively, HR, SpO2, P/F ratio and PaCO2 were comparable between group E and P. There was significant decline in FeV1

  15. Effects of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery on Gas Exchange and Breathing Pattern During Maximum Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.; Belt, Patricia; Sternberg, Alice L.; Mosenifar, Zab; Make, Barry J.; Utz, James P.; Sciurba, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial studied lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for its effects on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and dyspnea during exercise in severe emphysema. Methods: Exercise testing was performed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Minute ventilation (V̇e), tidal volume (Vt), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2), dyspnea rating, and workload were recorded at rest, 3 min of unloaded pedaling, and maximum exercise. Pao2, Paco2, pH, fraction of expired carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate were also collected in some subjects at these time points and each minute of testing. There were 1,218 patients enrolled in the study (mean [± SD] age, 66.6 ± 6.1 years; mean, 61%; mean FEV1, 0.77 ± 0.24 L), with 238 patients participating in this substudy (mean age, 66.1 ± 6.8 years; mean, 67%; mean FEV1, 0.78 ± 0.25 L). Results: At 6 months, LVRS patients had higher maximum V̇e (32.8 vs 29.6 L/min, respectively; p = 0.001), V̇co2, (0.923 vs 0.820 L/min, respectively; p = 0.0003), Vt (1.18 vs 1.07 L, respectively; p = 0.001), heart rate (124 vs 121 beats/min, respectively; p = 0.02), and workload (49.3 vs 45.1 W, respectively; p = 0.04), but less breathlessness (as measured by Borg dyspnea scale score) [4.4 vs 5.2, respectively; p = 0.0001] and exercise ventilatory limitation (49.5% vs 71.9%, respectively; p = 0.001) than medical patients. LVRS patients with upper-lobe emphysema showed a downward shift in Paco2 vs V̇co2 (p = 0.001). During exercise, LVRS patients breathed slower and deeper at 6 months (p = 0.01) and 12 months (p = 0.006), with reduced dead space at 6 months (p = 0.007) and 24 months (p = 0.006). Twelve months after patients underwent LVRS, dyspnea was less in patients with upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.001) and non–upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.007). Conclusion: During exercise following LVRS, patients with severe emphysema improve carbon dioxide elimination and dead space, breathe slower and deeper, and report less dyspnea

  16. Arterial to end-tidal Pco2 difference during exercise in normoxia and severe acute hypoxia: importance of blood temperature correction

    PubMed Central

    Losa-Reyna, José; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Henriquez, Juan José González; Calbet, José A L

    2015-01-01

    Negative arterial to end-tidal Pco2 differences ((a-ET)Pco2) have been reported in normoxia. To determine the influence of blood temperature on (a-ET)Pco2, 11 volunteers (21 ± 2 years) performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia (Nx, PIo2: 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIo2: 73 mmHg), while arterial blood gases and temperature (ABT) were simultaneously measured together with end-tidal Pco2 (PETco2). After accounting for blood temperature, the (a-ET) Pco2 was reduced (in absolute values) from −4.2 ± 1.6 to −1.1 ± 1.5 mmHg in normoxia and from −1.7 ± 1.6 to 0.9 ± 0.9 mmHg in hypoxia (both P < 0.05). The temperature corrected (a-ET)Pco2 was linearly related with absolute and relative exercise intensity, VO2, VCO2, and respiratory rate (RR) in normoxia and hypoxia (R2: 0.52–0.59). Exercise CO2 production and PETco2 values were lower in hypoxia than normoxia, likely explaining the greater (less negative) (a-ET)Pco2 difference in hypoxia than normoxia (P < 0.05). At near-maximal exercise intensity the (a-ET)Pco2 lies close to 0 mmHg, that is, the mean Paco2 and the mean PETco2 are similar. The mean exercise (a-ET)Pco2 difference is closely related to the mean A-aDO2 difference (r = 0.90, P < 0.001), as would be expected if similar mechanisms perturb the gas exchange of O2 and CO2 during exercise. In summary, most of the negative (a-ET)Pco2 values observed in previous studies are due to lack of correction of Paco2 for blood temperature. The absolute magnitude of the (a-ET)Pco2 difference is lower during exercise in hypoxia than normoxia. PMID:26508736

  17. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Suchi; Shi, Jindong; Fu, Cuiping; Wu, Xu; Li, Shanqun

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both); after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05). Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05). The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), while other variables were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Among elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure, application of PRVC resulted in rapid improvement in arterial blood gas analyses while maintaining

  18. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity Following Acclimatization to High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Duffin, James; Lovering, Andrew T.; Roach, Robert C.; Kayser, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv) responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL), upon ascent (ALT1) and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16) to 5260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95 vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P = 0.024) and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5%/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P = 0.026) to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177, 95% CI [139, 215], P < 0.001; slope: 10.3%/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P = 0.003) compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P = 0.982), while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P = 0.001 vs. SL), indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude. PMID:26779030

  19. Liquid extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal: use of THAM (tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane) coupled to hemofiltration to control hypercapnic acidosis in a porcine model of protective mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Pablo; Lillo, Felipe; Soto, Dagoberto; Escobar, Leslie; Simon, Felipe; Hernández, Karina; Alegría, Leyla; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg-1·h-1 coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg-1·h-1. After 18-hours of treatment the THAM infusion was stopped but hemofiltration was kept on until 24-hours. The 2 other animals were treated with THAM but without hemofiltration. After 1-hour of treatment in THAM+HF, PaCO2 rapidly decreased from a median of 89.0 (IQR) (80.0, 98.0) to 71.3 (65.8, 82.0) mmHg (P<0.05), while pH increased from 7.12 (7.01, 7.15) to 7.29 (7.27, 7.30) (P<0.05). Thereafter PaCO2 remained stable between 60-70 mmHg, while pH increased above 7.4. After stopping THAM at 18 hours of treatment a profound rebound effect was observed with severe hypercapnic acidosis. The most important side effect we observed was hyperosmolality, which reached a maximum of 330 (328, 332) mOsm·kg H2O-1 at T18. The animals treated only with THAM developed severe hypercapnia, despite the fact that pH returned to normal values, and died after 12 hours. Control-group had an uneven evolution until the end of the experiment. A combined treatment with THAM coupled to hemofiltration may be an effective treatment to control severe hypercapnic acidosis. PMID:27648139

  20. Intensity of halothane- and hypercapnia-induced cerebral hyperemia is strain-dependent in rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Kirsch, J R; Okada, T; Traystman, R J

    1996-08-01

    Cerebrovascular responses to physiologic and pharmacologic stimuli vary between laboratories using different strains of the same species. We tested whether the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to 1% halothane or hypercapnia is strain-dependent in rats. Age-matched adult male (n = 14 of each strain) Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were anesthetized with pentobarbital and mechanically ventilated. Under baseline conditions blood flow to cerebrum (microspheres) in WKY (66 +/- 5 mL.min-1.100 g-1) was less than (P < 0.05) in Wistar (88 +/- 5 mL.min-1.100g-1) and SHR (83 +/- 5 mL.min-1.100 g-1). Blood flow to brainstem was greater (P < 0.05) in Wistar (106 +/- 8 mL. min-1.100 g-1) than in WKY (71 +/- 5 mL.min-1. 100 g-1) and SHR (84 +/- 4 mL.min-1.100 g-1). In the halothane protocol (n = 8 each strain), administration of 1% halothane, during normocapnia, increased blood flow to the cerebrum in WKY (64 +/- 6 to 120 +/- 12 mL.min-1.100 g-1, P < 0.05) and SHR (78 +/- 6 to 115 +/- 8 mL.min-1.100 g-1, P < 0.05) but not Wistar rats (88 +/- 8 to 102 +/- 5 mL.min-1.100 g-1, not significant). Discontinuing halothane caused blood flow to return to baseline values. In the hypercapnia protocol (n = 6 each strain), exposure to 3% CO2 (to achieve a PaCO2 of 50-55 mm Hg) and 6% CO2 (to achieve a PaCO2 of 60-70 mm Hg) caused blood flow to the cerebrum to increase in Wistar (87 +/- 11 to 112 +/- 15 to 162 +/- 23) to similar amount as observed in WKY (69 +/- 7 to 115 +/- 13 to 162 +/- 23 mL.min-1. 100 g-1) but less than that observed in SHR (89 +/- 7 to 174 +/- 24 to 237 +/- 28 mL.min-1.100 g-1). These data demonstrate that the cerebral hyperemic response to vasodilator stimuli is strain-dependent in rats.

  1. Topographic basis of bimodal ventilation-perfusion distributions during bronchoconstriction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Melo, Marcos F Vidal; Harris, R Scott; Layfield, J Dominick H; Venegas, Jose G

    2005-04-01

    The distribution of ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) ratios during bronchoconstriction measured with the multiple inert gases elimination technique is frequently bimodal. However, the topographic basis and the cause of that bimodality remain unknown. In this article, regional VA/Q is quantified by three-dimensional positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in sheep. Regional VA/Q ratios were calculated from the imaged kinetics of intravenously injected 13NN-saline bolus, assembled into global VA/Q distributions, and used to estimate gas exchange. During bronchoconstriction, large regions with impaired tracer washout were observed adjacent to regions of normal ventilation. PET-derived VA/Q distributions during bronchoconstriction were consistently bimodal, with areas of low VA/Q receiving a large fraction of Q. The standard deviation of the VA/Q distribution was 38% lower if small-scale (subresolution) heterogeneity (< 2.2 cm3) was ignored. Arterial blood gases predicted from PET data correlated well with measured values for Pa(O2) (r2= 0.91, p < 0.01) and Pa(CO2) (r2= 0.90, p < 0.01). We conclude that the bimodality of VA/Q distributions in bronchoconstriction reflects the involvement of large contiguous regions of hypoventilation with substantial subresolution intraregional VA/Q heterogeneity. Assessment of the subresolution VA/Q heterogeneity is therefore essential to accurately quantify global gas exchange impairment during bronchoconstriction.

  2. Modeling the role of osmotic forces in the cerebrovascular response to CO2.

    PubMed

    Tancredi, F B; Girouard, H; Hoge, R D

    2015-07-01

    Increases in blood osmolarity have been shown to exert a vasodilatory effect on cerebral and other vasculature, with accompanying increases in blood flow. It has also been shown that, through an influence on blood concentration of the bicarbonate ion and pH, changes in blood levels of CO2 can alter blood osmolarity sufficiently to have an impact on vessel diameter. We propose here that this phenomenon plays a previously unappreciated role in CO2-mediated vasodilation, and present a biophysical model of osmotically driven vasodilation. Our model, which is based on literature data describing CO2-dependent changes in blood osmolarity and hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of the blood-brain barrier, is used to predict the change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with osmotic forces arising from a specific hypercapnic challenge. Modeled changes were then compared with actual CBF changes determined using arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI. For changes in the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) of 20 mmHg, our model predicted increases of 80% from baseline CBF with a temporal evolution that was comparable to the measured hemodynamic responses. Our modeling results suggest that osmotic forces could play a significant role in the cerebrovascular response to CO2.

