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Sample records for alpha line profile

  1. Lyman alpha solar spectral irradiance line profile observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Martin; Machol, Janet; Quemerais, Eric; Curdt, Werner; Kretschmar, Matthieu; Haberreiter, Margit

    2016-04-01

    Solar lyman alpha solar spectral irradiance measurements are available on a daily basis, but only the 1-nm integrated flux is typically published. The International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland has sponsored a team to make higher spectral resolution data available to the community. Using a combination of SORCE/SOLSTICE and SOHO/SUMER observations plus empirical and semi-empirical modeling, we will produce a dataset of the line profile. Our poster will describe progress towards this goal.

  2. Alpha Virginis: line-profile variations and orbital elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, David; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Olguín, Enrique; Ilyin, Ilya; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Lara, Bruno; Moreno, Edmundo

    2016-05-01

    Context. Alpha Virginis (Spica) is a B-type binary system whose proximity and brightness allow detailed investigations of the internal structure and evolution of stars undergoing time-variable tidal interactions. Previous studies have led to the conclusion that the internal structure of Spica's primary star may be more centrally condensed than predicted by theoretical models of single stars, raising the possibility that the interactions could lead to effects that are currently neglected in structure and evolution calculations. The key parameters in confirming this result are the values of the orbital eccentricity e, the apsidal period U, and the primary star's radius, R1. Aims: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact that Spica's line profile variability has on the derivation of its orbital elements and to explore the use of the variability for constraining R1. Methods: We use high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution observations obtained in 2000, 2008, and 2013 to derive the orbital elements from fits to the radial velocity curves. We produce synthetic line profiles using an ab initio tidal interaction model. Results: The general variations in the line profiles can be understood in terms of the tidal flows, whose large-scale structure is relatively fixed in the rotating binary system reference frame. Fits to the radial velocity curves yield e = 0.108 ± 0.014. However, the analogous RV curves from theoretical line profiles indicate that the distortion in the lines causes the fitted value of e to depend on the argument of periastron; i.e., on the epoch of observation. As a result, the actual value of e may be as high as 0.125. We find that U = 117.9 ± 1.8, which is in agreement with previous determinations. Using the value R1 = 6.8 R⊙ derived by Palate et al. (2013) the value of the observational internal structure constant k2,obs is consistent with theory. We confirm the presence of variability in the line profiles of the secondary star. RV

  3. The Ly(alpha) Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina L.; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Wong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Ly(alpha) emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Ly(alpha) profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km/s in three H II-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Ly(alpha) line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Ly(alpha) attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Ly(alpha) photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Ly(alpha) and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Ly(alpha) emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1-1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H II-dominated ULIRGs.

  4. PROFILES OF Ly{alpha} EMISSION LINES OF THE EMITTERS AT z = 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Morimoto, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kousai, K.; Hayashino, T.; Umemura, M.

    2012-05-20

    We present the results of the observations of the Ly{alpha} line profiles of 91 emission-line galaxies at z = 3.1 with a spectral resolution of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}(FWHM) Almost-Equal-To 1700 or 180 km s{sup -1}. A significant fraction of {approx}50% of the observed objects show the characteristic double peaks in their Ly{alpha} profile. The red peak is much stronger than the blue one for most of the cases. The red peaks themselves also show weak but significant asymmetry and their widths are correlated with the velocity separation of the red and the blue peaks. This implies that the peaks are not isolated multiple components with different velocities but parts of a single line that are modified by the absorption and/or scattering by the associated neutral hydrogen gas. The characteristic profile can be naturally explained by scattering in the expanding shell of the neutral hydrogen surrounding the Ly{alpha} emitting region while the attenuation by the intergalactic medium should also be considered. Our results suggest that the star formation in these Ly{alpha} emitters are dominated by young burst-like events that produce the intrinsic Ly{alpha} emission as well as the gas outflow.

  5. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  6. The asymmetric profile of the H76 alpha line emission from MWC349

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, L. F.; Canto, J.; Escalante, V.; Moran, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    MWC349 is an emission-line star found by Merrill, Humason and Burwell (1932). Braes, Habing and Schoenmaker (1972) discovered that it is a strong radio source. The radio emission originates in a massive ionized wind that is expanding with a velocity of about 50 km s(-1). Its continuum spectrum fits well a nu(0.6) power law from the cm wavelengths to the far-IR. Radio recombination line emission from the envelope of MWC349 was first detected by Altenhoff, Strittmatter and Wendker (1981). We have obtained good signal-to-noise ratio, Very Large Array observations of the H76 alpha radio recombination line from the ionized wind of MWC349. Our data reveal that the profile is markedly asymmetric, with a steep rise on the blue side. This asymmetry could be due to non-LTE effects in the formation and transfer of the line or to intrinsic asymmetries in the envelope. Our analysis suggests that most probably the peculiar profile is caused by a non-LTE enhancement of the line emission from the side of the envelope nearer to the observer. This asymmetry has the opposite sense than that observed in optical and IR recombination lines, where a different effect (absorption of the stellar continuum by the gas in the wind between the star and the observer) is known to be dominant, leading to the classic P Cygni profile. We propose that the profiles of the radio recombination lines from ionized stellar winds will have this characteristic shape, while optical and IR recombination lines are characterized by P Cygni-like profiles. Unfortunately, at present the detection of radio recombination lines from ionized stellar winds is only feasible for MWC349 and a few other objects.

  7. Kinetic-Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms from Analysis of the D Lyman-Alpha Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, M.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D(2p) atoms resulting from electron-impact dissociation of D2 has been measured. A high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer was employed for the first measurement of the D Lyman-alpha (D L(alpha)) emission line profiles at 20- and 100-eV excitation energies. Analysis of the deconvoluted line profile of D L(alpha) at 100 eV reveals the existence of a narrow line central peak of 29+/-2 mA full width at half maximum and a broad pedestal wing structure about 190 mA wide. The wings of the line can be used to determine the fast atom distribution. The wings of D L(alpha) arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited states that cross the Franck-Condon region between 23 and 40 eV. The fast atom distribution at 100-eV electron impact energy spans the energy range from 1 to 10 eV with a peak value near 6 eV. Slow D(2p) atoms characterized by a distribution function with peak energy near 100 meV produce the central peak profile, which is nearly independent of the impact energy. The deconvoluted line profiles of the central peak at 20 eV for dissociative excitation of D2 and H2 are fitted with an analytical function for use in calibration of space flight instrumentation equipped with a D/H absorption cell. The kinetic-energy and line profile results are compared to similar measurements for H2. The absolute cross sections for the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coefficients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  8. Mass loss from alpha Cyg /A2Ia/ derived from the profiles of low excitation Fe II lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensberge, H.; De Loore, C.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Bruhweiler, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    The low-excitation Fe II lines in the spectral region 2000-3000 A are studied in the spectrum of alpha-Cyg. The profiles of the resonance lines are described by four representative parameters, and a preliminary model is derived from the dependence of these parameters on theoretical line strength, taking into account the influence of blending photospheric lines in an overall and qualitative way. At least 11% of all iron in the wind is once ionized, unless a non-thermal heating source enhances the fraction Fe(++) without destroying much Al(+). It is shown that the contribution of blending photospheric absorption lines to weaker P Cygni profiles has been previously largely underestimated. The mass loss rate corresponding to the model is derived, and is smaller by a factor of 500 than the one derived from the infrared excess by Barlow and Cohen (1977).

  9. Ultraviolet observations of cool stars. VI - L alpha and Mg II emission line profiles /and a search for flux variability/ in Arcturus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, W.; Moos, H. W.; Henry, R. C.; Linsky, J. L.; Barker, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    High-precision, high-resolution profiles of the L alpha and Mg II k chromospheric emission lines from Arcturus (alpha Boo) obtained with the Princeton Experimental Package aboard the Copernicus satellite are presented. Asymmetries seen in the profiles of these lines are probably intrinsic to the star, rather than the result of interstellar absorption. In contrast to previous observations of the Ca II K emission line, no evidence is found during a three-year period for variability in the profiles or in the total fluxes from these lines on time scales ranging from hours to months. Also presented is a flux profile of the O I 1302 line and flux upper limits for L beta, O VI 1032, Si III 1206, and O V 1218.

  10. Doppler line profiles measurement of the Jovian Lyman Alpha emission with OAO-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, E. S.; Cochran, W. D.; Smith, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Observation of Jupiter made with the high resolution ultraviolet spectrometer of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory copernicus in April and May, 1980, yield a Jovian Lyman alpha emission intensity of 7 + or 2.5 RR. This indicates a decrease by about a factor of two since the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer measurements, nearly a year earlier. An unusually high column abundance of hydrogen atoms above the methane homopause at the Voyager epoch is indicated. Since the auroral charged particle bombardment of molecular hydrogen is expected to contribute significantly to the global population of the hydrogen atoms, it is suggested that at the time of the Voyager Jupiter encounter unusually high auroral activity existed, perhaps d to the high concentration of the Io plasma torus. The temporal variation of the Saturn lyman alpha emission, when contrasted with the Jovian data, reveals that the auroral processes are not nearly as important in determining the Saturn Lyman alpha intensity in the nonauroral region.

  11. Genomic Profiling of a Human Leukemic Monocytic Cell-Line (THP-1) Exposed to Alpha Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study examined alpha (α-) particle radiation effects on global changes in gene expression in human leukemic monocytic cells (THP-1) for the purposes of mining for candidate biomarkers that could be used for the development of a biological assessment tool. THP-1 cells were exposed to α-particle radiation at a dose range of 0 to 1.5 Gy. Twenty-four hours and three days after exposure gene expression was monitored using microarray technology. A total of 16 genes were dose responsive and classified as early onset due to their expression 24 h after exposure. Forty-eight transcripts were dose responsive and classified as late-onset as they were expressed 72 h after exposure. Among these genes, 6 genes were time and dose responsive and validated further using alternate technology. These transcripts were upregulated and associated with biological processes related to immune function, organelle stability and cell signalling/communication. This panel of genes merits further validation to determine if they are strong candidate biomarkers indicative of α-particle exposure. PMID:23097634

  12. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  13. COMPLEX VARIABILITY OF THE H{alpha} EMISSION LINE PROFILE OF THE T TAURI BINARY SYSTEM KH 15D: THE INFLUENCE OF ORBITAL PHASE, OCCULTATION BY THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK, AND ACCRETION PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N. E-mail: cmj@rice.edu E-mail: wherbst@wesleyan.edu

    2012-06-01

    We have obtained 48 high-resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary system KH 15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 days, e {approx} 0.6, M{sub A} = 0.6 M{sub Sun }, M{sub B} = 0.7 M{sub Sun }). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk (CBD) seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The H{alpha} line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to 'edge effects' and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the H{alpha} emission line profile changes from an inverse P-Cygni-type profile during ingress to an enhanced double-peaked profile, with both a blue and a red emission component, during egress. Each of these interpreted variations are complicated by the fact that there is also a chaotic, irregular component present in these profiles. We find that the complex data set can be largely understood in the context of accretion onto the stars from a CBD with gas flows as predicted by the models of eccentric T Tauri binaries put forward by Artymowicz and Lubow, Guenther and Kley, and de Val-Borro et al. In particular, our data provide strong support for the pulsed accretion phenomenon, in which enhanced accretion occurs during and after perihelion passage.

  14. The line profile variable B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The observational status of the line profile variable B stars is summarized. The following areas are discussed: recent history; evolutionary status; line profile variations; line strength variations; and photometric variations.

  15. Balmer line profiles for infalling T Tauri envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1992-01-01

    The possibility that the Balmer emission lines of T Tauri stars arise in infalling envelopes rather than winds is considered. Line profiles for the upper Balmer lines are presented for models with cone geometry, intended to simulate the basic features of magnetospheric accretion from a circumstellar disk. An escape probability treatment is used to determine line source functions in nonspherically symmetric geometry. Thermalization effects are found to produce nearly symmetric H-alpha line profiles at the same time the higher Balmer series lines exhibit inverse P Cygni profiles. The infall models produce centrally peaked emission line wings, in good agreement with observations of many T Tauri stars. It is suggested that the Balmer emission of many T Tauri stars may be produced in an infalling envelope, with blue shifted absorption contributed by an overlying wind. Some of the observed narrow absorption components with small blueshifts may also arise in the accretion column.

  16. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-. cap alpha. line profile observations

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya.

  17. THE FORMATION OF THE H{alpha} LINE IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2012-04-20

    We use state-of-the-art radiation-MHD simulations and three-dimensional (3D) non-LTE radiative transfer computations to investigate H{alpha} line formation in the solar chromosphere and apply the results of this investigation to develop the potential of H{alpha} as a diagnostic of the chromosphere. We show that one can accurately model H{alpha} line formation assuming statistical equilibrium and complete frequency redistribution provided the computation of the model atmosphere included non-equilibrium ionization of hydrogen and the Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} line profiles are described by Doppler profiles. We find that 3D radiative transfer is essential in modeling hydrogen lines due to the low photon destruction probability in H{alpha}. The H{alpha} opacity in the upper chromosphere is mainly sensitive to the mass density and only weakly sensitive to the temperature. We find that the H{alpha} line-core intensity is correlated with the average formation height: The larger the average formation height is, the lower the intensity will be. The line-core width is a measure of the gas temperature in the line-forming region. The fibril-like dark structures seen in H{alpha} line-core images computed from our model atmosphere are tracing magnetic field lines. These structures are caused by field-aligned ridges of enhanced chromospheric mass density that raise their average formation height, and therefore make them appear dark against their deeper-formed surroundings. We compare with observations, and find that the simulated line-core widths are very similar to the observed ones, without the need for additional microturbulence.

  18. Variable Iron K(alpha) Lines in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Gelbord, J.; Yaqoob, T.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We find that variability of the iron K alpha line is common in Seyfert 1 galaxies. Using data from the ASCA archive for objects that have been observed more than once during the mission, we study the time-averaged spectra from individual observations, thereby probing variability on timescales that range from days to years. Since the statistics of the data do not warrant searches for line variability in terms of a complex physical model, we use a simple Gaussian to model the gross shape of the line and then use the centroid energy, intensity, and equivalent width as robust indicators of changes in the line profile. We find that approximately 70% of Seyfert 1 galaxies (10 out of 15) show variability in at least one of these parameters: the centroid energy, intensity, and equivalent width vary in six, four, and eight sources, respectively. Because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, limited sampling, and time averaging, we consider these results to represent lower limits to the rate of incidence of variability. In most cases changes in the line do not appear to track changes in the continuum. In particular, we find no evidence for variability of the line intensity in NGC 4151, suggesting an origin in a region larger than the putative accretion disk, where most of the iron line has been thought to originate. Mrk 279 is investigated on short timescales. The time-averaged effective line energy (as measured by the Gaussian center energy, which is weighted by emission in the entire line profile) is 6.5 keV in the galaxy rest frame. As the continuum flux increases by 20% in a few hours, the Fe K line responds within approximately 10,000 seconds with the effective line energy increasing by 0.22 keV (approximately 10,500 kilometers per second). We also examine the ROSAT PSPC spectrum of Mrk 279 but find inconsistencies with ASCA. Problems with the ASCA and ROSAT calibration that affect simultaneous spectral fits at low energies are discussed in an appendix.

  19. The XMM-Newton Iron Line Profile of NGC 3783

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Nandra, K.; George, I. M.; Pounds, K. A.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.

    2003-01-01

    We report on observations of the iron K line in the nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy, NGC 3783, obtained in a long, 2 orbit (approx. 240 ks) XMM-Newton observation. The line profile obtained exhibits two strong narrow peaks at 6.4 keV and at 7.0 keV, with measured line equivalent widths of 120 and 35 eV respectively. The 6.4 keV emission is the K(alpha) line from near neutral Fe, whilst the 7.0 keV feature probably originates from a blend of the neutral Fe K(beta) line and the Hydrogen-like line of Fe at 6.97 keV. The relatively narrow velocity width of the K(alpha) line (approx. less than 5000 km/s), its lack of response to the continuum emission on short timescales and the detection of a neutral Compton reflection component are all consistent with a distant origin in Compton-thick matter such as the putative molecular torus. A strong absorption line from highly ionized iron (at 6.67 keV) is detected in the time-averaged iron line profile, whilst the depth of the feature appears to vary with time, being strongest when the continuum flux is higher. The iron absorption line probably arises from the highest ionization component of the known warm absorber in NGC 3783, with an ionization of log xi approx 3 and column density of N(sub H) approx. 5 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and may originate from within 0.1 pc of the nucleus. A weak red-wing to the iron K line profile is also detected below 6.4 keV. However when the effect of the highly ionized warm absorber on the underlying continuum is taken into account, the requirement for a relativistic iron line component from the inner disk is reduced.

  20. Anomalous Broadening of Balmer H{sub {alpha}} Line in Aluminum and Copper Hollow Cathode Glow Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Sisovic, N. M.; Majstorovic, G. Lj.; Konjevic, N.

    2008-10-22

    The presented results are concerned with the shape of Balmer alpha line emitted from a low pressure DC glow discharge with aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) hollow cathode (HC) in pure H{sub 2} and Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture. The analysis indicates that the line profile represents a convolution of Gaussian profiles resulting from different collision excitation processes.

  1. Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.

    1987-12-10

    The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.

  2. Line bisection task performance and resting EEG alpha power.

    PubMed

    Ciçek, Metehan; Nalçaci, Erhan; Kalaycioglu, Canan

    2003-06-01

    Neurologically normal subjects generally err to the left of veridical center when performing a line bisection task, a phenomenon termed "pseudoneglect." We hypothesized that resting electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha oscillations may show relationships with attentional mechanisms and give some clues about the underlying mechanisms of pseudoneglect. We recorded resting EEGs of 41 subjects and tested them with a paper-pencil line bisection task. Our results showed that line bisection scores of men (n=18) were less biased and their performance was higher compared to those of women (n=20), but these differences only approached significance. The eyes open resting EEG alpha power of women was significantly and positively correlated with their line bisection performance. In general, significant relationships were related to the left hand performance when the lines were presented in the left hemispace. Greater resting alpha power was correlated with lower absolute bisection score or, in other words, higher bisection performance. Greater alpha power also correlated with diminished leftward bisection bias (or reduced pseudo-neglect). The resting EEG alpha of men was weakly associated with bisection performance. Results discussed in terms of Kinsbourne's activation-orientation theory and Basar's view on brain oscillations.

  3. H-alpha profile observations of a limb flare with high temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeter, M.

    1990-12-01

    The impulsive phase of a 1N/M2.0 limb flare on September 8, 1988 was observed in H-alpha with high temporal resolution. With an imaging spectrograph line profiles have been acquired every 2.3 sec. The temporal evolution in the blue and red wing has been correlated with hard X-ray data from HXRBS. It is shown that a prominent spike in the blue wing of H-alpha was delayed with respect to the corresponding hard X-ray burst by 7-8 sec. With the exception of the spike in the blue wing of H-alpha, the temporal development of the line profile is compatible with the predictions for nonthermal electron heating during the impulsive phase.

  4. Anisotropic alpha emission from on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Vanneste, L.

    1986-05-05

    A systematic on-line nuclear-orientation study of heavy isotopes using anisotropic ..cap alpha.. emission is reported for the first time. The anisotrophies recorded for /sup 199/At, /sup 201/At, and /sup 203/At are remarkably pronounced and strongly varying. At lower neutron number the ..cap alpha.. particles are more preferentially emitted perpendicularly to the nuclear-spin direction. This may be interpreted in terms of the high sensitivity of the ..cap alpha..-emission probability to changes in the nuclear shape.

  5. ASYMMETRIC ABSORPTION PROFILES OF Ly{alpha} AND Ly{beta} IN DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee-Won

    2013-08-01

    Damped Ly{alpha} systems observed in the quasar spectra are characterized by a high neutral hydrogen column density, N{sub HI} > 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. The absorption wing profiles are often fitted using the Voigt function due to the fact that the scattering cross section near the resonant line center is approximately described by the Lorentzian function. Since a hydrogen atom has infinitely many p states that participate in the electric dipole interaction, the cross section starts to deviate from the Lorentzian in an asymmetric way in the line wing regions. We investigate this asymmetry in the absorption line profiles around Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} as a function of the neutral hydrogen column density N{sub HI}. In terms of {Delta}{lambda} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {alpha}}, we expand the Kramers-Heisenberg formula around Ly{alpha} to find {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} (0.5f{sub 12}){sup 2}{sigma}{sub T}({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}}){sup -2}[1 + 3.792({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}})], where f{sub 12} and {sigma}{sub T} are the oscillator strength of Ly{alpha} and the Thomson scattering cross section, respectively. In terms of {Delta}{lambda}{sub 2} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {beta}} in the vicinity of Ly{beta}, the total scattering cross section, given as the sum of cross sections for Rayleigh and Raman scattering, is shown to be {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} {sigma}{sub T}(0.5f{sub 13}){sup 2}(1 + R{sub 0})({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}}){sup -2}[1 - 24.68({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}})] with f{sub 13} and the factor R{sub 0} = 0.1342 being the oscillator strength for Ly{beta} and the ratio of the Raman cross section to Rayleigh cross section, respectively. A redward asymmetry develops around Ly{alpha}, whereas a blue asymmetry is obtained for Ly{beta}. The absorption center shifts are found to be almost proportional to the neutral hydrogen column density.

  6. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations of K alpha line emission from S, Ar, Ca and Fe are presented. It is reported that on the basis of data for hard X-ray bursts, the flux during most impulsive, non-thermal events is likely to be weak, though for a few strong bursts, a flux of approximately 100 photons/cm/s may be expected. The amount of S K alpha emission particularly is sensitively dependent on the value of the lower energy bound of the non-thermal electron distribution, offering a possible means of determining this. Thermal K alpha emission is only significant for Fe ions. The calculated thermal K alpha radiation is much less than that observed during an intense soft X-ray burst. It is concluded that a detailed temperature structure for the emission source is required in order to explain the discrepancy.

  7. A study of the H-alpha line in X1735 - 444

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smale, Alan P.; Corbet, Robin H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Forty six optical spectra containing the H-alpha line of X1735 - 444, which were obtained over three nights in May 1987, were analyzed. Using a convolution method, a radial velocity curve was derived for the whole H-alpha line. Combining the spectroscopic results with an updated photometric ephemeris, the probable sites for H-alpha emission in X1735 - 444 were determined. Results of the analyses suggest that two distinct regions contribute to the observed profile in X-1735 - 444: (1) the peak emission, which is associated with the accretion stream of material passing between the companion and the compact object; and (2) the base emission, which is produced symmetrically in the outer accretion disk.

  8. A semiempirical atmosphere for alpha Tauri from neutral iron lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    A semiempirical model photosphere is constructed for the K5 III star Alpha Tau. The technique employed is based on measurements of the central fluxes in a series of lines in multiplets. Observations of four multiplets having a range in excitation potential yield the excitation temperature as a function of the optical depth in a reference line. If the temperature structure of an assumed starting model is changed to force agreement between the observed and predicted line source functions under the assumption that excitation and electron kinetic temperatures are equal, the final semiempirical model is cooler by 150 K in the outer layers and warmer by 150 K in deeper layers than the theoretical model with the parameters adopted for Alpha Tau.

  9. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The expected flux of K alpha line emission from sulfur, argon, calcium, and iron is calculated during both thermal and nonthermal solar X-ray events. Such emission is shown to be weak during the course of most of the nonthermal hard X-ray bursts that Kane and Anderson (1970) have observed. If Compton backscattering is significant at high energies, the flux is reduced still further for disk flares, but it is noted that the strong, near-limb burst of June 26 would have produced about 100 photons /sq cm/sec of sulfur and iron K alpha emission. The impulsive hard X-ray bursts may in general be too short-lived for much K alpha emission. It may be noted that sulfur K alpha emission in particular depends sensitively on the lower-energy limit of the nonthermal electron spectrum, assuming such a sharply defined boundary exists. During soft X-ray bursts, when temperatures of a few 10 to the 7th power K are obtained, K alpha emission from certain iron ions, specifically Fe XVIII-XXIII, may be important.

  10. Line profile asymmetries in chromospherically active stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Granados, Arno F.; Henry, Gregory W.; Hall, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    A powerful, new probe of chromospheric activity, cross-correlation, has been developed and applied to a variety of stars. In this particular application, an entire CCD spectrum of an active star is correlated with the spectrum of a narrow-line, inactive star of similar spectral type and luminosity class. Using a number of strong lines in this manner enables the detection of absorption profile asymmetries at moderate resolution (lambda/Delta lambda about 40,000) and S/N 150:1. This technique has been applied to 14 systems mostly RS CVn's, with 10 not greater than nu sin i not greater than 50 km/s and P not less than 7 d. Distortions were detected for the first time in five systems: Sigma Gem, IM Peg, GX Lib, UV Crb, and Zeta And. Detailed modeling, incorporating both spectral line profiles and broad-band photometry, is applied to Sigma Gem. Profile asymmetries for this star are fitted by two high-latitude spots covering 5 percent of the stellar surface. The derived spot temperature of 3400 K is lower than found in previous studies. In addition, two well-known systems have been studied: HD 199178 and V711 Tau. Polar spots are found on both.

  11. Line profiles from discrete kinematic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorisco, N. C.; Evans, N. W.

    2012-08-01

    We develop a method to extract the shape information of line profiles from discrete kinematic data. The Gauss-Hermite expansion, which is widely used to describe the line-of-sight velocity distributions extracted from absorption spectra of elliptical galaxies, is not readily applicable to samples of discrete stellar velocity measurements, accompanied by individual measurement errors and probabilities of membership. These include data sets on the kinematics of globular clusters and planetary nebulae in the outer parts of elliptical galaxies, as well as giant stars in the Local Group galaxies and the stellar populations of the Milky Way. We introduce two-parameter families of probability distributions describing symmetric and asymmetric distortions of the line profiles from Gaussianity. These are used as the basis of a maximum likelihood estimator to quantify the shape of the line profiles. Tests show that the method outperforms a Gauss-Hermite expansion for discrete data, with a lower limit for the relative gain of ≈2 for sample sizes N ≈ 800. To ensure that our methods can give reliable descriptions of the shape, we develop an efficient test to assess the statistical quality of the obtained fit. As an application, we turn our attention to the discrete velocity data sets of the dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) of the Milky Way. Sculptor and Fornax have data sets of ≳1000 line-of-sight velocities of probable member stars. In Sculptor, the symmetric deviations are everywhere consistent with velocity distributions more peaked than Gaussian. In Fornax, instead, there is an evolution in the symmetric deviations of the line profile from a peakier to more flat-topped distribution on moving outwards. Although the data sets for Carina and Sextans are smaller, they still comprise several hundreds of stars. Our methods are sensitive enough to detect evidence for velocity distributions more peaked than Gaussian. These results suggest a radially biased orbital structure for the

  12. DISCOVERY OF RED-SKEWED K {sub {alpha}} IRON LINE IN Cyg X-2 WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai E-mail: Lev.Titarchuk@nrl.navy.mil E-mail: plaurent@cea.fr

    2009-07-10

    We report on the Suzaku observation of neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 which reveals a presence of the iron K {sub {alpha}} emission line. The line profile shows a significant red wing. This discovery increases the number of NS sources where red-skewed iron lines were observed and strongly suggests that this phenomenon is common not only in black holes but also in other types of accreting compact objects. We examine the line profile in terms of models which attribute its production to the relativistic effects due to reflection of X-ray radiation from a cold accretion disk and also as a result of the line formation in the extended wind/outflow configuration. Both models are able to adequately represent the observed line profile. We consider the results of line modeling in the context of subsecond variability. While we were unable to conclusively disqualify one of the models, we find that the wind paradigm has several advantages over the relativistic disk reflection model.

  13. Non-LTE Inversion of Line Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    1998-11-01

    In this paper we address the problem of the non-LTE (NLTE) inversion of line profiles by means of a nonlinear least-squares minimization procedure combined with very efficient multilevel transfer methods. Our approach is based on the concept of response functions, which measure the first-order response of the emergent profiles to changes in the atmospheric conditions. We introduce the fixed departure coefficients (FDC) approximation in order to compute these response functions in a fast and straightforward manner. The accuracy of this approximation is checked comparing FDC response functions with those obtained from full NLTE computations. An NLTE inversion code based on these response functions has been developed and extensively tested. Reference synthetic profiles, similar to those expected from real observations, are given as input to the inversion algorithm and the recovered models are shown to be compatible with the reference models within the error bars. Our NLTE inversion code thus provides a new tool for the investigation of the chromospheres of the Sun and other stars.

  14. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-01-15

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-{alpha}) and 2.88 nm (He-{alpha}) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} radiation.

  15. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) in epidermal keratinocytes revealed using global transcriptional profiling.

    PubMed

    Banno, Tomohiro; Gazel, Alix; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2004-07-30

    Identification of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) as the key agent in inflammatory disorders, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and psoriasis, led to TNF alpha-targeting therapies, which, although avoiding many of the side-effects of previous drugs, nonetheless causes other side-effects, including secondary infections and cancer. By controlling gene expression, TNF alpha orchestrates the cutaneous responses to environmental damage and inflammation. To define TNF alpha action in epidermis, we compared the transcriptional profiles of normal human keratinocytes untreated and treated with TNF alpha for 1, 4, 24, and 48 h by using oligonucleotide microarrays. We found that TNF alpha regulates not only immune and inflammatory responses but also tissue remodeling, cell motility, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Specifically, TNF alpha regulates innate immunity and inflammation by inducing a characteristic large set of chemokines, including newly identified TNF alpha targets, that attract neutrophils, macrophages, and skin-specific memory T-cells. This implicates TNF alpha in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, fixed drug eruption, atopic and allergic contact dermatitis. TNF alpha promotes tissue repair by inducing basement membrane components and collagen-degrading proteases. Unexpectedly, TNF alpha induces actin cytoskeleton regulators and integrins, enhancing keratinocyte motility and attachment, effects not previously associated with TNF alpha. Also unanticipated was the influence of TNF alpha upon keratinocyte cell fate by regulating cell-cycle and apoptosis-associated genes. Therefore, TNF alpha initiates not only the initiation of inflammation and responses to injury, but also the subsequent epidermal repair. The results provide new insights into the harmful and beneficial TNF alpha effects and define the mechanisms and genes that achieve these outcomes, both of which are important for TNF alpha-targeted therapies.

  16. A long-term study of H(alpha) line variations in FK Comae Berenices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Iyengar, Mrinal; Nations, Harold L.; Buzasi, Derek L.

    1993-01-01

    We present observations of H(alpha) V/R ratio variations in FK Comae Berencies obtained during several observing seasons from 1981 to 1992. The raw H(alpha) emission profile is always observed to be double peaked due to the stellar-absorption component. During the most years the V/R ratio varies regularly with the period of the photometric light curve. The V/R periodicity is most obvious when time spans no longer than several stellar rotations are considered. We propose that the bulk of the emission component of the H(alpha) line arises in corotating circumstellar material that may be similar to that of a quiescent solar prominence. The lifetime of these structures appears to be on the order of weeks. A weak contribution from a circumstellar disk is evident and chromospheric emission may also be present. The appearance or disappearance of circumstellar structures over periods longer than a few weeks, or the total absence of such structures, blurs the more regular variations in H(alpha) seen over short time scales. Other more stochastic activity, such as flares, also clearly occurs. Phase shifts of the V/R ratio from year to year rule out the hypothesis that mass tranfer in a close binary system is responsible for the V/R variations.

  17. Dayglow Emission Line Profiles from the Outer Planets Cycle 4-MED Part 2 OF 5414

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John

    1994-01-01

    Recent IUE observations of the H Ly alpha emission line profilefrom Jupiter's dayglow and aurora reveal a substantial line broadening,implying that the observed high brightness is due to resonantscattering of solar emission with a broad line rather than chargedparticle excitation. This may reflect highly energetic processesproducing a 5-10 km/sec suprathermal population of H atoms in Jupiter'supper atmosphere, which in turn may be related to the unresolved questionof the high exospheric temperatures of 400-1200 K detected on all 4 giantplanets during the Voyager encounters. It is clear that if the bright HLy alpha emissions from the outer planets are due mainly to resonantscattering of solar and interplanetary emissions, as observedon Jupiter and Saturn from long term correlations with the solarLy alpha flux, then the lines from all 4 planets must be broad toexplain the observed high albedos. The H Ly alpha lineshapes providea discriminant between the processes of resonant scattering andcharged particle excitation. We propose to obtain high signal to noiseH Ly alpha line profile measurements from Saturn, Uranus, and Neptuneto resolve the questions about the excitation processes for the brightairglow emissions.SATURN PART ONLY - NEPTUNE AND URANUS IN ORIGIAL PROP (5414).

  18. Magnetic Turbulence and Line Broadening in Simulations of Lyman-Alpha Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvich, Alex; Burkhart, Blakesley K.; Bird, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    We use the Illustris cosmological AREPO simulations to study the effects of gas turbulence and magnetic fields on measurements from the Lyman-Alpha forest. We generate simulated Lyman-Alpha spectra and plot the distributions of Column Density (CDD) and Doppler Width (b) both by adhering to the canonical method of fitting Voigt profiles to absorption lines and by directly measuring the column density and equivalent widths from snapshot data .We investigate the effects of additional unresolved gas turbulence in Illustris by adding an additional broadening term to the line profiles to mimic turbulent broadening. When we do this, we find a measurable effect in the CDD and an offset in the mean of the b distribution corresponding to the additional turbulence. We also compare different MHD runs in AREPO we find that the CDD can measurably differentiate between magnetic seed field at redshifts as low as z=0.1, but we do not find that the b distribution is affected at a detectable level. Our work suggests that the effects of turbulence and magnetic fields from z=2-0.1 can potentially be measured with these diagnostics. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  19. Consistency of spherical, gravity-dominated dynamics with quasar high-ionization emission-line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T. R.; Wilkes, B. J.; Krolik, J. H.; Green, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Line profile data are used to test a simple kinematic model - spherically symmetric gravitational free fall - in which the number of free parameters is limited by requiring physical self-consistency. The predictions of this model are fitted to high-resolution spectra of the stronger rest-frame UV emission lines in 12 quasars with z of about 2. It is found that if all the lines are radiated predominantly from the illuminated faces of the emission-line clouds, the profiles of Ly-alpha, N V 1240 A, and C IV 1549 A can be simultaneously well fitted with very similar parameters for all 12 quasars. It is concluded that spherically symmetric gravitational free fall does not correctly describe the dynamics of quasar broad emission-line regions.

