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Sample records for alpaca vicugna pacos

  1. Normal bacterial conjunctival flora in the Huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Storms, Goedele; Meersschaert, Carole; Farnir, Frédéric; Grauwels, Magda

    2016-01-01

    To describe the bacterial flora of the normal conjunctiva of Huacaya alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and to determine the effect of age and gender on this flora. Fifty Huacaya alpacas. After a complete ophthalmic examination, conjunctival swabs were obtained from both eyes and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of age and gender on bacterial isolation. Four animals were excluded because of signs of external ocular disease. Of the remaining 46 alpacas, bacteria were recovered from 96.7% (89/92) of the eyes. A total of 190 bacterial isolates were cultured with a mean of 2.1 bacterial isolates per eye. The majority of isolates (70%) were Gram-positive. Staphylococcus xylosus (44/190: 23.2%) predominated, followed by viridans streptococci (32/190: 16.8%) and Pantoea agglomerans (24/190: 12.6%). Other frequently isolated bacteria included Rothia mucilaginosa (12/190: 6.3%), Staphylococcus equorum (12/190: 6.3%), Bacillus species (9/190: 4.7%), Moraxella ovis (9/190: 4.7%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (6/190: 3.2%). Statistical analysis showed that alpacas harboring viridans streptococci and Moraxella species were significantly younger. Gender did not significantly affect type of bacterial isolation. There appeared to be no significant effect of age or gender on number of bacteria isolated. Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured, with S. xylosus and viridans streptococci predominating. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of Moraxella species in the healthy conjunctival sac of alpacas. Alpacas harboring viridans streptococci and Moraxella species were significantly younger. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)—a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life. PMID:28405385

  3. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Haley D

    2017-03-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)-a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life.

  4. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  5. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) as a natural intermediate host of Taenia omissa (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Yucra, Dora; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2017-11-15

    Three metacestodes were collected from the mesentery and the surface of the liver of three adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in a slaughterhouse located in Puno, Peru. Various features of the metacestodes were observed for morphological identification. A molecular diagnosis was performed by PCR-based sequencing of mitochondrial genes of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). All metacestodes were identified as Taenia omissa by morphology and molecular methods The isolates from alpacas showed significant sequence similarity with previously reported isolates of T. omissa (95.7-98.1% in cox1 and 94.6-95.1% in nad1). Our report is the first to detect T. omissa metacestodes in alpacas and to reveal that alpacas are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pagetoid reticulosis (epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) in an adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Hasbach, Andrea E; Stern, Adam W

    2016-07-01

    A 9-year-old, intact female alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was presented for a second opinion with a 1-year history of nonpruritic, multifocal scaling and crusted cutaneous lesions, mainly involving skin on the face, axillae, and ventral abdomen. Clinical abnormalities were limited to the skin, and the alpaca was otherwise healthy. The initial veterinarian had examined the alpaca, found no evidence of ectoparasites with laboratory testing, and had tried several trial therapies including oral antibiotics, ivermectin, and topical use of betadine solution. At the time of presentation, the lesions had neither improved nor worsened with any attempted therapy, and multiple skin biopsies were collected. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining findings were consistent with the pagetoid reticulosis type of cutaneous epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma. Our report describes the clinical, histopathologic, and immunophenotypic features of pagetoid reticulosis epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an alpaca. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HYUGA, Ayako; MATSUMOTO, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts of Eimeria punoensis and/or E. alpacae were found in 69.8%, E. lamae in 1.9% and E. macusaniensis in 7.5%. We found that alpacas raised in Japan have gastrointestinal parasitic fauna similar to those in other countries. PMID:26725443

  8. Pathophysiology of penetrating captive bolt stunning in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Whitehead, Claire; Taylor, Rebecca; Sykes, Olivia; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the behavioural and cranial/spinal responses of alpacas culled by captive bolt shooting and the resulting pathophysiology of captive bolt injury. Ninety-six alpacas were shot (103 shots) in a range of locations with a penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG). Ten (9.8%) alpacas were incompletely concussed following the first shot. No animals required more than two shots. Incorrectly placed shots accounted for all of the animals that displayed signs of sensibility. Damage to the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla, cerebellum, parietal and occipital lobes were significantly associated with decreasing odds of incomplete concussion. In conclusion, the study confirmed that CBG stunning can induce insensibility in alpacas and suggests that the top of the head (crown) position maximises damage to structures of the thalamus and brainstem.

  9. Characterization of paneth cells in alpacas (Vicugna pacos, Mammalia, Camelidae).

    PubMed

    Vásquez, María; Lira, Boris; Rodríguez, José; Falcón, Néstor; Ocampo, Jorge; Nishida, Fabián; Barbeito, Claudio; Zanuzzi, Carolina

    2016-08-01

    Paneth cells are secretory epithelial cells of the innate immune system of the intestine of several mammals, including alpacas. Little is known about the latter; thus, in the present study we described the morphology and histochemical characteristics of Paneth cells in healthy fetuses, and young and adult alpacas. For this purpose, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were taken from 6 fetuses at different days of pregnancy (between days 221-330), 66 offsprings (between 0 and 45-days-old) and 5 adult alpacas (>2-years-old). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histological and morphometrical analysis using HE and Masson Trichomićs technique. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Paneth cells using anti-lysozyme antibody. In addition, the lectinhistochemichal binding-pattern of Paneth celĺs granules was evaluated. Lyzozyme was immunohistochemically detected in the granules of Paneth cells from day 283 of pregnancy in all the small intestinal sections of the studied fetuses. In newborn alpacas Paneth cells were initially found in the duodenum, but the following days (days 18-21 after birth) they were also found in the ileum. Their size gradually increased after birth, but then no significant differences were found. In adult alpacas the number was lower than offsprings. We suggest that Paneth cells early differentiate in the small intestine of alpacas, and the increase in their number during the first two weeks of life strongly support their possible involvement in the intestinal defensive functions against the enteric diseases that occur during the lactancy stage.

  10. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  11. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America. PMID:23729829

  12. Retinal ganglion cell distribution and visual acuity in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Hui; Gallagher, Shannon K; Byers, Stacey R; Madl, James E; Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and visual acuity in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) through Brn-3a immunofluorescent labeling. Five eyes from four healthy alpacas with normal ophthalmic examination findings were included in the study. The axial length of the globes was measured before fixation. All five retinas were treated with Brn-3a antibodies to label RGCs. Images taken with a fluorescent microscope were used for RGC counting. RGC density maps were reconstructed by computer software. Visual acuity was estimated based on the results of peak RGC density and ocular anatomical parameters. The reconstructed retinal maps from Brn-3a labeling showed a horizontal streak across the retinal meridian superior to the optic nerve head with a temporal, upward extension. The highest RGC densities were in the temporal retinas. The maximal visual acuity was located in the temporal retina and was estimated to range between 12.5 and 13.4 cycles per degree. Alpacas have a horizontal streak across the retinal meridian superior to the optic disk with a temporal, upward extension based on the Brn-3a labeling of RGCs. The maximal visual acuity was located in the temporal retina. The reconstructed retinal maps indicate the RGC topography of alpacas is similar to that of other herbivores, but is different from that of dromedary camels. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Bovine xenograft application for treatment of a metatarsal nonunion fracture in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Longo, F; Finotti, L; Bellini, L; Zavan, B; Busetto, R; Isola, M

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old female huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was referred because of a non-weight-bearing lameness (4/4) in the left pelvic limb caused by a grade three open metatarsal fracture. The referring veterinarian treated the fracture with conservative management using bandages, but it progressively evolved to a non-union. Clinical examination revealed external wounds on the medial and lateral surfaces of the metatarsus. Radiographs confirmed an open, nonarticular, displaced, diaphyseal fracture of the left metatarsus. Cancellous bone was sourced from bovine proximal and distal femur epiphyses, followed by a thermal shock procedure to achieve decellularisation, to produce a xenograft. Open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture using locking plates was performed. Alignment of the fracture fragments was corrected and the xenograft was placed at the debrided fracture site to stimulate and harness osteogenesis in situ. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed up to 40 weeks postoperatively. Clinical evaluations revealed that the alpaca gradually increased weight bearing following bandage removal 10 days after surgery. Serial radiographs showed correct alignment of the left metatarsus, progressive bone modelling and, complete bone union at 12 weeks. Ten months postoperatively the alpaca showed no signs of lameness and resumed normal activity. For management of a metatarsal non-union, a combination of bovine xenograft application and angular stable internal fixation progressed toward an excellent long-term recovery.

  14. The genetic inheritance of the blue-eyed white phenotype in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Jackling, Felicity C; Johnson, Warren E; Appleton, Belinda R

    2014-01-01

    White-spotting patterns in mammals can be caused by mutations in the gene KIT, whose protein is necessary for the normal migration and survival of melanocytes from the neural crest. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) blue-eyed white (BEW) phenotype is characterized by 2 blue eyes and a solid white coat over the whole body. Breeders hypothesize that the BEW phenotype in alpacas is caused by the combination of the gene causing gray fleece and a white-spotting gene. We performed an association study using KIT flanking and intragenic markers with 40 unrelated alpacas, of which 17 were BEW. Two microsatellite alleles at KIT-related markers were significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with the BEW phenotype (bew1 and bew2). In a larger cohort of 171 related individuals, we identify an abundance of an allele (bew1) in gray animals and the occurrence of bew2 homozygotes that are solid white with pigmented eyes. Association tests accounting for population structure and familial relatedness are consistent with a proposed model where these alleles are in linkage disequilibrium with a mutation or mutations that contribute to the BEW phenotype and to individual differences in fleece color. © The American Genetic Association. 2012. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Dysuria due to discospondylitis and intervertebral disc herniation in a male alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Sickinger, Marlene; Hirz, Manuela; Schmidt, Martin J; Reinacher, Manfred

    2016-05-31

    Dysuria in camelids is usually associated with the presence of lower urinary tract disease such as urolithiasis. As another differential diagnosis, urine retention may be caused by neurological disturbances resulting from infections of the spinal cord, discospondylitis or trauma. A 2.5-year-old male Huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos) presented with dysuria due to damage of the lumbosacral intumescence of the spinal cord. On presentation the alpaca was recumbent. Clinical examination revealed abdominal pain, oliguria, leucopenia with neutrophilia, and slightly elevated creatinine kinase. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed an irregularly shaped, dilated urinary bladder with hyperechoic serosa. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed discospondylitis of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae and herniation of the intervertebral disc between these vertebrae and the spinal cord. Postmortem examination confirmed severe chronic purulent discospondylitis with ventral spondylosis and narrowing of the spinal canal. Urolithiasis could not be verified. Although rare, diseases of the spinal cord should be considered as a differential diagnosis for impaired micturition in camelids.

  16. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  17. Presence and distribution of urocortin and its receptors in the epididymis of alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Ciarcia, R; Vittoria, A; Mirabella, N

    2015-02-01

    Urocortin 1 (UCN) is a 40-amino acid peptide belonging to the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) family. The biological effects of this peptide are modulated by binding two G-coupled receptors named CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) and CRH receptor 2 (CRHR2). CRHR2 has high affinity for UCN. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 in the epididymis of the South America camelid Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry. Tissue extracts of the organ reacted with the anti-UCN, anti-CRHR1 and anti-CRHR2 antibodies, recognizing in all the cases a single specific protein band. UCN- and CRHR2-immunoreactivities (IRs) were found in the cytoplasm of the principal cells (PCs) of the caput epididymis. A prevalent supranuclear localization of granular-shaped positive material was observed. CRHR1-IR was observed in the fibromuscular stromal cells encircling the tubules and in the smooth musculature of the blood vessels throughout the three epididymal segments. In addition, in the cauda, CRHR1-IR was observed in some apical epithelial cells (ACs) which were morphologically similar to apical mitochondria-rich cells (AMRCs). These results suggest that UCN, CRHR1 and CRHR2 are expressed in the alpaca epididymis and that CRH-related peptides might play multiple roles in maturation and storage of spermatozoa.

  18. Presence and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rosadio-Alcántara, Raúl; Maturrano-Hernández, Lenin; Luna-Espinoza, Luis; Zanabria-Huisa, Víctor; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2012-07-06

    The presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from Peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rRNA and β-giardin genes from Giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rRNA gene from Cryptosporidium spp. A total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for Giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. In ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found. Herd prevalence was found to be 91.7% (11/12 herds) for Giardia and 58.3% (7/12 herds) for Cryptosporidium. Regarding the age of the animals, although Giardia was detected in animals as young as 1 week, the prevalence increased with age, reaching 80% by 8 weeks. Similarly, the highest percentage of Cryptosporidium detection (20%) was also found in the 8 week-old group. By PCR, 92 of the 274 analysed samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of the amplicons showed the existence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in 67 samples; G. duodenalis assemblage E in 24 samples; and inconsistent results between the two molecular markers used in a further sample. Cryptosporidium was only detected by PCR in 3 of the 274 samples; Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in two samples and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample. This study is the first performing molecular characterisation of both parasites in Peruvian alpacas, and the first report of C. ubiquitum in this host. The identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, suggests that zoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens between alpacas and humans is possible.

  19. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex.

  20. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Casey, Sarah Jane; Zajac, Anne Marie; Wildeus, Stephen Arthur; Lindsay, David Scott; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Oliveira, Solange; Kwok, Oliver Chun Hung; Su, Chunlei

    2014-12-01

    Alpacas are important to the economy of several countries. Little is known of Toxoplasma gondii infection in alpacas worldwide. In the present study, T. gondii was isolated and genetically characterized from alpacas for the first time. Alpacas (n = 16) and rams (n = 12) pastured on a farm in Virginia, USA, were examined at necropsy. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined by the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1:25) and found in 6 of 16 alpacas with titers of 1:100 (2 alpaca), 1:400 (2 alpacas), 1:800 (1 alpaca), and 1:1,600 (1 alpaca), and 5 of 12 rams in titers of 1:50 in one, 1:400 in one, 1:800 in one, 1:1,600 in one, and 1:3,200 in one. Tissues of all 16 alpacas were bioassayed in mice or in cats. Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive sheep by bioassay in mice. Genotyping using cell-cultured tachyzoites revealed four genotypes, including one for ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #2 (type III), one for genotype #3 (type II variant), one for genotype #170, and two for a new genotype designated as ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #230. Thus, four of the five T. gondii isolates in the present study belonged to different genotypes. These results indicate a higher genetic diversity among T. gondii isolates circulating in the USA than previously realized.

  1. Non-invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis from Urine by the Cuboni Reaction and the Barium Chloride Test in Donkeys (Equus asinus) and Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Kubátová, A; Fedorova, T; Skálová, I; Hyniová, L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys (Equus asinus) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The research was carried out from April 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at 6-9 week intervals. In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. The Cuboni reaction was performed by the State Veterinary Institute Prague. The barium chloride test was done with 5 ml of urine mixed together with 5 ml of 1% barium chloride solution. Results of the Cuboni reaction were strongly influenced by the reproductive status of jennies; the test was 100% successful throughout the second half of pregnancy. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas, because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found. In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys.

  2. Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuju; He, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Junbing; He, Junping; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; Geng, Jianjun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling has been considered as a key pathway in both melanocyte development and melanogenesis. To understand better the expression patterns and tissue distribution characterization of HGF and its receptor c-Met in skin of white versus brown alpaca (Vicugna pacos), we detected the tissue distribution of HGF and c-Met using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the expression patterns by using Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that HGF staining robustly increased in the dermal papilla and mesenchymal cells of white alpaca skin compared with that of brown. However, c-Met staining showed strongly positive result, particularly inhair matrix and root sheath in brown alpaca skin. Western blot and qPCR results suggested that HGF and c-Met were expressed at significantly high levels in white and brown alpaca skins, respectively, and protein and transcripts possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. The results suggested that HGF/c-Met signaling functions in alpaca coat color formation offer essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of HGF/c-Met signaling in pigment formation.

  3. Evaluation of CHD7 as a candidate gene for choanal atresia in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Reed, Kent M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Fleege, Elizabeth C; Damerow, John A; Armién, Aníbal G

    2013-10-01

    Choanal atresia (CA) is a craniofacial malformation characterized by obstruction of the posterior nasal aperture, resulting in laborious respiratory inspiration and exhalation. Alpaca crias with CA typically develop fatal pneumonia, frequently as the result of milk aspiration during nursing, and euthanasia is usually inevitable. Nonsense or missense mutations in the CHD7 gene cause a comparable condition (CHARGE syndrome) in humans. In this study, the coding region of CHD7 was sequenced in six CA-affected alpacas. Forty-nine sequence variants were identified, of which 10 would result in amino acid changes (non-synonymous), some with potentially deleterious effects. However, none of the observed variants would result in the obvious deleterious effects caused by nonsense or missense mutations. Although a role for CHD7 mutations in CA cannot be definitively dismissed, these do not appear to be the primary cause of CA in alpacas.

  4. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  5. Molecular analysis of methanogenic archaea in the forestomach of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methanogens that populate the gastrointestinal tract of livestock ruminants contribute significantly to methane emissions from the agriculture industry. There is a great need to analyze archaeal microbiomes from a broad range of host species in order to establish causal relationships between the structure of methanogen communities and their potential for methane emission. In this report, we present an investigation of methanogenic archaeal populations in the foregut of alpacas. Results We constructed individual 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from five sampled animals and recovered a total of 947 sequences which were assigned to 51 species-level OTUs. Individuals were found to each have between 21 and 27 OTUs, of which two to six OTUs were unique. As reported in other host species, Methanobrevibacter was the dominant genus in the alpaca, representing 88.3% of clones. However, the alpaca archaeal microbiome was different from other reported host species, as clones showing species-level identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were the most abundant. Conclusion From our analysis, we propose a model to describe the population structure of Methanobrevibacter-related methanogens in the alpaca and in previously reported host species, which may contribute in unraveling the complexity of symbiotic archaeal communities in herbivores. PMID:22221383

  6. Characterization of functional variables in epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm using imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Ugarelli, Alejandra; Evangelista-Vargas, Shirley

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal alpaca sperm represent an alternative model for the study of alpaca semen. The objective of this study was to characterize the normal values of some functional variables in epididymal alpaca sperm using imaging flow cytometry. Alpaca testicles (n=150) were processed and sperm were recovered from the cauda epididymides. Only 76 samples with acceptable motility and sperm count were considered for assessment by imaging flow cytometry. Acrosome integrity and integrity/viability were assessed by FITC-PSA/PI and FITC-PNA/PI. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using BODIPY 581/591 C11. Results show that the mean values for acrosome-intact sperm were 95.03±6.39% and 93.34±7.96%, using FITC-PSA and FITC-PNA, respectively. The mean values for acrosome-intact viable sperm were 60.58±12.12% with FITC-PSA/PI and 58.81±12.94% with FITC-PNA/PI. Greater MMP was detected in 65.03±15.92% and 59.52±19.19%, using MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was 0.84±0.95%. Evaluation of acrosome-intact and acrosome-intact viable sperm with FITC-PSA/PI compared with. FITC-PNA/PI or MMP with MitoTracker CMXRos compared with MitoTracker Deep Red FM were correlated (P<0.05). The MMP using MitoTracker CMXRos was the only variable correlated (P<0.05) with sperm motility (r=0.3979). This report provides a basis for future research related to alpaca semen using the epididymal sperm model.

  7. Volatile fatty acid profile for grass hay or alfalfa hay fed to alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Oldham, C L; Robinson, T F; Hunter, Z R; Taylor, L; White, J; Johnston, N P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal composition and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and to determine VFA composition and concentration differences between stomach compartment 1 (C1) and caecum of alpacas fed grass and alfalfa hay. The study was divided into two experiments. In Experiment 1 (EXP 1), 10 male alpacas (3+ years old, 65 kg BW) were divided into two groups, housed in drylot pens, provided ad libitum water and fed alfalfa (AH) or grass hay (GH) for 30 days. The alpacas were slaughtered and the digestive tract collected, divided into sub-tract sections, weighed and digesta sampled for pH, dry matter (DM) and NDF. Volatile fatty acid composition and concentration were determined on C1 and caecal material. Four adult male (3+ years old, 60 kg BW), C1 fistulated alpacas were housed in metabolism crates and divided into two forage groups for Experiment 2 (EXP 2). Alpacas were fed the forages as in EXP 1. Diurnal C1 VFA samples were drawn at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. There were no differences between forages for tract weight, C1 and caecum digesta DM or NDF. Differences were noted (p < 0.05) for pH between forages and sub-tract site. Volatile fatty acids concentrations were different (p < 0.05) for forage and site, and total VFA was higher for AH than GH (110.6 and 79.1 mm) and C1 than caecum (40.7 and 27.6 mm). Proportion of VFA was significant (p < 0.05) for forage and site, C1 acetate highest for GH (84.8 vs. 74.0 mm) and caecum acetate 83.7 and 76.2 mm for GH and AH respectively. These data demonstrate the level of VFA produced in C1 and the caecum of alpacas and the diurnal VFA patterns. Composition of VFA is similar to other ruminant species.

  8. The combined effects of grain supplementation and tenderstretching on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat quality.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeding a mixed grain supplement and tenderstretching (TS) alpaca carcasses on meat quality. A total of 56 castrated 24month old alpacas were divided into two treatments (pasture-only, and pasture plus supplementation). Supplemented groups were fed a mixed grain ration in addition to ad lib pasture for 10weeks. Animals were slaughtered across two kill days (n=28). One half of each carcass was suspended by the pelvis (TS) prior to chilling, and the other half was Achilles tendon hung (AH). After 24h, muscles were removed and aged for 10 and 25d. TS significantly increased sarcomere length and reduced shear force and cooking loss in the m. semimembranosus. This trend was not observed in other muscles including the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. psoas major. Ageing period resulted in a marginal improvement in LL tenderness. There is clear evidence that TS improves tenderness in the hindquarter of alpacas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended.

  10. Biochemical and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) uterine horn fluid during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, M E; Apichela, S A; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Stelletta, C

    2015-02-01

    South American camelids show high embryo loss rate, during the first 60 days of pregnancy. One of the factors which may be related to this situation is that over 98% of the embryos implant in the left uterine horn (LUH) even though both ovaries contribute similarly to ovulation. There is scarce information about the uterine environment of female camelids at any physiological state that could explain the capability of the LUH to attract the embryo and maintain pregnancy. We describe, for the first time, the biochemical and protein profile of uterine fluid (UF), addressing the right and LUH environment in non-pregnant and pregnant alpacas. Different substrates, electrolytes and metabolites were assayed in both uterine horn fluids. Small changes were observed in glucose and total protein levels, which were more noticeable during pregnancy. In addition, 10 specific proteins were found in the left horn fluid in 5-week-pregnant alpacas, and two protein bands were identified in non-pregnant alpaca right horn fluid. These results would provide basic information for identification of possible markers for pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive diseases and hormone-treated animals evaluation and hence contributing to improve the pregnancy rate.

  11. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas.

  12. Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Fan, R; Shi, Z; Ji, K; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Herrid, M; Zhang, Q; Yao, J; Smith, G W; Dong, C

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coat colors in animals are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and coat color in mammals. In a previous study, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles in alpaca skin with brown and white coat color and identified a novel miRNA (named lpa-miR-nov-66) that is expressed significantly higher in white skin compared to brown skin. The present study was conducted to determine the functional roles of this novel miRNA in the regulation of melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. lpa-miR-nov-66 is predicted to target the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) gene based on presence of a binding site in the sGC coding sequence (CDS). Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in alpaca melanocyes upregulated the expression of sGC both at the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocyes also resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Our ELISA assays showed increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) but decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in melanocytes overexpressing lpa-miR-nov-66. In addition, overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 also reduced melanin production in cultured melanocytes. Results support a role of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocytes by directly or indirectly targeting , which regulates melanogenesis via the cAMP pathway.

  13. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production.

  14. Biochemical composition and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Miceli, D C; Stelletta, C

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge and assessment of the constituents of the oviductal fluid (OF) in camelids is necessary for a correct formulation of specific culture media for the development of reproductive biotechnology. This study is the first describing the biochemical composition and SDS-PAGE protein profile of alpaca oviductal fluid in non-pregnant animals and animals that have completed the first month and second month of gestation. Samples were also classified into oviducts that were ipsilateral or contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. No differences were found between both oviducts, whereas pregnant and non-pregnant females displayed significant differences in the biochemical composition and protein profile of the oviductal fluid. Relative albumin content was higher in non-pregnant females. Relative creatinine content in OF from females that have completed the second month of gestation was lower than non-pregnant females and females that have completed the first month of gestation. Ion Na(+) concentration was higher in OF from non-pregnant females when compared with pregnant ones. The protein profile of non-pregnant females showed five protein bands of 70, 42, 25, 24 and 19kDa that were significantly more intense compared with pregnant animals. Bands were identified as moesin, actin cytoplasmic 2, hydroxypyruvate isomerase, ferritin light chain and peroxiredoxin-6 with MALDI/MS. Our results encourage more thorough future studies, in order to unravel the complex reproductive processes of the South American camelid oviduct.

  15. [Cowpox virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and pathological changes].

    PubMed

    Goerigk, D; Theuß, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A

    2014-01-01

    Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection.

  16. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

    PubMed

    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue.

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by IS900-based PCR assays from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) kept in a German zoological garden.

    PubMed

    Münster, Pia; Völkel, Inger; von Buchholz, Aloys; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2013-03-01

    An alpaca (Vicugna pacos) bred and kept in a German zoological garden exhibited clinical signs consistent with paratuberculosis. The presence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was confirmed in feces and in the ileocecal lymph node (ILN) by IS900-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and culture. A bacterial burden of 7.6 x 10(6) MAP/g in feces and 4.4 x 10(7) MAP/g in lymph node tissue was determined by real-time PCR. For further characterization, a conventional PCR was developed. After sequencing of the 864-bp PCR amplicon covering nucleotide positions 13 to 876 within the IS900, the alpaca isolate shared 100% nucleotide homology with the bovine MAP-K10 IS900 reference sequence (GenBank: AE16958), indicating a cattle strain. This report supports the present occurrence of MAP in German camelid populations and highlights the need to expand routine MAP surveillance to South American camelids held in European zoos.

  18. Presence, distribution and steroidogenic effect of the peptides orexin A and receptor 1 for orexins in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giovanna; Assisi, Loredana; Squillacioti, Caterina; Paino, Salvatore; Mirabella, Nicola; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The orexins A (oxA) and B are peptides discovered in the rat hypothalamus and successively found in some peripheral organs of the mammalian body. They binds two protein G-coupled receptors defined receptor 1 (ox1r) and 2 for orexins, the first of which is highly specific for oxA while the second binds both the peptides with equal affinity. This work aimed to detect the presence of oxA and ox1r in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and investigate the role played by them on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The species alpaca acquired, in the last years, increasing zootechnical interest for the quality of the wool produced and its breeding spread from the country of origin to USA, Australia and Europe. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to detect oxA in Leydig and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, resting spermatocytes, round and oval spermatids. Ox1r-immunoreactivity was found in Leydig cells and round, oval and elongated spermatids. The expression of the two peptides in tissue extracts was established by using Western blotting technique. Such results demonstrated that in the alpaca testis exists in a cellular complex able to produce and/or internalize oxA. Finally, the effect of oxA on steroidogenesis was investigated by means of in vitro cultured thin testis slices which were added with oxA or/and Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a steroidolitic agent basally produced by the Sertoli cell. OxA evoked increase of testosterone production while MIS a decrease. The consecutive addition of oxA and MIS, or vice versa, highlighted an antagonistic interplay between the two substances which has been thought to be the main molecular event at the basis of the oxA-stimulated steroidogenesis mechanism.

  19. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-02-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca.

  20. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  1. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries) grazed on pasture in Virginia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive s...

  2. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures.

  4. Case report: Abortion and disseminated infection by Coccidioides posadasii in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus in Southern California☆

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Santiago; Johnson, Suzanne M.; Garcia, Jorge; Carlson, Erin L.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Smith, Jana; Uzal, Francisco A.

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease affecting humans and other mammals caused by the soil-dwelling fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. Abortion due to Coccidioides spp. infection is rare in domestic animals and transplacental transmission is considered uncommon in women. This report describes a case of placental-fetal infection and abortion in an alpaca with disseminated C. posadasii infection. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were used to confirm the etiology, C. posadasii, in fetal tissues. PMID:24432245

  5. The impact of gender and age on the nutritional parameters of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat, colour stability and fat traits.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hall, E J S; Greenwood, P L; Hopkins, D L

    2017-01-01

    Meat quality parameters for 50 huacaya alpacas, representing three age groups (18, 24 and 36months) and two genders (females and castrated males) were studied. Prior to chilling, samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) were taken to determine isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and glycogen concentration, and further meat quality samples were taken after 24h. Alpaca meat has low levels (<1%) of intramuscular fat in the LL, m. semimembranosus and m. biceps femoris, but the level in the LL increases with animal age, with levels of desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ranging from 96.3 to 136.4mg/100g. Lipid oxidisation post retail display ranged from 1.27 to 1.96MDA/kg meat. Colour stability testing indicated alpaca meat was relatively stable during retail display with day of display having no significant effect on lightness (L*), or the 630nm/580nm ratio. These results may relate to the high proportion (76%) of glycolytic and type IIX muscle fibres in LL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline free acid after single and multiple subcutaneous administrations in healthy alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Dechant, J E; Rowe, J D; Byrne, B A; Wetzlich, S E; Kieu, H T; Tell, L A

    2013-04-01

    Six adult male alpacas received one subcutaneous administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) at a dosage of 6.6 mg/kg. After a washout period, the same alpacas received three subcutaneous doses of 6.6 mg/kg CCFA at 5-day intervals. Blood samples collected from the jugular vein before and at multiple time points after each CCFA administration were assayed for ceftiofur- and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolite concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic disposition of CCFA was analyzed by a noncompartmental approach. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (± SD) following single-dose administration of CCFA were Cmax (2.7 ± 0.9 μg/mL); Tmax (36 ± 0 h); area under the curve AUC0→∞ (199.2 ± 42.1 μg·h/mL); terminal phase rate constant λz (0.02 ± 0.003/h); and terminal phase rate constant half-life t1/2λz (44.7 h; harmonic). Mean terminal pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following three administrations of CCFA were Cmax (2.0 ± 0.4 μg/mL); Tmax (17.3 ± 16.3 h); AUC0→∞ (216.8 ± 84.5 μg·h/mL); λz (0.01 ± 0.003/h); and t1/2λz (65.9 h; harmonic). The terminal phase rate constant and the Tmax were significantly different between single and multiple administrations. Local reactions were noted in two alpacas following multiple CCFA administrations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  8. Localization of orexin B and receptor 2 for orexins in testicular cytotypes of the camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; Assisi, L; Mirabella, N; Langella, E; Costagliola, A; Vittoria, A

    2017-02-08

    The orexins A (OxA) and B (OxB) are two hypothalamic peptides involved in many physiological functions of the mammalian body. They act through the binding of two G-coupled receptors named receptor 1 (OX1 ) and receptor 2 (OX2 ) for orexins. The first receptor is specific for OxA, while the second binds both the substances with equal affinity. The orexins and the relative receptors have been traced by means of different techniques also at the periphery of the body and particularly in the adrenals, and in gastrointestinal and genital organs. Aim of this work was to investigate the presence of OxB and OX2 by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca, a species primarily breed in Chile and Ecuador and recently diffused in Europe where the quality of its wool is particularly appreciated. OxB immunoreactivity (IR) was found in the tubular compartment of the testis where spermatogonia (resting), zygotene and pachytene spermatocytes, and spermatids clearly showed differently sized and shaped cytoplasmic positive structures. OX2 -IR was found both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the testis and particularly in Leydig cells and round and elongated spermatids. Western blotting analysis of testis lysates showed the presence of a protein band whose molecular weight corresponded to that currently assigned to OX2 . Such findings easily translate the hypothesis that OxB and its receptor 2 play a functional role both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the alpaca testis.

  9. Vγ9 and Vδ2 T cell antigen receptor genes and butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) emerged with placental mammals and are concomitantly preserved in selected species like alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Mohindar M; Göbel, Thomas W; Starick, Lisa; Walter, Lutz; Herrmann, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognize phosphorylated products of isoprenoid metabolism (phosphoantigens) PAg with TCR comprising Vγ9JP γ-chains and Vδ2 δ-chains dependent on butyrophilin 3 (BTN3) expressed by antigen-presenting cells. They are massively activated in many infections and show anti-tumor activity and so far, they have been considered to exist only in higher primates. We performed a comprehensive analysis of databases and identified the three genes in species of both placental magnorders, but not in rodents. The common occurrence or loss of in silico translatable Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes suggested their co-evolution based on a functional relationship. In the peripheral lymphocytes of alpaca (Vicugna pacos), characteristic Vγ9JP rearrangements and in-frame Vδ2 rearrangements were found and could be co-expressed in a TCR-negative mouse T cell hybridoma where they rescued CD3 expression and function. Finally, database sequence analysis of the extracellular domain of alpaca BTN3 revealed complete conservation of proposed PAg binding residues of human BTN3A1. In summary, we show emergence and preservation of Vγ9 and Vδ2 TCR genes with the gene of the putative antigen-presenting molecule BTN3 in placental mammals and lay the ground for analysis of alpaca as candidate for a first non-primate species to possess Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.

  10. Histological, histochemical and fine structure studies of the lacrimal gland and superficial gland of the third eyelid and their significance on the proper function of the eyeball in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Nowaczyk, R; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Krasucki, K; Janeczek, M

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland (LG) and superficial gland of the third eyelid (SGTE) belong to accessory organs of the eye. The aim of the present studies was to evaluate the histological, histochemical and fine structure of the LG and SGTE obtained from 3 adult females and 2 adult males of alpaca (Vicugna pacos). The LG was situated in the dorsolateral angle of the orbit between the dorsal rectus and the lateral rectus muscles. The SGTE was located between the medial rectus muscle, the ventral rectus muscle and was partially covered by the ventral oblique muscle of the eyeball. There were no effect of gender on the morphometry of examined LG and SGTE. The third eyelid resembles an anchor in shape. During histological and ultrastructural analyses using light and transmission electron microscopy, it was established that the LG and SGTE are tubulo-acinar glands with mucoserous characters. The LG contains either lymphocytes or plasma cells, while SGTE had rare plasma cells and numerous lymphocytes in connective tissue. The cartilage of the third eyelid was composed of hyaline tissue. Numerous aggregations of lymphocytes as lymph nodules in bulbar surface of the third eyelid were observed. The LG and SGTE secretory cells exhibited a similar ultrastructure appearance in electron microscopic examination, with secretory cells tightly filled with intracytoplasmatic secretory granules and numerous clusters of mucus of different sizes which were observed in the peripheral cells compartment.

  11. Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, P D; Mackie, I; Perry, J; Caraguel, C; Townsend, K; Reichel, M P

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Progesterone, pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, relaxin and oestrone sulphate concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and their application in pregnancy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Volkery, J; Gottschalk, J; Sobiraj, A; Wittek, T; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-25

    The pregnancy-associated hormones, progesterone (P4), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG), relaxin (RLN) and oestrone sulphate (E1S) in plasma, saliva, milk and urine of alpacas were measured in order to assess their potential use for pregnancy diagnosis. Samples were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and at different stages throughout pregnancy (confirmed by ultrasonography). The hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm P4 kit, designed for dairy cattle. Although the concentration of P4 in plasma, milk and urine, and the concentration of PdG in urine were significantly higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant alpacas, there was no difference in the concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The on-farm milk P4 kit showed a sensitivity of 90 per cent for diagnosis of pregnancy and a specificity of 69 per cent for non-pregnancy. The concentration of RLN in plasma increased significantly after the second month, and concentration of E1S in plasma and urine during the last month of pregnancy, whereas, there were no significant differences in RLN or E1S concentrations in saliva and milk between pregnant and non-pregnant alpacas. Values of P4, RLN and E1S in plasma, and PdG and E1S in urine are comparable with the previous reports in alpacas and, therefore, can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. This is the first study to include determination of pregnancy-associated hormones in the saliva and milk of alpacas. However, saliva seems to be unsuitable for pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas, P4 in milk, as well as PdG and E1S in urine, seem to be adequate tools for diagnosis.

  13. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G.; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint. PMID:23997267

  14. Surgical treatment of scapulohumeral subluxation in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and extracapsular tension sutures.

    PubMed

    Kofler, J; Eberspächer, E; Fischl, K; Vidoni, B

    2016-05-01

    A 3.3-year-old male alpaca, weighing 60 kg was referred for investigation of a severe left forelimb lameness of 4 weeks duration. A scapulohumeral subluxation had been diagnosed radiographically by the referring veterinarian. Based on clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic findings the diagnosis of cranio-lateral subluxation of the left humeral head was confirmed. In addition, a full thickness lesion (approximately 1×1 cm) of the articular cartilage on the caudomedial aspect of the humeral head was diagnosed by arthroscopy. Treatment included open reduction with internal fixation. Severe muscle contraction and local tissue fibrosis around the scapulohumeral joint (SHJ) required osteotomy of the acromion 3 cm proximal to the distal acromial edge, to allow adequate access. Internal stabilisation was achieved by placing tension band sutures between one cortical screw in the scapular neck and two cortical screws, with washers, craniolaterally on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Post-surgery, a carpal flexion sling was applied with the carpus maintained in 70° flexion for 4 weeks to avoid postoperative weight-bearing. An exercise programme was started 8 days after surgery and continued for 12 weeks. The alpaca had an uneventful postsurgical recovery and showed no lameness after 8 weeks. The long-term outcome was excellent; 21 months after surgery the alpaca was sound and the range of movement of the left SHJ was equal to the right SHJ. Even in this chronic case of subluxation of the SHJ of 4 weeks duration, surgical treatment using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and internal fixation with extracapsular scapulohumeral tension sutures resulted in an excellent long-term outcome in this alpaca, despite the presence of a cartilage lesion.

  15. Assessment of spermatozoa in fertile alpaca (Vicugna pacos) males: Study of sperm head morphometry using a nonautomated digital method and sperm morphology based on strict criteria.

    PubMed

    Evangelista-Vargas, D; Evangelista-Vargas, S; Valdivia, M; Santiani, A

    2017-04-01

    Although computer-assisted systems for sperm morphometry and morphological analysis are important tools in the study of male fertility, their use in extensive systems in alpacas is limited by factors such as the expense of equipment and the high altitudes of the Andean region. The objectives of this study were to evaluate alpaca sperm head morphometry using a nonautomated digital method and determine the frequency of sperm abnormalities based on strict criteria for sperm morphology in fertile male alpacas. Ejaculates (n = 15) from seven alpacas were collected, and sperm smears stained with modified Papanicolaou were processed. For morphometric analysis, 3,000 sperm (200 cells/sample) images were captured at 400× magnification and Quick Photo MICRO 3.0 software was used for manual measurement of basic (sperm head length, width, perimeter and area) and derived variables (ellipticity, shape factor, elongation and regularity). For morphology assessment, smears were observed at 1000× magnification according to WHO and strict criteria. Average morphometric parameters were length 5.48 μm, width 2.99 μm, perimeter 13.62 μm, area 12.43 μm(2) , ellipticity 1.86, shape factor 1.20, elongation 0.29 and regularity 1.05. Significant between-individual and within-individual differences were found in morphometric parameters. Based on morphometric study, sperm heads were classified as elliptical or normal (49%), long (18%), short (2%), pyriform (12%), round (9%), large (6%) and small (4%). Morphological analysis found no additional sperm head defects in 49% of normal sperm obtained by morphometry, although a 4% incidence of neck/mid-piece defects and a 16% incidence of principal-piece defects were found. We conclude that sperm head morphometry assessment in fertile alpacas using a nonautomated digital method is feasible, and that defects in sperm heads constitute the main morphological alteration (>50% of the sperm population), based on WHO and strict criteria. © 2016

  16. Evaluation of the performance of cellular and serological diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Bezos, Javier; Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Romero, Beatriz; Rueda, Paloma; López, Lissette; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in llamas and alpacas has gained importance in recent years since they are imported into the European Union mainly for serving as pets and for production of natural fibre. The intradermal tuberculin test has been widely used for diagnosis of TB in these species showing lack of sensitivity (Se) although little information has been previously reported evaluating the effect on its performance of different PPD inoculation sites and time of readings. Moreover, different cost-effective serological assays have been developed in the recent years for TB diagnosis in camelids obtaining a variety of results and, for this reason, new assays still being developed. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the performance of the intradermal tuberculin test using different inoculation sites (axillary, prescapular and cervical) and times of reading (72 and 120 h) and (2) to test a novel serological assay based on MPB83 antigen in a Mycobacterium bovis naturally infected alpaca herd in Spain. In regards to skin test, single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test at the prescapular site and reading at 72 h showed the highest proportion of test-positive-culture positive animals among all culture positive animals (T+/C+), ranging from 53.8% (95% CI, 37.2-69.9) to 80% (95% CI, 44.4-97.5) using a more stringent interpretation than typically prescribed although, in general, low T+/C+ was achieved using both SIT and single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) tests alone. T+/C+ of the serological assay increased using samples collected 15-30 days after PPD injection [76.9% (95% CI, 60.7-88.9) - 100% (95% CI, 69.2-100)]. The best results of T+/C+ were obtained applying in parallel the most sensitive SIT test and serology using samples collected 15-30 days after PPD inoculation [90% (95% CI, 55.5-99.7)-100% (95% CI, 69.2-100)]. Therefore implementation of serology in parallel with the most sensitive skin test could maximize the detection of infected animals.

  17. Bovine leukemia virus infection in a juvenile alpaca with multicentric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Laura C.; Scarratt, William K.; Buehring, Gertrude C.; Saunders, Geoffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    A 13-month-old alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was presented for mandibular masses and weight loss. Histopathology of biopsy tissue was consistent with lymphoma. The alpaca was euthanized and necropsy revealed lymphoma masses in multiple organs. Immunohistochemistry for T- and B-cell typing was inconclusive. Serology and in-situ polymerase chain reaction hybridization were positive for bovine leukemia virus. PMID:22942445

  18. Tuberculosis in Alpacas (Lama pacos) Caused by Mycobacterium bovis▿

    PubMed Central

    García-Bocanegra, I.; Barranco, I.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I. M.; Pérez, B.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Ruiz-Villamayor, E.; Perea, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes. PMID:20237097

  19. Tuberculosis in alpacas (Lama pacos) caused by Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, I; Barranco, I; Rodríguez-Gómez, I M; Pérez, B; Gómez-Laguna, J; Rodríguez, S; Ruiz-Villamayor, E; Perea, A

    2010-05-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes.

  20. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis liver abscess in a mature alpaca (Lama pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Sprake, Philippa; Gold, Jenifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A mature female alpaca was evaluated for weight loss and a 10-day history of anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal distension, and ventral edema. Ultrasonography revealed a hepatic mass, culture of which identified Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This is the first reported case of an internal caseous lymphadenitis lesion resulting in clinical disease in a camelid. PMID:23024384

  1. Factors affecting in vitro maturation of alpaca (Lama paco) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, Ca; Coffman, Ea; Coutinho da Silva, Ma; Forshey, Bs; Pinto, Crf

    2014-11-10

    The present study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design examining age (old vs. young), follicle size (≥2mm vs. <2mm) and media supplementation (with or without fetal bovine serum [FBS]) to determine factors that might affect in vitro maturation of alpaca oocytes. We hypothesized that oocytes collected from follicles ≥2mm from young alpacas and incubated in maturation media supplemented with FBS would have greater maturation rates than those incubated in any other factorial combination. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of 11 young alpacas (<10 years old) and 14 old alpacas (>11 years old). Oocytes were classified as morphologically normal oocytes (MNO) and deemed suitable for incubation if ≥3 compact layers of cumulus cells and a homogeneous, evenly granulated cytoplasm were observed. Oocytes from each group of follicle sizes were incubated separately and halves of each group were randomly divided and incubated 24h in chemically defined maturation media with or without 10% FBS. Maturation was defined as the visualization of a polar body at the end of the incubation period. Overall, a greater proportion of MNO were collected from follicles ≥2mm than that obtained from smaller follicles, 55% (136/247) vs. 29.6% (162/547), respectively (P<0.05). A greater proportion of oocytes reached maturation when collected from ≥2mm follicles 36% (49/136) than from <2mm follicles 8% (13/162) (P<0.05). For oocytes obtained from ≥2mm follicles of old alpacas, a greater proportion reached maturation when incubated in media supplemented with FBS than when incubated without FBS; 57.6% (19/33) vs. 18.2% (6/33), respectively (P<0.05).

  2. A comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Perelman, Polina; Das, Pranab J; Pontius, Joan; Chowdhary, Renuka; Owens, Elaine; Johnson, Warren E; Merriwether, David A; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis of the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) has progressed slowly compared to other domestic species. Here, we report the development of the first comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and CHORI-246 BAC library clones. The map is comprised of 230 linearly ordered markers distributed among all 36 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes. For the first time, markers were assigned to LPA14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. Additionally, 86 genes from 15 alpaca chromosomes were mapped in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius, CDR), demonstrating exceptional synteny and linkage conservation between the 2 camelid genomes. Cytogenetic mapping of 191 protein-coding genes improved and refined the known Zoo-FISH homologies between camelids and humans: we discovered new homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) corresponding to HSA1-LPA/CDR11, HSA4-LPA/CDR31 and HSA7-LPA/CDR36, and revised the location of breakpoints for others. Overall, gene mapping was in good agreement with the Zoo-FISH and revealed remarkable evolutionary conservation of gene order within many human-camelid HSBs. Most importantly, 91 FISH-mapped markers effectively integrated the alpaca whole-genome sequence and the radiation hybrid maps with physical chromosomes, thus facilitating the improvement of the sequence assembly and the discovery of genes of biological importance.

  3. Mapping of tyrosine hydroxylase in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem and colocalization with CGRP.

    PubMed

    Marcos, P; Arroyo-Jimenez, M M; Lozano, G; Aguilar, L A; Coveñas, R

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the brainstem of alpaca (Lama pacos) has been analysed using immunohistochemical methods. The following catecholaminergic cell nuclei have been detected: A1, C1, A2, C2 and area postrema in the medulla oblongata; A5, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons; as have several mesencephalic groups: A8, A9l, A9m, A9v, A9pc, A10, A10c, A10d and A10dc. This nuclear parcellation differs from that found in rodents, but agrees with the results reported in other members of the Artiodactyla order, such as giraffe or pig, and with the catecholaminergic distribution detected in species of other mammalian orders. Thus, these findings support the hypothesis that the animals included in the same order show the same nuclear complement in the neuromodulatory systems. In addition, it seems that other species share the same catecholaminergic groups as the alpaca, suggesting that a specific nuclear disposition was important and worth maintaining throughout evolution. Moreover, the distribution of TH has been compared with that of CGRP by double immunohistochemistry. Double-labelled neurons were very isolated and observed only in a few catecholaminergic groups: A1 and C2 in the medulla oblongata, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons, and A9l in the mesencephalon. However, interaction between TH and CGRP may be possible in more brainstem regions, particularly the area postrema. This interaction may prove important in the regulation of the specific cardiovascular control of alpacas given their morphological characteristics.

  4. Determination of Schirmer tear test-1 values in clinically normal alpacas (Vicugña pacos) in North America.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica E; Knollinger, Amy M; Dees, Darryl D; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2017-03-14

    To determine the normal reference range for Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values in eyes of healthy alpacas (Vicugña pacos). Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on forty healthy alpacas (80 eyes). STT-1 values were obtained in both eyes of all alpacas using a commercial STT strip of a single lot number. Data were analyzed, using a doubly repeated measures ANOVA design, Student's paired t-test, and Pearson correlation test, with P ≤ 0.05 considered significant. The STT-1 values ± standard deviation (SD) were 20.80 ± 4.01 mm/min OD, 20.00 ± 4.13 mm/min OS, and 20.88 ± 4.04 mm/min OU (range 15.50-30.50 mm/min). No significant differences in STT-1 were found between OD and OS. STT-1 was not significantly affected by breed. Schirmer tear test-1 values were significantly increased by 3.45 mm/min for every 10 year increase in age. This study provides a reference range of STT-1 in the healthy alpaca which can assist veterinarians in diagnosing potential keratoconjunctivitis sicca, tear film abnormalities, as well as ocular surface diseases in alpacas. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information rega...

  6. Turnover of stable carbon isotopes in the muscle, liver, and breath CO2 of alpacas (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Sponheimer, M; Robinson, T F; Cerling, T E; Tegland, L; Roeder, B L; Ayliffe, L; Dearing, M D; Ehleringer, J R

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of animal liver and muscle has become a widespread tool for investigating dietary ecology. Nonetheless, stable carbon isotope turnover of these tissues has not been studied in large mammals except with isotopically labelled tracer methodologies, which do not produce carbon half-lives analogous to those derived from naturalistic diet-switch experiments. To address this gap, we studied turnover of carbon isotopes in the liver, muscle, and breath CO2 of alpacas (Lama pacos) by switching them from a C3 grass diet to an isonitrogenous C4 grass diet. Breath samples as well as liver and muscle biopsies were collected and analyzed for up to 72 days to monitor the incorporation of the C4-derived carbon. The data suggest half-lives of 2.8, 37.3, and 178.7 days for alpaca breath CO2, liver, and muscle, respectively. Alpaca liver and muscle carbon half-lives are about 6 times longer than those of gerbils, which is about what would be expected given their size. In contrast, breath CO2 turnover does not scale readily with body mass. We also note that the breath CO2 and liver data are better described using a multiple-pool exponential decay model than a single-pool model. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and tissue distribution analysis of Slc7a11 gene in alpaca (Lama paco) skins associated with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xue; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Liangyan; Song, Yunfei; Zhang, Danli; Ji, Yuankai; Li, Xuejun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-01-25

    Slc7a11 encoding solute carrier family 7 member 11 (amionic amino acid transporter light chain, xCT), has been identified to be a critical genetic regulator of pheomelanin synthesis in hair and melanocytes. To better understand the molecular characterization of Slc7a11 and the expression patterns in skin of white versus brown alpaca (lama paco), we cloned the full length coding sequence (CDS) of alpaca Slc7a11 gene and analyzed the expression patterns using Real Time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The full length CDS of 1512bp encodes a 503 amino acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that alpaca xCT contains 12 transmembrane regions consistent with the highly conserved amino acid permease (AA_permease_2) domain similar to other vertebrates. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that alpaca xCT had the highest identity and shared the same branch with Camelus ferus. Real Time PCR and Western blotting suggested that xCT was expressed at significantly high levels in brown alpaca skin, and transcripts and protein possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that xCT staining was robustly increased in the matrix and root sheath of brown alpaca skin compared with that of white. These results suggest that Slc7a11 functions in alpaca coat color regulation and offer essential information for further exploration on the role of Slc7a11 in melanogenesis.

  8. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs)

    PubMed Central

    Maass, David R.; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the smaller, more tractable and widely available alpaca is an excellent source of VHH coding DNA. Alpaca sera IgG consists of about 50% HCAbs, mostly of the short-hinge variety. Sequencing of DNA encoding more than 50 random VHH and hinge domains permitted the design of PCR primers that will amplify virtually all alpaca VHH coding DNAs for phage display library construction. Alpacas were immunized with ovine tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and a VHH phage display library was prepared from a lymph node that drains the sites of immunizations and successfully employed in the isolation of VHHs that bind and neutralize ovine TNFα. PMID:17568607

  9. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  10. Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Eliana; Sánchez, Manuel Lisardo; Aguilar, Luís Ángel; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Ángel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca brainstem. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the whole brainstem: 34 brainstem nuclei/regions showed a high or a moderate density of these fibers. Perikarya containing the peptide were widely distributed throughout the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. Cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) were observed in the lateral and medial divisions of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, reticular formation (mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata), inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, and in the substantia nigra. This widespread distribution indicates that somatostatin-28 (1-12) is involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem.

  11. Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Rosadio, R; Londoñe, P; Pérez, D; Castillo, H; Véliz, A; Llanco, L; Yaya, K; Maturrano, L

    2010-02-26

    Histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from Clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the Departments of Arequipa, Puno and Cusco of southern Peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (January-March), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic enteritis. It is proposed that damage to the mucosa produced by coccidial infections may facilitate overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens with toxin production leading to fatal enterotoxemia.

  12. Comparison of uteroplacental glycosylation in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Jones, C J P; Abd-Elnaeim, M; Bevilacqua, E; Oliveira, L V; Leiser, R

    2002-01-01

    The recent birth of a camel-llama hybrid, after numerous failed attempts, has prompted an investigation into the glycosylation of apposing fetal and maternal tissues of pregnant camels and alpacas. This study was undertaken to determine whether interspecies differences in glycans are factors that may account in part for the difficulty in producing a viable hybrid. Specimens of camel placentae from day 60 to day 375 of gestation and alpaca placentae from day 22 to term (approximately 345 days) were fixed and embedded in resin, and sections were stained with a panel of 19 biotinylated lectins and an avidin--peroxidase revealing system. Several qualitative interspecies differences in tissue glycosylation were found, mainly in the trophoblast, and especially with respect to bi/tri-antennary bisected N-glycan, fucosylated structures, beta-galactosyl residues and sialyl termini. In the maternal uterine epithelium, differences were found mainly in bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-glycan and beta-galactosyl residues, indicating that there is more conservation of glycosylation in maternal tissues compared with trophoblast. There were also many quantitative differences in the distribution of glycans. It is possible that a failure to effect the normal glycan--glycan complementation that occurs at the cell surface between maternal and fetal tissues during the implantation processes of apposition and adhesion may account in part for the difficulty in establishing a viable pregnancy between these two species.

  13. Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Akazawa, Yoko; Takashima, Mizuki; Hagihara, Yosihisa; Inoue, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ogawa, Ryu; Inoue, Seiya; Ito, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning.

  14. Characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from llama and alpaca.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Anderson, David; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2013-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes a variety of infections termed necrobacillosis. There are 2 subspecies of F. necrophorum (subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme) that differ morphologically and biochemically and in virulence. Leukotoxin, a secreted protein, is considered to be the major virulence factor. In camelids, F. necrophorum causes a variety of infections, generally involving the lips, tongue, pharynx, interdigital spaces, foot pad, larynx, mandible, or maxillary bones. The objective of the current study was to characterize the presumptive Fusobacterium isolates from a variety of necrotic infections in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and determine whether the strains possess leukotoxin activities. A total of 7 isolates from alpaca and 2 isolates from llama were characterized. Based on growth characteristics in broth culture, and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analyses, all 9 isolates belonged to subsp. necrophorum and possessed the putative hemagglutinin gene. Western blot analysis with antileukotoxin antibodies raised in rabbit showed the presence of leukotoxin protein in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Furthermore, flow cytometry of the culture supernatants demonstrated cytotoxicity to bovine and alpaca polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The extent of cytotoxicity to either alpaca or bovine PMNs differed among camelid strains. The cytotoxicity of many of the camelid strains was higher (P < 0.05) toward alpaca PMNs compared to bovine PMNs. Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from llama and alpaca are similar to bovine isolates, and leukotoxin may be a major virulence factor.

  15. Mapping of tyrosine hydroxylase in the diencephalon of alpaca (Lama pacos) and co-distribution with somatostatin-28 (1-12).

    PubMed

    Marcos, P; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M; Lozano, G; González-Fuentes, J; Lagartos-Donate, M J; Aguilar, L A; Coveñas, R

    2013-05-01

    Based on previous work describing the distribution of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the male alpaca (Lama pacos) diencephalon, and owing to the well known interactions between this peptide and the catecholaminergic system, the aims of this work are (1) to describe the distribution of putative catecholaminergic cell groups in the alpaca diencephalon and (2) to study the possible morphological basis of the interactions between these substances in the diencephalon of the alpaca by using double immunohistochemistry methods. Thus, the distribution of catecholaminergic cell groups in the alpaca diencephalon agrees with that previously described in the diencephalon of other mammalian species of the same order: the A11, A12, A13, A14 and A15d cell groups have been identified; however, we have observed an additional hitherto undescribed cell group containing tyrosine hydroxylase in the medial habenula. In addition, double-labelling procedures did not reveal neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase and somatostatin, suggesting that the hypothalamic interactions between catecholamines and somatostatin at intra-cellular level must be carried out by a somatostatin molecule other than fragment (1-12). Otherwise, the overlapping distribution patterns of these substances would suggest some interconnections between groups of chemospecific neurons. These results could be the starting point for future studies on hypothalamic functions in alpacas, for example those concerning reproductive control, since other physiological studies have suggested that this species could have different regulatory mechanisms from other mammalian species. Our results support the Manger hypothesis that the same nuclear complement of neural systems exists in the brain of species of the same order.