  3. Carbon Dioxide and the Heart: Physiology and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Crystal, George J

    2015-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an end product of aerobic cellular respiration. In healthy persons, PaCO2 is maintained by physiologic mechanisms within a narrow range (35-45 mm Hg). Both hypercapnia and hypocapnia are encountered in myriad clinical situations. In recent years, the number of hypercapnic patients has increased by the use of smaller tidal volumes to limit lung stretch and injury during mechanical ventilation, so-called permissive hypercapnia. A knowledge and appreciation of the effects of CO2 in the heart are necessary for optimal clinical management in the perioperative and critical care settings. This article reviews, from a historical perspective: (1) the effects of CO2 on coronary blood flow and the mechanisms underlying these effects; (2) the role of endogenously produced CO2 in metabolic control of coronary blood flow and the matching of myocardial oxygen supply to demand; and (3) the direct and reflexogenic actions of CO2 on myocardial contractile function. Clinically relevant issues are addressed, including the role of increased myocardial tissue PCO2 (PmCO2) in the decline in myocardial contractility during coronary hypoperfusion and the increased vulnerability to CO2-induced cardiac depression in patients receiving a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist or with otherwise compromised inotropic reserve. The potential use of real-time measurements of PmO2 to monitor the adequacy of myocardial perfusion in the perioperative period is discussed.

  4. Habituation of the cardiac response to involuntary diving in diving and dabbling ducks.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, G R; Jones, D R

    1987-09-01

    1. Bradycardia in response to forced submergence was habituated in dabbling (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus) and diving (Aythya americana, Eyton) ducks by repetitively submerging the animals, each day for several days, for periods of 40 and 20 s, respectively. The onset of pronounced bradycardia was delayed with each successive trial, until little or no bradycardia occurred during submergence. Diving bradycardia is driven by chemoreceptors in the dabbler and caused by stimulation of narial receptors in the diver. 2. Mean arterial blood pressure in dives was unchanged from pre-dive levels in both naive and trained dabbling ducks. PaO2, PaCO2 and pHa at the end of a dive were similar before and after habituation training. 3. Bradycardia occurred in dives by habituated dabbling ducks if the animal breathed 15% O2 before submergence. The ventilatory responses to breathing high and low levels of oxygen were unaffected by habituation training. 4. The changes in blood gases during dives by naive and habituated dabbling ducks were the same: therefore, in the absence of a demonstrated decrement in receptor chemosensitivity or efferent potency, the locus of habituation must reside in the central nervous system. PMID:3694117

  5. [Use of high frequency jet ventilation in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Schulte am Esch, J; Kochs, E; Meyer, W H

    1985-06-01

    High frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) was used in 68 patients which were treated with extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) because of stone diseases in the upper urinary tract. The question was whether HFJV in combination with a semiclosed conventional circle system offered a practicable and safe technique to minimize the oscillations which are proportional to the applied tidal volume and to the diaphragmatic movements. With IPPV the mean distance of the stone movement was 32 mm, whereas with the application of HFJV the stones oscillated around their resting position within limits of 2 to 3 mm (ventilation frequency: 200-300/min, driving pressure: 0.6-1.1 bar, tidal volume: 3-8 1/min). The effectiveness of HFJV was monitored by the end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PeCO2) during intermittently conventional ventilation with "adequate" tidal volumes (TV 15 ml/kg bw). The correlation between PeCO2 and simultaneous measured PaCO2 was r = 0,91. The application of HFJV enhances the efficiency of ESWL. So the treatment of stones of the upper urinary tract can be varied by more subtle dosage of the incoming shock wave energy and by stabilisation of the stones in the underlying ellipsoid of the energy focus.

  6. Pulmonary gas exchange during dialysis in patients with obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, W D; Diamond, S M; Henrich, W L

    1989-11-01

    Hypoxemia occurs during routine hemodialysis and may contribute to morbidity, but its cause is not well understood. We reasoned that patients with COPD would be more vulnerable to abnormalities in gas exchange with dialysis. Thus, to investigate the cause of dialysis-related hypoxemia, we measured gas exchange in a group of stable dialysis patients with normal pulmonary function (n = 6) and a group of dialysis patients with COPD (n = 6). Measurements were made predialysis, at 1 h, and postdialysis with both acetate and bicarbonate dialysates. Acetate dialysis decreased PaO2 in normal and COPD patients at 1 h and postdialysis. Acetate-induced hypoxemia was associated with reduced respiratory CO2 excretion and hypoventilation but PaCO2 did not change. This decrease in CO2 excretion resulted from CO2 fixation during acetate metabolism and modest CO2 loss across the dialyzer. Hypoxemia occurred only postdialysis with bicarbonate dialysate in normal and COPD patients. An increased P(A-a)O2 occurred postdialysis with both dialysates, and was most consistently observed in the COPD patients. In summary, at least two mechanisms contribute to dialysis hypoxemia. With acetate dialysate, alveolar hypoventilation from CO2 unloading occurs at 1 h and postdialysis due to acetate metabolism. However, abnormalities in ventilation/perfusion contribute to postdialysis hypoxemia observed with both dialysates. In addition, the decrement in PaO2 associated with dialysis is similar in normal and COPD patients, although preexisting COPD makes postdialysis changes more apparent. PMID:2805844

  7. Heart rates and gas exchange in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) in relation to diving.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, G J; Kanwisher, J W; Best, R C

    1986-01-01

    Unrestrained Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) maintained a constant heart rate during diving and exhibited a slight tachycardia during breathing. 'Forcing' the manatees to dive caused a marked bradycardia. They exhibited a more pronounced tachycardia during breathing after 'forced' dives and hyperventilated during recovery dives. Manatees are capable of dives exceeding 10 min duration without having to resport to anaerobic metabolism, and even after 10 min dives recover within 3-4 short dives. The ability of manatees to make long dives, in spite of relatively poor O2 stores, is due to their low metabolic rate, while the rapid recovery is aided by their high CO2 stores which minimizes CO2 storage in the body. In manatees the changes in alveolar O2 and CO2 pressure (PAO2 and PACO2) in relation to dive time are slower and more variable than in other marine mammals. The lower rate of change is probably due to the manatees' reduced metabolic rate, while the greater variability is due to their breathing pattern, in which both ventilation and body gas stores influence alveolar gases.

  8. The effect of ketanserin upon postoperative blood pressure, cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients subjected to craniotomy for cerebral tumours.

    PubMed

    Felding, M; Cold, G E; Jacobsen, C J; Stjernholm, P; Voss, K

    1995-07-01

    Hypertension and cerebral hyperperfusion are often seen in the immediate postoperative period after craniotomy for supratentorial tumours. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of ketanserin, given at the end of the peroperative period, upon cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) before extubation. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), cerebral arterio-venous oxygen content difference (AVDO2), PaO2, and PaCO2 were repeatedly measured during the operation, and 180 minutes after extubation. Ten patients were included in this study. The results were compared to those from a recent study in which ten patients served as control. All patients were anaesthetized with thiopentone, fentanyl, nitrous oxide 67%, halothane 0.5% anesthesia. Ten patients were given ketanserin 10-20 mg (mean 18.5 mg) before extubation. There was no significant difference in CBF- and CMRO2 values between the two groups. During the period between closure of the dura and 5 minutes after extubation, an increase in MABP was observed in the control group (P < 0.05) but not in the ketanserin group. During the same period, a decrease in AVDO2 was observed in both groups (P < 0.05) and during the next 10 minutes an increase was observed. However, no difference in AVDO2 values between the two groups was found. These findings suggest that peroperative treatment with ketanserin reduces postoperative hypertension without influencing the cerebral blood flow or metabolism. PMID:7572004

  9. Humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation: 2012.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Walsh, Brian K

    2012-05-01

    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 184 clinical trials and systematic reviews, and 10 articles investigating humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system: 1. Humidification is recommended on every patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. 2. Active humidification is suggested for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, as it may improve adherence and comfort. 3. When providing active humidification to patients who are invasively ventilated, it is suggested that the device provide a humidity level between 33 mg H(2)O/L and 44 mg H(2)O/L and gas temperature between 34°C and 41°C at the circuit Y-piece, with a relative humidity of 100%. 4. When providing passive humidification to patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, it is suggested that the HME provide a minimum of 30 mg H(2)O/L. 5. Passive humidification is not recommended for noninvasive mechanical ventilation. 6. When providing humidification to patients with low tidal volumes, such as when lung-protective ventilation strategies are used, HMEs are not recommended because they contribute additional dead space, which can increase the ventilation requirement and P(aCO(2)). 7. It is suggested that HMEs are not used as a prevention strategy for ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  10. Stratification of inspired air in the elongated lungs of the carpet python, Morelia spilotes variegata.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, P M; Woolcock, A J

    1978-12-01

    Using lung gas tensions via a triple lumen catheter to monitor ventilation distribution (VA) and radioactive techniques to study blood flow distribution (Q), the distribution of ventilation to perfusion ration (VA/Q) was studied in the elongated alveolar lung of the Carpet Python, Morelia spilotes variegata. In the resting, sleeping and agitated states both alveolar oxygen (PAO2) and carbon dioxide tensions (PACO2) were 'stratified' (unevenly distributed) within the alveolar lungs at end inspiration, during breath holding for up to 6 minutes and, when VA was low, at end expiration. The blood flow was also stratified. The degree of stratification of VA was influenced by the rate and depth of breathing and the length of the breath hold which preceeded the gas sampling. Similar results were obtained with a glass lung model. In both resting and sleeping states VA/Q ratios were similar over the proximal 75% of the alveolar lungs whereas VA nearly always exceeded Q over the distal 25%. The anatomic features of the lung are proposed as a possible mechanism for maintaining a uniform VA/Q distribution. Since the anatomical arrangement places the heart at the apical regions of the lungs, absence of cardiac mixing, combined with low respiratory rates, enables stratification to continue for very long periods within the aveolar lungs of the snake.