  20. Metallic line profiles of the AOV star Vega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. Murray; Gulliver, Austin F.; Adelman, Saul J.; Crowley, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    High dispersion ultrahigh signal to noise Reticon spectra of Vega were obtained with the coude spectrograph of the 1.2 m telescope. A mean signal to noise ratio of 2500 over the spectral region lambdas from 3825 to 5435 was achieved. Examination of the line profiles confirmed the presence of two different types of profiles which were previously seen in IIIaJ and lower signal to noise Reticon spectra. The profiles of the strong lines are essentially classical rotational profiles with enhanced wings which are slightly stronger than expected while those of weak lines are clearly flat-bottomed resulting in a trapezoidal appearance. A few possible theoretical explanations are presented.

  1. Profiles of emission lines in Be stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the broadening functions resulting from a gaseous ring in circular motion around a star according to Kepler's law. When the distribution in the gaseous ring has a circular symmetry in the equatorial plane, the broadening profile is related to the surface density distribution along the radius by an integral equation which can be transformed into the Abel integral equation and solved analytically. Profiles corresponding to gaseous rings with a uniform density distribution but different widths are used to illustrate the general properties of the profile broadened by the gaseous ring in circular motion. The emission profile has also been studied for cases in which the circular motion does not follow Kepler's law.

  2. Profiled spectral lines generated in the field of Kerr superspinars

    SciTech Connect

    Schee, Jan; Stuchlík, Zdenek E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz

    2013-04-01

    String Theory suggests existence of primordial Kerr superspinars, extremely compact objects with external spacetime described by the Kerr naked singularity geometry. The primordial Kerr superspinars have to be converted to a near-extreme black hole due to accretion, but they could survive to the era of highly redshifted quasars. We study the shape of the profiled spectral lines generated by radiating rings or the innermost parts of Keplerian discs orbiting the Kerr superspinars. Influence of the superspinar surface location on the profiled lines is also considered. We demonstrate strong difference of the character of the profiled lines generated by radiating rings for all values of the superspinar spin and all values of the inclination angles of the observer when compared to those generated in the field of Kerr black holes. For small and mediate inclination angles there are large quantitative differences in the extension and position of the lines. For large inclination angles even strong qualitative difference appears as the profiled lines have a clear doubled character. The smaller, redshifted region of the profiled line is related to the photons reaching the regions near the superspinar surface. Strong differences are obtained also for profiled lines generated by the innermost parts of Keplerian discs especially in the shape of the line. The influence of the superspinar surface location is reflected in the intermediate parts of the the profiled lines. The line profiles can give a clear signature of the presence of a Kerr superspinar and in principle enable estimates of its surface location since the signatures of the superspinar surface location are of different character as those corresponding to the presence of the black hole horizon.

  3. ANALYSIS OF CORONAL GREEN LINE PROFILES: EVIDENCE OF EXCESS BLUESHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, K. P.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ashok, N. M. E-mail: chandra@prl.res.in

    2011-08-01

    Coronal green line (Fe XIV 5303 A) profiles were obtained from Fabry-Perot interferometric observations of the solar corona during the total solar eclipse of 2001 June 21 from Lusaka, Zambia. The instrumental width is about 0.2 A and the spectral resolution is about 26,000. About 300 line profiles were obtained within a radial range of 1.0-1.5 R{sub sun} and a position angle coverage of about 240{sup 0}. The line profiles were fitted with single Gaussians, and their intensities, Doppler velocities, and line widths were obtained. Also obtained were the centroids of the line profiles, which give a measure of line asymmetry. The histograms of Doppler velocity show excess blueshifts, while the centroids reveal a predominant blue wing in the line profiles. It was found that the centroids and the Doppler velocities are highly correlated. This points to the presence of multiple components in the line profiles, with an excess of blueshifted components. We then obtained the (Blue-Red) wing intensities, which clearly reveal the secondary components, the majority of which are blueshifted. This confirms that the coronal green line profiles often contain multicomponents with excess blueshifts, which also depend on the solar activity. The magnitude of the Doppler velocity of the secondary components is in the range of 20-40 km s{sup -1} and shows an increase toward the poles. Possible explanations of the multicomponents are the type II spicules that were recently found to be important to coronal heating or the nascent solar wind flow, but the cause of the blue asymmetry in the coronal lines above the limb remains unclear.

  4. SIMULTANEOUS ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL EMISSION-LINE PROFILES OF QUASARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BLACK HOLE MASS DETERMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Luis C.; Dong Xiaobo; Goldoni, Paolo; Ponti, Gabriele; Greene, Jenny E.

    2012-07-20

    The X-shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope was used to obtain spectra of seven moderate-redshift quasars simultaneously covering the spectral range {approx}3000 A to 2.5 {mu}m. At z Almost-Equal-To 1.5, most of the prominent broad emission lines in the ultraviolet to optical region are captured in their rest frame. We use this unique data set, which mitigates complications from source variability, to intercompare the line profiles of C IV {lambda}1549, C III] {lambda}1909, Mg II {lambda}2800, and H{alpha} and evaluate their implications for black hole (BH) mass estimation. We confirm that Mg II and the Balmer lines share similar kinematics and that they deliver mutually consistent BH mass estimates with minimal internal scatter ({approx}<0.1 dex) using the latest virial mass estimators. Although no virial mass formalism has yet been calibrated for C III], this line does not appear promising for such an application because of the large spread of its velocity width compared to lines of both higher and lower ionization; part of the discrepancy may be due to the difficulty of deblending C III] from its neighboring lines. The situation for C IV is complex and, because of the limited statistics of our small sample, inconclusive. On the one hand, slightly more than half of our sample (4/7) have C IV line widths that correlate reasonably well with H{alpha} line widths, and their respective BH mass estimates agree to within {approx}0.15 dex. The rest, on the other hand, exhibit exceptionally broad C IV profiles that overestimate virial masses by factors of 2-5 compared to H{alpha}. As C IV is widely used to study BH demographics at high redshifts, we urgently need to revisit our analysis with a larger sample.

  5. Discovery of the Red-Skewed K-alpha Iron Line in Cyg X-2 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    We report on the Suzaku observation of neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 which reveals strong iron K-alpha emission line. The line profile shows a prominent red wing extending down to 4 keV. This discovery increases the number of neutron star sources where red-skewed iron lines were observed and strongly suggests that this phenomenon is common not only in black holes but also in other types of compact objects. We examine the line profile by fitting it with the model which attributes its production to the relativistic effects due to disk reflection of X-ray radiation. We also apply an alternative model where the red wing is a result of down-scattering effect of the first order with respect to electron velocity in the wind outflow. Both models describe adequately the observed line profile. However, the X-ray variability in a state similar to that in the Suzaku observation which we establish by analysing RXTE observation favors the wind origin of the line formation.

  6. Explaining the unusual line profiles of SN 2006gy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugai, Nikolai N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper explores the origin of the enigmatic line profiles of the extremely luminous Type IIn supernova, SN 2006gy, on day 96. Among the conceivable possibilities, the most preferred is the model that suggests there are holes in the optically thick cool dense shell (CDS). The line radiation emitted at the inner side of the opaque CDS escapes through the holes, thus producing an unusual line profile with the emission shifted redward. The holes could emerge as a result of the vigorous Rayleigh-Taylor instability, leading to the CDS fragmentation. The model light curve with the CDS fragmentation is shown to be consistent with the SN 2006gy bolometric light curve.

  7. Theory of satellite structures on spectral-line profiles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atakan, A. K.; Jacobson, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    A systematic comparison with experiment of various explanations for the problem of satellite-band formation on spectral-line profiles was initiated. The experiments were performed under a variety of conditions in an effort to construct a consistent model of entire line shapes. A composite theory is detailed which is the result of the insights of many individuals. The calculations indicate that the main features of the problem, the line, the high-intensity red satellites, and the blue satellite can be described simultaneously. The results also indicate that widely different potentials can lead to very similar line profiles. Ancillary conclusions are presented concerning the role of Lennard-Jones potentials in line-shape calculations.

  8. Dislocation Effects on the Diffraction Line Profiles from Nanocrystalline Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Alberto; Scardi, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    A Pd nano-polycrystalline microstructure was simulated by molecular dynamics, including edge or screw dislocations in one of the 50 grains, so as to produce a realistic model of nanocrystalline domain with line defect. The same crystalline domain was also studied, with or without line defects, as a free-standing, isolated nanocrystal. Atomic coordinates of the selected domain were used to generate powder patterns by means of the Debye scattering equation, and these patterns were used as "experimental" data to test existing methods of line profile analysis in controlled condition, i.e., with known type and density of defects. Results show that the Krivolgaz-Wilkens theory of dislocation line broadening qualitatively agrees with the MD model, but errors can be larger than 50 pct. A critical issue arises from the instability of the Krivolgaz-Wilkens model when all line profile parameters are simultaneously refined: reasonable results can be obtained by fixing or restricting some parameters.

  9. LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES AND THE CHROMOSPHERIC FLARE VELOCITY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kennedy, M.; Keenan, F. P.; Simões, P. J. A.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der; Fletcher, L.; Carlsson, M.; Jafarzadeh, S.; Allred, J. C.; Kowalski, A. F.; Graham, D.

    2015-11-10

    The asymmetries observed in the line profiles of solar flares can provide important diagnostics of the properties and dynamics of the flaring atmosphere. In this paper the evolution of the Hα and Ca ii λ8542 lines are studied using high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution ground-based observations of an M1.1 flare obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. The temporal evolution of the Hα line profiles from the flare kernel shows excess emission in the red wing (red asymmetry) before flare maximum and excess in the blue wing (blue asymmetry) after maximum. However, the Ca ii λ8542 line does not follow the same pattern, showing only a weak red asymmetry during the flare. RADYN simulations are used to synthesize spectral line profiles for the flaring atmosphere, and good agreement is found with the observations. We show that the red asymmetry observed in Hα is not necessarily associated with plasma downflows, and the blue asymmetry may not be related to plasma upflows. Indeed, we conclude that the steep velocity gradients in the flaring chromosphere modify the wavelength of the central reversal in the Hα line profile. The shift in the wavelength of maximum opacity to shorter and longer wavelengths generates the red and blue asymmetries, respectively.

  10. Calculation of quasi-static helium triplet diffuse line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Calculated spectral line profiles (intensity distributions) of the helium triplet diffuse series were obtained using the quasi-static approximation for ions and electrons. In these calculations, Doppler broadening, although negligible in most of the cases, was included as a device to avoid singularities. Plots and tabulations of the calculated profiles are presented, in addition to a discussion of the computational procedure and the validity of the calculations.

  11. On the existence of oscillations in solar filaments observed in H alpha and C IV lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Malherbe, J. M.; Mein, P.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Time sequence observations of filaments in both the H alpha line and the 1548 A C IV line were analyzed with the Fourier transform technique in the frequency range (1 - 10 mHz). No oscillation is detected in filaments except at the footpoints where a steady velocity gradient is large. The energy is probably due to convective motions rather than pressure oscillations.

  12. Velocity profiles of high-excitation molecular hydrogen lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Profiles of three lines of molecular hydrogen near 2.2 microns, originating from widely spaced energy levels, have been measured at a resolution of 32 km/s at Peak 1 in the Orion molecular outflow. The three lines, 1 - 0 S(1), 2 - 1 S(1), and 3 - 2 S(3), are found to have identical profiles. This result rules out any significant contribution to the population of the higher energy levels of molecular hydrogen at Peak 1 by fluorescence, and is generally consistent with emission from multiple J-type shocks.

  13. Stark broadening of high-principal-quantum-number n-alpha lines of hydrogen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasalle, T. R.; Nee, T.-J.; Griem, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    High n-alpha lines (transitions n + 1 to n) with quantum numbers n between 50 and 250 have been observed emanating from galactic H II regions where the electron density and temperature are about 1000/cu cm and 1 eV, respectively. High n-alpha lines have not previously been seen in the laboratory where fairly homogeneous plasmas may be produced and relatively precise measurements of electron densities and temperatures can be made. The present work describes experiments where the first members of the hydrogen line series with lower states n = 10, 11, 12, and 13 have been detected in a laboratory plasma. The width of the 12-alpha line at 88.7 microns could be measured and was consistent with calculated broadening from elastic electron collisions and quasi-static ion effects.

  14. DNA profiling and characterization of animal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Glyn N; Byrne, Ed; Hawkins, J Ross

    2014-01-01

    The history of the culture of animal cell lines is littered with published and much unpublished experience with cell lines that have become switched, mislabelled, or cross-contaminated during laboratory handling. To deliver valid and good quality research and to avoid waste of time and resources on such rogue lines, it is vital to perform some kind of qualification for the provenance of cell lines used in research and particularly in the development of biomedical products. DNA profiling provides a valuable tool to compare different sources of the same cells and, where original material or tissue is available, to confirm the correct identity of a cell line. This chapter provides a review of some of the most useful techniques to test the identity of cells in the cell culture laboratory and gives methods which have been used in the authentication of cell lines.

  15. Use of Fabry-Perot annular summing spectroscopy to acquire geocoronal hydrogen Balmer-α line profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, Susan M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Coakley, Monica M.; Reynolds, Ronald J.

    1996-10-01

    A Fabry-Perot annular summing spectroscopy technique has been sued at the University of Wisconsin's Pine Bluff Observatory to acquire geocoronal Balmer-(alpha) line profile data with significantly improved precision and height resolution. The double-etalon Fabry-Perot interference pattern is imaged onto a photometrics PM512 CCD chip, thus enabling light to be gathered in multiple spectral bins simultaneously. In comparison with scanning systems we used earlier, the high quantum efficiency of the CCD and the multi-channel detection associated with the Fabry-Perot annular summing technique have enabled us to save a factor of about 10 in the integration time required for studies of the line profile. As a result, we are now able to both more precisely observe the line shape of the very faint Balmer- (alpha) emission and obtain data using shorter integration times. Our data illustrate the scientific potential for using this technique for the study of very faint extended emission line sources. The increase in the signal-to-noise of our data has enabled us to examine Balmer-(alpha) profile asymmetries which we have found to be compatible with predictions that on the order of 10 percent of the geocoronal Balmer-(alpha) excitation arises from cascades due to higher-member solar Lyman series excitation. This fine structure was overlooked in previous Balmer-(alpha) studies aimed at determining non-Maxwellian dynamical properties of exospheric hydrogen; we find that cascade excitation largely masks the expected very small dynamical perturbations to the line profile at low shadow heights, and must be more thoroughly studied before drawing conclusions about exospheric dynamics. Accounting for cascade laos leads to more realistic determinations of exospheric hydrogen temperatures near the exobase.

  16. Observed L-alpha profiles for two solar flares - 14:12 UT 15 June, 1973 and 23:16 UT 21 January, 1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, R. C.; van Hoosier, M. E.

    1980-09-01

    Photographic observations of the time development of the profile of the L-alpha line of hydrogen during flares were obtained with the NRL spectrograph on ATM. The profiles for the June 15, 1973 and Jan. 21, 1974 flares cover both core and wings of the line. The time sequences begin before flare maximum, and continue well into the decay phase. Careful attention has been given to photometry and absolute calibration. In the case of the June 15 flare, data are presented both first-order corrected and uncorrected for incomplete filling of the spectrograph slit by flaring material. Correction of the January 21 flare was not possible. Core symmetry and shift are discussed, and it is shown that the observations imply integrated flare L-alpha/H-alpha intensity ratios within a factor of two of unity for these two flares.

  17. Non-LTE profiles of strong solar lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneeberger, T. J.; Beebe, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    The complete linearization method is applied to the formation of strong lines in the solar atmosphere. Transitions in Na(I), Mg(I), Ca(I), Mg(II), and Ca(II) are computed with a standard atmosphere and microturbulent velocity model. The computed profiles are compared to observations at disk center.

  18. 20. GEOLOGY, PLAN AND PROFILE, SHOWING LINED AND UNLINED SECTIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GEOLOGY, PLAN AND PROFILE, SHOWING LINED AND UNLINED SECTIONS, AND DETAILED TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no number, revised 3-20-42. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  19. Human alpha and beta papillomaviruses use different synonymous codon profiles.

    PubMed

    Cladel, Nancy M; Bertotto, Alex; Christensen, Neil D

    2010-06-01

    Human papillomaviruses use rare codons relative to their hosts. It has been theorized that this is a mechanism to allow the virus to escape immune surveillance. In the present study, we examined the codings of four major genes of 21 human alpha (mucosatropic) viruses and 16 human beta (cutaneous-tropic) viruses. We compared the codon usage of different genes from a given papillomavirus and also the same genes from different papillomaviruses. Our data showed that codon usage was not always uniform between two genes of a given papillomavirus or between the same genes of papillomaviruses from different genera. We speculate as to why this might be and conclude that codon usage in the papillomaviruses may not only play a role in facilitating escape from immune surveillance but may also underlie some of the unanswered questions in the papillomavirus field.

  20. Resolved line profiles of PNe in NGC6822.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Duran, S.; Peña, M.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; García-Rojas, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    2014-04-01

    "Using high resolution spectroscopic data obtained with Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) at the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory it was possible to resolve the emission line profiles of [OIII] 5007, Ha and [NII] 6583 in two planetary nebulae belonging to the Local Group galaxy NGC 6822 (Flores-Durán et al. submitted). The two PNe, called PN4 and PN7 were identified after Leisy et al. (2005, A&A, x436, 437). In the case of PN4, it presents wide lines that show a structure with three components. The [NII] 6583 line profile clearly shows a central component surrounded by what appears to be a shell with an expantion velocity of 25 km s-1. For PN7, the [OIII] emission lines present two very close components differing in velocity by about 15 km s-1 and, in the [N II] 6583 profile a faint very-wide component is apparent. This latter component represents a sort of bipolar outflow at high velocities (about 140 km s-1) as the case of the galactic M1-32, M3-15 and others (Medina et al. 2006, RMAA, 42, 53; Akras & López 2012, MNRAS, 425, 2197; Rechy-García et al., this meeting)."

  1. Black Hole Masses from [OIII] Line Profiles in PG Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Charles; Gelderman, Richard

    2002-08-01

    We propose to obtain high S/N, high resolution spectroscopy centered on the [OIII] (lambda) 5007 emission line for all of the PG quasars. Previous results have shown that the kinematics of the narrow line region gas (NLR) are predominantly due to gravitational motion in the bulge potential of the host galaxy. Thus, using the now well established correlation between bulge velocity dispersion, sigs, and nuclear black hole mass, Mbh, we can use the FWHM of the emission line profiles to estimate Mbh for the entire sample. This technique is independent of reverberation mapping techniques which rely on the assumption of Keplerian motion in the broad line region (BLR). We plan to use these Mbh values to estimate the Eddington ratio, and to test the idea that L/L_E is the primary influence on the group of AGN correlations known as eigenvector 1. We will also use the NLR kinematics to investigate the possibility of lower M/L in the AGN host galaxy bulge compared to normal galaxies. In those cases where the emission line profile shows evidence for substructure we will examine the effects of gas-jet interactions in the NLR. After two successful runs on this program (one awarded by the TAC and the other complements of the Director) we have completed all PG quasars visible in the spring (55) and are requesting time to observe the remaining (35) targets.

  2. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  3. Sodium D-line emission from Io - Comparison of observed and theoretical line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Bergstralh, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of the D-line profiles have been obtained for Io's sodium emission cloud. These lines, which are produced through resonance scattering of sunlight, are broad and asymmetric and can be used to infer source and dynamical properties of the sodium cloud. In this paper we compare line profile data with theoretical line shapes computed for several assumed initial velocity distributions corresponding to various source mechanisms. We also examine the consequences of source distributions which are nonuniform over the surface of Io. It is found that the experimental data are compatible with escape of sodium atoms from the leading hemisphere of Io and with velocity distributions characteristic of sputtering processes. Thermal escape and simple models of plasma sweeping are found to be incompatible with the observations.

  4. Synthetic line profiles of rotationally distorted hot-star winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, Tim J.

    2000-07-01

    A new Monte Carlo stellar wind radiative-transfer code is presented. The code employs a three-dimensional opacity grid, and fully treats polarization and multiple scattering. Either Mie or Rayleigh scattering phase matrices may be used, and the line-transfer is treated by means of the Solobolev approximation. Variance reduction techniques are employed to increase computational efficiency. The results of several tests of the code are reported. It is confirmed that no continuum polarization is produced in the spherically symmetric wind case, and that the line profiles computed match those computed using established radiative-transfer codes. The continuum polarization produced by a latitudinally structured low-density wind is found to be in good agreement with that predicted by the single-scattering analytical treatment of Fox, while in the higher density regime the polarizations are consistent with the multiple-scattering code given by Hillier. Two illustrative applications of the code are described, using the wind parameters of ζ Puppis [O4I(n)f] as the base model. In the first the effect on the line profile of a corotating spiral density enhancement is examined. It is found that the spiral gives line profile variations on the order of 5 per cent, and that it produces an S-wave-like pattern as a function of rotational phase. It is noted that the accelerations described by the spiral wave may mimic those produced by tangentially accelerating wind clumps. The variable polarization produced by the spiral is found to have an amplitude of 0.1 per cent, with two maxima per rotational period in phase with the line emission modulation. The second application investigates the profiles and polarization produced in a clumped wind. Although the parameters of the discrete wind clumps are necessarily arbitrary, it is found that a clumped-wind model reproduces the level of spectroscopic variability found by Eversberg et al. It is shown that the wind emission `bumps' produced in

  5. Extension of H-alpha/H-beta Photometry to Additional Luminosity Classes and Emission Line Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Joner, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    In Joner & Hintz (2015) they presented a fully calibrated H-alpha index based on spectroscopic observations of main sequence stars ranging from O9 to K2. In that work they provided relations between the H-alpha index, temperature, and equivalent width. In Didelon (1982) the relation between spectral type and equivalent width is examined with a clear difference between luminosity classes. In this poster we will present results from a spectroscopic examination of the H-alpha/H-beta relations. First we will examine the equivalent width as a function of luminosity class. Then we will examine the extension of the H-alpha system for application to emission line objects.We would like to acknowledge use of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1.2-m Telescope.

  6. Evasion mechanisms to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) of small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines: comparison with the erythroleukaemia K-562 cell line.

    PubMed

    López-González, J S; Hernández García, A; Noyola, M I; Cázares, D A; Mandoki, J J; Morales, F M; Mendieta, I C; Caloca, J V

    2000-03-01

    The tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is produced by mononuclear phagocytes as a defence mechanism against malignant cells. However, these cells can evade destruction by TNF-alpha. The present study evaluates in three lung cancer cell lines (small cell carcinoma NCI-H69, adenocarcinoma A-427, squamous carcinoma SK-MES-1) and one erythroleukaemia (K-562) cell line the following evasion mechanisms: (1) inhibition of TNF-alpha production, in indirect and direct co-cultures with monocytes; (2) the expression of type I and type II receptors for TNF-alpha (TNFRI and TNFRII) by tumour cell lines, using indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry; (3) the sensitivity of tumour cell lines to the toxic action of recombinant human TNF-alpha (rhTNF-alpha). With the exception of cell line NCI-H69, the other tumour cell lines liberated soluble factors that inhibited TNF-alpha production in monocytes. This effect occurred even after membrane contact with the A-427 and SK-MES-1 cell lines. Erythroleukaemia K-562 cells expressed both types of receptors for TNF-alpha, whereas the NCI-H69 cells expressed only TNFRI, and the A-427 and SK-MES-1 cells expressed no receptors. Lines NCI-H69, A-427 and K-562 were insensitive to the cytotoxic action of rhTNF-alpha. In conclusion, different lung cancer cell lines may evade destruction by TNF-alpha by various mechanisms that range from blocking TNF-alpha production by monocytes to blocking the cytotoxic action of this molecule. For selecting the most effective immunotherapy, knowledge of the evasion mechanisms would be useful.

  7. Interpreting the Mg IIh andk Line Profiles of Mira Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. E.; Karovska, M.

    2000-11-01

    We use radiative transfer calculations to reproduce the basic appearance of Mg II lines observed from Mira variables. These lines have centroids that are blueshifted by at least 30 km s-1 from the stellar rest frame. It is unlikely that flow velocities in the stellar atmospheres are this fast, so radiative transfer effects must be responsible for this behavior. Published hydrodynamic models predict the existence of cool, downflowing material above the shocked material responsible for the Mg II emission, and we demonstrate that scattering in this layer can result in Mg II profiles as highly blueshifted as those that are observed. However, our models also show that scattering within the shock plays an equally strong role in shaping the Mg II profiles, and our calculations illustrate the importance of partial redistribution and the effects of being out of ionization equilibrium.

  8. Dynamic evolution of recurrent mass ejections observed in H-alpha and C IV lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Mein, P.; Martres, M. J.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1984-01-01

    The mass ejections of 1 September, 1980 are studied from observations obtained with the MSDP spectrograph and with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter aboard the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. The analysis is focused on observations in the chromospheric H-alpha line and the transition region C IV 1548 A line. It is noted that cold and hot material had the same projection, although the upward C IV velocity structure was more extended than the H-alpha one. It is shown that the observed contrast of the H-alpha absorbing structure can be interpreted in terms of a dynamic cloud model overlying the chromosphere. Radial velocities of 25-30 km/s and -40 km/s are estimated for the first and second phases of ejection, respectively.

  9. O2 density and temperature profiles retrieving from direct solar Lyman-alpha radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guineva, V.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Werner, R.; Hedin, J.; Neichev, S.; Kirov, B.; Bankov, L.; Gramatikov, P.; Tashev, V.; Popov, M.; Hauglund, K.; Hansen, G.; Ilstad, J.; Wold, H.

    2009-12-01

    The resonance transition 2P-2S of the atomic hydrogen (Lyman-alpha emission) is the strongest and most conspicuous feature in the solar EUV spectrum. The Lyman-alpha radiation transfer depends on the resonance scattering from the hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere and on the O2 absorption. Since the Lyman-alpha extinction in the atmosphere is a measure for the column density of the oxygen molecules, the atmospheric O2 density and temperature profiles can be calculated thereof. A detector of solar Lyman-alpha radiation was manufactured in the Stara Zagora Department of the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory (STIL). Its basic part is an ionization camera, filled in with NO. A 60 V power supply is applied to the chamber. The produced photoelectric current from the sensor is fed to a two-channel amplifier, providing analog signal. The characteristics of the Lyman-alpha detector were studied. It passed successfully all tests and the results showed that the so-designed instrument could be used in rocket experiments to measure the Lymanalpha flux. From the measurements of the detector, the Lyman-alpha vertical profile can be obtained. Programs are created to compute the O2 density, atmospheric power and temperature profiles based on Lymanalpha data. The detector design appertained to ASLAF project (Attenuation of the Solar Lyman-Alpha Flux), a scientific cooperation between STIL—Bul.Acad.Sci., Stara Zagora Department and the Atmospheric Physics Group at the Department of Meteorology (MISU), Stockholm University, Sweden. The joint project was part of the rocket experiment HotPay I, in the ALOMAR eARI Project, EU’s 6th Framework Programme, Andøya Rocket Range, Andenes, Norway. The project is partly financed by the Bulgarian Ministry of Science and Education.

  10. Fundamental Parameters Line Profile Fitting in Laboratory Diffractometers

    PubMed Central

    Cheary, R. W.; Coelho, A. A.; Cline, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental parameters approach to line profile fitting uses physically based models to generate the line profile shapes. Fundamental parameters profile fitting (FPPF) has been used to synthesize and fit data from both parallel beam and divergent beam diffractometers. The refined parameters are determined by the diffractometer configuration. In a divergent beam diffractometer these include the angular aperture of the divergence slit, the width and axial length of the receiving slit, the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits, the length and projected width of the x-ray source, the absorption coefficient and axial length of the sample. In a parallel beam system the principal parameters are the angular aperture of the equatorial analyser/Soller slits and the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits. The presence of a monochromator in the beam path is normally accommodated by modifying the wavelength spectrum and/or by changing one or more of the axial divergence parameters. Flat analyzer crystals have been incorporated into FPPF as a Lorentzian shaped angular acceptance function. One of the intrinsic benefits of the fundamental parameters approach is its adaptability any laboratory diffractometer. Good fits can normally be obtained over the whole 20 range without refinement using the known properties of the diffractometer, such as the slit sizes and diffractometer radius, and emission profile. PMID:27366594

  11. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  12. Effects of prescattering attenuation of spectropolarimetric line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Kenneth; Bjorkman, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present the wavelength dependent linear polarization and position angle variations arising from single Thomson scattering of continuum stellar radiation in an axisymmetric, hot, planar disk, which is in bulk motion. The wavelength dependence arises through the combination of Doppler shifted line attenuation, prior to scattering, and the Doppler redistribution of the scattered radiation due to the bulk and thermal motions of the disk electrons. We find that when the scattering electrons are cold, there are large polarization and position angle variations across the resulting spectrapolarimetric absorption line profile-agreeing with previous investigations. However, when the thermal Doppler velocities of the scattering electrons are comparable to or greater than the electron bulk velocity (as is of ten the case), then the scattered line profile is broadened and the amplitude of the polarimetric variations are considerably reduced. The properties of the electron thermal smearing function are such that the equivalent width of any scattered spectrapolarimetric feature is independent on the electron temperature-a consequence of the conservation of areas under convolution. An important result of this is that for an axisymmetric circumstellar envelope the position angle variations will average to zero across any line formed through the above process. We expect that the effect of multiple line blending will yield a depolarization equivalent width is given by thesum of the individual equivalent widths and the position angle variations will average to zero. The implications of this are that the large depolarizations observed in the UV spectra of pi Aquarii, zeta Tauri and PP Carinae by the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE) can only be explained with prescattering attenuation of stellar flux if there are a sufficient number of multiple overlapping lines in that part of the spectrum.

  13. Predicting the Redshift 2 H-Alpha Luminosity Function Using [OIII] Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Dai, Y. S.; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Rafelski, Marc; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; Bagley, Micaela; Beck, Melanie; Ross, Nathaniel R.; Rutkowski, Michael; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of H-alpha emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8 - 1.65 micrometers wavelength range and allowing the detection of H-alpha emitters up to z approximately equal to 1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z approximately equal to 2.3. We derive the H-alpha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z approximately equal to 1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the H-alpha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z approximately equal to 2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between H-alpha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the H-alpha number counts at z approximately equal to 2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7 less than z less than 2, we expect approximately 3000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of 3 x 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and approximately 20,000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of approximately 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).

  14. The transmission correlation in the QSO Ly(alpha) forest produced by finite width lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Lin; Bond, J. Richard

    1994-03-01

    The transmission of a quasar spectrum (flux divided by the continuum) is correlated because of the finite width of absorption lines. We describe a technique for calculating the transmission correlation function produced by randomly distributed lines. We also introduce straightforward procedure for measuring the pixel-pixel transmission correlation function xipp directly from observed quasar spectra. We apply the method to 12 Sargent, Boksenberg, & Steidel Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO) spectra and compare these with theoretical transmission correlation functions and with xipp measured from computer-simulated quasar spectra of Ly(alpha) forest models with Poisson-distributed lines. The simulations are designed to mimic the observed spectrum as closely as possible, with the same wavelength sampling, instrumental resolution, continuum and noise properties. The comparisons with line distributions that are power laws in column density and redshift, and Gaussians in line width b reveal an excess in the observed xipp at Delta(v) is approximately or equal to 150 km/s, if we adopt the Carswell et al. (1991) parameters for the Gaussian (mean b0 = 30 km/s, dispersion sigmab = 10 km/s). One possibility is that the Ly(alpha) forest lines are actually clustered at velocity separation scales Delta(v) is approximately or equal to 150 km/s. Another possibility we explore is that the b-distribution has more large b clouds and a larger dispersion. We find the observed xipp is barely consistent with b0 = 40 km/s and sigmab = 25 km/s. We show that the measured xipp is relatively insensitive to the noise level and to errors in the continuum determination, unlike the traditional line counting methods, where the outcome is quite vulnerable to both. It also requires no line deblending and thus offers a powerful tool for extracting information from the crowded Ly(alpha) forest.

  15. Determination of alpha dose rate profile at the HLW nuclear glass/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougnaud, S.; Tribet, M.; Rolland, S.; Renault, J.-P.; Jégou, C.

    2015-07-01

    Alpha irradiation and radiolysis can affect the alteration behavior of High Level Waste (HLW) nuclear glasses. In this study, the way the energy of alpha particles, emitted by a typical HLW glass, is deposited in water at the glass/water interface is investigated, with the aim of better characterizing the dose deposition at the glass/water interface during water-induced leaching mechanisms. A simplified chemical composition was considered for the nuclear glass under study, wherein the dose rate is about 140 Gy/h. The MCNPX calculation code was used to calculate alpha dose rate and alpha particle flux profiles at the glass/water interface in different systems: a single glass grain in water, a glass powder in water and a water-filled ideal crack in a glass package. Dose rate decreases within glass and in water as distance to the center of the grain increases. A general model has been proposed to fit a dose rate profile in water and in glass from values for dose rate in glass bulk, alpha range in water and linear energy transfer considerations. The glass powder simulation showed that there was systematic overlapping of radiation fields for neighboring glass grains, but the water dose rate always remained lower than the bulk value. Finally, for typical ideal cracks in a glass matrix, an overlapping of irradiation fields was observed while the crack aperture was lower than twice the alpha range in water. This led to significant values for the alpha dose rate within the crack volume, as long as the aperture remained lower than 60 μm.

  16. Pressure effects on water vapour lines: beyond the Voigt profile.

    PubMed

    Ngo, N H; Tran, H; Gamache, R R; Hartmann, J M

    2012-06-13

    A short overview of recent results on the effects of pressure (collisions) regarding the shape of isolated infrared lines of water vapour is presented. The first part of this study considers the basic collisional quantities, which are the pressure-broadening and -shifting coefficients, central parameters of the Lorentzian (and Voigt) profile and thus of any sophisticated line-shape model. Through comparisons of measured values with semi-classical calculations, the influences of the molecular states (both rotational and vibrational) involved and of the temperature are analysed. This shows the relatively unusual behaviour of H(2)O broadening, with evidence of a significant vibrational dependence and the fact that the broadening coefficient (in cm(-1) atm(-1)) of some lines increases with temperature. In the second part of this study, line shapes beyond the Voigt model are considered, thus now taking 'velocity effects' into account. These include both the influence of collisionally induced velocity changes that lead to the so-called Dicke narrowing and the influence of the dependence of collisional parameters on the speed of the radiating molecule. Experimental evidence of deviations from the Voigt shape is presented and analysed. The interest of classical molecular dynamics simulations, to model velocity changes, together with semi-classical calculations of the speed-dependent collisional parameters for line-shape predictions from 'first principles', are discussed.