  16. Genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca.

    PubMed Central

    Kadwell, M.; Fernandez, M.; Stanley, H. F.; Baldi, R.; Wheeler, J. C.; Rosadio, R.; Bruford, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    The origins of South America's domestic alpaca and llama remain controversial due to hybridization, near extirpation during the Spanish conquest and difficulties in archaeological interpretation. Traditionally, the ancestry of both forms is attributed to the guanaco, while the vicuña is assumed never to have been domesticated. Recent research has, however, linked the alpaca to the vicuña, dating domestication to 6000-7000 years before present in the Peruvian Andes. Here, we examine in detail the genetic relationships between the South American camelids in order to determine the origins of the domestic forms, using mitochondrial (mt) and microsatellite DNA. MtDNA analysis places 80% of llama and alpaca sequences in the guanaco lineage, with those possessing vicuña mtDNA being nearly all alpaca or alpaca-vicuña hybrids. We also examined four microsatellites in wild known-provenance vicuña and guanaco, including two loci with non-overlapping allele size ranges in the wild species. In contrast to the mtDNA, these markers show high genetic similarity between alpaca and vicuña, and between llama and guanaco, although bidirectional hybridization is also revealed. Finally, combined marker analysis on a subset of samples confirms the microsatellite interpretation and suggests that the alpaca is descended from the vicuña, and should be reclassified as Vicugna pacos. This result has major implications for the future management of wild and domestic camelids in South America. PMID:11749713

  17. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements using rebound (TonoVet(®) ) and applanation (TonoPen-XL(®) ) tonometry in clinically normal alpacas (Vicugña pacos).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jessica E; Knollinger, Amy M; Dustin Dees, D; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) estimates in eyes of healthy alpacas (Vicugña pacos) using rebound (TonoVet(®) ) in comparison with applanation (TonoPen-XL(®) ) tonometry. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on forty healthy alpacas (80 eyes). IOP measurements using both TonoVet(®) and TonoPen-XL(®) tonometers were obtained OU. Data were analyzed, using a doubly repeated-measures anova design and Student's paired t-test, with P ≤ 0.05 considered significant. The mean IOP values ±SD via rebound tonometry were 14.20 mm ± 2.58 mm OD, 14.22 mm ± 2.90 mm OS, and 14.21 ± 2.73 mmHg OU (range 8.67-20.67 mmHg). The IOP values ±SD via applanation tonometry were 12.49 ± 2.81 mmHg OD, 12.53 ± 2.79 mmHg OS, and 12.51 ± 2.78 mmHg OU (range 6.00-19.33 mmHg). There was a significant difference (P = 0.002) in the IOP obtained between the tonometers, with the rebound tonometer having a 1.7 mmHg (0.69-2.71 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI)) higher IOP compared to the applanation tonometer. No significant differences in IOP were found between OD and OS. Age, gender, and breed did not significantly affect IOP values. IOP readings from the rebound tonometer were statistically higher than those from the applanation tonometer; however, this is not considered clinically significant. The accuracy of rebound tonometry in diseased alpaca eyes remains to be determined. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Cysteine proteinases Fas1 and Fas2 are diagnostic markers for Fasciola hepatica infection in alpacas (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Neyra, Victor; Chavarry, Elizabeth; Espinoza, Jose R

    2002-04-19

    Circulating antibody against Fasciola hepatica antigens was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoelectrophoresis in alpacas naturally exposed to F. hepatica. Serological assay parameters were established by using sera from eight infected animals and seven controls with no record of this parasitic infection. Excretory--secretory (ES-) products, Fas1- and Fas2-ELISA were used to survey 307 alpacas from a F. hepatica endemic area in the Peruvian Andes. Seroprevalence of F. hepatica infection varied from 56.7, 64.8 and 66.8% measured by Fas1-, Fas2- and ES-ELISA, respectively. The sensitivity for ES-ELISA was 95%, corresponding Fas1- and Fas2-ELISA sensitivity values were 90 and 95%. In this population, 7% of animals were positive for F. hepatica eggs in faeces, other parasites detected were Trichuris sp. (40%), Nematodirus sp. (34.6%), Lamanema sp. (12.8%) and Eimeria sp. (11.8%). The results show that F. hepatica infected animals elicit circulating antibodies against ES, Fas1 and Fas2. Fas2-ELISA may be proposed as a sensitive assay for the immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in alpacas.

  19. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used, however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and name the...

  1. Diversity and abundance of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in forestomach of alpacas (Lama pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Pei, Cai-Xia; Liu, Qiang; Dong, Chang-Sheng; Li, HongQuan; Jiang, Jun-Bing; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Two bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from the forestomach of alpacas and sheep fed alfalfa. After the amplification using the universal 16S rRNA gene primers, equal quantities of PCR products from the same species were mixed and used to construct the two libraries. Sequence analysis showed that the 60 clones from alpacas were divided into 27 phylotypes with 25% clones affiliated with Eubacterium sp. F1. The 60 clones from sheep were divided into 21 phylotypes with 7 phylotypes affiliated with Prevotella ruminicola (40% clones). Clones closely related to Clostridium proteoclasticum, Eubacterium sp. F1, Clostridium cellobioparum, Mogibacterium neglectum, Eubacterium ventriosum, Clostridiaceae bacterium WN011, Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium orbiscindens, Eubacterium sp. F1, Cytophaga sp. Dex80-37, Treponema bryantii and Pelotomaculum sp. FP were only found in the forestomach of alpacas, and those to Anaerovorax odorimutans, Treponema zioleckii, Bifidobacterium indicum, Paludibacter propionicigenes, Paraprevotella clara, Eubacterium siraeum, Desulfotomaculum sp. CYP1, Clostridium bolteae, Clostridium termitidis and Clostridiaceae bacterium DJF_LS40 only in the rumen of sheep. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the forestomach of alpacas had significantly lower density of bacteria, with bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies (6.89 [Log10 (copies per gram of wet weight)]), than that of sheep (7.71, P<0.01). The two clone libraries also appeared different in Shannon index (library from alpacas 3.30 and from sheep 3.04). Our results showed that there were apparent differences in the bacterial diversity and abundance in the forestomach between alpacas and sheep. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discovery and molecular characterization of a group A rotavirus strain detected in an Argentinean vicuña (Vicugna vicugna).

    PubMed

    Badaracco, Alejandra; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Romero, Sandra; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Garaicoechea, Lorena; Van Ranst, Marc; Parreño, Viviana

    2013-01-25

    The wild vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of the four species of native South American camelids (SACs) in addition to the wild guanaco, and their domesticated counterparts, alpaca and llama, respectively. Serological data have indicated the presence of group A rotaviruses (RVA) specific antibodies in all 4 members of the SAC, and so far, RVA has been detected from alpacas, llamas and guanacos. A total of 59 fecal samples from healthy wild newborn and juvenile vicuñas, raised in captivity in Jujuy, Argentina were collected and analyzed by ELISA to detect RVA antigen. Two samples (3%) were found to contain G8 RVA strains and one strain (RVA/Vicuña-wt/ARG/C75/2010/G8P[14]) was selected for further genome analyses, revealing the G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-Ax-N2-T6-E3-Hx genotype constellation. Unfortunately, no sequence data could be obtained for NSP1 and NSP5. Except for the E3 NSP4 genotype, this partial genotype constellation is reminiscent to bovine RVA strains and bovine-like RVA strains isolated from sheep, guanaco, antelope and humans. This relationship was confirmed phylogenetically, providing further evidence of the widespread presence of this genotype constellation in animals belonging to the artiodactyls. In particular, a close phylogenetic relationship was found between C75 and guanaco RVA strain RVA/Guanaco-wt/ARG/Chubut/1999/G8P[14] for at least 5 gene segments, suggesting a partial conservation of the genotype constellation of RVA strains infecting different species of SACs, even though nowadays their natural habitats are not overlapping. The further monitoring of the sanitary health of wild newborn and juvenile vicuñas is essential to improve the management practices applied in their sustainable exploitation.

  3. Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in Peruvian and Chilean llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Tornquist, Susan J; Boeder, Lisa; Rios-Phillips, Carolina; Alarcon, Virgilio

    2010-09-01

    Mycoplasma haemolamae is a hemotropic mycoplasma that affects red blood cells of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). It is variably associated with anemia, and most infections are subclinical. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay has facilitated detection of this infection in llamas and alpacas in the United States and other countries. Whether the infection occurs in camelids in South America has previously been unknown. The current study documents a 15.8% infection rate among 76 Peruvian llamas, a 19.3% infection rate among Peruvian alpacas at one site, and a 9.26% infection rate in 108 Chilean alpacas from selected herds. All of the camelids tested appeared to be clinically healthy. No gender or species predilection was found. Only 1 positive camelid younger than 18 months was found. Infection is not associated with anemia, and the mean packed cell volume (PCV) in positive Peruvian camelids was slightly higher than the mean PCV in negative Peruvian camelids. In the Chilean alpacas, the positive alpacas had a slightly lower PCV than the negative alpacas, although the mean PCV was not in the anemic range in any of the groups.

  4. Ovarian dysgenesis in an alpaca with a minute chromosome 36.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Elizabeth; Kutzler, Michelle; Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year-old female alpaca (Lama pacos [LPA]) was presented to the Oregon State Veterinary Teaching Hospital for failure to display receptive behavior to males. Although no abnormalities were found on physical examination, transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tract revealed uterine hypoplasia and ovarian dysgenesis. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a normal female 74,XX karyotype with 1 exceptionally small (minute) homologue of autosome LPA36. Chromosome analysis by Giemsa staining and DAPI- and C-banding revealed that the minute LPA36 was submetacentric, AT-rich, and largely heterochromatic. Because of the small size and lack of molecular markers, it was not possible to identify the origin of the minute. There is a need to improve molecular cytogenetic tools to further study the phenomenon of this minute chromosome and its relation to female reproduction in alpacas and llamas.

  5. The ALPACA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takita, Masato

    2017-06-01

    We have started up the ALPACA (Andes Large area PArticle detector for Cosmic ray physics and Astronomy) project. The ALPACA experiment is composed of an 83,000 m2 air shower array and a 5,400 m2 underground muon detector array to make wide field-of-view high-sensitivity observations of high-energy cosmic rays/cosmic gamma rays on the Cerro Estuqueria highland, 4,740 m above sea level around Mount Chacaltaya, Bolivia. We briefly report on the design concept of the new project and its physics targets.

  6. Prevalence of neoplasia in llamas and alpacas (Oregon State University, 2001-2006).

    PubMed

    Valentine, Beth A; Martin, Jeanne M

    2007-03-01

    Prevalence and type of neoplastic disease were determined in 551 camelid submissions (368 alpacas [Lama pacos], 180 llamas [Lama glama], and 3 cases in which species was not identified) over a 5-year period. Forty neoplasms were identified in 38 animals (6.9%). Prevalence of neoplasia in llamas was higher (11%) than in alpacas (4.9%). Mean age of camelids with neoplasia was 9.42 +/- 4.9 years. Mean age of alpacas with neoplasia (5.48 +/- 3.7 years) was significantly less than of llamas with neoplasia (12.53 +/- 3.2 years; P < 0.001). Cutaneous and mucocutaneous fibroma/fibropapilloma was most common (10 animals), followed by cutaneous and mucocutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (6 animals), disseminated lymphoma (5 animals), and fibrosarcoma (4 animals). Four of 5 animals with lymphoma were alpacas, aged 0.21 to 4 years. Lymphoma occurred in 1 aged llama (15 years). Disseminated carcinoma and adenocarcinoma occurred in 4 llamas and 2 alpacas, and included biliary (2), gastrointestinal (2), mammary gland (1), and unknown (1) origin. Mean age of camelids with any type of carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (12.36 +/- 2.8 years) was significantly greater than that of camelids with lymphoma (4.24 +/- 6.2 years; P = 0.02). Results indicate that neoplasia is relatively common in camelids and that there are differences between llamas and alpacas as regards prevalence of neoplasia, tumor types, and age at diagnosis.

  7. Lymphosarcoma in an alpaca.

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, J A

    2001-01-01

    A 16-month-old, female alpaca presented with a 24-hour history of anorexia and depression. On necropsy, it was found that the liver was grossly enlarged and the cortices of both kidneys contained multifocal lesions. Histologic examination of these lesions and other tissues revealed infiltration with lymphocytic cells, a finding consistent with lymphosarcoma. PMID:11665431

  8. Urogenital leiomyosarcoma in an alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y.; Poulsen, Keith P.; McGuirk, Sheila M.; Livesey, Michael A.; Koch, Christoph; Perrier, Melanie P.; Pinkerton, Marie E.

    2010-01-01

    A mass in the pelvic canal of a 4-year-old pregnant alpaca hembra diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract was confirmed by biopsy. Following a tube cystotomy, the alpaca was presented 33 d later, 2 d after the tube cystotomy had been dislodged. A dead cria was delivered by caesarean section. PMID:21358933

  9. Cantharidin toxicosis in 2 alpacas.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Katharine M; Streeter, Robert N; De Souza, Patricia; Genova, Suzanne G; Morgan, Sandra E

    2013-05-01

    Two adult alpacas were presented for recumbency and reluctance to rise. Cantharidin toxicosis was suspected based on clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of gastric contents and urine. Despite medical treatment, neither alpaca survived. Blister beetle toxicosis has not been previously described in camelids. Challenges in treatment of affected ruminants or pseudoruminants are noted.

  10. Urogenital leiomyosarcoma in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y; Poulsen, Keith P; McGuirk, Sheila M; Livesey, Michael A; Koch, Christoph; Perrier, Melanie P; Pinkerton, Marie E

    2010-12-01

    A mass in the pelvic canal of a 4-year-old pregnant alpaca hembra diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract was confirmed by biopsy. Following a tube cystotomy, the alpaca was presented 33 d later, 2 d after the tube cystotomy had been dislodged. A dead cria was delivered by caesarean section.

  11. Cantharidin toxicosis in 2 alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; De Souza, Patricia; Genova, Suzanne G.; Morgan, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult alpacas were presented for recumbency and reluctance to rise. Cantharidin toxicosis was suspected based on clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of gastric contents and urine. Despite medical treatment, neither alpaca survived. Blister beetle toxicosis has not been previously described in camelids. Challenges in treatment of affected ruminants or pseudoruminants are noted. PMID:24155427

  12. Possible delayed respiratory depression following intrathecal injection of morphine and bupivacaine in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Miguel; Murison, Pamela J; Murrell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    To describe general anesthesia and successful treatment of an alpaca, which developed respiratory arrest 2 hours after intrathecal injection of morphine and bupivacaine. A 10-day-old female alpaca weighing 7.3 kg was presented to our hospital with a fractured right tibia. The cria was anesthetized to repair the fracture with a dynamic compression plate. Anesthesia was induced with IV propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen. Prior to the start of surgery the alpaca received an unintended intrathecal injection of 0.6 mL of a solution of 0.5 mg morphine (0.068 mg/kg) and 1.5 mg bupivacaine (0.2 mg/kg), after an attempted lumbo-sacral epidural. The alpaca developed respiratory arrest 120 minutes after the intrathecal injection was administered. Adequate hemoglobin-oxygen saturation was maintained despite minimal intermittent manual ventilation, but marked hypercapnia developed (PaCO2 of 17.3 KPa [130 mm Hg]). Delayed respiratory depression resulting from cephalad migration of intrathecal morphine was suspected. Ventilation was supported until the end of surgery when sevoflurane was discontinued. The trachea remained intubated, 100% oxygen was supplied, and ventilation was supported at 2-4 breaths/min for the next 60 minutes, but no attempts to breathe spontaneously were detected. Intravenous naloxone (0.3 mg [0.04 mg/kg]) was administered slowly to effect until adequate spontaneous ventilation and full consciousness returned. The anesthetic recovery of the alpaca was rapid and uneventful after the opioid antagonist was given. Delayed respiratory depression is a potential complication after intrathecal administration of morphine. Careful dose-adjustment may reduce the risk, and close monitoring will result in early detection and treatment of this complication. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  13. Septic orchitis in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Swor, T M; Löhr, C V; Tibary, A; Barrington, G M

    2000-09-01

    An adult, intact male alpaca was presented with an acute onset of unilateral scrotal swelling. Following complete physical and ultrasonographic examination, the most likely differential diagnoses were orchitis, hematoma, and testicular torsion. The animal was castrated and histopathologic evaluation revealed unilateral orchitis. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was cultured.

  14. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  15. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective.

  16. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S.; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnostic tests verified their status. Bovine viral diarrhea virus Type 1b transient infections produced only mild signs of disease in BVDV naïve alpacas. Viremia was detected in whole blood, but viral shedding during the acute phase was not detected and antibody appeared to be protective upon re-exposure to the virus. PMID:21629418

  17. Nutritional diseases of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Limited published reports of nutritional diseases affecting llamas and alpacas were found in a detailed review of relevant literature sources. Anecdotal clinical experiences and nutritional diseases that have been reported range from those diagnosed in common with other species to diseases having a presentation unique to camelids. Vitamin D-associated rickets and greater susceptibility to hepatic lipidosis and zinc deficiency are distinctive nutritional problems for llamas and alpacas. This article will review commonly encountered nutritional diseases, based on literature reports and clinical experience, in llamas and alpacas.

  18. Seasonal effects on gestation length and birth weight in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Davis, G H; Dodds, K G; Moore, G H; Bruce, G D

    1997-04-01

    Gestation lengths and birth weights were measured in 162 pregnancies in alpacas (Lama pacos) farmed in the high country of the South Island of New Zealand. A comparison of pregnancies from spring (mid-October to mid-December) and autumn (mid-February to late April) matings showed that gestation lengths were 12.5 days longer in spring (348.9 +/- 1.4 days vs. 336.4 +/- 1.2 days; P < 0.0001). For each day later in spring that a female was mated there was an increase in gestation length of 0.11 days (P < 0.05), whereas for each day later in autumn the gestation was reduced by 0.24 days. There were no significant effects of sex of cria or age of dam on gestation length. After adjustment for gestation length, crias born in autumn weighed 1.0 kg more than those born in spring (8.8 +/- 0.15 kg vs. 7.8 +/- 0.18 kg: P < 0.001). Female crias weighed 0.4 kg less than males at birth (P < 0.05). The results suggest that in this environment it will be difficult to maintain spring-mated females in a 12 month breeding cycle.

  19. [Pyometra and persistent hymen in an alpaca].

    PubMed

    Egloff, C; Gerspach, C; Rütten, M; Dettwiler, M; Reichler, I; Bleul, U

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old female alpaca was referred to the hospital because of tenesmus. Clinical examination revealed a habitual vaginal prolapse with tenesmus during urination and defecation. On vaginoscopic examination a persistent hymen was detected. Ultrasonography of the caudal abdomen showed an echogenic fluid-filled uterus. A diagnostic laparotomy led to diagnosis of pyometra. Following ovariohysterectomy, the recovery was uneventful. One and a half years later the alpaca was again admitted to the hospital because of colic. Based on the findings, a tentative prognosis was provided and the alpaca was euthanized at the request of the owner. At necropsy, a haemorrhagic infarction of a jejunal loop was found due to incarceration in a fibrous adhesion between the vaginal stump and small intestine.

  20. Calcific band keratopathy in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Pucket, Jonathan D; Boileau, Melanie J; Sula, Mee Ja M

    2014-07-01

    A 4-year-old female Suri alpaca was presented for evaluation of acute onset weakness, lethargy, and recent development of opacities in both eyes. On ophthalmic examination, bilaterally symmetrical corneal opacities were noted along the interpalpebral fissures with a few corneal blood vessels intermingled. A presumed diagnosis of calcific band keratopathy was made based on location and appearance. The patient was euthanized a short while after diagnosis due to reasons unrelated to the eyes and histologic examination of the corneas revealed subepithelial calcium and vascularization, consistent with calcific band keratopathy. This case report is the first to document this ocular condition in an alpaca.

  1. PACO: PArticle COunting Method To Enforce Concentrations in Dynamic Simulations.

    PubMed

    Berti, Claudio; Furini, Simone; Gillespie, Dirk

    2016-03-08

    We present PACO, a computationally efficient method for concentration boundary conditions in nonequilibrium particle simulations. Because it requires only particle counting, its computational effort is significantly smaller than other methods. PACO enables Brownian dynamics simulations of micromolar electrolytes (3 orders of magnitude lower than previously simulated). PACO for Brownian dynamics is integrated in the BROWNIES package (www.phys.rush.edu/BROWNIES). We also introduce a molecular dynamics PACO implementation that allows for very accurate control of concentration gradients.

  2. Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis in endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Basic concepts of ovarian follicular dynamics, endocrine events associated with induction of ovulation, corpus luteum formation, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum interval, puberty, and sexual behavior on the female are reviewed. Pathologic conditions of the reproductive process are also reviewed.

  3. The Late Pleistocene distribution of vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) and the “extinction” of the gracile llama (“Lama gracilis”): New molecular data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, Jaco; Shapiro, Beth; Prieto, Alfredo; Marín, Juan Carlos; González, Benito A.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-07-01

    We present the results of a palaeogenetic analysis of two Late Pleistocene camelids originating in southern Chile. Our analysis of two mitochondrial DNA fragments (control region and cytochrome b gene) reveals that these specimens do not belong to an extinct taxon, but rather to extant vicuña ( Vicugna vicugna), whose modern distribution is restricted to the extreme elevations of the Andes, more than 3500 km to the north of where these specimens originated. Our results also suggest fossil specimens from Patagonia that are currently assigned to the extinct taxon Lama gracilis, may actually belong to V. vicugna, implying a continuous distribution of the latter from the southern tip of South America to the Andes during the Final Pleistocene. The haplotypes of both specimens are not present in modern populations, suggesting a loss of genetic diversity concomitant with the contraction of the vicuña geographical distribution during the Final Pleistocene or early Holocene.

  4. Thermoregulation of alpacas bred in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello, Silvana; Formis, Elena; Barbieri, Sara

    2011-03-01

    The present study monitored daily and seasonal variations of rectal temperature in response to different environmental temperatures in alpacas bred in the Italian Apennines at 300 m a.s.l. In each season, the rectal temperature of 33 clinically healthy alpacas was measured three times/day (morning, midday, afternoon). Ambient temperatures were also recorded. Rectal temperatures ranged from a minimum value of 35.1 to a maximum of 39.4°C, with a maximum daily thermal excursion (ΔTrec) of 3.2°C. Temperatures increased throughout the day, with highly significant differences recorded in both young and adult animals between all the time bands ( P < 0.001). These differences were particularly dramatic for adults in summer, when the mean rectal temperature in the morning was 36.3 ± 0.13°C, probably as a consequence of recent shearing. Significant ΔTrec differences were recorded depending on the season in both young and adult animals ( P < 0.001), with the highest ΔTrec values recorded in summer (although the highest daily ambient excursion value was recorded in winter). In conclusion, similarly to alpacas bred in their natural environment, alpacas bred in Italy show a wide thermal neutrality zone, which is probably an adaptive response, that allows the animals to save energy. In the Italian Apennines, in order to prevent situations of hypothermia, with possible detrimental effects on alpacas' health and welfare, shearing should be carried out only in warm seasons.

  5. Protection in alpacas against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis using different bacterial components.

    PubMed

    Braga, Walter U

    2007-01-31

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram positive bacterium that produces caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis in llamas and alpacas. To evaluate the immune potential of different doses of cell wall and toxin components of C. pseudotuberculosis from alpaca origin, 12 adult alpacas were allotted at random to four groups, and SC inoculated in the left flank with vaccines composed of low and high doses of bacterial crude antigens, cell wall: 250 and 500 microg/ml and toxin: 133 and 265 microg/ml, respectively. The vaccines were supplemented with 20 microg/ml of muramyl dipeptide as adjuvant. Three alpacas were sham inoculated with adjuvant as a control. After 3 weeks, immunized and naive alpacas were challenged intradermally in the right flank with 1 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) of C. pseudotuberculosis. The alpacas were sacrificed at days 28, 58 and 112 after inoculation, and the degree of protection induced by vaccines was demonstrated by the absence of abscesses and/or bacteria. The alpacas vaccinated with high dose of toxin, did not show abscesses. In contrast, the alpacas vaccinated with a low dose of toxin showed abscesses at the inoculation site, regional, and renal lymph nodes. The cell wall vaccinated alpacas showed a lesser degree of protection than the other groups with superficial and internal abscesses. The control alpacas had persistent fever and abscesses at the inoculation site, regional, and internal lymph nodes. In addition, a robust and early humoral response was observed in all vaccinated alpacas after challenge, lasting at least 3 months. The results suggest that the toxin of C. pseudotuberculosis is a very important antigen, inducing a dose dependant protective immunity against this bacterium in alpacas.

  6. Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

  7. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L; Krause, Philip R; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  8. Factors associated with low vitamin D status of Australian alpacas.

    PubMed

    Judson, G J; McGregor, B A; Partington, D L

    2008-12-01

    To investigate factors associated with low vitamin D status of alpacas at pasture in southern Australia. A 2-year survey of alpacas from two farms in South Australia and three in Victoria. Blood samples were collected from 20 to 30 alpacas on each farm on five occasions each year. Breed, gender, age and fleece colour of animals were recorded. Blood samples were assayed for plasma 2.5-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D(3)) and plasma inorganic phosphorus (Pi). Data sets from 802 animal samples were analysed by multiple regression to determine variables associated with low vitamin D status of alpacas. The relationship between plasma 25-OH D(3) and plasma Pi was also investigated. Vitamin D status was significantly affected by month of sampling, with low values in late winter and high values in summer. Plasma vitamin D concentrations increased with age, were higher in alpacas with light fleeces than in those with dark fleeces and were also higher in the Suri than in the Huacaya breed. Plasma Pi concentrations were generally lower in alpacas with plasma 25-OH D(3) values < 25 nmol/L. Young alpacas with dark fleeces are most at risk from vitamin D insufficiency in late winter in southern Australia. The present study indicates that plasma Pi values are not a reliable indicator of vitamin D status of alpacas as assessed by plasma 25-OH D(3) concentrations.

  9. Antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) population in the Argentinean Andean altiplano.

    PubMed

    Marcoppido, Gisela; Parreño, Viviana; Vilá, Bibiana

    2010-04-01

    Serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (Ab) to rotavirus (RV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), bluetongue virus (BTV), equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and influenza A virus equine (EIV). Samples were collected in Cieneguillas Province of Jujuy, in northern Argentina. Feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate RV shedding. Llamas (Lama glama) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) from the area studied also were tested for antibodies to these viruses. Antibodies against RV (100%) and BPIV-3 (37%) were detected in the vicuñas sampled. No RV antigen was detected in any of the fecal samples tested. One vicuña was positive for Ab to BHV-1 (0.8%) and another for BVDV-1 (0.8%). The Ab prevalences detected in llamas were: 100% (16/16) for RV, 47% (8/17) for BPIV-3, 17.6% (3/17) for BHV-1, and 5.9% (1/17) for BVDV-1. However, domestic cattle had high antibody prevalences for RV and BPIV-3, 100% (13/13) and 73% (11/15), respectively, but were negative for Ab to BHV-1 and BVDV. No antibodies against FMDV, BTV, EHV-1, or EIV were detected in wild vicuñas or domestic species. Because no data of viral circulation on wild vicuñas are available, this report represents the first evidence of viral infection in wild vicuñas from the Argentinean Andean Puna.

  10. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  11. ALPACA: An Inexpensive but Uniquely Powerful Imaging Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin P.; ALPACA Consortium

    2006-12-01

    ALPACA (Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Astrophysics, Cosmology and Asteroids) is an 8-meter optical telescope destined for Cerro Tololo and designed to scan a strip of sky passing overhead and extending over 1000 square degrees. The imaging survey will be conducted in five photometric bands covering the optical waveband and allow for photometric descrimination of many source types, including supernova types and asteroid categories, and allow photometric redshift determination for both galaxies and supernovae. The ALPACA is intended to extend over at least a three years and reach a cumulative point-source detection of about 28th magnitude AB at 10-sigma. ALPACA will deliver nightly photometry for many classes of variable and moving objects. Most crucial, perhaps, will be the exquisitely deep, numerous and well-sampled multiband lightcurve sample for supernova, particularly SNe Ia to redshifts z 0.8. This is an excellent redshift range for dark energy model descrimination, but also can be used for unprecedentedly sensitive tests and improvements of the SN Ia standard candle relation. There are many other superlative projects that will be conducted with ALPACA data, including studies of high redshift galaxies, quasars and AGN, large scale structure, novae, variable stars, Galactic Bulge microlensing, Galactic structure, stellar populations, extrasolar planets, Kuiper Belt objects, Near-Earth objects and many other classes of targets. ALPACA is based on the 6-meter LZT (Large Zenith Telescope), which is currently operating in British Columbia and producing largely seeing-limited imaging. ALPACA has undergone conceptual design review and is now under design. Seeing tests are underway at sites on Cerro Tololo. We hope to achieve first light on ALPACA by late 2009. Proto-ALPACA is a stage of the project with the full-sized telescope with a smaller field of view, and will be first operational. ALPACA might eventually add instrumentation; a multiobject spectrograph is

  12. Pharmacokinetics of intrarectal omeprazole in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Marmulak, T; Stanley, S; Kass, P H; Wiebe, V; McKemie, D; Pusterla, N

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole in three different vehicles when administered rectally to six alpacas. Alpacas were given single doses of omeprazole (4 mg/kg) in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over design with a 1 week washout period. Omeprazole formulations consisted of (1) Treatment A: omeprazole paste mixed in surgical lubricant (2) Treatment B: omeprazole capsule contents in 8.4% sodium bicarbonate and (3) Treatment C: omeprazole capsule contents in surgical lubricant and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution. Plasma samples were drawn at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 300 and 480 min. Omeprazole plasma concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic results demonstrated median peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 7.35 (3.2-15.2), 7.30 (1.7-10.9) and 8.65 (1.8-19.3) ng/mL and median area under the concentration curve (AUC((0-180))) of 747 (237-1681) min x ng/mL, 552.9 (39-1063) min x ng/mL, and 972 (107-1841) min x ng/mL for treatments A, B and C, respectively. The median half-lives were similar between groups: 38, 50, and 53 min. As a result of the low measured omeprazole plasma concentrations, it is assumed that rectal absorption of omeprazole is poor in alpacas and not an effective route of administration.

  13. Health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in Peru.

    PubMed

    Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Wheeler, Jane Collins; Rosadio, Raúl; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Arnaiz-Seco, Ignacio; Hoces, Domingo; Castillo, Hugo; Veliz, Álvaro; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2014-04-01

    To determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in Peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic South American camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten Andean communities at the Salinas y Aguada Blanca reserve, province of Arequipa, southern Peru. Samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (FMD), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), brucellosis, bluetongue disease (BT), paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. Serological results showed that 1.9% (4/207) of vicuñas, 18.6% (106/571) of alpacas, and 23.3% (10/43) of llamas were positive to one or more Leptospira serovars. One percent of vicuñas (2/207) and 2.4% of domestic camelids (15/614) had Neospora caninum antibodies tested by ELISA, but only two vicuñas and two alpacas were confirmed by Western blot. Epidemiological evaluation found an association of leptospirosis to sex and age (p < 0.001), with female subjects older than 2.5 years at higher risk of infection. Interestingly, antibodies against Leptospira serovars were only found in captive vicuñas. This is the first study where health status of free-ranging and captive vicuñas has been compared. Results indicate minimal to nil presence of FMD, BVD, BHV-1, brucellosis, BT, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis allied to health disorders in our sample. The detection of seropositive animals against Leptospira, however, unveils the likely significance of leptospirosis in wild and domestic South American camelids, the impact of mixed husbandry over vicuña population and the risk to human health.

  14. Acute respiratory distress in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Mukai, M; Woods, L; Poppenga, R; Valentine, B A; Smith, J

    2012-11-01

    An alpaca was presented with a history of respiratory difficulty and death. Histology of the phrenic nerves and diaphragm revealed degenerative changes consistent with denervation atrophy, and a diagnosis of diaphragmatic paralysis was established. No gross or histological abnormalities were observed in the spinal cord or other organs. The etiology of the phrenic nerve neuropathy could not be determined. The need to examine phrenic nerves and diaphragm in camelids with respiratory distress is emphasized, as failure to examine these samples will preclude a diagnosis of diaphragmatic paralysis.

  15. Reproduction in llamas and alpacas: a review.

    PubMed

    Smith, C L; Peter, A T; Pugh, D G

    1994-02-02

    In this review we attempt to compile and summarize the diverse and often contradictory material presented on the reproduction of llamas and alpacas (hereafter referred to as lamoids). Lamoids have recently gained international popularity, and theriogenologists are often asked to intervene in clinical management of reproductive problems of these animals. We therefore present a discussion of the reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior of llamas as well as the follicular dynamics as observed with ultrasonography. The nonsurgical embryo transfer procedure and the nutrient requirements of llamas are also discussed.

  16. Sarcoptic mange in three alpacas treated successfully with amitraz.

    PubMed

    Lau, Peri; Hill, Peter B; Rybnícek, Jan; Steel, Lynne

    2007-08-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a serious skin disease in alpacas that can result in high morbidity and even mortality. Three alpacas were presented with sarcoptic mange that had previously failed to respond to repeated topical applications of eprinomectin, and an injection of doramectin. They were moderately to severely pruritic, had extensive lesions of alopecia, erythema, scaling and crusting, and had lost weight. As no drug is currently licensed for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in alpacas in the UK, they were treated with a topical solution of amitraz (50 mL in 10 L) after initial bathing with antibacterial or keratolytic shampoos. The clinical signs completely resolved with no relapse over a 10-month follow-up period. In this small group of alpacas, amitraz was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for sarcoptic mange.

  17. Evaluation of a Jugular Venipuncture Alpaca Model to Teach the Technique of Blood Sampling in Adult Alpacas.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Marjolaine; Beauchamp, Guy; Nichols, Sylvain

    2017-05-23

    The effectiveness of teaching aids in veterinary medical education is not often assessed rigorously. The objective in the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available jugular venipuncture alpaca model as a complementary tool to teach veterinary students how to perform venipuncture in adult alpacas. We hypothesized that practicing on the model would allow veterinary students to draw blood in alpacas more rapidly with fewer attempts than students without previous practice on the model. Thirty-six third-year veterinary students were enrolled and randomly allocated to the model (group M; n=18) or the control group (group C; n=18). The venipuncture technique was taught to all students on day 0. Students in group M practiced on the model on day 2. On day 5, an evaluator blinded to group allocation evaluated the students' venipuncture skills during a practical examination using live alpacas. Success was defined as the aspiration of a 6-ml sample of blood. Measured outcomes included number of attempts required to achieve success (success score), total procedural time, and overall qualitative score. Success scores, total procedural time, and overall scores did not differ between groups. Use of restless alpacas reduced performance. The jugular venipuncture alpaca model failed to improve jugular venipuncture skills in this student population. Lack of movement represents a significant weakness of this training model.

  18. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  19. Septic flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara G; Semevolos, Stacy A

    2013-07-01

    A 2-year-old male Suri alpaca was referred for evaluation of severe right forelimb lameness of 2 weeks' duration following a traumatic episode. Examination of the distal aspect of the metacarpus revealed 4 wounds exuding purulent material. On weight bearing, the metacarpophalangeal joint was severely hyperextended with the palmar surface touching the ground. Ultrasonography of the palmar surface of the metacarpus revealed desmitis of the proximal suspensory ligament, a large core lesion of the deep digital flexor tendon at mid-metacarpus, and complete loss of fiber pattern within the deep digital flexor tendon and lateral aspect of the superficial digital flexor tendon distally. The alpaca was treated systemically with antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory drugs and underwent repeated antimicrobial intraosseous regional limb perfusion. A bandage and splint were applied to stabilize the affected forelimb in an anatomically correct position, and the alpaca underwent prolonged stall confinement. At the time of hospital discharge 5 days after initial evaluation, clinical evidence of infection at the wound sites was absent. Three months following treatment, the alpaca was moving freely in a small paddock and had moderate hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Treatment of septic flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis with antimicrobial intraosseous regional limb perfusion in combination with systemic treatment with antimicrobials and orthopedic support resulted in an excellent outcome in this alpaca. Antimicrobial intraosseous regional limb perfusion is simple to perform and has the potential to be beneficial in the treatment of infections in the distal portion of a limb in camelids.

  20. A candidate gene for choanal atresia in alpaca.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kent M; Bauer, Miranda M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Armién, Aníbal G

    2010-03-01

    Choanal atresia (CA) is a common nasal craniofacial malformation in New World domestic camelids (alpaca and llama). CA results from abnormal development of the nasal passages and is especially debilitating to newborn crias. CA in camelids shares many of the clinical manifestations of a similar condition in humans (CHARGE syndrome). Herein we report on the regulatory gene CHD7 of alpaca, whose homologue in humans is most frequently associated with CHARGE. Sequence of the CHD7 coding region was obtained from a non-affected cria. The complete coding region was 9003 bp, corresponding to a translated amino acid sequence of 3000 aa. Additional genomic sequences corresponding to a significant portion of the CHD7 gene were identified and assembled from the 2x alpaca whole genome sequence, providing confirmatory sequence for much of the CHD7 coding region. The alpaca CHD7 mRNA sequence was 97.9% similar to the human sequence, with the greatest sequence difference being an insertion in exon 38 that results in a polyalanine repeat (A12). Polymorphism in this repeat was tested for association with CA in alpaca by cloning and sequencing the repeat from both affected and non-affected individuals. Variation in length of the poly-A repeat was not associated with CA. Complete sequencing of the CHD7 gene will be necessary to determine whether other mutations in CHD7 are the cause of CA in camelids.

  1. A three-step approach to minimise the impact of a mining site on vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and to restore landscape connectivity.

    PubMed

    Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Galaz, José Luis; Cadorzo, César; Lagunas, Héctor

    2016-07-01

    Resource extraction projects generate a diversity of negative effects on the environment that are difficult to predict and mitigate. Consequently, adaptive management approaches have been advocated to develop effective responses to impacts that were not predicted. Mammal populations living in or around mine sites are frequently of management concern; yet, there is a dearth of published information on how to minimise the negative effects of different phases of mining operations on them. Here, we present the case study of a copper mine in the Chilean Altiplano, which caused roadkills of the protected vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). This issue led to a three-step solution being implemented: (1) the initial identification of the problem and implementation of an emergency response, (2) the scientific analysis for decision making and (3) the planning and informed implementation of responses for different future scenarios and timescales. The measures taken under each of these steps provide examples of environmental management approaches that make use of scientific information to develop integrated management responses. In brief, our case study showed how (1) the timescale and the necessity/urgency of the case were addressed, (2) the various stakeholders involved were taken into account and (3) changes were included into the physical, human and organisational elements of the company to achieve the stated objectives.

  2. Management of bilateral patellar luxation in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Abuja, Gustavo A; Kowaleski, Michael P; García-López, José M

    2014-05-01

    To report surgical management bilateral lateral patellar luxation in a mature alpaca using a combination of trochlear wedge recession (TWR), tibial tuberosity transposition (TTT), and joint capsule imbrication. Clinical case report. 9-year-old castrated male Alpaca. Bilateral, grade III/IV, lateral patellar luxation was identified by palpation, lameness examination and confirmed with radiography and ultrasonography. Surgical procedures were staged, with the left stifle treated first. Bilateral TWR, TTT, and joint capsule imbrication were performed. Outcome was assessed by radiography and follow up lameness examinations. An immediate improvement in weight bearing occurred after surgery of the left hind limb. Five months after initial surgery, right hind limb patella luxation was corrected. After surgery on the 2nd limb, the alpaca had progressive improvement in weight bearing during hospitalization. At 12 months, there were no signs of lameness and the alpaca had resumed normal activities. For bilateral lateral patellar luxation, a combination of TWR, TTT, and joint capsule imbrication resulted in excellent long-term outcome. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Necrotizing hepatitis associated with enteric salmonellosis in an alpaca

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the feces of an alpaca suffering anorexia and weight loss. Multifocal necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis consistent with bacterial infection was found in the liver biopsies. Enteric salmonellosis may be associated with milder physical and clinicopathological changes in camelids than in other large animal species. PMID:15144106

  4. The expression of KRT2 and its effect on melanogenesis in alpaca skins.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yucong; Song, Yajun; Geng, Qingling; Ding, Zengfeng; Qin, Yilong; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng; Geng, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the keratin 2 (KRT2) on alpaca melanocyte in vivo and vitro, the immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and alpaca melanocytes transfection methods were used. The results showed that mRNA and protein expression of KRT2 was highly expressed in brown skin in comparison with that in white skin. Moreover, we found that KRT2 was expressed in alpaca melanocytes in vitro by immunocytochemistry. After transfection with KRT2 in alpaca melanocytes, the relative mRNA and protein expression of KRT2, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) in alpaca skin melanocytes was increased with significant differences; a further result was the increase of melanin production. The results suggested that KRT2 functions in alpaca hair color formation, which offered an essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of melanogenesis.

  5. Detection of an Antigenic Group 2 Coronavirus in an Adult Alpaca with Enteritis▿

    PubMed Central

    Genova, Suzanne G.; Streeter, Robert N.; Simpson, Katharine M.; Kapil, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic group 2 coronavirus was detected in a fecal sample of an adult alpaca by reverse transcription-PCR. The presence of alpaca coronavirus (ApCoV) in the small intestine was demonstrated by immune histochemistry with an antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibody that reacts with group 2 coronaviruses. Other common causes of diarrhea in adult camelids were not detected. We conclude that nutritional stress may have predisposed the alpaca to severe ApCoV infection. PMID:18716008

  6. β-Nerve growth factor is a major component of alpaca seminal plasma and induces ovulation in female alpacas.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Druart, X; Vaughan, J; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-01-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by an unidentified protein in the seminal plasma of the male termed 'ovulation-inducing factor'. This protein has been reported to be a 14-kDa protein under reducing conditions, which, when purified from seminal plasma, induces ovulation in llamas. The identification of this protein and investigation of its potential to induce ovulation in camelids may aid the development of protocols for the induction of ovulation. In the present study, alpaca seminal plasma proteins were separated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the most abundant protein of 14 kDa was identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Female alpacas (n = 5 per group) were given intramuscular injections of: (1) 1 mL of 0.9% saline; (2) 4 µg buserelin, a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist; (3) 2 mL alpaca seminal plasma; or (4) 1mg human β-NGF. Ovulation was detected by transrectal ultrasonography 8 days after treatment and confirmed by plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation occurred in 0%, 80%, 80% and 80% of animals treated with saline, buserelin, seminal plasma and β-NGF, respectively. Treatment type did not affect the diameter of the corpus luteum, but plasma progesterone concentrations were lower in saline-treated animals than in the other treatment groups owing to the lack of a corpus luteum. The present study is the first to identify the ovulation-inducing factor protein in alpacas. β-NGF successfully induces ovulation in alpacas and this finding may lead to new methods for the induction of ovulation in camelids.

  7. First report of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Angus J D; Charles, Jennifer A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-08-22

    Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Post mortem examination of an alpaca was conducted to determine the cause of its death. To confirm a suspected case of macrocyclic lactone (ML) resistance in H. contortus in alpacas, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed using closantel (7.5 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg). Nematode species were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Post mortem examination of a 1-year-old female alpaca that had died following a brief period of lethargy, anorexia and recumbency revealed severe anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and gastric parasitism by adult Haemonchus contortus, despite recent abamectin (0.2 mg/kg) treatment. Based on these findings and the exclusive use of MLs in the herd over the preceding six years, ML resistance in parasitic nematodes of alpacas on this farm was suspected. FECRT revealed that the efficacy of closantel was 99% (95% CI 93-100), whereas that of ivermectin was 35% (95% CI 0-78), indicating that the treatment failure was likely due to the presence of ML-resistant nematodes. Larval culture of faecal samples collected following ivermectin treatment consisted of 99% H. contortus and 1% Cooperia oncophora, a result confirmed using a PCR assay. This study provides the first evidence of ML resistance in H. contortus in alpacas in Australia. Based on the extent of anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in Australia, veterinarians and alpaca owners should be encouraged to implement integrated parasite management strategies to improve nematode control in alpacas.

  8. First report of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Methods Post mortem examination of an alpaca was conducted to determine the cause of its death. To confirm a suspected case of macrocyclic lactone (ML) resistance in H. contortus in alpacas, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed using closantel (7.5 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg). Nematode species were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Results Post mortem examination of a 1-year-old female alpaca that had died following a brief period of lethargy, anorexia and recumbency revealed severe anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and gastric parasitism by adult Haemonchus contortus, despite recent abamectin (0.2 mg/kg) treatment. Based on these findings and the exclusive use of MLs in the herd over the preceding six years, ML resistance in parasitic nematodes of alpacas on this farm was suspected. FECRT revealed that the efficacy of closantel was 99% (95% CI 93-100), whereas that of ivermectin was 35% (95% CI 0-78), indicating that the treatment failure was likely due to the presence of ML-resistant nematodes. Larval culture of faecal samples collected following ivermectin treatment consisted of 99% H. contortus and 1% Cooperia oncophora, a result confirmed using a PCR assay. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of ML resistance in H. contortus in alpacas in Australia. Based on the extent of anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in Australia, veterinarians and alpaca owners should be encouraged to implement integrated parasite management strategies to improve

  9. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  10. No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Raila, J; Schweigert, F J; Stanitznig, A; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Baldermann, S; Wittek, T

    2016-11-09

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol.

  11. Premature parturition, edema, and ascites in an alpaca infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Firshman, Anna M.; Sharkey, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old alpaca was presented for fever, anorexia, edema, ascites, and premature parturition. She was determined to have Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection based on positive blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and positive acute and convalescent serum titers. Antibiotics and supportive therapies were administered and the alpaca made a complete recovery. PMID:23633715

  12. Generation and Characterization of the First Immortalized Alpaca Cell Line Suitable for Diagnostic and Immunization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, Valentina; Jacca, Sarah; Sassu, Elena L.; Stellari, Fabio F.; van Santen, Vicky L.; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs) was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry. PMID:25140515

  13. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  14. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Valentina; Jacca, Sarah; Sassu, Elena L; Stellari, Fabio F; van Santen, Vicky L; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs) was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  15. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    PubMed

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (P<0.05) when alpacas were fed diets containing commercial sheep and horse concentrates. In contrast, sperm concentration and motility decreased significantly (P<0.05) from Period 1 to Period 4. Dietary changes had no effect on viscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as γ-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands

  16. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  17. Effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride anesthesia in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Reza; Odoi, Agricola; Doherty, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of IM administration of a tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride (TZ) combination with either dexmedetomidine hydrochloride or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS) on the motor response to claw clamping, selected cardiorespiratory variables, and quality of recovery from anesthesia in alpacas. ANIMALS 5 adult sexually intact male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was given the TZ combination (2 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (5 [D5], 10 [D10], 15 [D15], or 20 [D20] µg/kg) or SS IM at 1-week intervals (5 experiments); motor response to claw clamping was assessed, and characteristics of anesthesia, recovery from anesthesia, and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded. RESULTS Mean ± SEM duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping was longest when alpacas received treatments D15 (30.9 ± 5.9 minutes) and D20 (40.8 ± 5.9 minutes). Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer with dexmedetomidine administration. The longest time (81.3 ± 10.4 minutes) to standing was observed when alpacas received treatment D20. Following treatment SS, 4 alpacas moved in response to claw clamping at the 5-minute time point. Heart rate decreased from pretreatment values in all alpacas when dexmedetomidine was administered. Treatments D10, D15, and D20 decreased Pao2, compared with treatment SS, during the first 15 minutes. During recovery, muscle stiffness and multiple efforts to regain a sternal position were observed in 3 SS-treated and 1 D5-treated alpacas; all other recoveries were graded as excellent. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In TZ-anesthetized alpacas, dexmedetomidine (10, 15, and 20 µg/kg) administered IM increased the duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping, compared with the effect of SS.

  18. Occurrence and prognosis of hand eczema in the car industry: results from the PACO follow-up study (PACO II).

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Radulescu, Magda; Diepgen, Thomas L; Funke, Ulrich

    2008-06-01

    Only a few epidemiological studies on hand eczema (HE) in the metalworking industry have been conducted, and no study has attempted a long-term follow-up. In the Prospective Audi Cohort (PACO) II follow-up study, we aimed to estimate burden and prognosis of HE in a car industry setting (follow-up > 10 years). Eligible participants were individuals who had been examined in the original PACO study (1990-1998) and had been followed through until the end of their apprenticeship (n = 1909). Participants were interviewed and underwent dermatological examination. An exposure assessment was carried out according to a pre-defined algorithm. The follow-up rate was 78.3% (1494/1909). Mean follow-up time was 13.3 [standard deviation 1.3] years. The period prevalence of HE in the follow-up period was 21.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.0-23.1%], yielding a cumulative incidence of 29.3% (95% CI 26.9-31.6%) in the entire study period. HE persisted after the end of apprenticeship in 40.0% (95% CI 33.3-46.7%) of subjects who had had HE during apprenticeship (n = 205). 18.0% (95% CI 15.9-20.1%) developed HE in the follow-up period (n = 1289). Around 30% of subjects were affected by HE at least once during the study period. HE persisted in 40% of the participants affected during apprenticeship.

  19. Treatment of a maxillary fibrosarcoma in an adult alpaca.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Mary Lynn; McCaw, Dudley L; Anderson, David E; Lattimer, Jimmy C; Armbrust, Laura; Andrews, Gordon A; McBride, Brandon D

    2015-03-15

    An approximately 5-year-old sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated because of a right-sided maxillary mass that had recurred after previous surgical debulking. Clinical, radiographic, and CT examination revealed an approximately 1.5-cm-diameter soft tissue mass associated with expansile osteolysis of the maxillary alveolar bone, beginning at the level of the right maxillary third premolar tooth extending caudally to the level of the rostral roots of the second molar tooth. Right partial maxillectomy was performed, and histologic examination revealed an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma with osseous metaplasia. External beam radiation therapy to the tumor bed was initiated 1 month after surgery. Computerized planning was performed, and a total radiation dose of 48 Gy was prescribed in eleven 4.4-Gy fractions. Follow-up CT evaluations 6 and 58 weeks after radiation therapy was completed revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. No clinical evidence of tumor recurrence was detected through 110 weeks after radiation therapy. The oral fibrosarcoma in the alpaca described here was successfully treated with surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy, resulting in excellent quality of life of the treated animal.

  20. Identification of two novel Rotavirus A genotypes, G35 and P[50], from Peruvian alpaca faeces.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Miguel A; Gonçalves, Jorge Luiz S; Dias, Helver G; Manchego, Alberto; Santos, Norma

    2017-09-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) Alp11B was detected from a neonatal Peruvian alpaca presenting with diarrhea, and the Alp11B VP7, VP4, VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes were sequenced. The partial genotype constellation of this strain, RVA/Alpaca-wt/PER/Alp11B/2010, was determined to be G35-P[50]-I13-E16-H6. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory mechanics and results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in healthy adult alpacas.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Ana P; Bedenice, Daniela; Mazan, Melissa R; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory mechanical function and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytologic results in healthy alpacas. 16 client-owned adult alpacas. Measurements of pulmonary function were performed, including functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory system resistance via forced oscillatory technique (FOT), and assessment of breathing pattern by use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in standing and sternally recumbent alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed orotracheally during short-term anesthesia. Mean ± SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in standing alpacas for FRC (3.19 ± 0.53 L), tidal volume (0.8 ± 0.13 L), and respiratory system resistance at 1 Hz (2.70 ± 0.88 cm H(2)O/L/s), 2 Hz (2.98 ± 0.70 cm H(2)O/L/s), 3 Hz (3.14 ± 0.77 cm H(2)O/L/s), 5 Hz (3.45 ± 0.91 cm H(2)O/L/s), and 7 Hz (3.84 ± 0.93 cm H(2)O/L/s). Mean phase angle, as a measurement of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, was 19.59 ± 10.06°, and mean difference between nasal and plethysmographic flow measurements was 0.18 ± 0.07 L/s. Tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow were significantly higher in sternally recumbent alpacas than in standing alpacas. Cytologic examination of BAL fluid revealed 58.52 ± 12.36% alveolar macrophages, 30.53 ± 13.78% lymphocytes, 10.95 ± 9.29% neutrophils, 0% mast cells, and several ciliated epithelial cells. Pulmonary function testing was tolerated well in nonsedated untrained alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage in alpacas yielded samples with adequate cellularity that had a greater abundance of neutrophils than has been reported in horses.

  2. Serologic response in eight alpacas vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine during a public health response to a rabid alpaca in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ryan M; Niezgoda, Michael; Waggoner, Emily A; Blanton, Jesse Dean; Radcliffe, Rachel A

    2016-09-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A female alpaca, kept at pasture with 12 other female alpacas, 2 crias, and 5 goats, was evaluated because of clinical signs of aggression. CLINICAL FINDINGS The clinical signs of aggression progressed to include biting at other animals as well as disorientation. Three days later, the alpaca was euthanized because of suspicion of rabies virus infection. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME No physical injuries were found at necropsy. Brain tissue specimens were confirmed positive for rabies on the basis of direct fluorescent antibody test results. Molecular typing identified the rabies virus variant as one that is enzootic in raccoons. The farm was placed under quarantine, restricting movement of animals on and off the property for 6 months. To prevent further rabies cases, 14 alpacas (12 adults and 2 crias) were vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine. Of the 14 vaccinated alpacas, 8 had paired serum samples obtained immediately before and 21 days after vaccination; all 8 alpacas had adequate serum antirabies antibody production in response to rabies vaccination. As a result of an adequate serologic response, the quarantine was reduced to 3 months. In the year after the index rabies case, no other animals on the farm developed rabies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Extralabel use of rabies vaccines in camelids was used in the face of a public health investigation. This report provides an example of handling of a rabies case for future public health investigations, which will undoubtedly need to develop ad-hoc rabies vaccination recommendations on the basis of the unique characteristics of the event.

  3. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Ratto, Marcelo H; Huanca, Wilfredo; Singh, Jaswant; Adams, Gregg P

    2005-01-01

    Background Camelids are induced (reflex) ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per group) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the effect of seminal plasma versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) given by intramuscular injection, by intrauterine infusion, or by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage. Specifically, alpacas in the respective groups were given 1) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma intramuscularly, 2) 2 ml of PBS intramuscularly (negative control group), 3) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion, 4) 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion (negative control group), 5) 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, or 6) 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage (negative control group). The alpacas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and measure follicular and luteal diameters. Results Intramuscular administration of seminal plasma resulted in a higher ovulation rate than intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (93% versus 41%; P < 0.01), while intrauterine seminal plasma after endometrial curettage was intermediate (67%). None of the saline-treated controls ovulated. The diameter of the CL after treatment-induced ovulation was not affected by the route of administration of seminal plasma. Conclusion We conclude that 1) OIF in seminal plasma effects ovulation via a systemic rather than a local route, 2) disruption of the endometrial mucosa by curettage facilitated the absorption of OIF and increased the ovulatory effect of seminal plasma, and 3

  4. Ovarian function in South American camelids (alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jane

    2011-04-01

    Ultrasound technology and hormone assays have provided a better understanding of folliculogenesis and ovulation in South American camelids in the last two decades. Females exhibit waves of ovarian follicular growth and are induced ovulators and therefore do not exhibit oestrous cycles in the manner of spontaneously ovulating species such as sheep and cattle. There is much variation in inter-wave interval among camelid species (alpaca/llama 10-22 days, vicuna 4-11 days), within species and within individual animals as the range of each phase of follicular growth is wide. Ovulation occurs 24-30h after mating and luteolysis occurs approximately 10 days later if conception fails to occur.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and subcutaneous cefovecin in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cox, S; Sommardahl, C; Seddighi, R; Videla, R; Hayes, J; Pistole, N; Hamill, M; Doherty, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose of 8 mg/kg to alpacas. Bacterial infections requiring long-term antibiotic therapy such as neonatal bacteremia, pneumonia, peritonitis, dental, and uterine infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. However, few antimicrobials have been evaluated and proven to have favorable pharmacokinetics for therapeutic use. Most antimicrobials that are currently used require daily injections for many days. Cefovecin is a long-acting cephalosporin that is formulated for subcutaneous administration, and its long-elimination half-life allows for 14-day dosing intervals in dogs and cats. The properties of cefovecin may be advantageous for medical treatment of camelids due to its broad spectrum, route of administration, and long duration of activity. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of antimicrobial drugs in camelids is essential for the proper treatment and prevention of bacterial disease, and to minimize development of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains due to inadequate antibiotic concentrations. Cefovecin mean half-life, volume of distribution at steady-state, and clearance after intravenous administration were 10.3 h, 86 mL/kg, and 7.07 mL·h/kg. The bioavailability was 143%, while half-life, C(max), and T(max) were 16.9 h, 108 μg/mL, and 2.8 h following subcutaneous administration. In the absence of additional microbial susceptibility data for alpaca pathogens, the current cefovecin dosage regimen prescribed for dogs (8 mg/kg SC every 14 days) may need to be optimized for the treatment of infections in this species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Stacy H; Mathews, Lindsey A; Firshman, Anna M; Quandt, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult.