  11. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Humberto; Oliveira, José Antonio; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy. Methods Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE) measurements, and body temperature (Tb) measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals. Results No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05). However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01) and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01). In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals. Conclusions Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy. PMID:27149672

  12. Extracorporeal CO2 removal as bridge to lung transplantation in life-threatening hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Schellongowski, Peter; Riss, Katharina; Staudinger, Thomas; Ullrich, Roman; Krenn, Claus G; Sitzwohl, Christian; Bojic, Andja; Wohlfarth, Philipp; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Rabitsch, Werner; Aigner, Clemens; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Jaksch, Peter; Klepetko, Walter; Lang, György

    2015-03-01

    In patients awaiting lung transplantation (LTX), adequate gas exchange may not be sufficiently achieved by mechanical ventilation alone if acute respiratory decompensation arises. We report on 20 patients with life-threatening hypercapnia who received extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2-R) by means of the interventional lung assist (ILA®, Novalung) as bridge to LTX. The most common underlying diagnoses were bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. The type of ILA was pumpless arteriovenous or pump-driven venovenous (ILA activve®, Novalung) in 10 patients each. ILA bridging was initiated in 15 invasively ventilated and five noninvasively ventilated patients, of whom one had to be intubated prior to LTX. Hypercapnia and acidosis were effectively corrected in all patients within the first 12 h of ILA therapy: PaCO2 declined from 109 (70-146) to 57 (45-64) mmHg, P < 0.0001; pH increased from 7.20 (7.06-7.28) to 7.39 (7.35-7.49), P < 0.0001. Four patients were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to progressive hypoxia or circulatory failure. Nineteen patients (95%) were successfully transplanted. Hospital and 1-year survival was 75 and 72%, respectively. Bridging to LTX with ECCO2-R delivered by arteriovenous pumpless or venovenous pump-driven ILA is feasible and associated with high transplantation and survival rates.

  13. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-11-25

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [<220 U/L], mildly elevated [220 to 660 U/L], elevated [>660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P < 0.001). We found four independent factors for paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication.

  14. Time Integrated and Time Resolved Neutron Measurements in a Plasma Focus Device

    SciTech Connect

    Milanese, M.; Moroso, R.; Castillo, F.; Herrera, J. J. E.; Golzarri, J. I.; Espinosa, G.

    2006-12-04

    This work reports some experimental results on neutron emission from the pinch phase of the plasma focus device PACO (2 kJ, 31 kV). An evaluation of the building structure influence on neutron yield measurements was made. Special devices supporting CR-39 detectors were designed, constructed and used for this purpose. Scintillator-photomultiplier systems were used to made time-resolved neutron detection. Angular dependence of neutron pulses was observed doing simultaneous measurements at three different angular positions of the time-resolved detectors. Time-of-flight neutron measurements were also done to estimate the scattering influence. This work shows that the scattering effect is not relevant in our experiment, at least for r {<=} 2 m. So that in this limit it is not necessary do any correction by the scattering. The average forward to radial neutron yield anisotropy is found to be 1.59 {+-}0.12. The neutron energy anisotropy measurements by time-of-flight don't offer relevant results about the neutron production mechanism.

  15. Generation of a phage-display library of single-domain camelid VH H antibodies directed against Chlamydomonas reinhardtii antigens, and characterization of VH Hs binding cell-surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenzhi; Rosenberg, Julian N; Wauchope, Akelia D; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Shoemaker, Charles B; Weeks, Donald P; Oyler, George A

    2013-11-01

    Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) are powerful tools for the detection, quantification, purification and subcellular localization of proteins of interest in biological research. We have generated camelid (Lama pacos) heavy chain-only variable VH domain (VH H) libraries against antigens in total cell lysates from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The sdAbs in the sera from immunized animals and VH H antibody domains isolated from the library show specificity to C. reinhardtii and lack of reactivity to antigens from four other algae: Chlorella variabilis, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antibodies were produced against a diverse representation of antigens as evidenced by sera ELISA and protein-blot analyses. A phage-display library consisting of the VH H region contained at least 10(6) individual transformants, and thus should represent a wide range of C. reinhardtii antigens. The utility of the phage library was demonstrated by using live C. reinhardtii cells to pan for VH H clones with specific recognition of cell-surface epitopes. The lead candidate VH H clones (designated B11 and H10) bound to C. reinhardtii with EC50 values ≤ 0.5 nm. Treatment of cells with VH H B11 fused to the mCherry or green fluorescent proteins allowed brilliant and specific staining of the C. reinhardtii cell wall and analysis of cell-wall genesis during cell division. Such high-complexity VH H antibody libraries for algae will be valuable tools for algal researchers and biotechnologists.

  16. Modified ventilatory response characteristics to exercise in breath-hold divers.

    PubMed

    Roecker, Kai; Metzger, Jule; Scholz, Tobias; Tetzlaff, Kay; Sorichter, Stephan; Walterspacher, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Specific adjustments to repeated extreme apnea are not fully known and understood. While a blunted ventilatory chemosensitivity to CO2 is described for elite breath-hold divers (BHDs) at rest, it is unclear whether specific adaptations affect their response to dynamic exercise. Eight elite BHDs with a previously validated decrease in CO2 chemosensitivity, 8 scuba divers (SCDs), and 8 matched control subjects were included in a study where markers of ventilatory response, Fowler's dead space, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), and blood lactate concentrations during cycle exercise were measured. Maximal power output did not differ between the groups, but lactate threshold (θL) appeared at a significantly lowered respiratory compensation point (RCP) and at a higher VO2 for the BHDs. End-tidal (petCO2) and estimated arterial pCO2 (paCO2) were significantly higher in BHDs at θL, the RCP, and maximum exhaustion. BHDs showed a significantly (P < .01) slower breathing pattern in relation to a given tidal volume at a specific work rate. In summary, BHDs presented signs of a metabolic shift from aerobic to anaerobic energy supply, decreased chemosensitivity during exercise, and a distinct ventilatory-response pattern during cycle exercise that differs from SCDs and controls. PMID:24231513

  17. Extremely low flow tracheal gas insufflation of helium-oxygen mixture improves gas exchange in a rabbit model of piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to show the effects of the tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) technique on gas exchange using helium-oxygen mixtures during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). We hypothesized that a helium-oxygen mixture delivered into the trachea using the TGI technique (0.3 L/min) would enhance gas exchange during HFOV. Methods Three rabbits were prepared and ventilated by HFOV with carrier 70% helium/oxygen or 70% nitrogen/oxygen gas mixture with TGI in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen70% to helium70% and back was performed three times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Results Compared with the nitrogen-oxygen mixture, the helium-oxygen mixture of TGI reduced PaCO2 by 7.6 mmHg (p < 0.01) and improved PaO2 by 14 mmHg (p < 0.01). Amplitude during TGI was significantly lower with the helium-oxygen mixture than with the nitrogen-oxygen mixture (p < 0.01) and did not significantly affect mean airway pressure. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a helium-oxygen mixture delivered into the trachea using the TGI technique would enhance CO2 elimination and improve oxygenation during HFOV. PMID:23566050

  18. Effect of lung liquid volume on respiratory performance after caesarean delivery in the lamb.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, P J; Smolich, J J; Ramsden, C A; Walker, A M

    1996-01-01

    1. The volume of liquid in the lungs of the fetal lamb is reported to fall in the final days of gestation and during labour itself. We aimed to test the hypothesis that this fall in liquid volume adapts the lungs for air breathing and pulmonary gas exchange. 2. In twelve chronically catheterized fetal lambs we measured lung liquid volume at 140 days gestation (term is 147 days) and then delivered the fetuses by Caesarean section under maternal spinal anaesthesia. In five fetuses we removed approximately half the liquid contained in the lungs just before delivery (experimental group) while the remaining seven fetuses were delivered without change to their lung liquid (control group). 3. Lambs born with reduced lung liquid volume improved their arterial blood gas and acid-base status more quickly than lambs born without alteration to lung liquid. 4. Carotid arterial blood gas values in the first 60 min of postnatal life were significantly related to the volume of liquid present in the lungs at birth, with higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pa,02) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,02) and lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pa,CO2) levels being associated with lower lung liquid volumes. 5. We conclude that postnatal gas exchange is enhanced by a reduction in the volume of liquid remaining in the lungs when breathing starts. PMID:8735000

  19. Group B streptococcus has no effect on piglet diaphragmatic force generation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T D; Mayock, D E; Standaert, T A; Gibson, R L; Woodrum, D E

    1992-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that diaphragmatic contractility is adversely affected by bacterial infection. Using transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) with phrenic nerve stimulation, the effect of continuous Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infusion on diaphragmatic force output was studied in seven anesthetized, spontaneously breathing 1-month old piglets. Pdi was measured under baseline condition (50% O2/50% N2) and at 1, 2, and 4 h of GBS infusion. The GBS was infused at a level that caused a doubling of the pulmonary artery pressure and a 32% decrease in cardiac output but which avoided hypotension or acidosis--both of which can decrease diaphragmatic contractility. In addition, the piglets were kept hyperoxic (PaO2 greater than 100) and no piglet with hypercapnia (PaCO2 greater than 65) was studied, as hypoxia and hypercapnia also can cause respiratory muscle dysfunction. Pdi in response to phrenic nerve stimulation did not change during GBS infusion. We conclude that GBS infusion, in the absence of hypotension, hypercapnia, hypoxia, or acidosis, has no effect on diaphragmatic force generation in the piglet. PMID:1736760

  20. Blood gases and cardiovascular shunt in the South American lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) during normoxia and hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Mirian; Giusti, Humberto; da Silva, Glauber S; Amin-Naves, Jalile; Glass, Mogens L

    2010-08-31

    The South American lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) has an arterial P(O(2)) (Pa(O(2))) as high as 70-100 mmHg, corresponding to Hb-O(2) saturations from 90% to 95%, which indicates a moderate cardiovascular right to left (R-L) shunt. In hyperoxia (50% O(2)), we studied animals in: (1) aerated water combined with aerial hyperoxia, which increased Pa(O(2)) from 78+/-2 to 114+/-3 mmHg and (2) and aquatic hyperoxia (50% O(2)) combined room air, which gradually increased Pa(O(2)) from 75+/-4 mmHg to as much as 146+/-10 mmHg. Further, the hyperoxia (50%) depressed pulmonary ventilation from 58+/-13 to 5.5+/-3.0 mLBTPSkgh(-1), and Pa(CO(2)) increased from 20+/-2 to 31+/-4 mmHg, while pHa became reduced from 7.56+/-0.03 to 7.31+/-0.09. At the same time, venous P(O(2)) (Pv(O(2))) rose from 40.0+/-2.3 to 46.4+/-1.2 mmHg and, concomitantly, Pv(CO(2)) increased from 23.2+/-1.1 to 32.2+/-0.5 mmHg. R-L shunts were estimated to about 19%, which is moderate when compared to most amphibians.