  17. High-resolution measurements, line identification, and spectral modeling of K-alpha transitions in Fe XVIII-Fe XXV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Phillips, T.; Jacobs, V. L.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Von Goeler, S.; Kahn, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the iron K-alpha emission spectrum covering the wavelength region from 1.840 to 1.940 A is presented. Measurements are made with a high-resolution Bragg crystal spectrometer on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak for plasma conditions which closely resemble those of solar flares. A total of 40 features are identified, consisting of either single or multiple lines from eight charge states in iron, Fe XVIII - Fe XXV, and their wavelengths are determined with an accuracy of 0.1-0.4 mA. Many of these features are identified for the first time. In the interpretation of our observations we rely on model calculations that determine the ionic species abundances from electron density and temperature profiles measured independently with nonspectroscopic techniques and that incorporate theoretical collisional excitation and dielectronic recombination rates resulting in the excitation of the 1s2sr2ps configurations. The model calculations also include the effect of diffusive ion transport. Good overall agreement between the model calculations and the observations is obtained, which gives us confidence in our line identifications and spectral modeling capabilities. The results are compared with earlier analyses of the K-alpha emission from the Sun.

  18. Measurement of the Relative Intensity of the Ly-(alpha) Lines in Fe 25+

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K L; Beiersdorfer, P; Reed, K J; Osterheld, A L

    2002-06-18

    The intensity of the polarized Ly-{alpha}{sub 1} (2p{sub 3/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition has been measured relative to that of the unpolarized Ly-{alpha}{sub 2} (2p{sub 1/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition in Fe{sup 25+}. The measurements were made with the Livermore electron beam ion trap EBIT-II for beam energies from threshold to 2.5 times threshold. The results are compared to the corresponding intensity ratio predicted using excitation cross sections from distorted-wave calculations, which includes polarization, the M1(2s{sub 1/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2}) transition, and cascade contributions. Discrepancies are found that tend to confirm a recent report of a measurement of the Ly-{alpha} lines in Ti{sup 21+} performed on the Tokyo electron beam ion trap.

  19. Dynamics of a surge observed in the C IV and H alpha lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Mein, P.; Vial, J.-C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1983-01-01

    Time sequences of a surge have been obtained in Active Region 2701 during a coordinated SMY program, on October 2nd, 1980, while the MSDP spectrograph operated in H-alpha at the Meudon Solar Tower and the UVSP spectrometer on SMM observed in the 1548 A C IV resonance line. The cold (H-alpha) and hot (C IV) material follow the same channel, and the event lasts about 10 min in both lines. A good correlation is found between H-alpha and C IV velocities; radial velocities along the surge are in the range 40-60 km/s in both cases. The observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a pressure gradient drives the surge. The H-alpha data seem to indicate the presence of a shock wave in the chromosphere, while the C IV quantities (velocities, accelerations) vary on a very short time scale. Their maxima occur at some locations which could be interpreted as 'pinched' zones.

  20. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  1. Path integral formalism for the spectral line shape in plasmas: Lyman-{alpha} with fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bedida, N.; Meftah, M. T.; Boland, D.; Stamm, R.

    2008-10-22

    We examine in this work the expression of the dipolar autocorrelation function for an emitter in the plasma using the path integrals formalism. The results for Lyman alpha lines with fine structure are retrieved in a compact formula. The expression of the dipolar autocorrelation function takes into account the ions dynamics and the fine structure effects. The electron's effect is represented by the impact operator {phi}{sub e} in the final formula.

  2. Detection and Characterisation of H-{alpha} Emission Lines from Gaia BP/RP Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenes, Juergen; Laur, Sven; Kolka, Indrek

    2008-12-05

    The Gaia probe, set to launch in 2011, will measure an estimated billion astronomical objects, producing an enormous amount of data. One of the data analysis tasks will be the identification and classification of measured objects. A vast majority of them will be 'ordinary' stars from our Galaxy but a certain percentage will belong to 'peculiar' objects. We are interested in detecting emission line stars (ELS). The characteristic feature of most ELS is the presence of a H-{alpha} emission line in their spectra. In the case of Gaia measurements, the influence of this line could be detected in low resolution prismatic spectra which will be recorded both in blue (BP) and red (RP) spectral region. In this work, we compare different algorithms for detecting and characterising H-{alpha} lines in Gaia spectra. These include a simple, integrated flux ratio-based algorithm and several machine learning algorithms, such as neural networks, support vector machines and support vector regression. We study line detection both from single-transit and over-sampled end-of-mission data.

  3. Multiwavelength laser line profile sensing for agricultural crop characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strothmann, Wolfram; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Hertzberg, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Triangulation-based laser line profile sensing is a widely used technique for precise and fast 3D measurement in industrial applications. More recently, it is used for applications in the area of outdoor agricultural sensing as well. However, in many agricultural applications high resolution range data by itself is insufficient. There is also a strong need for local spectral intensity information. As a consequence the combination of image-based range scanners with spectral imaging is often necessary. Under varying environmental conditions this is a tedious and error-prone problem, though. In contrast, the novel approach shown here allows capturing range data along with spectral laser reflectance and pixel-wise backscattering information at multiple, selectable wavelengths using a single sensor system. The system consists of multiple continuous wave (CW) line lasers simultaneously captured by a single monochrome imager. A system ready to capture 3 line lasers at 100 Hz was set up. Line lasers at different wavelengths in the visible and NIR range can be combined in accordance with the requirements of a specific application. Consecutively captured images are matched using sum of absolute differences (SAD) in order for tracking relative movement between the sensor system and the analyzed object. This allows normalizing images before the evaluation of reflectance and scattering. Furthermore, the SAD-based matching is used for accurate assembly of range and reflectance information gathered from different laser lines. It results in 3D point clouds with spectral laser reflectance and backscattering information at multiple, selectable wavelengths available for each point.

  4. Hepatic drug metabolizing profile of Flinders Sensitive Line rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsovolou, Olga; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lang, Matti A; Marselos, Marios; Overstreet, David H; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zoi; Johanson, Inger; Fotopoulos, Andrew; Konstandi, Maria

    2010-08-16

    The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat model of depression exhibits some behavioral, neurochemical, and pharmacological features that have been reported in depressed patients and has been very effective in screening antidepressants. Major factor that determines the effectiveness and toxicity of a drug is the drug metabolizing capacity of the liver. Therefore, in order to discriminate possible differentiation in the hepatic drug metabolism between FSL rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) controls, their hepatic metabolic profile was investigated in this study. The data showed decreased glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lower expression of certain major CYP enzymes, including the CYP2B1, CYP2C11 and CYP2D1 in FSL rats compared to SD controls. In contrast, p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNP), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and 16alpha-testosterone hydroxylase activities were higher in FSL rats. Interestingly, the wide spread environmental pollutant benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P) induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2 and ALDH3c at a lesser extend in FSL than in SD rats, whereas the antidepressant mirtazapine (MIRT) up-regulated CYP1A1/2, CYP2C11, CYP2D1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2, mainly, in FSL rats. The drug also further increased ALDH3c whereas suppressed GSH content in B(alpha)P-exposed FSL rats. In conclusion, several key enzymes of the hepatic biotransformation machinery are differentially expressed in FSL than in SD rats, a condition that may influence the outcome of drug therapy. The MIRT-induced up-regulation of several drug-metabolizing enzymes indicates the critical role of antidepressant treatment that should be always taken into account in the designing of treatment and interpretation of insufficient pharmacotherapy or drug toxicity.

  5. Formation of triads without the dihydropyridine receptor alpha subunits in cell lines from dysgenic skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Muscular dysgenesis (mdg/mdg), a mutation of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) alpha 1 subunit, has served as a model to study the functions of the DHPR in excitation-contraction coupling and its role in triad formation. We have investigated the question of whether the lack of the DHPR in dysgenic skeletal muscle results in a failure of triad formation, using cell lines (GLT and NLT) derived from dysgenic (mdg/mdg) and normal (+/+) muscle, respectively. The lines were generated by transfection of myoblasts with a plasmid encoding a Large T antigen. Both cell lines express muscle-specific proteins and begin organization of sarcomeres as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. Similar to primary cultures, dysgenic (GLT) myoblasts show a higher incidence of cell fusion than their normal counterparts (NLT). NLT myotubes develop spontaneous contractile activity, and fluorescent Ca2+ recordings show Ca2+ release in response to depolarization. In contrast, GLTs show neither spontaneous nor depolarization-induced Ca2+ transients, but do release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in response to caffeine. Despite normal transverse tubule (T-tubule) formation, GLT myotubes lack the alpha 1 subunit of the skeletal muscle DHPR, and the alpha 2 subunit is mistargeted. Nevertheless, the ryanodine receptor (RyR) frequently develops its normal, clustered organization in the absence of both DHPR alpha subunits in the T-tubules. In EM, these RyR clusters correspond to T-tubule/SR junctions with regularly spaced feet. These findings provide conclusive evidence that interactions between the DHPR and RyR are not involved in the formation of triad junctions or in the normal organization of the RyR in the junctional SR. PMID:8707823

  6. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  7. Signatures of disk structure from line profile variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Stacie; Latham, D. W.; Irwin, M.; Bouvier, J.; Clarke, C.; Facchini, S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of FU Orionis objects (FUors) in the solar neighborhood and the implied repetitive nature of this episodic accretion phenomenon in low-mass stars, the triggering mechanism within the disk, propagation from the disk to the wind and the implications of these outbursts on planet formation remain unclear. FUors are young stars where disk accretion increases from 10-7 to 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 within a decade, with a slow decline of over 100 years. These systems provide a unique opportunity to observe the inner disk photosphere in optical light. Previous observations of the prototype FU Orionis by Herbig et al. (2003) suggest that the wind and disk photospheric lines are modulated with periods of 14.54 and 3.54 days, respectively. We have re-observed the system at higher resolution with SOPHIE and TRES, by monitoring variations of optical line profiles over 21 nights in 2007 and 35 nights in 2012-13. We detect wind periods of 13 days and 10 days (present in the latter epoch only), which are manifested not only in blueshifted Hα absorption, as found previously, but also in redshifted emission of Hα and Hβ, as well as in blueshifted absorption of Na I D, Li I and Fe II λ5018. We discuss the potential configurations responsible for the two distinct wind modulations in this system. In addition the disk photospheric lines show periods of 3.6 and 3.2 days in 2007 and 2012-13, respectively. Remarkably, this implies variability mechanisms that are stable against shear over at least 15 years (>1000 orbits); we tentatively ascribe this to an orbiting hotspot in the disk. We have monitored the velocity shift of these periodic variations for the first time, which are confined to the blue wing of the line profiles and centered on velocities of -9 and -60 km s-1 in 2007 and 2013, respectively. We discuss the possibility of an embedded hot Jupiter precessing on an inclined orbit relative to the disk to explain the different velocities of the detected periodic signal

  8. Fast variations in the ultraviolet resonance lines of Alpha Camelopardalis (O9.5 Ia) - Evidence for blobs in the wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, Henry J. G. L. M.; Snow, Theodore P.; De Jager, Cornelis; Langerwerf, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 72 IUE spectra of Alpha Cam and 19 IUE spectra of Kappa Cas, obtained during 72 hours of continuous IUE time in September 1978 were searched for variations in the profiles of the resonance lines of Si IV, C IV, and N V, and the results are discussed. The UV resonance lines in the spectra of Alpha Cam showed variations at the 2 percent level near -1800, -700, and +700 km/s. The first two variations can be explained by absorption components of outward-accelerated blobs or shells with an average acceleration of 1.5 cm/sq s. The characteristics of the blobs and shells are discussed, including the column densities and masses. No variations were found in the spectra of Kappa Cas.

  9. Line profile modelling for multi-pixel CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.; Rao, A. R.; Bhattacharya, D.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Bhalerao, V.

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors have been the mainstay for hard X-ray astronomy for its high quantum efficiency, fine energy resolution, near room temperature operation, and radiation hardness. In order to fully utilize the spectroscopic capabilities of CZT detectors, it is important to generate accurate response matrix, which in turn requires precise modelling of the line profiles for the CZT detectors. We have developed a numerical model taking into account the mobility and lifetime of the charge carriers and intrpixel charge sharing for the CZT detectors. This paper describes the details of the modelling along with the experimental measurements of mobility, lifetime and charge sharing fractions for the CZT detector modules of thickness of 5 mm and 2.5 mm pixel size procured from Orbotech Medical Solutions (same modules used in AstroSat-CZTI).

  10. Venus - On the phase variation of CO2 line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macy, W., Jr.; Trafton, L.; Barker, E.

    1977-01-01

    The shapes of Venus' CO2 profiles are found to vary with solar phase angle. High-resolution spectra of the P16 and P14 lines in the 8689- and 7820-A bands, respectively, are presented for phase angles ranging from 6 to 158 deg. The scattering mean free path at 80 mbar, approximately the effective pressure, is 1.7 km. Use of the van de Hulst (1974) similarity relations with simple parametric scattering models is inadequate to separate effects due to the scattering phase function from those due to inhomogeneities in depth when one attempts to determine the atmospheric structure by fitting a family of such models over a wide range of phase angles.

  11. Line profile variability in the massive binary HD 152219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Gosset, E.

    2009-07-01

    HD 152219 is a massive binary system with O9.5 III and B1-2 III/V components and a short orbital period of 4.2 d. In a previous work, we showed that the primary star (M_{prim}˜21 M_⊙) was presenting clear line profile variabilities (LPVs) that might be caused by nonradial pulsations (NRPs). In the present work, we report on an intensive spectroscopic monitoring, that aimed at unveiling the nature of the detected LPVs. Based on this new data set, we discard the NRPs and point out the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect as % being the cause of the observed LPVs. The upper limit derived on the amplitude of undetected NRPs, if any, is set at a couple of part per thousands of the continuum level.

  12. Theoretical determination of characteristic x-ray lines and the copper K alpha spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chantler, C T; Hayward, A C L; Grant, I P

    2009-09-18

    Core excitations above the K edge result in K alpha characteristic x-ray emission. Understanding these spectra is crucial for high accuracies in investigations into QED, near-edge x-ray structure and advanced crystallography. We address unresolved quantitative discrepancies between experiment and theory for copper. These discrepancies arise from an incomplete treatment of electronic interactions. By finding solutions to relativistic multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock equations accounting for correlation and exchange corrections, we obtain an accurate reproduction of the peak energies, excellent agreement of theory with experiment for the line shapes, good convergence between gauges, and account for the K alpha doublet ratio of 0.522 +/- 0.003ratio1.

  13. Characterization of G-protein alpha subunits in the Gq class: expression in murine tissues and in stromal and hematopoietic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, T M; Scherle, P A; Strathmann, M P; Slepak, V Z; Simon, M I

    1991-01-01

    Murine G alpha 14 and G alpha 15 cDNAs encode distinct alpha subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). These alpha subunits are related to members of the Gq class and share certain sequence characteristics with G alpha q, G alpha 11, and G alpha 16, such as the absence of a pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylation site. G alpha 11 and G alpha q are ubiquitously expressed among murine tissues but G alpha 14 is predominantly expressed in spleen, lung, kidney, and testis whereas G alpha 15 is primarily restricted to hematopoietic lineages. Among hematopoietic cell lines, G alpha 11 mRNA is found in all cell lines tested, G alpha q is expressed widely but is not found in most T-cell lines, G alpha 15 is predominantly expressed in myeloid and B-cell lineages, and G alpha 14 is expressed in bone marrow adherent (stromal) cells, certain early myeloid cells, and progenitor B cells. Polyclonal antisera produced from synthetic peptides that correspond to two regions of G alpha 15 react with a protein of 42 kDa expressed in B-cell membranes and in Escherichia coli transformed with G alpha 15 cDNA. The expression patterns that were observed in mouse tissues and cell lines indicate that each of the alpha subunits in the Gq class may be involved in pertussis toxin-insensitive signal-transduction pathways that are fundamental to hematopoietic cell differentiation and function. Images PMID:1946421

  14. Infrared line shape of an alpha-carbon deuterium-labeled amino acid.

    PubMed

    Kinnaman, Carrie S; Cremeens, Matthew E; Romesberg, Floyd E; Corcelli, Steven A

    2006-10-18

    The viability of alpha-carbon deuterated bonds (Calpha-D) as infrared (IR) probes of protein backbone dynamics was explored through a combination of experiment and theory. alpha-Carbon deuterated alanine (Ala-d1) served as a convenient model system for a comparison of experiment, density functional theory (DFT), and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations of the Calpha-D IR line shape. In addition to the primary Calpha-D absorption, the experimental spectrum contains three features that likely result from Fermi resonances. DFT calculations supported the assignments and identified the lower frequency modes participating in the Fermi resonances. A QM/MM simulation of the Ala-d1 line shape was in qualitative agreement with the experiment, including the presence of classical analogues of Fermi resonances. These studies demonstrated that the Calpha-D line shape is sensitive, via Fermi resonances, to lower frequency collective vibrations that are expected to play a role in protein dynamics and function, and that the QM/MM approach, which is applicable to proteins, is capable of aiding in their interpretation.

  15. THE DIFFERENCE IN NARROW Fe K{alpha} LINE EMISSION BETWEEN SEYFERT 1 AND SEYFERT 2 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Teng; Wang Junxian E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.c

    2010-12-20

    We compile a sample of 89 Seyfert galaxies with both [O IV] 25.89 {mu}m line luminosities observed by Spitzer IRS and X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton EPIC. Using [O IV] emission as a proxy for active galactic nucleus (AGN) intrinsic luminosity, we find that although type 2 AGNs have higher line equivalent widths, the narrow Fe K{alpha} lines in Compton-thin and Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies are 2.9{sup +0.8}{sub -0.6} and 5.6{sup +1.9}{sub -1.4} times weaker in terms of luminosity than Seyfert 1 galaxies, respectively. This indicates that different correction factors need to be applied for various types of AGNs before the narrow Fe K{alpha} line luminosity could serve as an intrinsic AGN luminosity indicator. We also find that Seyfert 1 galaxies in our sample have on average marginally larger line widths and higher line centroid energies, suggesting contamination from highly ionized Fe line or broader line emission from much smaller radius, but this effect is too weak to explain the large difference in narrow Fe K{alpha} line luminosity between type 1 and type 2 AGNs. This is the first observational evidence showing that the narrow Fe K{alpha} line emission in AGNs is anisotropic. The observed difference is consistent with theoretical calculations assuming a smoothly distributed obscuring torus and could provide independent constraints on the clumpiness of the torus.

  16. Pharmacological profiles of a novel alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, PNO-49B, at alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, I; Ohmura, T; Kigoshi, S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of a newly synthesized compound, PNO-49B, (R)-(-)-3'-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-4'-fluoromethanesulfonanilide hydrochloride, on alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes were examined in various tissues in which the following distribution of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes has been suggested: dog carotid artery (alpha 1B), dog mesenteric artery (alpha 1N), rabbit thoracic aorta (alpha 1B + alpha 1L), rat liver (alpha 1B), rat vas deferens (alpha 1A + alpha 1L), rat cerebral cortex (alpha 1A + alpha 1B) and rat thoracic aorta (controversial subtype). PNO-49B (0.1-100 microM) produced concentration-dependent contractions in dog mesenteric artery, rabbit thoracic aorta, rat thoracic aorta and rat vas deferens; and the maximal amplitudes of contraction were almost the same as or slightly less than those of noradrenaline. By contrast, the maximal response to PNO-49B in dog carotid artery was markedly smaller than the response to noradrenaline. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the contractile response to PNO-49B was not affected by inactivation of the alpha 1B subtype with chloroethylclonidine (CEC), although the response to noradrenaline was attenuated by that treatment. The dissociation constants (KA) of PNO-49B were not different among the rat thoracic aorta, dog carotid and mesenteric arteries and rabbit thoracic aorta (CEC-pretreated). The contractile responses to PNO-49B were inhibited competitively by prazosin, HV723 (alpha-ethyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-alpha-(3-((2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-ethyl)- amino(propyl)benzeneacetonitrile fumarate) and by WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4- benzodioxane).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Calibration of H-alpha/H-beta Indexes for Emission Line Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Joner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    In Joner and Hintz (2015) they report on a standard star system for calibration of H-alpha and H-beta observations. This work was based on data obtained with the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1.2-m telescope. As part of the data acquisition for that project, a large number of emission line objects were also observed. We will report on the preliminary results for the emission line data set. This will include a comparison of equivalent width measurements of each line with the matching index. We will also examine the relation between the absorption line objects previously published and the emission line objects, along with a discussion of the transition point. Object types included are Be stars, high mass x-ray binaries, one low mass x-ray binary, Herbig Ae/Be stars, pre-main sequence stars, T Tauri stars, young stellar objects, and one BY Draconis star. Some of these objects come from Cygnus OB-2, NGC 659, NGC 663, NGC 869 and NGC 884.

  18. Alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on a platelet precursor cell line, HEL

    SciTech Connect

    McKernan, R.M.; Motulsky, H.J.; Rozansky, D.; Insel, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have identified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on human erythroleukemia HEL cells, a suspension-growing, bone-marrow-derived cell line related to human platelets. Intact HEL cells were studied using radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays. The authors identified saturable specific binding of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonist (/sup 3/H)yohimbine (yoh) in cells incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 1 hr (B/sub max/ 5900 +/- 2100 sites/cell, K/sub d/ 3.6 +/- 0.9 nM, n = 7). Competition for (/sup 3/H)yoh binding sites with antagonists confirmed that these sites were similar to human ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors from platelets and other resources, as typified by their high affinity for WY-26392, yohimbine and idazoxan, and very low affinity for prazosin. Studies at 37/sup 0/C revealed a low affinity of these sites for catecholamines (K/sub i/ for (-)-epinephrine, 21 ..mu..M; (-)-norepinephrine, 45 ..mu..M, (+)-epinephrine, 80 ..mu..M). When experiments were conducted at 4 /sup 0/C, (-)-epinephrine was able to compete for only 50-60% of the sites specifically labelled by (/sup 3/H)yoh at 37/sup 0/, but (-)-epinephrine had an approximately 10-fold greater affinity for these sites (K/sub i/ at 4 /sup 0/C = 2.4 ..mu..M). In addition, epinephrine inhibited cAMP accumulation stimulated by forskolin and PGE/sub 1/ in HEL cells; this response was inhibited by pertussis toxin. The authors conclude that HEL cells possess ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors linked to G/sub i/ and thus should serve as a useful model to explore metabolism and regulation of these receptors in human cells.

  19. First Detection of a Foreground Damped Ly-Alpha Absorber Along a GRB Line of Sight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Fruchter, A. S.; Pian, E.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaper, L.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N.; Frontera, F.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a VLT spectrum of the optical afterglow of GRB 991216, taken 1.5 days after the burst, and HST (Hubble Space Telescope) imaging of the host galaxy, obtained four months later. The spectrum contains three metal absorption-line systems with redshifts z = 1.024, z = 0.803, and z = 0.771, where the highest redshift most likely reflects the distance to the host galaxy. For the z = 1.024 and z = 0.803 systems we tentatively detect MgI which suggests a dense environment at these redshifts. This and the strength of the z = 0.803 Fe lines indicate that this system very likely is a damped Ly-alpha absorber (DLA), which would be the first foreground DLA to be detected along a GRB afterglow sight line. The HST images are consistent with these findings: they show two blobs of light, one underneath the projected OT position, the presumed host galaxy, and the other 0.6" away, which is probably responsible for the absorption lines at z = 0.803. The lowest redshift system can be explained by either one of the two galaxies that are located roughly 2" away from the transient. Including these newly found systems, the total number of DLAS and Lyman limit systems along GRB afterglow sight lines is consistent with the number expected from QSO (quasi-stellar object) absorption line studies. We expect early spectroscopy of GRB afterglows to significantly increase the number of detected foreground absorption systems, and we discuss some advantages over QSO lines of sight.

  20. Non-LTE profiles of the Al I autoionization lines. [for solar model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, G. D.; Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    A non-LTE formulation is given for the transfer of radiation in the autoionizing lines of neutral aluminum at 1932 and 1936 A through both the Bilderberg and Harvard-Smithsonian model atmospheres. Numerical solutions for the common source function of these lines and their theoretical line profiles are calculated and compared with the corresponding LTE profiles. The results show that the non-LTE profiles provide a better match with the observations. They also indicate that the continuous opacity of the standard solar models should be increased in this wavelength region if the center-limb variations of observed and theoretical profiles of these lines are to be in reasonable agreement.

  1. Brain blood vessel segmentation using line-shaped profiles.

    PubMed

    Babin, Danilo; Pižurica, Aleksandra; De Vylder, Jonas; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried

    2013-11-21

    Segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, especially for embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In order to perform embolization of the AVM, the structural and geometric information of blood vessels from 3D images is of utmost importance. For this reason, the in-depth segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is usually done as a fusion of different segmentation techniques, often requiring extensive user interaction. In this paper we introduce the idea of line-shaped profiling with an application to brain blood vessel and AVM segmentation, efficient both in terms of resolving details and in terms of computation time. Our method takes into account both local proximate and wider neighbourhood of the processed pixel, which makes it efficient for segmenting large blood vessel tree structures, as well as fine structures of the AVMs. Another advantage of our method is that it requires selection of only one parameter to perform segmentation, yielding very little user interaction.

  2. Brain blood vessel segmentation using line-shaped profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Danilo; Pižurica, Aleksandra; De Vylder, Jonas; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, especially for embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In order to perform embolization of the AVM, the structural and geometric information of blood vessels from 3D images is of utmost importance. For this reason, the in-depth segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is usually done as a fusion of different segmentation techniques, often requiring extensive user interaction. In this paper we introduce the idea of line-shaped profiling with an application to brain blood vessel and AVM segmentation, efficient both in terms of resolving details and in terms of computation time. Our method takes into account both local proximate and wider neighbourhood of the processed pixel, which makes it efficient for segmenting large blood vessel tree structures, as well as fine structures of the AVMs. Another advantage of our method is that it requires selection of only one parameter to perform segmentation, yielding very little user interaction.

  3. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  4. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee; Okamura, Sadanori

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including H{alpha} on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Ly{alpha} line, {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}}, and LIS absorption lines, {Delta}v {sub abs}, with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z {approx} 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} = 175 {+-} 35 km s{sup -1}, which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}. The stacked FUV spectrum gives {Delta}v {sub abs} = -179 {+-} 73 km s{sup -1}, comparable to that of LBGs. These positive {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} and negative {Delta}v {sub abs} suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} is as small as |{Delta}v {sub abs}|, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Ly{alpha} emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) and {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Ly{alpha} transmissivity may need to be revised.

  5. DNA methylation profiles in the human genes for tumor necrosis factors. alpha. and. beta. in subpopulations of leukocytes and in leukemias

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, S.; Radbruch, A.; Tesch, H.; Renz, D.; Doerfler, W. )

    1991-07-01

    The genomic sequencing technique has been applied to assess the state of methylation in the DNA from human leukocyte subpopulations from healthy individuals and in the DNA from several individuals with myeloid or lymphatic leukemias or non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Leukocyte populations were purified by the high-gradient magnetic cell sorting technique. In the human tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) gene segment between nucleotides 300 and 1150, the specific methylation profile in the DNA from human granulocytes and monocytes is maintained in three cases of myeloid leukemia. In the TNF-{beta} gene, DNA methylation is decreased in several examples of acute or chronic myeloid leukemias in comparison to normal human granulocytes or monocytes, whose DNA is almost completely methylated between nucleotides 700 and 900. In human T and B lymphocytes, the main producers of TNF-{beta}, in three instances of chronic lymphatic leukemias and two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, all 5{prime}-CG-3{prime} sequences are unmethylated in this region. The DNA from the human HeLa cell line is highly methylated at all 5{prime}-CG-3{prime} sequences in the TNF-{alpha} and -{beta} genes. The TNF-{alpha} gene is transcribed in the cells of one case of acute myeloid leukemia in which the analyzed region of the TNF-{alpha} gene is completely unmethylated. The TNF-{beta} gene is not transcribed in any of the malignant cells tested.

  6. Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B receptors in the OK cell, an opossum kidney cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B (5HT{sub 1B}) receptors, both negatively-coupled to adenylyl cyclase, were characterized in the OK cell line, a renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line derived from the kidney of a North American opossum. In membrane saturation radioligand binding experiments, ({sup 3}H)yohimbine and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine labeled an equivalent number of binding sites. Detailed pharmacological analysis of OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in competition binding assays indicate this receptor is neither an alpha-2A nor an alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtype, although the alpha-2B receptor subtype-selective drugs prazosin, ARC-239 and chlorpromazine have affinities for OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors similar to those at the alpha-2B receptor subtype. Determinations of agonist potency for inhibition of PTH-stimulated cyclic AMP production and radioligand binding analysis using ({sup 125}I)({minus})-cyanopindolol indicate that a 5HT{sub 1B} receptor is expressed in the OK cell line. A biochemical effector system coupled to this receptor subtype has not been previously described. Several compounds appear to be potent agonists at the 5TH{sub 1B} receptor including the beta adrenergic antagonists cyanopindolol, pindolol, propranolol and alprenolol.

  7. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on oxidative status and metabolic profile in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Ble-Castillo, J L; Cleva-Villanueva, G; Díaz-Zagoya, J C; Medina-Santillán, R; Rubio-Arias, H O; Méndez, J D

    2007-12-01

    Despite extensive research, the effects of alpha-tocopherol supplementation remain controversial. Few studies have been focused on obese and overweight people. We examined the effects of alpha-tocopherol (AT) on the oxidative status and metabolic profile in overweight women. Sixteen overweight women between the ages of 40-60 years old, received AT, 800 IU/day during 12 weeks, followed by a 6-week washout period. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and then every 6 weeks until the end of the study. AT, retinol, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were quantified to evaluate the oxidative stress. The metabolic profile was estimated by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in erythrocytes and glucose, phosphate, magnesium, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in serum. Under AT administration HbA1c, serum- MDA levels and erythrocyte GPx activity were markedly reduced. TAS, AT and Mg2+ concentrations in serum and SOD activity in erythrocytes were higher after AT treatment. Body weight; glucose, lipid and retinol concentrations, or blood cells count were unchanged. Lipid peroxidation was considerably reduced in AT treated women and also improved serum antioxidant status was observed, but the imbalanced response between erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities could affect normal response to oxidative stress.

  8. TRIM32 promotes retinoic acid receptor {alpha}-mediated differentiation in human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomonobu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 enhanced RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 stabilized RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells induced granulocytic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 may function as a coactivator for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in APL cells. -- Abstract: Ubiquitination, one of the posttranslational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (RAR{alpha}). We previously reported that an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32, interacts with several important proteins including RAR{alpha} and enhances transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha} in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA), which acts as a ligand to nuclear receptors including RAR{alpha}, plays crucial roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and apoptosis. In this study, we found that TRIM32 enhances RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA and stabilizes RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Moreover, we found that overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells suppresses cellular proliferation and induces granulocytic differentiation even in the absence of RA. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the coactivators for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL) cells, and thus TRIM32 may become a potentially therapeutic target for APL.

  9. Evolution of Iron K Alpha Line Emission in the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y. X.; Zhang, S. N.; Sun, X.; Durouchoux, Ph.; Chen, Wan; Cui, Wei

    2001-01-01

    GX 339-4 was regularly monitored with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer during a period (in 1999) when its X-ray flux decreased significantly (from 4.26 x 10(exp -10) to 7.6 x 10(exp -12) ergs in the 3-20 keV band), as the source settled into the 'off state.' Our spectral analysis revealed the presence of a prominent iron K alpha line in the observed spectrum of the source for all observations. The line shows an interesting evolution: it is centered at approx. 6.4 keV when the measured flux is above 5 x 10(exp -1) ergs per sq cm/s but is shifted to approx. 6.7 keV at lower fluxes. The equivalent width of the line appears to increase significantly toward lower fluxes, although it is likely to be sensitive to calibration uncertainties. While the fluorescent emission of neutral or mildly ionized iron atoms in the accretion disk can perhaps account for the 6.4 keV line, as is often invoked for black hole candidates, it seems difficult to understand the 6.7 keV line with this mechanism because the disk should be less ionized at lower fluxes (unless its density changes drastically). On the other hand, the 6.7 keV line might be due to a recombination cascade of hydrogen- or helium-like iron ions in an optically thin, highly ionized plasma. We discuss the results in the context of proposed accretion models.

  10. Alpha1-antichymotrypsin induces TNF-alpha production and NF-kappaB activation in the murine N9 microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Braghin, Elisa; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Bresolin, Nereo; Baron, Pierluigi

    2009-12-18

    Microglia are known to accumulate in senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) together with a set of proteins including alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACT). To investigate the biological effects of the interaction between ACT and microglia, we examined cytokine production by the murine N9 microglial cell line after ACT treatment. Real-time PCR analysis and specific immunoassays demonstrate that ACT triggers mRNA expression and release of TNF-alpha by N9 microglial cells. Furthermore, we show that ACT induces a significant increase in NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ACT might contribute to the inflammatory mechanisms present in AD senile plaques.

  11. Exploring the Galactic Damped Lyman alpha Absorber with Antipodal Sight Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Charles

    2011-10-01

    Damped Lya Absorbers {DLAs} are the highest column density systems seen in the spectra of distant quasars. Some DLAs are thought to represent absorption from gas associated with an intervening galaxy disks, halo, tidal tail, etc., along the line of sight and DLAs are a key method of studying star formation, metal abundances, and kinematics at high redshift. These systems are exceedingly rare at low-z where the intervening galaxies can be studied in detail, so the precise nature of these important diagnostics remains poorly-understood. However, there is one DLA present along every extragalactic sight line which we can study in exhaustive detail: the Milky Way DLA! We propose a study of sight lines through the Galactic DLA using archival far-UV spectra from STIS, COS, and GHRS. We will construct 30-40 full-DLA profiles for the Milky Way DLA by combining the absorption spectra of pairs of nearly-antipodal sight lines {within 20 degrees of antipodal}. This will allow us to sample a realistic distribution of physical conditions in a system exhibiting realistic kinematics. Our DLA profiles will intersect the Galaxy at a range of angles and probe a variety of Galactic structures - high-velocity clouds, tidal tails, possible outflows, etc. - the same features which are inferred but rarely confirmed in some external DLAs. This diversity of sight lines through the same galaxy will let us determine if the wide range of observed properties in external DLAs {column density, velocity dispersion, abundances, etc.} could be an effect of the precise details of the line of sight or is inherent to the population of DLA hosts.