  7. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  8. PaCO2 in Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial (SUPPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Wrage, Lisa A.; Das, Abhik; Laughon, Matthew; Cotten, C. Michael; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of PaCO2 with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (sIVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18–22 months in premature infants. Design Secondary exploratory data analysis of SUPPORT. Setting Multiple referral NICUs. Patients 1316 infants 24 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks gestation randomized to different oxygenation (SpO2 target 85–89% vs 91–95%) and ventilation strategies. Main Outcome Measures Blood gases from postnatal days 0–14 were analyzed. Five PaCO2 variables were defined: minimum [Min], maximum [Max], standard deviation, average (time-weighted), and a 4 level categorical variable (hypercapnic [highest quartile of Max PaCO2], hypocapnic [lowest quartile of Min PaCO2], fluctuators [both hypercapnia and hypocapnia], and normocapnic [middle two quartiles of Max and Min PaCO2]). PaCO2 variables were compared for infants with and without sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for adjusted results. Results sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death) were associated with hypercapnic infants and fluctuators. Association of Max PaCO2 and outcomes persisted after adjustment (Per 10 mmHg increase: sIVH/death: OR 1.27 [1.13–1.41]; BPD/death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44]; NDI/death: OR 1.23 [1.10–1.38], Death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44], all p <0.001). No interaction was found between PaCO2 category and SpO2 treatment group for sIVH/death, NDI/death, or death. Max PaCO2 was positively correlated with maximum FiO2 (rs0.55, p<0.0001) & ventilator days (rs0.61, p<0.0001). Conclusions Higher PaCO2 was an independent predictor of sIVH/death, BPD/death, and NDI/death. Further trials are needed to evaluate optimal PaCO2 targets for high risk infants. PMID:25425651

  9. PaCO2 in surfactant, positive pressure, and oxygenation randomised trial (SUPPORT).

    PubMed

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A; Wrage, Lisa A; Das, Abhik; Laughon, Matthew; Cotten, C Michael; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2015-03-01

    To determine the association of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide PaCO2 with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (sIVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-22 months in premature infants. Secondary exploratory data analysis of Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomised Trial (SUPPORT). Multiple referral neonatal intensive care units. 1316 infants 24 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks gestation randomised to different oxygenation (SpO2 target 85-89% vs 91-95%) and ventilation strategies. Blood gases from postnatal day 0 to day14 were analysed. Five PaCO2 variables were defined: minimum (Min), maximum (Max), SD, average (time-weighted), and a four level categorical variable (hypercapnic (highest quartile of Max PaCO2), hypocapnic (lowest quartile of Min PaCO2), fluctuators (hypercapnia and hypocapnia), and normocapnic (middle two quartiles of Max and Min PaCO2)). PaCO2 variables were compared for infants with and without sIVH, BPD and NDI (±death). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for adjusted results. sIVH, BPD and NDI (±death) were associated with hypercapnic infants and fluctuators. Association of Max PaCO2 and outcomes persisted after adjustment (per 10 mm Hg increase: sIVH/death: OR 1.27 (1.13 to 1.41); BPD/death: OR 1.27 (1.12 to 1.44); NDI/death: OR 1.23 (1.10 to 1.38), death: OR 1.27 (1.12 to 1.44), all p<0.001). No interaction was found between PaCO2 category and SpO2 treatment group for sIVH/death, NDI/death or death. Max PaCO2 was positively correlated with maximum FiO2 (rs0.55, p<0.0001) and ventilator days (rs0.61, p<0.0001). Higher PaCO2 was an independent predictor of sIVH/death, BPD/death and NDI/death. Further trials are needed to evaluate optimal PaCO2 targets for high-risk infants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Esophageal dysfunction in four alpaca crias and a llama cria with vascular ring anomalies.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica C; Seguin, Bernard; Cebra, Christopher K; Margiocco, Marco L; Anderson, David E; Löhr, Christiane V

    2010-08-01

    3 alpaca crias and cadavers of an alpaca cria and a llama cria were evaluated for evidence of esophageal dysfunction. All 5 crias were between 3 and 5 months of age when clinical signs developed, and all had a thin body condition when examined. Clinical signs included coughing, regurgitation, and grossly visible esophageal peristaltic waves. A barium esophagram was used to diagnose esophageal obstruction, megaesophagus, and a vascular ring anomaly (VRA). Fluoroscopy was used to evaluate deglutition, esophageal peristalsis, and the extent of esophageal dilation in 1 alpaca cria. A persistent right aortic arch was identified in 1 alpaca cria, and a left aortic arch with right ductus arteriosus or ligamentum arteriosum and an aberrant right subclavian artery were identified in the 4 remaining crias. Surgical correction of the VRA was attempted in the 3 live alpaca crias. It was complicated by the conformation and location of each VRA and inaccurate anatomic diagnosis of the VRAs before surgery. Treatment was universally unsuccessful because of intraoperative complications and the persistence of clinical signs after surgery. Megaesophagus is typically an idiopathic condition in camelids. However, these findings suggested that camelids with esophageal dysfunction during the neonatal period may have a VRA. The prognosis is grave for camelids with VRA, and accurate anatomic diagnosis of the VRA via the use of advanced imaging techniques (eg, angiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging) may improve the success of surgical intervention.

  11. Modified ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy for management of otitis media in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Julia P; Mueller, Tami; Clapp, Kemba S; Darien, Benjamin J; Forrest, Lisa J; Colopy, Sara A

    2012-02-01

    To report surgical treatment of severe otitis media in an alpaca by a modification of a subtotal ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy technique used in dogs. Case report. An 11-week-old female alpaca cria. The cria had a 2-week history of right otitis media, nonresponsive to medical treatment, as well as right facial nerve paralysis, and a melting corneal ulcer of the right eye. Otitis media was confirmed by computed tomography. Right subtotal ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy were performed using a modification of a technique reported in dogs. There were no surgical complications and the alpaca was discharged from the hospital 5 days later. At 10 months, moderate motor function had been restored to the pinna with the ear standing partially erect. The otitis had resolved, and the alpaca was reportedly well integrated into the herd. Subtotal ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy, a technique modified from that performed in dogs, were successful in providing complete clinical resolution of otitis media in an alpaca. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Cardiopulmonary effects of dobutamine and norepinephrine infusion in healthy anesthetized alpacas.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Caitlin J; Hawley, Alexander T; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Lascola, Kara M; Bedenice, Daniela

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the cardiopulmonary effects of dobutamine and norepinephrine infusion in isoflurane-anesthetized healthy alpacas. 8 adult alpacas. Initial baseline cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic variables were obtained 30 minutes after induction of isoflurane anesthesia in 8 alpacas (3 females and 5 sexually intact males). Four treatments (dobutamine at 4 and 8 microg/kg/min and norepinephrine at 0.3 and 1 microg/kg/min) were administered in random order via constant rate infusion over 15 minutes, followed by repeat measurements of cardiopulmonary values and a 20-minute washout period. Subsequent baseline and posttreatment measurements were similarly repeated until both drugs and dosages were administered to each animal. Baseline data in awake alpacas were obtained 18 to 24 hours following recovery from anesthesia. Both dobutamine and norepinephrine significantly increased cardiac index and arterial blood pressure from baseline values. Similar increases in hemoglobin concentration, oxygen content, and oxygen delivery were observed following administration of each drug at either dosage. Only dobutamine, however, reduced relative oxygen consumption while improving overall tissue oxygenation. Furthermore, heart rate was selectively enhanced by dobutamine and systemic vascular resistance by norepinephrine. Norepinephrine infusion resulted in dose-dependent changes in cardiopulmonary variables. Results indicated that both dobutamine and norepinephrine were appropriate choices to improve cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, and overall oxygen delivery in alpacas with isoflurane-induced hypotension. Careful titration by use of low infusion rates of dobutamine and norepinephrine is recommended to avoid potential arrhythmogenic effects and excessive vasoconstriction, respectively.

  13. Nephroureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy in an alpaca with bilateral ectopic ureters diagnosed by computed tomographic excretory urography.

    PubMed

    Polf, Holly D; Smith, Shasta; Simpson, Katharine M; Rochat, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    To report diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence in a female Huacaya alpaca. Clinical case report. Female intact Huacaya alpaca (n = 1) METHODS: Computed tomographic (CT) excretory urography and vaginourethrography were performed to diagnose the cause of urinary incontinence. Bilateral ectopic ureters and left hydronephrosis and hydroureter were diagnosed. Left nephroureterectomy and right ureteroneocystostomy were performed with subsequent resolution of clinical signs. Pyelonephritis was identified by culture of the resected left kidney. CT excretory urography was helpful in the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureters in an alpaca and provided information for surgical planning. Surgical repair by ureteroneocystostomy and unilateral nephroureterectomy was successful in resolving clinical signs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Adney, Danielle R.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of torsion of the spiral colon in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Bickers, R J; Templer, A; Cebra, C K; Kaneps, A J

    2000-02-01

    A 14-year-old 61.7-kg (136-lb) alpaca was examined for colic of 24 hours' duration. An exploratory celiotomy was performed because of lack of response to medical treatment and ultrasonography revealed an abnormally large amount of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Exploration of the abdomen revealed a 20-cm diameter mass, consisting of most of the ascending colon. The spiral colon was thick and edemetous, and it was decided to resect the spiral colon. Following a few complications, the alpaca was discharged 17 days after surgery. Colic in camelids is considered a severe problem because clinical signs are subtle and often not recognized until the condition is untreatable. Camelids are reported to be stoic animals, and may have few signs of pain despite severe abdominal disease. Alpacas with signs of abdominal pain should undergo early and complete physical, laboratory, and diagnostic imaging evaluations. Rapid identification of the need for surgery is vital for a successful outcome.

  16. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High follicle density does not decrease sweat gland density in Huacaya alpacas.

    PubMed

    Moore, K E; Maloney, S K; Blache, D

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high ambient temperatures, mammals lose heat evaporatively by either sweating from glands in the skin or by respiratory panting. Like other camelids, alpacas are thought to evaporate more water by sweating than panting, despite a thick fleece, unlike sheep which mostly pant in response to heat stress. Alpacas were brought to Australia to develop an alternative fibre industry to sheep wool. In Australia, alpacas can be exposed to ambient temperatures higher than in their native South America. As a young industry there is a great deal of variation in the quality and quantity of the fleece produced in the national flock. There is selection pressure towards animals with finer and denser fleeces. Because the fibre from secondary follicles is finer than that from primary follicles, selecting for finer fibres might alter the ratio of primary and secondary follicles. In turn the selection might alter sweat gland density because the sweat glands are associated with the primary follicle. Skin biopsy and fibre samples were obtained from the mid-section of 33 Huacaya alpacas and the skin sections were processed into horizontal sections at the sebaceous gland level. Total, primary, and secondary follicles and the number of sweat gland ducts were quantified. Fibre samples from each alpaca were further analysed for mean fibre diameter. The finer-fibred animals had a higher total follicle density (P<0.001) and more sweat glands (P<0.001) than the thicker-fibred animals. The fibre diameter and total follicle density were negatively correlated (R(2)=0.56, P<0.001). Given that the finer-fibred animals had higher follicle density and more sweat glands than animals with thicker fibres, we conclude that alpacas with high follicle density should not be limited for potential sweating ability.

  18. Retrospective Evaluation of Parenteral Nutrition in Alpacas: 22 Cases (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Clore, E.R.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Bedenice, D.; Buffington, C.A. Tony; Anderson, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition is an important method of nutritional support in hospitalized animals, but minimal information has been published on its use in camelids. Hypothesis/Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize the use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in alpacas, evaluate the formulations used, and determine potential complications. Animals Twenty-two alpacas hospitalized at the Tufts Cummings School for Veterinary Medicine (site 1: n = 8) and the Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (site 2: n = 14). Methods A retrospective analysis of all alpacas that received TPN between 2002 and 2008 was performed to assess clinical indications, clinical and clinicopathologic data, and outcome. Results The most common underlying diseases in animals receiving TPN were gastrointestinal dysfunction (n = 16), hepatic disease (n = 2), and neoplasia (n = 2). Several metabolic abnormalities were identified in animals (n = 20/22) before TPN was initiated, including lipemia (n = 12/22), hyperglycemia (11/22), and hypokalemia (n = 11/22). Median age was significantly lower for site 1 cases (0.1 years; range, 0.01–11.0) compared with those from site 2 (4.9 years; range, 0.1–13.7; P = .03). Animals at site 2 also had a longer duration of hospitalization (P = .01) and TPN administration (P = .004), as well as higher survival rate (P < .02). Twenty-one of 22 alpacas developed at least 1 complication during TPN administration. Metabolic complications were most prevalent (n = 21/22) and included hyperglycemia (n = 8/21), lipemia (n = 7/21), hypokalemia (n = 3/21), and refeeding syndrome (n = 3/21). Conclusions and Clinical Importance TPN is a feasible method of nutritional support for alpacas when enteral feeding is not possible. Prospective studies are warranted to determine optimal TPN formulations for alpacas. PMID:21418323

  19. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of an extended-release formulation of eprinomectin in healthy adult alpacas and its use in alpacas confirmed with mange.

    PubMed

    Pollock, J; Bedenice, D; Jennings, S H; Papich, M G

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to determine the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of an extended-release 5% eprinomectin formulation (Longrange(®) ) following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection in healthy (n = 6) and mange-infected (n = 4) adult alpacas. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze plasma samples obtained at regular intervals for 161 days following a single 5 mg/kg injection s.c. in healthy alpacas, and for 5 days following each dose (3 treatments, 2 months apart) in mange-affected animals. Skin scrapings and biopsies were performed pre- and post-treatment at two comparable sites in alpacas with mange. Four alpacas served as healthy controls. Eprinomectin plasma concentrations showed a biphasic peak (CMAX -1: 5.72 ± 3.25 ng/mL; CMAX -2: 6.06 ± 2.47 ng/mL) in all animals at 3.88 ± 5.16 days and 77 ± 12.52 days, respectively. Eprinomectin plasma concentrations remained above 1.27 ± 0.96 ng/mL for up to 120 days. Hematocrit (35.8 vs. 31.3%, P < 0.003) and albumin (3.5 vs. 2.8 g/dL P < 0.006) reduced significantly over 6 months in multidose animals, while fecal egg counts did not differ between groups. Self-limiting injection site reactions occurred in 9 of 10 animals. Pre- and post-treatment skin biopsies showed reduced hyperkeratosis, but increased fibrosis, with 1 of 4 alpacas remaining positive on skin scraping for mange. In conclusion, alpacas require a higher eprinomectin dose (5.0 mg/kg s.c.) than cattle, to reach comparable plasma concentrations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Infertility associated with persistent hymen in an alpaca and a llama.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rachel H H; Dascanio, John J

    2008-11-01

    Perforation and dilation of the persistent hymen in an alpaca and a llama, detected by vaginal examination and endoscopy, was achieved by use of a sigmoidoscope and incremental dilation using cylindrical instruments to a maximum diameter of 38 mm. Outcome and subsequent fertility are dependent on length of time the obstruction has been present and secondary uterine disease.

  2. Infertility associated with persistent hymen in an alpaca and a llama

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Rachel H.H.; Dascanio, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Perforation and dilation of the persistent hymen in an alpaca and a llama, detected by vaginal examination and endoscopy, was achieved by use of a sigmoidoscope and incremental dilation using cylindrical instruments to a maximum diameter of 38 mm. Outcome and subsequent fertility are dependent on length of time the obstruction has been present and secondary uterine disease. PMID:19183735

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  4. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  5. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  6. Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in Alpacas on Two Maryland Farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixty one fecal samples were collected from adult alpacas and crias (ages 10 wk to 10 yr) on two farms in central Maryland. The farms raised both suri (silky-haired) and huacaya (crimpy-haired) breeds. Females and crias were housed together on pasture, whereas older/breeding males were maintained o...

  7. Ventricular septal defect and double-chambered right ventricle in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Poser, Helen; Dalla Pria, Angela; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Stelletta, Calogero; Berlanda, Michele; Guglielmini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    A 20-month-old male alpaca was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur evident since birth. Echocardiography identified a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and a fibro-muscular band causing a stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. Right ventricular catheterization and selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of VSD and double-chambered right ventricle with bidirectional shunting.

  8. Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shen; Yu, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Hai-Dong, Wang; Jian-Shan, Xie; Shu-Yuan, Gao; Jia-Qi, Cheng; Xiu-Ju, Yu; Ting, Wang; Chang-Sheng, Dong; Xiao-Yan, He

    2016-02-10

    The young male alpaca ear and the back skins were used to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor receptor-β I (TGFβR I) on alpaca hair follicles and hair growth. The expression level and location of TGFβR I in alpaca ear and dorsal skin were detected through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and paraffin section immunohistochemical technique (ICC-P). The results shown TGFβR I was lower expression in back skin compared to ear skin and the mean density of the positive reaction in ear skin was significantly higher than back skin. The targeted relationship with let-7b was detected using the dual-luciferase reporter vector of TGFβR I, which showed a significant target relationship between let-7b and TGFβR I. After transfection with let-7b eukaryotic expression vector, the relative mRNA expression of TGFβR I in alpaca skin fibroblasts did not differ, while the relative protein level was significantly decreased. In summary, a higher TGFβR I expression level in the ear skin suggests that TGFβR I may inhibit coat hair elongation. Further studies showed TGFβR I protein was downregulated by let-7b through transcriptional repression.

  9. Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation confirms independent domestications and directional hybridization in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Marín, J C; Romero, K; Rivera, R; Johnson, W E; González, B A

    2017-10-01

    Investigations of genetic diversity and domestication in South American camelids (SAC) have relied on autosomal microsatellite and maternally-inherited mitochondrial data. We present the first integrated analysis of domestic and wild SAC combining male and female sex-specific markers (male specific Y-chromosome and female-specific mtDNA sequence variation) to assess: (i) hypotheses about the origin of domestic camelids, (ii) directionality of introgression among domestic and/or wild taxa as evidence of hybridization and (iii) currently recognized subspecies patterns. Three male-specific Y-chromosome markers and control region sequences of mitochondrial DNA are studied here. Although no sequence variation was found in SRY and ZFY, there were seven variable sites in DBY generating five haplotypes on the Y-chromosome. The haplotype network showed clear separation between haplogroups of guanaco-llama and vicuña-alpaca, indicating two genetically distinct patrilineages with near absence of shared haplotypes between guanacos and vicuñas. Although we document some examples of directional hybridization, the patterns strongly support the hypothesis that llama (Lama glama) is derived from guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the alpaca (Vicugna pacos) from vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). Within male guanacos we identified a haplogroup formed by three haplotypes with different geographical distributions, the northernmost of which (Peru and northern Chile) was also observed in llamas, supporting the commonly held hypothesis that llamas were domesticated from the northernmost populations of guanacos (L. g. cacilensis). Southern guanacos shared the other two haplotypes. A second haplogroup, consisting of two haplotypes, was mostly present in vicuñas and alpacas. However, Y-chromosome variation did not distinguish the two subspecies of vicuñas. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Goniometrie evaluation of standing extension and maximum flexion joint angles of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Walters, Amy L; Semevolos, Stacy A; Baker, Rose E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine and compare mean standing extension and maximum flexion angles of various joints in healthy adult alpacas and llamas, and determine the reliability of goniometric data within and between 2 observers for each joint of interest. SAMPLE 6 healthy adult llamas and 6 healthy adult alpacas. PROCEDURES The shoulder joint, elbow joint, carpal, and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the forelimbs and the hip joint, stifle joint, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the hind limbs were investigated. Each articulation was measured with a universal goniometer by 2 observers, who each obtained 2 measurements when each joint was maintained in standing extension and in maximal passive flexion. Two sample (unpaired) t tests were performed for comparisons of mean standing extension and maximum passive flexion angles between alpacas and llamas. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for each articulation to assess interobserver and intra-observer reliability of measurements. RESULTS Llamas had larger mean standing extension angles than alpacas for the tarsal and elbow joint, but there were no significant differences between species for all other joints. For all joints, flexion measurements did not differ significantly between the 2 species. For most joints, the reliability of goniometric data between observers was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.6 to 0.95) CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Except for the elbow joint and tarsus in extension, the angle of limb articulations during flexion and extension can be considered similar for alpacas and llamas. These measurements have relevance for veterinary surgeons when assessing joint mobility and conformation and determining appropriate angles for arthrodesis.

  11. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia

    PubMed Central

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Mathews, Lindsey A.; Firshman, Anna M.; Quandt, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. PMID:25829556

  12. The Alpaca Melanocortin 1 Receptor: Gene Mutations, Transcripts, and Relative Levels of Expression in Ventral Skin Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3′UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation. PMID:25685836

  13. The alpaca melanocortin 1 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Renieri, Carlo; La Manna, Vincenzo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3'UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation.

  14. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on Lidocaine and Articaine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, K.C; Furtado, D.P; Ramacciato, J.C; Cabral, A.M; Haas, D.A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO2 can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO2 from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO2 from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO2 and/or increase in PaO2 raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity. PMID:20843225

  15. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas.

  16. Dorsal laminectomy for treatment of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Barker, W H J; Witte, T H; Driver, C J; Jull, P; Whitehead, C E; Volk, H A

    2015-05-15

    An 11-year-old male breeding alpaca was evaluated for a 2-day history of lowered head carriage and lethargy. On initial examination, the alpaca had signs of lethargy and lowered carriage of the head and neck, but no specific neurologic deficits. Medical management improved the clinical signs, but 8 months later, the alpaca developed acute, progressive general proprioceptive ataxia affecting all 4 limbs and was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT identified disruption of the normal osseous architecture of C7 and T1. Medical management was attempted, but because of a lack of improvement, the patient underwent surgery 14 months after initial examination. A dorsal laminectomy of C7 and T1 via a dorsal midline approach was performed, and the spinous processes of both vertebrae were removed prior to removal of the overlying lamina. Free dorsal expansion of the spinal cord was ensured by resection of the ligamentum flavum. Six months after surgery, the alpaca had returned to successful breeding with 7 hembra bred in the first year after surgery, producing 6 crias, and 4 crias in the second year. The patient was eventually euthanized 28 months after surgery because of neurologic deterioration but was still ambulatory at that time. A good outcome with adequate alleviation of clinical signs and breeding soundness for > 2 years following dorsal laminectomy was achieved in this camelid patient. The surgical approach was similar to that in other species and was associated with mild postoperative morbidity. Veterinarians treating camelids should be aware of the initial clinical signs and treatment options for cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. In acute cases, the signs of reduced cervical mobility and pain on manipulation should prompt investigation including appropriate diagnostic imaging. Timely surgical intervention should be considered in patients that respond poorly to medical treatment to avoid irreversible spinal cord

  17. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA) and brown alpaca (BA) skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation. PMID:23067000

  18. Efficacy of topical eprinomectin in the treatment of Chorioptes sp. infestation in alpacas and llamas.

    PubMed

    Plant, Jon D; Kutzler, Michelle A; Cebra, Christopher K

    2007-02-01

    Chorioptes sp. mite infestation is increasingly recognized as a cause of skin disease in New World camelids and there is a need for an effective treatment protocol to eliminate herd infestation. In this field trial, eprinomectin applied topically at the rate of 0.5 mg kg(-1) weekly for 10 weeks was found to be ineffective in a herd of 12 llamas and 16 alpacas.

  19. [Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of an urachal fistula in an alpaca cria. A case report].

    PubMed

    Kubus, K; Wöckel, A; Felton, C; Schwarzenberger, J; Sobiraj, A

    2015-01-01

    Urachal fistula is a neonatal condition. There are two reported forms: a congenital and an acquired form. We describe the case of a 6-hour-old female alpaca cria that was presented with a damp umbilicus and a meconium impaction. Conservative treatment of the urachal fistula with local and systemic medication was unsuccessful after 6 days; therefore, a resection of the umbilicus under general anaesthesia was performed. Reconvalescence was uneventful.

  20. First detection of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' infection in alpacas in England.

    PubMed

    Crosse, P; Ayling, R; Whitehead, C; Szladovits, B; English, K; Bradley, D; Solano-Gallego, L

    2012-07-21

    This is the first report of detection of Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae in alpacas in England. The primary case occurred in a three year-old male alpaca in the south-east of England which presented with a history of progressive weight loss, lethargy, swelling of the scrotum and pale mucous membranes. Blood smear examination revealed a moderate, regenerative anaemia, with numerous small basophilic coccoid structures consistent with Candidatus M haemolamae. To confirm the presence of Candidatus M haemolamae, a portion of the 16S rDNA gene was amplified and analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed a 99.8 per cent homology with Candidatus M haemolamae sequences deposited in GenBank. Subsequently, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the presence of Candidatus M haemolamae infection in the alpaca herd from which the primary case was detected (n=131). Blood smear examinations and PCR with DGGE were used and compared with a species-specific PCR. The prevalence of infection when PCR positive results were combined was 29 per cent. A substantial agreement between the PCR/DGGE and the species-specific PCR was found (κ=0.86). A significant association was also found between age and infection (P=0.04) while no significant association was found with sex or origin.

  1. FGF21 regulates melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes via ERK1/2-mediated MITF downregulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiwei; Chen, Tianzhi; Zhao, Bingling; Fan, Ruiwen; Ji, Kaiyuan; Yu, Xiuju; Wang, Xianjun; Dong, Changsheng

    2017-08-19

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a metabolic regulator to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. However, the underlying mechanism of FGF21 on melanin synthesis remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigates the effect of FGF21 on melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. We transfected the FGF21 into alpaca melanocytes, then detected the melanin contents, protein and mRNA levels of pigmentation-related genes in order to determine the melanogenesis-regulating pathway of FGF21. The results showed that FGF21 overexpression suppressed melanogenesis and decreased the expression of the major target genes termed microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and its downstream genes, including tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2). However FGF21 increased the expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-Erk1/2). In contrast, FGF21-siRNA, a small interference RNA mediating FGF21 silencing, abolished the inhibition of melanogenesis. Altogether, FGF21 may decrease melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes via ERK activation and subsequent MITF downregulation, which is then followed by the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Doherty, Thomas J; da Cunha, Anderson F; Leonardi, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in alpacas. Eight healthy, intact male, adult alpacas were studied on 2 separate occasions. Anesthesia was induced with SEVO, and baseline MAC (MACB) determination began 45 min after induction. After MACB determination, alpacas were randomly given either an intravenous (IV) loading dose (LD) and infusion of saline or a loading dose [ketamine = 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW); lidocaine = 2 mg/kg BW] and an infusion of ketamine (25 μg/kg BW per minute) in combination with lidocaine (50 μg/kg BW per minute), and MACSEVO was re-determined (MACT). Quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were also evaluated. Mean MACB was 1.88% ± 0.13% and 1.89% ± 0.14% for the saline and ketamine + lidocaine groups, respectively. Ketamine and lidocaine administration decreased (P < 0.05) MACB by 57% and mean MACT was 0.83% ± 0.10%. Saline administration did not change MACB. Time to determine MACB and MACT was not significantly different between the treatments. The quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were not different between groups. The infusion of ketamine combined with lidocaine significantly decreased MACSEVO by 57% and did not adversely affect time-to-standing or quality of recovery.

  3. West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a Suri alpaca and Suffolk ewe.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, Michael; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Berkland, Loretta

    2004-01-01

    The first confirmed cases of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Western Hemisphere were reported in the state of New York in 1999. Since then, the virus has spread throughout the eastern and central United States and continues to extend westward. This report describes clinical signs and microscopic lesions associated with WNV infection in a Suffolk ewe and an alpaca, 2 species in which the disease has not been reported previously. In late August 2002, a 4.5-year-old female alpaca developed an acute onset of clinical signs characterized by torticollis, hyperesthesia, ataxia, recumbency, and altered mentation. The animal died 3.5 days after the onset of clinical signs. Microscopic examination of the brain revealed a mild to moderate, diffuse, lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis. In early September 2002, a 3-year-old Suffolk ewe developed a rapidly progressive illness characterized by ataxia and convulsions. The apparent duration from onset of clinical signs until death was less than 8 hours. The ewe had a moderate, diffuse, lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis with focal gliosis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and immunohistochemistry on the brain were positive for WNV in both animals. These cases demonstrate that WNV is capable of causing sporadic, fatal, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in alpacas and sheep.

  4. Effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Doherty, Thomas J.; da Cunha, Anderson F.; Leonardi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in alpacas. Eight healthy, intact male, adult alpacas were studied on 2 separate occasions. Anesthesia was induced with SEVO, and baseline MAC (MACB) determination began 45 min after induction. After MACB determination, alpacas were randomly given either an intravenous (IV) loading dose (LD) and infusion of saline or a loading dose [ketamine = 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW); lidocaine = 2 mg/kg BW] and an infusion of ketamine (25 μg/kg BW per minute) in combination with lidocaine (50 μg/kg BW per minute), and MACSEVO was re-determined (MACT). Quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were also evaluated. Mean MACB was 1.88% ± 0.13% and 1.89% ± 0.14% for the saline and ketamine + lidocaine groups, respectively. Ketamine and lidocaine administration decreased (P < 0.05) MACB by 57% and mean MACT was 0.83% ± 0.10%. Saline administration did not change MACB. Time to determine MACB and MACT was not significantly different between the treatments. The quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were not different between groups. The infusion of ketamine combined with lidocaine significantly decreased MACSEVO by 57% and did not adversely affect time-to-standing or quality of recovery. PMID:27127341

  5. Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control.

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Wittek, Thomas; Joachim, Anja; Hinney, Barbara; Dadak, Agnes M

    2015-06-01

    There are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of South American camelids (SACs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. Camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of SACs generally requires off-label use of drugs. Endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and economic losses. There is still a lack of work on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy for most antiparasitic drugs used in SACs. Even when choosing an appropriate route of administration, several aspects must be considered such as the fact that pour-on formulations are largely ineffective in camelids due to the unique features of llama and alpaca skin and hair that result in extremely low drug bioavailability. This review focuses on the main endoparasites of the digestive tract in llamas and alpacas in Europe and pharmacotherapeutic options based on current knowledge.

  6. The effects of IGF1 on the melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuaipeng; Liu, Yu; Yang, Shanshan; Ji, Kaiyuan; Liu, Xuexian; Zhang, Junzhen; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) on alpaca melanocyte in vitro, different dosees of IGF1 (0, 10, 20, 40 ng/ml) were added in the medium of alpaca melanocyte. The RTCA machine was used to monitor the proliferation, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot to test the relative gene expression, ELISA to test cAMP production, and spectrum method to test the melanin production. The results showed that compared to the normal melanocyte, the proliferation of melanocytes was increased within 60 h following adding IGF1. It also showed that cAMP content produced by melanocytes was increased, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TYRP2) expression was increased, and melanin production with most obvious change in 10 ng/ml supplementary group, when compared with the control group. The results suggested that IGF1 with the dose of 10 ng/ml had the important effects on the melanogenesis in alpaca melanocyte by the cAMP pathway.

  7. Role of microRNA508-3p in melanogenesis by targeting microphthalmia transcription factor in melanocytes of alpaca.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liu, Y; Zhu, Z; Yang, S; Ji, K; Hu, S; Liu, X; Yao, J; Fan, R; Dong, C

    2017-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and hair color in mammals. By comparing miRNA expression profiles between brown and white alpaca skin, we previously identified miR508-3p as a differentially expressed miRNA suggesting its potential role in melanogenesis and hair color formation. The present study was conducted to determine the role of miR508-3p in melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. In situ hybridization showed that miR508-3p is abundantly present in the cytoplasma of alpaca melanocytes. miR508-3p was predicted to target the gene encoding microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and a luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR508-3p regulates MITF expression by directly targeting its 3'UTR. Overexpression of miR508-3p in alpaca melanocytes down-regulated MITF expression both at the messenger RNA and protein level and resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 2. Overexpression of miR508-3p in melanocytes also resulted in decreased melanin production including total alkali-soluble melanogenesis, eumelanogenesis and pheomelanogenesis. Results support a functional role of miR508-3p in regulating melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes by directly targeting MITF.

  8. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  9. Fatal sand impaction of the spiral colon in a 1-month-old alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Petrie, Lyall

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 1-month-old cria (Lama pacos) was presented because of depression, anorexia, and diarrhea for 3 days. Although treated for enteritis (intravenous fluids and antibiotics), the cria’s condition deteriorated. An abdominal radiograph revealed radiodense materials in the 3rd compartment and intestines. The cria died due to sand impaction of the spiral colon. PMID:16898111

  10. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased.

  11. Analysis of Heavy-Chain Antibody Responses and Resistance to Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in Experimentally Infected Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, S. R.; Gagliardo, L. F.; Lefman, S.; Hamel, P. J. S.; Ku, S.; Mainini, T.; Hoyt, G.; Justus, K.; Daley-Bauer, L. P.; Duffy, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is an important cause of neurologic disease of camelids in central and eastern North America. The aim of this study was to determine whether alpacas develop resistance to disease caused by P. tenuis in response to a previous infection or a combination of controlled infection and immunization. Alpacas were immunized with a homogenate of third-stage larvae (L3) and simultaneously implanted subcutaneously with diffusion chambers containing 20 live L3. Sham-treated animals received adjuvant alone and empty chambers. The protocol was not effective in inducing resistance to oral challenge with 10 L3, and disease developed between 60 and 71 days following infection. Immediately following the onset of neurologic disease, affected animals were treated with a regimen of anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory drugs, and all recovered. One year later, a subset of alpacas from this experiment was challenged with 20 L3 and the results showed that prior infection induced resistance to disease. Primary and secondary infections induced production of conventional and heavy-chain IgGs that reacted with soluble antigens in L3 homogenates but did not consistently recognize a recombinant form of a parasite-derived aspartyl protease inhibitor. Thus, the latter antigen may not be a good candidate for serology-based diagnostic tests. Antibody responses to parasite antigens occurred in the absence of overt disease, demonstrating that P. tenuis infection can be subclinical in a host that has been considered to be highly susceptible to disease. The potential for immunoprophylaxis to be effective in preventing disease caused by P. tenuis was supported by evidence of resistance to reinfection. PMID:22593238

  12. Whole-genome characterization of a Peruvian alpaca rotavirus isolate expressing a novel VP4 genotype.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Miguel; Gonçalves, Jorge Luiz S; Dias, Helver G; Manchego, Alberto; Pezo, Danilo; Santos, Norma

    2016-11-30

    The SA44 isolate of Rotavirus A (RVA) was identified from a neonatal Peruvian alpaca presenting with diarrhea, and the full-length genome sequence of the isolate (designated RVA/Alpaca-tc/PER/SA44/2014/G3P[40]) was determined. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the isolate possessed the genotype constellation G3-P[40]-I8-R3-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6, which differs considerably from those of RVA strains isolated from other species of the order Artiodactyla. Overall, the genetic constellation of the SA44 strain was quite similar to those of RVA strains isolated from a bat in Asia (MSLH14 and MYAS33). Nonetheless, phylogenetic analyses of each genome segment identified a distinct combination of genes. Several sequences were closely related to corresponding gene sequences in RVA strains from other species, including human (VP1, VP2, NSP1, and NSP2), simian (VP3 and NSP5), bat (VP6 and NSP4), and equine (NSP3). The VP7 gene sequence was closely related to RVA strains from a Peruvian alpaca (K'ayra/3368-10; 99.0% nucleotide and 99.7% amino acid identity) and from humans (RCH272; 95% nucleotide and 99.0% amino acid identity). The nucleotide sequence of the VP4 gene was distantly related to other VP4 sequences and was designated as the reference strain for the new P[40] genotype. This unique genetic makeup suggests that the SA44 strain emerged from multiple reassortment events between bat-, equine-, and human-like RVA strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to quantify immunoglobulin G concentrations in alpaca serum.

    PubMed

    Burns, J; Hou, S; Riley, C B; Shaw, R A; Jewett, N; McClure, J T

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, economical, and quantitative assays for measurement of camelid serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) are limited. In camelids, failure of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins has a reported prevalence of up to 20.5%. An accurate method for quantifying serum IgG concentrations is required. To develop an infrared spectroscopy-based assay for measurement of alpaca serum IgG and compare its performance to the reference standard radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. One hundred and seventy-five privately owned, healthy alpacas. Eighty-two serum samples were collected as convenience samples during routine herd visits whereas 93 samples were recruited from a separate study. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by RID assays and midinfrared spectra were collected for each sample. Fifty samples were set aside as the test set and the remaining 125 training samples were employed to build a calibration model using partial least squares (PLS) regression with Monte Carlo cross validation to determine the optimum number of PLS factors. The predictive performance of the calibration model was evaluated by the test set. Correlation coefficients for the IR-based assay were 0.93 and 0.87, respectively, for the entire data set and test set. Sensitivity in the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) ([IgG] <1,000 mg/dL) was 71.4% and specificity was 100% for the IR-based method (test set) as gauged relative to the RID reference method assay. This study indicated that infrared spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrics, is an effective method for measurement of IgG in alpaca serum. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Imaging diagnosis--Dorsal mediastinal T-cell lymphoma in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Amory, Joseph T; Jones, Jeryl C; Crisman, Mark V; Zimmerman, Kurt; Tyson, A Reid; Larson, Marth Moon; Saunders, Geoffrey K; O'Rourke, Laurie G

    2010-01-01

    A 14-year-old male alpaca had refractory pleural effusion. The cause of the effusion was not apparent either radiographically or sonographically, or following a pleural fluid cytologic examination. Using computed tomographic (CT) examination, a dorsal paravertebral mass was identified and similar masses were found in the cranial mediastinum, retroperitoneal space, and adjacent to the hepatic entry of the portal vein. The histopathologic diagnosis was multicentric T-cell lymphoma. CT examination may prove to be a valuable imaging modality in the localization and staging of neoplasia in new world camelids.

  15. Vaccination of alpacas against Rift Valley fever virus: Safety, immunogenicity and pathogenicity of MP-12 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rissmann, M; Ulrich, R; Schröder, C; Hammerschmidt, B; Hanke, D; Mroz, C; Groschup, M H; Eiden, M

    2017-01-23

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonosis of major public health concern in Africa and Arabia. Previous outbreaks attributed camelids a significant role in the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), making them an important target species for vaccination. Using three alpacas as model-organisms for dromedary camels, the safety, immunogenicity and pathogenicity of the MP-12 vaccine were evaluated in this study. To compare both acute and subacute effects, animals were euthanized at 3 and 31days post infection (dpi). Clinical monitoring, analysis of liver enzymes and hematological parameters demonstrated the tolerability of the vaccine, as no significant adverse effects were observed. Comprehensive analysis of serological parameters illustrated the immunogenicity of the vaccine, eliciting high neutralizing antibody titers and antibodies targeting different viral antigens. RVFV was detected in serum and liver of the alpaca euthanized 3dpi, whereas no virus was detectable at 31dpi. Viral replication was confirmed by detection of various RVFV-antigens in hepatocytes by immunohistochemistry and the presence of mild multifocal necrotizing hepatitis. In conclusion, results indicate that MP-12 is a promising vaccine candidate but still has a residual pathogenicity, which requires further investigation.

  16. The ductus epididymis of the alpaca: immunohistochemical and lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Parillo, F; Verini Supplizi, A; Macrì, D; Catone, G

    2009-04-01

    Our objective was to characterize epithelial cells lining the epididymal duct (caput, corpus, cauda) of the alpaca using AE1/AE3 cytokeratin antibodies and a battery of different lectins: Con-A, UEA-I, LTA WGA, GSA-II, GSA-IB4, SBA, PNA, ECA, DBA, MAL-II and SNA. Sialidase digestion and deglycosylation pre-treatments were also employed. The principal cells (PCs) along the epididymis showed differences in immunostaining patterns toward keratin antibodies. Lectin histochemistry demonstrated variations in the content and distribution of glycosidic residues of glycoconjugates in different epididymal regions. In particular, staining of the Golgi zone in the epithelial PCs was interpreted as evidence for synthesis and secretion of O- and N-linked oligosaccharides. In the caput, the apical mitochondria-rich cells contained mainly beta-GalNAc, subterminal alpha-GalNAc, alpha-Gal and Neu5Ac alpha2,3Gal residues. Conversely, in the corpus they were particularly rich in alpha-GalNac and beta-Gal-(1-3)-d-GalNAc linked to sialic acid moieties. Basal cells mainly expressed beta-GalNAc and alpha-Gal in the caput, alpha-Gal in the corpus and alpha-Fuc and beta-GalNAc in the cauda. The differences in immunostaining patterns and in lectin histochemistry in the alpaca epididymis reported in this investigation seem to be related to regional differences in function.

  17. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  18. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  19. Multivariate analysis of the volumetric capnograph for PaCO2 estimation

    PubMed Central

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Baker, William L; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Mittal, Sumit; Watkins, Taylor; Salinas, Jose; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: End-tidal CO2 (eTCO2) can be used to estimate the arterial CO2 (PaCO2) under steady-state conditions, but that relationship deteriorates during hemodynamic or respiratory instability. We developed a multivariate method to improve our ability to estimate the PaCO2, by using additional information contained in the volumetric capnograph (Vcap) waveform. We tested this approach using data from a porcine model of chest trauma/hemorrhage. Methods: This experiment consisted of 3 stages: pre-injury, injury/resuscitation, and post-injury. In stage I, anesthetized pigs (n=26) underwent ventilator maneuvers (tidal volume and respiratory rate) to induce hypo-or hyper-ventilation. In stage II, pigs underwent either (A) unilateral pulmonary contusion, hemorrhage, and resuscitation (n=13); or (B) bilateral pulmonary contusion (n=13) followed by 30 min of monitoring. In stage III, the ventilator maneuvers were repeated. The following Vcap features were measured: eTCO2, phase 2 slope (p2m), phase 3 slope (p3m), and inter-breath interval. The data were fit to 2 models: (1) multivariate linear regression and (2) a machine-learning model (M5P). Results: 1750 10-breath sets were analyzed. Univariate models employing eTCO2 alone were adequate during stages I and III. During stage II, mean error for the linear model was -8.44 mmHg (R2=0.14, P<0.001) and for M5P it was -5.98 mmHg (R2=0.13, P<0.01). By adding Vcap features, all models exhibited improvement. In stage II, the mean error of the linear model improved to -4.64 mmHg (R2=0.11, P<0.01), and that of the M5P model improved to -1.62 mmHg (R2=0.25, P<0.01). Conclusions: By incorporating Vcap waveform features, multivariate methods modestly improved PaCO2 estimation, especially during periods of hemodynamic and respiratory instability. Further work would be needed to produce a clinically useful CO2 monitoring system under these challenging conditions. PMID:26550531

  20. Prediction of alpaca fibre quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canaza-Cayo, A W; Alomar, D; Quispe, E

    2013-07-01

    Rapid and efficient methods to evaluate variables associated with fibre quality are essential in animal breeding programs and fibre trade. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated to predict textile quality attributes of alpaca fibre. Raw samples of fibres taken from male and female Huacaya alpacas (n = 291) of different ages and colours were scanned and their visible-near-infrared (NIR; 400 to 2500 nm) reflectance spectra were collected and analysed. Reference analysis of the samples included mean fibre diameter (MFD), standard deviation of fibre diameter (SDFD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD), mean fibre curvature (MFC), standard deviation of fibre curvature (SDFC), comfort factor (CF), spinning fineness (SF) and staple length (SL). Patterns of spectral variation (loadings) were explored by principal component analysis (PCA), where the first four PC's explained 99.97% and the first PC alone 95.58% of spectral variability. Calibration models were developed by modified partial least squares regression, testing different mathematical treatments (derivative order, subtraction gap, smoothing segment) of the spectra, with or without applying spectral correction algorithms (standard normal variate and detrend). Equations were selected through one-out cross-validation according to the proportion of explained variance (R 2CV), root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) and the residual predictive deviation (RPD), which relates the standard deviation of the reference data to RMSECV. The best calibration models were accomplished when using the NIR region (1100 to 2500 nm) for the prediction of MFD and SF, with R 2CV = 0.90 and 0.87; RMSECV = 1.01 and 1.08 μm and RPD = 3.13 and 2.73, respectively. Models for SDFD, CVFD, MFC, SDFC, CF and SL had lower predictive quality with R 2CV < 0.65 and RPD < 1.5. External validation performed for MFD and SF on 91 samples was slightly poorer than cross

  1. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. [Progesterone and pregnanediol-glucuronid concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas and their application in pregnancy diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Volkery, Janine; Wittek, Thomas; Sobiraj, Axel; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almuth

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the measurement of the pregnancy associated hormones progesterone (P4) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) in saliva, milk and urine of alpacas and their potential use in pregnancy diagnosis. Sample of blood, saliva, milk and urine were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and throughout the pregnancy. Concentrations of P4 and PdG were determined using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Pregnancy was checked by ultrasonography at any sampling time. The milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm progesterone kit which was designed for dairy cattle. EIA-Concentrations of P4 in blood, milk and urine and urine PdG concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant than in not pregnant alpacas. There was no difference in concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The accuracy of the progesterone kit was 90% for diagnosis of pregnancy and 69% for non-pregnancy. However, 70% of the false positive results also showed relatively high P4 milk concentrations in the EIA. Values of P4 in blood and PdG in urine are comparable to previous reports in alpacas and therefore can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. Saliva seems unsuitable in pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas milk seems to be an adequate alternative. The use of milk and urine would simplify the pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas since in contrast to the current methods (e. g. blood progesterone) the owners can take the samples. The avoidance of blood sampling results in a considerable stress reduction for the animals. P4 measurement in milk and PdG measurement in urine are good alternatives in pregnancy diagnosis during the first month of pregnancy, when a trans-abdominal ultrasonographic examination is not yet reliable. However, since high values of P4 and PdG only show the presence of active luteal tissue and therefore are indirect markers of pregnancy the diagnosis should be confirmed using ultrasound later in pregnancy.

  3. Tracking time-varying cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in respiratory PaCO2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Simpson, M David; Yan, Jingyu; Allen, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV-from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO(2). Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a CO(2)/air mixture (5% CO(2), 30% O(2) and 65% N(2)) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO(2) (EtCO(2)). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function following the step-wise increase in PaCO(2) (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO(2) occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation.

  4. Generation of an alpaca-derived nanobody recognizing γ-H2AX

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Malini; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Hastert, Florian D.; Schmidthals, Katrin; Rapp, Alexander; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications are difficult to visualize in living cells and are conveniently analyzed using antibodies. Single-chain antibody fragments derived from alpacas and called nanobodies can be expressed and bind to the target antigenic sites in living cells. As a proof of concept, we generated and characterized nanobodies against the commonly used biomarker for DNA double strand breaks γ-H2AX. In vitro and in vivo characterization showed the specificity of the γ-H2AX nanobody. Mammalian cells were transfected with fluorescent fusions called chromobodies and DNA breaks induced by laser microirradiation. We found that alternative epitope recognition and masking of the epitope in living cells compromised the chromobody function. These pitfalls should be considered in the future development and screening of intracellular antibody biomarkers. PMID:26500838

  5. Plasma cholinesterase activity of rats, western grey kangaroos, alpacas, sheep, cattle, and horses.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Chris; Mawson, Peter; Maloney, Shane K

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cholinesterase activity levels of various species may be of interest to toxicologists or pathologists working with chemicals that interfere with the activity of plasma cholinesterase. We used a pH titration method to measure the plasma cholinesterase activity of six mammalian species. Plasma cholinesterase activity varied up to 50-fold between species: sheep (88 ± 45 nM acetylcholine degraded per ml of test plasma per minute), cattle (94 ± 35), western grey kangaroos (126 ± 92), alpaca (364 ± 70), rats (390 ± 118) and horses (4539 ± 721). We present a simple, effective technique for the assay of plasma cholinesterase activity levels from a range of species. Although labour-intensive, it requires only basic laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of delayed serum separation and storage temperature on serum glucose concentration in horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget; Berghaus, Roy D; Camus, Melinda S; Hart, Kelsey

    2015-03-01

    Although delays between blood sample collection and analysis are common in veterinary medicine, the effect of prolonged serum-clot contact time on serum glucose concentration is not well established and species differences have not been elucidated. The objective was to investigate the effect of storage time and temperature on serum glucose concentration in stored whole blood samples from horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon. Whole blood specimens were divided into 7 no-additive tubes and serum was separated from one sample within one hour, serving as the reference sample. The remaining samples were stored at 4°C and 25°C, then centrifuged and serum glucose measured by automated analysis at 2, 4, and 8 hours postcollection. Glucose concentrations were compared using linear mixed models. The decline in serum glucose concentration for all samples stored at 4°C was not statistically significant, except for the 8-hour samples from sturgeon and dog. At 25°C, serum glucose concentration was comparable to reference values at 2 hours in sturgeon and alpaca, but significantly lower at 4 and 8 hours in those species, and at all time points in equine and canine specimens, being most prominent after 8 hours of storage in canine specimens. Storage at 4°C limits serum glucose decline for at least 4 hours in all species tested and up to 8 hours in specimens of horse and alpaca. At 25°C, serum-clot contact time should not exceed 1 hour in equine and canine samples, and 2 hours in specimens from alpaca and sturgeon. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Beate M.; Mock, Richard E.; Callison, Scott A.; Hietala, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960’s to early 1980’s. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960’s, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans. PMID:23235471

  8. Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis.

    PubMed

    Agbedanu, Prince N; Anderson, Kristi L; Brewer, Matthew T; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-09-15

    Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies

  9. Transient decrease in PaCO(2) and asymmetric chest wall dynamics in early progressing pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Dan; Faingersh, Anna; Levy, Carmit; Colman-Klotzman, Ifat; Rotschild, Avi; Lichtenstein, Oscar; Landesberg, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of pneumothorax (PTX) in newborn infants has been reported as late. To explore diagnostic indices for early detection of progressing PTX, and offer explanations for delayed diagnoses. Progressing PTX was created in rabbits (2.3 ± 0.5 kg, n = 7) by injecting 1 ml/min of air into the pleural space. Hemodynamic parameters, tidal volume, EtCO(2), SpO(2), blood gas analyses and chest wall tidal displacements (TDi) on both sides of the chest were recorded. (Mean ± SD): A decrease in SpO(2) below 90 % was detected only after 46.6 ± 11.3 min in six experiments. In contrary to the expected gradual increase of CO(2), there was a prolonged transient decrease of 14.2 ± 4.5 % in EtCO(2) (p < 0.01), and a similar decrease in PaCO(2) (p < 0.025). EtCO(2) returned back to baseline only after 55.2 ± 24.7 min, and continued to rise thereafter. The decrease in CO(2) was a mirror image of the 14.6 ± 5.3 % increase in tidal volume. The analysis of endotracheal flow and pressure dynamics revealed a paradoxical transient increase in the apparent compliance. Significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was observed after 46.2 ± 40.1 min. TDi provided the most sensitive and earliest sign of PTX, decreasing on the PTX side after 16.1 ± 7.2 min. The TDi progressively decreased faster and lower on the PTX side, thus enabling detection of asymmetric ventilation. The counterintuitive transient prolonged decrease in CO(2) without changes in SpO(2) may explain the delay in diagnosis of PTX encountered in the clinical environment. An earlier indication of asymmetrically decreased ventilation on the affected side was achieved by monitoring the TDi.

  10. Use of a novel surgical approach for treatment of complete bilateral membranous choanal atresia in an alpaca cria.

    PubMed

    Pader, Karine; Burns, Patrick M; Brisville, Anne-Claire; Rousseau, Marjolaine; Blond, Laurent; Truchetti, Geoffrey; Lardé, Hélène; Lapointe, Catherine; Francoz, David

    2017-05-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 4-hour-old 6.3-kg (13.9-lb) female alpaca cria was evaluated because of severe respiratory distress and difficulty nursing since birth. CLINICAL FINDINGS The cria had open-mouth breathing and cyanotic membranes, with no airflow evident from either nostril. Supplemental oxygen was delivered, and the patient was anesthetized and intubated orotracheally; a CT evaluation of the head confirmed bilateral membranous obstruction of the nasal cavities, consistent with complete bilateral choanal atresia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Choanal atresia was treated with an endoscopically assisted balloon-dilation technique, and temporary tracheostomy was performed. Stenosis recurred, requiring revision of the repair and intranasal stent placement 3 days after the first surgery. The tracheostomy tube was removed the next day. Complications during hospitalization included mucoid obstruction of the tracheostomy tube, granulation tissue development in the trachea near the tracheostomy site, mucoid stent obstruction, aspiration pneumonia, and presumed partial failure of passive transfer of immunity. The stents were removed 2 weeks after admission, and the cria was discharged 3 days later. The owner was advised that the animal should not be bred. At last follow-up 3 years later, the alpaca was doing well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical treatment with a balloon-dilation technique and placement of nasal stents with endoscopic guidance were curative in this neonatal alpaca with bilateral membranous choanal atresia. Computed tomography was useful to determine the nature of the atresia and aid surgical planning. Because a genetic component is likely, owners should be advised to prevent affected animals from breeding.

  11. Effects of leptin administration on development, vascularization and function of Corpus luteum in alpacas submitted to pre-ovulatory fasting.

    PubMed

    Norambuena, María Cecilia; Hernández, Francisca; Maureira, Jonathan; Rubilar, Carolina; Alfaro, Jorge; Silva, Gonzalo; Silva, Mauricio; Ulloa-Leal, César

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of leptin administration on the development, vascularization and function of Corpus luteum (CL) in alpacas submitted to pre-ovulatory fasting. Fourteen alpacas were kept in fasting conditions for 72h and received five doses of o-leptin (2μg/kg e.v.; Leptin group) or saline (Control group) every 12h. Ovulation was induced with a GnRH dose (Day 0). The ovaries were examined every other day by trans-rectal ultrasonography (7.5MHz; mode B and power Doppler) from Day 0 to 13 to determine the pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation, and then to monitor CL diameter and vascularization until the regression phase. Serial blood samples were taken after GnRH treatment to determine plasma LH concentration; and every other day from Days 1 to 13 to determine plasma progesterone and leptin concentrations. The pre-ovulatory follicle and CL diameter, LH, progesterone and leptin plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment (P>0.05). The vascularization area of the CL was, nevertheless, affected by the treatment (P<0.01) with significant differences between groups at Days 3, 7 and 9 (P<0.05). The Leptin group had a larger maximum vascularization area (0.67±0.1 compared with 0.35±0.1cm(2); P<0.05). In addition, there was a positive correlation between CL vascularization, CL diameter and plasma progesterone. The exogenous administration of leptin during pre-ovulatory fasting increased the vascularization of the CL in alpacas in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mandibular corpus bone strain in goats and alpacas: Implications for understanding the biomechanics of mandibular form in selenodont artiodactyls

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Hylander, William L

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify the functional and biomechanical relationship between jaw morphology and in vivo masticatory loading in selenodont artiodactyls. We compare in vivo strains from the mandibular corpus of goats and alpacas to predicted strain patterns derived from biomechanical models for mandibular corpus loading during mastication. Peak shear strains in both species average 600–700 µε on the working side and approximately 450 µε on the balancing side. Maximum principal tension in goats and alpacas is directed at approximately 30° dorsocaudally relative to the long axis of the corpus on the working side and approximately perpendicular to the long axis on the balancing side. Strain patterns in both species indicate primarily torsion of the working-side corpus about the long axis and parasagittal bending and/or lateral transverse bending of the balancing-side corpus. Interpretation of the strain patterns is consistent with comparative biomechanical analyses of jaw morphology suggesting that in goats, the balancing-side mandibular corpus is parasagittally bent whereas in alpacas it experiences lateral transverse bending. However, in light of higher working-side corpus strains, biomechanical explanations of mandibular form also need to consider that torsion influences relative corpus size and shape. Furthermore, the complex combination of loads that occur along the selenodont artiodactyl mandibular corpus during the power stroke has two implications. First, added clarification of these loading patterns requires in vivo approaches for elucidating biomechanical links between mandibular corpus morphology and masticatory loading. Second, morphometric approaches may be limited in their ability to accurately infer masticatory loading regimes of selenodont artiodactyl jaws. PMID:19166474

  13. Effect of the addition of two superoxide dismutase analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Acosta, Alexei Santiani; Evangelista, Shirley; Vargas, Shirley Evangelista; Valdivia, Martha; Cuya, Martha Valdivia; Risopatrón, Jennie; González, Jennie Risopatrón; Sánchez, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Raúl Sánchez

    2013-03-15

    The main objective was to study the effects, on sperm function, of the addition of two superoxide dismutase (SOD) analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation. Twelve alpaca semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina and then diluted at a 1:3 ratio in an extender based on skim milk, egg yolk, and fructose. Each semen sample was divided into three equal parts to form the following groups: control, Tempo (1 mM), and Tempol (1 mM). Groups were cooled to 5 °C in 90 minutes (-1 °C in 3 minutes); when samples reached approximately 10 °C, SOD analogues were added to the respective groups. At 5 °C, ethylene glycol (final concentration, 0.1 M) was added to each group. After 30 minutes at 5 °C, samples were loaded in 0.25 mL plastic straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapor for 15 minutes, and then plunged. Percentages of sperm motility, functional sperm membrane integrity, and viable sperm with intact acrosomes were evaluated before and after freeze-thaw using visual analysis, the hypoosmotic swelling test, and the double-stain trypan blue/giemsa technique, respectively. The Terminal deoxymucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling assay was performed for evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed sperm. Sperm motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the Tempol and Tempo groups than in the control group (mean, 22.1%, 19.7%, and 11.2%, respectively), with similar results for functional sperm membrane integrity. Additionally, DNA fragmentation was lower (P < 0.05) in the Tempol group (16.7%) than in the control group (38.8%). Viable sperm with intact acrosomes were not affected by the use of SOD analogues. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.58) between DNA fragmentation of alpaca sperm and sperm motility after freeze-thawing, but DNA damage was neither related to functional membrane integrity nor viable sperm with intact acrosomes. We concluded that DNA fragmentation and loss of motility during cryopreservation of

  14. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  15. Variation in Bluetongue virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay results in blood samples of sheep, cattle, and alpaca.

    PubMed

    Brito, Barbara P; Gardner, Ian A; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M

    2011-07-01

    Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.

  16. Weighting fibre and morphological traits in a genetic index for an alpaca breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I; Pérez-Cabal, M A; Burgos, A; Morante, R

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, the fibre diameter (FD) is considered the main selection objective in alpaca populations all over the world. International Committee for Animal Recording recommendations define the FD and its CV as the first two traits to be considered in breeding programmes for this specie. In addition to these main criteria, other selection criteria of economic value used are comfort factor (CF) or standard deviation (s.d.); also other less important traits being used as selection objectives are these morphological traits: density (DE), crimp (CR) or lock structure (LS) for, respectively, Huacaya (HU) and Suri (SU) ecotypes, head (HE), coverage (CO) and balance (BA). The goal of this study was to establish how to implement a combined selection index starting from genetic parameters and to study the expected correlation between genetic trends by considering different alternative procedures of weighting all the involved traits, and the consequences of a wrongly proceeding way. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from the data set belonging to the PACOMARCA experimental farm for SU and HU. Two approaches were used to check the consequences of a set of subjective weights essayed. The coefficients of selection indexes were obtained for two sets of reference weights. In addition, equivalent weights were drawn if applied those reference values as coefficients of hypothetical selection indexes directly on phenotypes; relative expected genetic responses were computed in different cases. Results showed that almost in all cases for both ecotypes, the weight applied to CF should be surprisingly negative. Concerning genetic responses, only CO was compromised in some cases for the HU ecotype. The essayed methodology allowed explaining the differences between ecotypes in the genetic trends. The proposed methodology was shown to be effective to study the relative importance of the traits granted by the manager of a breeding scheme.