  1. Phlebotomy improves pulmonary gas exchange in chronic mountain polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J C; Diaz, C; Marticorena, E; Hilario, V

    1979-01-01

    There is not unanimous agreement in the literature regarding the effects of bleeding on pulmonary gas exchange in polycythemic patients. Spirometry, alveolar arterial O2 and CO2 tension differences, PaO2 breathing 100% oxygen and carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity were measured before and after 1 week of chronic phlebotomy in 4 chronic mountain polycythemic patients. Studies were carried out at 3,700 m above sea level (PB = 491 mm Hg). Before phlebotomy, 2 patients showed abnormal spirometry and gas exchange. Only 1 patient had high PaCO2 and all of them showed low values of PaO2 breathing oxygen. Phlebotomy improved both spirometry and gas exchange. Improvement in arterial oxygen saturation and PaO2 could not be attributed to changes in alveolar ventilation, but rather to better distribution of VA/Qc ratios since physiological dead space decreased. Our results are similar to those reported in polycythemia vera patients. A significant correlation between the changes in PaO2 with phlebotomy and the control PaO2 have been found from 45 polycythemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease collected from the literature. It is concluded that excessive polycythemia worsened hypoxemia and that phlebotomy improved gas exchange.

  2. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [<220 U/L], mildly elevated [220 to 660 U/L], elevated [>660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P < 0.001). We found four independent factors for paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication. PMID:26603772

  3. Ventilatory regulation of arterial H(+) (pH) during exercise.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Karlman; Cox, Timothy A; Sietsema, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that exercise ventilation and arterial H(+) ([H(+)]a) are mutually interactive, [H(+)]a stimulating V(E) and V(E) regulating [H(+)]a increase. Fifty-five patients were studied, 10 normal and 45 with cardio-respiratory disorders. Each patient underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous serial arterial blood gas and pH measurements. Subsequently, they were classified into one of 7 clinical groups: (1) normal, (2) exercise-induced hypoxemia (PaO2<50mmHg), (3) exercise-induced myocardial ischemia, (4) heart failure, (5) COPD, (6) interstitial lung disease, and (7) pulmonary vasculopathy. The average resting pHa was 7.42 or 7.43 for each group. At anaerobic (lactic acidosis) threshold (AT), [H(+)]a increased due to PaCO2 increase (+2mmHg), primarily. At peak exercise, [H(+)]a increased further due to arterial HCO3(-) decrease. In summary, [H(+)]a appears to be closely regulated at rest to AT and further to peak exercise by CO2 elimination from the venous return. No evidence was observed for over-ventilation of CO2, causing the arterial blood to become more alkaline during exercise in the patient groups studied.

  4. Effects of carbon dioxide insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Ai; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Kanai, Takanori; Naohisa, Yahagi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim The efficacy of CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy remains controversial. This study aimed to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which CO2 insufflation was compared with air insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane library, and the Igaku-Chuo-Zasshi database were searched to identify RCTs eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Data from the eligible studies were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Four RCTs (461 patients) were identified. Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation significantly increased intubation depth of oral enteroscopy (WMD: 55.2, 95% CI: 10.77–99.65, p = 0.015). However, there was significant heterogeneity. The intubation depth of anal enteroscopy showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and the air group. CO2 insufflation significantly reduced abdominal pain compared with air insufflation (WMD: −2.463, 95% CI: −4.452 to −0.474, p = 0.015), without significant heterogeneity. The PaCO2 or end-tidal CO2 level showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and air group. Conclusions Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy caused less post-procedural pain without CO2 retention. PMID:26966518

  5. Use of a single pair of magnetometer coils to monitor breathing patterns in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Rees, P J; Higenbottam, T W; Clark, T J H

    1980-01-01

    The use of a single pair of magnetometer coils placed centrally on the trunk to record tidal volumes and breath times has been evaluated in five normal subjects in five positions. Breath times were accurate in all positions tested but tidal volumes were only reliable with the subjects lying and the backrest raised to 45° or in the supine position only for volumes up to 1000 ml. Using this system, recordings have been made in seven patients with barbiturate overdose, five with salicylate overdose, and five undergoing anaesthesia with thiopentone. The single pair of coils was satisfactory for measuring changes in the pattern of breathing in these patients. In barbiturate overdose in five patients there was initially an increase in respiratory frequency with a decrease in tidal volume. As these patients recovered the tidal volume increased and the respiratory rate slowed. In two patients who had a raised PaCO2 there was initially reduction of both tidal volume and respiratory rate, both increasing as the patients recovered. Monitoring respiratory rate appears to be a useful guide in barbiturate overdose; a slowing of the rate without recovery of consciousness warrants further investigation to assess the need for ventilatory support. The single pair of coils were also satisfactory for measuring the increased tidal volume in salicylate overdose. As after other respiratory stimuli in man, increased ventilation occurred predominantly through changes in tidal volume and expiratory time while inspiratory time changed very little. PMID:7434290

  6. Preventing cerebral oedema in acute liver failure: the case for quadruple-H therapy.

    PubMed

    Warrillow, S J; Bellomo, R

    2014-01-01

    Severe cerebral oedema is a life-threatening complication of acute liver failure. Hyperammonaemia and cerebral hyperaemia are major contributing factors. A multimodal approach, which incorporates hyperventilation, haemodiafiltration, hypernatraemia and hypothermia (quadruple-H therapy), may prevent or attenuate severe cerebral oedema. This approach is readily administered by critical care clinicians and is likely to be more effective than the use of single therapies. Targeting of PaCO2 in the mild hyperventilation range, as seen in acute liver failure patients before intubation, aims to minimise hyperaemic cerebral oedema. Haemodiafiltration aims to achieve the rapid control of elevated blood ammonia concentrations by its removal and to reduce production via the lowering of core temperature. The administration of concentrated saline increases serum tonicity and further reduces cerebral swelling. In addition, the pathologically increased cerebral blood-flow is further attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia. The combination of all four treatments in a multimodal approach may be a safe and effective means of attenuating or treating the cerebral oedema of acute liver failure and preventing death from neurological complications. PMID:24471667

  7. The initial hyperglycemia in acute type II pyrethroid poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongseob; Moon, Jeongmi; Chun, Byeongjo

    2015-04-01

    This retrospective observational case series study was conducted to describe the clinical feature of acute type II pyrethroid poisoning, and to investigate whether hyperglycemia at presentation can predict the outcome in patients with type II pyrethroid poisoning. This study included 104 type II pyrethroid poisoned patients. The complication rate and mortality rate was 26.9% and 2.9% in type II pyrethroid poisoned patients. The most common complication was respiratory failure followed by acidosis and hypotension. In non-diabetic type II pyrethroid poisoned patients, patients with complications showed a higher frequency of hyperglycemia, abnormalities on the initial X ray, depressed mentality, lower PaCO2 and HCO3- levels, and a higher WBC and AST levels at the time of admission compared to patients without complication. Hyperglycemia was an independent factor for predicting complications in non-diabetic patients. Diabetic patients had a significantly higher incidence of complications than non-diabetic patients. However, there was no significant predictive factor for complications in patients with diabetes mellitus probably because of small number of diabetes mellitus. In contrast to the relatively low toxicity of pyrethroids in mammals, type II pyrethroid poisoning is not a mild disease. Hyperglycemia at presentation may be useful to predict the critical complications in non-diabetic patients. PMID:25829802

  8. Comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy with CT cerebral blood flow measurements in newborn piglets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Picot, Paul A.; Springett, Roger; Delpy, David T.; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-05-01

    Severely premature infants are often at high risk of cerebral hemorrhage or ischemic injury due to their inability to properly regulate blood flow to the brain. If blood flow is too high, the infant is at risk of cerebral hemorrhage, while too little blood flow can result in ischemic injury. The purpose of this research is to design and develop a means of non-invasively measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Such a device would greatly aid the diagnosis and monitoring of afflicted infants. Previous attempts to measure CBF with NIRS have achieved limited success. In this study we acquired high signal-to-noise NIR spectrum from 600 to 980 nm with a cooled CCD spectrometer. This spectrometer enables the differential path length factor (DPF) to be estimated with accuracy using a second derivative technique described by Matcher et al. The validity of our new approach is determined via direct comparison with a previously validated computed tomography (CT) method. Three newborn piglets were studied. CBF measurements were performed at various partial arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) using both the NIRS and CT methods. The results of the two methods correlate well with a relationship of CBFCT equals -4.30 + 1.05 CBFNIRS (r2 equals 0.96).

  9. The initial hyperglycemia in acute type II pyrethroid poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongseob; Moon, Jeongmi; Chun, Byeongjo

    2015-04-01

    This retrospective observational case series study was conducted to describe the clinical feature of acute type II pyrethroid poisoning, and to investigate whether hyperglycemia at presentation can predict the outcome in patients with type II pyrethroid poisoning. This study included 104 type II pyrethroid poisoned patients. The complication rate and mortality rate was 26.9% and 2.9% in type II pyrethroid poisoned patients. The most common complication was respiratory failure followed by acidosis and hypotension. In non-diabetic type II pyrethroid poisoned patients, patients with complications showed a higher frequency of hyperglycemia, abnormalities on the initial X ray, depressed mentality, lower PaCO2 and HCO3- levels, and a higher WBC and AST levels at the time of admission compared to patients without complication. Hyperglycemia was an independent factor for predicting complications in non-diabetic patients. Diabetic patients had a significantly higher incidence of complications than non-diabetic patients. However, there was no significant predictive factor for complications in patients with diabetes mellitus probably because of small number of diabetes mellitus. In contrast to the relatively low toxicity of pyrethroids in mammals, type II pyrethroid poisoning is not a mild disease. Hyperglycemia at presentation may be useful to predict the critical complications in non-diabetic patients.