  12. A catalog of early-type emission-line stars and Hα line profiles from LAMOST DR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wen; Luo, A.-Li; Hu, Jing-Yao; Yang, Hai-Feng; Du, Chang-De; Liu, Chao; Lee, Chien-De; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Zi-Huang; Hou, Yong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    We present a catalog including 11 204 spectra of 10 436 early-type emission-line stars from LAMOST DR2, among which 9752 early-type emission-line spectra are newly discovered. For these early-type emission-line stars, we discuss the morphological and physical properties of their low-resolution spectra. In this spectral sample, the Hα emission profiles display a wide variety of shapes. Based on the Hα line profiles, these spectra are categorized into five distinct classes: single-peak emission, single-peak emission in absorption, double-peak emission, double-peak emission in absorption, and P-Cygni profiles. To better understand what causes the Hα line profiles, we divide these objects into four types from the perspective of physical classification, which include classical Be stars, Herbig Ae/Be stars, close binaries and spectra contaminated by HΠ regions. The majority of Herbig Ae/Be stars and classical Be stars are identified and separated using a (H-K, K-W1) color-color diagram. We also discuss 31 binary systems that are listed in the SIMBAD on-line catalog and identify 3600 spectra contaminated by HΠ regions after cross-matching with positions in the Dubout-Crillon catalog. A statistical analysis of line profiles versus classifications is then conducted in order to understand the distribution of Hα profiles for each type in our sample. Finally, we also provide a table of 172 spectra with Fe Π emission lines and roughly calculate stellar wind velocities for seven spectra with P-Cygni profiles.

  13. Effect of a progressive sound wave on the profiles of spectral lines. 2: Asymmetry of faint Fraunhofer lines. [absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostyk, R. I.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficient profile was calculated for lines of different chemical elements in a medium with progressive sound waves. Calculations show that (1) the degree and direction of asymmetry depend on the atomic ionization potential and the potential of lower level excitation of the individual line; (2) the degree of asymmetry of a line decreases from the center toward the limb of the solar disc; and (3) turbulent motions 'suppress' the asymmetry.

  14. Identification of cDNA encoding an additional. alpha. subunit of a human GTP-binding protein: Expression of three. alpha. sub i subtypes in human tissues and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Ang, S.L.; Bloch, D.B.; Bloch, K.D.; Kawahara, Y.; Tolman, C.; Lee, R.; Seidman, J.G.; Neer, E.J. )

    1988-06-01

    The guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which mediate hormonal regulation of many membrane functions, are composed of {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits. The authors have cloned and characterized cDNA from a human T-cell library encoding a form of {alpha}{sub i} that is different from the human {alpha}{sub i} subtypes previously reported. {alpha}{sub i} is the {alpha} subunit of a class of G proteins that inhibits adenylate cyclase and regulates other enzymes and ion channels. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 354 amino acids and is assigned to encode the {alpha}{sub i-3} subtype of G proteins on the basis of its similarity to other {alpha}{sub i}-like cDNAs and the presence of a predicted site for ADP ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They have determined the expression of mRNA for this and two other subtypes of human {alpha}{sub i} ({alpha}{sub i-1} and {alpha}{sub i-2}) in a variety of human fetal tissues and in human cell lines. All three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes were present in the tissues tested. However, analysis of individual cell types reveals specificity of {alpha}{sub i-1} expression. mRNA for {alpha}{i-1} is absent in T cells, B cells, and monocytes but is present in other cell lines. The finding of differential expression of {alpha}{sub i-1} genes may permit characterization of distinct physiological roles for this {alpha}{sub i} subunit. mRNA for {alpha}{sub i-2} and {alpha}{sub i-3} was found in all the primary and transformed cell lines tested. Thus, some cells contain all three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes. This observation raises the question of how cells prevent cross talk among receptors that are coupled to effectors through such similar {alpha} proteins.

  15. Comparing the H-alpha Intensity and Radio Wave Scattering on Eight Low-Latitude Lines of Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, J. H.; Dennison, B.; Topasna, G. A.

    1995-12-01

    Spangler and Reynolds compared H-alpha intensities, measured using the Wisconsin Fabry-Perot interferometer, with radio-wave scattering sizes of eight extragalactic sources along low-latitiude lines of sight. They find that some correlation exists between scattering and H-alpha intensity, as one might expect. However, the H-alpha observations were made with a 50(') beam size; higher resolution observations might provide a more accurate measure of the intensity along the scattering line of sight. We made sensitive, arcminute resolution H-alpha images of the same fields to upgrade the accuracy of their results. We find that many of their measured H-alpha intensities are accurate, but some of the higher intensities are biased upward by the presence of clumped emission. Appropriate reduction of these large intensities increases the degree of correlation between scattering and H-alpha intensity, thus strengthening their original conclusions. This work is a first step towards using our spectral-line imaging system for a more extensive study of the relationship between the warm ionized medium and scattering of radio waves. This research was supported by NSF grant AST-9319670 and a grant from the Horton Foundation to Virginia Tech.

  16. Lipidomic profiling in mouse brain reveals differences between ages and genders, with smaller changes associated with alpha-synuclein genotype.

    PubMed

    Rappley, Irit; Myers, David S; Milne, Stephen B; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Lavoie, Matthew J; Brown, H Alex; Selkoe, Dennis J

    2009-10-01

    Advances in lipidomics technology have facilitated the precise detection, identification and profiling of lipid species within tissues. Mass spectrometry allows for identification of lipids as a function of the total number of carbons and double bonds in their acyl chains. Such detailed descriptions of lipid composition can provide a basis for further investigation of cell signaling and metabolic pathways, both physiological and pathological. Here, we applied phospholipid profiling to mouse models relevant to Parkinson's disease, using mice that were transgenic for human alpha-synuclein (alphaSyn) or deleted of endogenous alphaSyn. Proposed functions of alphaSyn include phospholipid binding, regulation of membrane composition, and regulation of vesicular pools. We investigated whether alphaSyn gene dosage interacts with differences in phospholipid composition across brain regions or with age-related changes in brain phospholipid composition. The most dramatic phospholipid changes were observed in alphaSyn wild-type animals as a function of age and gender. alphaSyn genotype-specific changes were also observed in aged, but not young, mice. Our results provide a detailed and systematic characterization of brain phospholipid composition in mice and identify age-related changes relevant both to Parkinson's disease and to normal aging.

  17. The blueshifted Pa alpha broad line component and the origin of strong iron emission in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 07598+6508

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawara, Kimiaki; Murayama, Takashi; Sato, Yasunori

    1994-01-01

    We present the Pa alpha emission profile of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULFIRG) IRAS 07598+6508 which is an unusually strong Fe II emitter in the optical. The Pa alpha emission line profile shows a blueshifted broad component (FWHM approximately equal to 3900 km/sec) together with a narrow core (FWHM less than or equal to 530 km/sec). The presence of the broad line component strongly suggests that IRAS 07598+6508 has an active galactic nucleus, supporting a scenario of merger-induced quasar formation proposed by Sanders et al. (1988), although we cannot rule out the possibility of a supernova-driven high speed wind. Possible detection of (Fe II) 1.893 micrometer emission is also reported. It is shown that strong Fe II emitters such as IRAS 07598+6508 have intermediate IRAS color properties between normal quasars and cold ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We thus suggest an evolutionary link from cold ULFIRG through warm ULFIRG and Fe II ULFIRG to quasars.

  18. Analysis of magnesium XI line profiles from solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, R. L.; Cowan, R. D.; Felthauser, H.; Fenimore, E. E.; Hockaday, M. P.; Bely-Dubau, F.; Faucher, P.; Steenman-Clark, L.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution solar spectra of the Mg XI 1s2 1S0-1s2p 1P1 resonance line at 9.169 A and the associated nearby satellite lines obtained from two rocket-borne crystal spectrometer measurements are presented. Comparisons with two independent sets of theoretical calculations for the 1s2nl-1s2pnl dielectronic satellite lines with n = 3-7 indicate electron temperatures of 4-4.5 million K. Measured line widths indicate either that the ion temperature exceeds the electron temperature by about a million K or that about 28 km/s of turbulence is present.

  19. Comparative gene expression profiles induced by PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Renaud, Marie Pierre; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, Andre; Spire, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists between rodent and human liver. PPAR{alpha} agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPAR{gamma} agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPAR{alpha} agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes induced by PPAR{gamma} and dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24 h treatment with two PPAR{gamma} (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPAR{alpha} targets were also modulated by both PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes.

  20. Modulation of proteomic profile in H295R adrenocortical cell line induced by mitotane.

    PubMed

    Stigliano, A; Cerquetti, L; Borro, M; Gentile, G; Bucci, B; Misiti, S; Piergrossi, P; Brunetti, E; Simmaco, M; Toscano, V

    2008-03-01

    Mitotane, 1,1-dichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chloro-phenyl) ethane (o,p'-DDD), is a compound that represents the effective agent in the treatment of the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), able to block cortisol synthesis. In this type of cancer, the biological mechanism induced by this treatment remains still unknown. In this study, we have already shown a greater impairment in the first steps of the steroidogenesis and recognized a little effect on cell cycle. We also evaluated the variation of proteomic profile of the H295R ACC cell line, either in total cell extract or in mitochondria-enriched fraction after treatment with mitotane. In total cell extracts, triose phosphate isomerase, alpha-enolase, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, peroxiredoxin II and VI, heat shock protein 27, prohibitin, histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein, and profilin-1 showed a different expression. In the mitochondrial fraction, the following proteins appeared to be down regulated: aldolase A, peroxiredoxin I, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, tubulin-beta isoform II, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, and nucleotide diphosphate kinase, whereas adrenodoxin reductase, cathepsin D, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A were positively up-regulated. This study represents the first proteomic study on the mitotane effects on ACC. It permits to identify some protein classes affected by the drug involved in energetic metabolism, stress response, cytoskeleton structure, and tumorigenesis.

  1. Lipidomic profile of GM95 cell death induced by Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin.

    PubMed

    Manni, Marco M; Valero, Juan G; Pérez-Cormenzana, Miriam; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Goñi, Félix M

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (ATX) is considered as a prototype of cytotoxic bacterial phospholipases C, and is the major virulence factor in C. perfringens-induced gas gangrene. It is known that, depending on the dose, ATX causes membrane disruption and cytolysis or only limited hydrolysis of its substrates. In the latter case, toxin activity leads to the unregulated generation of bioactive lipids that can ultimately induce cell death. We have characterized apoptosis and necrosis in highly ATX-sensitive, ganglioside-deficient cells exposed to different concentrations of ATX and we have studied the lipidomic profile of cells treated with ATX as compared to native cells to detect the main changes in the lipidomic profile and the possible involvement of lipid signals in cell death. ATX causes both apoptosis and necrosis, depending on dose and time. ATX activates cell death, stimulating the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and the consequent activation of caspases-3. Moreover GM95 cells treated with ATX showed important lipidomic alterations, among them we detected a general decrease in several phospholipid species and important changes in lipids involved in programmed cell death e.g. ceramide. The data suggest two different mechanisms of cell death caused by ATX, one leading to (mainly saturated) glycerophospholipid hydrolysis related to an increase in diacylglycerols and associated to membrane damage and necrosis, and a second mechanism involving chiefly sphingomyelin hydrolysis and generation of proapoptotic lipidic mediators such as ceramide, N-acylethanolamine and saturated non-esterified fatty acids.

  2. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  3. Measurements of neutral density profiles using a deuterium Balmer-alpha diagnostic in the C-2 FRC plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Deng, B. H.; Knapp, K.; Sun, X.; Thompson, M. C.

    2012-10-15

    In C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) device, low neutral density outside the FRC separatrix is required to minimize the charge exchange loss of fast particles. Titanium gettering is used in C-2 to reduce the wall recycling and keep the neutral density low in plasma edge. The measurements of neutral density radial profile are desirable to understand the plasma recycling and the effects of titanium gettering. These measurements are also needed to study the interaction of neutral beams with FRC plasma and confinement of fast ions. Diagnostic based on absolute deuterium Balmer-alpha (D-alpha) radiation measurements is developed and deployed on C-2 device to measure the radial profile of neutral density. Simultaneous measurements of electron density and temperature are done using CO{sub 2} interferometer, Thomson scattering, and triple probes diagnostics along with absolute D-alpha radiation. Abel inversion was performed to get the time dependent radial profile of the local D-alpha emission density. Neutral density profiles are obtained under different machine conditions of titanium deposition.

  4. Diurnal profiles of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase change across the adult lifespan: evidence from repeated daily life assessments.

    PubMed

    Nater, Urs M; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Scott, Stacey B

    2013-12-01

    Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase are known to have distinctive diurnal profiles. However, little is known about systematic changes in these biomarkers across the adult lifespan. In a study of 185 participants (aged 20-81 years), time-stamped salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were collected 7 times/day over 10 days. Samples were taken upon waking, 30 min later, and then approximately every 3 h until 9 pm. Multilevel models showed that older age was associated with increased daily cortisol secretion as indicated by greater area under the curve, attenuated wake-evening slopes, and more pronounced cortisol awakening responses. Further, older age was related to greater daily alpha-amylase output and attenuated wake-evening slopes. No age differences were observed regarding the alpha-amylase awakening response. Our findings may contribute to a better understanding of age-related differences in functioning of stress-related systems.

  5. Reaching Higher Densities for Laboratory White Dwarf Photospheres to Measure Spectroscopic Line Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, R. E.; Bailey, J. E.; Gomez, T. A.; Schaeuble, M.; Nagayama, T.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Rochau, G. A.

    2017-03-01

    As part of our laboratory investigation of the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf atmosphere models, we extend the electron-density (ne) range measured by our experiments to higher densities (up to ne ˜80×1016 cm-3). Whereas inferred parameters using the hydrogen-β spectral line agree among different line-shape models for ne≲ 30×1016 cm–3, we now see divergence between models. These are densities beyond the range previously benchmarked in the laboratory, meaning theoretical profiles in this regime have not been fully validated. Experimentally exploring these higher densities enables us to test and constrain different line-profile models, as the differences in their relative H-Balmer line shapes are more pronounced at such conditions. These experiments also aid in our study of occupation probabilities because we can measure these from relative line strengths.

  6. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in beit alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  7. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  8. Theoretical effect of various broadening parameters on ultraviolet line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peytremann, E.

    1972-01-01

    The relative importance of various damping parameters in ultraviolet lines under conditions of normal stellar atmospheres are studied. It is found that the damping by electron collisions is always much smaller than either the radiative or the classical damping, except for lines that arise from high excitation levels and do not therefore develop strong damping wings. A damping constant equal to 10 times the classical value is always much too large when compared to the more realistic (electron + radiative) damping.

  9. Transcriptomic profiling of 39 commonly-used neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Harenza, Jo Lynne; Diamond, Maura A; Adams, Rebecca N; Song, Michael M; Davidson, Heather L; Hart, Lori S; Dent, Maiah H; Fortina, Paolo; Reynolds, C Patrick; Maris, John M

    2017-03-28

    Neuroblastoma cell lines are an important and cost-effective model used to study oncogenic drivers of the disease. While many of these cell lines have been previously characterized with SNP, methylation, and/or mRNA expression microarrays, there has not been an effort to comprehensively sequence these cell lines. Here, we present raw whole transcriptome data generated by RNA sequencing of 39 commonly-used neuroblastoma cell lines. These data can be used to perform differential expression analysis based on a genetic aberration or phenotype in neuroblastoma (e.g., MYCN amplification status, ALK mutation status, chromosome arm 1p, 11q and/or 17q status, sensitivity to pharmacologic perturbation). Additionally, we designed this experiment to enable structural variant and/or long-noncoding RNA analysis across these cell lines. Finally, as more DNase/ATAC and histone/transcription factor ChIP sequencing is performed in these cell lines, our RNA-Seq data will be an important complement to inform transcriptional targets as well as regulatory (enhancer or repressor) elements in neuroblastoma.

  10. Transcriptomic profiling of 39 commonly-used neuroblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Harenza, Jo Lynne; Diamond, Maura A.; Adams, Rebecca N.; Song, Michael M.; Davidson, Heather L.; Hart, Lori S.; Dent, Maiah H.; Fortina, Paolo; Reynolds, C. Patrick; Maris, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma cell lines are an important and cost-effective model used to study oncogenic drivers of the disease. While many of these cell lines have been previously characterized with SNP, methylation, and/or mRNA expression microarrays, there has not been an effort to comprehensively sequence these cell lines. Here, we present raw whole transcriptome data generated by RNA sequencing of 39 commonly-used neuroblastoma cell lines. These data can be used to perform differential expression analysis based on a genetic aberration or phenotype in neuroblastoma (e.g., MYCN amplification status, ALK mutation status, chromosome arm 1p, 11q and/or 17q status, sensitivity to pharmacologic perturbation). Additionally, we designed this experiment to enable structural variant and/or long-noncoding RNA analysis across these cell lines. Finally, as more DNase/ATAC and histone/transcription factor ChIP sequencing is performed in these cell lines, our RNA-Seq data will be an important complement to inform transcriptional targets as well as regulatory (enhancer or repressor) elements in neuroblastoma. PMID:28350380

  11. Recommended Isolated-Line Profile for Representing High-Resolution Spectroscoscopic Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, J.; Bernath, P. F.; Campargue, A.; Császár, A. G.; Daumont, L.; Gamache, R. R.; Hodges, J. T.; Lisak, D.; Naumenko, O. V.; Rothman, L. S.; Tran, H.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Zobov, N. F.; Buldyreva, J.; Boone, C. D.; De Vizia, M. Domenica; Gianfrani, L.; McPheat, R.; Weidmann, D.; Murray, J.; Ngo, N. H.; Polyansky, O. L.

    2014-06-01

    Recommendations of an IUPAC Task Group, formed in 2011 on "Intensities and line shapes in high-resolution spectra of water isotopologues from experiment and theory" (Project No. 2011-022-2-100), on line profiles of isolated high-resolution rotational-vibrational transitions perturbed by neutral gas-phase molecules are presented. The well-documented inadequacies of the Voigt profile, used almost universally by databases and radiative-transfer codes to represent pressure effects and Doppler broadening in isolated vibrational-rotational and pure rotational transitions of the water molecule, have resulted in the development of a variety of alternative line profile models. These models capture more of the physics of the influence of pressure on line shapes but, in general, at the price of greater complexity. The Task Group recommends that the partially-Correlated quadratic-Speed-Dependent Hard-Collision profile should be adopted as the appropriate model for high-resolution spectroscopy. For simplicity this should be called the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP). This profile is sophisticated enough to capture the various collisional contributions to the isolated line shape, can be computed in a straightforward and rapid manner, and reduces to simpler profiles, including the Voigt profile, under certain simplifying assumptions. For further details see: J. Tennyson et al, Pure Appl. Chem., 2014, in press.

  12. Distinct profiles of alpha7 nAChR positive allosteric modulation revealed by structurally diverse chemotypes.

    PubMed

    Grønlien, Jens Halvard; Håkerud, Monika; Ween, Hilde; Thorin-Hagene, Kirsten; Briggs, Clark A; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Malysz, John

    2007-09-01

    Selective modulation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is thought to regulate processes impaired in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias. One approach to target alpha7 nAChRs is by positive allosteric modulation. Structurally diverse compounds, including PNU-120596, 4-naphthalene-1-yl-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3-H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonic acid amide (TQS), and 5-hydroxyindole (5-HI) have been identified as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), but their receptor interactions and pharmacological profiles remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated interactions of these compounds at human alpha7 nAChRs, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, along with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Genistein was found to function as a PAM. Two types of PAM profiles were observed. 5-HI and genistein predominantly affected the apparent peak current (type I) whereas PNU-120596 and TQS increased the apparent peak current and evoked a distinct weakly decaying current (type II). Concentration-responses to agonists [ACh, 3-[(3E)-3-[(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyridin-2-yl]pyridine dihydrochloride (GTS-21), and N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987)] were potentiated by both types, although type II PAMs had greater effects. When applied after alpha7 nAChRs were desensitized, type II, but not type I, PAMs could reactivate alpha7 currents. Both types of PAMs also increased the ACh-evoked alpha7 window currents, with type II PAMs generally showing larger potentiation. None of the PAMs tested increased nicotine-evoked Ca(2+) transients in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing human alpha4beta2 or alpha3beta4 nAChRs, although some inhibition was noted for 5-HI, genistein, and TQS. In summary, our studies reveal two distinct alpha7 PAM profiles, which could offer unique opportunities for modulating alpha7 nAChRs in vivo and in the development of novel

  13. The alpha Centauri Line of Sight: D/H Ratio, Physical Properties of Local Interstellar Gas, and Measurement of Heated Hydrogen (The 'Hydrogen Wall') Near the Heliopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze high-resolution spectra of the nearby (1.34 pc) stars alpha Cen A (G2 V) and alpha Cen B (K1 V), which were obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The observations consist of echelle spectra of the Mg II 2800 A and Fe II 2599 A resonance lines and the Lyman-alpha lines of hydrogen and deuterium. The interstellar gas has a velocity (v = - 18.0 +/- 0.2 km/s) consistent with the local flow vector proposed for this line of sight by Lailement & Berlin (1992). The temperature and nonthermal velocity inferred from the Fe II, Mg II, and D I line profiles are T = 5400 +/- 500 K and xi = 1.20 +/- 0.25 km/s, respectively. However, single-component fits to the H I Lyman-alpha lines yield a Doppler parameter (b(sub HI) = 11.80 km/s) that implies a significantly warmer temperature of 8350 K, and the velocity of the H I absorption (v = - 15.8 +/- 0.2 km/s) is redshifted by about 2.2 km/s with respect to the Fe II, Mg II, and D I lines. The one-component model of the interstellar gas suggests natural logarithm N base HI = 18.03 +/- 0.01 and D/H = (5.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp -6) . These parameters lead to a good fit to the observed spectra, but this model does not explain the higher temperature and redshift of H I relative to the other interstellar lines. The most sensible way to resolve the discrepancy between H(I) and the other lines is to add a second absorption component to the H(I) lines. This second component is hotter (T approx. equals 30,000 K), is redshifted relative to the primary component by 2-4 km/s, and has a column density too low to be detected in the Fe(II), Mg(II), and D(I) lines. We propose that the gas responsible for this component is located near the heliopause, consisting of the heated H I gas from the interstellar medium that is compressed by the solar wind. This so-called 'hydrogen wall' is predicted by recent multifluid gasdynamical models of the interstellar gas and solar wind interaction. Our data

  14. The alpha Centauri Line of Sight: D/H Ratio, Physical Properties of Local Interstellar Gas, and Measurement of Heated Hydrogen (The 'Hydrogen Wall') Near the Heliopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-05-01

    We analyze high-resolution spectra of the nearby (1.34 pc) stars alpha Cen A (G2 V) and alpha Cen B (K1 V), which were obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The observations consist of echelle spectra of the Mg II 2800 A and Fe II 2599 A resonance lines and the Lyman-alpha lines of hydrogen and deuterium. The interstellar gas has a velocity (v = - 18.0 +/- 0.2 km/s) consistent with the local flow vector proposed for this line of sight by Lailement & Berlin (1992). The temperature and nonthermal velocity inferred from the Fe II, Mg II, and D I line profiles are T = 5400 +/- 500 K and xi = 1.20 +/- 0.25 km/s, respectively. However, single-component fits to the H I Lyman-alpha lines yield a Doppler parameter (bHI = 11.80 km/s) that implies a significantly warmer temperature of 8350 K, and the velocity of the H I absorption (v = - 15.8 +/- 0.2 km/s) is redshifted by about 2.2 km/s with respect to the Fe II, Mg II, and D I lines. The one-component model of the interstellar gas suggests natural logarithm N base HI = 18.03 +/- 0.01 and D/H = (5.7 +/- 0.2) x 10-6 . These parameters lead to a good fit to the observed spectra, but this model does not explain the higher temperature and redshift of H I relative to the other interstellar lines. The most sensible way to resolve the discrepancy between H(I) and the other lines is to add a second absorption component to the H(I) lines. This second component is hotter (T approx. equals 30,000 K), is redshifted relative to the primary component by 2-4 km/s, and has a column density too low to be detected in the Fe(II), Mg(II), and D(I) lines. We propose that the gas responsible for this component is located near the heliopause, consisting of the heated H I gas from the interstellar medium that is compressed by the solar wind. This so-called 'hydrogen wall' is predicted by recent multifluid gasdynamical models of the interstellar gas and solar wind interaction. Our data provide the

  15. Spectral line profiles and luminosities of astrophysical water masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1991-01-01

    The spectral line narrowing and rebroadening that occurs for astrophysical masers as a function of the emergent radiative flux is calculated for the prominent, 22 GHz masing transition of water. The increased line breadths due to hyperfine structure lead to reliable, essentially model-independent upper limits to the emergent flux that tend to be lower than other estimates for these masers. For many 22 GHz masers, including the outbursts in W49 and Orion, the observed line breadths are less than 0.9 km/s. For these, the upper limit to the emergent maser flux is 10 to the 10th K-sr when expressed in terms of the brightness temperature and the solid angle for beaming. It is concluded that the extreme brightness of the interstellar water masers is due to a high degree of beaming and not to more effective pumping.

  16. An Analysis of Water Line Profiles in Star Formation Regions Observed by SWAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Plume, Rene; Carpenter, John M.; Neufeld, David A.; Chin, Gordon; Erickson, Neal R.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Harwit, Martin; Howe, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    We present spectral line profiles for the 557 GHz 1(sub 1,0) yields 1(sub 0,1) ground-state rotational transition of ortho-H2(16)O for 18 galactic star formation regions observed by SWAS. 2 Water is unambiguously detected in every source. The line profiles exhibit a wide variety of shapes, including single-peaked spectra and self-reversed profiles. We interpret these profiles using a Monte Carlo code to model the radiative transport. The observed variations in the line profiles can be explained by variations in the relative strengths of the bulk flow and small-scale turbulent motions within the clouds. Bulk flow (infall, outflow) must be present in some cloud cores, and in certain cases this bulk flow dominates the turbulent motions.

  17. [Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Affects U0126-Induced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT116)].

    PubMed

    Ljujic, M; Mijatovic, S; Bulatovic, M Z; Mojic, M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radojkovic, D; Topic, A

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an acute phase protein, is the principal circulatory anti-protease. This multifunctional protein is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. Although AAT was recognised as a potential tumour marker, its role in cancer biology remains unknown. Given that it has been demonstrated that AAT has an anti-apoptotic property against non-malignant cells, we aimed to investigate whether AAT affects apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116). The presence of AAT in the HCT116 cell culture antagonized cytotoxicity of blockers of MEK1/2, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as NF-κB. The dominantly recovered cell viability was observed in the co-treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. In addition, it was revealed that AAT almost completely abolished U0126-induced apoptosis through maintenance of the autophagy process. Our study revealed for the first time that the observed cyto-protection triggered by AAT was accompanied by sustained autophagy which opposed apoptosis. These results may contribute to understanding of the role of AAT in cancer development and evaluation of efficacy of cancer therapy.

  18. Oncogenic mutation profiling in new lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David CL; Luo, Susan Y; Deng, Wen; Kwan, Johnny SH; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Cheung, Annie LM; Cheng, Grace HW; Lin, Chi-Ho; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Sham, Pak C; Wan, Thomas SK; Tsao, Sai-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Background Thoracic tumor, especially lung cancer, ranks as the top cancer mortality in most parts of the world. Lung adenocarcinoma is the predominant subtype and there is increasing knowledge on therapeutic molecular targets, namely EGFR, ALK, KRAS, and ROS1, among lung cancers. Lung cancer cell lines established with known clinical characteristics and molecular profiling of oncogenic targets like ALK or KRAS could be useful tools for understanding the biology of known molecular targets as well as for drug testing and screening. Materials and methods Five new cancer cell lines were established from pleural fluid or biopsy tissues obtained from Chinese patients with primary lung adenocarcinomas or malignant pleural mesothelioma. They were characterized by immunohistochemistry, growth kinetics, tests for tumorigenicity, EGFR and KRAS gene mutations, ALK gene rearrangement and OncoSeq mutation profiling. Results These newly established lung adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma cell lines were maintained for over 100 passages and demonstrated morphological and immunohistochemical features as well as growth kinetics of tumor cell lines. One of these new cell lines bears EML4-ALK rearrangement variant 2, two lung cancer cell lines bear different KRAS mutations at codon 12, and known single nucleotide polymorphism variants were identified in these cell lines. Discussion Four new lung adenocarcinoma and one mesothelioma cell lines were established from patients with different clinical characteristics and oncogenic mutation profiles. These characterized cell lines and their mutation profiles will provide resources for exploration of lung cancer and mesothelioma biology with regard to the presence of known oncogenic mutations. PMID:25653542

  19. Magnetospheric accretion models for T Tauri stars. 1: Balmer line profiles without rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Hewett, Robert; Calvet, Nuria

    1994-01-01

    We argue that the strong emission lines of T Tauri stars are generally produced in infalling envelopes. Simple models of infall constrained to a dipolar magnetic field geometry explain many peculiarities of observed line profiles that are difficult, if not impossible, to reproduce with wind models. Radiative transfer effects explain why certain lines can appear quite symmetric while other lines simultaneously exhibit inverse P Cygni profiles, without recourse to complicated velocity fields. The success of the infall models in accounting for qualitative features of observed line profiles supports the proposal that stellar magnetospheres disrupt disk accretion in T Tauri stars, that true boundary layers are not usually present in T Tauri stars, and that the observed 'blue veiling' emission arises from the base of the magnetospheric accretion column.

  20. Expression Profiling of Cell Lines Expressing Regulated NP2 Transcripts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    EGF in the presence or absence of exogenous HRS . The results will provide a framework fo r the interpretation of future gene expression studies in...e studies require further verification. Small sam- ple size, tissue heterogeneity, and inter-indivi- dual variations among human patients may result ... studies we proposed using gene expression profiling to determine change s in gene expression as a function of expression of the neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2

  1. Cancer cell line identification by short tandem repeat profiling: power and limitations.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Kirchebner, Romana; Mühlmann, Roswitha; Renner, Kathrin; Kofler, Anita; Schmidt, Stefan; Kofler, Reinhard

    2005-03-01

    Cancer cell lines are used worldwide in biological research, and data interpretation depends on unambiguous attribution of the respective cell line to its original source. Short-tandem-repeat (STR) profiling (DNA fingerprinting) is the method of choice for this purpose; however, the genetic stability of cell lines under various experimental conditions is not well defined. We tested the effect of long-term culture, subcloning, and generation of drug-resistant subclones on fingerprinting profiles in four widely used leukemia cell lines. The DNA fingerprinting profile remained unaltered in two of them (U937 and K562) throughout 12 months in culture, and the vast majority of subclones derived therefrom by limiting dilution after long-term culture revealed the same profile, indicating a high degree of stability and clonotypic homogeneity. In contrast, two other cell lines (CCRF-CEM and Jurkat) showed marked alterations in DNA fingerprinting profiles during long-term culture. Limiting dilution subcloning revealed extensive clonotypic heterogeneity with subclones differing in up to eight STR loci from the parental culture. Similar heterogeneity was observed in subclones generated by selection culture for drug resistance where DNA fingerprinting proved useful in identifying possible resistance mechanisms. Thus, common tissue culture procedures may dramatically affect the fingerprinting profile of certain cell lines and thus render definition of their origin difficult.

  2. Protein profiling of mouse livers with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ruiyin; Lim, Hanjo; Brumfield, Laura; Liu, Hong; Herring, Chris; Ulintz, Peter; Reddy, Janardan K; Davison, Matthew

    2004-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is important in the induction of cell-specific pleiotropic responses, including the development of liver tumors, when it is chronically activated by structurally diverse synthetic ligands such as Wy-14,643 or by unmetabolized endogenous ligands resulting from the disruption of the gene encoding acyl coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (AOX). Alterations in gene expression patterns in livers with PPARalpha activation were delineated by using a proteomic approach to analyze liver proteins of Wy-14,643-treated and AOX(-/-) mice. We identified 46 differentially expressed proteins in mouse livers with PPARalpha activation. Up-regulated proteins, including acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, and carnitine O-octanoyltransferase, are involved in fatty acid metabolism, whereas down-regulated proteins, including ketohexokinase, formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase, fructose-bisphosphatase aldolase B, sarcosine dehydrogenase, and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among stress response and xenobiotic metabolism proteins, selenium-binding protein 2 and catalase showed a dramatic approximately 18-fold decrease in expression and a modest approximately 6-fold increase in expression, respectively. In addition, glycine N-methyltransferase, pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, and protein phosphatase 1D were down-regulated with PPARalpha activation. These observations establish proteomic profiles reflecting a common and predictable pattern of differential protein expression in livers with PPARalpha activation. We conclude that livers with PPARalpha activation are transcriptionally geared towards fatty acid combustion.

  3. Microbial community profile of a lead service line removed from a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A

    2011-08-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments.

  4. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System▿

    PubMed Central

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A.