  17. The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2013-05-01

    In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (P<0.001) although papain was most effective, completely eliminating viscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (P<0.001). These findings suggest that proteins, not GAGs are the main cause of alpaca seminal plasma viscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation.

  18. Evaluation of two platelet-rich plasma processing methods and two platelet-activation techniques for use in llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Semevolos, Stacy A; Youngblood, Cori D; Grissom, Stephanie K; Gorman, M Elena; Larson, Maureen K

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2 processing methods (commercial kit vs conical tube centrifugation) for preparing platelet rich plasma (PRP) for use in llamas and alpacas. SAMPLES Blood samples (30 mL each) aseptically collected from 6 healthy llamas and 6 healthy alpacas. PROCEDURES PRP was prepared from blood samples by use of a commercial kit and by double-step conical tube centrifugation. A CBC was performed for blood and PRP samples. Platelets in PRP samples were activated by means of a freeze-thaw method with or without 23mM CaCl2, and concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 were measured. Values were compared between processing methods and camelid species. RESULTS Blood CBC values for llamas and alpacas were similar. The commercial kit yielded a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment (mean increase, 8.5 fold vs 2.8 fold) and WBC enrichment (mean increase, 3.7 fold vs 1.9 fold) than did conical tube centrifugation. Llamas had a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment than alpacas by either processing method. No difference in WBC enrichment was identified between species. Concentrations of both growth factors were significantly greater in PRP samples obtained by use of the commercial kit versus those obtained by conical tube centrifugation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For blood samples from camelids, the commercial kit yielded a PRP product with a higher platelet and WBC concentration than achieved by conical tube centrifugation. Optimal PRP platelet and WBC concentrations for various applications need to be determined for llamas and alpacas.

  19. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  20. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of alpha-MSH to stimulate alpha-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to alpha-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm(2) of UVB; the UV+L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 microM L-NAME (every 6h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of alpha-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the alpha-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance alpha-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete alpha-MSH to enhance the alpha-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  1. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Elsohaby, Ibrahim; Burns, Jennifer B; Riley, Christopher B; Shaw, R Anthony; McClure, J Trenton

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (<1000 mg/dL), which is consistent with the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in neonates. Serum samples (n = 175) collected from privately owned, healthy alpacas were tested by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, and laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training) and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration <1000 mg/dL as the cut-point for FTPI cases, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying serum samples below this cut point by laboratory ATR-IR assay were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively (within the entire data set). Corresponding values for the portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG <1000 mg/dL, the portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for potential

  2. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jennifer B.; Riley, Christopher B.; Shaw, R. Anthony; McClure, J. Trenton

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (<1000 mg/dL), which is consistent with the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in neonates. Serum samples (n = 175) collected from privately owned, healthy alpacas were tested by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, and laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training) and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration <1000 mg/dL as the cut-point for FTPI cases, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying serum samples below this cut point by laboratory ATR-IR assay were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively (within the entire data set). Corresponding values for the portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG <1000 mg/dL, the portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for potential

  3. Changes in liveweight and behaviour of alpaca dams and offspring following weaning.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J C; Littlejohn, R P; Davis, G H

    1993-12-01

    The effects of offspring sex, weight, age, and level of interaction with the dam on responses to weaning were examined to assist in the development of a weaning protocol for alpacas. In the first study, preand post-weaning activities, and weight change over Days -12-0,0-7 and 7-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 20 dam-offspring (hembra-cria) pairs aged 81-200 days. Pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (P<0.05). Although heavier crias tended to be found closer to their dams than lighter crias (P<0.05) no additional effect of age on the dam-offspring relationship was found. Following weaning, cria growth rates were low over Days 0-7 but improved over Days 7-16, and hembra weight change followed the same pattern. Over Days 0-2, grazing and sitting activities of hembras and crias were replaced by standing and walking along paddock fencelines, although by Day 2 fenceline activities had decreased (P<0.05). Crias which were more frequently observed at fencelines had lower post-weaning growth rates (P<0.05). In the second study, pre-weaning sucking behaviour, and weight change over Days -30-0, 0-8 and 8-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 19 hembra-cria pairs aged 124-160 days. During 10 hours of observation on Days -5 and -4, the total duration of sucking by individual crias varied from 0-18 minutes, and the mean +/- SEM duration of sucking was 1.94 +/- 0.113 minutes. Cria sucking behaviour was positively related to growth rate prior to and weight at weaning (P<0.05). As in the first study, pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (P<0.05). Following weaning, growth rates of the crias were depressed and the hembras lost weight over Days 0-8 and 8-16. The changes in growth rate and behaviour in Studies 1 and 2 indicated that weaning can be stressful for hembras and crias. However, there was no evidence from either study that pre-weaning behavioural or physical characteristics were

  4. Isotropic and anisotropic components of neutron emissions at the FN-II and PACO dense plasma focus devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, F.; Herrera, J. J. E.; Rangel, J.; Milanese, M.; Moroso, R.; Pouzo, J.; Golzarri, J. I.; Espinosa, G.

    2003-03-01

    The average angular distribution of neutron emissions has been measured in the Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II) dense plasma focus device (5 kJ) by means of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. When pure deuterium is used as the filling gas, the data can be adjusted to a Gaussian function, related to anisotropic emission, superposed on a constant pedestal, related to isotropic emission. When deuterium-argon admixtures are used, the anisotropic contribution is best represented by a parabola. The same analysis is applied to previously reported results, for fewer shots, in pure deuterium from the PACO device, which is similar in size to the FN-II. In both devices the anisotropic component is smaller than the isotropic one, but with different features. In PACO the anisotropic component is concentrated on a large narrow beam around the axis, but its contribution to the total neutron yield is significantly smaller than in the FN-II, where the anisotropic component spreads over a wider range. The neutron flux per shot is monitored in both devices with calibrated silver activation detectors, at 20° and at 90° from the axis. The average values of the neutron flux at these two angles are used, along with the angular distributions obtained form the track detectors, in order to estimate the absolute neutron yield of both the isotropic and the anisotropic contributions. From examining different groups of shots, it is found that the shape of the angular distribution is important in the estimation of anisotropy, and that the value usually reported, as the ratio of neutron counts head-on and side-on, as measured by activation counters, may be misleading.

  5. Contributions of conventional and heavy-chain IgG to immunity in fetal, neonatal, and adult alpacas.

    PubMed

    Daley-Bauer, L P; Purdy, S R; Smith, M C; Gagliardo, L F; Davis, W C; Appleton, J A

    2010-12-01

    In addition to conventional immunoglobulins, camelids produce antibodies that do not incorporate light chains into their structures. These so-called heavy-chain (HC) antibodies have incited great interest in the biomedical community, as they have considerable potential for biotechnological and therapeutic application. Recently, we have begun to elucidate the immunological functions of HC antibodies, yet little is known about their significance in maternal immunity or about the B lymphocytes that produce them. This study describes the application of isotype-specific reagents toward physiological assessments of camelid IgGs and the B cells that produce them. We document the specificities of monoclonal antibodies that distinguish two conventional IgG1 isotypes and two HC IgG3 variants produced by alpacas. Next, we report that the relative concentrations of five isotypes are similar in serum, milk, and colostrum; however, following passive transfer, the concentrations of HC IgG2 and IgG3 declined more rapidly than the concentration of conventional IgG1 in the sera of neonates. Finally, we assessed the distribution of B cells of distinct isotypes within lymphoid tissues during fetal and adult life. We detected IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 in lymphocytes located in lymph node follicles, suggesting that HC B cells affinity mature and/or class switch. One IgG3 isotype was present in B cells located in ileal Peyer's patches, and one conventional IgG1 isotype was detected in splenic marginal zone B cells. Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge pertaining to HC antibodies and are compatible with functional specialization among conventional and HC IgGs in the alpaca.

  6. Evaluation of production and reproduction of sheep, goat and alpaca genotypes in the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program.

    PubMed

    Bradford, G E; Burfening, P J; Cartwright, T C

    1989-11-01

    Research has been conducted as part of the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program (SR-CRSP) on evaluation of genetic resources and methods of effecting genetic improvement of small ruminants in the participating countries. In Kenya, the focus has been on development of a dual-purpose goat for milk and meat production in farming areas, utilizing two locally adapted breeds, Galla and East African, and two imported dairy breeds, Anglo-Nubian and Toggenburg, into a single stock. That research now has reached the stage of field testing. In Morocco, the performance of a highly prolific breed of sheep, the D'Man, and of a less prolific but larger breed, commonly raised under extensive management, the Sardi, and of their F1, F2 and backcross progeny has been evaluated for several reproduction and growth traits. Prolificacy of the D'Man was transmitted additively, but there was favorable heterosis for age at puberty, fertility and growth rate, resulting in substantial heterosis in total performance. In Indonesia, a high degree of variability in prolificacy in sheep appears to be due to segregation of a gene with large effect on ovulation rate, similar in some respects to the Booroola gene. In Peru, work has involved evaluation of effectiveness of current selection programs and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters, in unimproved and improved types of sheep, with a limited amount of work also on alpacas. Fiber production is the principal economic trait in alpacas. There also has been work on evaluation of hair sheep in Brazil, Kenya and Indonesia.

  7. Comparison of three immunoglobulin G assays for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer of immunity in neonatal alpacas.

    PubMed

    Pinn, Toby L; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Purdy, Steve R; Appleton, Judith A; Stokol, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) is used for the assessment of passive transfer of immunity in neonatal crias, with an IgG concentration <10 g/l being suggestive of failure of passive transfer (FPT). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether 3 commercially available immunologic assays yielded comparable results for IgG in alpacas. Serum samples from 91 alpacas were used and were stored frozen until batch analysis on the same day with the 3 assays. Immunoglobulin G was measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) and 2 immunoturbidimetric (IT) assays (IT1, configured for automated chemistry analyzers; IT2, a point-of-care test). Median IgG concentrations were significantly different between the 3 assays, with the RID (median: 15 g/l) and IT1 (median: 16 g/l) assays, which used the same standard, yielding significantly higher IgG values than IT2 (median: 11 g/l). Results indicated a diagnostic discordance in 1-17% of samples at an IgG threshold of 10 g/l. Protein electrophoresis revealed that the RID and IT1 standard contained mostly albumin (>60%), whereas the IT2 standard consisted of beta and gamma globulins. The discrepant results between assays IT1 and IT2 were eliminated when the same standard was used (IT1: median 11 g/l; IT2: 10 g/l; n = 19 and 17, respectively). The IT1 assay had the highest precision, while the RID assay had the lowest. The results indicate that camelid IgG measurement is highly dependent on the assay standard and is not directly comparable between assays, potentially resulting in underdiagnosis of FPT in some crias.

  8. Comparative study of the efficacy of eprinomectin versus ivermectin, and field efficacy of eprinomectin only, for the treatment of chorioptic mange in alpacas.

    PubMed

    D'Alterio, G L; Jackson, A P; Knowles, T G; Foster, A P

    2005-06-30

    The efficacy of eprinomectin versus ivermectin (Study 1: a single-centre, randomised, treatment-controlled, blinded field trial), and the field efficacy of eprinomectin (Study 2: a single-centre, open, un-controlled field trial) for the treatment of chorioptic infestation in naturally infested alpacas were assessed in two studies. Thirty alpacas, all positive for Chorioptes sp. mite, were randomly allocated to two treatment groups in Study 1. Group A received a single topical administration of a 0.5% formulation of eprinomectin at the dose rate of 500mug/kg. Group B received three subcutaneous administrations at 14 days interval of a 1% formulation of ivermectin at the dose rate of 400mug/kg. Response to treatment was assessed by periodic mite count, and skin lesions scored. In Study 2, one group of 19 alpacas received four administrations at weekly interval of topical eprinomectin at the dose rate of 500mug/kg, and response to treatment was monitored by mite counts. No localised or systemic side effects were observed in either trial. There was a statistically significant decrease in mite counts on day 7 (P<0.001) within treatment Groups A and B of Study 1, but mite counts increased again on day 14 and remained high for the duration of the trial in both treatment groups. On day 14 of Study 2, there was a statistically significant reduction in mite counts (P<0.008) and the mite counts remained very low throughout the remainder of the study. The eprinomectin protocol employed in Study 2, consisting of four weekly topical administrations at the dose rate of 500mug/kg of body weight, proved highly effective at reducing the Chorioptes mite burden in alpacas.

  9. Surgical correction of bilateral metacarpophalangeal valgus with curved osteotomies and type II external skeletal fixation in a seven-month-old alpaca.

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Mike J; Whitfield, Chase T; Rochat, Mark C; Streeter, Robert N; Sippel, Kate

    2016-09-20

    To report the successful surgical correction of severe bilateral metacarpophalangeal valgus angular limb deformities in a seven-month-old intact male alpaca cria using curved osteotomies stabilized with type II external skeletal fixation. Using a 21 mm crescentic shaped oscillating saw blade, bilateral osteotomies were performed in the distal metaphyses of the fused third and fourth metacarpal bones to correct valgus angular limb deformity of the metacarpophalangeal joints. Axial alignment of each limb was achieved by medially rotating the distal metacarpus in the frontal plane along the curved osteotomies. The osteotomies were stabilized using type II external skeletal fixators. The alpaca was immediately weight-bearing following the surgical procedure and no to minimal lameness was observed during healing of the osteotomies. Evaluation at five and 10 months following the surgery demonstrated acceptable axial alignment in the left forelimb while moderate to severe varus deformity (overcorrection) was observed in the right. Curved osteotomy of the distal metacarpus stabilized with type II external skeletal fixation can provide a favourable outcome in older alpaca crias affected with metacarpophalangeal angular limb deformities. Placement of the distal transfixation pins relative to the metacarpal physes should be carefully evaluated as overcorrection is possible, especially if growthpotential remains in only one physis of the fused third and fourth metacarpal bones.

  10. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Scott D; Mandeville, Joseph B; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Ikeda, Keiro; Terada, Kinya; Niloff, Stephanie; Chiocca, E Antonio; Rosen, Bruce R; Marota, John J A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1% / mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/ mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test). Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed. PMID:14511404

  11. Keratins extracted from Merino wool and Brown Alpaca fibres: thermal, mechanical and biological properties of PLLA based biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, E; Aluigi, A; Armentano, I; Morena, F; Emiliani, C; Martino, S; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M; Puglia, D

    2015-02-01

    Keratins extracted from Merino wool (KM) and Brown Alpaca fibres (KA) by sulphitolysis and commercial hydrolyzed keratins (KH) were used as fillers in poly(l-lactic) acid based biocomposites processed by solvent casting in chloroform. Different contents (1 wt.% and 5 wt.%) of keratins were considered and the morphological, thermal, mechanical, chemical and biological behaviours of the developed PLLA biocomposites were investigated. The results confirmed that surface morphologies of biocomposites revealed specific round-like surface topography function of different microsized keratin particles in different weight contents, such as the analysis of bulk morphologies which confirmed a phase adhesion strictly dependent by the keratin source. Transparency and thermal responses were deeply affected by the presence of the different keratins and their interaction with the PLLA matrix. Tensile test results underlined the possibility to modulate the mechanical behaviour of PLLA selecting the keratin type and content in order to influence positively the elastic and/or plastic response. It was demonstrated that surface characteristics of PLLA/KA systems also influenced the bovine serum albumin adsorption, moreover PLLA and PLLA biocomposites based on different kinds of keratins supported the culture of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells, indicating that these biocomposites could be useful materials for medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-02-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55% of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively), and that the overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the appearance of a distinct fine mode

  13. Characterization and Selection of 3-(1-Naphthoyl)-Indole Derivative-Specific Alpaca VHH Antibodies Using a Phage Display Library.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Murakami, Akikazu; Yoshida, Maiko; Muraoka, Jin; Wakai, Junko; Kenjyou, Noriko; Ito, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    A new alpaca VHH antibody library against 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives was developed from alpaca immunized with 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Hep-KLH) protein conjugates as the immunogen. From this library, two 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivative-specific clones, named NN01 and NN02, were isolated using biopanning technology. The binding specificity of these clones was confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Based on the results of c-ELISA, a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of these two VHH antibodies, NN01 and NN02, in the case of 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid (Hep; one of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives) as an inhibitor exhibited an approximate 3 × 10(-7) M and 6 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Thus, VHH antibodies produced in this study could be considered a useful tool for the detection of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives.

  14. Development and Utilization of Camelid VHH Antibodies from Alpaca for 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabrominated Diphenyl Ether Detection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRNA coding for the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) were isolated, transcribed to cDNA, and cloned into a phagemid vector for phage display library construction. Selection of VHHs recognizing BDE-47 was achieved by panning under carefully modified conditions. The assay sensitivity for detecting BDE-47 was down to the part-per-billion (microgram per liter) level. Cross-reactivity analyses confirmed that this method was highly selective for BDE-47 and selected hydroxylated metabolites. When exposed to elevated temperatures, the camelid VHH antibodies retained more reactivity than a polyclonal antibody developed to the same target analyte. The use of this VHH antibody reagent immobilized onto a Au electrode for impedance biosensing demonstrates the increased versatility of VHH antibodies. PMID:25005746

  15. Seed dispersal of Diospyros virginiana in the past and the present: Evidence for a generalist evolutionary strategy.

    PubMed

    Rebein, Mimi; Davis, Charli N; Abad, Helena; Stone, Taylor; Del Sol, Jillian; Skinner, Natalie; Moran, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos). Persimmon seeds excreted by raccoons, coyotes, and elephants survived gut transit. Gut passage did not affect sprouting success, but did tend to decrease time to sprout and increase seedling quality. Under field conditions, persimmon fruits were palatable on the parent tree and on the ground for an equal duration, but most fruits were consumed on the ground. Seven vertebrate species fed upon persimmon fruits, with the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-a species not capable of dispersing persimmon seeds-comprising over 90% of detections. Conversely, potential living seed dispersers were rarely detected. Our results suggest the American persimmon evolved to attract a variety of seed dispersers and thus is not anachronistic. However, human-induced changes in mammal communities could be affecting successful seed dispersal. We argue that changes in the relative abundance of mammals during the Anthropocene may be modifying seed dispersal patterns, leading to potential changes in forest community composition.

  16. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively). The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation

  17. Genetic parameters estimation for preweaning traits and their relationship with reproductive, productive and morphological traits in alpaca.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for preweaning traits and their relationship with reproductive, productive and morphological traits in alpacas. The data were collected from 2001 to 2015 in the Pacomarca experimental farm. The data set contained data from 4330 females and 3788 males corresponding to 6396 and 1722 animals for Huacaya and Suri variants, respectively. The number of records for Huacaya and Suri variants were 5494 and 1461 for birth weight (BW), 5429 and 1431 for birth withers height (BH), 3320 and 896 for both weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (DG) from birth to weaning, 3317 and 896 for weaning withers height (WH), and 5514 and 1474 for survival to weaning. The reproductive traits analyzed were age at first calving and calving interval. The fiber traits were fiber diameter (FD), standard deviation of FD (SD), comfort factor and coefficient of variation of FD and the morphological traits studied were density, crimp in Huacaya and lock structure in Suri, head, coverage and balance. Regarding preweaning traits, model of analysis included additive, maternal and residual random effects for all traits, with sex, coat color, number of calving, month-year and contemporary group as systematic effects, and age at weaning as linear covariate for WW and WH. The most relevant direct heritabilities for Huacaya and Suri were 0.50 and 0.34 for WW, 0.36 and 0.66 for WH, 0.45 and 0.20 for DG, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.25 and 0.38 for BW, 0.18 and 0.32 for BH, 0.29 and 0.39 for WW, 0.19 and 0.26 for WH, 0.27 and 0.36 for DG, respectively. Direct genetic correlations within preweaning traits were high and favorable and lower between direct and maternal genetic effects. The genetic correlations of preweaning traits with fiber traits were moderate and unfavorable. With morphological traits they were high and positive for Suri but not for Huacaya and favorable for direct genetic effect but unfavorable for maternal

  18. Joining the in vitro immunization of alpaca lymphocytes and phage display: rapid and cost effective pipeline for sdAb synthesis.

    PubMed

    Comor, Lubos; Dolinska, Saskia; Bhide, Katarina; Pulzova, Lucia; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Bencurova, Elena; Flachbartova, Zuzana; Potocnakova, Lenka; Kanova, Evelina; Bhide, Mangesh

    2017-01-23

    Camelids possess unique functional heavy chain antibodies, which can be produced and modified in vitro as a single domain antibody (sdAb or nanobody) with full antigen binding ability. Production of sdAb in conventional manner requires active immunization of Camelidae animal, which is laborious, time consuming, costly and in many cases not feasible (e.g. in case of highly toxic or infectious antigens). In this study, we describe an alternative pipeline that includes in vitro stimulation of naïve alpaca B-lymphocytes by antigen of interest (in this case endothelial cell binding domain of OspA of Borrelia) in the presence of recombinant alpaca interleukins 2 and 4, construction of sdAb phage library, selection of antigen specific sdAb expressed on phages (biopanning) and confirmation of binding ability of sdAb to the antigen. By joining the in vitro immunization and the phage display ten unique phage clones carrying sdAb were selected. Out of ten, seven sdAb showed strong antigen binding ability in phage ELISA. Furthermore, two soluble forms of sdAb were produced and their differential antigen binding affinity was measured with bio-layer interferometry. A proposed pipeline has potential to reduce the cost substantially required for maintenance of camelid herd for active immunization. Furthermore, in vitro immunization can be achieved within a week to enrich mRNA copies encoding antigen-specific sdAbs in B cell. This rapid and cost effective pipeline can help researchers to develop efficiently sdAb for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  19. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations.

  20. Effect of oocyte maturation time, sperm selection method and oxygen tension on in vitro embryo development in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jaime; Paulo Santayana, R; José Mendoza, M; Leandra Landeo, J; Huamán, Elizabeth; Ticllacuri, Flamel; Fidel Mujica, L; Silva, Mauricio; Ratto, Marcelo H

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of in vitro maturation time, sperm selection and oxygen tension on alpaca embryo development. In Experiment I, Cumulus Oocyte- Complexes (COCs) were obtained from abattoir ovaries and in vitro matured in TCM-199 for 24 (n = 217), 28 (215), or 32 h (223) at 38.5 °C, high humidity and 5% CO2 in air. Oocytes from 24 (n = 392), 28 (n = 456) or 32 (n = 368) h groups were in vitro fertilized with epididymal sperm and cultured in SOFaa at 38.5 °C, high humidity and 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 for 7 days. Embryo development was evaluated on Day 2, 5 and Day 7 of in vitro culture (Day 0 = in vitro fertilization). In Experiment II, a 2 by 2-factorial design was used to determine the effect of sperm selection (Swim-up vs Percoll) and oxygen tension (20% vs 5%) during embryo culture and their interaction on embryo development. COCs were in vitro matured for 32 h at 38.5 °C and 5% CO2 in air and then in vitro inseminated with epididymal sperm processed by swim-up or Percoll. Zygotes were cultured in SOFaa + cumulus cells at 38.5 °C under 20 or 5% of O2 tension and high humidity for 7 days. A total of 235, 235, 253 and 240 oocytes were assigned to: swim-up+20 O2, swim-up+5 O2 or Percoll+20 O2, Percoll+5 O2, groups respectively. The proportion of oocytes reaching MII stage was highest after 32 h of in vitro maturation (P < 0.05). Blastocyst rate (29.1 ± 2.7%) was also highest for COCs matured for 32 h (Exp I). In Experiment II, Blastocysts rate (26.03 ± 4.7; 27.7 ± 4.3; 29.7 ± 3.8 and 27.6 ± 4.2% for swim-up+20 O2, swim-up+5 O2 or Percoll+20 O2, Percoll+5 O2, respectively) was not affected by sperm selection method (P = 0.8), oxygen tension (P = 0.9) or their interaction (P = 0.5). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Wang, H D; Shen, Y; Liu, N; Cao, J; Yu, X J; Dong, C S; He, X Y

    2015-10-29

    MicroRNAs are very small endogenous RNA molecules that play a crucial role in an array of biological processes, including regulation of skin morphogenesis. The microRNA let-7b is thought to modulate animal hair growth, by binding target genes that encode growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) has been previously reported to be involved in the initiation of the catagen phase of hair growth. In this study, we combined previous reports with bioinformatic analysis techniques to identify and validate FGF5 and, using lucerifase assay, confirmed targeted binding of let-7b to FGF5. To investigate the interaction between let-7b and FGF5, alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with let-7b over-expression vectors, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF5 and the gene encoding its receptor, FGFR1, were evaluated. Levels of FGF5 mRNA and protein were remarkably lower in transfected groups, as compared to controls. In summary, this study confirmed that let-7b acts as a regulator of skin morphogenesis, by directly targeting FGF5 and down-regulating its expression. It provides the evidence of hair growth regulated by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production.

  2. Carbon mineralization and soil fertility at high altitude grasslands in the Bolivian Andean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, R.; Muñoz, M. A.; Faz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The high grasslands of Apolobamba provide a natural habitat for a high number of wild and domestic camelids such as vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and alpaca (Lama pacos) in Bolivia. Because of the importance of the camelid raising for the Apolobambás inhabitant economy, it is fundamental to determine the natural resources condition and their availability for the camelid support. The soil organic matter plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the soil fertility at high grasslands. On the other hand, soil respiration is the primary pathway for CO2 fixed by plants returning to the atmosphere and its study is essential to evaluate the soil organic matter mineralization and the global C cycle. Based on this, the objectives of this research were to: (i) evaluate the soil fertility and (ii) determine soil organic matter mineralization on the basis of CO2 releases in Apolobamba. Regarding the lastly vicuna censuses carried out in the studied area, eight representative zones with dissimilar vicuna densities were selected. Other characteristics were also considered to select the study zones: (1) alpaca densities, (2) vegetation communities (3) plant cover and (4) landscape and geo-morphological description. Soil samples from different samplings were collected. Soil respiration was determined at two temperatures: 15 °C (based on the highest atmosphere temperature that was registered in the area) and 25 °C, in order to monitor the increase in soil respiration (Q10). The physico-chemical soil results pointed out the good soil fertility. However, erosive processes could be taken place likely caused by the alpaca grazing. High total organic carbon contents were observed corresponding to the highest soil respiration at 15 °C. This observation was supported by the relationship found between the total organic carbon and the soil respiration. A noticeable increase of the soil respiration when the temperature increased 10 °C was reported (from 1083 ± 47 g C m-2 yr-1 at 15 °C to

  3. PaCO2 and alveolar dead space are more relevant than PaO2/FiO2 ratio in monitoring the respiratory response to prone position in ARDS patients: a physiological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Our aims in this study were to report changes in the ratio of alveolar dead space to tidal volume (VDalv/VT) in the prone position (PP) and to test whether changes in partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) may be more relevant than changes in the ratio of partial pressure of arterial O2 to fraction of inspired O2 (PaO2/FiO2) in defining the respiratory response to PP. We also aimed to validate a recently proposed method of estimation of the physiological dead space (VDphysiol/VT) without measurement of expired CO2. Methods Thirteen patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100 mmHg were included in the study. Plateau pressure (Pplat), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), blood gas analysis and expiratory CO2 were recorded with patients in the supine position and after 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours in the PP. Responders to PP were defined after 15 hours of PP either by an increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 20 mmHg or by a decrease in PaCO2 > 2 mmHg. Estimated and measured VDphysiol/VT ratios were compared. Results PP induced a decrease in Pplat, PaCO2 and VDalv/VT ratio and increases in PaO2/FiO2 ratios and compliance of the respiratory system (Crs). Maximal changes were observed after six to nine hours. Changes in VDalv/VT were correlated with changes in Crs, but not with changes in PaO2/FiO2 ratios. When the response was defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio, no significant differences in Pplat, PaCO2 or VDalv/VT alterations between responders (n = 7) and nonresponders (n = 6) were observed. When the response was defined by PaCO2, four patients were differently classified, and responders (n = 7) had a greater decrease in VDalv/VT ratio and in Pplat and a greater increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and in Crs than nonresponders (n = 6). Estimated VDphysiol/VT ratios significantly underestimated measured VDphysiol/VT ratios (concordance correlation coefficient 0.19 (interquartile ranges 0.091 to 0.28)), whereas changes during PP were more reliable (concordance correlation coefficient

  4. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2).

    PubMed

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs).

  5. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles.

  6. Pastoralism in Northern Peru during Pre-Hispanic Times: Insights from the Mochica Period (100–800 AD) Based on Stable Isotopic Analysis of Domestic Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Franco Jordán, Régulo; Sánchez, Segundo Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol) and bone structural carbonate (δ13Cbone and δ18Obone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ13Cenamel and δ18Oenamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ18Obone and δ18Oenamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life of the Mochicas is also

  7. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    PubMed Central

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  8. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life

  9. Changes in blood hemoglobin and blood gases PaO2 and PaCO2 in severe COPD overa three-year telemonitored program of long-term oxygen treatment.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Tognella, Silvia; Bonadiman, Luca; Turco, Paola

    2012-07-17

    Information on the effects of long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) on blood hemoglobin (Hb) in severe COPD are limited. The aim was to assess blood Hb values in severe COPD, and investigate the time-course of both Hb and blood gas changes during a 3-year telemetric LTOT. A cohort of 132 severe COPD patients (94 males; 71.4 years ± 8.8 sd), newly admitted to the tele-LTOT program, was investigated. Subjects were divided according to their original blood Hb: group A: <13 g/dL; group B: ≥13 < 15 g/dL; group C: ≥ 5 < 16 g/dL; group D: ≥16 g/dL. Blood Hb (g/dL), PaO2 and PaCO2 (mmHg), SaO2 (%), and BMI were measured at LTOT admission (t0), and at least quarterly over three years (t1-t3). Wilcoxon test was used to compare t0 vs. t1 values; linear regression to assess a possible Hb-BMI relationship; ANOVA to compare changes in Hb time-courses over the 3 years. LTOT induced a systematic increase of PaO2, and changes were significant since the first year (from 52.1 mmHg ± 6.6sd to 65.1 mmHg ± 8.7 sd, p < 0.001). Changes in SaO2 were quite similar. Comparable and equally significant trends were seen in all subgroups (p < 0.001). PaCO2 dropped within the first year of LTOT (from 49.4 mmHg ± 9.1sd to 45.9 mmHg ±7.5 sd, p < 0.001): the t0-t1 comparison proved significant (p < 0.01) only in subgroups with the highest basal Hb, who showed a further PaCO2 decline over the remaining two years (p < 0.001). Hb tended to normalization during LTOT only in subgroups with basal Hb > 15 g/dl (ANOVA p < 0.001); anemic subjects (Hb < 13 g/dl) ameliorated not significantly in the same period (ANOVA = 0.5). Survival was independent of the original blood Hb. Anemia and polyglobulia are differently prevalent in COPD, the latter being the most represented in our cohort. LTOT affected both conditions, but to a different extent and according to different time-courses. The most striking Hb improvement

  10. Soil organic carbon in Apolobamba (Bolivia): Quantity and quality of the reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M. Á.; Faz, A.

    2009-04-01

    Global carbon cycle mainly depends on the soil organic matter (SOM). Some reducction of climatic impact techiques are related to the increase of the soil organic carbon (SOC) contents in order to elevate atmospherical carbon inputs. Kinetic mechanisms of the SOC are differents due to the complex interation between biological, physical and chemical processes in the soil. For a full understanding of the SOM contribution to the carbon cycle in the soil, the SOC contents should be addressed. The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) is an endangered species which belongs to camelid family. Its natural habitat is located in highland grasses in the Andes Montain Range, above 4,000 m.a.s.l. In Bolivia the vicuna is distributed around some andean regions such as Apolobamba. It is a protected area located in the Northwest of Bolivia where native inhabitants carry out a sustainable management of the vicuna. This activity is considered within a programme to improve economical conditions in the area. The vicuna lives in the same habitat than other cattle camelid like alpaca (Lama pacos). The soil is an essential natural resource in the vicuna development and the biodiversity conservation due to its role to support the native vegetation in Apolobamba. The objectives of this research were: (i) the quantification of SOC contents, (ii) the study of the SOC quality and (iii) the determination of the soil degradation degree in some zones in Apolobamba. Eight zones or census places, separated areas with geographic accidents, with different vicuna and alpaca densities were selected: Ulla-Ulla and Killu (low density), Ucha-Ucha and Wakampata (medium density), Sucondori and Caballchiñuni (high density) and Puyo-Puyo and Japu (very high density). One soil profile was taken and three sampling plots were determined in each zone. Three sampling points were selected in each plot and surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface samples (5-15 cm) were collected. Total carbon, total organic carbon (TOC) and water

  11. Economic benefits of controlling internal and external parasites in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Windsor, R S; Windsor, R H; Teran, M

    1992-06-16

    A trial was carried out in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) to determine the economic benefits of controlling both external and internal parasites by the use of ivermectin ("Ivomec," Merck Sharp & Dohme). After four months the treated male alpacas gained on average 3.1 kg more than the untreated males, and their fleece weighed 0.36 kg more. The treated female alpacas gained 1.9 kg more than the controls, but their fleece weighed 0.03 kg less. This treatment gave a net financial benefit to the farmer of U.S. $3.54 for each of his male alpacas and U.S. $1.36 for each of his female alpacas. The results for the llamas were not significant because there was great variation in the weight gains (and losses). Because the value of llama fleece is less, the economic benefits were also less.

  12. The Vγ9Vδ2 T Cell Antigen Receptor and Butyrophilin-3 A1: Models of Interaction, the Possibility of Co-Evolution, and the Case of Dendritic Epidermal T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Mohindar M.; Herrmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Most circulating human gamma delta T cells are Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Their hallmark is the expression of T cell antigen receptors (TCR) whose γ-chains show a Vγ9-JP (Vγ2-Jγ1.2) rearrangement and are paired with Vδ2-containing δ-chains, a dominant TCR configuration, which until recently seemed to occur in primates only. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to phosphoantigens (PAg) such as (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), which is produced by many pathogens and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which accumulates in certain tumors or cells treated with aminobisphosphonates such as zoledronate. A prerequisite for PAg-induced activation is the contact of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with cells expressing butyrophilin-3 A1 (BTN3A1). We will first critically review models of how BTN3 might act in PAg-mediated Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation and then address putative co-evolution of Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes. In those rodent and lagomorphs used as animal models, all three genes are lost but a data-base analysis showed that they emerged together with placental mammals. A strong concomitant conservation of functional Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes in other species suggests co-evolution of these three genes. A detailed analysis was performed for the new world camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos). It provides an excellent candidate for a non-primate species with presumably functional Vγ9Vδ2 T cells since TCR rearrangements share features characteristic for PAg-reactive primate Vγ9Vδ2 TCR and proposed PAg-binding sites of BTN3A1 have been conserved. Finally, we analyze the possible functional relationship between the butyrophilin-family member Skint1 and the γδ TCR-V genes used by murine dendritic epithelial T cells (DETC). Among placental mammals, we identify five rodents, the cow, a bat, and the cape golden mole as the only species concomitantly possessing potentially functional homologs of murine Vγ3, Vδ4 genes, and Skint1 gene and suggest to search for DETC like cells in these

  13. 50 CFR 23.75 - How can I trade internationally in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... international trade in wool sheared from live vicuñas, cloth made from such wool, and products manufactured from such wool or cloth. All other specimens of vicuña are deemed to be specimens of a species included in... means the name of the country where the vicuña wool in the cloth or product originated. (e) Wool...

  14. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  15. Soil organic matter stabilization in grazing highland soils from the Andean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M. A.; Faz, A.; Zornoza, R.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands comprise approximately 40% of the earth's land area and play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Apolobamba is a grazing highland located in the Andean Plateau where sustainable vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) management programme is carried out. Understanding the soil properties and the organic matter dynamics is fundamental to determine the grazing impacts in the carbon reservoirs. However, the labile and recalcitrant fractions of C have not been widely studied under field conditions, especially in high grasslands. The objectives of this survey were to: (i) achieve a soil characterization through general physico-chemical properties and (ii) study soil organic matter stabilization through recalcitrant and labile carbon budgets in Apolobamba. Regarding the lastly vicuna censuses carried out in the studied area, eight representative zones with different vicuna densities were selected and soil samples were collected. Other characteristics were also considered to select the study zones: (1) alpaca densities, (2) vegetation communities (3) plant cover and (4) landscape and geo-morphological description. Recalcitrant and water soluble organic carbon were determined as well as recalcitrant index. General soil characterization showed strongly acid and no saline soils with high cation exchange capacity and sandy-loam and loam textures. Total nitrogen contents indicated no limitation for the native vegetation growth. In general, no relationships were found among general soil properties, vicuna and alpaca densities; however, zones with highest alpaca density could be prone to soil erosion based on the available P distribution and the texture results. Additionally, a negative alpaca grazing influence in the soil organic carbon stocks was observed. On the other hand, high soil recalcitrant carbon contents (3.7 ± 0.3 kg m-2) and recalcitrance index (0.8 ± 0.1) were found. Likewise, labile C exhibited similar values to those obtained from researchers conducted in

  16. Development and Application of Camelid Molecular Cytogenetic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J.; Kutzler, Michelle; Owens, Elaine; Perelman, Polina; Rubes, Jiri; Hornak, Miroslav; Johnson, Warren E.

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human–camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly. PMID:23109720

  17. Multifrequency polarimetry of a complete sample of PACO radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, V.; Massardi, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Casasola, V.; Gregorini, L.; Trombetti, T.; Burigana, C.; De Zotti, G.; Ricci, R.; Stevens, J.; Ekers, R. D.; Bonavera, L.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Liuzzo, E.; López-Caniego, M.; Mignano, A.; Paladino, R.; Toffolatti, L.; Tucci, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present high-sensitivity polarimetric observations (σP ≃0.6 mJy) in six bands covering the 5.5-38 GHz range of a complete sample of 53 compact extragalactic radio sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz. The observations, carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, achieved a 91 per cent detection rate (at 5σ). Within this frequency range, the spectra of about 95 per cent of sources are well fitted by double power laws, both in total intensity and in polarization, but the spectral shapes are generally different in the two cases. Most sources were classified as either steep- or peaked-spectrum but less than 50 per cent have the same classification in total and in polarized intensity. No significant trends of the polarization degree with flux density or with frequency were found. The mean variability index in total intensity of steep-spectrum sources increases with frequency for a 4-5 yr lag, while no significant trend shows up for the other sources and for the 8 yr lag. In polarization, the variability index, which could be computed only for the 8 yr lag, is substantially higher than in total intensity and has no significant frequency dependence.

  18. Vigilance behaviour of the year-round territorial vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) outside the breeding season: influence of group size, social factors and distance to a water source.

    PubMed

    Torres, M Eugenia Mosca; Puig, Silvia; Novillo, Agustina; Ovejero, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    We conducted focal observations of vicuña, a year-around territorial mammal, to compare vigilance behaviour between territorial and bachelor males outside the reproductive season. We hypothesized that the time spent vigilant would depend on male social status, considering the potential effects of several variables: sampling year, group size, distances to the nearest neighbour and to a vega (mountain wetland). We fit GLM models to assess how these variables, and their interactions, affected time allocation of territorial and bachelor males. We found non significant differences between territorial and bachelor males in the time devoted to vigilance behaviour. Vigilance of territorial males was influenced by the sampling year and the distance to the vega. In turn, vigilance in bachelor males was influenced mainly by the sampling year, the group size and the distance to the vega. Our results suggest that sampling year and distance to the vega are more important than social factors in conditioning the behaviour of male vicuñas, during the non-reproductive season. Future studies of behaviour in water-dependant ungulates, should consider the influence of water and forage availabilities, and the interactions between group size and other variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on lidocaine and articaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, K C; Furtado, D P; Ramacciato, J C; Cabral, A M; Haas, D A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO₂ can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO₂ and PaO₂ on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO₂, and PaO₂ were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO₂ from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO₂ from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO₂ and/or increase in PaO₂ raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity.

  20. [Changes in cerebral hemodynamics in chronic users of "PACO" and cocaine: case-control study].

    PubMed

    Previgliano, Ignacio; Cortese, Silvia; Di Nardo, Victoria; Lara, Enrique; Da Ré, Sabrina; Villareal, Orlando; Poliszuk, Julieta; Fernández, María E; Quinteros, Mónica; Damín, Carlos; Nuñez, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    To assess if there are changes in brain hemodynamics evaluated by means of transcranial doppler's flow velocity, pulsatile index and cerebral perfusion pressure, between cocaine chronic abusers and healthy volunteers. Prospective, case and control, observational study. Sex, age, user history, vital signs and transcranial doppler findings.Statistical analysis was performed by means of normality test, Wilcoxon's test for non parametric samples and T Student test. Fifty-three abusers and 35 healthy volunteers were studied. Statistical differences were found for a diminish in age(p=0.008) and cerebral perfusion pressure in all cerebral arteries (p

  1. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2014-10-10

    Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term "Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia". These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or simple observations suggested that personality could play a role in the occurrence of behavioural symptoms. Finally, performance in social cognition like facial recognition and perspective taking could be linked to certain personality traits and the subsequent risks of behavioural symptoms. We propose to clarify this through a prospective, multicentre, multidisciplinary study. Main Objective: -To assess the effect of personality and life events on the risk of developing behavioural symptoms. Secondary Objectives: -To evaluate, at the time of inclusion, the connection between personality and performance in social cognition tests; -To evaluate the correlation between performance in social cognition at inclusion and the risks of occurrence of behavioural symptoms; -To evaluate the correlation between regional cerebral atrophy, using brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging at baseline, and the risk of behavioural symptoms. Study type and Population: Prospective multicentre cohort study with 252 patients with Alzheimer's disease at prodromal or mild dementia stage. The inclusion period will be of 18 months and the patients will be followed during 18 months. The initial evaluation will include: a clinical and neuropsychological examination, collection of behavioural symptoms data (Neuropsychiatric-Inventory scale) and their risk factors, a personality study using both a dimensional (personality traits) and categorical approach, an inventory of life events, social cognition tests and an Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patients will be followed every 6 months (clinical examination and collection of behavioural symptoms data and risk factors) during 18 months. This study aims at better identifying the patients with Alzheimer's disease at high risk of developing behavioural symptoms, to anticipate, detect and quickly treat these disorders and so, prevent serious consequences for the patient and his caregivers. ClincalTrials.gov: NCT01297140.

  2. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis aucheniae as the macrocyst-forming parasite of llamas.

    PubMed

    Carletti, Tamara; Martin, Mara; Romero, Sandra; Morrison, David A; Marcoppido, Gisela; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2013-12-06

    The domestic South American camelids (SACs), llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama paco), are frequently found to be infected with Sarcocystis parasites. Infections give rise in skeletal muscle to macroscopic cysts (1-5mm long) that resemble rice seeds, each containing several million living bradyzoites. The finding of cysts prevents commercialization of SAC meat, an important source of income for rural families in the Andean flatlands. Thus, development of diagnostic methods to facilitate the control of these infections is highly desirable, and the first step to this end is the unequivocal species identification of the causative agent. Based on the cyst form and size, the infecting parasite has been described as Sarcocystis aucheniae; however, this traditional approach is not reliable as similar cysts may contain different species. To date, molecular identification has been done for a single isolate of S. aucheniae from an alpaca in Australia. In order to verify the identity of the species present in SACs of South America, the complete 18S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified and sequenced from macrocyst DNA obtained from three llamas of the Andean flatlands. A phylogenetic Bayesian analysis was carried out using the analyzed and available 18S rRNA sequences of Sarcocystis spp. In the constructed tree, all of the new 18S rRNA gene sequences segregated in a single clade together with the 18S rRNA gene sequence reported from an alpaca in Australia, demonstrating that the isolated parasite is S. aucheniae, and that this parasite indiscriminately infects both domestic SACs. This work represents the first molecular identification of the causative agent of SAC sarcocystiosis in South America, and can contribute to the development of control methods for this neglected parasitosis.

  3. Isolation of lactoferrin from milk of different species: calorimetric and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; Sánchez, Lourdes; Rota, Carmen; Pérez, María-Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Farnaud, Sebastien; Evans, Robert W

    2008-05-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein found in different biological fluids of mammals and in neutrophils. It has been proposed to be involved in many functions, including protection from pathogens. In this work, purification of lactoferrin using an ion-exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose) was attempted for the milk of the following animals: sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), camel (Camelus bactrianus), alpaca (Lama pacos), elephant (Elephas maximus) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), as well as human (Homo sapiens). Lactoferrin was identified in all the milks apart from that from grey seal. The thermal stability of the purified lactoferrins, in their native and iron-saturated forms, was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Maximum temperature, onset temperature and enthalpy change of denaturation were higher when lactoferrins were saturated with iron than in their native form, indicating an increase in the stability of the protein structure upon iron-binding. Human lactoferrin was found to be the most heat-resistant and the other lactoferrins presented different degrees of thermoresistance, that of elephant being the least resistant. The antimicrobial activity of the different isolated lactoferrins was investigated against Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by measuring the absorbance at 620 nm. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also measured and it was found that camel lactoferrin was the most active lactoferrin against E. coli 0157:H7, whereas alpaca and human lactoferrins were the least active.

  4. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  5. Long-bone fractures in llamas and alpacas: 28 cases (1998-2008).

    PubMed

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Getman, Liberty M; Richardson, Dean W; Fecteau, Marie-Eve

    2012-07-01

    Treatment and outcome of camelids with long-bone fractures are described. Medical records (1998-2008) of camelids (n = 28) with long-bone fractures were reviewed for signalment, time to presentation, fracture type, method of repair, duration of hospitalization, and post-operative complications. Follow-up information was obtained via telephone interviews with owners. Mean age and weight at presentation were 3.4 years and 56.3 kg, respectively. Twenty-six fractures were treated with internal fixation (n = 11), external fixation (n = 10), combination of internal and external fixation (n = 3), amputation (n = 1), and external fixation followed by amputation (n = 1). Long-term follow-up information was obtained for 19 of the 26 animals. The post-operative complication rate was 23% and owner satisfaction was high. Animals with open fractures were more likely to experience complications. Internal fixation was associated with superior alignment and outcome. Internal fixation techniques should be recommended for camelids.

  6. Cataracts in New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, and guanacos).

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2002-05-01

    Cataracts are the most frequently seen lens diseases in New World camelids. The causes of cataracts are unknown in many animals, but cataracts secondary to intraocular inflammation seem to be common. Congenital or juvenile-onset cataracts, if another cause is not apparent, should be considered as possibly caused by heredity, and the affected animals should not be bred. Persistent hyaloid vascular anomalies may also have an important role in cataract formation and could be heritable or caused by an in utero disturbance. Pedigree analyses, test breedings, and possibly DNA studies of llamas with cataracts will be required to determine their potential heritability in these species. Cataract surgery can be done successfully in camelids. It is important to evaluate the posterior segment with B scan ultrasonography before surgery in animals in which the posterior segment previously has not been seen. This evaluation allows the surgeon to better prepare for the presence of hyaloid vascular anomalies. Use of phacoemulsification, gentle tissue handling, liberal use of anti-inflammatory medications and endothelial protectants (BSS + and viscoelastics) during surgery has increased the success rate of this surgery in camelids. Unlike cataract surgery in dogs and horses undergoing, cataract surgery, in camelids seems to be important to remove much of the posterior lens capsule. This removal prevents severe capsular fibrosis and subsequent vision loss. There is evidence that a posterior capsulectomy and anterior viterectomy can help prevent postoperative glaucoma. Research needs to be done to see whether these species have an increased risk for ciliary-block glaucoma.

  7. [Sandflies (Diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the Paco do Lumiar city, Maranhao, Brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].

    PubMed

    Barros, V L; Rebêlo, J M; Silva, F S

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. The field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. Sandflies were captured by CDC-type light traps from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM, once a month, from March 1997 to February 1998. A total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 females), distributed among 10 species: Lutzomyia antunesi (45.19%), Lutzomyia whitmani (29.4%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (7.56%), Lutzomyia sordelli (6.34%), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (4.5%), Brumptomyia avellari (4.09%), Lutzomyia evandroi (1.85%), Lutzomyia umbratilis (0.61%), Lutzomyia corossoniensis (0.41%), and Lutzomyia trispinosa (0.41%). The sandflies were present year round, with higher abundance during the rainy season. They were present in all intervals studied, with the highest frequency between 12:00 PM and 1:00 AM (31%).

  8. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F.; Huber, Michael J.; Parker, Jill E.; Semevolos, Stacy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in success after a single surgical procedure. A greater degree of angulation (> 19°, P = 0.02) and younger age at surgery (< 4 months, P = 0.03) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. Overall, 74% of limbs straightened, 15% overcorrected, and 11% had persistent valgus following surgical intervention. To straighten, 22% of limbs required multiple procedures, not including implant removal. According to owners, valgus returned following implant removal in 4 limbs that had straightened after surgery. PMID:25477542

  9. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Huber, Michael J; Parker, Jill E; Semevolos, Stacy A

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in success after a single surgical procedure. A greater degree of angulation (> 19°, P = 0.02) and younger age at surgery (< 4 months, P = 0.03) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. Overall, 74% of limbs straightened, 15% overcorrected, and 11% had persistent valgus following surgical intervention. To straighten, 22% of limbs required multiple procedures, not including implant removal. According to owners, valgus returned following implant removal in 4 limbs that had straightened after surgery.

  10. Methane Emission by Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dittmann, Marie T.; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A.; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg−1 d−1) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg−1 d−1). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg−1 in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg−1 in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  11. Methane emission by camelids.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  12. Highly efficient production of VHH antibody fragments in Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Makoto; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Onishi, Hiromasa; Ueno, Yohei; Hanagata, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Ito, Yuji; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Akira; Tokunaga, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Anti-IZUMO1PFF VHH (variable domain of camelid heavy chain antibody) clones, N6 and N15, from immunized alpaca (Lama pacos) phage library were efficiently expressed and their VHH products were secreted into the culture medium of Brevibacillus choshinensis HPD31-SP3, e.g., at a level of 26-95mg in 100ml conventional flask culture. With a 3-L scale fed-batch culture for 65h, the N15 VHH protein with C-terminal His-tag was produced at ∼3g/l culture medium. The N6 and N15 proteins were easily purified to apparent homogeneity by cation exchange and Ni-affinity chromatographies. Both proteins showed specific antigen-binding activity by ELISA and high antigen binding affinity, KD=6.0-8.6nM, by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Size exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering analysis revealed that N6 and N15 proteins purified were exclusively monomeric form in phosphate buffered saline. CD spectrum showed beta-sheet rich structure, consistent with a typical antibody structure and also suggested aromatic-aromatic interactions, as indicated by a positive peak at 232nm. Thermal melting analysis of the N15 protein with C-terminal His-tag demonstrated a clear thermal transition with a Tm at 67°C. The heat-denatured sample recovered antigen binding activity upon cooling, indicating a reversible denaturation.

  13. Advances and Challenges in Super-Resolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-15

    translational motion between each frame. Second, the alpaca statue was repositioned several times throughout the input frames [notice this relative motion in...left of the alpaca due to the alpaca motion are apparent. The robust estimation methods, however, reveal the ability of the algo- rithm to remove such...Results of different resolution enhancement methods applied to the alpaca sequence. Outlier effects are apparent in the nonrobust reconstruction method

  14. A comparison among portal lactate, intramucosal sigmoid Ph, and deltaCO2 (PaCO2 - regional Pco2) as indices of complications in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Donati, Abele; Cornacchini, Oriana; Loggi, Silvia; Caporelli, Sandro; Conti, Giovanna; Falcetta, Stefano; Alò, Francesco; Pagliariccio, Gabriele; Bruni, Elisabetta; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Pelaia, Paolo

    2004-10-01

    Our aim in this observational, prospective, noncontrolled study was to detect, in 29 patients who underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery, correlations between the incidence of postoperative organ failure and intraoperative changes in arterial and portal blood lactate; changes in intramucosal sigmoid pH (pHi); differences between sigmoid Pco(2) and arterial Pco(2) (DeltaCO(2)); and hemoglobin (Hb). Hb, arterial blood lactate concentrations, pHi, and DeltaCO(2) (air tonometry) were recorded at the start of anesthesia (T0), before aorta clamping (T1), 30 minutes after clamping (T2), and at the end of surgery (T3). Portal venous lactate concentrations were recorded at T1 and T2. Patients were stratified into two groups: group A patients had no postoperative organ failure, and group B patients had one or more organ failures. As compared with group A (n = 16), group B patients (n = 13) had a lower pHi value at T2 and T3 and a higher DeltaCO(2) at T3. A pHi value of <7.15 was a predictor of organ failure, with a sensitivity of 92.3%, a specificity of 68.8%, and positive and negative predictive values of 70.6% and 91.7%, respectively, whereas a DeltaCO(2) value of >28 mm Hg predicted later organ failure with a sensitivity of 92.3%, a specificity of 62.5%, and positive and negative predictive values of 66.6% and 90.9%, respectively. Portal venous lactate concentrations were larger in group B at T2 (P < 0.001), and an increase >or=5 g/dL predicted later postoperative organ failure with a sensitivity of 92.3%, a specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 94.1%, respectively. The comparison of the receiving operator characteristic curves to test the discrimination of each variable and the logistic regression analysis revealed that the increase in portal lactate was the best predictor for the development of postoperative organ failure. Hb concentration was significantly smaller in group B at T0 (13.8 +/- 1.0 g/dL versus 12.2 +/- 2.2 g/dL) and T2 (10.9 +/- 1.2 g/dL versus 9.1 +/- 1.9 g/dL). In conclusion, both pHi and DeltaCO(2) are reasonably sensitive prognostic indices of organ failures after AAA surgery, but they are less specific and accurate than portal venous lactate.

  15. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cows or bulls, (2) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows or bulls, (3) Adult dairy cows or bulls, (4) Alpacas..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer...-adult buffalo or beefalo, (13) Non-adult dairy cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and...

  16. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cows or bulls, (2) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows or bulls, (3) Adult dairy cows or bulls, (4) Alpacas..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer...-adult buffalo or beefalo, (13) Non-adult dairy cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and...

  17. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cows or bulls, (2) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows or bulls, (3) Adult dairy cows or bulls, (4) Alpacas..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer...-adult buffalo or beefalo, (13) Non-adult dairy cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and...

  18. 7 CFR 760.404 - Eligible livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... category: (1) Adult beef bulls; (2) Adult beef cows; (3) Adult buffalo or beefalo bulls; (4) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows; (5) Adult dairy bulls; (6) Adult dairy cows; (7) Alpacas; (8) Chickens, broilers... alpacas, adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, elk, emus, equine, llamas,...

  19. 7 CFR 760.404 - Eligible livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Adult beef cows; (3) Adult buffalo or beefalo bulls; (4) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows; (5) Adult dairy bulls; (6) Adult dairy cows; (7) Alpacas; (8) Chickens, broilers, pullets; (9) Chickens, chicks; (10... alpacas, adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, elk, emus, equine, llamas,...

  20. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cows or bulls, (2) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows or bulls, (3) Adult dairy cows or bulls, (4) Alpacas..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer...-adult buffalo or beefalo, (13) Non-adult dairy cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and...

  1. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) The covered livestock categories are: (1) Adult beef cows or bulls, (2) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows or bulls, (3) Adult dairy cows or bulls, (4) Alpacas, (5) Deer, (6) Elk, (7) Emu, (8) Equine, (9..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry,...

  2. 7 CFR 760.404 - Eligible livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category: (1) Adult beef bulls; (2) Adult beef cows; (3) Adult buffalo or beefalo bulls; (4) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows; (5) Adult dairy bulls; (6) Adult dairy cows; (7) Alpacas; (8) Chickens, broilers... alpacas, adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, elk, emus, equine, llamas,...

  3. 7 CFR 760.404 - Eligible livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... category: (1) Adult beef bulls; (2) Adult beef cows; (3) Adult buffalo or beefalo bulls; (4) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows; (5) Adult dairy bulls; (6) Adult dairy cows; (7) Alpacas; (8) Chickens, broilers... alpacas, adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, elk, emus, equine, llamas,...

  4. 7 CFR 760.404 - Eligible livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Adult beef cows; (3) Adult buffalo or beefalo bulls; (4) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows; (5) Adult dairy bulls; (6) Adult dairy cows; (7) Alpacas; (8) Chickens, broilers, pullets; (9) Chickens, chicks; (10... alpacas, adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, elk, emus, equine, llamas,...

  5. Development of an Integrated Modeling Framework for Simulations of Coastal Processes in Deltaic Environments Using High-Performance Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    ALPACA : This NSF funded project is developing debugging and profiling tools for the Cactus framework which will support the Coastal Modeling Framework...developed in this project. (http://www.cactuscode.org/Development/ alpaca ) CyberTools: This NSF/BOR funded project is developing a

  6. Development of an Integrated Modeling Framework for Simulations of Coastal Processes in Deltaic Environments Using High-Performance Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    http://www.cactuscode.org/Development/xirel) ALPACA : This NSF funded project is developing debugging and profiling tools for the Cactus framework...which will support the Coastal Modeling Framework developed in this project. (http://www.cactuscode.org/Development/ alpaca ) CyberTools: This NSF/BOR

  7. Seismic Masking of an Underground Nuclear Explosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-31

    the microzone of the masked explosion, but excluded from further study 1. 21 February 1963 CARMEL 2. 12 February 1965 ALPACA Reason for...1965 15:10:29.49 ALPACA 0-20 737 2.44x105 l.52xl03 B. 25 June 1966 17:13:00.07 VULCAN 25 1057 58 23 526x77 9. 10 Aug. 1966 13:16:00.07 ROVENAb 0-20...19 Aug. 19’/) AL.A 4420 2016 2404 2550 1870 6. 9 Oct. 19b4 PAR 4368 1950 2418 2650 1950 7. 1? Feb. 1965 ALPACA 4402 1990 2412 1800 2602 8. 2b June

  8. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  9. Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids.