  10. Failure of subtotal arytenoidectomy to improve upper airway flow mechanics in exercising standardbreds with induced laryngeal hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Belknap, J K; Derksen, F J; Nickels, F A; Stick, J A; Robinson, N E

    1990-09-01

    Upper airway flow mechanics and arterial blood gas measurements were used to assess the efficacy of subtotal arytenoidectomy for treatment of induced left laryngeal hemiplegia in horses. Measurements were collected with the horses at rest, and trotting or pacing on a treadmill (6.38 degrees incline) at speeds of 4.2 and 7.0 m/s. Experimental protocols were performed after right common carotid artery exteriorization (baseline), after left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (LRLN), and after left subtotal arytenoidectomy. At baseline, increasing treadmill speed progressively increased peak inspiratory and expiratory flow (VImax and VEmax, respectively), peak inspiratory and expiratory transupper airway pressure (PuI and PuE, respectively), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), minute volume (VE), and heart rate. Inspiratory and expiratory times (TI and TE, respectively) and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreased with increased treadmill speed; inspiratory and expiratory impedance (ZI and ZE, respectively) did not change. After LRLN, VImax, f, and PaO2 significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased at exercise, whereas PuI, TI, and ZI significantly increased. Minute volume decreased at exercise after LRLN, but the changes were not significant; LRLN had no effect on VEmax, PuE, ZE, heart rate, arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), or VT. Subtotal arytenoidectomy did not improve upper airway flow mechanics or blood gas measurements impaired by laryngeal hemiplegia.

  11. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined. PMID:27487345

  12. Applying a low-flow CO2 removal device in severe acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay S; Weerwind, Patrick W; Strauch, Uli; van Belle, Arne; Maessen, Jos G; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-03-01

    A novel and portable extracorporeal CO2-removal device was evaluated to provide additional gas transfer, auxiliary to standard therapy in severe acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. A dual-lumen catheter was inserted percutaneously in five subjects (mean age 55 ± 0.4 years) and, subsequently, connected to the CO2-removal device. The median duration on support was 45 hours (interquartile range 26-156), with a blood flow rate of approximately 500 mL/min. The mean PaCO2 decreased from 95.8 ± 21.9 mmHg to 63.9 ± 19.6 mmHg with the pH improving from 7.11 ± 0.1 to 7.26 ± 0.1 in the initial 4 hours of support. Three subjects were directly weaned from the CO2-removal device and mechanical ventilation, one subject was converted to ECMO and one subject died following withdrawal of support. No systemic bleeding or device complications were observed. Low-flow CO2 removal adjuvant to standard therapy was effective in steadily removing CO2, limiting the progression of acidosis in subjects with severe acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  13. Mechanisms of O2 transport in Andean dogs.

    PubMed

    Banchero, N; Cruz, J; Bustinza, J

    1975-04-01

    Using previously inserted catheters, 11 dogs native to high altitude (7.5-23 kg bwt) were studied standing and unsedated in Cerro de Pasco, Peru at 4350 meters. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), O2 and CO2 contents, PO2, PCO2 and pH were measured in simultaneously obtained arterial and mixed venous blood samples. Blood pressures were measured in the pulmonary artery and the left ventricle and cardiac output (Q) was determined by dye dilution. Moderately higher values for Hb and Hct were found in these dogs. Hb-O2 affinity was no different than that found in sea level dogs: the P50 in the Andean dogs was 31.6 mm Hg at 38 degrees C and pH of 7.4. Because of the low barometric pressure at 4350 m (458 mmHg) the partial pressures of oxygen in inspired and in alveolar air were lower than at sea level: 84.3 and 56.4 mm Hg, respectively. PAO2 and PVO2, were 55.5 and 32.9 mm Hg while the SAO2 and SVO2 were 79.5 and 50.7%, respectively. Marked hyperventilation was observed (PACO2, 25.6 mm Hg) however, pH was normal. Cardiac output was normal (average 162 plus or minus 39 ml/min/kg). Moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the presence of normal left ventricular end diastolic pressure suggesting increased pulmonary vascular resistance.

  14. [Monitoring respiratory and circulatory parameters in comparing various jet ventilation procedures].

    PubMed

    Eger, L; Brandt, R H; Pielesch, W; Weber, D

    1990-01-01

    Reported is a system of apparatures to control characteristic changes of cardiorespiratory function during different methods of endoscopic ventilation. The aim of the study is to measure and record simultaneously and continuously ECG, thoracic movement, tracheal pressure, pulmonary artery pressure and arterial oxygen pressure using transcutaneous technique. Measurements of arterial blood pressure and blood gas analysis (PaO2, PaCO2, BE, HCO3-, pH) are carried out in intervals. Four different methods of injector-ventilation are compared with the conventional laryngoscopic ventilation on the basis of a test program. Laryngoscopic ventilation as well as injectorventilation by CARDEN-Tubus make it possible to achieve a hyperoxaemic situation by normofrequent ventilation. Despite of hyperventilation it is not possible in every case to achieve an increased capillary oxygen pressure of 200 to 300 mm Hg by injector-ventilation with Venturi effect because of a smaller oxygen proportion. In jet-ventilation with N2O/O2-mixture (3:1) there is no appreciable hyperoxia, but a small reduction of systemic arterial blood pressure. With all techniques of mechanical respiration usual middle intratracheal pressure of respiration was not exceeded. Traumatic pressure of jets was only indirectly shown in steep rises of pressure by the applied technique of measurement.

  15. Exogenous surfactant therapy in a patient with adult respiratory distress syndrome after near drowning.

    PubMed

    Staudinger, T; Bankier, A; Strohmaier, W; Weiss, K; Locker, G J; Knapp, S; Röggla, M; Laczika, K; Frass, M

    1997-10-01

    A 24-year-old woman developed adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after near-drowning due to attempted suicide. Conventional mechanical ventilation together with prone positioning and inhaled nitric oxide could not provide sufficient oxygenation. Surface tension data (gamma min = 27 dyn/cm, stability index = 0.341) from a lavage sample supported the hypothesis that the surfactant function of this patient was drastically reduced due to a washout effect by aspiration of fresh water. Porcine surfactant (Curosurf, 50 mg/kg for each lung) was instilled via fibreoptic bronchoscope. The partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (paCO2) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio as well as shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) improved impressively. When respiratory situation deteriorated again, surfactant application was repeated. Altogether, six bolus instillations of surfactant (total dose 300 mg/kg = 18,000 mg) were administered until the respiratory situation had stabilized and oxygenation could be maintained by conventional mechanical ventilation. The radiological findings did not show substantial amelioration. The patient developed septic shock and died 12 days after admission. Surfactant application apparently led to a significant improvement of the respiratory function. However, the outcome could not be influenced positively. The high cost of surfactant therapy prevents the more widespread early administration in patients at risk.

  16. Effects of hypobaria on parabronchial gas exchange in normoxic and hypoxic ducks.

    PubMed

    Shams, H; Scheid, P

    1993-03-01

    Cardio-respiratory parameters and air sac and blood gases were measured in the unrestrained, unanesthetized duck during exposure to normobaric (PB = 746 Torr) or hypobaric (PB = 253 Torr) normoxia (PIO2 = 143 Torr) and hypoxia (PIO2 = 41.5 Torr). Compared with normobaria at the same PIO2, hypobaria caused a statistically significant increase in ventilation during both normoxia and hypoxia, resulting in elevated PO2 and diminished PCO2 in the caudal thoracic and clavicular air sac, and in increased PaO2 and decreased PaCO2. Similarly, lactic acid production was elevated in hypobaria, and the resulting decrease in arterial pH may be responsible for the increase in ventilation. Despite these changes, there was no evidence for altered gas exchange efficiency during hypobaria. This suggests that no significant diffusion limitation is present in the air capillary gas phase in normobaria, that could have been diminished with hypobaria. It also suggests that the aerodynamic valving efficiency, present during inspiration at the level of the medioventral bronchi, is not affected by hypobaria. Although the mechanisms underlying the increased lactic acid production and ventilation are not understood, they may exert an advantageous effect on high altitude tolerance of the bird.

  17. Cardiac output: a view from Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Olszowka, A J; Shykoff, B E; Pendergast, D R; Lundgren, C E G; Farhi, L E

    2003-10-01

    Cardiac output (Q) is a primary determinant of blood pressure and O2 delivery and is critical in the maintenance of homeostasis, particularly during environmental stress. Cardiac output can be determined invasively in patients; however, indirect methods are required for other situations. Soluble gas techniques are widely used to determine Q. Historically, measurements during a breathhold, prolonged expiration and rebreathing to CO2 equilibrium have been used; however, with limitations, especially during stress. Farhi and co-workers developed a single-step CO2 rebreathing method, which was subsequently revised by his group, and has been shown to be valid (compared to direct measures) and reliable. Carbon dioxide output (VCO2), partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2), and partial pressure of mixed venous CO2 (Pv(CO2)) are determined during 12-25 s of rebreathing, using the appropriate tidal volume, and Q is calculated. This method has the utility to provide accurate data in laboratory and field experiments during exercise, increased and micro-gravity, water immersion, lower body pressure, head-down tilt, and changes in gas composition and pressure. Utilizing the Buffalo CO2 rebreathing method it has been shown that the Q can adjust to a wide range of changes in environments maintaining blood pressure and O2 delivery at rest and during exercise.

  18. Rationale and Description of Right Ventricle-Protective Ventilation in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Paternot, Alexis; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary vascular dysfunction is associated with ARDS and leads to increased right-ventricular afterload and eventually right-ventricular failure, also called acute cor pulmonale. Interest in acute cor pulmonale and its negative impact on outcome in patients with ARDS has grown in recent years. Right-ventricular function in these patients should be closely monitored, and this is helped by the widespread use of echocardiography in intensive care units. Because mechanical ventilation may worsen right-ventricular failure, the interaction between the lungs and the right ventricle appears to be a key factor in the ventilation strategy. In this review, a rationale for a right ventricle-protective ventilation approach is provided, and such a strategy is described, including the reduction of lung stress (ie, the limitation of plateau pressure and driving pressure), the reduction of PaCO2 , and the improvement of oxygenation. Prone positioning seems to be a crucial part of this strategy by protecting both the lungs and the right ventricle, resulting in increased survival of patients with ARDS. Further studies are required to validate the positive impact on prognosis of right ventricle-protective mechanical ventilation.