    2011-01-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments. PMID:21652741

  5. Evaluating Possible Heating Mechanisms Using the Transition Region Line Profiles of Late-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    Our analysis of high-resolution Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) spectra of late-type stars shows that the Si IV and C IV lines formed near 10(exp 5) K can be decomposed into the sum of two Gaussians, a broad component and a narrow component. We find that the flux contribution of the broad components is correlated with both the C IV and X-ray surface fluxes. For main-sequence stars, the widths of the narrow components suggest subsonic nonthermal velocities, and there appears to be a tight correlation between these nonthermal velocities and stellar surface gravity [xi(sub nc) varies as g(sup (-.68 +/-.07))]. For evolved stars with lower surface gravities, the nonthermal velocities suggested by the narrow components are at or just above the sound speed. Nonthermal velocities computed from the widths of the broad components are always highly supersonic. We propose that the broad components are diagnostics for microflare heating. Turbulent dissipation and Alfven waves are both viable candidates for the narrow component heating mechanism. A solar analog for the broad components might be the 'explosive events' detected by the High-Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) experiment. The broad component we observe for the Si IV lambda 1394 line of alpha Cen A, a star that is nearly identical to the Sun, has a FWHM of 109 +/- 10 km/s and is blueshifted by 9 +/- 3 km/s relative to the narrow component. Both of these properties are consistent with the properties of the solar explosive events. However, the alpha Cen A broad component accounts for 25% +/- 4% of the total Si IV line flux, while solar explosive events are currently thought to account for no more than 5% of the Sun's total transition region emission. This discrepancy must be resolved before the connection between broad components and explosive events can be positively established. In addition to our analysis of the Si IV and C IV lines of many stars, we also provide a more thorough analysis of all

  6. The Case for General Relativistic Effects in the Fe K(alpha) Profile of an Active Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Mushotzky, R.; Yaqoob, T.; George, I. M.; Snowden, S. L.; Netzer, H.; Kraemer, S. B.; Nandra, K.; Chelouche, D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results from a simultaneous Chandra HETG (High Energy Transmission Grating) and XMM (X-ray Multi-mirror Mission)-Newton observation of NGC 3516. We find evidence for several narrow components of Fe K(alpha) along with a broad line. We consider the possibility that the lines arise in a blob of material ejected from the nucleus with velocity of approximately 0.25c. We also consider an origin in a neutral accretion disk, suffering enhanced illumination at 35 and 175 R(sub g), perhaps due to magnetic reconnection. The presence of these narrow features indicates there is no Comptonizing region along the line-of-sight to the nucleus. This in turn is compelling support for the hypothesis that broad Fe K(alpha) components are, in general, produced by strong gravity.

  7. Line Profiles of Cores within Clusters. I. The Anatomy of a Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Shetty, Rahul; Stutz, Amelia M.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-05-01

    Observations are revealing the ubiquity of filamentary structures in molecular clouds. As cores are often embedded in filaments, it is important to understand how line profiles from such systems differ from those of isolated cores. We perform radiative transfer calculations on a hydrodynamic simulation of a molecular cloud in order to model line emission from collapsing cores embedded in filaments. We model two optically thick lines, CS(2-1) and HCN(1-0), and one optically thin line, N2H+(1-0), from three embedded cores. In the hydrodynamic simulation, gas self-gravity, turbulence, and bulk flows create filamentary regions within which cores form. Though the filaments have large dispersions, the N2H+(1-0) lines indicate subsonic velocities within the cores. We find that the observed optically thick line profiles of CS(2-1) and HCN(1-0) vary drastically with viewing angle. In over 50% of viewing angles, there is no sign of a blue asymmetry, an idealized signature of infall motions in an isolated spherical collapsing core. Profiles that primarily trace the cores, with little contribution from the surrounding filament, are characterized by a systematically higher HCN(1-0) peak intensity. The N2H+(1-0) lines do not follow this trend. We demonstrate that red asymmetric profiles are also feasible in the optically thick lines, due to emission from the filament or one-sided accretion flows onto the core. We conclude that embedded cores may frequently undergo collapse without showing a blue asymmetric profile, and that observational surveys including filamentary regions may underestimate the number of collapsing cores if based solely on profile shapes of optically thick lines.

  8. LINE PROFILES OF CORES WITHIN CLUSTERS. I. THE ANATOMY OF A FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rowan J.; Shetty, Rahul; Klessen, Ralf S.; Stutz, Amelia M.

    2012-05-01

    Observations are revealing the ubiquity of filamentary structures in molecular clouds. As cores are often embedded in filaments, it is important to understand how line profiles from such systems differ from those of isolated cores. We perform radiative transfer calculations on a hydrodynamic simulation of a molecular cloud in order to model line emission from collapsing cores embedded in filaments. We model two optically thick lines, CS(2-1) and HCN(1-0), and one optically thin line, N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0), from three embedded cores. In the hydrodynamic simulation, gas self-gravity, turbulence, and bulk flows create filamentary regions within which cores form. Though the filaments have large dispersions, the N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) lines indicate subsonic velocities within the cores. We find that the observed optically thick line profiles of CS(2-1) and HCN(1-0) vary drastically with viewing angle. In over 50% of viewing angles, there is no sign of a blue asymmetry, an idealized signature of infall motions in an isolated spherical collapsing core. Profiles that primarily trace the cores, with little contribution from the surrounding filament, are characterized by a systematically higher HCN(1-0) peak intensity. The N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) lines do not follow this trend. We demonstrate that red asymmetric profiles are also feasible in the optically thick lines, due to emission from the filament or one-sided accretion flows onto the core. We conclude that embedded cores may frequently undergo collapse without showing a blue asymmetric profile, and that observational surveys including filamentary regions may underestimate the number of collapsing cores if based solely on profile shapes of optically thick lines.

  9. Pharmacological Profiles of Alpha 2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists Identified Using Genetically Altered Mice and Isobolographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Stone, Laura S.; Wilcox, George L.

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous, descending noradrenergic fibers convey powerful analgesic control over spinal afferent circuitry mediating the rostrad transmission of pain signals. These fibers target alpha 2 adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) on both primary afferent terminals and secondary neurons, and their activation mediates substantial inhibitory control over this transmission, rivaling that of opioid receptors which share similar a similar pattern of distribution. The terminals of primary afferent nociceptive neurons and secondary spinal dorsal horn neurons express α2AAR and α2CAR subtypes, respectively. Spinal delivery of these agents serves to reduce their side effects, which are mediated largely at supraspinal sites, by concentrating the drugs at the spinal level. Targeting these spinal α2ARs with one of five selective therapeutic agonists, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, brimonidine, ST91 and moxonidine, produces significant antinociception that can work in concert with opioid agonists to yield synergistic antinociception. Application of several genetically altered mouse lines had facilitated identification of the primary receptor subtypes that likely mediate the antinociceptive effects of these agents. This review provides first an anatomical description of the localization of the three subtypes in the central nervous system, second a detailed account of the pharmacological history of each of these six primary agonists, and finally a comprehensive report of the specific interactions of other GPCR agonists with each of the six principal α2AR agonists featured. PMID:19393691

  10. Line Profile Asymmetries in Records from the Multichannel Flare Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosecký, T.

    2007-05-01

    The archive of the Ondřejov Multichannel Flare Spectrograph (MFS) contains video records of several hundreds of flares observed between 1995 and 2004. This contribution shows preliminary results of basic statistical processing on a sample of 50 flares observed in the Hα line between May, 1999 and May, 2001. No significant differences between occurrence of red and blue asymmetries for different flare importance and X-ray classes were found. For the decay phase of a flare no visible asymmetry or faint blue asymmetry seems to be typical.

  11. Theoretical brightness temperature profiles of atmospheric pure H2 rotational quadrupole lines - Jupiter and Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorvitch, D.; Chackerian, C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of high-resolution instruments and their use high above most of the telluric water vapor, the hydrogen pure rotational quadrupole lines at 28, 17, and 12 microns from the atmospheres of the outer planets may be observed. Best values for the line strengths, pressure-broadening coefficients, diffusion constants, and pressure shifts for these rotational transitions are calculated. The collisionally narrowed Galatry profile is used to calculate brightness temperature line profiles for these H2 transitions for the outer planets, Jupiter and Uranus. The effects of the H2 rotational-translational continuum and of the NH3 v2 band are also included.

  12. Fiber Optic Picosecond Laser Pulse Transmission Line for Hydrogen Ion Beam Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for non-intrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multi-killowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large mode area polarization maintaining optical fiber to ensure a high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter and pulse width broadening over a 100-ft fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H- beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. Our experiment is the first demonstration of particle beam profile diagnostics using fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  13. Microlensing of circumstellar envelopes. III. Line profiles from stellar winds in homologous expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, M. A.; Ignace, R.; Bryce, H. M.

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines line profile evolution due to the linear expansion of circumstellar material obsverved during a microlensing event. This work extends our previous papers on emission line profile evolution from radial and azimuthal flow during point mass lens events and fold caustic crossings. Both "flavours" of microlensing were shown to provide effective diagnostics of bulk motion in circumstellar envelopes. In this work a different genre of flow is studied, namely linear homologous expansion, for both point mass lenses and fold caustic crossings. Linear expansion is of particular relevance to the effects of microlensing on supernovae at cosmological distances. We derive line profiles and equivalent widths for the illustrative cases of pure resonance and pure recombination lines, modelled under the Sobolev approximation. The efficacy of microlensing as a diagnostic probe of the stellar environs is demonstrated and discussed.

  14. Line Profile Measurements of Atomic Oxygen at 1300 A with a VUV Raman Shifter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Exberger, Richard J.; Meyer, Scott A.; Gilmore, John O.

    1994-01-01

    We are currently developing an atomic oxygen diagnostic to study the degree of oxygen dissociation in ground-based facilities. The absorption of the (sub 3)P - (sup 3)S(sup 0) resonance triplet in the vacuum ultraviolet is a direct measure of the ground state number density of atomic oxygen. Although the integrated line strength is well known for these transitions, the line profile is not. We report the results of a series of experiments in which the line profile is measured in shock-heated oxygen. An ArF excimer laser and a hydrogen Raman shifter generate tunable VUV radiation at the resonance wavelength. The test gas is dissociated oxygen, generated in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. By measuring the absorption of known concentrations of atomic oxygen, we are able to study the absorption line profile. The results will serve as a calibration to apply this diagnostic in other flowfields.

  15. Recombination rates, Resonance Strengths and Line Profiles of Dielectronic Satellite Lines of He-like Ca, Fe, Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, S. N.; Oelgoetz, J.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2009-03-01

    Dielectronic satellite (DES) lines arising from the radiative decay of ions with excited cores are used as diagnostics of the plasma conditions found in astronomical objects. In collisional plasmas, the most common DES lines are due to an electron being dielectronically captured by a He-like ion, forming a 3-electron, Li-like ion in a doubly excited, autoionizing state (i.e. 1s2l2l' (KLL), 1s2l3l' (KLM), etc). These states can decay to bound levels by emitting a photon, completing a process known as dielectronic recombination (DR). The autoionizing KLL complex gives rise to 22 DES lines, labeled `a' through `v', via transitions of the type 1s2l2l'→ls^22l. These lines are seen at energies lower than the He-like resonance line (1s2p(^1P^0_1)→ 1s^2(^1S_0) - which is also referred to as the `w' line). The unified recombination method, which treats photoionization and electron-ion recombination in a manner which couples autoionizing states to the continuum, has been extended to study the DES lines of the highly charged ions Ca XVIII, Fe XXIV, and Ni XXVI. In contrast to obtaining a single energy point for a DES line (as is the case for existing theoretical approaches based on the isolated resonance approximation - IRA), the unified method: (i) provides detailed profiles of DES lines, including the blending of lines which occurs in nature, (ii) includes the background contribution of radiative recombination (RR), and (iii) provides a simple relation between the resonance strengths and recombination rates of narrow lines which is useful for astrophysical modeling.

  16. Uranus' (3-0) H2 quadrupole line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, L.

    1987-04-01

    Spectra of Uranus' S3(0) and S3(1) H2 quadrupole lines, obtained during the 1978-1980 apparitions, are analyzed, and are found to require the presence of a deep cloud. Modifications of the Baines and Bergstralh (1986) standard model, including an additional haze layer above the 16-km-am H2 level which contains strongly absorbing particles, are needed to fit the observations. For a Rayleigh phase function, such a haze (uniformly mixed with the gas above this level) would have an absorption optical depth of 0.16 and a single scattering particle albedo of 0.30. This modification would imply a fraction of normal H2 equal to 0.25 + or - 0.10, in agreement with the Baines and Bergstralh standard model.

  17. LY-alpha Line Emission in a Field of Super-Clustered Damped LY-alpha Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Palle; Warren, Stephen J.

    1993-12-01

    The quasar pair Q2138-4427 and Q2139-4434 is separated by 8 arcmin on the sky (~ 6 Mpc), and they have correlated damped \\lya absorption (DLA) at two redshifts, z=2.380 and z=2.853 (Francis, P. J., and Hewett, P. C., 1993, AJ 105, 1633). On three nights in September 1993 we imaged the field of Q2138-4427 in B, I, and a narrow band tuned to the DLA at z=2.853. The observations were carried out with the ESO 3.6m telescope. We find two emission line candidates in the field. The two candidates have line fluxes similar to the three sources found in the field of Q0528-250 (M{\\o}ller, P., and Warren, S. J., 1993, \\aa 270, 43) but they are much brighter in the continuum. The two candidates are lying quite far from the quasar, so even if they are spectroscopically confirmed to be \\lya emitters, they are unlikely to be identified with the absorber. Their continuum fluxes make them more likely to be either OII emitters at low redshift, or high redshift AGNs associated with the super-cluster structure reported by Francis and Hewett. \\lya emission sources similar to the ones detected in the field of Q0528-250 are not seen. A comparison of these new results with our previous detections will allow us to draw general conclusions on the nature of the damped systems.

  18. Theoretical profiles of the Mg+ resonance lines perturbed by collisions with He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, N. F.; Guillon, G.; Alekseev, V. A.; Kielkopf, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The effects of collision broadening by He are central to understanding the opacity of cool stellar atmospheres. Aims: DZ white dwarfs show metal lines which are, in many cases, believed to come from some rocky material, a remnant of a former exoplanetary system. The analysis of the Mg+ resonance lines is a valuable method to determine the chemical abundances in these systems. Methods: Unified profiles of the strongest of the UV lines of Mg+ have been calculated in the semi-classical approach using very recent ab initio potential energies. Results: We present the first theoretical line profile calculations of the resonance lines of Mg+ that have been perturbed by helium in physical conditions of atmospheres in helium-rich white dwarfs with metal traces.

  19. Winds from T Tauri stars. II - Balmer line profiles for inner disk winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Hewett, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of calculations of Balmer emission line profiles using escape probability methods for T Tauri wind models with nonspherically symmetric geometry. The wind is assumed to originate in the inner regions of an accretion disk surrounding the T Tauri star, and flows outward in a 'cone' geometry. Two types of wind models are considered, both with monotonically increasing expansion velocities as a function of radial distance. For flows with large turbulent velocities, such as the HF Alfven wave-driven wind models, the effect of cone geometry is to increase the blue wing emission, and to move the absorption reversal close to line center. Line profiles for a wind model rotating with the same angular velocity as the inner disk are also calculated. The Balmer lines of this model are significantly broader than observed in most objects, suggesting that the observed emission lines do not arise in a region rotating at Keplerian velocity.

  20. Observation on Stark-shifts of Lyman Alpha lines of low-Z ions in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, N.

    1982-07-01

    The red shifts were observed for Lyman alpha lines of Be IV, B V, C VI, and N VII at an electron density of 5 x 10 to the 21st power cm(-3). The high density plasma ws produced by a 0.1 TW and 100 ps laser irradiation onto a plane target. The shift was measured by comparing the position of highly broadened line center with that of spatially resolved unperturbed one in a single shot photograph. The results are compared with simple theoretical estimations.

  1. Line profile measurement of advanced-FinFET features by reference metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Lorusso, Gian F.; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2015-03-01

    A novel method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the line profile measurement using TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) images is proposed to calibrate CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) line width measurement and to standardize line profile measurement through reference metrology. The proposed method has been validated for profile of Si line and photoresist features in our previous investigations. In this article, we apply the methodology to line profile measurements of advanced-FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features. The FinFET features are sliced as thin specimens of 100 nm thickness by FIB (Focused Ion Beam) micro sampling system. Cross-sectional images of the specimens are obtained then by TEM. The profiles of fin, hardmask and dummy gate of FinFET features are evaluated using TEM images. The width of fin, the length of hardmask, and the length of dummy gate of FinFET features are measured and compared to CD-SEM measurement. The TEM results will be used to implement CD-SEM and CD-AFM reference metrology.

  2. N-linked glycan profiling in neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunli; Mayampurath, Anoop; Khan, Saira; Cohen, Joanna K; Mechref, Yehia; Volchenboum, Samuel L

    2015-05-01

    Although MYCN amplification has been associated with aggressive neuroblastoma, the molecular mechanisms that differentiate low-risk, MYCN-nonamplified neuroblastoma from high-risk, MYCN-amplified disease are largely unknown. Genomic and proteomic studies have been limited in discerning differences in signaling pathways that account for this heterogeneity. N-Linked glycosylation is a common protein modification resulting from the attachment of sugars to protein residues and is important in cell signaling and immune response. Aberrant N-linked glycosylation has been routinely linked to various cancers. In particular, glycomic markers have often proven to be useful in distinguishing cancers from precancerous conditions. Here, we perform a systematic comparison of N-linked glycomic variation between MYCN-nonamplified SY5Y and MYCN-amplified NLF cell lines with the aim of identifying changes in sugar abundance linked to high-risk neuroblastoma. Through a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, we identified 16 glycans that show a statistically significant change in abundance between NLF and SY5Y samples. Closer examination revealed the preference for larger (in terms of total monosaccharide count) and more sialylated glycan structures in the MYCN-amplified samples in comparison to smaller, nonsialylated glycans that are more dominant in the MYCN-nonamplified samples. These results offer clues for deriving marker candidates for accurate neuroblastoma risk diagnosis.

  3. Bioenergetic analysis of ovarian cancer cell lines: profiling of histological subtypes and identification of a mitochondria-defective cell line.

    PubMed

    Dier, Usawadee; Shin, Dong-Hui; Hemachandra, L P Madhubhani P; Uusitalo, Larissa M; Hempel, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal of all gynecological cancers, and encompasses distinct histological subtypes that have specific genetic and tissues-of-origin differences. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) represents approximately 10% of cases and has been termed a stress responsive cancer. OCCC is characterized by increased expression of oxidative stress and glycolysis-related genes. In the present study, we hypothesized that bioenergetic profiling might uniquely distinguish OCCC from other EOC histological subtypes. Using an extracellular flux analyzer, OCCC lines (ES-2, TOV-21-G) were shown to be highly metabolically active, with high oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and high extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), indicative of enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic rate, respectively. A high bioenergetics profile was associated with the cell lines' ability to form anchorage independent spheroids. Given their high glycolytic and mitochondrial activity, OCCC cells displayed strong sensitivity to 2-deoxy-D-glucose and Rotenone growth inhibition, although this chemosensitivity profile was not specific to only OCCC cells. Bioenergetic profiling also identified a non-OCCC cell line, OVCA420, to have severely compromised mitochondrial function, based on low OCR and a lack of stimulation of maximal respiration following application of the uncoupler FCCP. This was accompanied by mitochondrial morphology changes indicative of enhanced fission, increased expression of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and dependence on glycolysis. Importantly, this loss of mitochondrial function was accompanied by the inability of OVCA420 cells to cope with hypoxic stress, and a compromised ability to stabilize HIF-1α in response to 1% O2 hypoxia. This knowledge may be imperative for researchers planning to utilize this cell line for further studies of metabolism and hypoxia, and suggests that

  4. On the quantitative method for measurement and analysis of the fine structure of Fraunhofer line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuli-Zade, D. M.

    The methods of measurement and analysis of the fine structure of weak and moderate Fraunhofer line profiles are considered. The digital spectral materials were obtained using rapid scanning high dispersion and high resolution double monochromators. The methods of asymmetry coefficient, bisector method and new quantitative method pro- posed by the author are discussed. The new physical values of differential, integral, residual and relative asymmetries are first introduced. These quantitative values permit us to investigate the dependence of asymmetry on microscopic (atomic) and macro- scopic (photospheric) values. It is shown that the integral profile asymmetries grow appreciably with increase in line equivalent width. The average effective depths of the formation of used Fraunhofer lines in the photosphere of the Sun are determined. It is shown that with the increasing of the effective formation depths of the lines integral and residual asymmetries of the lines profiles noticeably decrease. It is in fine agree- ment with the results of intensity dependence of asymmetry. The above-mentioned methods are critically compared and the advantages of author's method are shown. The computer program of calculation of the line-profile asymmetry parameters has been worked out.

  5. De-coding the Neutral Hydrogen (21cm) Line Profiles of Disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moak, Sandy; Madore, Barry; Khatami, David

    2017-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen is the most abundant element in the interstellar medium, and it has long lent astronomers insight into galaxy structure, galactic interactions, and even dark matter prevalence. It is necessary to implement a detailed coding scheme that characterizes the 21-cm HI line profiles which exist in abundance throughout literature. We have utilized a new computer simulation program that exposes the internal architecture of a galaxy by way of mapping the one-dimensional line profile on to the three-dimensional parameters of a given galaxy. We have created a naming system to classify HI line profiles, which represents a kinematic description of the galaxy simply by considering its classification within the coding scheme.

  6. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of Hα and Hβ radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  7. Reduced interferon-alpha production by Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines and lectin-stimulated lymphocytes in congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type I.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, S N; Hasan, R; Smythe, J

    1997-08-01

    The concentrations of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in supernatants from cultures of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from seven patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) type I were below the 95% confidence limits for those derived from six healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of IFN-alpha in supernatants from cultures of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from four patients with other types of CDA and four patients with hereditary sideroblastic anaemia were normal. Supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen contained less IFN-alpha when the cells were derived from patients with CDA type I than when derived from healthy subjects. Since patients with CDA type I show a substantial haematological response to treatment with IFN-alpha, the data suggest that impaired IFN-alpha production may be an important pathogenetic mechanism in CDA type I.

  8. Bioisosteric phentolamine analogs as selective human alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Bavadekar, Supriya A; Hong, Seoung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Ii; Miller, Duane D; Feller, Dennis R

    2008-08-20

    Phentolamine is known to act as a competitive, non-subtype-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist. In an attempt to improve alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptor selectivity and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtype-selectivity, two new chemical series of bioisosteric phentolamine analogs were prepared and evaluated. These compounds were evaluated for binding affinities on alpha(1)- (alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-) and alpha(2)- (alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, alpha(2C)-) adrenoceptor subtypes that had been stably expressed in human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, respectively. Methylation of the phenolic hydroxy group and replacement of the 4-methyl group of phentolamine with varying lipophilic substituents yielded bioisosteric analogs selective for the alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. Within the alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, these analogs bound with higher affinity at the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-subtypes as compared to the alpha(2B)-subtype. In particular, the t-butyl analog was found to be the most selective, its binding at the alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (Ki=3.6 nM) being 37- to 173-fold higher than that at the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, and around 2- and 19-fold higher than at the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors, respectively. Data from luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed the functional antagonist activities of selected compounds from the bioisosteric series on human alpha(1A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. Thus, the results with these bioisosteric analogs of phentolamine provide a lead to the rational design of potent and selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor ligands that may be useful in improving the therapeutic profile of this drug class for human disorders.

  9. ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han; Bertello, Luca E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu

    2013-04-10

    We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

  10. THE SCATTERING POLARIZATION OF THE Ly{alpha} LINES OF H I AND He II TAKING INTO ACCOUNT PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION AND J-STATE INTERFERENCE EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Stepan, Jiri

    2012-08-10

    Recent theoretical investigations have pointed out that the cores of the Ly{alpha} lines of H I and He II should show measurable scattering polarization signals when observing the solar disk, and that the magnetic sensitivity, through the Hanle effect, of such linear polarization signals is suitable for exploring the magnetism of the solar transition region. Such investigations were carried out in the limit of complete frequency redistribution (CRD) and neglecting quantum interference between the two upper J-levels of each line. Here we relax both approximations and show that the joint action of partial frequency redistribution and J-state interference produces much more complex fractional linear polarization (Q/I) profiles, with large amplitudes in their wings. Such wing polarization signals turn out to be very sensitive to the temperature structure of the atmospheric model, so that they can be exploited for constraining the thermal properties of the solar chromosphere. Finally, we show that the approximation of CRD without J-state interference is however suitable for estimating the amplitude of the linear polarization signals in the core of the lines, where the Hanle effect operates.

  11. Does the Iron K and Alpha: Line of Active Galactic Nuclei Arise from the Cerenkov Line-like Radiation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, J. H.; Liu, D. B.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, L.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    When thermal relativistic electrons with isotropic distribution of velocities move in a gas region or impinge upon the surface of a cloud that consists of a dense gas or doped dusts, the Cerenkov effect produces peculiar atomic or ionic emission lines, which is known as the Cerenkov line - like radiation. This newly recognized emission mechanism may find wide applications in high-energy astrophysics. In this paper we tentatively adopt this new line emission mechanism to discuss the origin of the iron Kα feature of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The motivation of this research is to attempt a solution to a problem encountered by the "disk fluorescence line" model, i.e. , the lack of temporal response of the observed iron Kα line flux to the changes of the X-ray continuum flux. If the Cerenkov line emission is indeed responsible significant ly for the iron Kα feature, the conventional scenario around the central supermassive black holes of AGNs would need to be modified to accomodate more energetic, more violent, and much denser environments than previously thought.

  12. Characterization of the glycosylation profile of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-231, and a bone colonizing variant.

    PubMed

    Carcel-Trullols, Jaime; Stanley, Joseph S; Saha, Rinku; Shaaf, Saeid; Bendre, Manali S; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Suva, Larry J; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    The mechanisms that guide organ-specific metastases are not fully established. The aberrant expression of carbohydrates may play a fundamental role in defining the molecular mechanisms for metastases to distant organs and facilitate positive interactions within the target organ. The purpose of the present study was to determine the glycomic profile of a variant of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line that colonizes the bone and to ascribe mechanistic functions mediated by carbohydrates that might correlate with clinical bone metastases. The carbohydrate expression profiles of osteolytic MDA-MET breast cancer cells and non-osteolytic parental MDA-MB-231 cells were determined. MDA-MET cells were derived from MDA-MB-231 cells by in vivo selection of metastatic bone lesions following intracardiac inoculation. The two related breast cancer cell lines expressed distinct carbohydrate profiles; MDA-MET cells displayed an increased expression of alpha (2,6) linked sialic acid, N-beta1-6 GlcNAc, and sialylated Lewis-A antigen, and decreased expression of Galbeta1,3GalNAc as detected using a combination of lectins and anti-carbohydrate antibodies. Microarray analysis demonstrated an increased expression of glycosyltransferase genes, correlative for the distinct glycomic phenotype. The altered glycomic phenotypes of MDA-MET cells include effects on the differential binding to bone marrow endothelial cells, enhanced ECM binding and an increase in invasive potential. These data suggest that the glycomic phenotype of MDA-MET cells is associated with a select set of accumulated functions that collectively impact on the bone metastases and bone colonization capacity of breast cancer cells.

  13. New observations with the HST Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph of the low-redshift Lyman-Alpha clouds in the 3C 273 line of sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weymann, Ray; Rauch, Michael; Williams, Robert; Morris, Simon; Heap, Sally

    1995-01-01

    We presenty spectra of 3C 273 between 1216 and 1250 A obtained in the (pre-COSTAR (Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement instrument)) configuration of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) taken with the G160M grating with a resolution approximately = 20 km/s. The two strong Ly alpha lines at velocities of approximately 1000 and approximately 1600 km/s are well fitted with Voigt profiles and yield column densities, Doppler parameters and redshifts of log N(H I)=14.19 +/- 0.04 V(sub Dop)=40.7 +/- 3.0 km/s, V = 1012.4 +/- 2.0 km/s, and log N(H I)=14.22 +/- 0.07, V(sub Dop)=34.2 +/- 3.3 km/s and V = 1582.0 +/- 2.0 km/s, respectively. Motivated by the initial announcement by Williams and Schommer of detectable H alpha emission associated with the approximately 1600 km/s cloud, we discuss the difficulty of finding models which can account for emission of that magnitude given the observed neutral hydrogen column density, though a recent reobservation by these authors has shown the initial detection to be spurious. The C/H abundance ratio is probably less than about one-fourth of the solar abundance in these clouds, although this result is very uncertain and model dependent.

  14. Procedure for analyzing the x-ray line profiles of disordered carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G.; Bragg, R.H.; Bose, S.

    1981-12-01

    A systematic procedure to correct for various distortions in the broad x-ray line profiles of glass-like carbons (GC) is described. The profile is first corrected for distortions due to low specimen absorption, secondly for incoherent (Compton) scattering, and then strong small angle scattering. The resulting profile is then multiplied by the appropriate trigonometric (Lorentz and polarization) factors. Finally, correction is made for the variation of the atomic scattering factor across the broad peaks. Two examples of the GC heat treatment at 1000/sup 0/C and 2700/sup 0/C have been used to illustrate the outcome of the corrections. 8 figures.

  15. Modeling the Scattering Polarization of the Hydrogen Ly-alpha Line Observed by CLASP in a Filament Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepan, J.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Gunar, S.; del Pino Aleman, T.; Heinzel, P.; Kano, R.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, M.; Bando, T.; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, K.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The 400 arcsec spectrograph slit of CLASP crossed predominantly quiet regions of the solar chromosphere, from the limb towards the solar disk center. Interestingly, in the CLASP slit-jaw images and in the SDO images of the He I line at 304 A, we can identify a filament channel (FC) extending over more than 60 arcsec crossing the spectrograph slit. In order to interpret the peculiar spatial variation of the Q/1 and U/1 signals observed by CLASP in the hydrogen Ly-alpha line (1216 A) and in the Si Ill line (1206 A) in such a filament channel, it is necessary to perform multi-dimensional radiative transfer modeling. In this contribution, we show the first results of the two-dimensional calculations we are carrying out in given filament models, with the aim of determining the filament thermal and magnetic structure by comparing the theoretical and the observed polarization signals.

  16. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-10

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  17. Comparative quantification of pharmacodynamic parameters of chiral compounds (RRR- vs. all-rac-alpha tocopherol) by global gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Muller, Patrick Y; Netscher, Thomas; Frank, Jan; Stoecklin, Elisabeth; Rimbach, Gerald; Barella, Luca

    2005-07-01

    Pharmacologically active compounds (e.g. from the groups of pharmaceutical drugs, cofactors or vitamins) often consist of two or more stereoisomers (enantiomers or diastereoisomers) which may differ in their pharmacodynamic/kinetic, toxicological and biological properties. A well-known example is vitamin E which is predominantly administered as two different forms, one derived from natural sources (mainly soybeans), and one from production by chemical total-synthesis. While vitamin E from natural sources occurs as a single stereoisomer (RRR-alpha-tocopherol), synthetic vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) is an equimolar mixture of eight stereoisomers. Based on a number of animal studies it has been suggested that the biological potency of natural-source vitamin E is 1.36 greater compared to its counterpart produced by chemical synthesis. In this study, we have used the Affymetrix GeneChip technology to evaluate the feasibility of a new bio-assay where the gene regulatory activities of RRR-alpha-tocopherol and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol were quantified and compared on the genome-wide level. For this purpose, HepG2 cells were supplemented with increasing amounts of RRR- or all-rac-alpha-tocopherol for 7 days. Genes showing a dose-related induction/repression were identified by global gene expression profiling. Our findings show that RRR- and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol share an identical transcriptional activity, i.e. induce/repress the expression of the same set of genes. Based on the transcriptional dose-response data, EC50 and IC50 values were determined for each of these genes. The feasibility of calculating a "transcriptional potency factor" of RRR- vs. all-rac-e-tocopherol was evaluated by dividing the EC50/IC50 of RRR-alpha-tocopherol by the corresponding EC50/IC50 of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol for every of the vitamin E responsive genes. Using this approach we have calculated 215 single biopotency ratios. Subsequently, the mean of all potency ratios was found to be

  18. Gene expression profiling and differentiation assessment in primary human hepatocyte cultures, established hepatoma cell lines, and human liver tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Olsavsky, Katy M.; Page, Jeanine L.; Johnson, Mary C.; Zarbl, Helmut; Strom, Stephen C.; Omiecinski, Curtis J. . E-mail: cjo10@psu.edu

    2007-07-01

    Frequently, primary hepatocytes are used as an in vitro model for the liver in vivo. However, the culture conditions reported vary considerably, with associated variability in performance. In this study, we characterized the differentiation character of primary human hepatocytes cultured using a highly defined, serum-free two-dimensional sandwich system, one that configures hepatocytes with collagen I as the substratum together with a dilute extracellular matrix (Matrigel{sup TM}) overlay combined with a defined serum-free medium containing nanomolar levels of dexamethasone. Gap junctional communication, indicated by immunochemical detection of connexin 32 protein, was markedly enhanced in hepatocytes cultured in the Matrigel sandwich configuration. Whole genome expression profiling enabled direct comparison of liver tissues to hepatocytes and to the hepatoma-derived cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7. PANTHER database analyses were used to identify biological processes that were comparatively over-represented among probe sets expressed in the in vitro systems. The robustness of the primary hepatocyte cultures was reflected by the extent of unchanged expression character when compared directly to liver, with more than 77% of the probe sets unchanged in each of the over-represented categories, representing such genes as C/EBP{alpha}, HNF4{alpha}, CYP2D6, and ABCB1. In contrast, HepG2 and Huh7 cells were unchanged from the liver tissues for fewer than 48% and 55% of these probe sets, respectively. Further, hierarchical clustering of the hepatocytes, but not the cell lines, shifted from donor-specific to treatment-specific when the probe sets were filtered to focus on phenobarbital-inducible genes, indicative of the highly differentiated nature of the hepatocytes when cultured in a highly defined two-dimensional sandwich system.

  19. Supernova Resonance-scattering Line Profiles in the Absence of a Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Brian; Baron, E.; Branch, David; Chen, Bin; Parrent, Jerod T.; Thomas, R. C.

    2012-11-01

    In supernova (SN) spectroscopy relatively little attention has been given to the properties of optically thick spectral lines in epochs following the photosphere's recession. Most treatments and analyses of post-photospheric optical spectra of SNe assume that forbidden-line emission comprises most if not all spectral features. However, evidence exists that suggests that some spectra exhibit line profiles formed via optically thick resonance-scattering even months or years after the SN explosion. To explore this possibility, we present a geometrical approach to SN spectrum formation based on the "Elementary Supernova" model, wherein we investigate the characteristics of resonance-scattering in optically thick lines while replacing the photosphere with a transparent central core emitting non-blackbody continuum radiation, akin to the optical continuum provided by decaying {}^{56}{\\protect {Co}} formed during the explosion. We develop the mathematical framework necessary for solving the radiative transfer equation under these conditions and calculate spectra for both isolated and blended lines. Our comparisons with analogous results from the Elementary Supernova code SYNOW reveal several marked differences in line formation. Most notably, resonance lines in these conditions form P Cygni-like profiles, but the emission peaks and absorption troughs shift redward and blueward, respectively, from the line's rest wavelength by a significant amount, despite the spherically symmetric distribution of the line optical depth in the ejecta. These properties and others that we find in this work could lead to misidentification of lines or misattribution of properties of line-forming material at post-photospheric times in SN optical spectra.