    PubMed

    Van Saun, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.

  10. Ejaculatory process and related semen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Moscoso, R; Alarcon, V; Ordoñez, C

    2002-01-01

    South American camelids are dribble ejaculators, and urethral contractions occur throughout copulation, which may last 25 min. The urethral contractions and their association with semen characteristics during copulation were determined in llamas and alpacas. A transrectal probe was held in the rectum of the male while copulating an artificial vagina, which was accessed underneath the dummy through a hole. The semen-collecting tube was changed every 5 min. Semen characteristics, color, volume, consistency, motility, concentration, and percentage of live sperm were determined at 5-min intervals. Urethral contractions were evenly distributed during copulation: 40 in alpacas and 63 in llamas (p < .05), with a general range of 11 to 132. Semen color was milky in 63%, and translucent in 36.5% for alpacas; and creamy (9.9%), milky (47%), and translucent (42%) for llamas. The mean volume of ejaculate was 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.6, 0.8, 0.3, and 3.0 mL for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min, respectively. Semen consistency was variable: viscous (65%) and semiviscous (34%) in alpacas; and viscous (57%) and semiviscous (42%) in llamas. Spermatic motility varied between 60 and 80% for the llama, and 40 and 80% for the alpaca. Spermatic concentration varied between 60 and 188 x 10(3)/mm3 in llamas, and 30 and 170 x 10(3)/mm3 in alpacas. Percentage of live sperm varied the least: 81 to 90% in llamas and 65 to 90% in alpacas. The ejaculate of llamas and alpacas is not fractionated, urethral contractions are evenly distributed, during copulation, and semen characteristics are present throughout the copulatory period.

  11. Arthroscopic approach and intraarticular anatomy of the stifle in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Santschi, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    To describe a cranial arthroscopic approach to the stifle of South American camelids and to report our clinical experience with camelid stifle arthroscopy. Experimental study and retrospective case series. (1) Cadaveric alpaca hindlimbs (n = 18; 9 alpacas); (2) 1 alpaca and 1 llama Polymethylmethacrylate joint casts (n = 2) were made to define stifle joint dimensions. Cadaveric stifle joints (n = 16) were evaluated arthroscopically to determine arthroscopic portal locations, describe the intraarticular anatomy, and report potential complications. An alpaca and a llama with stifle joint disease had diagnostic arthroscopy. Successful entry into the stifle joint was achieved in 16 cadaver limbs. Observed structures were: the suprapatellar pouch, articular surface of the patella, femoral trochlear ridges and groove, cranial aspect of the femoral condyles (n = 16); distal aspect of the cranial and proximal aspect of the caudal cruciate ligaments (14); and cranial aspects of the medial and lateral menisci (11), and cranial meniscotibial and intermeniscal ligaments (8). Stifle arthroscopy allowed for joint evaluation and removal of osteochondral fragments in 1 alpaca and 1 llama with naturally occurring stifle disease. Complications of cadaver or live procedures included minor cartilage scoring (3 stifles) and subcutaneous periarticular fluid accumulation (8 stifles). Arthroscopy provides a safe approach for diagnosis and treatment of stifle lesions in South American camelids. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in children undergoing mechanical ventilation of the lungs during general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Onodi, C; Bühler, P K; Thomas, J; Schmitz, A; Weiss, M

    2017-07-11

    Capnography (ETCO2 ) is routinely used as a non-invasive estimate of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ) levels in order to modify ventilatory settings, whereby it is assumed that there is a positive gap between PaCO2 and ETCO2 of approximately 0.5 kPa. However, negative values (ETCO2 > PaCO2 ) can be observed. We retrospectively analysed arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide differences in 799 children undergoing general anaesthesia with mechanical ventilation of the lungs in order to elucidate predictors for a negative gap. A total of 2452 blood gas analysis readings with complete vital sign monitoring, anaesthesia gas analysis and spirometry data were analysed. Mean arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide difference was -0.18 kPa (limits of 95% agreement -1.10 to 0.74) and 71.2% of samples demonstrated negative values. The intercept model revealed PaCO2 to be the strongest predictor for a negative PaCO2 -ETCO2 difference. A decrease in PaCO2 by 1 kPa resulted in a decrease in the PaCO2 -ETCO2 difference by 0.23 kPa. This study demonstrates that ETCO2 monitoring in children whose lungs are mechanically ventilated may paradoxically lead to overestimation of ETCO2 (ETCO2 > PaCO2 ) with a subsequent risk of unrecognised hypocarbia. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Alveolar gas composition during maximal and interrupted apnoeas in ambient air and pure oxygen.

    PubMed

    Fagoni, Nazzareno; Taboni, Anna; Vinetti, Giovanni; Bottarelli, Sara; Moia, Christian; Bringard, Aurélién; Ferretti, Guido

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the alveolar gas composition at the transition between the steady phase II (φ2) and the dynamic phase III (φ3) of the cardiovascular response to apnoea may lay on the physiological breaking point curve (Lin et al., 1974). Twelve elite divers performed maximal and φ2-interrupted apnoeas, in air and pure oxygen. We recorded beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure and heart rate; we measured alveolar oxygen and carbon dioxide pressures (PAO2 and PACO2, respectively) before and after apnoeas; we calculated the PACO2 difference between the end and the beginning of apnoeas (ΔPACO2). Cardiovascular responses to apnoea were similar compared to previous studies. PAO2 and PACO2 at the end of φ2-interrupted apnoeas, corresponded to those reported at the physiological breaking point. For maximal apnoeas, PACO2 was less than reported by Lin et al. (1974). ΔPACO2 was higher in oxygen than in air. The transition between φ2 and φ3 corresponds indeed to the physiological breaking point. We attribute this transition to ΔPACO2, rather than the absolute PACO2 values, both in air and oxygen apnoeas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids▿

    PubMed Central

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB. PMID:22012976

  15. Diagnostic value of animal-side antibody assays for rapid detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti infection in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, H Martin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB.

  16. Arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide tension difference in children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Short, J A; Paris, S T; Booker, P D; Fletcher, R

    2001-03-01

    In children with congenital cyanotic heart disease, right-to-left intracardiac shunting causes an obligatory difference between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2-PE'CO2) as venous blood, rich in carbon dioxide, is added to the arterial circulation. This obligatory PaCO2-PE'CO2 difference, which can be predicted from knowledge of oxygen saturation, haemoglobin concentration and PaCO2, increases as oxygen saturation decreases, most markedly when the haemoglobin concentration is high. A second possible cause of the PaCO2-PE'CO2 difference is the effect of pulmonary hypoperfusion caused by the shunt. We studied 60 children undergoing cardiac surgery and compared the predicted the PaCO2-PE'CO2 difference with measured values to investigate the extent to which additional factors influence the clinically observed PaCO2-PE'CO2. In many children, observed values were much greater than predicted, which is compatible with some degree of pulmonary hypoperfusion. However, this was not felt to represent the complete picture in all patients. Another cause of ventilation-perfusion mismatch was suspected in those children who showed a considerable improvement in oxygen saturation during ventilation with an increased FIO2. We believe that pulmonary congestion caused by large left-to-right shunts may further increase the PaCO2-PE'CO2 difference.

  17. Noninvasive Measurement of Carbon Dioxide during One-Lung Ventilation with Low Tidal Volume for Two Hours: End-Tidal versus Transcutaneous Techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Dong-Xin

    2015-01-01

    There may be significant difference between measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) during one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO2) monitoring can be used continuously to evaluate PaCO2 in a noninvasive fashion. In this study, we compared the accuracy between PetCO2 and PtcCO2 in predicting PaCO2 during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Eighteen adult patients who underwent thoracic surgeries with one-lung ventilation longer than two hours were included in this study. Their PetCO2, PtcCO2, and PaCO2 values were collected at five time points before and during one-lung ventilation. Agreement among measures was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. Ninety sample sets were obtained. The bias and precision when PtcCO2 and PaCO2 were compared were 4.1 ± 6.5 mmHg during two-lung ventilation and 2.9 ± 6.1 mmHg during one-lung ventilation. Those when PetCO2 and PaCO2 were compared were -11.8 ± 6.4 mmHg during two-lung ventilation and -11.8 ± 4.9 mmHg during one-lung ventilation. The differences between PtcCO2 and PaCO2 were significantly lower than those between PetCO2 and PaCO2 at all five time-points (p < 0.05). PtcCO2 monitoring was more accurate for predicting PaCO2 levels during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for patients undergoing thoracic surgeries.

  18. Factors affecting the relationship between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressures in the anaesthetised horse.

    PubMed

    Rainger, J E; Dart, C M; Perkins, N R

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effects of the duration of anaesthesia, position of recumbency, mode of ventilation, anaesthetic drug protocol, patient age and type of surgical procedure on the usefulness of capnometry as a measure of the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)co(2)) during general anaesthesia in horses. A prospective study compared the P(a)co(2) values with those of partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETco(2)) in horses anaesthetised for elective or emergency surgical procedures. The difference between P(a)co(2) and ETco(2) (P(a)co(2)- ETco(2)) and the physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio (V(D)/V(T)) were calculated. The effects of the study parameters on these variables was determined. The agreement between P(a)co(2) and ETco(2) was poor. P(a)co(2)- ETco(2) and V(D)/V(T) during the first 60 min of anaesthesia was significantly less than after 60 min of anaesthesia. Mode of ventilation, position of recumbency, anaesthetic drug protocol, patient age and type of procedure did not have a significant affect on either value. P(a)co(2)- ETco(2) in anaesthetised horses can be large, making ETco(2) unreliable as a predictor of P(a)co(2) and for assessment of pulmonary ventilation. For anaesthesia lasting less than 60 min at least one blood gas analysis of an arterial blood sample is required to assess P(a)co(2)- ETco(2). Arterial blood gas analysis should be repeated after 60 min of general anaesthesia.

  19. Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Stirling, J; Griffith, M; Blair, I; Cormican, M; Dooley, J S G; Goldsmith, C E; Glover, S G; Loughrey, A; Lowery, C J; Matsuda, M; McClurg, R; McCorry, K; McDowell, D; McMahon, A; Cherie Millar, B; Nagano, Y; Rao, J R; Rooney, P J; Smyth, M; Snelling, W J; Xu, J; Moore, J E

    2008-04-01

    Faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, as well as Arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in Belfast Zoological Gardens, during July-September 2006. Thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (11 of 44; 25%). Yersinia spp. were isolated from seven animal species (seven of 44; 15.9%) and included, Yersinia enterocolitica (five of seven isolates; 71.4%) and one isolate each of Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia kristensenii. Only one isolate of Salmonella was obtained throughout the entire study, which was an isolate of Salmonella dublin (O 1,9,12: H g, p), originating from tiger faeces after enrichment. None of the animal species found in public contact areas of the zoo were positive for any gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Also, water from the lake in the centre of the grounds, was examined for the same bacterial pathogens and was found to contain C. jejuni. This study is the first report on the isolation of a number of important bacterial pathogens from a variety of novel host species, C. jejuni from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), C. lari from a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Y. kristensenii from a vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) and Y. enterocolitica from a maned wolf and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the faeces of animals in public contact areas of the zoo were not positive for the bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens examined. This is reassuring for the public health of visitors, particularly children, who enjoy this educational and recreational resource.

  20. Two-Dimensional Protein Pattern Recognition in Chemical Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-20

    temperature. The membranes were washed and blocked with several exchanges of 2.5% powdered milk in PBS (0. 15M NaCl, 0.05M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2...then washed with 0.1% powdered milk in PBS, incubated with goat anti-rabbit peroxidase conjugated lgG, and visualized using 4-chloronaphthol. Other...HEMOGLOBIN BETA CHAIN. - LAMA GLAMA ( LLAMA ), LAMA VICUGNA (VIC 28 . HBB_CAMDR HEMOGLOBIN BETA CHAIN. - CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS (DROMEDARY) (ARAB 29

  1. Evaluation of insulin secretion and action in New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Firshman, Anna M; Cebra, Christopher K; Schanbacher, Barbara J; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    To measure and compare insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy alpacas and llamas via glucose clamping techniques. 8 llamas and 8 alpacas. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping (HEC) and hyperglycemic clamping (HGC) were performed on each camelid in a crossover design with a minimum 48-hour washout period between clamping procedures. The HEC technique was performed to measure insulin sensitivity. Insulin was infused IV at 6 mU/min/kg for 4 hours, and an IV infusion of glucose was adjusted to maintain blood glucose concentration at 150 mg/dL. Concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. The HGC technique was performed to assess insulin secretion in response to exogenous glucose infusion. An IV infusion of glucose was administered to maintain blood glucose concentration at 320 mg/dL for 3 hours, and concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. Alpacas and llamas were not significantly different with respect to whole-body insulin sensitivity during HEC or in pancreatic β-cell response during HGC. Alpacas and llamas had markedly lower insulin sensitivity during HEC and markedly lower pancreatic β-cell response during HGC, in comparison with many other species. New World camelids had lower glucose-induced insulin secretion and marked insulin resistance in comparison with other species. This likely contributes to the disorders of fat and glucose metabolism that are common to camelids.

  2. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  3. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic South American camelids of the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Velásquez, Amanda; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Casas-Astos, Eva; Serrano-Martínez, Enrique; Casas-Velásquez, Gina; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A; Alvarez-García, Gema

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii- and Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic South American camelids (SAC) (llamas and alpacas) from the Peruvian Andes through a cross-sectional study. A wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main SAC production areas of Peru was selected. Immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum immunoglobulins G in serum samples. The association between T. gondii and N. caninum seroprevalence and the geographical origin (Central and South Peruvian Andes) was evaluated. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 460 (24.9 %) llamas and 706 (24.6 %) alpacas, whereas anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected in 153 (8.3 %) llamas and 425 (14.8 %) alpacas. Toxoplasma gondii infection was strongly associated with the South Peruvian Andes where moderate climate conditions, larger human population, compared to the Central region, and the presence of wildlife definitive hosts could favor horizontal transmission to SAC. In contrast, N. caninum infection was not associated with the geographical region. These results indicate that T. gondii and N. caninum infections are highly and moderately widespread, respectively, in both species of domestic SAC studied in the sampled areas and appropriate control measures should be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of both parasitic infections.

  5. Imaging diagnosis--pulmonary metastases in New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Gall, David A; Zekas, Lisa J; Van Metre, David; Holt, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The radiographic appearance of pulmonary metastatic disease from carcinoma is described in a llama and an alpaca. In one, a diffuse miliary pattern was seen. In the other, a more atypical unstructured interstitial pattern was recognized. Metastatic pulmonary neoplasia in camelids may assume a generalized miliary or unstructured pattern.

  6. Pulmonary Arterial Lesions in New World Camelids in Association With Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    PubMed

    Hilbe, M; Robert, N; Pospischil, A; Gerspach, C

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, dicrocoeliasis is regarded as the most significant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas. Fasciola hepatica infestation is also a problem but less common. The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the lungs of New World camelids (NWCs) for evidence of arterial hypertension in association with liver changes due to liver fluke infestation. The lungs of 20 llamas and 20 alpacas with liver fluke infestation were histologically evaluated. The hematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson (VG)-elastica stains as well as immunohistology for the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were used to visualize the structures of arterial walls. Parasitology of fecal matter (11 llamas and 17 alpacas) confirmed that most of these animals were infested with both Dicrocoelium dendriticum and other gastrointestinal parasites. In most cases (10/12 llamas, 4/6 alpacas), liver enzyme activity in serum was elevated. Histologically, arteries in the lungs of 9 of 20 llamas (45%) and 3 of 20 alpacas (15%) showed severe intimal and adventitial and slight to moderate medial thickening, which was confirmed with α-SMA and VG-elastica staining. All animals exhibited typical liver changes, such as fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, in association with the presence of liver flukes. This study shows that liver flukes can induce proliferative changes in lung arteries in NWCs that resemble those seen with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to liver parasites in humans. However, the degree of liver fluke infestation was not correlated with the extent of liver damage, or with the amount of thoracic or abdominal effusion or pulmonary arterial changes.

  7. Using statistical techniques to predict dynamic arterial P(CO(2)) in patients with COPD during maximum exercise.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ming-Lung; Lin, I-Feng; Vintch, Janine R E; Tien, En-Hao

    2012-07-01

    P(aCO(2)) as measured during exercise in patients with COPD is poorly predicted (predicted P(aCO(2))) from lung function testing and some noninvasive measurements, such as end-tidal P(CO(2)) (P(ETCO(2))). We performed a number of statistical techniques on P(ETCO(2)) and its interaction with other physiologic variables during exercise testing, in order to improve our ability to predict P(aCO(2)). The estimated P(aCO(2)) as determined from these techniques may therefore be used to contrast the P(ETCO(2)) readings that are measured during an incremental exercise test on a breath-by-breath basis (ie, P(aCO(2)) - P(ETCO(2))), and to identify exercise-induced hypercapnia. Forty-seven men with COPD underwent both pulmonary function testing and incremental exercise testing until limited by symptoms. Arterial blood gases and exercise physiological measurements were performed during maximal exercise testing. The prediction equations for P(aCO(2)) were generated using regression techniques with the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Forty-one patients were included in the final analysis after 6 patients were excluded due to inadequate data collection. The best prediction equation we found was: predicted P(aCO(2)) = 23.71 + P(ETCO(2)) × (0.9-0.01 × D(LCO) -0.04 × V(T)) - 2.61 × SVC - 0.04 × MEP, where D(LCO) is diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in mL/min/mm Hg, V(T) is tidal volume in L, SVC is slow vital capacity in L, and MEP is maximum expiratory pressure in cm H(2)O. The difference between the measured and predicted P(aCO(2)) at each time point was not statistically significant (all P > .05). The standard errors of the estimated P(aCO(2)) at each time point were 0.91-1.12 mm Hg. A validated mixed-model regression derived equation yields a predicted P(aCO(2)) trend during exercise that can be helpful when interpreting exercise testing to determine P(aCO(2)) - P(ETCO(2)) and exercise-induced hypercapnia.

  8. [Obesity and its respiratory effects detected through levels of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the supine position].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Medina, América; Sánchez-Medina, Marcela Ma

    Obesity is a disease that is closely associated with deleterious respiratory effects such as the Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome which conventionally includes awake hypercapnia. There are studies addressing the detection of daytime hypercapnia with the patient either in sitting or standing position. However, there are no studies in obese subjects with a normal daytime PaCO2 in whom the detection of hypercapnia is made in the supine position. It is feasible that the physiopathological changes that occur in obese patients when they adopt the supine position lead to increased PaCO2 levels or hypercapnia. To determine the levels of PaCO2 in obese patients with a normal daytime PaCO2 in the supine position using arterial blood gas test. Fifty patients with BMI > 30 Kg/m², with a normal daytime PaCO2 were included. Daytime arterial blood gas test was performed first with the patient in a standing position along with pulmonary function test. A second arterial blood gas test was made 15 minutes after the patient adopted the supine position. Polisomnography was performed. Mean BMI was 40 kg/m2. PaCO2 levels in the standing position were less, statistically significant, than the PaCO2 levels in the supine position, 30.7 ± 2.5 mmHg vs 35.6 ± 6.7 mmH, p < 0.001. We can achieve an early detection of Obesity hipoventilation syndrome in obese patients with a normal daytime PaCO2 by performing the arterial blood gas test in the supine position before these patients develop severe complications.

  9. Continuous End-tidal Carbon Dioxide Monitoring during Resuscitation of Asphyxiated Term Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Praveen Kumar; Rawat, Munmun; Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Koenigschnekt, Carmon; Swartz, Daniel D.; Vali, Payam; Mathew, Bobby; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    Background The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) recommends close monitoring of oxygenation during the resuscitation of newborns using a pulse oximeter. However, there are no guidelines for monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) to assess ventilation. Considering that cerebral blood flow (CBF) correlates directly with PaCO2, continuous capnography monitoring of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) may limit fluctuations in PaCO2 and, therefore, CBF during resuscitation of asphyxiated infants. Objective To evaluate if continuous monitoring of ETCO2 with capnography during resuscitation of asphyxiated term lambs with meconium aspiration will prevent fluctuations in PaCO2 and carotid arterial blood flow (CABF). Methods Fifty-four asphyxiated term lambs with meconium aspiration syndrome were mechanically ventilated from birth to 60 min of age. Ventilatory parameters were adjusted based on clinical observation (chest excursion) and frequent arterial blood gas analysis in 24 lambs (control group) and 30 lambs (capnography group) received additional continuous ETCO2 monitoring. Left CABF was monitored. We aimed to maintain PaCO2 between 35–50 mmHg and ETCO2 between 30–45 mmHg. Results There was a significant correlation between ETCO2 and PaCO2 (R=0.7, p<0.001), between PaCO2 and carotid flow (R=0.52, p<0.001), and between ETCO2 and carotid flow (R=0.5, p<0.001). PaCO2 and CABF during the first 60 minutes of age showed significantly higher fluctuation in the control group compared to the capnography group. Conclusion Continuous monitoring of ETCO2 using capnography with mechanical ventilation during and after resuscitation in asphyxiated term lambs with meconium aspiration limits fluctuations in PaCO2 and CABF, and may potentially limit brain injury. PMID:26866711

  10. Cerebral blood flow decreases with time whereas cerebral oxygen consumption remains stable during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Prough, D.S.; Rogers, A.T.; Stump, D.A.; Roy, R.C.; Cordell, A.R.; Phipps, J.; Taylor, C.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Recent investigations demonstrate that cerebral blood flow (CBF) progressively declines during hypothermic, nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). If CBF declines because of brain cooling, the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) should decline in parallel with the reduction in CBF. Therefore we studied the response of CBF, the cerebral arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-VDcereO2) and CMRO2 as a function of the duration of CPB in humans. To do this, we compared the cerebrovascular response to changes in the PaCO2. Because sequential CBF measurements using xenon 133 (133Xe) clearance must be separated by 15-25 min, we hypothesized that a time-dependent decline in CBF would accentuate the CBF reduction caused by a decrease in PaCO2, but would blunt the CBF increase associated with a rise in PaCO2. We measured CBF in 25 patients and calculated the cerebral arteriovenous oxygen content difference using radial arterial and jugular venous bulb blood samples. Patients were randomly assigned to management within either a lower (32-48 mm Hg) or higher (50-71 mm Hg) range of PaCO2 uncorrected for temperature. Each patient underwent two randomly ordered sets of measurements, one at a lower PaCO2 and the other at a higher PaCO2 within the respective ranges. Cerebrovascular responsiveness to changes in PaCO2 was calculated as specific reactivity (SR), the change in CBF divided by the change in PaCO2, expressed in mL.100 g-1.min-1.mm Hg-1.

  11. Independence of exercise hypocapnia and limb movement frequency in ponies.

    PubMed

    Forster, H V; Pan, L G; Bisgard, G E; Flynn, C; Dorsey, S M; Britton, M S

    1984-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether changes in limb motion per se influence arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) during muscular exercise in ponies. Fifteen ponies were studied at rest and during 8 min of treadmill exercise when the work load was constant or when the work load was increased after the 4th min. Five different treadmill settings were selected to provide for a range of metabolic rate achieved with primary changes in either speed or grade (1.8 mph at 3, 8, and 15% grade; or 3 and 6 mph at 3% grade). The ponies exercised either on all four legs or on only the hindlegs. Step frequencies were 49, 66, and 99 at 1.8, 3, and 6 mph, respectively. During all work tasks PaCO2 decreased maximally 30-60 s after the work task was initiated from rest or from a less intense level of exercise. This nadir in PaCO2 was followed by some recovery with a stable level of mild hypocapnia (delta PaCO2) maintained after 3-4 min. The delta PaCO2 was directly related to O2 consumption (VO2) (P less than 0.01). The delta PaCO2-VO2 regression slopes did not differ between speed and grade VO2 changes nor between four- and two-legged exercise (P greater than 0.10). These data suggest that neither frequency of limb movement nor the number of limbs moving are major factors in the PaCO2 (and alveolar ventilation) response to exercise in ponies. We conclude that the apparent difference in PaCO2 regulation during exercise between ponies (hypocapnia) and humans (isocapnia during walking and bicycling) is not related to a species difference in the number of limbs employed in the exercise task.

  12. End-Tidal and Arterial Carbon Dioxide Measurements Correlate Across All Levels of Physiologic Dead Space

    PubMed Central

    McSwain, Steven D.; Hamel, Donna S.; Smith, P. Brian; Gentile, Michael A.; Srinivasan, Saumini; Meliones, Jon N.; Cheifetz, Ira M.

    2010-01-01

    Background End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) is a surrogate, noninvasive measurement of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2); however, its clinical applicability in the intensive care unit setting remains unclear. Available research on the relationship between ETCO2 and PaCO2 has not taken a detailed assessment of physiologic dead space into consideration. We hypothesize that ETCO2 reliably predicts PaCO2 across all levels of physiologic dead space provided that the expected ETCO2-PaCO2 gradient is considered. Methods Fifty-six mechanically ventilated pediatric patients (0-17 years; 19.5 ± 24.5 kg) were monitored with volumetric capnography. For every arterial blood gas obtained during routine care, ETCO2 values were collected, and Vd/Vt values calculated. The ETCO2-PaCO2 relationship was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients within specified ranges of Vd/Vt. Results Vd/Vt was ≤ 0.4 for 125 (25%) measurements, 0.41-0.55 for 160 (32%) measurements, 0.55-0.7 for 154 (31%) measurements, and > 0.7 for 54 (11%) measurements. The correlation coefficients between ETCO2 and PaCO2 were 0.95 (mean gradient = 0.3 ± 2.1) for Vd/Vt ≤ 0.4, 0.88 (mean gradient = 5.9 ± 4.3) for Vd/Vt 0.41-0.55, 0.86 (mean gradient = 13.6 ± 5.2) for Vd/Vt 0.55-0.7, and 0.78 (mean gradient = 17.8 ± 6.7) for Vd/Vt > 0.7. Conclusions Strong correlations between ETCO2 and PaCO2 were found for all Vd/Vt ranges. The ETCO2-PaCO2 gradient increased predictably with increasing Vd/Vt. PMID:20196877

  13. Noninvasive Carbon Dioxide Monitoring in a Porcine Model of Acute Lung Injury Due to Smoke Inhalation and Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    critically ill intubated patients, assessment of adequacy of ventilation relies on measuring partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which...recorded in the PaCO2 range of 25 to 85 mmHg. Overlapping data sets were analyzed based on respiratory and hemodynamic status of animals. Acute lung injury...instability, we recorded the frequency of changes in the respiratory rate (as set on the ventilator ) and in the FIO2. We defined hemo dynamic instability as

  14. Acetylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Act as Antagonists against Glutamate-Induced PC12 Cell Death via Bcl-2/Bax Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Cui; Gao, Lixia; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Wei; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4) d-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs) and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs) were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with the PACOs markedly inhibited glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The PACOs were better glutamate antagonists compared to the COSs and the NACOs, suggesting the peracetylation is essential for the neuroprotective effects of chitosan oligosaccharides. In addition, the PACOs pretreatment significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species production. It also attenuated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies indicated that the PACOs inhibited glutamate-induced cell death by preventing apoptosis through depressing the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that PACOs might be promising antagonists against glutamate-induced neural cell death. PMID:25775423

  15. Cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation changes induced by inner and heard speech: a study combining functional near-infrared spectroscopy and capnography.

    PubMed

    Scholkmann, Felix; Klein, Sabine D; Gerber, Ursina; Wolf, Martin; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inner and heard speech on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and to test whether potential effects were caused by alterations in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2). Twenty-nine healthy adult volunteers performed six different tasks of inner and heard speech according to a randomized crossover design. During the tasks, we generally found a decrease in PaCO2 (only for inner speech), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentration and an increase in deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HHb]). Furthermore, we found significant relations between changes in [O2Hb], [HHb], [tHb], or StO2 and the participants' age, the baseline PETCO2, or certain speech tasks. We conclude that changes in breathing during the tasks led to lower PaCO2 (hypocapnia) for inner speech. During heard speech, no significant changes in PaCO2 occurred, but the decreases in StO2, [O2Hb], and [tHb] suggest that changes in PaCO2 were also involved here. Different verse types (hexameter and alliteration) led to different changes in [tHb], implying different brain activations. In conclusion, StO2, [O2Hb], [HHb], and [tHb] are affected by interplay of both PaCO2 reactivity and functional brain activity.

  16. Estimation of arterial PCO2 from a lung model during ramp exercise in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vincent; Costes, Frédéric; Busso, Thierry

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study is to propose a new approach to estimate non-invasively arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(a)CO2) approach was based on the reconstruction of alveolar gas composition over each breath from a tidally ventilated lung model (P(M)(CO2)). Eight healthy young subjects were studied during a ramp exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial samples were drawn at rest and every minute during the exercise test for determination of P(a)CO2 . P(a)CO2 was compared with indirect estimates of P(CO2) : P(M)(CO2), end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET)(CO2)) and an empirical equation involving P(ET)(CO2) and tidal volume (P(J)(CO2)). The difference between estimated and measured P(a)CO2 on the whole ramp exercise was -0.3+/-1.9mmHg for P(M)(CO2), 1.0+/-2.2mmHg for P(ET)(CO2) and -1.7+/-1.7mmHg for P(J)(CO2) . P(ET)(CO2) and P(J)(CO2) were significantly different from actual P(a)CO2 (P<0.001). It is concluded that, on the basis of the bias, the breathing lung model gave better estimates of P(a)CO2 than the two other indirect methods during ramp exercise.

  17. Non-invasive prospective targeting of arterial P(CO2) in subjects at rest.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shoji; Mardimae, Alexandra; Han, Jay; Duffin, James; Wells, Greg; Fedorko, Ludwik; Minkovich, Leonid; Katznelson, Rita; Meineri, Massimiliano; Arenovich, Tamara; Kessler, Cathie; Fisher, Joseph A

    2008-08-01

    Accurate measurements of arterial P(CO(2)) (P(a,CO(2))) currently require blood sampling because the end-tidal P(CO(2)) (P(ET,CO(2))) of the expired gas often does not accurately reflect the mean alveolar P(CO(2)) and P(a,CO(2)). Differences between P(ET,CO(2)) and P(a,CO(2)) result from regional inhomogeneities in perfusion and gas exchange. We hypothesized that breathing via a sequential gas delivery circuit would reduce these inhomogeneities sufficiently to allow accurate prediction of P(a,CO(2)) from P(ET,CO(2)). We tested this hypothesis in five healthy middle-aged men by comparing their P(ET,CO(2)) values with P(a,CO(2)) values at various combinations of P(ET,CO(2)) (between 35 and 50 mmHg), P(O(2)) (between 70 and 300 mmHg), and breathing frequencies (f; between 6 and 24 breaths min(-1)). Once each individual was in a steady state, P(a,CO(2)) was collected in duplicate by consecutive blood samples to assess its repeatability. The difference between P(ET,CO(2)) and average P(a,CO(2)) was 0.5 +/- 1.7 mmHg (P = 0.53; 95% CI -2.8, 3.8 mmHg) whereas the mean difference between the two measurements of P(a,CO(2)) was -0.1 +/- 1.6 mmHg (95% CI -3.7, 2.6 mmHg). Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant differences between P(ET,CO(2)) and P(a,CO(2)) over the ranges of P(O(2)), f and target P(ET,CO(2)). We conclude that when breathing via a sequential gas delivery circuit, P(ET,CO(2)) provides as accurate a measurement of P(a,CO(2)) as the actual analysis of arterial blood.

  18. Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury due to smoke inhalation and burns.

    PubMed

    Belenkiy, Slava; Ivey, Katherine M; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Langer, Thomas; Necsoiu, Corina; Baker, William; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-06-01

    In critically ill intubated patients, assessment of adequacy of ventilation relies on measuring partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which requires invasive arterial blood gas analysis. Alternative noninvasive technologies include transcutaneous CO2 (tPCO2) and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) monitoring. We evaluated accuracy of tPCO2 and EtCO2 monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury (ALI) due to smoke inhalation and burns. Eight anesthetized Yorkshire pigs underwent mechanical ventilation, wood-bark smoke inhalation injury, and 40% total body surface area thermal injury. tPCO2 was measured with a SenTec system (SenTec AG, Therwil, Switzerland) and EtCO2 with a Capnostream-20 (Oridion Medical, Jerusalem, Israel). These values were compared with PaCO2 measurements from an arterial blood gas analyzer. Paired measurements of EtCO2-PaCO2 (n = 276) and tPCO2-PaCO2 (n = 250) were recorded in the PaCO2 range of 25 to 85 mmHg. Overlapping data sets were analyzed based on respiratory and hemodynamic status of animals. Acute lung injury was defined as PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mmHg; hemodynamic instability was defined as mean arterial pressure ≤ 60 mmHg. Before ALI, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.45; P < 0.0001), which deteriorated after onset of ALI (R = 0.12; P < 0.0001). Before ALI, tPCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation (R = 0.51, P < 0.0001), which was sustained after onset of ALI (R = 0.78; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic stability, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.44; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic instability, EtCO2 did not correlate with PaCO2 (R = 0.03; P = 0.29). tPCO2 monitoring demonstrated strong correlation with PaCO2 during hemodynamic stability (R = 0.80, P < 0.0001), which deteriorated under hemodynamically unstable conditions (R = 0.39; P < 0.0001). Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitors are acceptable for monitoring trends in PaCO2 under conditions of hemodynamic and pulmonary stability. Under

  19. A quick and easy method of measuring the hypercapnic ventilatory response in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Nickol, Annabel H; Dunroy, Helen; Polkey, Michael I; Simonds, Anita; Cordingley, Jeremy; Corfield, Douglas R; Morrell, Mary J

    2009-02-01

    Hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) techniques have not previously been adequately validated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have tested the hypothesis that end-tidal PCO(2) may be used to test the HCVR in COPD during non-steady-state rebreathing, despite the fact that large (arterial-end-tidal) PCO(2) differences (P(a-et)CO(2)) exist during air breathing. Eight patients and 11 healthy volunteers underwent steady-state HCVR testing and non-steady-state rebreathing HCVR testing, using Pa and PetCO(2). In COPD patients, PetCO(2) was lower than PaCO(2) by a constant amount throughout steady-state HCVR, but equalised with PaCO(2) during non-steady-state HCVR. Consequently there were no differences in HCVR slope using either method (steady-state p=0.91; rebreathing p=0.73), or HCVR intercept in rebreathing (p=0.68) whether PaCO(2) or PetCO(2) was used. The steady-state HCVR intercept using PetCO(2) was greater than that using PaCO(2) (p=0.02). In healthy volunteers PetCO(2) equalised with PaCO(2) during steady-state HCVR, but was progressively greater than PaCO(2) during non-steady-state. Consequently, there was no difference in HCVR slope (p=0.21) or intercept (p=0.46) whether PaCO(2) or PetCO(2) was used. During non-steady-state there was a P(a-et)CO(2) difference in slope (p=0.03) and intercept (p=0.04). In COPD patients non-steady-state HCVR using PetCO(2) is well tolerated, which is as accurate as PaCO(2). HCVR slope may be derived using PetCO(2) during steady-state testing, though there may be errors in intercept compared to use of PaCO(2). In healthy volunteers PetCO(2) may be used to estimate PaCO(2) during steady-state but not rebreathing HCVR.

  20. Noninvasive measurement of tissue carbon dioxide tension using a fiberoptic conjunctival sensor: effects of respiratory and metabolic alkalosis and acidosis.

    PubMed

    Kram, H B; Fink, S; Tsang, M; Markle, D; Appel, P L; Shoemaker, W C

    1988-03-01

    To evaluate potential clinical applications of a newly developed, noninvasive fiberoptic conjunctival carbon dioxide (PcjCO2) sensor designed to measure continuously tissue PCO2 in a vascular bed supplied by the internal carotid artery, we studied the effects of graded respiratory and metabolic alkalosis and acidosis on PcjCO2 in a hemodynamically stable canine model. Respiratory changes were induced by varying the frequency of ventilation and metabolic changes were induced by incremental infusions of sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid. Continuous measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2) was also performed. During respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, PcjCO2 values correlated well with PaCO2 (r = 0.96, n = 106); linear regression analysis of PcjCO2 vs. PaCO2 produced a slope of 1.01 and a y-intercept of 3.94 over a PaCO2 range of 12 to 76 torr. The mean PcjCO2-PaCO2 gradient was 4 +/- 3 (SD) torr. PETCO2 values also correlated well with PaCO2 (r = 0.91), as well as with PcjCO2 values (r = 0.91). Both PcjCO2 and PETCO2 showed a much weaker correlation with PaCO2 during metabolic alkalosis and acidosis, partly because the variation in PaCO2 was less. Moreover, the PcjCO2-PaCO2 gradient increased during the metabolic portion of the study up to a mean of 10 +/- 8 (SD) torr during metabolic acidosis, implying a build-up and/or lack of washout of CO2 from the conjunctival tissues, despite the normal physiologic range of PaCO2 values. We conclude that in a hemodynamically stable canine model, PcjCO2 and PETCO2 values correlate well with PaCO2 during pure respiratory alkalosis and acidosis; the correlation weakens significantly, however, with metabolic alterations in tissue CO2 levels.

  1. When does apparatus dead space matter for the pediatric patient?

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew F; Feldman, Jeffrey M

    2014-04-01

    Physiologic dead space is defined as the volume of the lung where gas exchange does not occur. Apparatus dead space increases dead space volume, causing either increased PaCO2 or the need to increase minute ventilation to maintain normocapnia. Children are especially vulnerable because small increases in apparatus dead space can significantly increase dead space to tidal volume ratio (Vd/Vt). The effect of changes in dead space on arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and required minute ventilation were calculated for patients weighing 2 to 17 kg that corresponds to 0 to 36 months of age. Apparatus volumes for typical devices were obtained from the manufacturer or measured by the volume of water required to fill the device. The relationship between the fraction of alveolar CO2 (FaCO2) and dead space volume (Vd) was derived from the Bohr equation, FaCO2 = VCO2/(RR*(Vt - Vd)), where VCO2 is CO2 production, RR is respiratory rate, and Vt is tidal volume. VCO2 was estimated by using Brody's equation for humans aged up to 36 months, (VCO2 = 5.56*(wt)), where weight is in kilogram. Initial conditions were Vt = 8 mL/kg, Vd/Vt = 0.3, and a RR of 20 breaths per minute. The relationship between PaCO2 and dead space was determined for increasing Vd. Rearranging the Bohr equation, the RR required to maintain PaCO2 of 40 mm·Hg was determined as dead space increased. The apparatus Vd of typical device arrangements ranged from 8 to 55 mL, and these values were used for the dead space values in the model. PaCO2 increased exponentially with increasing apparatus dead space. For smaller patients, the PaCO2 increased more rapidly for small changes in Vd than that in larger patients. Similarly, RR required to maintain PaCO2 of 40 mm·Hg increased exponentially with increasing dead space. Increasing apparatus Vd can lead to exponential increases in PaCO2 and/or RR required to maintain normal PaCO2. The effect on PaCO2 is less as patient weight increases, but these data suggest it can be significant

  2. Volume-targeted ventilation and arterial carbon dioxide in neonates.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Catherine; Davies, Mark William

    2005-01-01

    To review the arterial carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO(2)) in newborn infants ventilated using synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) in volume guarantee mode (using the Dräger Babylog 8000+) with a unit policy targeting tidal volumes of approximately 4 mL/kg. Data on ventilator settings and arterial PaCO(2) levels were collected on all arterial blood gases (ABG; n = 288) from 50 neonates (<33 weeks gestational age) ventilated using the Dräger Babylog 8000+ ventilator (Dräger Medizintechnik GmbH, Lübeck, Germany) in SIMV plus volume guarantee mode. Data were analysed for all blood gases done on the entire cohort in the first 48 h of life and a subanalysis was done on the first gas for each infant (n = 38) ventilated using volume guarantee from admission to the nursery. The number of ABG showing severe hypocapnoea (PaCO(2) < 25 mmHg) and/or severe hypercapnoea (PaCO(2) > 65 mmHg) were determined. The mean (SD) PaCO(2) during the first 48 h was 46.6 (9.0) mmHg. The mean (SD) PaCO(2) on the first blood gas of those infants commenced on volume guarantee from admission was 45.1 (12.5) mmHg. Severe hypo- or hypercapnoea occurred in 8% of infants at the time of their first blood gas measurement, and in <4% of blood gas measurements in the first 48 h. Infants ventilated with volume guarantee ventilation targeting approximately 4 mL/kg (range: 2.9-5.1) have acceptable PaCO(2) levels at the first blood gas measurement and during the first 48 h of life; and avoid severe hypo- or hypercapnoea over 90% of the time.

  3. Application of end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring via distal gas samples in ventilated neonates.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ziying; Yang, Maoying; Lin, Ru; Huang, Wenfang; Wang, Jiangmei; Hu, Zhiyong; Shu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has suggested correlations between the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in mechanically ventilated patients, but both the relationship between PETCO2 and PaCO2 and whether PETCO2 accurately reflects PaCO2 in neonates and infants are still controversial. This study evaluated remote sampling of PETCO2 via an epidural catheter within an endotracheal tube to determine the procedure's clinical safety and efficacy in the perioperative management of neonates. Abdominal surgery was performed under general anesthesia in 86 full-term newborns (age 1-30 days, weight 2.55-4.0 kg, American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II). The infants were divided into 2 groups (n = 43 each), and carbon dioxide (CO2) gas samples were collected either from the conventional position (the proximal end) or a modified position (the distal end) of the epidural catheter. The PETCO2 measured with the new method was significantly higher than that measured with the traditional method, and the difference between PETCO2 and PaCO2 was also reduced. The accuracy of PETCO2 measured increased from 78.7% to 91.5% when the modified sampling method was used. The moderate correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2 by traditional measurement was 0.596, which significantly increased to 0.960 in the modified sampling group. Thus, the PETCO2 value was closer to that of PaCO2. PETCO2 detected via modified carbon dioxide monitoring had a better accuracy and correlation with PaCO2 in neonates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A guide for predicting arterial CO2 tension in metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Fulop, M

    1997-01-01

    This presentation examines the relation of arterial CO2 tension to the severity of acidemia in three large groups of cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, totalling 405 episodes. In particular, it evaluates the previously reported anecdotal observation that PaCO2 (in torr) in such patients is usually numerically close to the two-digit number to the right of the pH decimal point, down to a pH of 7.10-7.15. The relations between measured arterial CO2 tension levels and calculated plasma bicarbonate concentration in the three groups were very similar to those previously reported by others and us, the regression equations approximating PaCO2 = 1.5 x [HCO3-] + 8. Further, in the 262 episodes with blood pH 7.10-7.37, down to a pH of 7.10-7.15, the average PaCO2 in torr often did approximate the two-digit number to the right of the decimal point in the pH value. This relation provides a quick and easily remembered alternative guide for predicting the approximate expected PaCO2 in patients with metabolic acidosis. The basis for this apparently fortuitous relation between PaCO2 and blood pH may be the closely similar correlation between PaCO2 and 1/cH+ (i.e., 10PH), which in turn derives from the physiologically significant relation of alveolar ventilation to blood pH, and the inverse relation between PaCO2 and alveolar ventilation.

  5. The Effects of Hypercapnia on Cerebral Autoregulation in Ventilated Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    KAISER, JEFFREY R.; GAUSS, C. HEATH; WILLIAMS, D. KEITH

    2006-01-01

    Permissive hypercapnia, a strategy allowing high Paco2, is widely used by neonatologists to minimize lung damage in ventilated very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. While hypercapnia increases cerebral blood flow (CBF), its effects on cerebral autoregulation of VLBW infants are unknown. Monitoring of mean CBF velocity (mCBFv), Paco2, and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) from 43 ventilated VLBW infants during the first week of life was performed during and after 117 tracheal suctioning procedures. Autoregulation status was determined during tracheal suctioning because it perturbs cerebral and systemic hemodynamics. The slope of the relationship between mCBFv and MABP was estimated when Paco2 was fixed at 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 mm Hg. A slope near or equal to 0 suggests intact autoregulation, i.e. CBF is not influenced by MABP. Increasing values >0 indicate progressively impaired autoregulation. Infants weighed 905 ± 259 g and were 26.9 ± 2.3 wk gestation. The autoregulatory slope increased as Paco2 increased from 30 to 60 mm Hg. While the slopes for Paco2 values of 30 to 40 mm Hg were not statistically different from 0, slopes for Paco2 ≥45 mm Hg indicated a progressive loss of cerebral autoregulation. The autoregulatory slope increases with increasing Paco2, suggesting the cerebral circulation becomes progressively pressure passive with hypercapnia. These data raise concerns regarding the use of permissive hypercapnia in ventilated VLBW infants during the first week of life, as impaired autoregulation during this period may be associated with increased vulnerability to brain injury. PMID:16257928

  6. Disparity between mainstream and sidestream end-tidal carbon dioxide values and arterial carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Pekdemir, Murat; Cinar, Orhan; Yilmaz, Serkan; Yaka, Elif; Yuksel, Melih

    2013-07-01

    Measuring and monitoring end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) is an important aspect of caring for critically ill patients. The 2 methods used for PETCO2 measurement are the mainstream and sidestream methods. To assess the agreement between PETCO2 measurements performed by mainstream and sidestream methods with the PaCO2 values. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 114 subjects were enrolled in the study. PETCO2 measurements using mainstream and sidestream methods were performed simultaneously with the arterial blood sampling in subjects who were observed in the emergency department and required arterial blood gas analysis. Agreement between the PETCO2 measurements and the PaCO2 values obtained from arterial blood gas analysis were evaluated using the Bland-Altman method. Sixty subjects (52.6%) were female, and the mean age was 60.9 years (95% CI 58.3-63.6). The mean PaCO2 was 35.16 mm Hg (95% CI 33.81-36.51), the mainstream PETCO2 was 22.11 (95% CI 21.05-23.18), and the sidestream PETCO2 was 25.48 (95% CI 24.22-26.75). Bland-Altman analysis showed an average difference between mainstream PETCO2 and PaCO2 values of 13 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -0.6 to 25.5) and moderate correlation (r = 0.55, P < .001). The average difference between the sidestream PETCO2 and PaCO2 values was 9.7 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -5.4 to 24.7) and poor correlation (r = 0.41, P < .001). PETCO2 values obtained by mainstream and sidestream methods were found to be significantly lower than the PaCO2 values. There was essentially no agreement between the measurements obtained by 2 different methods and the PaCO2 values.

  7. Hypocapnia and Hypercapnia Are Predictors for ICU Admission and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Laserna, Elena; Sibila, Oriol; Aguilar, Patrick R.; Mortensen, Eric M.; Anzueto, Antonio; Blanquer, Jose M.; Sanz, Francisco; Rello, Jordi; Marcos, Pedro J.; Velez, Maria I.; Aziz, Nivin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) the association between abnormal Paco2 and ICU admission and 30-day mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two tertiary teaching hospitals. Eligible subjects were admitted with a diagnosis of CAP. Arterial blood gas analyses were obtained with measurement of Paco2 on admission. Multivariate analyses were performed using 30-day mortality and ICU admission as the dependent measures. Results: Data were abstracted on 453 subjects with a documented arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred eighty-nine patients (41%) had normal Paco2 (35-45 mm Hg), 194 patients (42%) had a Paco2 < 35 mm Hg (hypocapnic), and 70 patients (15%) had a Paco2 > 45 mm Hg (hypercapnic). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for severity of illness, hypocapnic patients had greater 30-day mortality (OR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.28-6.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 2.88; 95% CI, 1.68-4.95) compared with patients with normal Paco2. In addition, hypercapnic patients had a greater 30-day mortality (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.38-8.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 5.35; 95% CI, 2.80-10.23). When patients with COPD were excluded from the analysis, the differences persisted between groups. Conclusion: In hospitalized patients with CAP, both hypocapnia and hypercapnia were associated with an increased need for ICU admission and higher 30-day mortality. These findings persisted after excluding patients with CAP and with COPD. Therefore, Paco2 should be considered for inclusion in future severity stratification criteria to appropriate identified patients who will require a higher level of care and are at risk for increased mortality. PMID:22677348

  8. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus experimental transmission using a pig model.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Alert, J; Raj, V S; Muñoz, M; Abad, F X; Cordón, I; Haagmans, B L; Bensaid, A; Segalés, J

    2017-10-01

    Dromedary camels are the main reservoir of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but other livestock species (i.e., alpacas, llamas, and pigs) are also susceptible to infection with MERS-CoV. Animal-to-animal transmission in alpacas was reported, but evidence for transmission in other species has not been proved. This study explored pig-to-pig MERS-CoV transmission experimentally. Virus was present in nasal swabs of infected animals, and limited amounts of viral RNA, but no infectious virus were detected in the direct contact pigs. No virus was detected in the indirect contact group. Furthermore, direct and indirect contact pigs did not develop specific antibodies against MERS-CoV. Therefore, the role of pigs as reservoir is probably negligible, although it deserves further confirmation. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Chitinosanase: A fungal chitosan hydrolyzing enzyme with a new and unusually specific cleavage pattern.

    PubMed

    Kohlhoff, Markus; Niehues, Anna; Wattjes, Jasper; Bénéteau, Julie; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine; Bernard, Frank; Rivera-Rodriguez, Gustavo R; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2017-10-15

    The biological activities of partially acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (paCOS) depend on their degree of polymerization (DP), fraction of acetylation (FA), and potentially their pattern of acetylation (PA). Therefore, analyzing structure-function relationships require fully defined paCOS, but these are currently unavailable. A promising approach for obtaining at least partially defined paCOS is using chitosanolytic enzymes. Here we purified and characterized a novel chitosan-hydrolyzing enzyme from the fungus Alternaria alternata possessing an absolute cleavage specificity, yielding fully defined paCOS. It cleaves specifically after GlcN-GlcNAc pairs and is most active towards moderately acetylated chitosans, but shows no activity against fully acetylated or fully deacetylated substrates. These unique properties match neither those of chitinases nor chitosanases. Therefore, the enzyme represents the first member of a new class of chitosanolytic enzymes that will allow for the production of fully defined paCOS. Additionally, it represents a highly valuable tool for fingerprinting analyses of chitosan polymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Can Transcutaneous CO2 Tension Be Used to Calculate Ventilatory Dead Space? A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Geeti, Adiba A.; Darr, Umer M.; Kaufman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Dead space fraction (Vd/Vt) measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of Vd/Vt. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had Vd/Vt calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2. The mean Vd/Vt calculated using PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively, with a strong positive correlation between the two methods of calculation (Pearson's correlation = 0.87, p < 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of −0.05 (95% CI: −0.01 to −0.09) between the two methods. PtcCO2 measurements can provide a noninvasive means to measure Vd/Vt, thus accessing important physiologic information and prognostic assessment in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:27688911

  11. Can Transcutaneous CO2 Tension Be Used to Calculate Ventilatory Dead Space? A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, Pradeep H; Geeti, Adiba A; Darr, Umer M; Kaufman, David A

    2016-01-01

    Dead space fraction (V d/V t) measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of V d/V t. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had V d/V t calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2. The mean V d/V t calculated using PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively, with a strong positive correlation between the two methods of calculation (Pearson's correlation = 0.87, p < 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -0.05 (95% CI: -0.01 to -0.09) between the two methods. PtcCO2 measurements can provide a noninvasive means to measure V d/V t, thus accessing important physiologic information and prognostic assessment in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

  12. Phenotypic characterisation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis of veterinary isolates of Streptococcus pluranimalium.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D F; Carson, T; Foster, G; Koylass, M S; Whatmore, A M

    2012-05-01

    Forty-two isolates of Streptococcus pluranimalium were identified from cattle (n=38), sheep (n=2), an alpaca (n=1) and a pheasant (n=1) in the United Kingdom. The isolates were confirmed as S. pluranimalium by 16S rRNA sequence analysis but could not be differentiated reliably from Streptococcus acidominimus by phenotypic characterisation using commercial kits routinely used in veterinary laboratories. The alanyl-phenylalanyl-proline arylamidase reaction could be used to differentiate S. pluranimalium (positive) from Aerococcus urinae (negative).

  13. Camelid cardiology.

    PubMed

    Margiocco, Marco L; Scansen, Brian A; Bonagura, John D

    2009-07-01

    Cardiovascular disorders, although not thoroughly described in the literature, are frequently diagnosed in South American camelids, causing morbidity, mortality, and loss of production. Definitive confirmation concerning the heritability of cardiac defects in these species is lacking; however, this potential exists and should be taken into account when counseling breeders and owners. This article describes the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in llamas and alpacas and reviews the most recent literature. Unique aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in these species are also reviewed.

  14. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin.

  15. A study of partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide and end-tidal carbon dioxide correlation in intraoperative and postoperative period in neurosurgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Pallavi; Harde, Minal; Gujjar, Pinakin; Deosarkar, Devanand; Bhadade, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) is of utmost importance in neurosurgical patients. It is measured by partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2). We aimed to study the correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 in neurosurgical patients in the intraoperative and postoperative period on mechanical ventilation in Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU). Methodology: This was prospective observational study done at tertiary care teaching public hospital over a period of 1 year. We studied 30 patients undergoing elective craniotomy intraoperatively and in the postoperative period on mechanical ventilation for 24 h. Serial measurement of ETCO2 and PaCO2 at baseline, hourly intraoperatively and every 6 hourly in the PACU were studied. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 20. Results: The mean PaCO2–ETCO2 gradient intraoperatively over 4 h is 3.331 ± 2.856 and postoperatively over 24 h is 2.779 ± 2.932 and lies in 95% confidence interval. There was statistically significant correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 intraoperatively baseline, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.799, 0.522, 0582, 0.439, and 0.547, respectively (P < 0.05). In PACU at baseline, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, and 24 h Pearson's correlation coefficients were. 534, −0.032, 0.522, 0.242, 0.592, and 0.547, respectively, which are highly significant at three instances (P < 0.01). Conclusion: ETCO2 correlates PaCO2 with acceptable accuracy in neurosurgical patients in the intraoperative and postoperative period on mechanical ventilation in Intensive Care Unit. Thus, continuous and noninvasive ETCO2 can be used as a reliable guide to estimate arterial PCO2 during neurosurgical procedures and in PACU. PMID:28761526

  16. A pilot assessment of alpha-stat vs pH-stat arterial blood gas analysis after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Glenn M; Suzuki, Satoshi; Lluch, Cristina; Schneider, Antoine G; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-02-01

    Resuscitated cardiac arrest (CA) patients typically receive therapeutic hypothermia, but arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often assessed after adjustment to 37°C (alpha-stat) instead of actual body temperature (pH-stat). We sought to compare alpha-stat and pH-stat assessment of PaO2 and PaCO2 in such patients. Using ABG data obtained during the first 24 hours of intensive care unit admission, we determined the impact of measured alpha vs calculated pH-stat on PaO2 and PaCO2 on patient classification and outcomes for CA patients. We assessed 1013 ABGs from 120 CA patients with a median age of patients 66 years (interquartile range, 50-76). Median alpha-stat PaO2 changed from 122 (95-156) to 107 (82-143) mm Hg with pH-stat and median PaCO2 from 39 (34-46) to 35 (30-41) mm Hg (both P < .001). Using the categories of hyperoxemia, normoxemia, and hypoxemia, pH-stat estimation of PaO2 reclassified approximately 20% of patients. Using the categories of hypercapnia, normocapnia, and hypocapnia, pH stat estimation of PaCO2 reclassified approximately 40% of patients. The mortality of patients in different PaO2 and PaCO2 categories was similar for pH-stat and alpha-stat. Using the pH-stat method, fewer resuscitated CA patients admitted to intensive care unit were classified as hyperoxemic or hypercapnic compared with alpha-stat. These findings suggest an impact of ABG assessment methodology on PaO2, PaCO2 , and patient classification but not on associated outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of carbon dioxide, respiratory rate and tidal volume on human heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Pöyhönen, M; Syväoja, S; Hartikainen, J; Ruokonen, E; Takala, J

    2004-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used for assessment of depth of anesthesia. Alterations in respiratory rate and tidal volume modulate the sympatovagal neural drive to the heart. The changes in PaCO2 that accompany changes in breathing pattern may, through chemoreceptors in the brainstem, independently influence the autonomic control of the heart and modulate HRV. We measured the effects of PaCO2, tidal volume and respiratory rate on HRV during spontaneous and mechanical ventilation in 22 healthy volunteers and in 25 mechanically ventilated anesthetized patients. Adding CO2 to the inspiratory gas increased high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) components of HRV in awake volunteers both during spontaneous and mechanical ventilation, while this effect of CO2 was abolished in patients during anesthesia. Increase of tidal volume increased HF component of HRV only in volunteers during spontaneous ventilation. On the other hand, when respiratory rate was reduced, the balance of HF and LF power moved toward LF power in all study groups. Breathing frequency altered HRV independent on PaCO2, tidal volume and the level of consciousness. In contrast, the effect of PaCO2 appeared to be related to normal level of consciousness, suggesting that a cortical modulation of the autonomic nervous activity contributes to the effects of PaCO2 on HRV. PaCO2, tidal volume and respiratory rate should be controlled when HRV power spectrum is measured in conscious patients or volunteers, while in anesthetized patients small changes in end-tidal CO2 or tidal volume do not modulate HRV if respiratory rate remains unchanged.