  19. Physiologic Responses to Infrarenal Aortic Cross-Clamping during Laparoscopic or Conventional Vascular Surgery in Experimental Animal Model: Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cancho, María F.; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Soria, Federico; Calles, Carmen; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M.; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic and ventilatory effects of prolonged infrarenal aortic cross-clamping in pigs undergoing either laparotomy or laparoscopy. 18 pigs were used for this study. Infrarenal aortic crossclamping was performed for 60 minutes in groups I (laparotomy, n = 6) and II (laparoscopy, n = 6). Group III (laparoscopy, n = 6) underwent a 120-minute long pneumoperitoneum in absence of aortic clamping (sham group). Ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters and renal function were serially determined in all groups. A significant decrease in pH and significant increase in PaCO2 were observed in group II, whereas no changes in these parameters were seen in group I and III. All variables returned to values similar to baseline in groups I and II 60 minutes after declamping. A significant increase in renal resistive index was evidenced during laparoscopy, with significantly higher values seen in Group II. Thus a synergic effect of pneumoperitoneum and aortic cross-clamping was seen in this study. These two factors together cause decreased renal perfusion and acidosis, thus negatively affecting the patient's general state during this type of surgery. PMID:21197458

  20. Modified ventilatory response characteristics to exercise in breath-hold divers.

    PubMed

    Roecker, Kai; Metzger, Jule; Scholz, Tobias; Tetzlaff, Kay; Sorichter, Stephan; Walterspacher, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Specific adjustments to repeated extreme apnea are not fully known and understood. While a blunted ventilatory chemosensitivity to CO2 is described for elite breath-hold divers (BHDs) at rest, it is unclear whether specific adaptations affect their response to dynamic exercise. Eight elite BHDs with a previously validated decrease in CO2 chemosensitivity, 8 scuba divers (SCDs), and 8 matched control subjects were included in a study where markers of ventilatory response, Fowler's dead space, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), and blood lactate concentrations during cycle exercise were measured. Maximal power output did not differ between the groups, but lactate threshold (θL) appeared at a significantly lowered respiratory compensation point (RCP) and at a higher VO2 for the BHDs. End-tidal (petCO2) and estimated arterial pCO2 (paCO2) were significantly higher in BHDs at θL, the RCP, and maximum exhaustion. BHDs showed a significantly (P < .01) slower breathing pattern in relation to a given tidal volume at a specific work rate. In summary, BHDs presented signs of a metabolic shift from aerobic to anaerobic energy supply, decreased chemosensitivity during exercise, and a distinct ventilatory-response pattern during cycle exercise that differs from SCDs and controls.

  1. High Frequency Nasal Ventilation for 21 Days Maintains Gas Exchange with Lower Respiratory Pressures and Promotes Alveolarization in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Null, Donald M.; Alvord, Jeremy; Leavitt, Wendy; Wint, Albert; Dahl, Mar Janna; Presson, Angela P.; Lane, Robert H.; DiGeronimo, Robert J.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Albertine, Kurt H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Short-term high-frequency nasal ventilation (HFNV) of preterm neonates provides acceptable gas exchange compared to endotracheal intubation and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV). Whether long-term HFNV will provide acceptable gas exchange is unknown. We hypothesized that HFNV for up to 21d would lead to acceptable gas exchange at lower inspired oxygen (O2) levels and airway pressures compared to intubation and IMV. Methods Preterm lambs were exposed to antenatal steroids, and treated with perinatal surfactant and postnatal caffeine. Lambs were intubated and resuscitated by IMV. At ~3h of age, half of the lambs were switched to non-invasive HFNV. Support was for 3d or 21d. By design, PaO2 and PaCO2 were not different between groups. Results At 3d (n=5) and 21d (n=4) of HFNV, fractional inspired O2 (FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway, intra-tracheal, and positive end-expiratory pressures, oxygenation index, and Alveolar-arterial gradient were significantly lower than matched periods of intubation and IMV. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly higher at 3d and 21d of HFNV compared to matched intubation and IMV. HFNV led to better alveolarization at 3d and 21d. Conclusion Long-term HFNV provides acceptable gas exchange at lower inspired O2 levels and respiratory pressures compared to intubation and IMV. PMID:24378898

  2. Experimental effects of chloral hydrate in ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercarbia.

    PubMed

    Hunt, C E; Hazinski, T A; Gora, P

    1982-01-01

    The effect of chloral hydrate (CH)-induced sleep on inspiratory drive has not been systematically assessed. To determine the effects of CH on the ventilatory responses to hypercarbia and to hypoxia, nine unanesthetized adult rabbit with chronic tracheostomy were studied. We compared awake ventilatory measurements before CH to non-REM sleep assessments at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after administration of 250 mg/kg of CH. There were no significant differences between any of these assessment intervals for respiratory rate, PACO2, PAO2, tidal volume (VT), minute volume, Ti/Ttot, or VT/Ti. Hypercarbic ventilatory response to slopes were not diminished at any of the CH-sleep intervals compared to the awake mean slope. In addition, the ventilatory response to hypoxia at PAO2=70 mm Hg (V70) and the hypoxic response slope demonstrated no significant decrease at any of the CH-sleep intervals. In summary, absence of any significant decrease in either hypercarbic or hypoxic ventilatory response after CH administration indicates absence of any CH effect on chemical inspiratory drive. PMID:6803222

  3. [A surgical case of angina pectoris with a severe stenosis of Lt. mid-cerebral artery: the usefulness of the monitoring of cerebral blood flow].

    PubMed

    Ayusawa, Y; Endo, M; Nishida, H; Tomizawa, Y; Uwabe, K; Maeda, T; Tei, I; Takiguchi, M; Ishida, T; Koyanagi, H

    1998-08-01

    A 64-year-old male patient had two episodes of transient ischemic attack and a cerebral infarction. Cerebral angiography showed 50% stenosis at the junction of left internal carotid artery and 90% stenosis at left mid-cerebral artery (MCA). Coronary angiography showed two vessel disease with arteriosclerotic change and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. To prevent intraoperative cerebral infarction, we used brain protect solution just before starting ECC, set perfusion flow around 3 l/min/m2, monitored the flow of left MCA using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the saturation of left internal jugular vein (SjO2) continuously. PaCO2 was controlled around 45 mmHg. TCD showed good pulsatile flow, and SjO2 was kept over 60%. The patient recovered consciousness 2 hours after operation in the intensive care unit without paresthesia. We thought the number of open-heart cases with cerebrovascular disease increased, and pulsatile low of ECC by intraaortic balloon pumping and the monitoring of SjO2 are useful for the cases.

  4. Regional neurohypophysial and hypothalamic blood flow in rats during hypercapnia

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, R.M. Jr.; Myers, C.L.; Page, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in the neurohypophysis and hypothalamus in normocapnic and hypercapnic rats using (/sup 14/C)isopropyliodoamphetamine. Rats were surgically prepared using nitrous oxide and halothane and placed in plaster restraining casts. Hypercapnia was produced by increasing the fractional concentration of inspired CO/sub 2/ (FICO/sub 2/). rCBF in normocapnic rats was higher in the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, median eminence, and neural lobe than rates previously measured by use of diffusible tracers. During hypercapnia blood flow increased linearly with arterial PCO/sub 2/ (PACO/sub 2/) in all regions except the median eminence and neural lobe, which were not affected by hypercapnia. When rats were pretreated with phentolamine (1 mg/kg) to block the alpha-adrenergic receptors, blood flow in the median eminence and neural lobe increased significantly during hypercapnia. We conclude that blood flow in the cell bodies of the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus is regulated differently during hypercapnia than blood flow in the nerve terminals in the median eminence and neural lobe. Furthermore, vasodilation produced by increased CO/sub 2/ is offset by alpha-receptor stimulation in the median eminence and neural lobe.

  5. Improved survival with an ambulatory model of non-invasive ventilation implementation in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Sheers, Nicole; Berlowitz, David J; Rautela, Linda; Batchelder, Ian; Hopkinson, Kim; Howard, Mark E

    2014-06-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) increases survival and quality of life in motor neuron disease (MND). NIV implementation historically occurred during a multi-day inpatient admission at this institution; however, increased demand led to prolonged waiting times. The aim of this study was to evaluate the introduction of an ambulatory model of NIV implementation. A prospective cohort study was performed. Inclusion criteria were referral for NIV implementation six months pre- or post-commencement of the Day Admission model. This model involved a 4-h stay to commence ventilation with follow-up in-laboratory polysomnography titration and outpatient attendance. Outcome measures included waiting time, hospital length of stay, adverse events and polysomnography data. Results indicated that after changing to the Day Admission model the median waiting time fell from 30 to 13.5 days (p < 0.04) and adverse events declined (4/17 pre- (three deaths, one acute admission) vs. 0/12 post-). Survival was also prolonged (median (IQR) 278 (51-512) days pre- vs 580 (306-1355) days post-introduction of the Day Admission model; hazard ratio 0.41, p = 0.04). Daytime PaCO2 was no different. In conclusion, reduced waiting time to commence ventilation and improved survival were observed following introduction of an ambulatory model of NIV implementation in people with MND, with no change in the effectiveness of ventilation.

  6. [Bowel obstruction-induced cholinergic crisis with progressive respiratory failure following distigmine bromide treatment].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old female experienced rapid respiratory failure while being transported in an ambulance to our emergency department for evaluation and management of constipation and abdominal pain. The patient was on treatment with distigmine bromide for postoperative urination disorder and magnesium oxide for constipation. Increased salivary secretions, diminished respiratory excursion, type 2 respiratory failure (PaCO2 : 65 mmHg), low serum cholinesterase, and hypermagnesemia were detected. Imaging studies revealed that the patient had bilateral aspiration pneumonia, fecal impaction in the rectum, and a distended colon causing ileus. The patient was mechanically ventilated and was weaned off the ventilator on day 3. Therapeutic drug monitoring after discharge revealed that the serum level of distigmine bromide on admission was markedly elevated (377.8 ng/mL vs. the normal therapeutic level of 5-10 ng/mL). Distigmine bromide induced a cholinergic crisis with a resultant increase in airway secretions and respiratory failure. In this particular case, orally administered distigmine bromide was excessively absorbed because of prolonged intestinal transit time secondary to fecal impaction and sluggish bowel movement; this caused a cholinergic crisis and hypermagnesemia contributing to respiratory failure. Clinicians should be aware that bowel obstruction in a patient treated with distigmine bromide can increase the risk of a cholinergic crisis. PMID:27255021

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine (Weijing Decoction) Combined with Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhua; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weijing decoction combined with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating Weijing decoction for AECOPD were included. English, Chinese, and Japanese databases were searched from their respective inceptions to June 2013. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. All data were analyzed and synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. Results. Fifteen (15) studies involving 986 participants were included. Participants were diagnosed with COPD in the acute exacerbation stage. In addition, most of studies reported that they included participants with the Chinese medicine syndrome, phlegm-heat obstructing the Lung. Weijing decoction combined with RP improved lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1), arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2), clinical effective rate, and reduced inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-8) when compared with RP alone. No severe adverse events were reported in these studies. Conclusions. Weijing decoction appeared to be beneficial for AECOPD and well-tolerated when taken concurrently with RP, such as antibiotics, bronchodilators (oral and inhaled), and mucolytics. PMID:25165477

  8. Ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurs in serotonin-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Olson, E B

    1987-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that serotonin mediated respiratory activity is involved in ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia, rats were treated with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a potent, long-acting inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. In normoxia, a single, intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg PCPA/kg body weight decreased the Paco2 from a control level at 39.1 +/- 0.6 Torr (mean +/- 95% confidence limits) to 34.0 +/- 0.6 Torr measured during a period from 1 to 48 h following PCPA treatment. This PCPA-produced hyperventilation corresponds to an increase of 3.7 +/- 0.5 in the VA (BTPS)/Vco2 (STPD) ratio. Hyperventilation during ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia (PIO2 approximately equal to 90 Torr) was superimposed in an additive fashion on the underlying hyperventilation due to PCPA pretreatment. Specifically, PCPA pretreatment caused an average 3.5 +/- 1.2 increase in the VA/VCO2 ratio determined in acute (1 h) hypoxia, chronic (24 h) hypoxia and acute return to normoxia following chronic hypoxia. Since ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurred in rats treated with PCPA, the prolonged, serotonin mediated respiratory activity described by Millhorn et al. (1980b) is probably not important in ventilatory acclimatization to - or deacclimatization from - hypoxia. PMID:2957766

  9. ["Debris" public policies and exclusion. Their effects on subjective constitution].