  20. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2006-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  1. X-ray bumps, iron K-alpha lines, and X-ray suppression by obscuring tori in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.; Madau, Piero; Zycki, Piotr T.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the X-ray spectral properties of unobscured type 1 and obscured type 2 Seyferts as predicted by the unified Seyfert scheme. We consider the reprocessing of X-ray photons by photoelectric absorption, iron fluorescence, and Compton downscattering in the obscuring tori surrounding these active nuclei, and compute by Monte Carlo methods the reprocessed spectra as a function of the viewing angle. Depending on the optical depth and shape of the torus, and on the viewing angle, the X-ray flux can be suppressed by substantial factors when our line of sight is obscured. We show that an immediate consequence of the existence of an obscuring thick torus is the production in the spectra of type 1 Seyfert galaxies of a bump in the continuum above 10-20 keV and an Fe K-alpha line with significant equivalent width. In those type 2 Seyferts for which the hard X-ray spectrum has been substantially suppressed, the equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line in the transmitted spectrum can be very large.

  2. Observations and analysis of O(1D) and NH2 line profiles for the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Scherb, Frank

    1995-01-01

    A set of high-resolution Fabry-Perot measurements of the coma of comet P/Halley was acquired in the (O I) 6300 A and NH2 6298.62 A emission lines. These high-resolution measurements provide the first optical observations capable of studying directly the photochemical kinetics and dynamic outflow of the coma. The observations were analyzed by a Monte Carlo Particle Trajectory Model. The agreement of the model and observed line profiles was excellent and verified the underlying dynamics, exothermic photodissociative chemistry, and collisional thermalization in the coma. The somewhat wider intrinsic line profile width for the O(1D) emission in 1986 January compared to 1986 May, is, for example, produced by the larger outflow speeds and gas temperatures nearer perihelion in January. The January O(1D) profile, which is wider than the January NH2 profile, is indicative of the photochemical kinetics in the dissociation of the parent molecules H2O and OH in the coma. The absolute calibration of the observations in 1986 January allowed the production rates for H2O and the NH2-parent molecules to be determined. The average daily water production rates derived from the O(1D) emission data for January 16 and 17 are presented. These very large water production rates are consistent with the extrapolated (and 7.6 day time variable) water production rates determined from the analysis of lower spectral resolution observations for O(1D) and H-alpha emissions that covered the time period up to January 13. The large production rates on January 16 and 17 establish that the maximum water production rate for comet Halley accurred pre-perihelion in January. Implications drawn from comparison with 18 cm radio emission data in January suggest that the peak water production rate was even larger. The average production rate for NH3 determined from the NH2 emission data for January 17 was (1.48 +/- 0.10) x 10(exp 28) molecules/s, yielding an NH3/H2O production rate ratio of 0.55%.

  3. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  4. A new scheme for multidimensional line transfer. II - ETLA method in one dimension with application to iron K-alpha lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castor, John I.; Dykema, Pieter G.; Klein, Richard I.

    1992-01-01

    The 1D version of the radiation hydrodynamics computer code ALTAIR is discribed. It is an implementation of the equivalent two-level atom method, and also incorporates a variety of other iterative techniques to achieve a fast, accurate solution of the problem of coupled atomic kinetics and radiative transfer. All the techniques are described in sufficient detail to enable their use by others. The application of the program is illustrated by a set of calculations of the iron X-ray emission spectrum from intercloud hot gas that may exist in the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei. These calculations demonstrate that such spectra may be a rich load to mine for information about the hot gas in AGNs, and also that the concept of 'the iron K-alpha line' inadequately depicts the spectrum.

  5. Variability of Solar UV Irradiance Related to Bright Magnetic Features Observed in Call K-Line: Relationship between Lyman alpha and K-line Report for UARS funding agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Cameron, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In this report we comment on the relationship between the Lyman alpha and Calcium K-line emission from the Sun. We firstly examine resolved Lyman alpha images (from TRACE) and resolved K-line images. We find that the Lyman alpha emission is consistent with a linear dependence on the K-line emission. As this is in conflict with the analysis of Johannesson et al.(1995, 1998) we proceed by comparing the disk integrated Lyman alpha flux as a function of ratio between the disk integrated Mg II core and wing fluxes (Johannesson et al (1998) having previously found a linear dependence between this index and the BBSO K-line index). We find that a reasonably good fit can be obtained, however note the discrepancies which lead Johannesson et al to consider the square root relationship. We suggest an alternative interpretation of the discrepancy.

  6. Spectral Line-Shape Model to Replace the Voigt Profile in Spectroscopic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisak, Daniel; Ngo, Ngoc Hoa; Tran, Ha; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    The standard description of molecular line shapes in spectral databases and radiative transfer codes is based on the Voigt profile. It is well known that its simplified assumptions of absorber free motion and independence of collisional parameters from absorber velocity lead to systematic errors in analysis of experimental spectra, and retrieval of gas concentration. We demonstrate1,2 that the partially correlated quadratic speed-dependent hardcollision profile3. (pCqSDHCP) is a good candidate to replace the Voigt profile in the next generations of spectroscopic databases. This profile takes into account the following physical effects: the Doppler broadening, the pressure broadening and shifting of the line, the velocity-changing collisions, the speed-dependence of pressure broadening and shifting, and correlations between velocity- and phase/state-changing collisions. The speed-dependence of pressure broadening and shifting is incorporated into the pCqSDNGP in the so-called quadratic approximation. The velocity-changing collisions lead to the Dicke narrowing effect; however in many cases correlations between velocityand phase/state-changing collisions may lead to effective reduction of observed Dicke narrowing. The hard-collision model of velocity-changing collisions is also known as the Nelkin-Ghatak model or Rautian model. Applicability of the pCqSDHCP for different molecular systems was tested on calculated and experimental spectra of such molecules as H2, O2, CO2, H2O in a wide span of pressures. For all considered systems, pCqSDHCP is able to describe molecular spectra at least an order of magnitude better than the Voigt profile with all fitted parameters being linear with pressure. In the most cases pCqSDHCP can reproduce the reference spectra down to 0.2% or better, which fulfills the requirements of the most demanding remote-sensing applications. An important advantage of pCqSDHCP is that a fast algorithm for its computation was developedab4,5 and allows

  7. Absorption line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10(exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  8. THE Lyα LINE PROFILES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: FAST WINDS AND LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Crystal L.; Wong, Joseph; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding −1000 km s{sup −1} in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1–1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  9. Alpha-2 adrenergic modulation of sleep: time-of-day-dependent pharmacodynamic profiles of dexmedetomidine and clonidine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Seidel, W F; Maze, M; Dement, W C; Edgar, D M

    1995-10-01

    Alpha adrenergic agonists such as clonidine are widely used for their antihypertensor effects, but they also cause sedation. The mechanisms underlying soporific effects of such compounds are poorly understood, but appear to involve the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor sub-type. To further investigate the role of this receptor in sleep-wake regulation, rats received injections i.p. either during their peak of activity (circadian time CT-18: 6 hr after lights out) or near the mid-point of their sleep-dominated phase (CT-5: 5 hr after lights on) with either the highly selective alpha-2 agonist dexmedetomidine (dMED) 0.02 to 0.04 mg/kg or the less selective alpha-2 agonist, clonidine 0.04 to 0.08 mg/kg, or vehicle. Clonidine and dMED showed remarkable overall similarities in their soporific profiles. Except for the lower dose of clonidine, both CT-5 and CT-18 treatments increased the percent of time spent in non-REM (NREM) sleep. The increase in NREM was followed by a reduction of NREM sleep that was accompanied by locomotor activity and body temperature above control levels. After CT-5 treatments, this period of reduced NREM sleep was followed by a secondary increase in NREM 7 to 10 hr posttreatment. REM sleep was markedly reduced for 9 to 10 hr after all treatments at both times of day, with elevated REM levels 18 to 30 hr posttreatment. Pre-treatment with the selective alpha-2 antagonist atipamezole (0.5 mg/kg) reversed the effects of CT-18 dMED 0.04 mg/kg except REM sleep suppression, which was only partially reversed. The NREM-inducing potency of dMED 0.02 mg/kg was greater when administered at CT-18 than at CT-5. Taken together with other evidence, these findings suggest that the profound NREM-inducing effects of dMED may be mediated by postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Furthermore, the pharmacodynamic action of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, like many other sedative hypnotics (e.g., benzodiazepines), produce a hysteresis in sleep-wake regulation characterized by

  10. Thermonuclear Supernovae: Probing Magnetic Fields by Positrons and Late-time IR Line Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penney, R.; Hoeflich, P.

    2014-11-01

    We show the importance of γ and positron transport for the formation of late-time spectra in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The goal is to study the imprint of magnetic fields (B) on late-time IR line profiles, particularly the [Fe II] feature at 1.644 μm, which becomes prominent two to three months after the explosion. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass (M Ch) white dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model that can reproduce the light curves and spectra for a Branch-normal SN Ia. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 109 G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We show that positron transport effects must be taken into account for the interpretation of emission features starting at about one to two years after maximum light, depending on the size of B. The [Fe II] line profile and its evolution with time can be understood in terms of the overall energy input by radioactive decay and the transition from a γ-ray to a positron-dominated regime. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 μm can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. At later times, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. After about day 300, the line profile allows one to probe the size of the B-field. The profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B at about day 500. In the presence of a large-scale dipole field, a broad line is produced in M Ch mass explosions that may appear flat-topped or rounded depending on the inclination at which the SN is observed. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. We note that narrow-line profiles require central 56Ni as shown in our previous studies. Persistent broad-line, flat-topped profiles require high-density burning, which is the signature of a WD close to M Ch. Good time coverage is required to separate the effects of optical

  11. Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W. S.; Kruglikov, I. L.

    1992-01-01

    Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed.

  12. THE HANLE EFFECT OF THE HYDROGEN Ly{alpha} LINE FOR PROBING THE MAGNETISM OF THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Stepan, JirI; Casini, Roberto E-mail: stepan@iac.es

    2011-09-01

    We present some theoretical predictions concerning the amplitude and magnetic sensitivity of the linear-polarization signals produced by scattering processes in the hydrogen Ly{alpha} line of the solar transition region. To this end, we have calculated the atomic-level polarization (population imbalances and quantum coherences) induced by anisotropic radiation pumping in semiempirical and hydrodynamical models of the solar atmosphere, taking into account radiative transfer and the Hanle effect caused by the presence of organized and random magnetic fields. The line-center amplitudes of the emergent linear-polarization signals are found to vary typically between 0.1% and 1%, depending on the scattering geometry and the strength and orientation of the magnetic field. The results shown here encourage the development of UV polarimeters for sounding rockets and space telescopes with the aim of opening up a diagnostic window for magnetic field measurements in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun.

  13. Genomic and phenotypic profiles of two Brazilian breast cancer cell lines derived from primary human tumors

    PubMed Central

    CORRÊA, NATÁSSIA C.R.; KUASNE, HELLEN; FARIA, JERUSA A.Q.A.; SEIXAS, CIÇA C.S.; SANTOS, IRIA G.D.; ABREU, FRANCINE B.; NONOGAKI, SUELY; ROCHA, RAFAEL M.; SILVA, GERLUZA APARECIDA BORGES; GOBBI, HELENICE; ROGATTO, SILVIA R.; GOES, ALFREDO M.; GOMES, DAWIDSON A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide. Research using breast cancer cell lines derived from primary tumors may provide valuable additional knowledge regarding this type of cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic profiles of MACL-1 and MGSO-3, the only Brazilian breast cancer cell lines available for comparative studies. We evaluated the presence of hormone receptors, proliferation, differentiation and stem cell markers, using immunohistochemical staining of the primary tumor, cultured cells and xenografts implanted in immunodeficient mice. We also investigated the ability of the cell lines to form colonies and copy number alterations by array comparative genomic hybridization. Histopathological analysis showed that the invasive primary tumor from which the MACL-1 cell line was derived, was a luminal A subtype carcinoma, while the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) that gave rise to the MGSO-3 cell line was a HER2 subtype tumor, both showing different proliferation levels. The cell lines and the tumor xenografts in mice preserved their high proliferative potential, but did not maintain the expression of the other markers assessed. This shift in expression may be due to the selection of an ‘establishment’ phenotype in vitro. Whole-genome DNA evaluation showed a large amount of copy number alterations (CNAs) in the two cell lines. These findings render MACL-1 and MGSO-3 the first characterized Brazilian breast cancer cell lines to be potentially used for comparative research. PMID:23404580

  14. Catalog of the H-alpha + N II forbidden-line emission features in the Kepler SNR

    SciTech Connect

    Dodorico, S.; Bandiera, R.; Danziger, J.; Focardi, P.

    1986-06-01

    A deep image of the Kepler SNR has been obtained in the light of H-alpha + N II forbidden-line with the faint object spectrograph and camera (EFOSC) and a CCD detector at the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The visibility of the optically emitting knots of ionized gas has been greatly enhanced by subtraction of the continuum radiation. Features as faint as 2 percent of the night-sky brightness have been identified and a half-shell of emission is clearly revealed. The total H-alpha luminosity of the ionized gas is estimated to be 8.3 x 10 to the 45th photons/s at a distance of 5 kpc implying a mass of ionized hydrogen of about 0.02 solar mass. An automatic searching program has been used to identify and list individual emission features in the continuum-subtracted image. A catalog with accurate celestial positions and approximate fluxes for 64 emission-line knots is given. 13 references.

  15. Expression of platelet membrane glycoproteins and alpha-granule proteins by a human erythroleukemia cell line (HEL).

    PubMed Central

    Tabilio, A; Rosa, J P; Testa, U; Kieffer, N; Nurden, A T; Del Canizo, M C; Breton-Gorius, J; Vainchenker, W

    1984-01-01

    We demonstrate that HEL, a human erythroleukemic cell line, has numerous megakaryocytic markers which were markedly enhanced following the addition of the inducers dimethyl sulfoxide or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to the culture medium. Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies showed: (i) the presence of organelles morphologically resembling the platelet alpha-granules; and (ii) a peroxidase activity with the same characteristics as that specifically found in platelets. The platelet alpha-granule proteins (von Willebrand factor, platelet factor-4 and beta-thromboglobulin) were immunologically detected in the HEL cell cytoplasm and their amounts increased after induction. Of particular interest was the presence of platelet membrane proteins. A monoclonal antibody specific for glycoprotein Ib bound to HEL cells. Platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa were identified on intact cells using specific antibodies in a binding assay or in cell lysates using either crossed immunoelectrophoresis or an immunoblotting procedure following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Most HEL cells also expressed the platelet alloantigen PIA1. All of the platelet membrane proteins were present in higher amounts after induction. Glycophorin A, specific for the erythroid lineage, was also detected on HEL cells. Thus, while confirming the presence of erythroid markers, our studies provide evidence that the HEL cell line also expresses platelet antigens. As such, HEL cells represent a unique system with which to study the biosynthesis of platelet-specific proteins and glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6201359

  16. Observation and interpretation of the asymmetric Stokes Q, U, and V line profiles in sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Lites, B. W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a first approach to systematic characterization and interpretation of observed asymmetries of Stokes profiles as a function of spatial position within sunspots. Spatial maps of the full Stokes profiles of Fe I 6302.5 A gathered in large sunspots using the HAO Stokes II instrument reveal asymmetries that vary systematically across large sunspots observed during 1980. We use the inversion technique by Landolfi to extract the velocity gradients along the line of sight (LOS) which give rise to these asymmetries. The gradients derived from full Stokes profiles are in agreement with previous characterizations of the Evershed flow derived from Stokes I profiles alone (i.e., a flow increasing with depth in the atmosphere). By coupling this semiempirical gradient of velocity with a magnetic field inclination varying along the LOS, the synthesized profiles are able to mimic basic observed features of the broad-band circular polarization present in our data and observed previously by others. This characterization has magnetic field lines which become progressively more horizontal with depth in the penumbra.

  17. Ultraviolet and Optical Line Profile Variations in the Spectrum of ɛ Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, D. R.; Kambe, E.; Josephs, T. S.; Bagnuolo, W. G., Jr.; Choi, Y. J.; Gudehus, D.; Guyton, K. M.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Hildebrand, J. L.; Kaye, A. B.; Mason, B. D.; Riddle, R. L.; Sowers, J. W.; Turner, N. H.; Wilson, J. W.; Xiong, Y.

    1999-11-01

    The rapid variable star, ɛ Per (B0.5 IV-III), displays the largest amplitude profile fluctuations known among the growing number of massive, spectrum-variable stars. Here we present an analysis of a continuous 5 day run of IUE UV spectroscopy, and we show for the first time that the systematic, blue-to-red moving patterns observed in high-quality optical spectra are also present in the UV photospheric lines. We present cross-correlation functions of the individual spectra with that of a narrow-lined standard that produce a high signal-to-noise ratio representation of the blue-to-red moving bump patterns found in individual lines. We then use time series analysis methods to determine the periodic components of the profile variations (after reregistering the spectra to correct for binary motion). There are at least six periods present (ranging from 8.46 to 2.27 hr), and most of these signals are also found in optical line variations observed in 1986 (although the relative amplitudes have changed significantly). Furthermore, analysis of a shorter time series of IUE spectra from 1984 shows that similar periods were present then. We also present Hα and He I λ6678 profiles obtained with the Georgia State University Multi-Telescope Telescope, which were made simultaneously with IUE, and we show that the profile variations are essentially identical in the UV and optical ranges. We rule out rotational modulation and circumstellar gas obscuration as possible causes, and we suggest instead that the variations are the result of photospheric nonradial pulsations of relatively low degree (l=3-5). There were significant changes (~10%) in the equivalent widths of the UV stellar wind lines during the IUE run, and we suggest that wind strengthening events are related to episodes of large-amplitude, constructive interference between the NRP modes. Thus, intermode beating may play an important role in promoting wind loss from massive stars.

  18. A POSSIBLE ULTRA STRONG AND BROAD Fe K{alpha} EMISSION LINE IN SEYFERT 2 GALAXY IRAS 00521-7054

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Wang, J. X.; Shu, X. W.; Zhou Youyuan E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn E-mail: yyzhou@ustc.edu.cn

    2012-03-15

    We present XMM-Newton spectra of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy IRAS 00521-7054. A strong feature at {approx}6 keV (observer's frame) can be formally fitted with a strong (EW = 1.3 {+-} 0.3 keV in the rest frame) and broad Fe K{alpha} line, extending down to 3 keV. The underlying X-ray continuum could be fitted with an absorbed power law (with {Gamma} = 1.8 {+-} 0.2 and N{sub H} 5.9{sup +0.6}{sub -0.7} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) plus a soft component. If due to relativistically smeared reflection by an X-ray illuminated accretion disk, the spin of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) is constrained to be 0.97{sup +0.03}{sub -0.13} (errors at 90% confidence level for one interesting parameter), and the accretion system is viewed at an inclination angle of 37 Degree-Sign {+-} 4 Degree-Sign . This would be the first type 2 active galactic nucleus reported with strong red Fe K{alpha} wing detected which demands a fast rotating SMBH. The unusually large EW would suggest that the light bending effect is strong in this source. Alternatively, the spectra could be fitted by a dual-absorber model (though with a global {chi}{sup 2} higher by {approx}6 for 283 dof) with N{sub H1} 7.0 {+-} 0.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} covering 100% of the X-ray source, and N{sub H2} = 21.7{sup +5.6}{sub -5.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} covering 71%, which does not require an extra broad Fe K{alpha} line.

  19. A Tie2-driven BAC-TRAP transgenic line for in vivo endothelial gene profiling

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Devi; Huang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological innovations including bacterial artificial chromosome-based translating ribosome affinity purification (BAC-TRAP) have greatly facilitated analysis of cell type-specific gene expression in vivo, especially in the nervous system. To better study endothelial gene expression in vivo, we have generated a BAC-TRAP transgenic mouse line where the L10a ribosomal subunit is tagged with EGFP and placed under the control of the endothelium-specific Tie2 (Tek) promoter. We show that transgene expression in this line is widely, but specifically, detected in endothelial cells in several brain regions throughout pre- and postnatal development, as well as in other organs. We also show that this line results in highly significant enrichment of endothelium-specific mRNAs from brain tissues at different stages. This BAC-TRAP line therefore provides a useful genetic tool for in vivo endothelial gene profiling under various developmental, physiological, and pathological conditions. PMID:26817747

  20. Calculated resonance line profiles of [Mg II], [C II], and [Si IV] in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Avrett, E.; McKillop, S.; Landi, E.

    2013-12-20

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph space mission, launched 2013 June 27, is intended to study the structure of the solar chromosphere and the transition region between the chromosphere and corona. The spectral lines to be observed include the Mg II k line at 2796.5 Å, the C II 1334.5 Å line, and the Si IV line at 1393.8 Å, which are formed in the middle chromosphere, the upper chromosphere, and the lower transition region, respectively. Here we calculate the profiles of these lines from four models of the solar atmosphere, intended to represent the faint and mean internetwork, a network lane, and bright network. We show how the profiles change from the center of the solar disk toward the limb of the Sun and in response to outflows and inflows. These results are intended to cover the range of expected quiet-Sun observations and assist in their interpretation. We expect that the observations will lead to improvements in the models, which can then be used to estimate the required non-radiative heating in the different regions.

  1. Appropriate line profiles for radiation modeling in the detection of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption by Lorentz, Doppler, and Voight lines are compared for a range of atmospheric parameters. It is found that, for the intermediate path lengths, the use of the combined Lorentz-Doppler (Voight) profile is essential in calculating the atmospheric transmittance. A brief review of band models, to approximate the absorption over certain frequency interval, is presented. Expressions for total radiative energy emergent from the atmosphere are given which, with appropriate line or band models, can be used to reduce the data obtained from radiation measurement by an instrument mounted on an aircraft or a satellite. By employing the inversion procedure, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants can be obtained from the measured data.

  2. Stark broadening for diagnostics of the electron density in non-equilibrium plasma utilizing isotope hydrogen alpha lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lin; Tan, Xiaohua; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Qian, Muyang; Li, Gongping

    2014-04-28

    Two Stark broadening parameters including FWHM (full width at half maximum) and FWHA (full width at half area) of isotope hydrogen alpha lines are simultaneously introduced to determine the electron density of a pulsed vacuum arc jet. To estimate the gas temperature, the rotational temperature of the C{sub 2} Swan system is fit to 2500 ± 100 K. A modified Boltzmann-plot method with b{sub i}-factor is introduced to determine the modified electron temperature. The comparison between results of atomic and ionic lines indicates the jet is in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electron temperature is close to 13 000 ± 400 K. Based on the computational results of Gig-Card calculation, a simple and precise interpolation algorithm for the discrete-points tables can be constructed to obtain the traditional n{sub e}-T{sub e} diagnostic maps of two Stark broadening parameters. The results from FWHA formula by the direct use of FWHM = FWHA and these from the diagnostic map are different. It can be attributed to the imprecise FWHA formula form and the deviation between FWHM and FWHA. The variation of the reduced mass pair due to the non-equilibrium effect contributes to the difference of the results derived from two hydrogen isotope alpha lines. Based on the Stark broadening analysis in this work, a corrected method is set up to determine n{sub e} of (1.10 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, the reference reduced mass μ{sub 0} pair of (3.30 ± 0.82 and 1.65 ± 0.41), and the ion kinetic temperature of 7900 ± 1800 K.

  3. A Study of the Lyman-α Line Profile in DBA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest-Beaulieu, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2017-03-01

    The hydrogen abundances in DBA white dwarfs determined from optical or UV spectra have been reported to differ significantly in some studies. We revisit this problem using our own model atmospheres and synthetic spectra, and present a theoretical investigation of the Lyman-α line profile as a function of effective temperature and hydrogen abundance. We identify one possible solution to this discrepancy and show considerable improvement from a detailed analysis of optical and UV spectra of DBA stars.

  4. HST Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2: Comparing Physical Properties of Lyman Alpha and Optical Emission Line Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Alex; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Behrens, Christoph; Ciardullo, Robin; Grasshorn Gebhardt, Henry S.; Gronwall, Caryl; Bridge, Joanna S.; Fox, Derek B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Chonis, Taylor S.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hill, Gary J.; Jogee, Shardha; Gawiser, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We compare the physical and morphological properties of z ˜ 2 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) identified in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and narrow band studies with those of z ˜ 2 optical emission line selected galaxies (oELGs) identified via HST WFC3 infrared grism spectroscopy. Both sets of galaxies extend over the same range in stellar mass (7.5\\lt {log}M/{M}⊙ \\lt 10.5), size (0.5 < R < 3.0 kpc), and star formation rate (˜ 1\\lt {{SFR}}\\lt 100 {M}⊙ yr-1). Remarkably, a comparison of the most commonly used physical and morphological parameters—stellar mass, half-light radius, UV slope, SFR, ellipticity, nearest neighbor distance, star formation surface density, specific SFR, [O iii] luminosity, and [O iii] equivalent width—reveals no statistically significant differences between the populations. This suggests that the processes and conditions which regulate the escape of Lyα from a z ˜ 2 star-forming galaxy do not depend on these quantities. In particular, the lack of dependence on the UV slope suggests that Lyα emission is not being significantly modulated by diffuse dust in the interstellar medium. We develop a simple model of Lyα emission that connects LAEs to all high-redshift star-forming galaxies where the escape of Lyα depends on the sightline through the galaxy. Using this model, we find that mean solid angle for Lyα escape is {{{Ω }}}{{Ly}α }=2.4+/- 0.8 steradians; this value is consistent with those calculated from other studies.

  5. A three-dimensional hydrodynamical line profile analysis of iron lines and barium isotopes in HD 140283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Ryan, S. G.; Aoki, W.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Heavy-elements, i.e. those beyond the iron peak, mostly form via two neutron capture processes: the slow (s-) and the rapid (r-) process. Metal-poor stars should contain fewer isotopes that form via the s-process, according to currently accepted theory. It has been shown in several investigations that theory and observation do not agree well, raising questions on the validity of either the methodology or the theory. Aims: We analyse the metal-poor star HD 140283, for which we have a high quality spectrum. We test whether a three-dimensional (3D) local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) stellar atmosphere and spectrum synthesis code permits a more reliable analysis of the iron abundance and barium isotope ratio than a one-dimensional (1D) LTE analysis. Methods: Using 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres, we examine 91 iron lines of varying strength and formation depth. This provides us with the star's rotational speed. With this, we model the barium isotope ratio by exploiting the hyperfine structure of the singly ionised 4554 Å resonance line, and study the impact of the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. Results: The star's rotational speed was found to be 1.65 ± 0.05 km s-1. Barium isotopes under the 3D paradigm show a dominant r-process signature as 77 ± 6 ± 17% (fodd = 0.38 ± 0.02 ± 0.06) of barium isotopes form via the r-process, where errors represent the assigned random and systematic errors, respectively. We find that 3D LTE fits reproduce iron line profiles better than those in 1D, but do not provide a unique abundance (within the uncertainties). However, we demonstrate that the isotopic ratio is robust against this shortcoming. Conclusions: Our barium isotope result agrees well with currently accepted theory regarding the formation of the heavy-elements during the early Galaxy. The improved fit to the asymmetric iron line profiles suggests that the current state of 3D LTE modelling provides excellent simulations of fluid flows. However

  6. Method for measuring radial impurity emission profiles using correlations of line integrated signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-04-01

    A method of determining radial impurity emission profiles is outlined. The method uses correlations between line integrated signals and is based on the assumption of cylindrically symmetric fluctuations. Measurements at the reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R show that emission from impurities expected to be close to the edge is clearly different in raw as well as analyzed data to impurities expected to be more central. Best fitting of experimental data to simulated correlation coefficients yields emission profiles that are remarkably close to emission profiles determined using more conventional techniques. The radial extension of the fluctuations is small enough for the method to be used and bandpass filtered signals indicate that fluctuations below 10kHz are cylindrically symmetric. The novel method is not sensitive to vessel window attenuation or wall reflections and can therefore complement the standard methods in the impurity emission reconstruction procedure.

  7. Distinctive characteristics of transcriptional profiles from two epithelial cell lines upon interaction with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Mans, J J; Baker, H V; Oda, D; Lamont, R J; Handfield, M

    2006-08-01

    Transcriptional profiling and gene ontology analyses were performed to investigate the unique responses of two different epithelial cell lines to an Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans challenge. A total of 2867 genes were differentially regulated among all experimental conditions. The analysis of these 2867 genes revealed that the predominant specific response to infection in HeLa cells was associated with the regulation of enzyme activity, RNA metabolism, nucleoside and nucleic acid transport and protein modification. The predominant specific response in immortalized human gingival keratinocytes (IHGK) was associated with the regulation of angiogenesis, chemotaxis, transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling, cell differentiation, apoptosis and response to stress. Of particular interest, stress response genes were significantly - yet differently - affected in both cell lines. In HeLa cells, only three regulated genes impacted the response to stress, and the response to unfolded protein was the only term that passed the ontology filters. This strikingly contrasted with the profiles obtained for IHGK, in which 61 regulated genes impacted the response to stress and constituted an extensive network of cell responses to A. actinomycetemcomitans interaction (response to pathogens, oxidative stress, unfolded proteins, DNA damage, starvation and wounding). Hence, while extensive similarities were found in the transcriptional profiles of these two epithelial cell lines, significant differences were highlighted. These differences were predominantly found in pathways that are associated with host-pathogen interactions.

  8. Sulphation of proteins secreted by a human hepatoma-derived cell line. Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides on alpha 2HS-glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Hortin, G; Green, E D; Baenziger, J U; Strauss, A W

    1986-01-01

    Several human glycoproteins, including alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, transferrin, caeruloplasmin and alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, synthesized by the hepatoma-derived cell line HepG2 were observed to contain covalently linked sulphate. These proteins were estimated to contain about 0.1 mol of sulphate/mol of protein. The most abundant of the sulphated glycoproteins, alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, was analysed in detail. All of the sulphate on this protein was attached to N-linked oligosaccharides which contained sialic acid and resisted release by endoglycosidase H. Several independent analytical approaches established that approx. 10% of the molecules of alpha 2HS-glycoprotein contained sulphate. Our results suggest that a number of human plasma proteins contain small amounts of sulphate linked to oligosaccharides. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3017304

  9. Analysis of the activation state of alpha4beta1 integrin in human B cell lines derived from myeloma, leukemia or lymphoma.

    PubMed

    García-Gila, M; Cabañas, C; García-Pardo, A

    1997-12-01

    Myeloma cells specifically localize in the bone marrow and rarely circulate in blood. To study whether this immobilization could be partially explained by the presence of constitutively activated integrins, particularly alpha4beta1, we used the activation reporter HUTS-21 anti-beta1 mAb. These analyses showed that beta1 integrins on myeloma cells were moderately active and could be upregulated similarly to integrins on lymphoma or leukemia cells. Myeloma cells were also tested for their ability to attach to RGD-containing fibronectin fragments, a property of activated (but not resting) alpha4beta1. Two cell lines adhered to these fragments and this was inhibited by anti-alpha5 but not by anti-alpha4 mAbs. These results show that myeloma cells bear low/moderately active alpha4beta1 and support the notion that multiple interactions contribute to their localization in the bone marrow.

  10. First evidence of non-Gaussian solar flare EUV spectral line profiles and accelerated non-thermal ion motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Context. The properties of solar flare plasma can be determined from the observation of optically thin lines. The emitting ion distribution determines the shape of the spectral line profile, with an isothermal Maxwellian ion distribution producing a Gaussian profile. Non-Gaussian line profiles may indicate more complex ion distributions. Aims: We investigate the possibility of determining flare-accelerated non-thermal ion and/or plasma velocity distributions. Methods: We study EUV spectral lines produced during a flare SOL2013-05-15T01:45 using the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The flare is located close to the eastern solar limb with an extended loop structure, allowing the different flare features: ribbons, hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints and the loop-top source to be clearly observed in UV, EUV and X-rays. EUV line spectroscopy is performed in seven different regions covering the flare. We study the line profiles of the isolated and unblended Fe XVI lines (λ262.9760 Å ) mainly formed at temperatures of ~2 to 4 MK. Suitable Fe XVI line profiles at one time close to the peak soft X-ray emission and free of directed mass motions are examined using: 1. a higher moments analysis, 2. Gaussian fitting, and 3. by fitting a kappa distribution line profile convolved with a Gaussian to account for the EIS instrumental profile. Results: Fe XVI line profiles in the flaring loop-top, HXR footpoint and ribbon regions can be confidently fitted with a kappa line profile with an extra variable κ, giving low, non-thermal κ values between 2 and 3.3. An independent higher moments analysis also finds that many of the spectral line kurtosis values are higher than the Gaussian value of 3, even with the presence of a broad Gaussian instrumental profile. Conclusions: A flare-accelerated non-thermal ion population could account for both the observed non-Gaussian line profiles, and for the Fe XVI "excess" broadening found from Gaussian fitting, if the emitting ions are interacting

  11. Large-Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, James; Ryan, Colm J.; Brough, Rachel; Bajrami, Ilirjana; Pemberton, Helen N.; Chong, Irene Y.; Costa-Cabral, Sara; Frankum, Jessica; Gulati, Aditi; Holme, Harriet; Miller, Rowan; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Rafiq, Rumana; Wei, Wenbin; Williamson, Chris T.; Quigley, David A.; Tym, Joe; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Fenton, Timothy; Natrajan, Rachael; Strauss, Sandra J.; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary One approach to identifying cancer-specific vulnerabilities and therapeutic targets is to profile genetic dependencies in cancer cell lines. Here, we describe data from a series of siRNA screens that identify the kinase genetic dependencies in 117 cancer cell lines from ten cancer types. By integrating the siRNA screen data with molecular profiling data, including exome sequencing data, we show how vulnerabilities/genetic dependencies that are associated with mutations in specific cancer driver genes can be identified. By integrating additional data sets into this analysis, including protein-protein interaction data, we also demonstrate that the genetic dependencies associated with many cancer driver genes form dense connections on functional interaction networks. We demonstrate the utility of this resource by using it to predict the drug sensitivity of genetically or histologically defined subsets of tumor cell lines, including an increased sensitivity of osteosarcoma cell lines to FGFR inhibitors and SMAD4 mutant tumor cells to mitotic inhibitors. PMID:26947069

  12. The implementation of non-Voigt line profiles in the HITRAN database: H2 case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, P.; Gordon, I. E.; Tran, H.; Tan, Y.; Hu, S.-M.; Campargue, A.; Kassi, S.; Romanini, D.; Hill, C.; Kochanov, R. V.; Rothman, L. S.