  18. Non-invasive accurate measurement of arterial PCO2 in a pediatric animal model.

    PubMed

    Fierstra, Jorn; Winter, Jeff D; Machina, Matthew; Lukovic, Jelena; Duffin, James; Kassner, Andrea; Fisher, Joseph A

    2013-04-01

    The PCO2 in arterial blood (PaCO2) is a good parameter for monitoring ventilation and acid-base changes in ventilated patients, but its measurement is invasive and difficult to obtain in small children. Attempts have been made to use the partial pressure of CO2 in end-tidal gas (PETCO2), as a noninvasive surrogate for PaCO2. Studies have revealed that, unfortunately, the differences between PETCO2 and PaCO2 are too variable to be clinically useful. We hypothesized that end-inspiratory rebreathing, previously shown to equalize PETCO2 and PaCO2 in spontaneously breathing humans, would also be effective with positive pressure ventilation. Eight newborn Yorkshire pigs were mechanically ventilated via a partial rebreathing circuit to implement end-inspiratory rebreathing. Arterial blood was sampled and tested for PaCO2. A variety of alveolar ventilations resulting in different combinations of end-tidal PCO2 (30-50 mmHg) and PO2 (35-500 mmHg) were tested for differences between PETCO2 and PaCO2 (PET-aCO2). The PET-aCO2 of all samples was (mean ± 1.96 SD) 0.4 ± 2.7 mmHg. Our study demonstrates that, in ventilated juvenile animals, end-inspiratory rebreathing maintains PET-aCO2 to what would be a clinically useful range. If verified clinically, this approach could open the way for non-invasive monitoring of arterial PCO2 in critically ill patients.

  19. Effects of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis on myocardial blood flow and metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kazmaier, S; Weyland, A; Buhre, W; Stephan, H; Rieke, H; Filoda, K; Sonntag, H

    1998-10-01

    Variation of the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is not uncommon in anesthetic practice. However, little is known about the myocardial consequences of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of variation in PaCO2 on myocardial blood flow (MBF), metabolism, and systemic hemodynamics in patients before elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In 10 male anesthetized patients, measurements of MBF, myocardial contractility, metabolism, and systemic hemodynamics were made in a randomized sequence at PaCO2 levels of 30, 40, and 50 mmHg, respectively. The MBF was measured using the Kety-Schmidt technique with argon as a tracer. End-diastolic left ventricular pressure and the maximal increase of left ventricular pressure were assessed using a manometer-tipped catheter. The cardiac index significantly changed with varying PaCO2 levels (hypocapnia, - 9%; hypercapnia, 13%). This reaction was associated with inverse changes in systemic vascular resistance index levels. The MBF significantly increased by 15% during hypercapnia, whereas no change was found during hypocapnia. Myocardial oxygen and glucose uptake and the maximal increase of left ventricular pressure were not affected by varying PaCO2 levels. In anesthetized patients with coronary artery disease, short-term variations in PaCO2 have significant effects on MBF but do not influence global myocardial oxygen and glucose uptake. Changes in systemic hemodynamics associated with respiratory alkalosis and acidosis are caused by changes in systemic vascular resistance rather than by alterations in myocardial contractility.

  20. Correction for Mechanical Dead Space in the Calculation of Physiological Dead Space

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Gloria J.; Olsen, C. Robert; Smith, Richard L.

    1972-01-01

    When physiological dead space (Vdp) is calculated for a patient who has alveolar dead space, e.g., after pulmonary vascular occlusion, less than the full volume of attached mechanical dead space (Vdm) appears in the measured dead space (Vdn). Under these conditions the traditional subtraction of Vdm from Vdn leads to underestimation of Vdp and can give a falsely small ratio of Vdp to tidal volume (Vt) when, in fact, an abnormally large Vdp/Vt exists. To make the proper correction for Vdm, two equations have been derived and validated with seven subjects having Vdp/Vt from 0.29 to 0.87, using Vdm's from 120 to 322 ml. With only a small modification, these equations are suitable for routine clinical use and give Vdp/Vt within 0.02 of that by the validated equations (32 of 33 comparisons). The fraction of Vdm subtracted from Vdn is the square of the ratio of effective alveolar to total alveolar ventilation and is never > 1. This fraction is (PaCO2/PaCO2)2, where PaCO2 and PaCO2 are the mean partial pressures of expired alveolar and of arterial CO2; in the other equation this fraction is [PeCO2/PaCO2 (Vt — Vdan — Vdm)]2 where PeCO2 is mixed expired Pco2 and Vdan is anatomical dead space. The second equation requires an estimated Vdan and is applicable when PaCO2 is not measured or does not plateau (as in exercise). PMID:5056668

  1. Estimating alveolar dead space from the arterial to end-tidal CO(2) gradient: a modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan G; Aitkenhead, Alan R

    2003-12-01

    Using an original, validated, high-fidelity model of pulmonary physiology, we compared the arterial to end-tidal CO(2) gradient divided by the arterial CO(2) tension (Pa-E'CO(2)/PaCO(2)) with alveolar dead space expressed as a fraction of alveolar tidal volume, calculated in the conventional manner using Fowler's technique and the Bohr equation: (VDalv/VTalv)(Bohr-Fowler). We examined the variability of Pa-E'CO(2)/PaCO(2) and of (VDalv/VTalv)(Bohr-Fowler) in the presence of three ventilation-perfusion defects while varying CO(2) production (Vdot;CO(2)), venous admixture, and anatomical dead space fraction (VDanat). Pa-E'CO(2)/PaCO(2) was approximately 59.5% of (VDalv/VTalv)(Bohr-Fowler). During constant alveolar configuration, the factors examined (Vdot;CO(2), pulmonary shunt fraction, and VDanat) each caused variation in (VDalv/VTalv)(Bohr-Fowler) and in Pa-E'CO(2)/PaCO(2). Induced variation was slightly larger for Pa-E'CO(2)/PaCO(2) during changes in VDanat, but was similar during variation of venous admixture and Vdot;CO(2). Pa-E'CO(2)/PaCO(2) may be a useful serial measurement in the critically ill patient because all the necessary data are easily obtained and calculation is significantly simpler than for (VDalv/VTalv)(Bohr-Fowler). Using an original, validated, high-fidelity model of pulmonary physiology, we have demonstrated that the arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure gradient may be used to robustly and accurately quantify alveolar dead space. After clinical validation, its use could replace that of conventionally calculated alveolar dead space fraction, particularly in the critically ill.

  2. A Recombinant Fungal Chitin Deacetylase Produces Fully Defined Chitosan Oligomers with Novel Patterns of Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Shoa; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Singh, Ratna; Bernard, Frank; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2016-11-15

    Partially acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (paCOS) are potent biologics with many potential applications, and their bioactivities are believed to be dependent on their structure, i.e., their degrees of polymerization and acetylation, as well as their pattern of acetylation. However, paCOS generated via chemical N-acetylation or de-N-acetylation of GlcN or GlcNAc oligomers, respectively, typically display random patterns of acetylation, making it difficult to control and predict their bioactivities. In contrast, paCOS produced from chitin deacetylases (CDAs) acting on chitin oligomer substrates may have specific patterns of acetylation, as shown for some bacterial CDAs. However, compared to what we know about bacterial CDAs, we know little about the ability of fungal CDAs to produce defined paCOS with known patterns of acetylation. Therefore, we optimized the expression of a chitin deacetylase from the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Escherichia coli The best yield of functional enzyme was obtained as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein (MBP) secreted into the periplasmic space of the bacterial host. We characterized the MBP fusion protein from P. graminis (PgtCDA) and tested its activity on different chitinous substrates. Mass spectrometric sequencing of the products obtained by enzymatic deacetylation of chitin oligomers, i.e., tetramers to hexamers, revealed that PgtCDA generated paCOS with specific acetylation patterns of A-A-D-D, A-A-D-D-D, and A-A-D-D-D-D, respectively (A, GlcNAc; D, GlcN), indicating that PgtCDA cannot deacetylate the two GlcNAc units closest to the oligomer's nonreducing end. This unique property of PgtCDA significantly expands the so far very limited library of well-defined paCOS available to test their bioactivities for a wide variety of potential applications.

  3. Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae), with notes on Rickettsia infection.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina.

  4. Direct colloid osmometry in healthy New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Rolando J; Gorman, Maria Elena; Cebra, Christopher K; Verdugo, Claudio; Mosley, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Direct colloid osmometry provides an objective assessment of the oncotic effects of crystalloid or colloidal fluid therapy, which is especially useful in monitoring fluid therapy of critically ill camelids due to their tendency toward nonspecific hypoproteinemia with increased risk of developing edema and ascites. The aims of this study were to measure colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of alpacas and llamas, determine its correlation with concentrations of total protein (TP) and total solids (TS), as well as both albumin (A) and globulin (G) concentrations in the same model (A+G), and evaluate the effects of sample type and storage conditions on COP. Blood was collected from clinically healthy alpacas (n=23) and llamas (n=22) into heparin tubes. COP of fresh whole blood (COP(FB) ) and plasma (COP(FP) ) was determined using a membrane osmometer. For 20 alpacas, COP of refrigerated whole blood (COP(RB) ) and frozen plasma (COP(FrP) ) was also measured. Correlations between COP(FB) and TS, TP, and A+G concentrations were assessed by simple and multiple regression analysis to model potential predictors. Median COP(FB) from alpacas (24.6 mmHg, range 19.3-28.1) was not significantly different from that of llamas (25.3 mmHg, range 22.5-33.7). Sample type or storage conditions did not affect COP. Measured COP had a strong positive linear correlation with TS, TP, and A+G concentrations in alpacas (r(2) =.7, .74, and .88, respectively). In llamas, COP correlated best with TS concentration (r(2) =.59), whereas correlation with TP and A+G concentrations was poor (r(2) =.19 and .25, respectively). COP can be measured using heparinized whole blood or plasma, either fresh or stored. Direct measurement is recommended whenever quantitative knowledge of COP is required in clinical or research setting. Further studies are needed to verify if the poor association of COP with TP found in this study can be generalized to llamas. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. [The value of capnography and exhaled CO2 in neonatal intensive care units].

    PubMed

    García Cantó, E; Gutiérrez Laso, A; Izquierdo Macián, I; Alberola Pérez, A; Morcillo Sopena, F

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2) as a non-invasive guide of PaCO2 in the newborn and to analyze the influence of the relationship between ventilation-perfusion in the correlation between both determinations. End-tidal CO2 (PetCO2) was monitored by capnography in 9 ventilated newborns: 146 arterial blood gas samples were drawn and the results were compared with the PetCO2 values obtained. The gradient or difference between PaCO2 and PetCO2 was calculated to determine the correlation. The ratio a/AO2 was used as an indirect indicator of the ventilation/perfusion relationship (V/Q ratio). The mean gestational age was 30.9 +/- 2.8 weeks and birth weight 1,648 +/- 596 g. The age at the beginning of the study was 2 +/- 1.5 days. The diagnoses corresponded to 5 cases of RDS (56%), 2 cases of wet lung syndrome (22%), 1 case of pneumonia (11%) and 1 pneumothorax (11%). The results of this monitoring were classified in function of the a/AO2 ratio obtained: Group A, a/AO2 < 0.2 and PaCO2-PetCO2 gradient = 13.3 +/- 5; Group B, a/AO2 = 0.2-0.29 and PaCO2-PetCO2 gradient = 8 +/- 2.7; and Group C, a/AO2 > 0.29 and PaCO2-PetCO2 gradient = 2 +/- 1.7. The results show a very good correlation from a a/AO2 ratio > or = 0.3 onwards. The a/AO2 ratio is the major determinant of PaCO2-PetCO2 differences and respiratory frequency has less influence. 1) Monitoring of end-tidal CO2 does not maintain a good correlation with PaCO2 in serious lung illness. 2) End-tidal CO2 measurement is an effective and accurate technique for the monitoring of newborns when the a/AO2 ratio > or = 0.3 and it can be useful for weaning of mechanical ventilation. 3) PaCO2-PetCO2 differences accurately show the changes in the ventilation-perfusion relationship.

  6. The effects of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure and sevoflurane on capillary venous cerebral blood flow and oxygen saturation during craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Klaus Ulrich; Glaser, Martin; Reisch, Robert; Tresch, Achim; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin

    2009-07-01

    Intraoperative routine monitoring of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation remains a technological challenge. Using the physiological principle of carbon dioxide reactivity of cerebral vasculature, we investigated a recently developed neuromonitoring device (oxygen-to-see, O2C device) for simultaneous measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rvCBF), blood flow velocity (rvVelo), oxygen saturation (srvO2), and hemoglobin amount (rvHb) at the capillary venous level in patients subjected to craniotomy. Twenty-six neurosurgical patients were randomly assigned to anesthesia with 1.4% or 2.0% sevoflurane end-tidal concentration. After craniotomy, a fiberoptic probe was applied on a macroscopically healthy surface of cerebral tissue next to the site of surgery. Simultaneous measurements in 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth were performed in each patient during lower (35 mm Hg) and higher (45 mm Hg) levels (random order) of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2). The principle of these measurements relies on the combination of laser-Doppler flowmetry (rvCBF, rvVelo) and photo-spectrometry (srvO2, rvHb). Linear models were fitted to test changes of end points (rvCBF, rvVelo, srvO2, rvHb) in response to lower and higher levels of PaCO2, 1.4% and 2.0% sevoflurane end-tidal concentration, and 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth. RvCBF and rvVelo were elevated by PaCO2 independent of sevoflurane concentration in 2 and 8 mm depth of cerebral tissue (P < 0.001). Higher PaCO2 induced an increase in mean srvO2 from 50% to 68% (P < 0.001). RvVelo (P < 0.001) and srvO2 (P = 0.007) were higher in 8 compared with 2 mm cerebral depth. RvHb was not influenced by alterations in PaCO2 but positively correlated to sevoflurane concentration (P = 0.005). Increases in rvCBF and rvVelo by PaCO2 suggest preserved hypercapnic vasodilation under anesthesia with sevoflurane 1.4% and 2.0% end-tidal concentration. A consecutive increase in srvO2 implies that cerebral arteriovenous difference in oxygen was

  7. Capnometry in spontaneously breathing patients: the influence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and expiration maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Manel; Canturri, Elisa; Moreno, Amalia; Arranz, Maribel; Vigil, Laura; Domingo, Christian

    2008-09-01

    In spontaneously breathing patients, the differences between arterial PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) and the influence of bronchial obstruction have not clearly established. This was a prospective observational study. Patients (n=120) were classified according to spirometric criteria into groups with normal, mild, moderate, and severe obstruction. Arterial blood gases and capnography were performed in two ways: with a tidal volume (Vt) and a non-forced maximal expiration maneuver. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between PaCO2 and capnographic values were determined for the entire cohort and the subgroups. A concordance study was performed with Bland-Altman analysis. Comparison of PaCO2 and EtCO2 measured at Vt showed a significant correlation (r=0.722, p<0.01) for the entire cohort, but with a significant mean infra-estimation: P(a-et)CO2=5.2+/-4.4 mmHg, p<0.05. Analysis of subgroups: At Vt, P(a-et)CO2 was 1.7+/-2.9 mmHg (p=ns) in patients with normal spirometry, being maximal in the group with greater obstruction (8.2+/-5.6 mmHg, p<0.05). At maximal expiration, the comparison between PaCO2 and EtCO2 showed a significant correlation (r=0.88, p<0.001), but a significant lack of concordance for the entire cohort (P(a-et)CO2=-4.8+/-4 mmHg, p<0.05) and subgroups. Finally, comparison of PaCO2 and mean EtCO2 values showed a significant correlation (r=0.74, p<0.001) and concordance (P(a-et)CO2= 0.2+/-3.3 mmHg, p=ns) for the entire cohort and subgroups. Capnographic results at Vt are accurate predictors of true PaCO2 only in patients without bronchial obstruction. The maneuvers of slow maximal expiration overestimate PaCO2 in all groups. The best concordance was obtained comparing PaCO2 with mean EtCO2.

  8. Correlation of end tidal and arterial carbon dioxide levels in critically Ill neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hiren; Kashyap, Rahul; Trivedi, Sangita

    2014-06-01

    End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) monitoring is considered to reflect real-time estimation of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) noninvasively. However, knowledge about its relationship with PaCO2 in critically ill pediatric and neonatal patients is limited. The primary objective was to evaluate predictive capability of end tidal carbon dioxide monitoring and secondary objective was to determine the influence of severity of lung disease on EtCO2 and PaCO2 relationship. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive enrollment study carried out in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a tertiary care children hospital. It was conducted in 66 neonates and 35 children receiving mechanical ventilation. Severity of lung disease was estimated by ventilation index and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio. Simultaneous recording of EtCO2 and PaCO2 levels was done and data were analyzed for correlation and agreement. In neonates, 150 EtCO2 and PaCO2 pairs were recorded. The mean weight ± SD of patients was 2.1 ± 0.63 kg. PaCO2 had a positive correlation with EtCO2 (r = 0.836, 95% CI = 0.78-0.88). P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. In infants and children, 96 pairs were recorded. Mean age ± SD of patients was 4.20 ± 4.92 years and mean weight ± SD was 13.1 ± 9.49 kg. PaCO2 had an excellent correlation with EtCO2 (r = 0.914, 95% CI = 0.87 and 0.94). P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. EtCO2 monitoring displayed a good validity to predict PaCO2. Correlation was affected by low P/F ratio (<200); hence, it is recommended that blood gases be measured in these patients until such time that a good relation can be established between end tidal and arterial CO2 values.

  9. Analysis of end-tidal and arterial PCO2 gradients using a breathing model.

    PubMed

    Benallal, H; Busso, T

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyse the difference between end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) at rest and during exercise using a homogeneous lung model that simulates the cyclic feature of breathing. The model was a catenary two-compartment model that generated five non-linear first-order differential equations and two equations for gas exchange. The implemented mathematical modelling described variations in CO2 and O2 compartmental fractions and alveolar volume. The model also included pulmonary capillary gas exchange. Ventilatory experimental data were obtained from measurements performed on a subject at rest and during four 5-min bouts of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 50, 100, 150 and 200 W, respectively. Analysis of the PETCO2-PaCO2 difference between experimental and sinusoidally adjusted ventilatory flow profiles at rest and during exercise showed that the model produced similar values in PETCO2-PaCO2 for different respiratory flow dynamics (P approximately equal to 0.75). The model simulations allowed us to study the effects of metabolic, circulatory and respiratory parameters on PETCO2-PaCO2 at rest and during exercise. During exercise, metabolic CO2 production, O2 uptake and cardiac output affected significantly the PETCO2-PaCO2 difference from the 150-W workload (P < 0.001). The pattern of breathing had a significant effect on the PETCO2-PaCO2 difference. The mean (SD) PETCO2-PaCO2 differences simulated using experimental profiles were 0.80 (0.95), 1.65 (0.40), 2.40 (0.20), 3.30 (0.30) and 4.90 (0.20) mmHg, at rest and during exercise at 50, 100, 150 and 200 W, respectively. The relationship between PETCO2-PaCO2 and tidal volume was similar to data published by Jones et al. (J Appl Physiol 47: 954-960, 1979).

  10. Low habitat overlap at landscape scale between wild camelids and feral donkeys in the Chilean desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo, Juan E.; González, Benito A.; Mata, Cristina; Vielma, André; Donoso, Denise S.; Fuentes, Nicolás; Estades, Cristián F.

    2016-01-01

    Feral domestic ungulates may compete with the populations of wild herbivores with which they coexist, particularly so in arid regions. The potential competition between wild camelids and feral donkeys at the eastern sector of the Atacama Desert is evaluated in terms of their coincidence or segregation in habitat use and complemented with a comparison of reproductive output (yearling/adult ratio) of vicuña family groups in the proximity vs. distant from donkey observations. Habitat use of wild camelids and donkeys was sampled driving some 1250 km of roads and tracks at the dry and wet seasons. There were 221 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) sightings, 77 for donkeys (Equus asinus), 25 for guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and 8 for hybrids between guanacos and domestic llamas (Lama glama), as well as 174 randomly selected control locations. By means of Generalised Discriminant Analysis and Analysis of Variance we show that all ungulates actively select their habitat, with significant differences between use and availability in the area. Donkeys are relatively abundant in comparison with camelids and coincide broadly with both of them across the altitudinal gradient, but they fall between them in local scale habitat selection and do not seem to force their displacement from their preferred habitats. Thus donkeys occur preferentially on slopes with a high cover of tall shrubs, whereas vicuñas use valley bottoms with grass and guanacos the upper slope zones with grass. The potential for competition between donkeys and wild camelids is thus limited and it does not affect the reproductive output of vicuña in this region. Therefore, with the present knowledge we suggest that population control is not currently merited for feral donkeys.

  11. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuña in Peru.

    PubMed

    Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez

    2007-02-01

    The vicuña's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was 566/kg dollars, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuña grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuña has little value for poachers, so shearing vicuñas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuña fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuña in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicuñas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicuñas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable.

  12. Distributional patterns of living ungulates (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla and Perissodactyla) of the Neotropical region, the South American transition zone and Andean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absolon, Bruno Araujo; Gallo, Valéria; Avilla, Leonardo S.

    2016-11-01

    To recognize the distributional patterns of living ungulates in the Neotropical region, the South American transition zone, and Andean region using the panbiogeographical method of track analysis, and to attempt to correlate these patterns with geological history. The distribution of 24 species of living ungulates (in the families Camelidae, Cervidae, Tapiridae and Tayassuidae) was studied by the panbiogeographical method of track analysis. It was performed using distributional data acquired from literature and databases of scientific institutions. Individual tracks were obtained for each species by plotting locality records on maps and connecting them by minimum-spanning trees. Generalized tracks were determined from the spatial overlap between individual tracks, indicating a common history. The intersection between generalized tracks defined a biogeographic node, implying that these locations are biogeographic composites resulting from different ancestral biotas coming into spatial contact, possibly at different geologic times. The superposition of the 24 individual tracks resulted in five generalized tracks (GTs): GT1, Mesoamerican/Choco (composed of Mazama pandora, Mazama temama, Odoicoileus virginianus and Tapirus bairdii); GT2, Northern Andes (Mazama rufina, Pudu mephistophiles and Tapirus pinchaque); GT3, Central Andes (Hippocamelus antisensis, Lama guanicoe, Mazama chunyi and Vicugna vicugna); GT4, Chilean Patagonia (Hippocamelus bisulcus and Pudu puda); and GT5, Chaco/Central west Brazil (Blastocerus dichotomus, Catagonus wagneri and Ozotocerus bezoarticus). The biogeographic node was found in the Northwestern Colombia. The geological events such as tectonism and volcanism that occurred through the Neogene and mainly in the Pleistocene caused fragmentation, diversification and endemism of biota. The biogeographic node in Colombia occurred within a zone of convergence. This node emphasized the complexity of the area and it contains biotic elements with

  13. Gels based on cyclic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Lackey, Melissa A; Cui, Jun; Tew, Gregory N

    2011-03-23

    Cyclic poly(5-hydroxy-1-cyclooctene) (PACOE) was synthesized by ring-expansion metathesis polymerization (REMP), and thiol-ene chemistry was used to cross-link the internal double bonds in the PACOE backbone. This created a novel network material (gels formed from cyclic polymers) with unique structural units, where the cyclic PACOE main chains, which serve as secondary topological cross-linkages, were connected by primary intermolecular chemical cross-linkages. The resulting properties were notably different from those of traditional chemically cross-linked linear PACOE gels, whose gel fraction (GF) and modulus (G) increased while the swelling ratio (Q) decreased with increasing initial polymer concentration in the gel precursor solution (C(0)). For the gels formed from cyclic polymers, however, the GF, Q, and G all simultaneously increased as C(0) increased at the higher range. Furthermore, at the same preparation state (same C(0)), the swelling ability and the maximum strain at break of the gels formed from cyclic polymers were always greater than those of the gels formed from linear polymers, and these differences became more pronounced as C(0) increased.

  14. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  15. Renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders.

    PubMed

    Madias, Nicolaos E

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory acid-base disorders are those abnormalities in acid-base equilibrium that are expressed as primary changes in the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). An increase in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) acidifies body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory acidosis. By contrast, a decrease in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) alkalinizes body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory alkalosis. The impact on systemic acidity of these primary changes in PaCO2 is ameliorated by secondary, directional changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that occur in 2 stages. Acutely, hypercapnia or hypocapnia yields relatively small changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that originate virtually exclusively from titration of the body's nonbicarbonate buffers. During sustained hypercapnia or hypocapnia, much larger changes in plasma [HCO3¯] occur that reflect adjustments in renal acidification mechanisms. Consequently, the deviation of systemic acidity from normal is smaller in the chronic forms of these disorders. Here we provide an overview of the renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders. We also identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  16. Human respiration at rest in rapid compression and at high pressures and gas densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelfand, R.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Strauss, R.; Clark, J. M.; Puglia, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The ventilation (V), end-tidal PCO2 (PACO2), and CO2 elimination rate were determined in men at rest breathing CO2-free gas over the pressure range 1-50 ATA and the gas density range 0.4-25 g/l, during slow and rapid compressions, at stable elevated ambient pressures and during slow decompressions. Progressive increase in pulmonary gas flow resistance due to elevation of ambient pressure and inspired gas density to the He-O2 equivalent of 5000 feet of seawater was found to produce a complex pattern of change in PACO2. It was found that as both ambient pressure and pulmonary gas flow resistance were progressively raised, PACO2 at first increased, went through a maximum, and then declined towards values near the 1 ATA level. It is concluded that this pattern of PACO2 change results from the interaction on ventilation of the increase in pulmonary resistance due to the elevation of gas density with the increase in respiratory drive postulated as due to generalized central nervous system excitation associated with exposure to high hydrostatic pressure. It is suggested that a similar interaction exists between increased gas flow resistance and the increase in respiratory drive related to nitrogen partial pressure and the resulting narcosis.

  17. Time-course of ventilation, arterial and pulmonary CO(2) tension during CO (2) increase in humans.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Toru; Okada, Yasumasa; Hara, Yasushi; Sakamaki, Fumio; Kyotani, Shingo; Tomita, Takeshi; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    2012-01-01

    A change of ventilation (VE), PaCO( 2 ) (arterial CO( 2 ) tension) and PvCO( 2 ) (pulmonary arterial CO( 2 ) tension) with time was not evaluated precisely during exercise or CO( 2 ) rebreathing in humans. In this study, changes of these variables with time were fitted to exponential curves {y = Exp ( x/ T + A ) + k} and compared. When exercise pulmonary hemodynamics was examined in 15 cardiac patients to decide therapies, we asked the patients to undergo CO( 2 ) rebreathing using air with supplementation of consumed O( 2 ). Arterial and pulmonary blood was drawn every minute. During exercise, T was 28.2 ± 8.4 and 26.8 ± 12.4, and A was 0.80 ± 0.50 and 0.50 ± 0.90 in VE and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with no statistical differences. During CO( 2 ) rebreathing, T was 18.6 ± 5.8, 41.8 ± 38.0 and 21.6 ± 9.7 and A was 0.39 ± 0.67, 1.64 ± 1.35 and 0.17 ± 0.83 in VE, PaCO( 2 ) and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with statistical difference of PaCO( 2 ) from other variables, suggesting that VE and PvCO( 2 ) showed same mode of change according to time but PaCO( 2 ) did not.

  18. Serial respiratory adaptations and an alternate hypothesis of respiratory control in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Wolfe, Larry A; Hopkins, Will G; Davies, Gregory A L

    2006-08-01

    This study determined the time course of changes in resting and exercising respiratory responses during the first half of human pregnancy, and examined the potential roles of plasma osmolality and the strong ion difference ([SID]) as mediators of pregnancy-induced increases in ventilation. Healthy active women (n = 11) were studied serially from 7 to 22 weeks gestation. Responses were compared with preconception data from 14 subjects (six of whom were tested in early pregnancy), and with late-gestation resting data from 10 additional women. Resting and exercising measurements included ventilation, PaCO2, progesterone, osmolality and [SID]. Results were analyzed using mixed-model linear regression. By 7 weeks gestation, increased ventilation resulted in a very large decrease in PaCO2 at rest and during moderate-intensity exercise. Large correlations (r > 0.5) between resting progesterone and PaCO2 support the traditional theory that circulating progesterone stimulates ventilation during pregnancy. The similar time course of changes and large correlations between raw and delta values of PaCO2 and each of plasma osmolality and [SID] also suggest that both variables may influence respiratory control at rest and during exercise in the first half of pregnancy. Future experiments should continue to explore the hypothesis that osmolality and [SID] contribute to pregnancy-induced respiratory changes.

  19. Automated mechanical ventilation: adapting decision making to different disease states.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Zahonero, S; Gottlieb, D; Haberthür, C; Guttmann, J; Möller, K

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce a novel methodology for adapting and upgrading decision-making strategies concerning mechanical ventilation with respect to different disease states into our fuzzy-based expert system, AUTOPILOT-BT. The special features are: (1) Extraction of clinical knowledge in analogy to the daily routine. (2) An automated process to obtain the required information and to create fuzzy sets. (3) The controller employs the derived fuzzy rules to achieve the desired ventilation status. For demonstration this study focuses exclusively on the control of arterial CO(2) partial pressure (p(a)CO(2)). Clinical knowledge from 61 anesthesiologists was acquired using a questionnaire from which different disease-specific fuzzy sets were generated to control p(a)CO(2). For both, patients with healthy lung and with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the fuzzy sets show different shapes. The fuzzy set "normal", i.e., "target p(a)CO(2) area", ranges from 35 to 39 mmHg for healthy lungs and from 39 to 43 mmHg for ARDS lungs. With the new fuzzy sets our AUTOPILOT-BT reaches the target p(a)CO(2) within maximal three consecutive changes of ventilator settings. Thus, clinical knowledge can be extended, updated, and the resulting mechanical ventilation therapies can be individually adapted, analyzed, and evaluated.

  20. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  1. The hyperventilation of cirrhosis: progesterone and estradiol effects.

    PubMed

    Lustik, S J; Chhibber, A K; Kolano, J W; Hilmi, I A; Henson, L C; Morris, M C; Bronsther, O

    1997-01-01

    Progesterone and estradiol are metabolized in the liver and are elevated in patients with cirrhosis. Progesterone stimulates ventilation by activating progesterone receptors in the central nervous system; estradiol may facilitate progesterone's actions by increasing progesterone receptors. This study evaluated whether progesterone and estradiol contribute to the respiratory alkalosis common in cirrhotic patients. Arterial blood gases and progesterone and estradiol levels were obtained in 50 patients with cirrhosis. Multiple linear regression revealed a statistically significant correlation between PaCO2 and progesterone and estradiol (r = .54, P < .05). Patients with severe hyperventilation (PaCO2 < or = 30 mm Hg) had statistically higher levels of progesterone and estradiol than did patients with mild hyperventilation (30 < PaCO2 < or = 35) or normal ventilation (PaCO2 > 35) (P < .05). Although the progesterone levels were two orders of magnitude lower than those associated with hyperventilation in pregnant patients, the increased ventilatory effect may be because of the altered blood-brain barrier (BBB) present in cirrhotic patients. Progesterone and estradiol appear to contribute to the hyperventilation in cirrhotic patients.

  2. Is man able to breathe once a minute for an hour?: the effect of yoga respiration on blood gases.

    PubMed

    Miyamura, Miharu; Nishimura, Kinya; Ishida, Koji; Katayama, Keisho; Shimaoka, Midori; Hiruta, Shuichi

    2002-06-01

    The ventilatory response to hypercapnia and arterial blood gases during ujjai respiration of once per minute for an hour were determined in a professional hatha yogi. The results suggest that lower chemosensitivity to hypercapnia in yoga practitioners may be due to an adaptation to low arterial pH and high PaCO2 for long periods.

  3. Measuring the human ventilatory and cerebral blood flow response to CO2: a technical consideration for the end-tidal-to-arterial gas gradient.

    PubMed

    Tymko, Michael M; Hoiland, Ryan L; Kuca, Tomas; Boulet, Lindsey M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Pinske, Bryenna K; Williams, Alexandra M; Foster, Glen E

    2016-01-15

    Our aim was to quantify the end-tidal-to-arterial gas gradients for O2 (PET-PaO2) and CO2 (Pa-PETCO2) during a CO2 reactivity test to determine their influence on the cerebrovascular (CVR) and ventilatory (HCVR) response in subjects with (PFO+, n = 8) and without (PFO-, n = 7) a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We hypothesized that 1) the Pa-PETCO2 would be greater in hypoxia compared with normoxia, 2) the Pa-PETCO2 would be similar, whereas the PET-PaO2 gradient would be greater in those with a PFO, 3) the HCVR and CVR would be underestimated when plotted against PETCO2 compared with PaCO2, and 4) previously derived prediction algorithms will accurately target PaCO2. PETCO2 was controlled by dynamic end-tidal forcing in steady-state steps of -8, -4, 0, +4, and +8 mmHg from baseline in normoxia and hypoxia. Minute ventilation (V̇E), internal carotid artery blood flow (Q̇ICA), middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), and temperature corrected end-tidal and arterial blood gases were measured throughout experimentation. HCVR and CVR were calculated using linear regression analysis by indexing V̇E and relative changes in Q̇ICA, and MCAv against PETCO2, predicted PaCO2, and measured PaCO2. The Pa-PETCO2 was similar between hypoxia and normoxia and PFO+ and PFO-. The PET-PaO2 was greater in PFO+ by 2.1 mmHg during normoxia (P = 0.003). HCVR and CVR plotted against PETCO2 underestimated HCVR and CVR indexed against PaCO2 in normoxia and hypoxia. Our PaCO2 prediction equation modestly improved estimates of HCVR and CVR. In summary, care must be taken when indexing reactivity measures to PETCO2 compared with PaCO2. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Accuracy of end-tidal CO2 measurement through the nose and pharynx in nonintubated patients during digital subtraction cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Maohua; Wang, Rurong; Wang, Wenjian

    2013-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) obtained in the nose through the Smart CapnoLine and in the pharynx through the modified Filterline H Set with supplemental oxygen at 5 L/min in nonintubated patients undergoing digital subtraction cerebral angiography (DSA). Prospective, observational. Twenty patients with disturbance of consciousness because of brain disease, who will receive DSA. PETCO2 was measured in the nose through the Smart CapnoLine and in the pharynx using the modified Filterline H Set that was inserted through the nasopharyngeal airway. Oxygen was administered through the Smart CapnoLine at a rate of 5 L/min. Five minutes after a constant and normally shaped capnography waveform, arterial blood was drawn from an indwelling femoral catheter for analyzing arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2), and PETCO2 that was measured through the nose and the pharynx were simultaneously recorded. After the DSA procedure, PaCO2 was analyzed again. Data were analyzed with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. PETCO2 sampled from both the nose and the pharynx was significantly correlated with PaCO2, and the correlation coefficients had approximate values, 0.832 (P<0.0001) for PaCO2 with PETCO2 through the nose and 0.836 (P<0.0001) for PaCO2 with PETCO2 through the pharynx. The mean bias±SD for PETCO2 and PaCO2 was 4.53±2.76 mm Hg (nose) and 3.22±2.86 mm Hg (pharynx). The 95% level of agreement for PETCO2 and PaCO2 ranged from -0.90 to 9.95 mm Hg (nose) and from -2.39 to 8.82 mm Hg (pharynx). End-tidal CO2 measurements through the nose and the pharynx had comparable performance. The correlation of PETCO2 measured through the nose and the pharynx was 0.971 (P<0.001). The difference between PETCO2 measured through the nose and the pharynx was 1.31±1.25 mm Hg, and t test results showed that arterial to end-tidal CO2 pressure difference (Pa-ETCO2) in sampling through the nose was significantly greater than Pa-ETCO2 sampling through the pharynx (P

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of capnography during high-frequency ventilation in neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Amir; Bromiker, Ruben; Riskin, Arieh; Shoris, Irit; Ronen, Michal; Qumqam, Nelly; Bader, David; Golan, Agenta

    2016-05-01

    High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is a powerful tool for CO2 elimination, and thus requires careful monitoring of CO2 . Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy (correlation, agreement, and trending) of continuous distal capnography (dCap) with PaCO2 in infants ventilated with HFV. This was a prospective, observational, multicenter study. dCap was compared with simultaneous PaCO2 ("gold standard") drawn from indwelling arterial line for patient care in term and preterm infants ventilated with HFV. dCap was obtained via the side-port of a double-lumen endotracheal-tube by a Microstream capnograph with specially designed software for HFV. Twenty-four infants participated in the study (median [range] gestational age [GA]: 26.8 [23.6-38.6] weeks). Analysis included 332 measurements. dCap was in correlation (r = 0.70, P < 0.001) but with less than adequate agreement (mean difference ± SD of the differences: -11.7 ± 10.3 mmHg) with PaCO2 . Comparable findings were found in the subgroup of infants <1,000 g (n = 240 measurements). Correlations were maintained in severe lung disease. Changes in dCap and in PaCO2 for consecutive measurements within each patient were correlated (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). Area under the receiver operating curves (ROC) for dCap to detect high (>60 mmHg) or low (<30 mmHg) PaCO2 was 0.83 (CI: 0.76-0.90) and 0.88 (CI: 0.79-0.97), respectively; P < 0.001. Our prospective study suggests that continuous dCap in infants ventilated with HFV may be helpful for trends and alarm for unsafe levels of PaCO2 . dCap is only a complimentary tool and cannot replace PaCO2 sampling because the agreement between these measurements was less than adequate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Monitoring in Subjects With Acute Respiratory Failure and Severe Hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Yolanda; Farrero, Eva; Córdoba, Ana; González, Nuria; Dorca, Jordi; Prats, Enric

    2016-04-01

    Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (P(tcCO2)) monitoring is being used increasingly to assess acute respiratory failure. However, there are conflicting findings concerning its reliability when evaluating patients with high levels of P(aCO2). Our study evaluates the accuracy of this method in subjects with respiratory failure according to the severity of hypercapnia. We included subjects with respiratory failure, admitted to a respiratory intermediate care unit, who required arterial blood gas analysis. Simultaneously, P(tcCO2) was measured using a digital monitor. Relations between P(aCO2) and P(tcCO2) were assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was used to test data dispersion, and an analysis of variance test was used to compare the differences between P(aCO2) and the corresponding P(tcCO2) at different levels (level 1, <50 mm Hg; level 2, 50-60 mm Hg; level 3, >60 mm Hg). Eighty-one subjects were analyzed. The main diagnosis was COPD exacerbation (45%). P(tcCO2) correlated well with P(aCO2) (r2 = 0.93, P < .001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean P(aCO2) - P(tcCO2) difference of 4.9 ± 4.4 with 95% limits of agreement ranging from -3.6 to 13.4. The difference between variables increased in line with P(aCO2) severity: level 1, 1.7 ± 3.2 mm Hg; level 2, 3.7 ± 2.8; level 3, 6.8 ± 4.7 (analysis of variance, P < .001). Our study showed an acceptable agreement of P(tcCO2) monitoring with arterial blood gas analysis. However, we should consider that P(tcCO2) underestimates P(aCO2) levels, and its accuracy depends on the level of hypercapnia, so this method would not be suitable for acute patients with severe hypercapnia. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Deep Breathing Improves End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide Monitoring of an Oxygen Nasal Cannula-Based Capnometry Device in Subjects Extubated After Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Shunsuke; Mizutani, Kenji; Fukuchi, Moeka; Yoshida, Tasuku; Idei, Masahumi; Matsuda, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Tetsuya; Nomura, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Goto, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    Capnometry detects hypoventilation earlier than pulse oximetry while supplemental oxygen is being administered. We compared the end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2 ) measured using a newly developed oxygen nasal cannula with a CO2-sampling port and the PaCO2 in extubated subjects after abdominal surgery. We also investigated whether the difference between PaCO2 and PETCO2 is affected by resting, by spontaneous breathing with the mouth consciously closed, and by deep breathing with the mouth closed. Adult post-abdominal surgery subjects admitted to the ICU were enrolled. After extubation, oxygen was supplied at 4 L/min using a capnometry-type oxygen cannula. The breathing frequency, PETCO2 , and PaCO2 were measured after 30 min of oxygen supplementation. PETCO2 was continuously measured during rest, during breathing with the mouth consciously closed, and during deep breathing with the mouth closed. The difference between PETCO2 and PaCO2 during various breathing patterns was analyzed using the Bland-Altman method. Twenty subjects were included. The bias ± SD (limits of agreement) for breathing frequency measured by capnometry compared with those obtained by direct measurement was 0.4 ± 3.6 (-6.7 to 7.4). In PETCO2 compared with PaCO2 , the biases (limits of agreement) were 14.8 ± 8.2 (-1.3 to 30.9) at rest, 10.2 ± 6.4 (-2.3 to 22.7) with the mouth closed, and 7.7 ± 5.6 (-3.2 to 18.6) for deep breathing with the mouth closed. PETCO2 determined using the capnometry device yielded unreliable and widely ranging values under various breathing patterns. However, deep breathing with the mouth closed decreased the difference between PETCO2 and PaCO2 , as compared with other breathing patterns. PETCO2 measurements under deep breathing with mouth closed with a capnometry-type oxygen cannula improved the prediction of the absolute value of PaCO2 in extubated post-abdominal surgical subjects without respiratory dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Impact of adherence with positive airway pressure therapy on hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Mokhlesi, Babak; Tulaimat, Aiman; Evans, Arthur T.; Wang, Yue; Itani, Abed-Alrahman; Hassaballa, Hesham A.; Herdegen, James J.; Stepanski, Edward J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Daytime hypercapnia associated with obstructive sleep apnea is common, particularly in the severely obese, and is associated with serious complications. Although positive airway pressure therapy improves daytime hypercapnia, the magnitude of benefit is unknown. Our objective was to quantify the effect of adherence with positive airway pressure on hypercapnia and hypoxia and to identify other factors that predict changes in PaCO2 and PaO2. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of seventy-five patients using a multivariable general linear model analysis to identify variables that predicted changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 after therapy. Bootstrap resampling methods were used to calculate confidence intervals for the effects of significant predictors and to internally validate the predictive models. Results The variables that predicted the change in PaCO2 were: average daily hours of positive pressure therapy, FEV1% of predicted, and baseline PaCO2 (model R2 = 0.70). The PaCO2 dropped 1.84 mm Hg per hour of adherence and plateaued at 7 hours of average daily use. PaO2 improved by approximately 3 mm Hg per hour of adherence and plateaued after 4.5 hours of therapy (model R2 = 0.48). Patients who used therapy for more than 4.5 hours per day experienced significant improvements in PaCO2 and PaO2 compared to less adherent patients (ΔPaCO2 7.7±5 vs. 2.4±4 mm Hg, p<0.001; ΔPaO2 9.2±11 vs. 1.8±9 mm Hg, p<0.001). For adherent patients, the need for daytime home oxygen therapy decreased from 30% to 6% (p=0.02). Conclusion In hypercapnic patients with obstructive sleep apnea, adherence with positive airway pressure is an important modifiable predictor of improvements in PaCO2 and PaO2, and its benefit plateaus between 5 to 7 hours of daily therapy. PMID:17557438

  9. Postoperative hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration and receiving butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Vicki L; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Perkowski, Sandra Z

    2003-02-01

    To determine frequency and severity of postanesthetic hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration and given butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia. Prospective trial. 0 healthy dogs weighing > 10 kg (22 lb). Dogs were anesthestized with acepromazine, glycopyrrolate, thiopental, and isoflurane, and butorphanol (n = 10) or hydromorphone (10) was used for perioperative analgesia. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after extubation. In dogs that received hydromorphone, mean PaCO2 was significantly higher, compared with the preoperative value, 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 hours after extubation. Mean PaCO2 was significantly higher in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 10 and 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower, compared with preoperative values, 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation in dogs given hydromorphone and 30 minutes after extubation in dogs given butorphanol. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 1 hour after extubation. Four dogs had PaO2 < 80 mm Hg 1 or more times after extubation. Results suggest that administration of hydromorphone to healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration may result in transient increases in PaCO2 postoperatively and that administration of hydromorphone or butorphanol may result in transient decreases in PaO2. However, increases in PaCO2 and decreases in PaO2 were mild, and mean PaCO2 and PaO2 remained within reference limits.

  10. Blood gas tensions in adult asthma: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Troels; Johansen, Peter; Dahl, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    The last half-century has seen substantial changes in asthma treatment and care. We investigated whether arterial blood gas parameters in acute and non-acute asthma have changed historically. We performed a systematic search of the literature for studies reporting P(aO2) , P(aCO2) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s, percentage of predicted (FEV1%). For each of the blood gas parameters, meta-regression analyses examined its association with four background variables: the publication year, mean FEV1%, mean age and female fraction in the respective studies. After screening, we included 43 articles comprising 61 datasets published between 1967 and 2013. In studies of habitual-state asthma, mean P(aO2) was positively associated with the publication year (p = 0.001) and negatively with mean age (p < 0.01). Mean P(aCO2) showed a positive association with publication year (p = 0.001) and a negative association with female fraction (p < 0.05). In acute asthma studies, blood gas levels were unassociated with publication year and mean age, mean P(aO2) was positively associated with FEV1% (p < 0.05) whereas mean P(aCO2) showed a negative association with FEV1% (p < 0.05) for studies with mean FEV1% <40. In neither acute nor habitual-state studies was mean arterial pH associated with any of the predictor variables. In studies of habitual-state asthma, mean reported P(aO2) and P(aCO2) levels were found to have increased since 1967. In acute asthma studies, mean P(aO2) and P(aCO2) were associated with mean FEV1% but not with either publication year or patient age.

  11. Frequency and predictors of obesity hypoventilation in hospitalized patients at a tertiary health care institution

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Yilmaz; Ayik, Sibel; Ozlu, Tevfik; Orem, Asim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) have significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment is important and there are limited data on its prevalence and predictive factors. The objective of this observational study was to determine the frequency and predictors of OHS in hospitalized patients at a tertiary health care institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All blood gas analyses of hospitalized adult (age over 18 years) patients were prospectively recruited from the biochemistry laboratory at a tertiary health care center between August 2009 and July 2010. Patients who had hypercapnia (PaCO2 ≥ 45 mmHg) while breathing room air were included and clinical and laboratory data were obtained from hospital records. A standard questionnaire was also filled by face-to-face interview with patients and/or relatives. RESULTS: A total of 9480 patients’ arterial blood gases were evaluated and 330 patients (3.4%) who met the selection criteria were included in the analysis during the study period. Hypoventilation was associated with acute diseases in 64.2% and chronic diseases in 35.8% of the patients. Of the chronic hypoventilation patients, 24.4% had OHS. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that, female gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, PaO2, SaO2 and a PaCO2/BMI <1.5 were significantly related to OHS. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI >35 kg/m2, SaO2 <91.4% and PaCO2 /BMI <1.5 were significantly related to OHS. A PaCO2/BMI <1.5 was an independent variable strongly predictive of OHS (odds ratio: 36.9, 95% of the confidence interval: 2.75-492.95, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: OHS is a common cause of chronic alveolar hypoventilation. A careful examination PaCO2 /BMI ratio may prevent misdiagnoses among hypercapnic patients. PMID:24791171

  12. Voluntary suppression of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation mitigates the reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Ikebe, Yusuke; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-04-15

    Hyperthermia during prolonged exercise leads to hyperventilation, which can reduce arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 ) and, in turn, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and thermoregulatory response. We investigated 1) whether humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise and 2) the effects of voluntary breathing control on PaCO2 , CBF, sweating, and skin blood flow. Twelve male subjects performed two exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C, 50% relative humidity) for up to 60 min. Throughout the exercise, subjects breathed normally (normal-breathing trial) or they tried to control their minute ventilation (respiratory frequency was timed with a metronome, and target tidal volumes were displayed on a monitor) to the level reached after 5 min of exercise (controlled-breathing trial). Plotting ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses against esophageal temperature (Tes) showed that minute ventilation increased linearly with rising Tes during normal breathing, whereas controlled breathing attenuated the increased ventilation (increase in minute ventilation from the onset of controlled breathing: 7.4 vs. 1.6 l/min at +1.1°C Tes; P < 0.001). Normal breathing led to decreases in estimated PaCO2 and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAV) with rising Tes, but controlled breathing attenuated those reductions (estimated PaCO2 -3.4 vs. -0.8 mmHg; MCAV -10.4 vs. -3.9 cm/s at +1.1°C Tes; P = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively). Controlled breathing had no significant effect on chest sweating or forearm vascular conductance (P = 0.67 and 0.91, respectively). Our results indicate that humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise, and this suppression mitigates changes in PaCO2 and CBF.

  13. Effects of hypercapnia, hypocapnia, and hyperoxemia on blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensity determined by use of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Kerr, Carolyn L; McDonell, Wayne N; Dobson, Howard; Konyer, Norman B; Poma, Roberto; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effects of alterations in PaCO(2) and PaO(2) on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity determined by use of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in brains of isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. 6 healthy dogs. In each dog, anesthesia was induced with propofol (6 to 8 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with isoflurane (1.7%) and atracurium (0.2 mg/kg, IV, q 30 min). During 1 magnetic resonance imaging session in each dog, targeted values of PaCO(2) (20, 40, or 80 mm Hg) and PaO(2) (100 or 500 mm Hg) were combined to establish 6 experimental conditions, including a control condition (PaCO(2), 40 mm Hg; PaO(2), 100 mm Hg). Dogs were randomly assigned to different sequences of conditions. Each condition was established for a period of >or= 5 minutes before susceptibility-weighted imaging was performed. Signal intensity was measured in 6 regions of interest in the brain, and data were analyzed by use of an ANCOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer adjustments. Compared with control condition findings, BOLD signal intensity did not differ significantly in any region of interest. However, signal intensities in the thalamus and diencephalic gray matter decreased significantly during both hypocapnic conditions, compared with all other conditions except for the control condition. In isoflurane-anesthetized dogs, certain regions of gray matter appeared to have greater cerebrovascular responses to changes in PaCO(2) and PaO(2) than did others. Both PaO(2) and PaCO(2) should be controlled during magnetic resonance imaging procedures that involve BOLD signaling and taken into account when interpreting findings.

  14. Correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide with arterial carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Razi, Ebrahim; Moosavi, Gholam Abbass; Omidi, Keivan; Khakpour Saebi, Ashkan; Razi, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Patients undergone mechanical ventilation need rapid and reliable evaluation of their respiratory status. Monitoring of End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) as a surrogate, noninvasive measurement of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is one of the methods used for this purpose in intubated patients. The aim of the present trial was to study the relationship between end-tidal CO2 tensions with PaCO2 measurements in mechanically ventilated patients. End-tidal carbon dioxide levels were recorded at the time of arterial blood gas sampling. Patients who were undergoing one of the mechanical ventilation methods such as: synchronized mandatory mechanical ventilation (SIMV), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and T-Tube were enrolled in this study. The difference between ETCO2 and PaCO2 was tested with a paired t-test. The correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide to (ETCO2) CO2 was obtained in all patients. A total of 219 arterial blood gases were obtained from 87 patients (mean age, 71.7 ± 15.1 years). Statistical analysis demonstrated a good correlation between the mean of ETCO2 and PaCO2 in each of the modes of SIMV, CPAP and T-Tube; SIMV (42.5 ± 17.3 and 45.8 ± 17.1; r = 0.893, P < 0.0001), CPAP (37 ± 9.7 and 39.4 ± 10.1; r = 0.841, P < 0.0001) and T-Tube (36.1 ± 9.9 and 39.4 ± 11; r = 0.923, P < 0.0001), respectively. End-tidal CO2 measurement provides an accurate estimation of PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients. Its use may reduce the need for invasive monitoring and/or repeated arterial blood gas analyses.

  15. Effects of alveolar dead-space, shunt and V/Q distribution on respiratory dead-space measurements.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Turner, M J; Baker, A B

    2005-10-01

    Respiratory dead-space is often increased in lung disease. This study evaluates the effects of increased alveolar dead-space (Vd(alv)), pulmonary shunt, and abnormal ventilation perfusion ratio (/) distributions on dead-space and alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pa(co(2))) calculated by various methods, assesses a recently published non-invasive method (Koulouris method) for the measurement of Bohr dead-space, and evaluates an equation for calculating physiological dead-space (Vd(phys)) in the presence of pulmonary shunt. Pulmonary shunt, / distribution and Vd(alv) were varied in a tidally breathing cardiorespiratory model. Respiratory data generated by the model were analysed to calculate dead-spaces by the Fowler, Bohr, Bohr-Enghoff and Koulouris methods. Pa(co(2)) was calculated by the method of Koulouris. When Vd(alv) is increased, Vd(phys) can be recovered by the Bohr and Bohr-Enghoff equations, but not by the Koulouris method. Shunt increases the calculated Bohr-Enghoff dead-space, but does not affect Fowler, Bohr or Koulouris dead-spaces, or Vd(phys) estimated by the shunt-corrected equation if pulmonary artery catheterization is available. Bohr-Enghoff but not Koulouris or Fowler dead-space increases with increasing severity of / maldistribution. When alveolar Pco(2) is increased by any mechanism, Pa(co(2)) calculated by Koulouris' method does not agree well with average alveolar Pco(2). Our studies show that increased pulmonary shunt causes an apparent increase in Vd(phys), and that abnormal / distributions affect the calculated Vd(phys) and Vd(alv), but not Fowler dead-space. Dead-space and Pa(co(2)) calculated by the Koulouris method do not represent true Bohr dead-space and Pa(co(2)) respectively, but the shunt-corrected equation performs well.

  16. The mitochondrial genome of the sperm whale and a new molecular reference for estimating eutherian divergence dates.

    PubMed

    Arnason, U; Gullberg, A; Gretarsdottir, S; Ursing, B; Janke, A

    2000-06-01

    Extant cetaceans are systematically divided into two suborders: Mysticeti (baleen whales) and Odontoceti (toothed whales). In this study, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of an odontocete, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), and included it in phylogenetic analyses together with the previously sequenced complete mtDNAs of two mysticetes (the fin and blue whales) and a number of other mammals, including five artiodactyls (the hippopotamus, cow, sheep, alpaca, and pig). The most strongly supported cetartiodactyl relationship was: outgroup,((pig, alpaca), ((cow, sheep),(hippopotamus,(sperm whale,(baleen whales))))). As in previous analyses of complete mtDNAs, the sister-group relationship between the hippopotamus and the whales received strong support, making both Artiodactyla and Suiformes (pigs, peccaries, and hippopotamuses) paraphyletic. In addition, the analyses identified a sister-group relationship between Suina (the pig) and Tylopoda (the alpaca), although this relationship was not strongly supported. The paleontological records of both mysticetes and odontocetes extend into the Oligocene, suggesting that the mysticete and odontocete lineages diverged 32-34 million years before present (MYBP). Use of this divergence date and the complete mtDNAs of the sperm whale and the two baleen whales allowed the establishment of a new molecular reference, O/M-33, for dating other eutherian divergences. There was a general consistency between O/M-33 and the two previously established eutherian references, A/C-60 and E/R-50. Cetacean (whale) origin, i.e., the divergence between the hippopotamus and the cetaceans, was dated to approximately 55 MYBP, while basal artiodactyl divergences were dated to >/=65 MYBP. Molecular estimates of Tertiary eutherian divergences were consistent with the fossil record.

  17. Cryptococcosis in domestic animals in Western Australia: a retrospective study from 1995-2006.

    PubMed

    McGill, S; Malik, R; Saul, N; Beetson, S; Secombe, C; Robertson, I; Irwin, P

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cryptococcosis in domestic animals residing in Western Australia was conducted over an 11-year-period (from 1995 to 2006) by searching the data base of Murdoch University Veterinary Teaching hospital and the largest private clinical pathology laboratory in Perth. Cryptococcosis was identified in 155 animals: 72 cats, 57 dogs, 20 horses, three alpacas, two ferrets and a sheep. There was no seasonal trend apparent from the dates of diagnosis. Taking into account the commonness of accessions to Murdoch University, cats were five to six times more likely to develop this disease than dogs, and three times more likely than horses, while horses were almost twice as likely as dogs to become infected. Amongst the feline cohort, Ragdoll and Birman breeds were over-represented, while in dogs several pedigree breeds were similarly overrepresented. Dogs and horses tended to develop disease at an early age (one to five years), while cats were presented over a much wider range of ages. In cats and dogs the upper respiratory tract was the most common primary site of infection, while horses and alpacas tended to have lower respiratory involvement. The most striking finding of the study was the high frequency with which C. gattii was identified, with infections attributable to this species comprising 5/9 cats, 11/22 dogs, 9/9 horses and 1/1 alpaca, where appropriate testing was conducted. Preliminary molecular genotyping suggested that most of the C. gattii infections in domestic animals (9/9 cases) were of the VGII genotype. This contrasts the situation on the eastern seaboard of Australia, where disease attributable to C. gattii is less common and mainly due to the VGI genotype. C. gattii therefore appears to be an important cause of cryptococcosis in Western Australia.

  18. Concept design of an 80-dual polarization element cryogenic phased array camera for the Arecibo Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes-Medellin, German; Parshley, Stephen; Campbell, Donald B.; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Ganesh, Rajagopalan

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the current concept design for ALPACA (Advanced L-Band Phased Array Camera for Arecibo) an L-Band cryo-phased array instrument proposed for the 305 m radio telescope of Arecibo. It includes the cryogenically cooled front-end with 160 low noise amplifiers, a RF-over-fiber signal transport and a digital beam former with an instantaneous bandwidth of 312.5 MHz per channel. The camera will digitally form 40 simultaneous beams inside the available field of view of the Arecibo telescope optics, with an expected system temperature goal of 30 K.

  19. Neosporosis in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  20. Blocking of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum lectins by diverse mammalian milks.