    PubMed

    Perugino, Aída

    2013-01-01

    The following paper formulates a critical and conceptual analysis based on a territorial experience. It is enshrined in the field of mental health, understood as the collection of practices and problems aiming at addressing subjectivity, that is, they are inseparable from social and health practices. Some of the causes and effects of exclusion in subjective constitution become problems when institutional, group, community and individual interventions -always of a singular nature- take place. The existing relationship between public policies and population appears in the very core of an intervention or consultation; we, as professionals, are a part of it. People living in conditions of poverty often feel alien to traditional healthcare settings and they end up excluding such facilities from their resources. We will work on childhood and adolescence, as they are constituent stages in history, and the ways in which such history develops in situations with social exclusion. Some of such ways are paco (cocaine paste), violence, conflict with the law or ignorance of it. These are singular ways, but they involve a common and recurring mark related to rejection, neglect and subjective de-structuring. This is what I will refer to as debris hereafter. Lastly, the reconstruction of a Social Other and an approach based on the bond will be emphasized. This will also allow for a social bond, and the building of a care mechanism, which through transference may accommodate an individual who could make certain requests.

  10. The effects of open and closed endotracheal suctioning on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure: a crossover, single-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Uğraş, Gülay Altun; Aksoy, Güler

    2012-12-01

    Although endotracheal suctioning is a routine nursing intervention, this procedure can lead to an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). This study was planned to determine the appropriate suctioning technique (open system suctioning [OS] and closed system suctioning [CS]) to minimize variability of ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in neurologically impaired patients. The study, which was designed as a crossover, single-blind clinical trial, consisted of 32 neurosurgical patients who underwent ICP monitoring, intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring, and endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit. According to the need for suctioning, each patient in the experimental and control groups underwent suctioning with both closed and open systems. Recordings were composed of the patients' ICP, mean arterial blood pressure, CPP, heart rate (HR), and arterial blood gases during suctioning. It was observed that both suctioning techniques significantly increased ICP, mean arterial blood pressure, CPP, and HR; ICP was found to be significantly higher in OS compared with CS, whereas there were no significant differences in CPP and HR between the two techniques. The patients suctioned using OS had significantly lower mean PaO(2) than those suctioned using CS; however, the comparison of the two techniques revealed no significant differences in PaCO(2). The data obtained indicate that CS, compared with OS, can be used safely on this patient group.

  11. A Retrospective Observational Case Series of Low-Flow Venovenous Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Use in Patients with Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Moss, Caroline E; Galtrey, Eleanor J; Camporota, Luigi; Meadows, Chris; Gillon, Stuart; Ioannou, Nicholas; Barrett, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the use of venovenous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure. We performed a retrospective case note review of patients admitted to our tertiary regional intensive care unit and commenced on ECCO2R from August 2013 to February 2015. Fourteen patients received ECCO2R. Demographic data, physiologic data (including pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood [PaCO2]) when starting ECCO2R (t = 0), at 4 hourly intervals for the first 24 hours, then at 24 hour intervals until cessation of ECCO2R, and overall outcome were recorded. Patients are reported separately depending on whether the indication for ECCO2R was an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 5), or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and persisting hypercapnoea (n = 9). Patients were managed with ECCO2R (Hemolung, ALung Inc, Pittsburgh, PA). Median duration of ECCO2R was 5 days. Four complications related to ECCO2R were reported, none resulting in serious adverse outcomes. Ten patients were discharged from intensive care unit (ICU) alive. A statistically significant improvement in pH (p = 0.012) was demonstrated. Our observational series of ECCO2R shows that this technique can be safely used to achieve therapeutic goals in patients requiring lung protection, and in COPD, in line with current publications in this area.

  12. Vocal Cord Paralysis and Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in a Patient with Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pıhtılı, Aylin; Bingol, Züleyha; Durmuş, Hacer; Parman, Yeşim; Kıyan, Esen

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a patient case with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) who presented with vocal cord paralysis (VCP). A 60-year-old man with FAP (Gly89Gln) presented with hoarseness and snoring for the previous two years. A chest X-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly and bilateral diaphragmatic elevation. The findings of a restrictive pattern on spirometry and daytime hypercapnia were consistent with respiratory muscle weakness related to neuropathy [forced expiratory volume (FEV1): 38%, forced vital capacity (FVC): 39%, FEV1/FVC: 77, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2): 80 mmHg, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2): 52 mmHg]. An ear-nose-throat examination showed VCP. Polysomnography revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). FAP may cause OSA by VCP and hypercapnic respiratory failure by respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, an ear-nose-throat examination, spirometry, arterial blood gases analysis and polysomnography are important for these patients. PMID:27374684

  13. Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Enhances Lung Volume and Gas Exchange in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Pillow, J. Jane; Hillman, Noah; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Polglase, Graeme; Bold, Geoff; Beaumont, Chris; Ikegami, Machiko; Jobe, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The technique used to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the newborn may influence lung function and breathing efficiency. Objectives: To compare differences in gas exchange physiology and lung injury resulting from treatment of respiratory distress with either bubble or constant pressure CPAP and to determine if the applied flow influences short-term outcomes. Methods: Lambs (133 d gestation; term is 150 d) born via cesarean section were weighed, intubated, and treated with CPAP for 3 hours. Two groups were treated with 8 L/minute applied flow using the bubble (n = 12) or the constant pressure (n = 12) technique. A third group (n = 10) received the bubble method with 12 L/minute bias flow. Measurements at study completion included arterial blood gases, oxygraphy, capnography, tidal flow, multiple breath washout, lung mechanics, static pressure–volume curves, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein. Measurements and Main Results: Birth weight and arterial gas variables at 15 minutes were comparable. Flow (8 or 12 L/min) did not influence the 3-hour outcomes in the bubble group. Bubble technique was associated with a higher pH, PaO2, oxygen uptake, and area under the flow–volume curve, and a decreased alveolar protein, respiratory quotient, PaCO2, and ventilation inhomogeneity compared with the constant pressure group. Conclusions: Compared with constant pressure technique, bubble CPAP promotes enhanced airway patency during treatment of acute postnatal respiratory disease in preterm lambs and may offer protection against lung injury. PMID:17431223

  14. Beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingyan; Tian, Xia; Gou, Lingshan; Ling, Xin; Wang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Yin, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Theanine and caffeine, 2 naturally occurring components in tea, have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. In this study, we assessed the beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral damage in rats. Theanine and caffeine had no effect on physiological variables, including pH, partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mean arterial blood pressure, plasma glucose, or regional cerebral blood flow. Treatment with theanine (1 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal injection) alone significantly reduced cerebral infarction induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, intravenous administration) alone only had a marginal effect. However, the combination of theanine plus caffeine resulted in a significant reduction of cerebral infarction and brain edema compared with theanine monotherapy. Meanwhile, increased malondialdehyde levels as well as decreased superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione levels observed in the cerebral cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by the combination therapy. Furthermore, the elevated inflammatory response levels observed in the cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were markedly attenuated by the combined treatment. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroprotective potential of a combination therapy with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is partly ascribed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Changes in body fluid compartments on re-induction to high altitude and effect of diuretics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Tyagi, A. K.; Bhagat, Maj J. K.; Parshad, R.; Divekar, H. M.

    1988-03-01

    Studies were carried out in 29 healthy young adults in the Indian Army stationed in the plains and posted at an elevation of 3500 m for more than 6 months. After exposure to a low elevation in Delhi (260 m) for 3 weeks they were reinduced to a height of 3500 m. The subjects were divided into three groups, each of which was treated with either placebo or acetazolamide or spironolactone. The drug treatment was started immediately after their landing at high altitude and continued for 2 days only. Total body water, extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, plasma volume, blood pH, PaO2, PaCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on exposure at Delhi and on re-induction to high altitude. Plasma volume was increased after the descent from high altitude and remained high for up to 21 day's study. This increased plasma volume may have some significance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema. Total body water and intracellular fluid content were increased at 260 m elevation, while extracellular fluid decreased. On re-induction there was a decrease in total body water with no change in the extracellular fluid content.