    2016-07-01

    Experimental capabilities of molecular spectroscopy and its applications nowadays require a sub-percent or even sub-per mille accuracy of the representation of the shapes of molecular transitions. This implies the necessity of using more advanced line-shape models which are characterized by many more parameters than a simple Voigt profile. It is a great challenge for modern molecular spectral databases to store and maintain the extended set of line-shape parameters as well as their temperature dependences. It is even more challenging to reliably retrieve these parameters from experimental spectra over a large range of pressures and temperatures. In this paper we address this problem starting from the case of the H2 molecule for which the non-Voigt line-shape effects are exceptionally pronounced. For this purpose we reanalyzed the experimental data reported in the literature. In particular, we performed detailed line-shape analysis of high-quality spectra obtained with cavity-enhanced techniques. We also report the first high-quality cavity-enhanced measurement of the H2 fundamental vibrational mode. We develop a correction to the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP) which adjusts the HTP to the particular model of the velocity-changing collisions. This allows the measured spectra to be better represented over a wide range of pressures. The problem of storing the HTP parameters in the HITRAN database together with their temperature dependences is also discussed.

  13. Generation and gene expression profiling of 48 transcription-factor-inducible mouse embryonic stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Nishiyama, Akira; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into a wide range – and possibly all cell types in vitro, and thus provide an ideal platform to study systematically the action of transcription factors (TFs) in cell differentiation. Previously, we have generated and analyzed 137 TF-inducible mouse ESC lines. As an extension of this “NIA Mouse ESC Bank,” we generated and characterized 48 additional mouse ESC lines, in which single TFs in each line could be induced in a doxycycline-controllable manner. Together, with the previous ESC lines, the bank now comprises 185 TF-manipulable ESC lines (>10% of all mouse TFs). Global gene expression (transcriptome) profiling revealed that the induction of individual TFs in mouse ESCs for 48 hours shifts their transcriptomes toward specific differentiation fates (e.g., neural lineages by Myt1 Isl1, and St18; mesodermal lineages by Pitx1, Pitx2, Barhl2, and Lmx1a; white blood cells by Myb, Etv2, and Tbx6, and ovary by Pitx1, Pitx2, and Dmrtc2). These data also provide and lists of inferred target genes of each TF and possible functions of these TFs. The results demonstrate the utility of mouse ESC lines and their transcriptome data for understanding the mechanism of cell differentiation and the function of TFs. PMID:27150017

  14. On the line profiles in the spectra of the zodiacal light.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, D.; Matthews, S. A.; Mundell, C. G.; Weir, A. S.

    1996-04-01

    The model proposed by Hong (1985) describing the surface brightness variation with elongation of the Zodiacal Light has been applied to predict the spectral line profiles produced by Doppler effects associated with scattering from interplanetary dust for the simple case of prograde Keplerian orbits. Over the greater elongation range, the predictions are substantially the same as for previous models but with shallower line depths and more pronounced asymmetries. At elongations ~30deg and less, however, Hong's mixture of phase angle scattering functions predicts bifurcation of the lines so providing an alternative explanation to the two dust stream model of Beavers et al. (1980) proposed as the interpretation of their spectra of the F corona. The work also highlights a general problem of using radial velocity correlation masks for investigations of Zodiacal Light spectra.

  15. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN MACROTURBULENT BROADENING AND LINE-PROFILE VARIATIONS IN OB SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon-Diaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Castro, N.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Puls, J.

    2010-09-10

    The spectra of O and B supergiants (Sgs) are known to be affected by a significant form of extra line broadening (usually referred to as macroturbulence) in addition to that produced by stellar rotation. Recent analyses of high-resolution spectra have shown that the interpretation of this line broadening as a consequence of large-scale turbulent motions would imply highly supersonic velocity fields in photospheric regions, making this scenario quite improbable. Stellar oscillations have been proposed as a likely alternative explanation. As part of a long-term observational project, we are investigating the macroturbulent broadening in O and B Sgs and its possible connection with spectroscopic variability phenomena and stellar oscillations. In this Letter, we present the first encouraging results of our project, namely, firm observational evidence for a strong correlation between the extra broadening and photospheric line-profile variations in a sample of 13 Sgs with spectral types ranging from O9.5 to B8.

  16. Temporal variations of solar-spectral-line profiles induced by the 5-minute photospheric oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.T.; Marmolino, C.; Roberti, G.; Severino, G.

    1987-01-01

    The variations induced by the 5-min photospheric oscillation are simulated on the line profiles. A phase lag of the order of 150/degree/ between temperature and velocity wave perturbations can explain the observed differences between the oscillations of the line flanks at residual intensity levels I/I/sub c/ < 0.7. Such a phase relation in the 5-min oscillation differs from that of the adiabatic case in which the temperature and pressure fluctuations are 90/degrees/ out of phase with respect to the velocity. A simple model of radiative damping in the solar photosphere can produce the required phase lag between temperature and velocity. The granulation can affect differentially the oscillations of the line flanks. This effect, however, does not fit the observed behavior of the flank oscillations.

  17. Time evolution of a miniflare as seen in H-alpha, UV lines, and X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1994-01-01

    A miniflare that occurred in active region Hale 16896 on 1980 June 15 was observed in H-alpha, UV lines, and soft X-rays. These data allow us to analyze the flare emission and derive the energetics and dynamics of the chromospheric plasma involved. Our results indicate that the energy released by the miniflare was about 10(exp 28) ergs, about four orders of magnitude smaller than that of a large flare. However, hard X-rays (5.5-8.0 keV) were observed which indicated a plasma with temperature as high as 27 x 10(exp 6) K. The H-alpha wings, C IV, and X-rays all showed a short-lived and compact (3 sec x 3 sec) brightening in a location near the leading sunspot. At this location, small-scale changes in the magnetic field were observed from about 2 hr before to about 6 hr after the miniflare. Only very small velocities seem to have been associated with most of the event in H-alpha. The data are consistent with short and dense loops at temperatures above 10(exp 7) K which lost a large fraction of their energy via downward conduction through regions at the footpoints. Several secondary events appear to have been triggered by the miniflare along an arch filament which itself was not greatly affected. A number of much less energetic (10(exp 25)-10(exp 26) erg) events preceded and followed the mini-flare. One of these occurred 11 minutes after the mini-flare and displayed a highly Doppler-shifted signature from the foot-point of a C IV arch. This arch delineates the connection that existed between the location of the mini-flare and the location of secondary events triggered by the flare.

  18. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Wilkins, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alpha- (α-) particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF) was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific. PMID:22619631

  19. A comparitive assessement of cytokine expression in human-derived cell lines exposed to alpha particles and X-rays.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Wilkins, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alpha- (α-) particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF) was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific.

  20. Proteome profiling of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line TOV-112D.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Gagné, Pierre; Hunter, Joanna M; Bonicalzi, Marie-Eve; Lemay, Jean-François; Kelly, Isabelle; Le Page, Cécile; Provencher, Diane; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Droit, Amaud; Bourgais, David; Poirier, Guy G

    2005-07-01

    A proteome profiling of the epithelial ovarian cancer cell line TOV-112D was initiated as a protein expression reference in the study of ovarian cancer. Two complementary proteomic approaches were used in order to maximise protein identification: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) protein separation coupled to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE) coupled to liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS). One hundred and seventy-two proteins have been identified among 288 spots selected on two-dimensional gels and a total of 579 proteins were identified with the 1DE LC MS/MS approach. This proteome profiling covers a wide range of protein expression and identifies several proteins known for their oncogenic properties. Bioinformatics tools were used to mine databases in order to determine whether the identified proteins have previously been implicated in pathways associated with carcinogenesis or cell proliferation. Indeed, several of the proteins have been reported to be specific ovarian cancer markers while others are common to many tumorigenic tissues or proliferating cells. The diversity of proteins found and their association with known oncogenic pathways validate this proteomic approach. The proteome 2D map of the TOV-112D cell line will provide a valuable resource in studies on differential protein expression of human ovarian carcinomas while the 1DE LC MS/MS approach gives a picture of the actual protein profile of the TOV-112D cell line. This work represents one of the most complete ovarian protein expression analysis reports to date and the first comparative study of gene expression profiling and proteomic patterns in ovarian cancer.

  1. Anisotropic Dislocation Line Energy and Crack Tip Dislocation Nucleation in (alpha)RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    November 2013 Anisotropic Dislocation Line Energy and Crack Tip Dislocation Nucleation in αRDX Lynn B. Munday and Jaroslaw Knap Computational ...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This work reports on the algorithms used to determine the...anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties of dislocations and their nucleation from a crack tip. The appendix contains a numerical implementation of these

  2. Searching for Dwarf H Alpha Emission-line Galaxies within Voids III: First Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. Ward; Draper, Christian; McNeil, Stephen; Joner, Michael D.

    2017-02-01

    The presence or absence of dwarf galaxies with {M}r\\prime > -14 in low-density voids is determined by the nature of dark matter halos. To better understand what this nature is, we are conducting an imaging survey through redshifted Hα filters to look for emission-line dwarf galaxies in the centers of two nearby galaxy voids called FN2 and FN8. Either finding such dwarfs or establishing that they are not present is a significant result. As an important step in establishing the robustness of the search technique, we have observed six candidates from the survey of FN8 with the Gillett Gemini telescope and GMOS spectrometer. All of these candidates had emission, although none was Hα. The emission in two objects was the [O iii]λ4959, 5007 doublet plus Hβ, and the emission in the remaining four was the [O ii]λ3727 doublet, all from objects beyond the void. While no objects were within the void, these spectra show that the survey is capable of finding emission-line dwarfs in the void centers that are as faint as {M}r\\prime ∼ -12.4, should they be present. These spectra also show that redshifts estimated from our filtered images are accurate to several hundred km s‑1 if the line is identified correctly, encouraging further work in finding ways to conduct redshift surveys through imaging alone.

  3. A bipolar outflow of ionized gas in K3-50A: H76 alpha radio recombination line and continuum observations of K3-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depree, C. G.; Goss, W. M.; Palmer, Patrick; Rubin, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The H II regions near K3-50 (G70.3 + 1.6) have been imaged at high angular resolution (approximately 1 sec .3) in the continuum and the recombination lines H76(sub alpha and He76(sub alpha) using the Very Large Array (VLA). The helium line is detected in only the brightest component K3-50A while the hydrogen line is detected in three components (K3-50A, B and C1). K3-50A shows a pronounced velocity gradient of approximately 150 km/sec/pc along its major axis (P.A. = 160 deg); in addition a wide range of line widths are observed, from 20 to 65 km/sec. Kinematics from the line data and the morphology of the continuum emission suggest that the ionized material associated with K3-50A is undergoing a high-velocity bipolar outflow.

  4. Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Barallon, Rita; Bauer, Steven R.; Butler, John; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Furtado, Manohar; Kline, Margaret C.; Kohara, Arihiro; Los, Georgyi V.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Masters, John R. W.; Nardone, Mark; Nardone, Roland M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Price, Paul J.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Shewale, Jaiprakash; Sykes, Gregory; Steuer, Anton F.; Storts, Douglas R.; Thomson, Jim; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Kerrigan, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Cell misidentification and cross-contamination have plagued biomedical research for as long as cells have been employed as research tools. Examples of misidentified cell lines continue to surface to this day. Efforts to eradicate the problem by raising awareness of the issue and by asking scientists voluntarily to take appropriate actions have not been successful. Unambiguous cell authentication is an essential step in the scientific process and should be an inherent consideration during peer review of papers submitted for publication or during review of grants submitted for funding. In order to facilitate proper identity testing, accurate, reliable, inexpensive, and standardized methods for authentication of cells and cell lines must be made available. To this end, an international team of scientists is, at this time, preparing a consensus standard on the authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. This standard, which will be submitted for review and approval as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute, will provide investigators guidance on the use of STR profiling for authenticating human cell lines. Such guidance will include methodological detail on the preparation of the DNA sample, the appropriate numbers and types of loci to be evaluated, and the interpretation and quality control of the results. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public STR profile database under the auspices of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The consensus standard is anticipated to be adopted by granting agencies and scientific journals as appropriate methodology for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues. PMID:20614197

  5. Line-profile variations in radial-velocity measurements. Two alternative indicators for planetary searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Pepe, F.; Lovis, C.; Nardetto, N.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We introduce two methods to identify false-positive planetary signals in the context of radial-velocity exoplanet searches. The first is the bi-Gaussian cross-correlation function fitting (and monitoring of the parameters derived from it), and the second is the measurement of asymmetry in radial-velocity spectral line information content, Vasy. We assess the usefulness of each of these methods by comparing their results with those delivered by current indicators. Methods: We make a systematic analysis of the most used common line profile diagnosis, Bisector Inverse Slope and Velocity Span, along with the two proposed ones. We evaluate all these diagnosis methods following a set of well-defined common criteria and using both simulated and real data. We apply them to simulated cross-correlation functions that are created with the program SOAP and which are affected by the presence of stellar spots. We consider different spot properties on stars with different rotation profiles and simulate observations as obtained with high-resolution spectrographs. We then apply our methodology to real cross-correlation functions, which are computed from HARPS spectra, for stars with a signal originating in activity (thus spots) and for those with a signal rooted on a planet. Results: We demonstrate that the bi-Gaussian method allows a more precise characterization of the deformation of line profiles than the standard bisector inverse slope. The calculation of the deformation indicator is simpler and its interpretation more straightforward. More importantly, its amplitude can be up to 30% larger than that of the bisector span, allowing the detection of smaller-amplitude correlations with radial-velocity variations. However, a particular parametrization of the bisector inverse slope is shown to be more efficient on high-signal-to-noise data than both the standard bisector and the bi-Gaussian. The results of the Vasy method show that this indicator is more effective than any of

  6. Assessment of a systematic expression profiling approach in ENU-induced mouse mutant lines.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Matthias; Horsch, Marion; Drobyshev, Alexei; Chen, Yali; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Beckers, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Comparative genomewide expression profiling is a powerful tool in the effort to annotate the mouse genome with biological function. The systematic analysis of RNA expression data of mouse lines from the Munich ENU mutagenesis screen might support the understanding of the molecular biology of such mutants and provide new insights into mammalian gene function. In a direct comparison of DNA microarray experiments of individual versus pooled RNA samples of organs from ENU-induced mouse mutants, we provide evidence that individual RNA samples may outperform pools in some aspects. Genes with high biological variability in their expression levels (noisy genes) are identified as false positives in pooled samples. Evidence suggests that highly stringent housing conditions and standardized procedures for the isolation of organs significantly reduce biological variability in gene expression profiling experiments. Data on wild-type individuals demonstrate the positive effect of controlling variables such as social status, food intake before organ sampling, and stress with regard to reproducibility of gene expression patterns. Analyses of several organs from various ENU-induced mutant lines in general show low numbers of differentially expressed genes. We demonstrate the feasibility to detect transcriptionally affected organs employing RNA expression profiling as a tool for molecular phenotyping.

  7. Profiling of the Tox21 10K compound library for agonists and antagonists of the estrogen receptor alpha signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Martin, Matt T.; Reif, David M.; Judson, Richard S.; Houck, Keith A.; Casey, Warren; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Shockley, Keith R.; Ceger, Patricia; Fostel, Jennifer; Witt, Kristine L.; Tong, Weida; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Zhao, Tongan; Shinn, Paul; Simeonov, Anton; Dix, David J.; Austin, Christopher P.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Tice, Raymond R.; Xia, Menghang

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Tox21 program has screened a library of approximately 10,000 (10K) environmental chemicals and drugs in three independent runs for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist and antagonist activity using two types of ER reporter gene cell lines, one with an endogenous full length ERα (ER-luc; BG1 cell line) and the other with a transfected partial receptor consisting of the ligand binding domain (ER-bla; ERα β-lactamase cell line), in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format. The ability of the two assays to correctly identify ERα agonists and antagonists was evaluated using a set of 39 reference compounds with known ERα activity. Although both assays demonstrated adequate (i.e. >80%) predictivity, the ER-luc assay was more sensitive and the ER-bla assay more specific. The qHTS assay results were compared with results from previously published ERα binding assay data and showed >80% consistency. Actives identified from both the ER-bla and ER-luc assays were analyzed for structure-activity relationships (SARs) revealing known and potentially novel ERα active structure classes. The results demonstrate the feasibility of qHTS to identify environmental chemicals with the potential to interact with the ERα signaling pathway and the two different assay formats improve the confidence in correctly identifying these chemicals. PMID:25012808

  8. Two distinct T-cell receptor alpha-chain transcripts in a rabbit T-cell line: implications for allelic exclusion in T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marche, P N; Kindt, T J

    1986-01-01

    Information relevant to allelic exclusion in T cells has been obtained by a study of cDNA clones corresponding to alpha-chain genes of the T-cell receptor in the rabbit T-cell line RL-5. One clone contains a variable-joining-constant (VJC) sequence encoding a complete alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. A second has an identical constant region and includes a distinct variable-joining (VJ) sequence. However, a single-base deletion in the variable region places the remainder of the second transcript out-of-phase and appears to be the product of a rearrangement involving a variable region of the T-cell receptor alpha-chain pseudogene. Presence of two variable-joining-constant (VJC) transcripts in the same cell line indicates that alpha-chain gene rearrangement is not affected by transcription of a complete alpha-chain mRNA and suggests that steps after mRNA synthesis are involved in the allelic exclusion process for alpha-chain genes. Comparison of rabbit alpha-chain sequences with those of man and mouse revealed interspecies conservation in constant and variable regions. Genomic Southern blot analyses using a rabbit constant region of the T-cell receptor alpha-chain probe revealed the presence of a single constant region gene. Hybridization with variable region probes defined two distinct multigenic subfamilies. Homology between certain rabbit and murine variable regions of the T-cell receptor alpha-chain sequences suggests that the existence of subfamilies predated divergence of these species. Images PMID:3485798

  9. Toxicokinetic Profiles of Alpha-ketoglutarate Cyanohydrin, a Cyanide Detoxification Product, following Exposure to Potassium Cyanide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-15

    tox le t Toxicokinetic profiles of -ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide ...KgCN in swine was investigated. • Measuring plasma -KgCN provides definitive confirmation of cyanide exposure. • Treatment of... cyanide poisoning with cobinamide renders -KgCN an ineffective diagnostic marker. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 May

  10. Apparent sizes and spectral line profiles for spherical ('three-dimensional') astrophysical masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmering, Robert T.; Watson, William D.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations are performed for the frequency-dependent transport of radiation in a uniform spherical maser. Coupling between the intensities at different frequencies is treated. Spherical masers are commonly utilized as idealized geometries in which to assess possible deviations (sometimes, 'three-dimensional effects') from the approximation of a linear geometry. We find that the spectral line profile rebroadens in approximately the same manner as that for a linear maser so that the relationship between the line breadth and the luminosity, beaming angle, and degree of saturation is essentially unchanged. The variation of the apparent size of a spherical maser with frequency is not found to be significant at frequencies within the line profile at which the intensity is appreciable. The 'standard approximation' is adequate for obtaining most of the basic properties of spherical masers that have been examined including the relationship between the pumping (or molecular populations) and the intensity of maser radiation. The improved methods employed here are, however, necessary to obtain variation of the apparent size with frequency in the saturated regime. These conclusions differ from those of previous investigators. The calculations here are more reliable than those of previous investigators because these are self-consistent and avoid certain inaccurate simplifications.

  11. Study of nonstationarity of the atmosphere of κ Cas. I. Variability of profiles of photospheric and He I wind lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzaev, A. Kh.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal variations of radial velocities and line profiles in the spectrum of the supergiant κ Cas were investigated. Variability of radial velocities and profiles of photospheric lines Si III, OII, He I, H10-Hδ and wind lines He I λ 5875, 6678 Å ismainly caused by non-radial pulsations. For photospheric lines quasisinusoidal variabilities of the radial velocity were found. Temporal variability of radial velocity of the wind lines He I λ 5875, 6678 A˚ differ from each other and from the photospheric lines. Gamma velocities and amplitudes of radial velocity variability were determined. The amplitude of variability and the velocity of expansion increase from lower to upper layers of the atmosphere. Emission components are superimposed on the line profiles at positions about -135 ± 10.0, -20 ± 20 and 135 ± 10.0 kms-1 respectively. They are more obvious in the wind line profiles, although, there are signs of emissions also in the photospheric lines. Such a character of variability of all the lines in the κ Cas spectrum confirms its Be nature.

  12. Oscillations of the sun's chromosphere. II - H-alpha line centre and wing filtergram time sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneer, F.; von Uexkuell, M.

    1985-03-01

    In order to investigate the dynamics of the solar chromosphere we perform a Fourier analysis of time sequences (total duration 128 min) of Hα photographic filtergrams taken simultaneously at disc centre in line centre and ±0.5 Å from the line centre. The results are: (i) At low frequencies (periods >450 s) the brightness fluctuations are caused by the temporal evolution of Hα structures at the boundaries of the chromospheric network. We observe that much of the coarse chromospheric structure survives the 128 min time span. We derive lifetimes of 2-8 min for the small-scale structure and 5-20 min for the larger structures. (ii) The modal structure of the 5 min oscillation is clearly visible in the power spectra of the three filtergram. The fundamental (f) mode can be followed to high horizontal wavenumbers kh ≍3.7 Mm-1 and follows the expected relationship ω2f = gkh, where g is the surface gravity. (iii) A chromospheric resonant mode cannot be found in the k - ω plane. (iv) The higher resonant p modes reach into the acoustic wave domain (periods T ≍ 150 s) and thus require the transition zone as the upper reflecting layer. (v) We find no evidence for internal gravity waves. (vi) From a coherence and phase analysis we conclude that the brightness fluctuations of the chromospheric structure seen in -0.5 Å lead those in +0.5 Å by 2 min at kh =2 Mm -1 and by 4 min at kh =0.5 Mm-1. (vii) From the same coherence and phase analysis we can identify acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere with periods as short as 80 s. They possess as much power as the 5 min oscillations and are seen better outside the chromospheric network than within the network. (viii) The phase difference between intensity in Hα line centre and velocity, constructed from the two Hα wing filtergrams, decreases from about 90° at low frequencies and high wavenumbers to 0° at high frequencies and low wavenumbers. Tentatively we interpret this as a change from mainly standing waves for the low

  13. On the reliability of powder diffraction Line Profile Analysis of plastically deformed nanocrystalline systems

    PubMed Central

    Rebuffi, Luca; Troian, Andrea; Ciancio, Regina; Carlino, Elvio; Amimi, Amine; Leonardi, Alberto; Scardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    An iron-molybdenum alloy powder was extensively deformed by high energy milling, so to refine the bcc iron domain size to nanometer scale (~10 nm) and introduce a strong inhomogeneous strain. Both features contribute to comparable degree to the diffraction peak profile broadening, so that size and strain contributions can be easily separated by exploiting their different dependence on the diffraction angle. To assess the reliability of Line Profile Analysis, results were compared with evidence from other techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray small angle scattering. Results confirm the extent of the size broadening effect, whereas molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into the origin of the local atomic, inhomogeneous strain, pointing out the role of dislocations, domain boundaries and interactions among crystalline domains. PMID:26860471

  14. Homozygous deletion of the. alpha. - and. beta. sub 1 -interferon genes in human leukemia and derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, M.O.; Ziemin, S.; Le Beau, M.M.; Pitha, P.; Smith, S.D.; Chilcote, R.R.; Rowley, J.D. )

    1988-07-01

    The loss of bands p21-22 from one chromosome 9 homologue as a consequence of a deletion of the short arm (del(9p)), unbalanced translocation, or monosomy 9 is frequently observed in the malignant cells of patients with lymphoid neoplasias, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The {alpha}- and {beta}{sub 1}-interferon genes have been assigned to this chromosome region (9p21-22). The authors now present evidence of the homozygous deletion of the interferon genes in neoplastic hematopoietic cell lines and primary leukemia cells in the presence or absence of chromosomal deletions that are detectable at the level of the light microscope. In these cell lines, the deletion of the interferon genes is accompanied by a deficiency of 5{prime}-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase, an enzyme of purine metabolism. These homozygous deletions may be associated with the loss of a tumor-suppressor gene that is involved in the development of these neoplasias. The relevant genes may be either the interferon genes themselves or a gene that has a tumor-suppressor function and is closely linked to them.

  15. Upper Limits to Balmer-Line Emission in Three Z approximately 2 Damped Lyman- alpha Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, E. M.; Songaila, A.; Cowie, L. L.; Hodapp, K.-W.

    1993-12-01

    We have searched for Hα and Hβ emission in the high-z damped Lyα systems toward the quasars PHL 957, Q0528-250, and Q0836+ 113. We failed to detect the Balmer lines with 2 σ upper limits on Hα of around 2 x 10^-16^ ergs cm^2^ s^-1^, with similar limits on [O III] and Hβ for the first two systems. The results suggest that the weak or undetectable Lyα emission in these systems is not simply a consequence of dust destruction, but reflects a relatively low star-formation rate. For the Lyα emitting companion to PKL 957 we report an Hα flux of 3.6 +/- 1.5 x 10^-16^ ergs cm^2^ s^-1^, implying f(Lyα)/f(Hα) >= 1.6 and suggesting that Lyα cannot be reduced by more than a factor of 10 in this object.

  16. Targeted Biomarker Discovery by High Throughput Glycosylation Profiling of Human Plasma Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. Renee; Koeleman, Carolien A. M.; Uh, Hae-Won; Stam, Jord C.; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Protein N-glycosylation patterns are known to show vast genetic as well as physiological and pathological variation and represent a large pool of potential biomarkers. Large-scale studies are needed for the identification and validation of biomarkers, and the analytical techniques required have recently been developed. Such methods have up to now mainly been applied to complex mixtures of glycoproteins in biofluids (e.g. plasma). Here, we analyzed N-glycosylation profiles of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) enriched fractions by 96-well microtitration plate based high-throughput immuno-affinity capturing and N-glycan analysis using multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). Human plasma samples were from the Leiden Longevity Study comprising 2415 participants of different chronological and biological ages. Glycosylation patterns of AAT enriched fractions were found to be associated with chronological (calendar) age and they differed between females and males. Moreover, several glycans in the AAT enriched fraction were associated with physiological parameters marking cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Pronounced differences were found between males and females in the glycosylation profiles of IgA enriched fractions. Our results demonstrate that large-scale immuno-affinity capturing of proteins from human plasma using a bead-based method combined with high-throughput N-glycan analysis is a powerful tool for the discovery of glycosylation-based biomarker candidates. PMID:24039863

  17. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis of KBr thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R.; Triloki, Triloki; Singh, B. K.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, the microcrystalline characteristics of KBr thin films have been investigated by evaluating the breadth of diffraction peak. The Williamson-Hall, the Size-Strain plot and the single-line Voigt methods are employed to deconvolute the finite crystallite size and microstrain contribution from the broaden X-ray profile. The texture coefficient and dislocation density have been determined along each diffraction peak. Other relevant physical parameters such as stress, Young's modulus and energy density are also estimated using uniform stress deformation and uniform deformation energy density approximation of Williamson-Hall method.

  18. Emission-line profiles in SNe Ib/c - Probing the ejecta geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.

    2009-05-03

    To constrain the ejecta geometry of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe, we investigate nearly 100 nebular spectra of 39 objects, several previously unpublished. We perform a Gauss-fitting of [O I]{lambda}{lambda}6300, 6364 in all spectra, and on the basis of the best-fit parameters organise the objects into morphological classes. We conclude that at least 40% of all SNe Ib/c must be aspherical. In some SNe, the [O I] line exhibits a variety of shifted secondary peaks or shoulders, interpreted as blobs of matter ejected at high velocity. The profile of Mg I]{lambda}4571 generally resembles that of [O I]{lambda}{lambda}6300, 6364, suggesting negligible contamination from other lines and confirming that O and Mg are similarly distributed within the ejecta.

  19. Beyond the Standard Scheme for Relativistic Spectral Line Profiles from Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Vladimir; Sochora, V.; Svoboda, J.; Dovciak, M.

    2011-09-01

    Spectral features can arise by reflection of coronal X-rays on a black hole accretion disc. The resulting profile bears various imprints of strong gravitational field acting on the light emitting gas. We study if the currently discussed instruments on-board X-ray satellites will be able to reveal the departure of the line radial emissivity from a simple smooth power-law function, which is often assumed in data fitting and interpretation. Such a departure can be a result of excess emission occurring at a certain distance. This could be used to study variations with radius of the line production or to constrain the position of the inner edge of the accretion disc. By simulating artificial data from a bright active galactic nucleus we show that the required sensitivity and energy resolution could be reached with Large Area Detector of the proposed LOFT mission.

  20. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines.

  1. Bacterial cell wall products increases stabilization of HIF-1 alpha in an oligodendrocyte cell line preconditioned by cobalt chloride or desferrioxamine.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song-yi; Soutto, Mohammed; Sriram, Subramaniam

    2008-08-30

    We examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipotechoic acid (LTA) on the regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha on the MO3.13 cells, a human oligodendroglial cell line. Our study shows that MO3.13 cells express the toll like receptors (TLR's) but do not increase cellular levels of HIF-1 alpha following exposure to bacterial cell wall products. When MO3.13 cells were preconditioned by desferrioxamine (DFO) or cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) and then treated with either LPS or LTA, HIF-1 alpha levels were higher than that induced by DFO or CoCl(2) alone. The increase in HIF-1 alpha was due to increased protein stability that was mediated by activation of the ERK-MAP kinase pathway.

  2. Persistence and costs with subcutaneous TNF-alpha inhibitors in immune-mediated rheumatic disease stratified by treatment line

    PubMed Central

    Svedbom, Axel; Dalén, Johan; Black, Christopher M; Kachroo, Sumesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to 1) describe and compare treatment persistence with first- and second-line subcutaneous tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (SC-TNFis) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (collectively immune-mediated rheumatic disease) in Sweden and 2) estimate and contrast health care costs in the two groups. Methods Patients who initiated their first or second SC-TNFi between May 6 2010 and December 12 2012 were identified from the Prescribed Drug Register. Persistence was estimated using survival analysis. Costs comprised specialized outpatient care, inpatient care, and medication. The persistence analysis was stratified by immune-mediated rheumatic disease diagnosis. Results A total of 4,903 patients treated with their first and 845 patients treated with their second SC-TNFi were identified. Baseline characteristics differed between the two groups. Therefore, propensity score matching analysis was implemented. Second-line patients were matched to first-line patients, and four cohort pairs (AS, PsA, RA, and all diagnoses combined) were generated. Patients treated with their first SC-TNFi had statistically significant higher persistence than patients treated with their second SC-TNFi in PsA (P=0.036), RA (P=0.048), and all diagnoses combined (P<0.001) but not in AS (P=0.741). Patients who were treated with their second SC-TNFi incurred higher costs than patients treated with their first SC-TNFi. Conclusion Overall, persistence to the first SC-TNFi was higher than persistence to the second SC-TNFi. Furthermore, the second SC-TNFi was associated with higher costs than the first SC-TNFi. Therefore, prescribing the SC-TNFi with the best long-term persistence first may be beneficial. PMID:28144130

  3. A Tie2-driven BAC-TRAP transgenic line for in vivo endothelial gene profiling.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Devi; Huang, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Recent technological innovations including bacterial artificial chromosome-based translating ribosome affinity purification (BAC-TRAP) have greatly facilitated analysis of cell type-specific gene expression in vivo, especially in the nervous system. To better study endothelial gene expression in vivo, we have generated a BAC-TRAP transgenic mouse line where the L10a ribosomal subunit is tagged with EGFP and placed under the control of the endothelium-specific Tie2 (Tek) promoter. We show that transgene expression in this line is widely, but specifically, detected in endothelial cells in several brain regions throughout pre- and postnatal development, as well as in other organs. We also show that this line results in highly significant enrichment of endothelium-specific mRNAs from brain tissues at different stages. This BAC-TRAP line therefore provides a useful genetic tool for in vivo endothelial gene profiling under various developmental, physiological, and pathological conditions. genesis 54:136-145, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High-ionization Gas in Active Galactic Nuclei: Line Profiles and Physical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodíguez-Ardila, A.; Riffel, R.; Mazzalay, X.; Portilla, J. G.

    2012-08-01

    SOAR/Goodman spectroscopy is employed to detect the coronal lines [Fe VII] 3759, 5159, and 6087 Å, [Ne V] 3423 Å and [Fe X] 6083 Å, the former three suitable to determine the temperature and density of the high-ionization gas. The spectra allow us to fully characterize the profiles of the most conspicuous lines (asymmetries, shifts from the centroid position and line width). The combined results allow us to detect signatures of outflows in the coronal gas and thus set up constrains on the origin of the CLs in AGNs. In addition, AO GEMINI/NIFS IFU spectroscopy is used to study the coronal gas morphology at spatial scales of a few parsecs in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. We found that the gas distribution is rather inhomogeneous and asymmetric. From the comparison of the CL [Mg VIII] with the VLA 6 cm radio emission we found evidence that the CL gas kinematics and morphology is strongly related to the radio jet morphology. All above results allow us to confirm the role that coronal lines have to trace outflows at the inner tens of parsecs of AGNs.

  5. Demonstration of Current Profile Shaping using Double Dog-Leg Emittance Exchange Beam Line at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Gwanghui; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Conde, Manoel; Doran, Darrell; Gai, Wei; Jing, Chunguang; Kim, Kwang-Je; Liu, Wanming; Namkung, Won; Piot, Philippe; Power, John; Sun, Yin-E; Whiteford, Charles; Wisniewski, Eric; Zholents, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Emittance exchange (EEX) based longitudinal current profile shaping is the one of the promising current profile shaping technique. This method can generate high quality arbitrary current profiles under the ideal conditions. The double dog-leg EEX beam line was recently installed at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) to explore the shaping capability and confirm the quality of this method. To demonstrate the arbitrary current profile generation, several different transverse masks are applied to generate different final current profiles. The phase space slopes and the charge of incoming beam are varied to observe and suppress the aberrations on the ideal profile. We present current profile shaping results, aberrations on the shaped profile, and its suppression.