    PubMed

    Zinger-Yosovich, K D; Iluz, D; Sudakevitz, D; Gilboa-Garber, N

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum morbid and mortal infections are initiated by bacterial adherence to host-cell receptors via their adhesins, including lectins (which also contribute to bacterial biofilm formation). Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a galactophilic lectin, PA-IL (LecA), and a fucophilic (Lewis-specific) lectin, PA-IIL (LecB), and C. violaceum produces a fucophilic (H-specific) lectin, CV-IIL. The antibiotic resistance of these bacteria prompted the search for glycosylated receptor-mimicking compounds that would function as glycodecoys for blocking lectin attachment to human cell receptors. Lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL have been shown to be useful for such glycodecoy probing, clearly differentiating between human and cow milks. This article describes their usage, together with CV-IIL and the plant lectin concanavalin A, for comparing the anti-lectin-dependent adhesion potential of diverse mammalian milks. The results show that the diverse milks differ in blocking (hemagglutination inhibition) and differential binding (Western blots) of these lectins. Human milk most strongly inhibited the 3 bacterial lectins (with PA-IIL superiority), followed by alpaca, giraffe, and monkey milks, whereas cow milk was a weak inhibitor. Lectin PA-IL was inhibited strongly by human, followed by alpaca, mare, giraffe, buffalo, and monkey milks, weakly by camel milk, and not at all by rabbit milk. Lectins PA-IIL and CV-IIL were also most sensitive to human milk, followed by alpaca, monkey, giraffe, rabbit, and camel milks but negligibly sensitive to buffalo and mare milks. Plant lectin concanavalinA, which was used as the reference, differed from them in that it was much less sensitive to human milk and was equally as sensitive to cow milk. These results have provided important information on the anti-lectin-dependent adhesion potential of the diverse milks examined. They showed that human followed by alpaca, giraffe, and Rhesus monkey milks efficiently

  1. Evaluation of a transcutaneous blood gas monitoring system in critically ill dogs.

    PubMed

    Holowaychuk, Marie K; Fujita, Hiroshi; Bersenas, Alexa M E

    2014-01-01

    To describe the use of a transcutaneous blood gas monitoring system in critically ill dogs, determine if transcutaneous and arterial blood gas values have good agreement, and verify if clinical or laboratory variables are correlated with differences between transcutaneous and arterial blood gas measurements. Prospective observational study. University teaching hospital ICU. Twenty-three client-owned dogs. In critically ill dogs undergoing arterial blood gas monitoring, a transcutaneous blood gas monitor was used to measure transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PtcCO2 ) and transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (PtcO2 ) values 30 minutes after sensor placement, which were compared to PaCO2 and PaO2 values measured simultaneously. Clinical and laboratory variables were concurrently recorded to determine if they were correlated with the difference between transcutaneous and arterial blood gas measurements. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean bias of 4.6 ± 26.3 mm Hg (limits of agreement [LOA]: -46.9/+56.1 mm Hg) between PtcO2 and PaO2 and a mean bias of 9.3 ± 8.5 mm Hg (LOA: -7.5/+26.0 mm Hg) between PtcCO2 and PaCO2 . The difference between PtcCO2 -PaCO2 was strongly negatively correlated with HCO3 (-) (r(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001) and PaCO2 (r(2) = 0.58, P < 0.001) and weakly positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r(2) = 0.21, P = 0.044), whereas the difference between PtcCO2 -PaCO2 was moderately negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r(2) = 0.33, P = 0.008). Agreement between transcutaneous and arterial PO2 and PCO2 measurements in these critically ill dogs was inferior to that reported in similar adult and pediatric human studies. The transcutaneous monitor consistently over-estimated PaO2 and PaCO2 and should not be used to replace arterial blood gas measurements in critically ill dogs requiring blood gas interpretation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  2. The noninvasive carbon dioxide gradient (NICO2G) during hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Berry, John S; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Kendrick, Chonna; Necsoiu, Corina; Jordan, Bryan S; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2014-07-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a setting in which both pulmonary and cutaneous perfusion may be impaired. The goals of this study were to evaluate the relationship between end-tidal (etCO2), transcutaneous (tPCO2), arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and lactate during lethal HS and to assess the effect of progressive HS on those variables and on a new variable, the noninvasive CO2 gradient ([NICO2G] or the difference between tPCO2 and etCO2). Ten consciously sedated swine were hemorrhaged, by means of a computerized exponential protocol, of up to 80% estimated blood volume for 20 min. End-tidal carbon dioxide, tPCO2, PaCO2, and lactate measurements were taken at baseline and every 5 min thereafter, that is, after 25%, 44%, and 62% total blood volume hemorrhage (TBVH) and at cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest occurred on average at 67% TBVH. Data were analyzed by linear regression and one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and are presented as means ± SD. Forty-nine paired measurements were made. There was no overall relationship between NICO2 variables and PaCO2: PaCO2 vs. tPCO2 (r2 = 0.002, P = 0.78); PaCO2 vs. etCO2 (r2 = 0.0002, P = 0.93). Rather, NICO2G increased at each level of blood loss: 4.0 ± 24.9 at baseline, 6.3 ± 35.7 at 25% TBVH, 25.0 ± 37.6 at 44% TBVH, 55.0 ± 33.9 at 62% TBVH, and 70.0 ± 33.2 at cardiac arrest (P < 0.05). Similarly, tPCO2 increased and etCO2 decreased at each level. Linear regression of NICO2G and lactate showed a better correlation than was observed for the other two variables: NICO2G, r2 = 0.58; tPCO2, r2 = 0.46; etCO2, r2 = 0.26. During HS, NICO2 monitors lose accuracy for approximating the PaCO2 but gain usefulness as hemodynamic monitors. Also, by combining data from two different organ systems, NICO2G demonstrated improved correlation with lactate than did either etCO2 or tPCO2 alone.

  3. Continuous integrated distal capnography in infants ventilated with high frequency ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Amir; Riskin, Arieh; Shoris, Irit; Ronen, Michal; Stein, Iris Shalev; Bader, David

    2012-09-01

    To assess within a feasibility study the correlation, agreement, and trending of continuous integrated distal capnography (dCap) with PaCO(2) in infants on HFV. Sixteen premature infants [median (range) gestational age: 26.5 (24.7-34.7) weeks], ventilated with HFV (mean ± SD airway pressure: 8.1 ± 2.1 cmH(2) O, FiO(2) : 0.39 ± 0.21) for RDS, intubated with a double-lumen endotracheal-tube and whose data were recorded on a bedside computer participated in the study. Side-stream dCap was measured via the extra-port of a double-lumen endotracheal-tube by a Microstream capnograph, with a specially designed software for HFV and compared with simultaneous PaCO(2) . Integrated time-window analysis of the data was performed retrospectively on data collected prospectively. Analysis included 195 measurements. The correlation of dCap with PaCO(2) (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001) and the agreement (bias ± precision: -2.0 ± 10.7 mmHg) were adequate. Area under the ROC curves for dCap to detect high (>60 mmHg) or low (<35 mmHg) PaCO(2) was 0.79 (CI: 0.70-0.89) and 0.87 (CI: 0.73-1.00), respectively; P < 0.0001. Changes in dCap and in PaCO(2) for consecutive measurements within each patient were adequately correlated (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). Continuous integrated dCap is feasible in premature infants ventilated with HFV and can be helpful for trends and alarm for unsafe levels of PaCO(2) . Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    PubMed

    Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Modeling and Phylogeny of the Krüppel-like Factor 4 (cKLF4) Protein from the Arabian Camel, Camelus dromedarius

    PubMed Central

    Alawad, Abdullah O.; Alharbi, Sultan N.; Alhazzaa, Othman A.; Alagrafi, Faisal S.; Alkhrayef, Mohammad N.; Alhamdan, Ziyad A.; Alenazi, Abdullah D.; Hammad, Mohamed; Alyahya, Sami A.; AlJohi, Hasan A.; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a pluripotency transcription factor that helps in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We sequenced for the first time the full coding sequence of Camelus dromedarius KLF4 (cKLF4), which is also known as the Arabian camel. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the molecular weight and the isoelectric point of cKLF4 protein to be 53.043 kDa and 8.74, respectively. The predicted cKLF4 protein sequence shows high identity with some other species as follows: 98% with Bactrian camel and 89% with alpaca KLF4 proteins. A three-dimensional (3D) structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the Mus musculus KLF4 (mKLF4) of 82 residues (PDB: 2 WBS) and by predicting 400 residues using bioinformatics software. The comparison confirms the presence of the zinc finger domains in cKLF4 protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that KLF4 from the Arabian camel is grouped with the Bactrian camel, alpaca, cattle, and pig. This study will help in the annotation of KLF4 protein and in generating camel-induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:28050127

  6. Trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Eileen K; Callan, Robert J; Holt, Timothy N; Van Metre, David C

    2005-01-01

    To describe clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcome associated with trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids. Retrospective study. Alpacas (7) and 1 llama. Historical and clinical data were obtained from the medical records of New World camelids with a diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction confirmed by surgical exploration or necropsy. Seven camelids were <1 year old. Abnormal clinical findings included anorexia, reduced fecal output, recumbency, colic, abdominal distension, regurgitation, decreased serum chloride concentration, increased serum bicarbonate concentration, and/or elevated first gastric compartment chloride concentration. Survey abdominal radiographs obtained (4 animals) revealed gastric distension (4) and/or visualization of the obstruction (2). Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy (1) or surgery (7). Right paracostal celiotomy was performed on all animals and duodenotomy (3) or retropulsion of the trichophytobezoar combined with third compartment gastrotomy (4) was used to remove the obstruction. Six animals survived to discharge and 5 were healthy at follow-up, 8-20 months later. The remaining discharged alpaca was healthy at 12 months but subsequently died of unrelated causes. Diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction should be considered in juvenile New World camelids with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Right paracostal celiotomy can be used for access to the descending duodenum and third gastric compartment for surgical relief of obstruction. Duodenal obstruction from bezoars should be considered in New World camelids <1year of age with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Surgical relief of the obstruction by right paracostal celiotomy has a good prognosis.

  7. Oleander intoxication in New World camelids: 12 cases (1995-2006).

    PubMed

    Kozikowski, Tania A; Magdesian, K Gary; Puschner, Birgit

    2009-08-01

    To characterize the clinical and clinicopathologic effects and evaluate outcome associated with oleander toxicosis in New World camelids. Retrospective case series. 11 llamas and 1 alpaca. Medical records from a veterinary medical teaching hospital from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2006, were reviewed. Records of all New World camelids that had detectable amounts of oleandrin in samples of serum, urine, or gastrointestinal fluid were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, and outcome of affected camelids. 11 llamas and 1 alpaca met the inclusion criteria of the study. Either oleander plants were present where the camelids resided (n = 7) or oleander plant material was identified in the hay fed to the camelids (5). One llama was dead on arrival at the hospital, and another was euthanized upon admission because of financial concerns. Of the 10 treated camelids, 9 had evidence of acute renal failure, 7 had gastrointestinal signs, and 4 had cardiac dysrhythmias on initial evaluation. The overall mortality rate was 25%, but the mortality rate for the 10 camelids that were medically treated was 10%. In New World camelids, oleander intoxication was associated with a triad of clinical effects (ie, renal, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular dysfunction). Oleander intoxication often represented a herd problem but carried a fair to good prognosis if treated promptly. Oleander toxicosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in sick camelids.

  8. Seroprevalence and characterization of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Danuser, R; Vogt, H-R; Kaufmann, Th; Peterhans, E; Zanoni, R

    2009-03-01

    The seroprevalence of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland was determined. In 5'059 sera of sheep from 382 herds, 503 sera of goats from 54 herds and 109 sera of alpacas and lamas from 53 herds, population prevalences of 16.1% (sheep), 25.4% (goats) and 4.6% (new world camelids), respectively, were found. In order to determine the source of infection, the serological reactions were further characterized by cross-neutralization against two pestiviruses representing the genotypes BVDV (Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus)-1 and BDV (Border Disease Virus)-1. Based on the ratio of respective antibody titres, 56.1% of the infections in sheep were induced by a BDV-1, 12.9% by a BVDV-1 and 31.0% by an unresolved pestivirus. In goats, the corresponding proportions were 23.4%, 10.2% and 66.4%, respectively. In Alpacas and Lamas, the source of infection of 1 animal was BDV-1 and that of 4 seropositive animals remained unresolved. In view of the phylogenetic relationship between pestiviruses, the unresolved source of infection is most probably attributable to other pestivirus genotypes circulating in small ruminants and new world camelids. Due to the predominance of pestiviral genotypes other than BVDV-1, the risk of transmission of BVDV from persistently infected small ruminants and new world camelids to cattle appears to be moderate, apart from close direct contact in mixed animal husbandry, communal pasturing and grazing in the Alps.

  9. Molecular Modeling and Phylogeny of the Krüppel-like Factor 4 (cKLF4) Protein from the Arabian Camel, Camelus dromedarius.

    PubMed

    Alawad, Abdullah O; Alharbi, Sultan N; Alhazzaa, Othman A; Alagrafi, Faisal S; Alkhrayef, Mohammad N; Alhamdan, Ziyad A; Alenazi, Abdullah D; Hammad, Mohamed; Alyahya, Sami A; AlJohi, Hasan A; Alanazi, Ibrahim O

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a pluripotency transcription factor that helps in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We sequenced for the first time the full coding sequence of Camelus dromedarius KLF4 (cKLF4), which is also known as the Arabian camel. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the molecular weight and the isoelectric point of cKLF4 protein to be 53.043 kDa and 8.74, respectively. The predicted cKLF4 protein sequence shows high identity with some other species as follows: 98% with Bactrian camel and 89% with alpaca KLF4 proteins. A three-dimensional (3D) structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the Mus musculus KLF4 (mKLF4) of 82 residues (PDB: 2 WBS) and by predicting 400 residues using bioinformatics software. The comparison confirms the presence of the zinc finger domains in cKLF4 protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that KLF4 from the Arabian camel is grouped with the Bactrian camel, alpaca, cattle, and pig. This study will help in the annotation of KLF4 protein and in generating camel-induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs).

  10. Testing dark energy with the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; LoVerde, Marilena; Crotts, Arlin; Blake, Chris

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-m liquid-mirror telescope surveying ~1000deg2 of the Southern hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that none the less will deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consist of nightly, high signal-to-noise ratio, multiband light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). At the end of the 3-yr run, ALPACA is expected to collect >~100000 SNe Ia up to z ~ 1. This will allow us to reduce present systematic uncertainties affecting the standard-candle relation. The survey will also provide several other data sets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak-lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis, we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SNe Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two data sets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters under minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak-lensing measurements.

  11. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  12. Testing Dark Energy with the Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, M.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Crotts, A.; Blake, C.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-meter liquid mirror telescope surveying ˜ 1000 deg2 of the southern-hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that will nonetheless deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consists of nightly, high signal-to-noise, multiband light curves of SN Ia. At the end of the three-year run ALPACA is expected to collect ˜ 100,000 SN Ia up to z ˜ 1. This will allow accurate calibration of the standard-candle relation and reduce the systematic uncertainties. The survey will also provide several other datasets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SN Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two datasets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters with minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak lensing measurements.

  13. Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti.

    PubMed

    Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Meylan, M; Burri, I Hengrave; Zanolari, P

    2007-12-15

    Antibody responses in New World camelids (NWC) infected with Mycobacterium microti were studied by two serological methods, multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow-based rapid test (RT). Serum samples were collected during 2004-2006 from 87 animals including 1 alpaca and 7 llamas with confirmed or suspected M. microti infection, 33 potentially exposed but clinically healthy animals from known infected herds, and 46 control NWC from herds where infection had not been previously diagnosed. The serological assays correctly identified infection status in 97% (MAPIA) or 87% (RT) cases. In three llamas with confirmed M. microti infection and one llama with gross pathology suggestive of disease, for which multiple serum samples collected over time were available, the antibody-based tests showed positive results 1-2 years prior to the onset of clinical signs or being found dead. In MAPIA, MPB83 protein was identified to be an immunodominant serological target antigen recognized in NWC infected with M. microti. With the limited number of animals tested in this study, the serological assays demonstrated the potential for convenient, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of M. microti infection in live llamas and alpacas.

  14. Surgical repair of femoral fractures in New World camelids: five cases (1996-2003).

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, R W; Wilson, D G

    2007-04-01

    Five New World camelids were admitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine between 1996 and 2003 for evaluation of femoral fractures. There were three alpacas and two llamas. Four of the animals were female and three were less than 3 months of age. Fracture configurations consisted of distal physeal fractures (three), a comminuted diaphyseal/metaphyseal fracture, and a transverse diaphyseal fracture. Fractures were diagnosed with a combination of physical examination and radiographs in all cases. All five fractures were repaired with internal fixation and three animals were discharged from the hospital with fractures that healed. One cria underwent successful internal fixation but died from pulmonary oedema during recovery from anaesthesia. Postoperative complications were rare and limited to inadequate fracture stability in one alpaca and prolonged recovery to weight bearing in another. One llama with a comminuted metaphyseal fracture, repaired with a 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate, subsequently had catastrophic failure of the bone 17 days after surgery. Overall the clients were pleased with the outcome of discharged animals. Although femoral fractures are considered rare, they pose a unique opportunity for the large animal veterinarian to successfully achieve fracture union with the aid of internal fixation.

  15. Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor Max; Baldwin, Heather J.; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim; Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Maganga, Gael Darren; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira; Leroy, Eric M.; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia; Poon, Leo L. M.; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3′ end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E. IMPORTANCE The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive genetic evidence for an evolutionary origin of the common cold virus HCoV-229E in

  16. Hypoxia in patients with acute hemiplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Walshaw, M J; Pearson, M G

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen patients with an early dense hemiplegia due to cerebrovascular accidents were shown to have a greater degree of hypoxia than 16 matched control patients. The patients with hemiplegia had a reflex compensatory fall in arterial carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) with possible reduction in cerebral blood flow. Oxygen treatment led to an increase in PaCO2 in the patients with hemiplegia, but the increase in oxygen tensions in these patients was significantly less than that in the control group, suggesting increased pulmonary shunting as the cause for the hypoxia. Oxygen treatment may improve cerebral blood flow and oxygenation and have a useful role in the early management of patients with a dense hemiplegia. PMID:6418296

  17. Control of carbon dioxide levels during neuroanaesthesia: current practice and an appraisal of our reliance upon capnography.

    PubMed

    Isert, P

    1994-08-01

    With the widespread availability of capnography, many anaesthetists have swung away from formally verifying hypocapnia by intraoperative arterial blood gas analysis and, instead, have come to rely upon capnography as an acceptable and constant predictor of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) during neurosurgery. However, the nature of the arterial-end-tidal CO2 gradient is complex, and is frequently unexpectedly large, or even negative. The importance of close intraoperative CO2 control during neurosurgery--more specifically, routine hyperventilation, and our reliance upon capnography to guide intraoperative management--is reappraised. There is a growing appreciation of the adverse effects of hyperventilation and hypocarbia, especially upon abnormal or ischaemic brain, and it is clear that capnography alone cannot be used to confidently predict the true PaCO2 during neuroanaesthesia.

  18. Respiratory effects of sevoflurane.

    PubMed

    Doi, M; Ikeda, K

    1987-03-01

    The respiratory effects of sevoflurane were studied in seven patients and compared with values obtained in another seven patients anesthetized with halothane. Resting ventilation, resting PaCO2, and ventilatory response to CO2 were measured awake and at 1.1 and 1.4 MAC levels of both anesthetic agents. We found that with sevoflurane, tidal volume and the slopes of the CO2 response curves decreased and PaCO2 increased with increasing depth of anesthesia, as with other inhaled anesthetics. A compensatory increase in respiratory frequency was not enough to prevent a decrease in minute volume with increasing depth of anesthesia. At 1.1 MAC, sevoflurane produced almost the same degree of respiratory depression as halothane. At 1.4 MAC, sevoflurane produced more profound respiratory depression than halothane.

  19. [Long-term effects of home mechanical ventilation with positive pressure using a nasal mask].

    PubMed

    Escarrabill, J; Estopà, R; Robert, D; Casolivé, V; Manresa, F

    1991-10-05

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an efficient alternative in the treatment of patients with chronic respiratory failure secondary to restrictive mechanical disorders (neuromuscular disease, such as Duchenne's disease, thorax deformities due to kyphoscoliosis or tuberculosis sequelae). The case of a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis in the phase of chronic respiratory failure (PaO2 34 mmHg and PaCO2 61 mmHg, breathing ambient air) is presented in which, following the failure of negative pressure mechanical ventilation ("poncho"), positive pressure ventilation was tested with a silicon made-to-measure nasal mask as the access via. Adaptation to HMV was good with the patient using the ventilation nightly. Following 12 months of treatment the patient is able to carry out everyday activities and arterial gasometry breathing ambient air is PaO2 77 mmHg and PaCO2 43 mmHg.

  20. Investigation of contrasting hydrogen bonding pattern of 3-(phenylamino)-cyclohexen-1-one with solvents in the ground and excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Ramprasad; Kar, Susmita

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we report the contrasting pattern of hydrogen bonding between solvents and 3-(phenylamino)-cyclohexen-1-one (PACO), an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecule in the ground and excited states. The uniqueness of this molecule has been revealed through linear free energy relationship based Kamlet-Taft analysis which indicates that the polarizability (π∗) and the hydrogen bond acceptor abilities (β) of the solvent are mainly responsible for the observed absorption spectra of the probe while polarizability (π∗) and the hydrogen bond donor abilities (α) of the solvents mainly determine its emitting profile. This investigation helps us to decipher the ground and excited state behavior of the hydrogen bonding sites present in PACO. These findings are also expected to be useful in understanding the nature of other molecules containing multiple H-bonding sites.

  1. Dense Plasma Focus as Collimated Source of D-D Fusion Neutron Beams for Irradiation Experiences and Study of Emitted Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanese, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Moroso, R.; Guichón, S.; Supán, J.

    2008-04-01

    A "table-top" 2 kJ, 250 kA plasma focus, the PACO (Plasma AutoConfinado), designed by the Dense Plasma Group of IFAS is used in its optimum regime for neutron yield for obtaining collimated pulsed neutron beams (100 ns). A simple and low-cost shielding arrangement was developed in order to fully eliminate the 2.45 MeV neutrons generated in the PACO device (108 per shot at 31 kV, 1-2 mbar). Conventional neutron diagnostics: scintillator-photomultiplier (S-PMT), silver activation counters (SAC), etc., are used to determine the minimum width of the shielding walls. Emission of very hard electromagnetic pulses is also studied. Collimation using lead and copper plates is made to determine the localization of the very hard X-ray source. The maximum energy of the continuum photon distribution is estimated in 0,6 MeV using a system of filters.

  2. [Facial or nasal mask pressure support ventilation in managing acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Chen, R C

    1992-10-01

    11 COPD patients (age: 65 +/- 9 Yrs) with acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure (PaCO2 11.3 +/- 1.1kPa) were treated with mask pressure support ventilation, another 10 similar patients (age: 68 +/- 12 Yrs) served as control. BiPAP ventilator was used with the following modifications: (1) Non-rebreathing valve set-in proximal to mask; (2) 5 LPM oxygen flow delivered into mask to reduce the dead space effect. Mask ventilation was given 2-3 hours every time and 1-2 time daily for 7 days. Synchrony and airway patency were specially monitored. The results suggested that mask ventilation could reduce PaCO2, improve PaO2, relieve dyspnea and decrease the possibility of intubation.

  3. Three Essays on Education Policy: Empirical Analyses of the Challenges and Opportunities with For-Profit Colleges, Military Enlistment and Immigration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    on immigrant students was made possible by a broader project funded by the Spencer Foundation. RAND Labor and Population and RAND Education...under financial support from the Spencer Foundation, and I thank Robert Bozick and Trey Miller for entrusting me with the opportunity to develop...financial support from the Spencer Foundation and thank Peter Brownell and Paco Martorell for their comments. 94 rankings of development other than

  4. Physiological Equivalence of Normobaric and Hypobaric Exposures of Humans to 25,000 Feet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    symptoms. Methods. We exposed 20 subjects to 5-min 25,000 ft (7620 m) equivalent environments in an altitude chamber and then in a ground-level...alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2), alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PACO2), and respiratory quotient (RQ) differed significantly between the chamber and...normobaric environments after 1 min were significant. However, the temporal pattern of symptom frequencies across subjects between the chamber and PROTE

  5. Long-term gas exchange characteristics as markers of deterioration in patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) the architecture of the developing lungs and the ventilation of lung units are progressively affected, influencing intrapulmonary gas mixing and gas exchange. We examined the long-term course of blood gas measurements in relation to characteristics of lung function and the influence of different CFTR genotype upon this process. Methods Serial annual measurements of PaO2 and PaCO2 assessed in relation to lung function, providing functional residual capacity (FRCpleth), lung clearance index (LCI), trapped gas (VTG), airway resistance (sReff), and forced expiratory indices (FEV1, FEF50), were collected in 178 children (88 males; 90 females) with CF, over an age range of 5 to 18 years. Linear mixed model analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to define predominant lung function parameters influencing oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. Results PaO2 decreased linearly from age 5 to 18 years, and was mainly associated with FRCpleth, (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.001), FEF50 (p < 0.002), and LCI (p < 0.002), indicating that oxygenation was associated with the degree of pulmonary hyperinflation, ventilation inhomogeneities and impeded airway function. PaCO2 showed a transitory phase of low PaCO2 values, mainly during the age range of 5 to 12 years. Both PaO2 and PaCO2 presented with different progression slopes within specific CFTR genotypes. Conclusion In the long-term evaluation of gas exchange characteristics, an association with different lung function patterns was found and was closely related to specific genotypes. Early examination of blood gases may reveal hypocarbia, presumably reflecting compensatory mechanisms to improve oxygenation. PMID:19909502

  6. Diagnostic value of gas exchange tests in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Prediletto, Renato; Miniati, Massimo; Tonelli, Lucia; Formichi, Bruno; Di Ricco, Giorgio; Marini, Carlo; Bauleo, Carolina; Allescia, Germana; Cocci, Franca; Monti, Simonetta; Pistolesi, Massimo; Giuntini, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of parameters derived from arterial blood gas tests in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Method: We measured alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A–a)O2] gradient, PaO2 and arterial partial pressure of carbon diaxide (PaCO2) in 773 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism who were enrolled in the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Diagnosis: The study design required pulmonary angiography in all patients with abnormal perfusion scans. Results: Of 773 scans, 270 were classified as normal/near-normal and 503 as abnormal. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by pulmonary angiography in 312 of 503 patients with abnormal scans. Of 312 patients with pulmonary embolism, 12, 14 and 35% had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively. Of 191 patients with abnormal scans and negative angiograms, 11, 13 and 55% had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively. The proportions of patients with normal/near-normal scans who had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2 were 20, 25 and 37%, respectively. No differences were observed in the mean values of arterial blood gas data between patients with pulmonary embolism and those who had abnormal scans and negative angiograms. Among the 773 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, 364 (47%) had prior cardiopulmonary disease. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 151 (41%) of 364 patients with prior cardiopulmonary disease, and in 161 (39%) of 409 patients without prior cardiopulmonary disease. Among patients with pulmonary embolism, there was no difference in arterial blood gas data between patients with and those without prior CPD. Conclusion: These data indicate that arterial blood gas tests are of limited value in the diagnostic work-up of pulmonary embolism if they are not interpreted in conjunction with clinical and other laboratory tests. PMID:11056733

  7. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Tae; Okano, Shozo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation frequency, 14 times/min. Respiration was regulated so that the PaCO2 was approximately 35 to 40 mmHg before the start of the experiment. PP with CO2 (intraperitoneal pressure 15 mmHg) and a postural change (15°C) was performed during the experiment. As parameters of circulatory kinetics, heart rate (HR), mean aortic pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), femoral venous pressure (FVP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured. As parameters of respiratory kinetics, airway pressure (PAW) and blood gas (BG) were measured. There were significant increases in HR, MAP, MPAP, CVP, FVP, CO, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the horizontal position. There were significant increases in CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the Trendelenburg position. There were significant increases in the MPAP, CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the inverse Trendelenburg position. There was a significant difference in FVP after PP between the Trendelenburg position and inverse Trendelenburg position. The results of this experiment suggest that appropriate anesthesia control, such as changing the ventilation conditions after PP, is required for laparoscopic surgery under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane.

  8. Carbon dioxide reactivity of computed tomography functional parameters in rabbit VX2 soft tissue tumour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdie, Thomas G.; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2003-04-01

    Tumour blood flow is one of the important factors limiting the efficacy of radiation therapy (hypoxic radioresistance), chemotherapy (drug delivery) and thermal therapy (heat dissipation) in treating cancer. The modification of tumour blood flow has been an area of intense investigation. In the current study, the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) was changed in order to investigate the tumour vascular response to carbon dioxide. Functional maps of blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were generated at four PaCO2 levels in VX2 tumour in the rabbit thigh and normal soft tissue. The PaCO2 levels investigated were normocapnia (PaCO2 = 40.9 +/- 1.2 mmHg), hypocapnia (27.2 +/- 2.3 and 33.5 +/- 2.3 mmHg) and hypercapnia (54.9 +/- 4.4 mmHg). The carbon dioxide reactivity of the global tumour blood flow and mean transit time showed significant differences between normocapnia and the two levels of hypocapnia, but not between normocapnia and hypercapnia. The average fractional change of blood flow from normocapnia for the two levels of hypocapnia was -0.41 +/- 0.06 and -0.29 +/- 0.08, respectively (P < 0.05). In the case of mean transit time the fractional change was +0.39 +/- 0.30 and +0.23 +/- 0.24, respectively (P < 0.05). The fractional change of blood volume from normocapnia, however, was not significantly different at any capnic level, as was the case with respect to each of the functional parameters in normal tissue. The ability to reduce blood flow and increase mean transit time through hypocapnia has significant implications in thermal therapy, since heat dissipation is a major factor in limiting the effectiveness of treatment.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during anesthesia with isoflurane in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Malka, Shachar; Pascoe, Peter J; Solano, Adrian M; Kass, Philip H; Ohmura, Hajime; Jones, James H

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks. A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco(2) measured every 5 minutes plus Paco(2) and Pao(2) and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period. Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco(2) differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco(2) position × time interaction was significant and Petco(2) was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco(2). The Paco(2) in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis. Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao(2), suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O(2) transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.

  10. Positive pressure ventilation during anesthesia in dogs: Assessment of surface area derived tidal volume.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Doris H

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of surface area derived tidal volume in anesthetized ventilated dogs (n = 71, random assignment) compared to settings by experienced personnel. There was no significant difference (P = 0.1030) between methods (p(a)CO(2) of 43.1 ± 7 mmHg and 39.8 ± 7 mmHg, respectively). Surface area derived tidal volume can achieve satisfactory ventilation.

  11. Effect of negative pressure ventilation on arterial blood gas pressures and inspiratory muscle strength during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Montserrat, J. M.; Martos, J. A.; Alarcon, A.; Celis, R.; Plaza, V.; Picado, C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intermittent negative pressure ventilation have been studied in 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during an exacerbation of their disease. Measurements of arterial blood gas tensions and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) were performed before and after six hours of negative pressure ventilation or standard treatment (control day) given in random order on two consecutive days. After negative pressure ventilation the mean (SD) value of MIP increased from 68.1 (21.5) to 74.8 (20) cm H2O;* arterial oxygen tension (PaCO2) fell from 60.6 (12.2) to 50.9 (8.9) mm Hg* but PaO2 changed little (from 48.4 (7.4) to 47.6 (8.2) mm Hg). There were no significant changes on the control day in arterial blood gas tensions (PaO2 47.8 (8.1) and 48.9 (9.4) and Paco2 59.8 (10.9) and 57.5 (8.06) mm Hg) or in MIP (69.4 (22.4) and 70.9 (22.9) cm H2O). Six patients tolerated negative pressure ventilation poorly and these patients showed less improvement after negative pressure ventilation. Our results suggest that intermittent negative pressure ventilation can increase alveolar ventilation in patients with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease, particularly in those who tolerate the procedure well. Most subjects showed a fall in PaCO2 and an increase in MIP. The fact that PaO2 was unchanged despite the fall in PaCO2 suggests that gas exchange may deteriorate with negative pressure ventilation in these patients. PMID:1908138

  12. Controlled Hypercapnia Enhances Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Tissue Oxygenation After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Results of a Phase 1 Study.

    PubMed

    Westermaier, Thomas; Stetter, Christian; Kunze, Ekkehard; Willner, Nadine; Holzmeier, Judith; Weiland, Judith; Koehler, Stefan; Lotz, Christopher; Kilgenstein, Christian; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Roewer, Norbert; Muellenbach, Ralf Michael

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated if cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation by changes of the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) can be used therapeutically to increase CBF and improve neurological outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In 12 mechanically ventilated poor-grade SAH-patients, a daily trial intervention was performed between day 4 and 14. During this intervention, PaCO2 was decreased to 30 mmHg and then gradually increased to 40, 50, and 60 mmHg in 15-min intervals by modifications of the respiratory minute volume. CBF and brain tissue oxygen saturation (StiO2) were the primary and secondary endpoints. Intracranial pressure was controlled by an external ventricular drainage. CBF reproducibly decreased during hyperventilation and increased to a maximum of 141 ± 53 % of baseline during hypercapnia (PaCO2 60 mmHg) on all days between day 4 and 14 after SAH. Similarly, StiO2 increased during hypercapnia. CBF remained elevated within the first hour after resetting ventilation to baseline parameters and no rebound effect was observed within this time-span. PaCO2-reactivities of CBF and StiO2 were highest between 30 and 50 mmHg and slightly decreased at higher levels. CBF and StiO2 reproducibly increased by controlled hypercapnia of up to 60 mmHg even during the period of the maximum expected vasospasm. The absence of a rebound effect within the first hour after hypercapnia indicates that an improvement of the protocol is possible. The intervention may yield a therapeutic potential to prevent ischemic deficits after aneurysmal SAH.

  13. Prognostic value of on admission arterial PCO2 in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Zeynab; Saadat, Mohammad; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little data about the correlation between the outcome of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the hypercapnic type respiratory failure. In this study we prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of first arterial CO2 tension in patients hospitalized with CAP. Methods In this prospective study patients with CAP, admitted to a general hospital were included. PaCO2 was measured for each subject in an arterial blood sample drawn in the first 2 hours and its correlations with three major outcomes were evaluated: intensive care unit (ICU) admission, duration of admission and mortality in 30 days. Results A total of 114 patients (mean age: 60.9±18.3; male: 51.8%) diagnosed with CAP were included. Significant relationship was not found between PaCO2 and mortality (P=0.544) or ICU admission (P=0.863). However advanced age, associated CHF, high BUN levels, high CURB-65 scores, associated pleural effusion in chest X-ray and being admitted to the ICU (P=0.012, 0.004, 0.003, <0.001, 0.045 and <0.001 respectively) were all significant prognostic factors of higher mortality risks. Prognostic factors for ICU admission were a history of malignancy (P=0.004), higher CURB-65 (P<0.001) scores and concomitant pleural effusion (P=0.028) in chest X-ray. Hypercapnic patients hospitalized for longer duration compared with normocapnic subjects. Furthermore, patients with lower pH (P=0.041) and pleural effusions (P=0.002) were hospitalized longer than the others. Conclusions There was less prominent prognostic value regarding on-admission PaCO2 in comparison to other factors such as CURB-65. Considering the inconsistent results of surveys conducted on prognostic value of PaCO2 for CAP outcomes, further investigations are required to reach a consensus on this matter. PMID:27867552

  14. Respiratory Adaptation to Acute Metabolic Acidosis in Goats with Ablated Carotid Bodies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-03

    values. DISCUSSION We have shown in a previous communication (26) that the goats used in the present study were deprived of peripheral chemoreception ...was manifest in the chemodenervated awake goats. This is in agreement with findings in anesthetized cats (14) and in anesthetized (12) and awake dogs...anesthetized cats by Katsaros (14). It appears that a respiratory adaptation to AMA, mani- fest in lowering the resting PaCO 2 and in shifting CO2

  15. Sleep-disordered breathing with nighttime hypocapnia relates to daytime enhanced ventilatory response to exercise in patients with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Nagaharu; Hayashi, Hiroko; Sugaya, Juri; Aida, Tomohiro; Kato, Masatoshi; Kato, Kazuyo; Kato, Yuko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2012-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) induces nighttime disturbance of arterial gases, such as carbon dioxide. However, it is still unclear whether nighttime SDB-related gas abnormality is related to respiratory dysregulation in daytime. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) at nighttime and the respiratory response to exercise in daytime. Eighteen men (age, mean ± SD; 55 ± 11 years) with heart disease underwent multichannel respiratory monitoring through the night with transdermal measurement of PaCO(2) (PtcCO(2)) reflecting PaCO(2) and a cardiopulmonary exercise test in daytime. The ventilatory equivalent (VE)/carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) slope as an index of ventilatory response to exercise and peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) were obtained with a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Of the 18 patients, 10 patients had obstructive SDB, 5 had central SDB, and 3 patients did not have SDB. The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 21 ± 17. Minimum nighttime saturation of O(2) was positively correlated with peak VO(2), but not with VE/VCO(2). Nighttime PtcCO(2) was not correlated with peak VO(2) but was negatively correlated with the VE/VCO(2) slope of the daytime cardiopulmonary exercise test (r=-0.53). Nighttime lowering of PaCO(2) in SDB is related to an abnormal ventilatory response to exercise testing in the daytime. This finding suggests that nighttime hyperventilation in SDB alters both nighttime and daytime pathophysiological conditions in patients with heart disease.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Effects under Conditions of Raised Environmental Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-26

    central alkalosis with increasing hydrostatic pressure, perhaps due to alteration of the blood brain barrier for bicarbonate. These findings have a... functions during dives to 1640 ft breathing hel- ium-oxygen mixtures by Broussolle et al (1973) showed little change in Pa 02 and paco2 at 16...descending and ascending excursions. A normoxic nitrogen-oxygen mixture was used. Pulmonary function tests and respira- tory gas exchange studies

  17. Associated factors with non-invasive mechanical ventilation failure in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Akın; Ciledağ, Aydın; Caylı, Ipek; Onen, Zeynep Pınar; Sen, Elif; Gülbay, Banu

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to determine associated factors with non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) failure in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure ninety live patients treated with NIMV for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure were evaluated. While success of NIMV was defined as absence of need of intubation with the patient's discharge from hospital, failure of NIMV was defined as death or need of intubation. The pretreatment pH level was 7.30 in success and 7.28 in failure group (p> 0.05), PaCO(2) was 71.45 mmHg in success and 72.17 mmHg in failure group (p> 0.05). After 1h of NIMV, pH was 7.33 in success and 7.26 in failure group (p= 0.01), PaCO(2) was 65.50 mmHg in success and 73.47 mmHg in failure group (p= 0.02). After 1h of treatment, in success group there was significant increase of pH and decrease of PaCO(2) in contrast to baseline levels, while there was no significant change in failure group. The pretreatment Acute Physiology Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, serum C-reactive protein level and frequency of associated complication on admission were significantly higher and Glasgow Coma Score was lower in failure group. In conclusion, high APACHE II and C-reactive protein level, low Glasgow Coma Score, associated complication on admission and inadequate response in pH and PaCO(2) after first hour of NIMV are associated factors with NIMV failure.

  18. End-tidal CO2 in some aquatic mammals of large size.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Seguin, Julie

    2009-01-01

    While resting on land or at the water surface, the breathing frequency (f) of aquatic mammals of medium and large size is lower than in terrestrial mammals of similar body weight (W), the difference widening with the increase in W. The allometric function for aquatic mammals is f proportional to W(-0.42) (f, breaths/min, W, kg) and that of terrestrial species is f proportional to W(-0.25). We asked whether or not resting breathing at such low f would entail high values of alveolar CO2. End-tidal alveolar CO2 pressure, taken as representative of alveolar CO2 pressure, PaCO2, was measured from the expired gas during resting breathing in captive specimens of aquatic species trained to rest in proximity of their keepers, either on land (walrus and sea lion) or at the water surface (dolphin, orca, beluga and hippopotamus). Their f during the recordings ranged from less than 1 (orca) to 6 (walrus) breaths/min. The average PaCO2 values ranged from 32 to 42 mm Hg, the peaks being a few mm Hg higher. These values were similar or slightly higher than literature data of many terrestrial species, with no relation to the animal f or W. The quasi-normality of PaCO2 in large aquatic species breathing at rest, despite their exceptionally low f and normal metabolism, can be explained mainly by two factors, their large tidal volume/W, about three times the average terrestrial value, and their peculiar breathing pattern with sustained high lung volume during the expiratory pause. This latter is key in avoiding a substantial rise in PaCO2 during the inter-breath pause.

  19. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 24. Equipment Repair Technician.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-31

    ACRYLIC PACO 11 1ELECTROPLATER (SILVER, GOLD AND COPPER) 12 IPANOREX X-RAY UNIT I{ 13 ICASTING MACHINE, CHROME COBALT 14 ICASTING MACHINE, DENTAL METALS...33 1PDBOESt SURG1CAL9 ELECTRIC 34 IMETAL LOCATOR I 35 ICHAIR, SURGEON, RECLINING 36 "|MEDICAL UNIT, RITTER MODEL 37 (DRILL, MICRO SHEA 38 ICAST ...ERGOMETER 44 IHEARING AID KITS 45 IALTERNATING PRESSURE PAD AND MATTRESS 46 *JaRiLt, AIR STRYKER 41 ICASTING MACHINE BROKEN ARM, KERR 48 ISAWo PLASTER

  20. Regulation of cerebral blood flow in mammals during chronic hypoxia: a matter of balance.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Philip N; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2010-02-01

    Respiratory-induced changes in the partial pressures of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) play a major role in cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. Elevations in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) lead to vasodilatation and increases in CBF, whereas reductions in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) lead to vasoconstriction and decreases in CBF. A fall in PaO2 (hypoxia) below a certain threshold (<40-45 mmHg) also produces cerebral vasodilatation. Upon initial exposure to hypoxia, CBF is elevated via a greater relative degree of hypoxia compared with hypocapnia. At this point, hypoxia-induced elevations in blood pressure and loss of cerebral autoregulation, stimulation of neuronal pathways, angiogenesis, release of adenosine, endothelium-derived NO and a variety of autocoids and cytokines are additional factors acting to increase CBF. Following 2-3 days, however, the process of ventilatory acclimatization results in a progressive rise in ventilation, which increases PaO2 and reduces PaCO2, collectively acting to attenuate the initial rise in CBF. Other factors acting to lower CBF include elevations in haematocrit, sympathetic nerve activity and local and endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors. Hypoxia-induced alterations of cerebrovascular reactivity, autoregulation and pulmonary vascular tone may also affect CBF. Thus, the extent of change in CBF during exposure to hypoxia is dependent on the balance between the myriad of vasodilators and constrictors derived from the endothelium, neuronal innervations and perfusion pressure. This review examines the extent and mechanisms by which hypoxia regulates CBF. Particular focus will be given to the marked influence of hypoxia associated with exposure to high altitude and chronic lung disease. The associated implications of these hypoxia-induced integrative alterations for the regulation of CBF are discussed, and future avenues for research are proposed.

  1. Hydrochloric acid infusion for treatment of metabolic alkalosis associated with respiratory acidosis.

    PubMed

    Brimioulle, S; Berre, J; Dufaye, P; Vincent, J L; Degaute, J P; Kahn, R J

    1989-03-01

    Hypercapnia due to respiratory failure can be more severe when accompanied by coexistent metabolic alkalosis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that hydrochloric acid (HCl) infusion could improve PaCO2 in 15 critically ill patients admitted with mixed respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis, and a pH of between 7.35 and 7.45. HCl was infused at a constant rate of 25 mmol/h until the bicarbonate concentration decreased less than 26 mmol/L, or until the pH decreased less than 7.35 (initial pH greater than 7.40) or 7.30 (initial pH less than 7.40). Administration of 170 +/- 53 mmol of HCl decreased the bicarbonate concentration from 34 +/- 3 to 25 +/- 2 mmol/L (p less than .001), the pH from 7.41 +/- 0.03 to 7.33 +/- 0.02 (p less than .001), and the PaCO2 from 54 +/- 8 to 48 +/- 8 torr (p less than .001). Postinfusion PaCO2 could be predicted accurately from the initial status of the patients (r = .95, p less than .001) except in one patient with fixed hypercapnia. PaCO2 increased from 77 +/- 19 to 94 +/- 24 torr (p less than .001) and PaO2/PAO2 increased from 59 +/- 17 to 66 +/- 17% (p less than .001). The effects of HCl were still present 12 h after the end of the infusion. No complications related to the acid infusion were noted. These results indicate that, even in the absence of alkalemia, active correction of metabolic alkalosis by HCl infusion can improve CO2 and oxygen exchange in critically ill patients with mixed respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis.

  2. Respiratory acidosis prolongs, while alkalosis shortens, the duration and recovery time of vecuronium in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2002-03-01

    To determine the effects of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis by mechanical ventilation on the onset, duration, and recovery times of vecuronium. Randomized, prospective study. Operating rooms in the Sapporo Medical University Hospital and Kitami Red Cross Hospital. 90 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups by arterial carbon dioxide tension level (PaCO2; mmHg) after induction: hyperventilation group (PaCO2 = 25-35), normoventilation group (PaCO2 = 35-45), and hypoventilation group (PaCO2 = 45-55). Anesthesia was maintained by spinal block with inhalation of 50% to 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen and intermittent intravenous administration of fentanyl and midazolam with tracheal intubation. After vecuronium 0.08 mg/kg was given, onset, duration, and recovery time were measured by mechanomyography (Biometer Myograph 2,000, Odense, Denmark). There were significant differences in the duration and recovery time of vecuronium among the normoventilation group (12.7 +/- 3.3 min and 11.8 +/- 2.8 min, respectively), the hyperventilation group (10.6 +/- 3.5 min and 9.2 +/- 2.7 min, respectively; p < 0.01), and the hypoventilation group (14.4 +/- 3.1 min and 15.0 +/- 3.7 min, respectively; p < 0.01) (mean SD). The closest significant correlation in this study was observed between recovery time and arterial blood pH (r = 0.57; p < 0.05). In humans, duration and recovery times of vecuronium are prolonged in respiratory acidosis and shortened in respiratory alkalosis.

  3. Delivery dependence of early proximal bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat in respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

    PubMed Central

    Santella, R N; Maddox, D A; Gennari, F J

    1991-01-01

    In the intact rat kidney, bicarbonate reabsorption in the early proximal tubule (EP) is strongly dependent on delivery. Independent of delivery, metabolic acidosis stimulates EP bicarbonate reabsorption. In this study, we investigated whether systemic pH changes induced by acute or chronic respiratory acid-base disorders also affect EP HCO3- reabsorption, independent of delivery (FLHCO3, filtered load of bicarbonate). Hypercapnia was induced in rats acutely (1-3 h) and chronically (4-5 d) by increasing inspired PCO2. Hypocapnia was induced acutely (1-3 h) by mechanical hyperventilation, and chronically (4-5 d) using hypoxemia to stimulate ventilation. When compared with normocapneic rats with similar FLHCO3, no stimulation of EP or overall proximal HCO3 reabsorption was found with either acute hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 74 mmHg, pH = 7.23) or chronic hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 84 mmHg, pH = 7.31). Acute hypocapnia (PaCO2 = 29 mmHg, pH = 7.56) did not suppress EP or overall HCO3 reabsorption. Chronic hypocapnia (PaCO2 = 26 mmHg, pH = 7.54) reduced proximal HCO3 reabsorption, but this effect was reversed when FLHCO3 was increased to levels comparable to euvolemic normocapneic rats. Thus, when delivery is accounted for, we could find no additional stimulation of proximal bicarbonate reabsorption in respiratory acidosis and, except at low delivery rates, no reduction in bicarbonate reabsorption in respiratory alkalosis. PMID:1991847

  4. Positive pressure ventilation during anesthesia in dogs: Assessment of surface area derived tidal volume

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Doris H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of surface area derived tidal volume in anesthetized ventilated dogs (n = 71, random assignment) compared to settings by experienced personnel. There was no significant difference (P = 0.1030) between methods (paCO2 of 43.1 ± 7 mmHg and 39.8 ± 7 mmHg, respectively). Surface area derived tidal volume can achieve satisfactory ventilation. PMID:22753965

  5. The effect of a pediatric heat and moisture exchanger on dead space in healthy pediatric anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heat and moisture exchangers (HME) are often used to maintain humidity of breathing circuits during anesthesia. It is also known to increase dead space ventilation in respiratory distress syndromes. However, the effect of a pediatric HME in healthy pediatric patients has not yet been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a pediatric HME on dead space in healthy pediatric patients during anesthesia. Methods 20 ASA physical class I pediatric patients, without respiratory impairment, who underwent elective surgery for inguinal hernia or hydrocele with general anesthesia were enrolled. Fifteen minutes after ventilation with and without pediatric HME (internal volume of 22 ml), hemodynamic variables, end tidal CO2, minute volume and airway pressure were measured, and arterial blood sampling was conducted simultaneously. Results The removal of pediatric HME decreased PaCO2 significantly from 46.1 ± 6.9 mmHg to 37.9 ± 4.3 mmHg (P < 0.001) and increased the pH from 7.32 to 7.37 (P < 0.001). The differences between PaCO2 with and without HME (Δ PaCO2) were significantly correlated with weight (P < 0.001, β1 = -0.749) and age (P = 0.002, β1 = -0.623). Conclusions The use of a pediatric HME significantly increased PaCO2 in healthy pediatric patients that was inversely proportional to weight and age. The use of pediatric HME should be carefully considered in small pediatric patients. PMID:22679537

  6. Re-inspiration of CO2 from ventilator circuit: effects of circuit flushing and aspiration of dead space up to high respiratory rate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Dead space negatively influences carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination, particularly at high respiratory rates (RR) used at low tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Aspiration of dead space (ASPIDS), a known method for dead space reduction, comprises two mechanisms activated during late expiration: aspiration of gas from the tip of the tracheal tube and gas injection through the inspiratory line - circuit flushing. The objective was to study the efficiency of circuit flushing alone and of ASPIDS at wide combinations of RR and tidal volume (VT) in anaesthetized pigs. The hypothesis was tested that circuit flushing and ASPIDS are particularly efficient at high RR. Methods In Part 1 of the study, RR and VT were, with a computer-controlled ventilator, modified for one breath at a time without changing minute ventilation. Proximal dead space in a y-piece and ventilator tubing (VDaw, prox) was measured. In part two, changes in CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) during prolonged periods of circuit flushing and ASPIDS were studied at RR 20, 40 and 60 minutes-1. Results In Part 1, VDaw, prox was 7.6 ± 0.5% of VT at RR 10 minutes-1 and 16 ± 2.5% at RR 60 minutes-1. In Part 2, circuit flushing reduced PaCO2 by 20% at RR 40 minutes-1 and by 26% at RR 60 minutes-1. ASPIDS reduced PaCO2 by 33% at RR 40 minutes-1 and by 41% at RR 60 minutes-1. Conclusions At high RR, re-breathing of CO2 from the y-piece and tubing becomes important. Circuit flushing and ASPIDS, which significantly reduce tubing dead space and PaCO2, merit further clinical studies. PMID:20420671

  7. [Indications of home assisted ventilation by tracheostomy for non-paralytic chronic respiratory insufficient patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Robert, D; Fournier, G; Thomas, L; Gérard, M; Chemorin, B; Bertoye, A

    1979-01-01

    Based on a 15-year study, the indication of assisted ventilation at home is discussed. It depends on the seriousness of the C.R.I. (dyspnea, repeated acute failures, PaCO2 greater than or equal to 55 Torr). The only possible course is ventilation by tracheostomy. The best indication is represented by pure restrictive syndromes. On the contrary, the indication should be considered with extreme caution in obstructive syndromes.

  8. Idiopathic scoliosis. Gas exchange and the age dependence of arterial blood gases.

    PubMed Central

    Kafer, E R

    1976-01-01

    The aims were to examine the gas exchange and arterial blood gas abnormalities among patients with scoliosis, and the correlation of these abnormalities with age and severity of deformity. Means among 51 patients were as follows: age 25.4 +/- 17.5 yr, angle of scoliosis 80.2 +/- 29.9 (SD), vital capacity 1.94 +/- 0.91 (SD) (i.e. 60.6 +/- 19.2% of predicted), PaO2 85.8 +/- 12.0 (SD), PaCO2 42.4 +/- 8.0, physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio 0.438 +/- 0.074 (SD), and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference breathing air 14.9 +/- 8.9 (SD). Statistically significant correlations were as follows: the PaCO2 and physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio increased with age, and the PaO2 and alveolar ventilation decreased with age. The PaO2, alveolar ventilation, and tidal volume were inversely related to the angle of scoliosis and directly related to the vital capacity, precent predicted vital capacity, and the compliance of the respiratory system. The physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio and the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference were inversely related to the vital capacity, percent predicted vital capacity, and the compliance of the respiratory system. PaCO2 was directly related to the elastance of the respiratory system. We conclude that ventilation-blood flow maldistribution as a result of deformity of the rib cage was the primary abnormality in gas exchange, and that with age there was progressive deterioration in gas exchange. The age-dependent increase in PaCO2 and decrease in alveolar ventilation were due to the increasing physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio and failure of a compensatory increase in ventilation. PMID:965490

  9. Poor ventilatory response to mild hypoxia may inhibit acclimatization at moderate altitude in elderly patients after carotid surgery.

    PubMed

    Roeggla, G; Roeggla, M; Wagner, A; Laggner, A N

    1995-06-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptors (carotid bodies) are the main sensing organs for hypoxaemia. During carotid surgery, the carotic body in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery is often involved and damaged or destroyed. Animals lose their ability to adapt to high altitude after experimental denervation of the carotid bodies. The objective of our study was to evaluate the ability of human patients to adapt to moderate altitude after single side carotid surgery. Blood gas analysis at rest at 171 m and after car and cable car transport to 1600 m before and after carotid surgery was performed. Mean(s.d.) paO2 decreased insignificantly from 74.8(3.56) at 171 m altitude to 71.6(2.07) at 1600 m (P = n.s.), means(s.d.) paCO2 decreased significantly from 36.2(2.86) to 31.4(2.7) mmHg (P < 0.05) before carotid surgery. Months after surgery, a significant drop in paO2 occurred after identical passive exposure to moderate altitude: mean(s.d.) paCO2 at 171 m 74.4(3.65) mmHg, at 1600 m 65.8(3.70) mmHg (P < 0.01), paCO2 did not change significantly. Mean(s.d.) paCO2 at 171 m: 36.0(2.35), at 1600 m 36.2(2.86) mmHg (P = n.s.). Although the sample investigated was small, after single side carotid surgery patients seem to lose their ability for satisfactory ventilatory response to acute exposure to moderate altitude. This is of possible alpine medical importance.

  10. Variations in Alveolar Partial Pressure for Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Have Additive Not Synergistic Acute Effects on Human Pulmonary Vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Quentin P. P.; Formenti, Federico; Talbot, Nick P.; Lunn, Daniel; Robbins, Peter A.; Dorrington, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco2) and oxygen (Pao2) to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco2 (+6, +1, −4 and −9 mmHg, relative to baseline) with four levels of Pao2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg). During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So2). Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco2 and So2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64). Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output. PMID:23935847

  11. Cerebral blood volume and blood flow at varying arterial carbon dioxide tension levels in rabbits during propofol anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Cenic, A; Craen, R A; Howard-Lech, V L; Lee, T Y; Gelb, A W

    2000-06-01

    There are little data on the effects of propofol on cerebral blood volume (CBV). We studied the effects of changes in PaCO(2) on CBV and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during propofol anesthesia in eight New Zealand white rabbits. We also investigated the effects of propofol over time on CBV and CBF during normocapnia (control group). At normocapnia, the mean (+/- SD) CBV and CBF values were 2.41 +/- 0.68 mL/100 g and 56 +/- 28 mL/100 g/min, respectively,. When PaCO(2) was reduced from 41 to 27 mm Hg, no significant change in either CBV or CBF was observed (P > 0.10). However, increasing PaCO(2) from 41 to 58 mm Hg resulted in a 30% increase in CBV (3.08 +/- 0.86 mL/100 g, P < 0.05) and a 91% increase in CBF (97 +/- 39 mL/100 g/min, P < 0.01). In the control group, there were no significant changes in CBV and CBF (P > 0.10) during 2 h of propofol anesthesia. These results indicate that, during propofol anesthesia, cerebrovascular reactivity of blood flow and blood volume is maintained during hypercapnia but is markedly diminished during hypocapnia. During propofol anesthesia in rabbits with normal brains, a reduction in the arterial carbon dioxide level may not always be accompanied by a reduction in brain blood flow and blood volume.

  12. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, L; Alam, J; Lane, S

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  13. Effects of amiloride and diethyl pyrocarbonate on CSF HCO-3 and ventilation in hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Nattie, E E; Giddings, B

    1988-07-01

    Amiloride (10(-3) M), a Na+-H+ countertransport inhibitor, infused into the cisterna magna (10 microliter/min for 40 min) of ketamine-xylazine-anesthetized rabbits decreased the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HCO3- response to 3 h of hypercapnia [arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) = 60 Torr] by 21.6% (mean delta CSF [HCO3-]/delta PaCO2 0.232 vs. 0.296 mmol.l-1.Torr-1, P less than 0.05). Diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC, 10(-3) M), a histidine-blocking agent, infused into the cisterna magna decreased the CSF HCO3- response to hypercapnia by 25.3% (mean delta CSF [HCO3-]/delta PaCO2, 0.230 vs. 0.308 mmol.l-1.Torr-1, P less than 0.02). DEPC is known to inhibit the ventilatory response to hypercapnia (E. Nattie. Respir. Physiol. 64: 161-176, 1986) by a direct effect at the ventrolateral medulla (E. Nattie. J. Appl. Physiol. 61: 843-850, 1986). In this study amiloride had no significant effect on the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. The interpretation is that a Na+-H+ countertransport protein, perhaps with a histidine at a key location, is involved in CSF acid-base regulation and that amiloride appears to have no effects on the chemoreception process. DEPC appears to have effects on chemoreception and on CSF acid-base regulation.