  16. Acid-Base Balance in Uremic Rats with Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Ramírez, Alan; Raya, Ana Isabel; Pineda, Carmen; Rodríguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; López, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Vascular calcification (VC), a major complication in humans and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), is influenced by changes in acid-base balance. The purpose of this study was to describe the acid-base balance in uremic rats with VC and to correlate the parameters that define acid-base equilibrium with VC. Methods Twenty-two rats with CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) and 10 nonuremic control rats were studied. Results The 5/6 Nx rats showed extensive VC as evidenced by a high aortic calcium (9.2 ± 1.7 mg/g of tissue) and phosphorus (20.6 ± 4.9 mg/g of tissue) content. Uremic rats had an increased pH level (7.57 ± 0.03) as a consequence of both respiratory (PaCO2 = 28.4 ± 2.1 mm Hg) and, to a lesser degree, metabolic (base excess = 4.1 ± 1 mmol/l) derangements. A high positive correlation between both anion gap (AG) and strong ion difference (SID) with aortic calcium (AG: r = 0.604, p = 0.02; SID: r = 0.647, p = 0.01) and with aortic phosphorus (AG: r = 0.684, p = 0.007; SID: r = 0.785, p = 0.01) was detected. Conclusions In an experimental model of uremic rats, VC showed high positive correlation with AG and SID. PMID:25177336

  17. Use of naloxone to reverse carfentanil citrate-induced hypoxemia and cardiopulmonary depression in Rocky Mountain wapiti (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    PubMed

    Moresco, A; Larsen, R S; Sleeman, J M; Wild, M A; Gaynor, J S

    2001-03-01

    With the use of a crossover study design, we investigated the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of naloxone administration in eight healthy Rocky Mountain wapiti (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) anesthetized with carfentanil (10 microg/kg i.m.) and xylazine (0.1 mg/kg). Anesthetized animals showed profound hypoxemia with mild hypercapnia, tachycardia, hypertension, and acidosis prior to naloxone administration. After monitoring equipment was placed, animals were administered either naloxone (2 microg/microg carfentanil i.v.) or an equivalent volume of normal saline. Mean values for PaO2, PaCO2, heart rate, and respiratory rate were significantly different between naloxone- and saline-treated groups, but mean blood pressure, hematocrit, and serum electrolyte concentrations were not. Mean PaO2 was 23.0 +/- 4.1 mm Hg prior to administration of naloxone or saline and increased to 50.2 +/- 7.3 mm Hg after naloxone administration. Mean PaO2 of saline-treated animals did not change significantly. Electrocardiograms of three saline-treated animals suggested myocardial hypoxia. Hypoxemia appeared to be caused by respiratory depression, hemodynamic alterations, and lateral recumbency. All but one animal remained anesthetized after naloxone administration. Anesthesia in all animals was reversed in < or = 4 min with naltrexone (100 mg/mg carfentanil i.v. s.c.) and yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg i.v.). One bolus of naloxone improved oxygenation in carfentanil-xylazine-anesthetized wapiti. PMID:12790400

  18. The Stewart Approach – One Clinician’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, T John

    2009-01-01

    Peter Stewart added controversy to an already troubled subject when he entered the clinical acid-base arena. His approach puts water dissociation at the centre of the acid-base status of body fluids. It is based on six simultaneous equations, incorporating the Laws of Mass Action, Mass Conservation, and Electrical Neutrality. Together with Gibbs-Donnan equilibria, these equations explain the diagnostically important PaCO2/pH relationship, and improve understanding of the physiologic basis of traditional acid-base approaches. Spin-offs have included new scanning tools for unmeasured ions, in particular the ‘strong ion gap’ and ‘net unmeasured ions’. The most controversial feature is the designation of pH and bicarbonate concentrations as dependent variables, answerable exclusively to three independent variables. These are the strong ion difference (SID), the total concentration of non-volatile weak acid (ATOT), and PCO2. Aspects of this assertion conflict with traditional renal physiology, and with current models of membrane H+/base transporters, oxidative phosphorylation, and proton and bicarbonate ionophores. The debate in this area is ongoing. Meanwhile, Stewart-style diagnostic and decision support systems such as the ‘Strong Ion Calculator’ and the web-site www.acidbase.org are now appearing. PMID:19565024

  19. Dialysis induced hypoxemia.

    PubMed

    Habte, B; Carter, R; Shamebo, M; Veicht, J; Boulton Jones, J M

    1982-09-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which hypoxemia is produced in patients on dialysis by studying changes in neutrophil count, blood gases and pulmonary function in a patient with only trace amounts of circulating C3 associated with Type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis and a control group of 6 patients with normal C3 levels during a 4 hour hemodialysis. Fifteen minutes after the start of dialysis the neutrophil count fell to 13% of pre-dialysis values in the control group while it only fell to 71% in the study patient. A further fall to 47% occurred in the patient at 30 minutes. A drop in PaO2 by 15% of initial values occurred at 15 and 30 minutes in the controls and the patient respectively matching the trend of fall in the neutrophil count. PaCO2 fell sharply across the dialysis membrane with reciprocol changes in the dialysis bath. Alveolar oxygen tension showed a significant reduction starting at 15 minutes correlating with the reduction in PaO2. The A-a O2 gradient was not altered significantly. These data strongly suggest that the principal mechanism leading to hypoxemia during dialysis is hypoventilation resulting from CO2 loss into the dialysis bath. Complement mediated pulmonary leucostasis may play a secondary role in inducing a quicker fall in PaO2 in the early part of dialysis. PMID:7140022

  20. Open and Closed Endotracheal Suctioning and Arterial Blood Gas Values: A Single-Blind Crossover Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Azam; Khatony, Alireza; Moradi, Gholamreza; Abdi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Aim. This study was aimed at comparing the effects of the open and closed suctioning techniques on the arterial blood gas values in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Methods. In a clinical trial, we recruited 42 patients after open-heart surgery in an educational hospital. Each patient randomly underwent both open and closed suctioning. ABGs, PaO2, SaO2, PaCO2, were analyzed before and one, five, and fifteen minutes after each suctioning episode. Results. At first the pressure of oxygen in arterial blood increased; however, this increase in the open technique was greater than that of the closed system (P < 0.001). The pressure of oxygen decreased five and fifteen minutes after both suctioning techniques (P < 0.05). The trends of carbon dioxide variations after the open and closed techniques were upward and downward, respectively. Moreover, the decrease in the level of oxygen saturation five and fifteen minutes after the open suctioning was greater than that of the closed suctioning technique (P < 0.05).  Conclusion. Arterial blood gas disturbances in the closed suctioning technique were less than those of the open technique. Therefore, to eliminate the unwanted effects of endotracheal suctioning on the arterial blood gases, the closed suctioning technique is recommended. PMID:26425366

  1. A comparison of proximal and distal high-frequency jet ventilation in an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Bandy, K P; Donn, S M; Nicks, J J; Naglie, R A

    1986-01-01

    High-frequency jet ventilation using either a proximal or a distal endotracheal injection site through a triple-lumen endotracheal tube was studied in 10 adult cats. The comparative effects on pulmonary gas exchange, tracheal pressure, heart rate, and blood pressure were examined for each injection site at both high (8-12 pounds per square inch [PSI] and low (5-8 PSI) jet-driving pressures in normal and lung-injured cats. Lung injury was created by modification of a surfactant washout technique previously demonstrated in rabbits. Alveolar ventilation (PaCO2) was found to be significantly better with distal than with proximal jet injection under all experimental conditions. At high jet-driving pressures, peak inspiratory pressure was higher in both normal (p = 0.03) and lung-injured cats (p = 0.002) with distal high-frequency jet ventilation. In addition, lung-injured animals were observed to have higher distal mean airway pressures at high jet-driving pressures (p less than 0.01). No differences in oxygenation were found in any circumstances. The results of this animal study suggest that distal high-frequency jet ventilation may be more effective in those situations in which improvement in alveolar ventilation is the major goal and that during proximal high-frequency jet ventilation airway pressures should be monitored as far distally as possible.

  2. Periodic and aperiodic variability of the interacting binary and long-periodic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Baklanov, A. V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Gazeas, K.; Halevin, A. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Niarchos, P. G.; Patkos, L.; Pavlenko, E. P.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.; Shapovalova, L. L.; Tremko, J.; Zola, S.

    2000-09-01

    Recent results obtained within the framework of the international observational and research campaigns are reviewed. The main topics are following: magnetic cataclysmic variables: synchronization of the spin and orbital period of the white dwarf; observational evidence on the switching of the accretion from one pole to another; non-dipole configuration of the magnetic field; ``swingings'' of the orientation of the magnetic axis in the `` synchronous systems''; instability of the accretion and the ``red noise''; long-term luminosity changes; UV Cet - like flares; two-pole accretion in the intermediate polars; weakly- and non- magnetic cataclysmic variables: negative and positive superhumps in the nova-like variables; ``red noise'' and/or quasi-periodic oscillations; unprecedented switch of the superhump period in TT Ari; the luminosity dependence of the superhump period in BZ Cam and V725 Aql; long-term variations of the outburst characteristics of dwarf novae and luminosity of old novae - magnetic activity of the red secondary vs third body orbiting around a cataclysmic variable; symbiotic binaries: light curve variations in symbiotic novae and stars with a pulsating component; long-periodic pulsating variables: statistical study of the characteristics of the mean phase curves and of the individual cycles; additional classification criteria for the Mira-type and semi-regular stars. Some of the original papers are available at http://www.paco.odessa.ua/~il-a and http://ila.webjump.com

  3. Revised one-step method for determination of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Olszowka, A J; Shykoff, B E; Pendergast, D R; Farhi, L E

    2004-04-20

    Cardiac output (Q) is a determinant of blood pressure and O(2) delivery and is critical in the maintenance of homeostasis, particularly during environmental stress and exercise. Cardiac output can be determined invasively in patients; however, indirect methods are required for other situations. Soluble gas techniques are widely used to determine (Q). Historically, measurements during a breathhold, prolonged expiration and rebreathing to CO(2) equilibrium have been used; however, with limitations, especially during stress. Farhi and co-workers developed a single-step CO(2) rebreathing method, which was subsequently revised by his group, and has been shown to be reliable and compared closely to direct, invasive measures. V(CO2), P(ACO2), and P(VCO2) are determined during a 12-25s rebreathing, using the appropriate tidal volume, and (Q) is calculated. This method can provide accurate data in laboratory and field experiments during exercise, increased or decreased gravity, water immersion, lower body pressure, head-down tilt, altered ambient pressure or changes in inspired gas composition.

  4. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  5. Differential Neutralizing Activities of a Single Domain Camelid Antibody (VHH) Specific for Ricin Toxin’s Binding Subunit (RTB)

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Cristina; Vance, David J.; Eisele, Leslie E.; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Ricin, a member of the A-B family of ribosome-inactivating proteins, is classified as a Select Toxin by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of its potential use as a biothreat agent. In an effort to engineer therapeutics for ricin, we recently produced a collection of alpaca-derived, heavy-chain only antibody VH domains (VHH or “nanobody”) specific for ricin’s enzymatic (RTA) and binding (RTB) subunits. We reported that one particular RTB-specific VHH, RTB-B7, when covalently linked via a peptide spacer to different RTA-specific VHHs, resulted in heterodimers like VHH D10/B7 that were capable of passively protecting mice against a lethal dose challenge with ricin. However, RTB-B7 itself, when mixed with ricin at a 1∶10 toxin:antibody ratio did not afford any protection in vivo, even though it had demonstrable toxin-neutralizing activity in vitro. To better define the specific attributes of antibodies associated with ricin neutralization in vitro and in vivo, we undertook a more thorough characterization of RTB-B7. We report that RTB-B7, even at 100-fold molar excess (toxin:antibody) was unable to alter the toxicity of ricin in a mouse model. On the other hand, in two well-established cytotoxicity assays, RTB-B7 neutralized