  14. [Efficacy and safety of the use of levodropropizine in patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Gunella, G; Zanasi, A; Massimo Vanasia, C B

    1991-02-28

    Efficacy and tolerability of an antitussive drug, levodropropizine, in 21 adult patients with interstitial lung disorders was evaluated in this study. Levodropropizine dosage was 60 mg t.i.d. for four days of therapy. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the antitussive therapy and, on the other hand, the tolerability of levodropropizine in these patients, monitoring PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values. The changes in cough frequency (34.1 +/- 5.6 20.4 +/- 5.4 mean +/- d.s. before and after treatment) and the overall efficacy judgment as reported by the doctor indicate a decrease in cough as confirmed by the significance of Kruskal-Wallis test (p less than 0.05). Furthermore the tolerability has been excellent, because the PaO2, PaCo2 ad pH values before and after treatment were unchanged (PaO2 mmHg: basal 71 +/- 16.6, after treatment 73.8 +/- 14.2; PaCO2 mmHg: basal 36.6 +/- 5, after treatment 36.6 +/- 4.6; pH basal 7.4 +/- 0.03, after treatment 7.4 +/- 0.02).

  15. Do over 200 million healthy altitude residents really suffer from chronic Acid-base disorders?

    PubMed

    Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo; Zubieta-Castillo, Gustavo; Zubieta-Calleja, Luis; Ardaya-Zubieta, Gustavo; Paulev, Poul-Erik

    2011-01-01

    As the oxygen tension of inspired air falls with increasing altitude in normal subjects, hyperventilation ensues. This acute respiratory alkalosis, induces increased renal excretion of bicarbonate, returning the pH back to normal, giving rise to compensated respiratory alkalosis or chronic hypocapnia. It seems a contradiction that so many normal people at high altitude should permanently live as chronic acid-base patients. Blood gas analyses of 1,865 subjects at 3,510 m, reported a P(a)CO(2) (arterial carbon dioxide tension ± SEM) = 29.4 ± 0.16 mmHg and pH = 7.40 ± 0.005. Base excess, calculated with the Van Slyke sea level equation, is -5 mM (milliMolar or mmol/l) as an average, suggesting chronic hypocapnia. THID, a new term replacing "Base Excess" is determined by titration to a pH of 7.40 at a P(a)CO(2) of 5.33 kPa (40 mmHg) at sea level, oxygen saturated and at 37°C blood temperature. Since our new modified Van Slyke equations operate with normal values for P(a)CO(2) at the actual altitude, a calculation of THID will always result in normal values-that is, zero.

  16. Using a new plateau hyperbaric chamber to alleviate high altitude hypoxia: Rabbit and human studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Ding, Meng-Jiang; Cai, Tian-Cai; Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Peng

    2017-04-19

    To validate the effects of the new plateau hyperbaric chamber on alleviating high altitude hypoxia on Mount Kun Lun. A prospective, controlled study of rabbits and adult volunteers was conducted at altitudes of 355, 2880 and 4532m. We obtained arterial blood samples from rabbits and volunteers before and after hyperbaric treatment. The respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) of adult volunteers were monitored during hyperbaric treatment. The mean PaO2 levels of experimental group rabbits and volunteers increased significantly after 60min of hyperbaric treatment at 350, 2880 and 4532m. The mean PaCO2 and pH levels of rabbits were not significant different before and after hyperbaric treatment at each altitude. The mean PaCO2 and pH levels were not significant different at 355m in the human study. However, at 2880 and 4532m, pH fell with increasing PaCO2 levels in humans before and after hyperbaric treatment. The new multiplace plateau hyperbaric chamber may be used to alleviate plateau hypoxia by increasing patient PaO2. However, its value in treating AMS must be confirmed in field conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [CO2 storage in various organs during chronic experimental hypercapnia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Reichart, E; Claudon, F; Sablière, S

    1976-01-01

    The total CO2 is titrated in liver, abdominal and leg's muscles, brain and thigh-bone of rats exposed to 8 +/- 1% of carbon dioxide under normoxic (20-23% of O2) and normobaric conditions during zero, two, four or six weeks. Total (H2Ot) and extracellular (H2Oe) water is measured in these organs by the 3H-inulin method. The CO2 storage in organs is expressed in relation to the PaCO2 increase (mmol-kg-1 fresh tissue-torr-1). During a four week hypercapnia, this CO2 increase is very important in bone and brain compared with that of other organs and of the whole body. With regard to the whole body, the bone CO2 content is still increasing after four weeks. The increase in extracellular bicarbonate (delta[HCO3-e]/delta PaCO2) is negligible (1/100 th) in comparison with the whole carbonic increase (delta CO2/delta PaCO2). The bone extracellular compartment diminishes in relation with the experimentation duration, without any significant change in H2Oi (Student's analysis). A factorial analysis (BENZECRI) shows that the weight of H2Oe in the information diminishes for all organs, both with the duration of normal subjects observation (ageing) and with the hypercapnia duration.

  18. Varied egg gas conductance, air cell gas tensions and development in Agapornis roseicollis.

    PubMed

    Bucher, T L; Barnhart, M C

    1984-03-01

    Different color varieties of the small African parrot, Agapornis roseicollis , lay eggs which differ by as much as a factor of 7 in gas conductance. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and air cell gas tensions (PAO2, PACO2) were measured repeatedly on individual eggs during development. No differences were observed in the ontogeny of VO2, incubation period, or hatchling mass of eggs with different gas conductances, in spite of large differences in PAO2 and PACO2. Low conductance eggs reached PAO2 as low as 46.0 torr (6.13 kPa) and PACO2 as high as 90.5 torr (12.07 kPa). Although pipping occurred earlier in low conductance eggs, pipping did not occur at similar air cell gas tensions in eggs differing in conductance. Chorioallantoic membrane development was about 75% complete on day 12 and not fully complete until day 18 of the 22-23 day incubation period. The capacity of avian embryos to develop and hatch normally in eggs of different conductances may be important in allowing adaptation to varying nesting environments.

  19. Carbon dioxide reactivity of tumor blood flow as measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: a new treatment protocol for laser thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdie, Thomas G.; Sherar, Michael D.; Fenster, Aaron; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the current study is to measure the carbon dioxide reactivity of blood flow in VX2 tumor in the rabbit thigh. The carbon dioxide reactivity of the functional parameters was investigated in eight rabbits by changing the ventilation rate in order to manipulate the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). In each experiment, functional maps were generated at four PaCO2 levels: normocapnia (PaCO2 equals 40.7 +/- 1.4 mm Hg), hypocapnia (27.1 +/- 2.5 and 33.7 +/- 2.2) and hypercapnia (53.8 +/- 5.2). The carbon dioxide reactivity of tumor blood flow showed significant differences between normocapnia and the two levels of hypocapnia, but not between normocapnia and hypercapnia. The average fractional change of blood flow from normocapnia for the two hypocapnic level was -0.41 +/- 0.06 and -0.29 +/- 0.08, respectively. The ability to reduce blood flow through hypocapnia has significant implications in thermal therapy, as heat dissipation represents a major obstacle which limits the effectiveness of treatment.

  20. Predictive Factors for the Effect of Treatment by Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Respiratory Failure as a Result of Acute Exacerbation of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pejkovska, Sava; Kaeva, Biserka Jovkovska; Goseva, Zlatica; Arsovski, Zoran; Janeva, Jelena Jovanovska; Zeynel, Sead

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) applies ventilator support through the patient’s upper airway using a mask. AIM: The aim of the study is to define factors that will point out an increased risk of NIV failure in patients with exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients over the age of 40, treated with NIV, were prospectively recruited. After data processing, the patients were divided into two groups: 1) successful NIV treatment group; 2) failed NIV treatment group. RESULTS: On admission arterial pH and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) levels were lower (pH: p < 0.05, GCS: p < 0.05), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) score and PaCO2 were higher (p < 0.05) in the NIV failure group. Arterial pH was lower (p < 0.05) and PaCO2 and respiratory rate were higher (p < 0.05) after 1h, and arterial pH was lower (p < 0.05) and PaCO2 (p < 0.05), respiratory and heart rate were higher (p < 0.05) after 4h in the NIV failure group. CONCLUSION: Measurement and monitoring of certain parameters may be of value in terms of predicting the effectiveness of NIV treatment. PMID:27275303

  1. [Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient in cardiopulmonary patients breathing ambient air at rest and during exercise].

    PubMed

    Martínez Guerra, M L; Gómez González, A; Fernández Bonetti, P; Lupi Herrera, E

    1983-01-01

    The alveolar to arterial difference of oxygen [(A-a)DO2] depends on variables such as ventilation, cardiac output, respiratory exchange ratio and arterial PO2. The arterial PO2 itself depends on the ventilation to perfusion ratio (V/Q) pulmonary shunt, (a-v) O2 difference, and the metabolic status of the patient. When the alveolar-ventilation is normal, the (A-a)DO2 reflects gas exchange abnormalities and when the alveolar-ventilation is increased, the (A-a)DO2 can increase because of a decrease in PaCO2. The factors capable of altering the alveolar to arterial oxygen difference were investigated in ninety patients with pulmonary disease: (pulmonary embolism, lung fibrosis and chronic obstructive lung disease), both at rest and during exercise. At rest when alveolar ventilation was increased, the (A-a)DO2 broadened due to the decrease in PaCO2. During exercise the (A-a)DO2 also increased and the PaCO2 was not significantly modified, therefore admixture it is the result of an increase in the proportion of venous. The difference between the mixed venous and arterial PO2 decreased due to alveolar hypoventilation reducing in consequence the (A-a)DO2. We conclude that in the group studied the increase in the (A-a)DO2 is mainly due to V/Q imbalance at rest and during exercise.

  2. Permissive hypercapnia to decrease lung injury in ventilated preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Thome, Ulrich H; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2009-02-01

    Lung injury in ventilated premature infants occurs primarily through the mechanism of volutrauma, often due to the combination of high tidal volumes in association with a high end-inspiratory volume and occasionally end-expiratory alveolar collapse. Tolerating a higher level of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is considered as 'permissive hypercapnia' and when combined with the use of low tidal volumes may reduce volutrauma and lead to improved pulmonary outcomes. Permissive hypercapnia may also protect against hypocapnia-induced brain hypoperfusion and subsequent periventricular leukomalacia. However, extreme hypercapnia may be associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. It may therefore be important to avoid large fluctuations in PaCO2 values. Recent randomized clinical trials in preterm infants have demonstrated that mild permissive hypercapnia is safe, but clinical benefits are modest. The optimal PaCO2 goal in clinical practice has not been determined, and the available evidence does not currently support a general recommendation for permissive hypercapnia in preterm infants.

  3. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces) with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 <10 kPa) with nine animals having marked hypoxemia (PaO2 5.5-8 kPa). All moose were acidemic (ph<7.35) with nine moose having marked acidemia (pH<7.20). For PaCO2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa) and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa). Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen. PMID:23276208

  4. Comparison of helmet and facial mask during noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Özlem, Çakir Gürbüz; Ali, Alagöz; Fatma, Ulus; Mehtap, Tunç; Şaziye, Şahin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is an approach to prevent complications in acute respiratory failure. In this study we aimed to compare the efficacy of a full face mask and a helmet in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fifty patients were divided randomly into 2 groups as full face mask (Group F) and helmet (Group H). Demographic data, forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), additional disease, hemodynamic parameters, respiratory rate, APACHE II score, peripheral O2 saturation (SpO2), arterial blood gases (ABG), patient tolerance scale (PTS) score, and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiG2) were recorded. Parameters were recorded as follows: 20 min before the NIMV; every 30 min of NIMV until 120 min; 30 min, 24 h, and 48 h after NIMV; and prior to intensive care unit discharge. The SpO2, PTS, ABG, complication rate, and APACHE II scores were not different between the groups (P > 0.05). The decrease in PaCO2 was statistically significant at 60 min in Group F (P < 0.05), and there was no statistical difference in Group H (P < 0.05) according to initial PaCO2 values. Both masks are efficient in improving the patients' outcome in COPD, but the decrease in PaCO2in the helmet group was slower than in the full face mask group.

  5. Postoperative analgesia with intravenous fentanyl PCA vs epidural block after thoracoscopic pectus excavatum repair in children.

    PubMed

    Butkovic, D; Kralik, S; Matolic, M; Kralik, M; Toljan, S; Radesic, L

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized trial was to compare analgesia, sedation, and cardiorespiratory function in children after thoracoscopic surgery for pectus excavatum repair, using two types of analgesia--epidural block with bupivacaine plus fentanyl vs patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with fentanyl. Twenty-eight patients scheduled for thoracoscopic pectus excavatum surgery were randomly assigned to receive either thoracic epidural block or i.v. PCA for postoperative analgesia. Pain was assessed using a visual-analogue scale (VAS). The Ramsay sedation score, arterial pressure, ventilatory frequency, and heart rate were also measured, and blood gas analysis was performed regularly during the first 48 h after surgery. A significant decrease in the VAS pain score, Ramsay sedation score, heart rate ventilatory frequency, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and PaCO2, and a significant increase in PaO2 and oxygen saturation were found over time. Patients in the PCA group had significantly higher PaCO2 values. In addition, a significantly slower decline of systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and faster recovery of PaCO2 were found in PCA patients than in patients with epidural block. I.V. fentanyl PCA is as effective as thoracic epidural for postoperative analgesia in children after thoracoscopic pectus excavatum repair. Bearing in mind the possible complications of epidural catheterization in children, the use of fentanyl PCA is recommended.

  6. Renin-angiotensin system stimulates respiration during acute hypotension but not during hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Ohtake, P J; Walker, J K; Jennings, D B

    1993-03-01

    We reported that intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulated ventilation (VE) in conscious dogs. Other studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that increases in respiration occurred in association with activation of the renin-angiotensin system during acute hypotension and during hypercapnia. Therefore, in conscious dogs (n = 5), we examined the effects of ANG II receptor blockade with intravenous saralasin (0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) on respiratory responses during progressive nitroprusside-induced hypotension and during the ventilatory response to increased inspired fraction of CO2 (VRC). During hypotension (mean arterial pressure decreased approximately 20%) combined with ANG II receptor blockade, VE, heart rate, and arginine vasopressin increases were attenuated compared within unblocked studies. With ANG II receptor blockade during hypotension, alveolar ventilation and arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) were unchanged, which contrasted with a doubling of alveolar ventilation and a decrease of 4.8 +/- 1 Torr in PaCO2 in unblocked studies. During hypercapnia, the slope of the VRC was not affected by ANG II receptor blockade, but with 6.5% inspired CO2 fraction, VE and PaCO2 were lower than in unblocked studies. These results indicated that ANG II contributed to the respiratory response to a modest hypotension but did not affect respiratory sensitivity to CO2.

  7. Effect of hypoxia and hypercapnia on catecholamine content in cat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R S; Garger, P; Hauer, M C; Raff, H; Fechter, L

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the content of catecholamines (CA) in the cat carotid body before and after 0.5 h exposures to normoxic normocapnia [arterial O2 partial pressure (Pao2) 126 +/- 28 Torr, arterial CO2 partial pressure (Paco2) 36.4 +/- 1.5 Torr], hypoxic normocapnia (Pao2 25 +/- 3 Torr, Paco2 36.7 +/- 3.3 Torr), and normoxic hypercapnia (Pao2 132 +/- 13 Torr, Paco2 = 98.2 +/- 7.6 Torr). CA synthesis was blocked using alpha-methylparatyrosine methyl ester (AMPT) prior to alterations in the inspired air. There was a significant decrease in carotid body content of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (E) 1 h after AMPT administration. Analysis of variance and Duncan new multiple range procedures revealed that during the subsequent 0.5-h exposures to normoxia, hypoxia, or hypercapnia, only the decrease in DA during hypoxia was significantly greater than that during normoxia; the loss during hypercapnia was not. The decreases in NE during the three exposures were indistinguishable among themselves as were the decreases in E. The decrease in CA content is probably attributable to increased release. The data reveal that the release of CAs during the chemoreception of hypoxia is different from that during the chemoreception of hypercapnia and support the concept of different mechanisms for the chemoreception of hypoxia and hypercapnia.

  8. Renal contribution to acid-base regulation during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Takano, N; Kaneda, T

    1983-03-01

    Menstruating women exhibit a light but sustained hypocapnia during the luteal phase. To elucidate whether the hypocapnia results primarily from a respiratory or renal mechanism, we measured the rate of urinary excretion of acid at intervals during the menstrual cycle in five subjects. The acid-base composition of arterial blood in three subjects and end-tidal PCO2 in the remaining two subjects were also determined. During the follicular phase, the acid-base composition of blood and the rate of net acid excretion remained virtually constant. After ovulation, significant decreases in PaCO2 (3.5 mmHg), [HCO3]p (2 meq/liter), and net acid excretion (2 meq/h) occurred in the first 4-6 days of the luteal phase (14 days long). Following this, net acid excretion returned to the preovulatory level. PaCO2 and [HCO3]p, however, remained decreased for 3 more days. At the end of the luteal phase, restoration of PaCO2 proceeded faster than that of [HCO3]p. The acid-base changes in blood and urine observed during the luteal phase were comparable to those occurring during adaptation and recovery from sustained hypocapnia, suggesting that hypocapnia during the luteal phase is primarily respiratory in origin.

  9. Comparison of transcutaneous, arterial and end-tidal measurements of carbon dioxide during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ozyuvaci, E; Demircioglu, O; Toprak, N; Topacoglu, H; Sitilci, T; Akyol, O

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous, arterial and end-tidal measurements of carbon dioxide were compared in patients (American Society of Anesthesiology physical status classes II and III) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with carbon dioxide insufflation. General anaesthesia was performed in all patients. The Sentec(®) system was used for transcutaneous monitoring of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (TcPCO(2)). TcPCO(2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) were recorded preoperatively, after induction of anaesthesia, during insufflation and postoperatively; end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO(2)) was recorded after induction and during insufflation. PaCO(2) increased during insufflation and reached a maximum at extubation. It declined within 20 min postoperatively but did not return to preoperative levels during this time. TcPCO(2) levels followed a similar pattern. ETCO(2) was significantly lower than PaCO(2) after induction and during insufflation. TcPCO(2) was a valid and practical measurement compared with ETCO(2). In patients with COPD undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, TcPCO(2) and ETCO(2) could be used instead of arterial blood gas sampling.

  10. CO2 measurement for the early differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism-related shock at the emergency department: A case series.

    PubMed

    Van Marcke, Cédric; Daoudia, Anas; Penaloza, Andrea; Verschuren, Franck

    2015-01-01

    An early differential diagnosis is mandatory when facing a patient with clinical shock of unclear aetiology, in order to guide proper treatment. We assessed if the expired CO2 measurement and alveolar-arterial CO2 calculation could improve the differential diagnosis of shock during its initial presentation, particularly in separating pulmonary embolism from other causes of shock. We analysed the charts of 12 patients who presented with clinical shock and had end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) and arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) measurements. In cases with pulmonary embolism-related shock (n = 3), the gradient between PaCO2 and EtCO2 was increased (37 vs 0.2 mmHg). There was a similar trend for a higher PaCO2 value (60 vs 32.2 mmHg) and a lower EtCO2 value (23 vs 32 mmHg). An initial CO2 measurement might be an easily available tool for the early diagnostic work-up of clinical shock.

  11. Limited role for nitric oxide in mediating cerebrovascular control of newborn piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J; Pryds, O; Roberts, I; Harris, D; Edwards, A D

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the effects of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on cerebral blood flow, and its response to alterations in arterial carbon dioxide tension (CBF-CO2 reactivity). METHODS: Cerebral blood flow was measured six times at varying arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) using the intravenous 133Xenon clearance technique in eight mechanically ventilated piglets of less than 24 hours postnatal age. After the third measurement L-NAME was administered as a bolus (20 mg/kg) and subsequently infused (10 mg/kg/hour). RESULTS: PaCO2 ranged between 2.7-8.9 kPa. Cerebral blood flow decreased by 14.0% (95% confidence interval 1.9-27.4) after L-NAME. CBF-CO2 reactivity was 18.4% per kPa (95% CI 14.1-22.2) before L-NAME and 15.2%/kPa (95% CI 11.1-19.3) afterwards; the difference between the CBF-CO2 reactivities was 3.2%/kPa (95% CI -0.4-6.8): these were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis reduces cerebral blood flow no more than a 0.5-1.0 kPa fall in PaCO2. Nitric oxide is not an important mediator of CBF-CO2 reactivity. PMID:8949688

  12. Porcine MAP3K5 analysis: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variations associated with residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Pu, L; Zhang, L C; Zhang, J S; Song, X; Wang, L G; Liang, J; Zhang, Y B; Liu, X; Yan, H; Zhang, T; Yue, J W; Li, N; Wu, Q Q; Wang, L X

    2016-08-12

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively. The deduced MAP3K5 protein sequence contains two conserved domains: a DUF4071 domain and a protein kinase domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that porcine MAP3K5 forms a separate branch to vicugna and camel MAP3K5. Tissue expression analysis using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that MAP3K5 was expressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, pancrea, ileum, and stomach tissues. Copy number variation was detected for porcine MAP3K5 and validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, a significant increase in average copy number was detected in the low RFI group when compared to the high RFI group in a Duroc pig population. These results provide useful information regarding the influence of MAP3K5 on RFI in pigs.

  13. Transcutaneous PTCCO2 measurement in combination with arterial blood gas analysis provides superior accuracy and reliability in ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Spelten, Oliver; Fiedler, Fritz; Schier, Robert; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2017-02-01

    Hyper or hypoventilation may have serious clinical consequences in critically ill patients and should be generally avoided, especially in neurosurgical patients. Therefore, monitoring of carbon dioxide partial pressure by intermittent arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2) has become standard in intensive care units (ICUs). However, several additional methods are available to determine PCO2 including end-tidal (PETCO2) and transcutaneous (PTCCO2) measurements. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and reliability of different methods to determine PCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients on ICU. After approval of the local ethics committee PCO2 was determined in n = 32 ICU consecutive patients requiring mechanical ventilation: (1) arterial PaCO2 blood gas analysis with Radiometer ABL 625 (ABL; gold standard), (2) arterial PaCO2 analysis with Immediate Response Mobile Analyzer (IRMA), (3) end-tidal PETCO2 by a Propaq 106 EL monitor and (4) transcutaneous PTCCO2 determination by a Tina TCM4. Bland-Altman method was used for statistical analysis; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical analysis revealed good correlation between PaCO2 by IRMA and ABL (R(2) = 0.766; p < 0.01) as well as between PTCCO2 and ABL (R(2) = 0.619; p < 0.01), whereas correlation between PETCO2 and ABL was weaker (R(2) = 0.405; p < 0.01). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias and precision of 2.0 ± 3.7 mmHg for the IRMA, 2.2 ± 5.7 mmHg for transcutaneous, and -5.5 ± 5.6 mmHg for end-tidal measurement. Arterial CO2 partial pressure by IRMA (PaCO2) and PTCCO2 provided greater accuracy compared to the reference measurement (ABL) than the end-tidal CO2 measurements in critically ill in mechanically ventilated patients patients.

  14. The correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial blood gas parameters in patients evaluated for metabolic acid-base disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Ghazaleh Doostkhah; Sharifi, Mohammad Davood; Deloei, Morteza Talebi; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Reihani, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The analysis of arterial blood gas (ABG) is an invasive procedure that is used frequently in the emergency department (ED) to evaluate the acid-base status of critically-ill patients. However, capnometry is an alternative procedure that has been used in recent years to determine the metabolic status of patients’ blood. Considering the correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) identified in the previous studies and the strong correlation between PaCO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3−), we assumed that ETCO2 might be a useful parameter in predicting the presence of metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between ETCO2 and the parameters of ABG in adult patients who were likely present metabolic acid-base disturbances in the Emergency Department of Imam Reza Hospital, the largest academic hospital in Mashhad in northeast Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during six months on 62 adult patients who presented with suspected metabolic acid-base disorders to the ED. The exclusion criteria were patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, loss of consciousness, intubated patients, and those who were unable to tolerate capnography. The patients’ demographic information and vital signs were recorded. Also, ABG and ETCO2 results were recorded. The Pearson product moment correlation analysis and linear regression were used to determine the correlation between ETCO2 and ABG parameters. Results: Sixty-four patients were enrolled, consisting of 37 men and 27 women with a mean age of 55.4 ± 22.7 years. The most common complaints presented were nausea and vomiting (n = 24). The average value for ETCO2 was 26.2 ± 6.1. There were significant linear correlations between ETCO2 level, pH (r = 0.368), HCO3− (r = 0.869), PaCO2 (r = 0.795), and Base Excess (B.E.) (r = 0.346). HCO3 and PaCO2 were the significant predictor values for ETCO2 (linear

  15. The correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial blood gas parameters in patients evaluated for metabolic acid-base disorders.

    PubMed

    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Ghazaleh Doostkhah; Sharifi, Mohammad Davood; Deloei, Morteza Talebi; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Reihani, Hamidreza

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of arterial blood gas (ABG) is an invasive procedure that is used frequently in the emergency department (ED) to evaluate the acid-base status of critically-ill patients. However, capnometry is an alternative procedure that has been used in recent years to determine the metabolic status of patients' blood. Considering the correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) identified in the previous studies and the strong correlation between PaCO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ), we assumed that ETCO2 might be a useful parameter in predicting the presence of metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between ETCO2 and the parameters of ABG in adult patients who were likely present metabolic acid-base disturbances in the Emergency Department of Imam Reza Hospital, the largest academic hospital in Mashhad in northeast Iran. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during six months on 62 adult patients who presented with suspected metabolic acid-base disorders to the ED. The exclusion criteria were patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, loss of consciousness, intubated patients, and those who were unable to tolerate capnography. The patients' demographic information and vital signs were recorded. Also, ABG and ETCO2 results were recorded. The Pearson product moment correlation analysis and linear regression were used to determine the correlation between ETCO2 and ABG parameters. Sixty-four patients were enrolled, consisting of 37 men and 27 women with a mean age of 55.4 ± 22.7 years. The most common complaints presented were nausea and vomiting (n = 24). The average value for ETCO2 was 26.2 ± 6.1. There were significant linear correlations between ETCO2 level, pH (r = 0.368), HCO3(-) (r = 0.869), PaCO2 (r = 0.795), and Base Excess (B.E.) (r = 0.346). HCO3 and PaCO2 were the significant predictor values for ETCO2 (linear regression analysis). ETCO2 can

  16. Arterial acid-base status during digestion and following vascular infusion of NaHCO(3) and HCl in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Arvedsen, Sine K; Andersen, Johnnie B; Zaar, Morten; Andrade, Denis; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2005-12-01

    Digestion is associated with gastric secretion that leads to an alkalinisation of the blood, termed the "alkaline tide". Numerous studies on different reptiles and amphibians show that while plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)](pl)) increases substantially during digestion, arterial pH (pHa) remains virtually unchanged, due to a concurrent rise in arterial PCO(2) (PaCO(2)) caused by a relative hypoventilation. This has led to the suggestion that postprandial amphibians and reptiles regulate pHa rather than PaCO(2). Here we characterize blood gases in the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) during digestion and following systemic infusions of NaHCO(3) and HCl in fasting animals to induce a metabolic alkalosis or acidosis in fasting animals. The magnitude of these acid-base disturbances were similar in magnitude to that mediated by digestion and exercise. Plasma [HCO(3)(-)] increased from 18.4+/-1.5 to 23.7+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) during digestion and was accompanied by a respiratory compensation where PaCO(2) increased from 13.0+/-0.7 to 19.1+/-1.4 mm Hg at 24 h. As a result, pHa decreased slightly, but were significantly below fasting levels 36 h into digestion. Infusion of NaHCO(3) (7 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in a 10 mmol L(-1) increase in plasma [HCO(3)(-)] within 1 h and was accompanied by a rapid elevation of pHa (from 7.58+/-0.01 to 7.78+/-0.02). PaCO(2), however, did not change following HCO(3)(-) infusion, which indicates a lack of respiratory compensation. Following infusion of HCl (4 mmol kg(-1)), plasma pHa decreased by 0.07 units and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) was reduced by 4.6 mmol L(-1) within the first 3 h. PaCO(2), however, was not affected and there was no evidence for respiratory compensation. Our data show that digesting rattlesnakes exhibit respiratory compensations to the alkaline tide, whereas artificially induced metabolic acid-base disturbances of same magnitude remain uncompensated. It seems difficult to envision that the central and

  17. A randomised controlled trial of CPAP versus non-invasive ventilation for initial treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mark E; Piper, Amanda J; Stevens, Bronwyn; Holland, Anne E; Yee, Brendon J; Dabscheck, Eli; Mortimer, Duncan; Burge, Angela T; Flunt, Daniel; Buchan, Catherine; Rautela, Linda; Sheers, Nicole; Hillman, David; Berlowitz, David J

    2017-05-01

    Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is the most common indication for home ventilation, although the optimal therapy remains unclear, particularly for severe disease. We compared Bi-level and continuous positive airways pressure (Bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP); CPAP) for treatment of severe OHS. We conducted a multicentre, parallel, double-blind trial for initial treatment of OHS, with participants randomised to nocturnal Bi-level PAP or CPAP for 3 months. The primary outcome was frequency of treatment failure (hospital admission, persistent ventilatory failure or non-adherence); secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and sleepiness. Sixty participants were randomised; 57 completed follow-up and were included in analysis (mean age 53 years, body mass index 55 kg/m(2), PaCO2 60 mm Hg). There was no difference in treatment failure between groups (Bi-level PAP, 14.8% vs CPAP, 13.3%, p=0.87). Treatment adherence and wake PaCO2 were similar after 3 months (5.3 hours/night Bi-level PAP, 5.0 hours/night CPAP, p=0.62; PaCO2 44.2 and 45.9 mm Hg, respectively, p=0.60). Between-group differences in improvement in sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale 0.3 (95% CI -2.8, 3.4), p=0.86) and HRQoL (Short Form (SF)36-SF6d 0.025 (95% CI -0.039, 0.088), p=0.45) were not significant. Baseline severity of ventilatory failure (PaCO2) was the only significant predictor of persistent ventilatory failure at 3 months (OR 2.3, p=0.03). In newly diagnosed severe OHS, Bi-level PAP and CPAP resulted in similar improvements in ventilatory failure, HRQoL and adherence. Baseline PaCO2 predicted persistent ventilatory failure on treatment. Long-term studies are required to determine whether these treatments have different cost-effectiveness or impact on mortality. ACTRN12611000874910, results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation in acute hemorrhagic shock and evaluation of gastric luminal and transcutaneous Pco2 in Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Morena B; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Martin-Jurado, Olga; Howard, Judith; Vogler, Barbara; Vogt, Rainer; Codron, Daryl; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly

  19. Physiological dead space and arterial carbon dioxide contributions to exercise ventilatory inefficiency in patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction heart failure.

    PubMed

    Van Iterson, Erik H; Johnson, Bruce D; Borlaug, Barry A; Olson, Thomas P

    2017-10-08

    Patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction demonstrate an increased ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V̇E /V̇CO2 ) slope. The physiological correlates of the V̇E /V̇CO2 slope remain unclear in the two HF phenotypes. We hypothesized that changes in the physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD /VT ) and arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2 ) differentially contribute to the V̇E /V̇CO2 slope in HFrEF vs. HFpEF. Adults with HFrEF (n = 32) and HFpEF (n = 27) [mean ± standard deviation (SD) left ventricular ejection fraction: 22 ± 7% and 61 ± 9%, respectively; mean ± SD body mass index: 28 ± 4 kg/m(2) and 33 ± 6 kg/m(2) , respectively; P < 0.01] performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing with breath-by-breath ventilation and gas exchange measurements. PaCO2 was measured via radial arterial catheterization. We calculated the V̇E /V̇CO2 slope via linear regression, and VD /VT  = 1 - [(863 × V̇CO2 )/(V̇E  × PaCO2 )]. Resting VD /VT (0.48 ± 0.08 vs. 0.41 ± 0.11; P = 0.04), but not PaCO2 (38 ± 5 mmHg vs. 40 ± 3 mmHg; P = 0.21) differed between HFrEF and HFpEF. Peak exercise VD /VT (0.39 ± 0.08 vs. 0.32 ± 0.12; P = 0.02) and PaCO2 (33 ± 6 mmHg vs. 38 ± 4 mmHg; P < 0.01) differed between HFrEF and HFpEF. The V̇E /V̇CO2 slope was higher in HFrEF compared with HFpEF (44 ± 11 vs. 35 ± 8; P < 0.01). Variance associated with the V̇E /V̇CO2 slope in HFrEF and HFpEF was explained by peak exercise VD /VT (R(2)  = 0.30 and R(2)  = 0.50, respectively) and PaCO2 (R(2)  = 0.64 and R(2)  = 0.28, respectively), but the relative contributions of each differed (all P < 0.01). Relationships between the V̇E /V̇CO2 slope and both VD /VT and PaCO2 are robust, but differ between HFpEF and HFrEF. Increasing V̇E /V̇CO2 slope appears to be strongly explained by

  20. Transcutaneous versus blood carbon dioxide monitoring during acute noninvasive ventilation in the emergency department - a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Christian Michael; Brutsche, Martin Hugo; Baty, Florent; Rüdiger, Jochen Julius

    2016-01-01

    Transcutaneous measurement of carbon dioxide (PtCO2) has been suggested as an alternative to invasively obtained PaCO2 for the monitoring of patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Current data on monitoring in hypoxaemic respiratory failure are scarce and show conflicting results in hypercapnic patients in the emergency department. We performed a retrospective comparison of real-time PtCO2 (SenTec Digital Monitor) and arterial/venous carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2/PvCO2) measurements in patients with severe hypoxaemic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure during NIV. Agreement between PtCO2 and PaCO2/PvCO2 was the primary endpoint. Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression were used. 102 patients had at least one matched measurement of PtCO2 and PaCO2/PvCO2. For patients with arterial blood gas analysis, the mean difference was 0.46 kPa at baseline (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23 to 0.60, limits of agreement 95% CI -0.54 to 1.45) and 0.12 kPa after NIV (95% CI -0.04 to 0.29, limits of agreement 95% CI: -0.61 to 0.86). The linear regression analysis found a correlation R2 of 0.88 (p <0.001) at baseline and an R2 of 0.99 (p <0.001) after initiating NIV. For patients with venous blood gas analysis, the mean difference was 0.64 kPa at baseline (95% CI 0.04 to 1.24, limits of agreement 95% CI -0.72 to 2) and 0.80 kPa after NIV (95% CI 0.51 to 1.10, limits of agreement 95% CI 0.29 to 1.32), R2 0.78 (p <0.001) at baseline and R2 0.91 (p <0.001) after initiating NIV. A PaCO2/PvCO2 >8 kPa was associated with a lesser degree of agreement between the levels of PtCO2 and PaCO2/PvCO2 (p <0.001). Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring shows a good concordance with PaCO2 and is a reliable, feasible, patient-friendly and safe alternative to repeated blood gas analysis for patients with severe hypoxaemic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure receiving emergency NIV in the emergency department. An initial blood gas analysis to evaluate the

  1. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

  2. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  3. A single domain antibody fragment that recognizes the adaptor ASC defines the role of ASC domains in inflammasome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian I.; Lu, Alvin; Chen, Jeff W.; Ruan, Jianbin; Tang, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid cells assemble inflammasomes in response to infection or cell damage; cytosolic sensors activate pro–caspase-1, indirectly for the most part, via the adaptors ASC and NLRC4. This leads to secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and pyroptosis. To explore complex formation under physiological conditions, we generated an alpaca single domain antibody, VHHASC, which specifically recognizes the CARD of human ASC via its type II interface. VHHASC not only impairs ASCCARD interactions in vitro, but also inhibits inflammasome activation in response to NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP triggers when expressed in living cells, highlighting a role of ASC in all three types of inflammasomes. VHHASC leaves the Pyrin domain of ASC functional and stabilizes a filamentous intermediate of inflammasome activation. Incorporation of VHHASC-EGFP into these structures allowed the visualization of endogenous ASCPYD filaments for the first time. These data revealed that cross-linking of ASCPYD filaments via ASCCARD mediates the assembly of ASC foci. PMID:27069117

  4. Animal health research in the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program.

    PubMed

    Alexander, A F; DeMartini, J C; McGuire, T C; Olander, H J

    1989-11-01

    Disease is a major constraint in small ruminant production systems in lesser-developed countries throughout the world. Animal health projects have been an integral part of the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program (SR-CRSP) from its inception. At the onset, these projects were oriented toward herd health care and veterinary extension activities. Later, all the projects developed a sharper focus in that they were directed to more basic studies of infectious disease. Diseases currently being investigated include caseous lymphadenitis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, caprine arthritis-encephalitis, ovine pulmonary carcinoma, ovine progressive pneumonia and neonatal mortality of alpaca. Continued, sharply focused studies are projected for the future to take advantage of recombinant technology in the development of multivalent vaccines.

  5. High altitude artisanal small-scale gold mines are hot spots for Mercury in soils and plants.

    PubMed

    Terán-Mita, Tania A; Faz, Angel; Salvador, Flor; Arocena, Joselito M; Acosta, Jose A

    2013-02-01

    Mercury releases from artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) condense and settle on plants, soils and water bodies. We collected soil and plant samples to add knowledge to the likely transfer of Hg from soils into plants and eventually predict Hg accumulation in livestock around ASGM in Bolivia. Mean contents of Hg in soils range from 0.5 to 48.6 mg Hg kg(-1) soil (5× to 60× more compared to control sites) and exceeded the soil Hg threshold levels in some European countries. The Hg contents ranged from 0.6 to 18 and 0.2 to 28.3 mg Hg kg(-1) leaf and root, respectively. The high Hg in Poaceae and Rosaceae may elevate Hg accumulation into the food chain because llama and alpaca solely thrive on these plants for food. Erosion of soils around ASGM in Bolivia contributes to the Hg contamination in lower reaches of the Amazon basin.

  6. Septicemia and meningoencephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in two neonatal llamas.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Ian K; Ilha, Marcia; Anis, Eman; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2017-09-01

    Listeriosis is a disease of humans and domestic mammals (mainly ruminants) with variable manifestations, primarily encephalitis, septicemia, and abortion. Although Listeria monocytogenes readily causes illness in ruminants, the prevalence among domestic South American camelids (llamas and alpacas) is low and has not been documented in their wild counterparts, the vicuna and guanaco. We describe herein the clinical signs, autopsy findings, and histopathology of septicemia and suppurative meningoencephalitis caused by L. monocytogenes in 2 neonatal llamas ( Llama glama) from the same herd. L. monocytogenes was isolated in pure culture and identified by real-time PCR on fresh and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of the brain from both crias. This presentation of septicemic listeriosis with meningoencephalitis in 2 animals from the same group is unusual, especially among llamas.

  7. Embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Sumar, Julio B

    2013-01-10

    Intraspecific and interspecific embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids is developing into a well-established technique. Reports reveal many benefits of using reproductive biotechnologies to allow rapid propagation of alpacas and llamas of high genetic merit (e.g., high fiber quality, preserve color variation). The objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information about embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids. Specific information is provided on criteria for male selection, donor and recipient synchronization, the practice of single- vs. super-ovulation protocols, embryo recovery and transfer techniques, advances in cryopreservation of embryos, results of intra- and inter-specific transfer, and the future of the embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids.

  8. Model selection as a science driver for dark energy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Liddle, Andrew R.; Kunz, Martin

    2006-07-01

    A key science goal of upcoming dark energy surveys is to seek time-evolution of the dark energy. This problem is one of model selection, where the aim is to differentiate between cosmological models with different numbers of parameters. However, the power of these surveys is traditionally assessed by estimating their ability to constrain parameters, which is a different statistical problem. In this paper, we use Bayesian model selection techniques, specifically forecasting of the Bayes factors, to compare the abilities of different proposed surveys in discovering dark energy evolution. We consider six experiments - supernova luminosity measurements by the Supernova Legacy Survey, SNAP, JEDI and ALPACA, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by WFMOS and JEDI - and use Bayes factor plots to compare their statistical constraining power. The concept of Bayes factor forecasting has much broader applicability than dark energy surveys.

  9. Comparative studies of water permeability of red blood cells from humans and over 30 animal species: an overview of 20 years of collaboration with Philip Kuchel.

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    NMR measurements of the diffusional permeability of the human adult red blood cell (RBC) membrane to water (P(d)) and of the activation energy (E(a,d)) of the process furnished values of P(d) ~ 4 × 10(-3) cm/s at 25 °C and ~6.1 × 10(-3) cm/s at 37 °C, and E(a,d) ~ 26 kJ/mol. Comparative NMR measurements for other species showed: (1) monotremes (echidna and platypus), chicken, little penguin, and saltwater crocodile have the lowest P(d) values; (2) sheep, cow, and elephant have P(d) values lower than human P(d) values; (3) cat, horse, alpaca, and camel have P(d) values close to those of humans; (4) guinea pig, dog, dingo, agile wallaby, red-necked wallaby, Eastern grey kangaroo, and red kangaroo have P(d) values higher than those of humans; (5) mouse, rat, rabbit, and "small and medium size" marsupials have the highest values of P(d) (>8.0 × 10(-3) cm/s at 25 °C and >10.0 × 10(-3) cm/s at 37 °C). There are peculiarities of E(a,d) values for the RBCs from different species. The maximum inhibition of diffusional permeability of RBCs induced by incubation with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate varied between 0% (for the chicken and little penguin) to ~50% (for human, mouse, cat, sheep, horse, camel, and Indian elephant), and ~60-75% (for rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, alpaca, and all marsupials). These results indicate that no water channel proteins (WCPs) or aquaporins are present in the membrane of RBCs from monotremes (echidna, platypus), chicken, little penguin and saltwater crocodile whereas WCPs from the membranes of RBCs from marsupials have peculiarities.

  10. Validation of the FAMACHA© system in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Storey, Bobby E; Williamson, Lisa H; Howell, Sue B; Terrill, Thomas H; Berghaus, Roy; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-08-30

    Haemonchus contortus resistant to multiple anthelmintics threaten the viability of the small ruminant industry in areas where this parasite is prevalent. In response to this situation, the FAMACHA© system was developed and validated for use with small ruminants as a way to detect clinical anemia associated with haemonchosis. Given that H. contortus and multiple anthelmintic resistance is a similar problem in camelids, the FAMACHA© system might also provide the same benefits. To address this need, a validation study of the FAMACHA© system was conducted on 21 alpaca and llama farms over a 2-year period. H. contortus was the predominant nematode parasite on 17 of the 21 farms (10 alpaca and 7 llama farms) enrolled in the study, based on fecal culture results. The FAMACHA© card was used to score the color of the lower palpebral (lower eye lid) conjunctiva on a 1-5 scale. Packed cell volume (PCV) values were measured and compared to FAMACHA© scores using FAMACHA© score cutoffs of ≥3 or ≥4 and with anemia defined as a PCV ≤15%, ≤17%, or≤20%. PCV was significantly associated with FAMACHA© score, fecal egg count (FEC), and body condition score (BCS), regardless of the FAMACHA© cutoff score or the PCV% chosen to define clinical anemia (p<0.01 in all cases). The use of FAMACHA© scores ≥3 and PCV ≥ 15% indicating anemia provided the best sensitivity (96.4% vs 92.9% for FAMACHA© ≥4), whereas FAMACHA scores ≥ 4 and PCV ≤20% provided the best specificity (94.2% vs 69.1% for FAMACHA© ≥3). The data from this study support the FAMACHA© system as a useful tool for detecting clinical anemia in camelids suffering from haemonchosis. Parameters for making treatment decisions based on FAMACHA© score in camelids should mirror those established for small ruminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Pathology of South American Camelids: a retrospective study of necropsies at the Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Leipzig, Germany].

    PubMed

    Theuß, T; Goerigk, D; Rasenberger, S; Starke, A; Schoon, H-A

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American Camelids (New World Camelids) housed in Germany has increased in the recent years. While these species were formerly kept solely in zoological gardens, ever more private and commercial livestock is being established. Compared to indigenous livestock animals, they bear some distinctive differences, particularly in terms of digestive tract anatomy and physiology. Therefore, it is of considerable interest for veterinarians working with South American Camelids to obtain knowledge about the distinguishing features of these animals and the typical diseases affecting them in Germany. For this purpose, the necropsy reports, including the anamnestic data, and their diagnostic usefulness, from 1995 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Du- ring this period, a total of 233 New World Camelids were examined (195 alpacas and 38 llamas). Anamnestic data of diagnostic usefulness regarding the cause of disease were only submitted in a limited number of cases, because most of the animals died without specific symptoms. The following were the most frequent pathological findings: enteritis (n = 91), gastritis (n = 76), cachexia (n = 73), pneumonia (n = 30), stomatitis (n = 27), azotaemia (n = 22) and anaemia (n = 9). An endoparasitosis occurred in 107 cases and was considered the predominant cause of enteritis. As with indigenous ruminants, llamas and alpacas primarily suffered from diseases of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Other organ systems were affected to a lesser extent. Even in cases with severe alterations in the affected organs, South American Camelids do not show or show too late diagnostically indicative clinical symptoms. Therefore, a detailed clinical examination of these animals is important.

  12. Contributions of Conventional and Heavy-Chain IgG to Immunity in Fetal, Neonatal, and Adult Alpacas▿

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Bauer, L. P.; Purdy, S. R.; Smith, M. C.; Gagliardo, L. F.; Davis, W. C.; Appleton, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to conventional immunoglobulins, camelids produce antibodies that do not incorporate light chains into their structures. These so-called heavy-chain (HC) antibodies have incited great interest in the biomedical community, as they have considerable potential for biotechnological and therapeutic application. Recently, we have begun to elucidate the immunological functions of HC antibodies, yet little is known about their significance in maternal immunity or about the B lymphocytes that produce them. This study describes the application of isotype-specific reagents toward physiological assessments of camelid IgGs and the B cells that produce them. We document the specificities of monoclonal antibodies that distinguish two conventional IgG1 isotypes and two HC IgG3 variants produced by alpacas. Next, we report that the relative concentrations of five isotypes are similar in serum, milk, and colostrum; however, following passive transfer, the concentrations of HC IgG2 and IgG3 declined more rapidly than the concentration of conventional IgG1 in the sera of neonates. Finally, we assessed the distribution of B cells of distinct isotypes within lymphoid tissues during fetal and adult life. We detected IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 in lymphocytes located in lymph node follicles, suggesting that HC B cells affinity mature and/or class switch. One IgG3 isotype was present in B cells located in ileal Peyer's patches, and one conventional IgG1 isotype was detected in splenic marginal zone B cells. Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge pertaining to HC antibodies and are compatible with functional specialization among conventional and HC IgGs in the alpaca. PMID:20926693

  13. Induction of superovulation in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Ratto, Marcelo H; Silva, Mauricio E; Huanca, Wilfredo; Huanca, Teodosio; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-01-10

    The development of assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer (ET), artificial insemination (AI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) in South American camelids is considerably behind that of other livestock species. Poor success of the embryo transfer technique has been related to a lack of an effective superstimulatory treatment, low embryo recovery rate, and the recovery of hatched blastocysts that are not conducive to the cryopreservation process. Superstimulation has been attempted using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during the luteal, or the sexually receptive phase, sometimes given at follicular wave emergence. The rationale for inducing a luteal phase prior to or during superstimulation in camelids is not clearly understood, but it may simply reflect an empirical bias to conventional methods used in other ruminants. The number of ovulations or CL varies widely among studies, ranging from 2 to more than 15 per animal, with the number of transferable embryos ranging from 0 to 4 per animal. The control of follicular growth combined with superstimulatory protocols has resulted in a more consistent ovarian response and a greater number of follicles available for aspiration and oocyte collection. Recent studies in llamas have demonstrated that the use of ovulation inducing treatments or follicle ablation can synchronize follicular wave emergence allowing the initiation of gonadotropin treatment in the absence of a dominant follicle resulting in a more consistent ovulatory response. Few studies in alpacas have been reported, but it appears from recent field studies that the ovarian response is more variable and that there is a greater number of poor responders than in llamas. A review of superstimulation protocols that have been used in llamas and alpacas in the last 15 years is provided, including a discussion of the potential of protocols designed to initiate treatment at specific stages of follicular

  14. Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in Functional and Comparative Investigations of Heavy-Chain Immunoglobulins in New World Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Daley, L. P.; Gagliardo, L. F.; Duffy, M. S.; Smith, M. C.; Appleton, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Of the three immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes described to occur in camelids, IgG2 and IgG3 are distinct in that they do not incorporate light chains. These heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) constitute approximately 50% of the IgG in llama serum and as much as 75% of the IgG in camel serum. We have produced isotype-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in order to investigate the roles of HCAbs in camelid immunity. Seventeen stable hybridomas were cloned, and three MAbs that were specific for epitopes on the γ chains of llama IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3 were characterized in detail. Affinity chromatography revealed that each MAb bound its isotype in solution in llama serum. The antibodies bound to the corresponding alpaca IgGs, to guanaco IgG1 and IgG2, and to camel IgG1. Interestingly, anti-IgG2 MAbs bound three heavy-chain species in llama serum, confirming the presence of three IgG2 subisotypes. Two IgG2 subisotypes were detected in alpaca and guanaco sera. The MAbs detected llama serum IgGs when they were bound to antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and were used to discern among isotypes induced during infection with a parasitic nematode. Diseased animals, infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, did not produce antigen-specific HCAbs; rather, they produced the conventional isotype, IgG1, exclusively. Our data document the utility of these MAbs in functional and physiologic investigations of the immune systems of New World camelids. PMID:15753251

  15. Application of monoclonal antibodies in functional and comparative investigations of heavy-chain immunoglobulins in new world camelids.

    PubMed

    Daley, L P; Gagliardo, L F; Duffy, M S; Smith, M C; Appleton, J A

    2005-03-01

    Of the three immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes described to occur in camelids, IgG2 and IgG3 are distinct in that they do not incorporate light chains. These heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) constitute approximately 50% of the IgG in llama serum and as much as 75% of the IgG in camel serum. We have produced isotype-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in order to investigate the roles of HCAbs in camelid immunity. Seventeen stable hybridomas were cloned, and three MAbs that were specific for epitopes on the gamma chains of llama IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3 were characterized in detail. Affinity chromatography revealed that each MAb bound its isotype in solution in llama serum. The antibodies bound to the corresponding alpaca IgGs, to guanaco IgG1 and IgG2, and to camel IgG1. Interestingly, anti-IgG2 MAbs bound three heavy-chain species in llama serum, confirming the presence of three IgG2 subisotypes. Two IgG2 subisotypes were detected in alpaca and guanaco sera. The MAbs detected llama serum IgGs when they were bound to antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and were used to discern among isotypes induced during infection with a parasitic nematode. Diseased animals, infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, did not produce antigen-specific HCAbs; rather, they produced the conventional isotype, IgG1, exclusively. Our data document the utility of these MAbs in functional and physiologic investigations of the immune systems of New World camelids.

  16. A Recombinant Fungal Chitin Deacetylase Produces Fully Defined Chitosan Oligomers with Novel Patterns of Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Shoa; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Singh, Ratna; Bernard, Frank; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Partially acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (paCOS) are potent biologics with many potential applications, and their bioactivities are believed to be dependent on their structure, i.e., their degrees of polymerization and acetylation, as well as their pattern of acetylation. However, paCOS generated via chemical N-acetylation or de-N-acetylation of GlcN or GlcNAc oligomers, respectively, typically display random patterns of acetylation, making it difficult to control and predict their bioactivities. In contrast, paCOS produced from chitin deacetylases (CDAs) acting on chitin oligomer substrates may have specific patterns of acetylation, as shown for some bacterial CDAs. However, compared to what we know about bacterial CDAs, we know little about the ability of fungal CDAs to produce defined paCOS with known patterns of acetylation. Therefore, we optimized the expression of a chitin deacetylase from the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Escherichia coli. The best yield of functional enzyme was obtained as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein (MBP) secreted into the periplasmic space of the bacterial host. We characterized the MBP fusion protein from P. graminis (PgtCDA) and tested its activity on different chitinous substrates. Mass spectrometric sequencing of the products obtained by enzymatic deacetylation of chitin oligomers, i.e., tetramers to hexamers, revealed that PgtCDA generated paCOS with specific acetylation patterns of A-A-D-D, A-A-D-D-D, and A-A-D-D-D-D, respectively (A, GlcNAc; D, GlcN), indicating that PgtCDA cannot deacetylate the two GlcNAc units closest to the oligomer's nonreducing end. This unique property of PgtCDA significantly expands the so far very limited library of well-defined paCOS available to test their bioactivities for a wide variety of potential applications. IMPORTANCE We successfully achieved heterologous expression of a fungal chitin deacetylase gene from the basidiomycete Puccinia graminis f. sp

  17. [The effect of changes in lung compliance on ventilation in newborns. Results of animal experiments with two different respirators].

    PubMed

    Schirmer, U; Schreiber, M; Goertz, A; Schütz, W; Rockemann, M; Georgieff, M

    1994-08-01

    In most ventilators used in anaesthesia tidal volume delivered during mechanical ventilation is different from the tidal volume preset at the respirator on the basis of respirator and circuit compliance and gas compression during inspiration. The error in ventilation due to the compressed volume is especially significant clinically when the tidal volume is very small or when the airway pressure is very high. In newborns and neonates in particular, decreasing lung compliance during a surgical procedure may contribute to marked hypoventilation. We therefore investigated ventilation in newborn piglets during decreasing lung compliance induced by tension pneumothorax. We used the anaesthesia ventilator CICERO (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany) and the SERVO 900 C ventilator (Siemens-Elema, Sweden). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two anaesthesia ventilators, the CICERO (group I, n = 8) and the SERVO ventilators (group II, n = 8) were investigated following randomized selection in a group of 16 newborn piglets (Table 1). After normoventilation for 60 min a tension pneumothorax at +10 mbar was induced. After 15 min the pneumothorax was increased to +20 mbar and maintained at this level for the rest of the study. When hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 45 mmHg) resulted, the respiratory rate was increased by +10/min after 15 min with pneumothorax at +20 mbar. When hypercapnia continued, the respiratory rate was increased again 25 min and if necessary also 35 min after the induction of pneumothorax at +20 mbar. After normoventilation for 60 min (T1) (Table 2), after 15 min with pneumothorax at +10 mbar (T2) and after 15 min (T3), 25 min (T4), 35 min (T5) and 45 min (T6) with pneumothorax at +20 mbar the following parameters were obtained: central venous (CVP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), arterial (PaCO2) and end-tidal CO2 tension (PetCO2), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), respiratory frequency (RF) and expiratory tidal (Vtex) and minute volume (VE). RESULTS. In group I the

  18. [Procedural analysis of acid-base balance disorder: case serials in 4 patents].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunyuan; Wang, Guijie

    2017-05-01

    To establish the standardization process of acid-base balance analysis, analyze cases of acid-base balance disorder with the aid of acid-base balance coordinate graph. The acid-base balance theory were reviewed systematically on recent research progress, and the important concepts, definitions, formulas, parameters, regularity and inference in the analysis of acid-base balance were studied. The analysis of acid-base balance disordered processes and steps were figured. The application of acid-base balance coordinate graph in the cases was introduced. The method of "four parameters-four steps" analysis was put forward to analyze the acid-base balance disorders completely. "Four parameters" included pH, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), HCO3(-) and anion gap (AG). "Four steps" were outlined by following aspects: (1) according to the pH, PaCO2 and HCO3(-), the primary or main types of acid-base balance disorder was determined; (2) primary or main types of acid-base disorder were used to choose the appropriate compensation formula and to determine the presence of double mixed acid-base balance disorder; (3) the primary acid-base balance disorders were divided into two parts: respiratory acidosis or respiratory alkalosis, at the same time, the potential HCO3(-) should be calculated, the measured HCO3(-) should be replaced with potential HCO3(-), to determine whether there were three mixed acid-base disorders; (4) based on the above analysis the data judged as the simple AG increased-metabolic acidosis was needed to be further analyzed. The ratio of ΔAG↑/ΔHCO3(-)↓ was also needed to be calculated, to determine whether there was normal AG metabolic acidosis or metabolic alkalosis. In the clinical practice, PaCO2 (as the abscissa) and HCO3(-) (as the ordinate) were used to establish a rectangular coordinate system, through origin (0, 0) and coordinate point (40, 24) could be a straight line, and all points on the straight line pH were equal to 7

  19. Evolutionary adaptation of the sensitivity of connexin26 hemichannels to CO2.

    PubMed

    de Wolf, Elizabeth; Cook, Jonathan; Dale, Nicholas

    2017-02-08

    CO2 readily combines with H2O to form [Formula: see text] and H(+) Because an increase of only 100 nM in the concentration of H(+) (a decrease of 0.1 unit of pH) in blood can prove fatal, the regulated excretion of CO2 during breathing is an essential life-preserving process. In rodents and humans, this vital process is mediated in part via the direct sensing of CO2 via connexin26 (Cx26). CO2 binds to hemichannels of Cx26 causing them to open and allow release of the neurotransmitter ATP. If Cx26 were to be a universal and important CO2 sensor across all homeothermic animals, then a simple hypothesis would posit that it should exhibit evolutionary adaptation in animals with different homeostatic set points for the regulation of partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2). In humans and rats, PaCO2 is regulated around a set point of 40 mmHg. By contrast, birds are able to maintain cerebral blood flow and breathing at much lower levels of PaCO2 Fossorial mammals, such as the mole rat, live exclusively underground in burrows that are both hypoxic and hypercapnic and can thrive under very hypercapnic conditions. We have therefore compared the CO2 sensitivity of Cx26 from human, chicken, rat and mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber). We find that both the affinity and cooperativity of CO2 binding to Cx26 have been subjected to evolutionary adaption in a manner consistent with the homeostatic requirements of these four species. This is analogous to the evolutionary adaptation of haemoglobin to the needs of O2 transport across the animal kingdom and supports the hypothesis that Cx26 is an important and universal CO2 sensor in homeotherms.

  20. The Borg dyspnoea score: a relevant clinical marker of inspiratory muscle weakness in a