  6. Transcriptional and Secretomic Profiling of Epidermal Cells Exposed to Alpha Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Greene, Hillary Boulay; Wilkins, Ruth C

    2012-01-01

    Alpha (α)-particle emitters are probable isotopes to be used in a terrorist attack. The development of biological assessment tools to identify those who have handled these difficult to detect materials would be an asset to our current forensic capacity. In this study, for the purposes of biomarker discovery, human keratinocytes were exposed to α-particle and X-radiation (0.98 Gy/h at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 Gy) and assessed for differential gene and protein expression using microarray and Bio-Plex technology, respectively. Secretomic analysis of supernatants showed expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13 and PDGF-bb) to be exclusively affected in α-particle exposed cells. The highest dose of α-particle radiation modulated a total of 67 transcripts (fold change>|1.5|, (False discovery rate) FDR<0.05) in exposed cells. Several genes which responded with high expression levels (>2 fold) included KIF20A, NEFM, C7orf10, HIST1H2BD, BMP6, and HIST1H2AC. Among the high expressing genes, five (CCNB2, BUB1, NEK2, CDC20, AURKA) were also differentially expressed at the medium (1.0 Gy) dose however, these genes were unmodulated following exposure to X-irradiation. Networks of these genes clustered around tumor protein-53 and transforming growth factor-beta signaling. This study has identified some potential gene /protein responses and networks that may be validated further to confirm their specificity and potential to be signature biomarkers of α-particle exposure. PMID:23002402

  7. Using Line Profiles to Test the Fraternity of Type Ia Supernovae at High and Low Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondin, Stéphane; Dessart, Luc; Leibundgut, Bruno; Branch, David; Höflich, Peter; Tonry, John L.; Matheson, Thomas; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Aguilera, Claudio; Barris, Brian; Becker, Andrew C.; Challis, Peter; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Davis, Tamara M.; Garnavich, Peter; Hicken, Malcolm; Jha, Saurabh; Krisciunas, Kevin; Li, Weidong; Miceli, Anthony; Miknaitis, Gajus; Pignata, Giuliano; Prieto, Jose Luis; Rest, Armin; Riess, Adam G.; Salvo, Maria Elena; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, R. Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2006-03-01

    Using archival data of low-redshift (z<0.01 Center for Astrophysics and SUSPECT databases) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and recent observations of high-redshift (0.16line-profile morphology, focusing on measurements of the velocity location of maximum absorption (vabs) and peak emission (vpeak). Our measurement technique makes it easier to compare low and high signal-to-noise ratio observations. We also quantify the associated sources of error, assessing the effect of line blending with assistance from the parameterized code SYNOW. We find that the evolution of vabs and vpeak for our sample lines (Ca II λ3945, Si II λ6355, and S II λλ5454, 5640) is similar for both the low- and high-redshift samples. We find that vabs for the weak S II λλ5454, 5640 lines and vpeak for S II λ5454 can be used to identify fast-declining [Δm15(B)>1.7] SNe Ia, which are also subluminous. In addition, we give the first direct evidence in two high-z SN Ia spectra of a double-absorption feature in Ca II λ3945, an event also observed, although infrequently, in low-redshift SN Ia spectra (6 out of 22 SNe Ia in our local sample). Moreover, echoing the recent studies of Dessart & Hillier in the context of Type II supernovae (SNe II), we see similar P Cygni line profiles in our large sample of SN Ia spectra. First, the magnitude of the velocity location at maximum profile absorption may underestimate that at the continuum photosphere, as observed, for example, in the optically thinner line S II λ5640. Second, we report for the first time the unambiguous and systematic intrinsic blueshift of peak emission of optical P Cygni line profiles in SN Ia spectra, by as much as 8000 km s-1. All the high-z SNe Ia analyzed in this paper were discovered and followed up by the ESSENCE

  8. Time-course gene profiling and networks in demethylated retinoblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Malusa, Federico; Taranta, Monia; Zaki, Nazar; Cinti, Caterina; Capobianco, Enrico

    2015-09-15

    Retinoblastoma, a very aggressive cancer of the developing retina, initiatiates by the biallelic loss of RB1 gene, and progresses very quickly following RB1 inactivation. While its genome is stable, multiple pathways are deregulated, also epigenetically. After reviewing the main findings in relation with recently validated markers, we propose an integrative bioinformatics approach to include in the previous group new markers obtained from the analysis of a single cell line subject to epigenetic treatment. In particular, differentially expressed genes are identified from time course microarray experiments on the WERI-RB1 cell line treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine; DAC). By inducing demethylation of CpG island in promoter genes that are involved in biological processes, for instance apoptosis, we performed the following main integrative analysis steps: i) Gene expression profiling at 48h, 72h and 96h after DAC treatment; ii) Time differential gene co-expression networks and iii) Context-driven marker association (transcriptional factor regulated protein networks, master regulatory paths). The observed DAC-driven temporal profiles and regulatory connectivity patterns are obtained by the application of computational tools, with support from curated literature. It is worth emphasizing the capacity of networks to reconcile multi-type evidences, thus generating testable hypotheses made available by systems scale predictive inference power. Despite our small experimental setting, we propose through such integrations valuable impacts of epigenetic treatment in terms of gene expression measurements, and then validate evidenced apoptotic effects.

  9. line profiles for a sample of supergiant HII regions. II. Broad, low intensity components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, M.; Richer, M. G.; López, J. A.; Relaño, M.; Beckman, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the broad, low intensity, high velocity components that are seen in the Hα line profiles for a sample of HII regions. These HII regions are chosen from among the brightest and most isolated in a sample of spiral galaxies for which we have photometric and spectroscopic data: NGC 157, NGC 3631, NGC 6764, NGC 3344, NGC 4321, NGC 5364, NGC 5055, NGC 5985, and NGC 7479. We confirm that the line profiles of most of these bright, giant extragalactic HII regions contain broad kinematic components of low intensity, but high velocity, that we denote as wings. We analyze these components, deriving emission measures, central velocities, and velocity dispersions of the blue and red features, which are similar. We interpret these components as expanding shells within the HII regions and produced by the stellar winds from the ionizing stars. We compare the kinetic energies of these expanding shells with the kinetic energy available from the stellar winds. If we allow for the hypothesis that the brightest HII regions are density bounded, we show that, for these HII regions, the stellar wind mechanism can explain the observed shell kinetic energies.

  10. line profiles for a sample of supergiant HII regions. I. The main spectral component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, M.; Richer, M. G.; López, J. A.; Relaño, M.; Beckman, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We present an analysis of the Hα emission line profiles of a sample of giant extragalactic HII regions, selected from among the brightest and most isolated in a group of spiral galaxies for which we have photometric and spectroscopic data: NGC 157, NGC 3631, NGC 6764, NGC 3344, NGC 4321, NGC 5364, NGC 5055, NGC 5985, NGC 7479. Our study confirms that the majority of the line profiles are composed of a bright, main component and two fainter, high velocity components that we denominate wings. Here, we analyze the kinematics of the principal components, finding a relation between the Hα luminosity, L_Hα, and the turbulent velocity dispersion, σ_nt. A linear fit to the relation between these quantities yields log L_Hα = (35.6 ± 0.4) + (2.87 ± 0.2)log σ_nt, in agreement with previous studies. We compute the mass of each HII region using both the virial theorem and the Hα luminosity, confirming that, though these estimates do not coincide exactly, they are comparable within the uncertainties and consequently that the HII regions in our sample are approximately virialized.

  11. The 3D scanner prototype utilize object profile imaging using line laser and octave software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdini, Mugi; Manunggal, Trikarsa Tirtadwipa; Samsi, Agus

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional scanner or 3D Scanner is a device to reconstruct the real object into digital form on a computer. 3D Scanner is a technology that is being developed, especially in developed countries, where the current 3D Scanner devices is the advanced version with a very expensive prices. This study is basically a simple prototype of 3D Scanner with a very low investment costs. 3D Scanner prototype device consists of a webcam, a rotating desk system controlled by a stepper motor and Arduino UNO, and a line laser. Objects that limit the research is the object with same radius from its center point (object pivot). Scanning is performed by using object profile imaging by line laser which is then captured by the camera and processed by a computer (image processing) using Octave software. On each image acquisition, the scanned object on a rotating desk rotated by a certain degree, so for one full turn multiple images of a number of existing side are finally obtained. Then, the profile of the entire images is extracted in order to obtain digital object dimension. Digital dimension is calibrated by length standard, called gage block. Overall dimensions are then digitally reconstructed into a three-dimensional object. Validation of the scanned object reconstruction of the original object dimensions expressed as a percentage error. Based on the results of data validation, horizontal dimension error is about 5% to 23% and vertical dimension error is about +/- 3%.

  12. Time-course gene profiling and networks in demethylated retinoblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Malusa, Federico; Taranta, Monia; Zaki, Nazar; Cinti, Caterina; Capobianco, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma, a very aggressive cancer of the developing retina, initiatiates by the biallelic loss of RB1 gene, and progresses very quickly following RB1 inactivation. While its genome is stable, multiple pathways are deregulated, also epigenetically. After reviewing the main findings in relation with recently validated markers, we propose an integrative bioinformatics approach to include in the previous group new markers obtained from the analysis of a single cell line subject to epigenetic treatment. In particular, differentially expressed genes are identified from time course microarray experiments on the WERI-RB1 cell line treated with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine; DAC). By inducing demethylation of CpG island in promoter genes that are involved in biological processes, for instance apoptosis, we performed the following main integrative analysis steps: i) Gene expression profiling at 48h, 72h and 96h after DAC treatment; ii) Time differential gene co-expression networks and iii) Context-driven marker association (transcriptional factor regulated protein networks, master regulatory paths). The observed DAC-driven temporal profiles and regulatory connectivity patterns are obtained by the application of computational tools, with support from curated literature. It is worth emphasizing the capacity of networks to reconcile multi-type evidences, thus generating testable hypotheses made available by systems scale predictive inference power. Despite our small experimental setting, we propose through such integrations valuable impacts of epigenetic treatment in terms of gene expression measurements, and then validate evidenced apoptotic effects. PMID:26143641

  13. Elongated TCR alpha chain CDR3 favors an altered CD4 cytokine profile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CD4 T lymphocyte activation requires T cell receptor (TCR) engagement by peptide/MHC (major histocompatibility complex) (pMHC). The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) contains variable α and β loops critical for pMHC recognition. During any immune response, tuning of TCR usage through progressive clonal selection occurs. Th1 and Th2 cells operate at different avidities for activation and display distinct transcriptional programs, although polarization may be plastic, influenced by pathogens and cytokines. We therefore hypothesized that CDR3αβ sequence features may intrinsically influence CD4 phenotype during progression of a response. Results We show that CD4 polarization involves distinct CDR3α usage: Th1 and Th17 cells favored short TCR CDR3α sequences of 12 and 11 amino acids, respectively, while Th2 cells favored elongated CDR3α loops of 14 amino acids, with lower predicted affinity. The dominant Th2- and Th1-derived TCRα sequences with14 amino acid CDR3 loops and 12 amino acid CDR3 loops, respectively, were expressed in TCR transgenics. The functional impact of these TCRα transgenes was assessed after in vivo priming with a peptide/adjuvant. The short, Th1-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made IFNγ, but not IL-4, 5 or 13, while the elongated, Th2-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made little or no IFNγ, but increased IL-4, 5 and 13 with progressive re-stimulations, mirrored by GATA-3 up-regulation. T cells from primed Th2 TCRα transgenics selected dominant TCR Vβ expansions, allowing us to generate TCRαβ transgenics carrying the favored, Th2-derived receptor heterodimer. Primed T cells from TCRαβ transgenics made little or no IL-17 or IFNγ, but favored IL-9 after priming with Complete Freund’s adjuvant and IL-4, 5, 9, 10 and 13 after priming with incomplete Freund’s. In tetramer-binding studies, this transgenic receptor showed low binding avidity for pMHC and polarized T cell lines show TCR avidity

  14. Combination treatment with high-dose vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol does not enhance respiratory-tract lining fluid vitamin C levels in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Michelle; Zhou, Haibo; Zhou, Bingqing; Robinette, Carole; Crissman, Kay; Hatch, Gary; Alexis, Neil E; Peden, David

    2009-02-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in allergic airway inflammation. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (alone or combined with ascorbate/vitamin C) has been assessed as an intervention for allergic airway diseases with conflicting results. Enhancing levels of airway antioxidants with oral supplements has been suggested as an intervention to protect individuals from the effect of inhaled oxidants, although it is unclear whether supplementation changes tocopherol or vitamin C levels in both serum and airway fluids. Our objective was to obtain pilot safety and dosing data from 14 allergic asthmatic volunteers examining the effect of daily combination oral therapy with 500 mg alpha-tocopherol (alpha T) and 2 g vitamin C for 12 wk. We examined serum and airway fluid and cellular levels of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (gamma T) and vitamin C to plan for future studies of these agents in asthma and allergic rhinitis. Six volunteers completed 12 wk of active treatment with alpha T and vitamin C and 8 completed placebo. Blood and sputum samples were obtained at baseline and at 6 wk and 12 wk of therapy and were analyzed for alpha T, gamma T, and vitamin C levels in the serum, sputum supernatant, and sputum cells. Combination treatment increased serum vitamin C and significantly decreased sputum alpha T and serum gamma T levels. No changes were found in sputum supernatant or sputum cell vitamin C or serum alpha T levels in the active treatment group. In conclusion, supplementation with alpha T and high-dose vitamin C does not augment vitamin C levels in the respiratory-tract lining fluid.

  15. Complex X-ray Absorption and the Fe K(alpha) Profile in NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.; George, I. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Botorff, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    We present data from simultaneous Chandra, XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516, taken during 2001 April and November. We have investigated the nature of the very flat observed X-ray spectrum. Chandra grating data show the presence of X-ray absorption lines, revealing two distinct components of the absorbing gas, one which is consistent with our previous model of the UV/X-ray absorber while the other, which is outflowing at a velocity of approximately 1100 kilometers per second, has a larger column density and is much more highly ionized. The broad-band spectral characteristics of the X-ray continuum observed with XMM during 2001 April, reveal the presence of a third layer of absorption consisting of a very large column (approximately 2.5 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter) of highly ionized gas with a covering fraction approximately 50%. This low covering fraction suggests that the absorber lies within a few 1t-days of the X-ray source and/or is filamentary in structure. Interestingly, these absorbers are not in thermal equilibrium with one another. The two new components are too highly ionized to be radiatively accelerated, which we suggest is evidence for a hydromagnetic origin for the outflow. Applying our model to the November dataset, we can account for the spectral variability primarily by a drop in the ionization states of the absorbers, as expected by the change in the continuum flux. When this complex absorption is accounted for we find the underlying continuum to be typical of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The spectral curvature attributed to the high column absorber, in turn, reduces estimates of the flux and extent of any broad Fe emission line from the accretion disk.

  16. Geocoronal Balmer α line profile observations and forward-model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Bishop, J.; Roesler, F. L.; Nossal, S. M.

    2006-05-01

    High spectral resolution geocoronal Balmer α line profile observations from Pine Bluff Observatory (PBO) are presented in the context of forward-model analysis. Because Balmer series column emissions depend significantly on multiple scattering, retrieval of hydrogen parameters of general aeronomic interest from these observations (e.g., the hydrogen column abundance) currently requires a forward modeling approach. This capability is provided by the resonance radiative transfer code LYAO_RT. We have recently developed a parametric data-model comparison search procedure employing an extensive grid of radiative transport model input parameters (defining a 6-dimensional parameter space) to map-out bounds for feasible forward model retrieved atomic hydrogen density distributions. We applied this technique to same-night (March, 2000) ground-based Balmer α data from PBO and geocoronal Lyman β measurements from the Espectrógrafo Ultravioleta extremo para la Radiación Difusa (EURD) instrument on the Spanish satellite MINISAT-1 (provided by J.F. Gómez and C. Morales of the Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Física Fundamental, INTA, Madrid, Spain) in order to investigate the modeling constraints imposed by two sets of independent geocoronal intensity measurements, both of which rely on astronomical calibration methods. In this poster we explore extending this analysis to the line profile information also contained in the March 2000 PBO Balmer α data set. In general, a decrease in the Doppler width of the Balmer α emission with shadow altitude is a persistent feature in every night of PBO observations in which a wide range of shadow altitudes are observed. Preliminary applications of the LYAO_RT code, which includes the ability to output Doppler line profiles for both the singly and multiply scattered contributions to the Balmer α emission line, displays good qualitative agreement with regard to geocoronal Doppler width trends observed from PBO. Model-data Balmer

  17. Kinetic Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms From Analysis of the D Lyman-a Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, Marco; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The absolute cross sections of the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coeffiecients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  18. Radiation Changes the Metabolic Profiling of Melanoma Cell Line B16

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yating; Liang, Wei; Zheng, Qinghui; Huang, Xianing; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can be an effective way to kill cancer cells using ionizing radiation, but some tumors are resistant to radiation therapy and the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. It is therefore necessary to establish an appropriate working model to study and monitor radiation-mediated cancer therapy. In response to cellular stress, the metabolome is the integrated profiling of changes in all metabolites in cells, which can be used to investigate radiation tolerance mechanisms and identify targets for cancer radiation sensibilization. In this study, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance for untargeted metabolic profiling in radiation-tolerant mouse melanoma cell line B16, we comprehensively investigated changes in metabolites and metabolic network in B16 cells in response to radiation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis indicated the difference in cellular metabolites between the untreated cells and X-ray radiated cells. In radiated cells, the content of alanine, glutamate, glycine and choline was increased, while the content of leucine, lactate, creatine and creatine phosphate was decreased. Enrichment analysis of metabolic pathway showed that the changes in metabolites were related to multiple metabolic pathways including the metabolism of glycine, arginine, taurine, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Taken together, with cellular metabolome study followed by bioinformatic analysis to profile specific metabolic pathways in response to radiation, we deepened our understanding of radiation-resistant mechanisms and radiation sensibilization in cancer, which may further provide a theoretical and practical basis for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:27631970

  19. Line profiles variations from atmospheric eclipses: Constraints on the wind structure in Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, L. H.; Koenigsberger, G.

    1994-01-01

    Binary systems in which one of the components has a stellar wind may present a phenomenon known as 'wind' or 'atmospheric eclipse', in which that wind occults the luminous disk of the companion. The enhanced absorption profile, relative to the spectrum at uneclipsed orbital phases, can be be modeled to yield constraints on the spatial structure of the eclipsing wind. A new, very efficient approach to the radiative transfer problem, which makes no requirements with respect to monotonicity of the velocity gradient or size of that gradient, is presented. The technique recovers both the comoving frame calculation and the Sobolev approximation in the appropiate limits. Sample computer simulations of the line profile variations induced by wind eclipses are presented. It is shown that the location of the wind absorption features in frequency is a diagnostic tool for identifying the size of the wind acceleration region. Comparison of the model profile variations with the observed variations in the Wolf-Rayet (W-R)+6 binary system V444 Cyg illustrate how the method can be used to derive information on the structure of the wind of the W-R star constrain the size of the W-R core radius.

  20. Gene expression profile induced by BCNU in human glioma cell lines with differential MGMT expression.

    PubMed

    Bandres, Eva; Andion, Esther; Escalada, Alvaro; Honorato, Beatriz; Catalan, Victoria; Cubedo, Elena; Cordeu, Lucia; Garcia, Fermin; Zarate, Ruth; Zabalegui, Natalia; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus

    2005-07-01

    Chemotherapy with the alkylating agent BCNU (1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for gliomas. However, the usefulness of this agent is limited because tumor cell resistance to BCNU is frequently found in clinical brain tumor therapy. The O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein (MGMT) reverses alkylation at the O6 position of guanine and we have reported the role of MGMT in the response of brain tumors to alkylating agents. However, the different mechanisms underlying the patterns related to MGMT remain unclear. To better understand the molecular mechanism by which BCNU exerts its effect in glioma cell lines according MGMT expression, we used microarray technology to interrogate 3800 known genes and determine the gene expression profiles altered by BCNU treatment. Our results showed that treatment with BCNU alters the expression of a diverse group of genes in a time-dependent manner. A subset of gene changes was found common in both glioma cell lines and other subset is specific of each cell line. After 24 h of BCNU treatment, up-regulation of transcription factors involved in the nucleation of both RNA polymerase II and III transcription initiation complexes was reported. Interestingly, BCNU promoted the expression of actin-dependent regulators of chromatin. Similar effects were found with higher BCNU doses in MGMT+ cell line showing a similar mechanism that in MGMT-deficient cell with standard doses. Our data suggest that human glioma cell lines treated with BCNU, independently of MGMT expression, show changes in the expression of cell cycle and survival-related genes interfering the transcription mechanisms and the chromatin regulation.

  1. Asymmetric profiles and prewetting lines in the filling of planar slits with Ne.

    PubMed

    Sartarelli, Salvador A; Szybisz, Leszek

    2013-05-23

    The filling of slits with identical planar walls is investigated in the frame of the density functional theory. For this kind of slit, the confining potential is symmetric with respect to its central plane. Closed and open systems are studied by applying, respectively, the canonical and grand canonical ensembles (CE and GCE). Results obtained for the confinement of fluid Ne by alkaline surfaces are reported. The behavior of these systems is analyzed by varying the strength of the Ne-substrate attraction, the temperature T, and the coverage Γ(l). It is assumed that the one-body density of the fluid, ρ(r), is uniform along the (x, y) planes parallel to the walls, becoming a function of the coordinate z perpendicular to those planes. Two sorts of solutions are found for the density profile: (i) symmetric ones that follow the left-right symmetry of the potential exerted by the walls and (ii) asymmetric ones that break the symmetry of the slit. The pores are wide enough for determining prewetting (PW) lines and wetting and critical PW temperatures, i.e., T(w) and T(cpw), from the analysis of symmetric solutions provided by both the CE and GCE schemes. Asymmetric species are examined in detail for T > T(w). It is shown that for a given Ne-substrate pair at a fixed T both the CE and GCE frames yield only one asymmetric 2-fold degenerate stable profile (formed by a "thin" wetting film at one wall and a "thick" wetting film at the other) coexisting with two symmetric profiles (formed by "thin" or "thick" wetting films at the two walls), while the remaining asymmetric states are at best metastable. This feature occurs along PW lines and disappears at T(cpw).

  2. Inhomogeneous speed effects on H2 vibrational line profiles in ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, P.; Bruet, X.; Bonamy, J.; Robert, D.; Chaussard, F.; Saint-Loup, R.; Berger, H.

    2000-12-01

    A study of speed inhomogeneous broadening of the hydrogen vibrational line profiles in the collisional regime for ternary mixtures is reported. The Q(1) line of H2 in H2-Ar-N2, H2-He-Ar, and H2-He-N2 mixtures is investigated by high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy for various concentrations and temperatures. A model, successfully used for binary mixtures, is extended to ternary mixtures. An excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment for H2-Ar-N2, by using the collisional parameters previously obtained from binary mixtures study. For H2-He-Ar and H2-He-N2, H2-He collisions play a "hardening" effect in the H2 soft speed memory mechanism for H2-Ar or H2-N2. The present experimental results allow us, via the frame of our model, to determine the "hardness" parameter values for H2-He (inaccessible from binary mixtures data) and to get an accurate description of the spectral line shape. This study should be useful for hydrogen coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy thermometry in H2/air flames at high pressure through its possible extension to the H2-N2-H2O system.

  3. DISTORTED CYCLOTRON LINE PROFILE IN CEP X-4 AS OBSERVED BY NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Fürst, F.; Miyasaka, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Tendulkar, S. P.; Walton, D. J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Bhalerao, V.; Bachetti, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Tomsick, J. A.; Christensen, F. E.; Grinberg, V.; Hailey, C. J.; Kennea, J. A.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-06-20

    We present spectral analysis of Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and Swift observations of Cep X-4 during its outburst in 2014. We observed the source once during the peak of the outburst and once during the decay, finding good agreement in the spectral shape between the observations. We describe the continuum using a power law with a Fermi–Dirac cutoff at high energies. Cep X-4 has a very strong cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) around 30 keV. A simple absorption-like line with a Gaussian optical depth or a pseudo-Lorentzian profile both fail to describe the shape of the CRSF accurately, leaving significant deviations at the red side of the line. We characterize this asymmetry with a second absorption feature around 19 keV. The line energy of the CRSF, which is not influenced by the addition of this feature, shows a small but significant positive luminosity dependence. With luminosities between (1–6) × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}, Cep X-4 is below the theoretical limit where such a correlation is expected. This behavior is similar to Vela X-1 and we discuss parallels between the two systems.

  4. LINE PROFILES OF CORES WITHIN CLUSTERS. II. SIGNATURES OF DYNAMICAL COLLAPSE DURING HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rowan J.; Shetty, Rahul; Klessen, Ralf S.; Beuther, Henrik; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2013-07-01

    Observations of atomic or molecular lines can provide important information about the physical state of star-forming regions. In order to investigate the line profiles from dynamical collapsing massive star-forming regions (MSFRs), we model the emission from hydrodynamic simulations of a collapsing cloud in the absence of outflows. By performing radiative transfer calculations, we compute the optically thick HCO{sup +} and optically thin N{sub 2}H{sup +} line profiles from two collapsing regions at different epochs. Due to large-scale collapse, the MSFRs have large velocity gradients, reaching up to 20 km s{sup -1} pc{sup -1} across the central core. The optically thin lines typically contain multiple velocity components resulting from the superposition of numerous density peaks along the line of sight. The optically thick lines are only marginally shifted to the blue side of the optically thin line profiles, and frequently do not have a central depression in their profiles due to self-absorption. As the regions evolve, the lines become brighter and the optically thick lines become broader. The lower-order HCO{sup +} (1-0) transitions are better indicators of collapse than the higher-order (4-3) transitions. We also investigate how the beam sizes affect profile shapes. Smaller beams lead to brighter and narrower lines that are more skewed to the blue in HCO{sup +} relative to the true core velocity, but show multiple components in N{sub 2}H{sup +}. High-resolution observations (e.g., with Atacama Large Millimeter Array) can test these predictions and provide insights into the nature of MSFRs.

  5. Changes in growth and lipid profiles of silk gland, mid-gut biochemical composition of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. on exposure to prostaglandin F2alpha.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yun-gen; Jiang, Li-jun

    2003-01-01

    The growth of the silkworm is influenced by the outside and inside environment. Among them, the category of various endocrine hormone of inside is the main factors that adjust the characters such as growth and propagate. In this experiment, we applied different dosage of prostaglandin to the fourth and fifth instar silkworm to observe the effects of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) on silk gland growth, mid-gut biochemical constituents and the lipid profiles of silkworm larva, Bombyx mori L. The weight of the posterior silk gland increased significantly (P < 0.001) by 20-24% after treatment with PGF2alpha. The increase in the lipid profiles except lipase activity suggests that the silk gland had more synthetic activity that might reflect in active spinning of silkworm larva. The changes of total proteins, free amino acids and alkaline phosphatase in mid-gut of control and PGF2alpha treated silkworm, B. mori L. indicate that PGF2alpha favored stimulatory effect on physiology of digestion, absorption and transportation of nutrients which might influence on the growth and development of larva.

  6. Observations and Simulations of the Na i D1 Line Profiles in an M-class Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Christian, D. J.; Kowalski, A. F.; Jess, D. B.; Grant, S. D. T.; Kawate, T.; Simões, P. J. A.; Allred, J. C.; Keenan, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    We study the temporal evolution of the Na i D1 line profiles in the M3.9 flare SOL2014-06-11T21:03 UT, using observations at high spectral resolution obtained with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer instrument on the Dunn Solar Telescope combined with radiative hydrodynamic simulations. Our results show a significant increase in the intensities of the line core and wings during the flare. The analysis of the line profiles from the flare ribbons reveals that the Na i D1 line has a central reversal with excess emission in the blue wing (blue asymmetry). We combine RADYN and RH simulations to synthesize Na i D1 line profiles of the flaring atmosphere and find good agreement with the observations. Heating with a beam of electrons modifies the radiation field in the flaring atmosphere and excites electrons from the ground state 3s 2S to the first excited state 3p 2P, which in turn modifies the relative population of the two states. The change in temperature and the population density of the energy states make the sodium line profile revert from absorption into emission. Furthermore, the rapid changes in temperature break the pressure balance between the different layers of the lower atmosphere, generating upflow/downflow patterns. Analysis of the simulated spectra reveals that the asymmetries of the Na i D1 flare profile are produced by the velocity gradients in the lower solar atmosphere.

  7. Isophotes of a field in the Cygnus loop photographed in the (O III) and (N II)+H. cap alpha. lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnik, T.G.; Toropova, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    From interference-filter image-tube photographs of a 9' field in the western part of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, taken in the lambda5007 (O III) and lambdalambda 6584, 6563 (N II) + H..cap alpha.. lines, sets of isophotes are derived by an equidensitometry technique based on the Sabattier effect. The emission regions in these lines exhibit a relative displacement, interpreted as evidence for radiative cooling of the gas behind the shock generated in the supernova outburst. An explanation is offered for the differing morphology of the nebular filaments in the (O III) and (N II) + H..cap alpha.. lines. The anomalously high I/sub Otsi/II/I/sub H/..beta.. intensity ratio may reflect a spatial separation of the corresponding emission zones.

  8. Cell growth kinetics of the human cell line Colo-205 irradiated with photons and astatine-211 alpha-particles.

    PubMed

    Palm, S; Andersson, H; Bäck, T; Claesson, I; Delle, U; Hultborn, R; Jacobsson, L; Köpf, I; Lindegren, S

    2000-01-01

    Cell growth kinetics following Astatine-211 (211At, alpha-particle emitter) and photon irradiation were studied for the human colorectal cell line Colo-205. A growth assay using 96-well plates was chosen. The growth kinetics could be simulated by assuming certain fractions of cells with various proliferative capacities, i.e. from none up to 5 cell doublings, in addition to the defined survivors with remaining unlimited clonogenic capacity. No significant difference in cell growth characteristics was seen between 211At and photon irradiation. The cell doubling time, as calculated from the increment in optical density, was compared with the results from BrdU experiments in the early phases of growth (Tpot = 18.5 +/- 0.6 h for LDR (low dose rate) photon irradiated and 20.3 +/- 0.8 hours for sham-irradiated cells 40-45 hours post-irradiation) confirming the transient accelerated growth of irradiated cells. No statistically significant difference in growth was found between LDR, MDR (medium dose rate) and HDR (high dose rate) photon irradiation.

  9. Stark spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen balmer-alpha line for electric field measurement in plasmas by saturation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, S.; Katayama, K.; Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Sasaki, K.

    2016-09-01

    Detailed structures of electric fields in sheath and pre-sheath regions of various plasmas are interested from the viewpoint of basic plasma physics. Several researchers observed Stark spectra of Doppler-broadened Rydberg states to evaluate electric fields in plasmas; however, these measurements needed high-power, expensive tunable lasers. In this study, we carried out another Stark spectroscopy with a low-cost diode laser system. We applied saturation spectroscopy, which achieves a Doppler-free wavelength resolution, to observe the Stark spectrum of the Balmer-alpha line of atomic hydrogen in the sheath region of a low-pressure hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma was generated in an ICP source which was driven by on-off modulated rf power at 20 kHz. A planar electrode was inserted into the plasma. Weak probe and intense pump laser beams were injected into the plasma from the counter directions in parallel to the electrode surface. The laser beams crossed with a small angle above the electrode. The observed fine-structure spectra showed shifts, deformations, and/or splits when varying the distance between the observation position and the electrode surface. The detection limit for the electric field was estimated to be several tens of V/cm.

  10. Serenoa repens (Permixon) inhibits the 5alpha-reductase activity of human prostate cancer cell lines without interfering with PSA expression.

    PubMed

    Habib, Fouad K; Ross, Margaret; Ho, Clement K H; Lyons, Valerie; Chapman, Karen

    2005-03-20

    The phytotherapeutic agent Serenoa repens is an effective dual inhibitor of 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme activity in the prostate. Unlike other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, Serenoa repens induces its effects without interfering with the cellular capacity to secrete PSA. Here, we focussed on the possible pathways that might differentiate the action of Permixon from that of synthetic 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. We demonstrate that Serenoa repens, unlike other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, does not inhibit binding between activated AR and the steroid receptor-binding consensus in the promoter region of the PSA gene. This was shown by a combination of techniques: assessment of the effect of Permixon on androgen action in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line revealed no suppression of AR and maintenance of PSA protein expression at control levels. This was consistent with reporter gene experiments showing that Permixon failed to interfere with AR-mediated transcriptional activation of PSA and that both testosterone and DHT were equally effective at maintaining this activity. Our results demonstrate that despite Serenoa repens effective inhibition of 5alpha-reductase activity in the prostate, it did not suppress PSA secretion. Therefore, we confirm the therapeutic advantage of Serenoa repens over other 5alpha-reductase inhibitors as treatment with the phytotherapeutic agent will permit the continuous use of PSA measurements as a useful biomarker for prostate cancer screening and for evaluating tumour progression.

  11. EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL ELDERLY WOMEN: ASSOCIATION WITH ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA GENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    SAI, ADARSH J.; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER; FANG, XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Objective Examine the effect of conjugated equine estrogens alone (ET), conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone (EPT), calcitriol alone, calcitriol plus EPT/ET or placebo on serum lipid profile and analyze the interaction with estrogen receptor alpha gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (ESR-α SNPs) on response to therapy. Methods 489 postmenopausal women > 65 years age enrolled in 3-year double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial Results In both intent to treat and complier (>80% adherent) analysis, there was significant increase in serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL), significant decrease in serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and LDL:HDL ratio in all hormone treatment groups compared to placebo (p<0.05). However, serum triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) increased in EPT and ET+ calcitriol groups' versus placebo (p <0.05). ESR-α SNPs PvuII and XbaI appeared to have a significant effect on response to treatment. Genotypes containing p allele showed significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol and VLDL than those having P allele in the ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05) and those with x allele had significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol in HT plus calcitriol group at the end of 3 years versus X allele and a greater decrease in serum LDL in alleles x versus X in ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05). Conclusions ET with or without progesterone had a favorable effect on lipid profile in postmenopausal elderly women and this was dependent on estrogen receptor SNP's – PvuII and XbaI. However, this interaction with ESR-α SNPs need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:21712736

  12. Gene expression profiling reveals novel regulation by bisphenol-A in estrogen receptor-{alpha}-positive human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, David W.; Feng, Yuxin; Yang, Jun; Puga, Alvaro; Lee, Adrian V.; Khan, Sohaib A. . E-mail: sohaib.khan@uc.edu

    2006-01-15

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) shows proliferative actions in uterus and mammary glands and may influence the development of male and female reproductive tracts in utero or during early postnatal life. Because of its ability to function as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, BPA has the potential to disrupt normal endocrine signaling through regulation of ER target genes. Some genes are regulated by both estradiol (E2) and BPA, but those exclusive to either agent have not been described. Using a yeast strain incorporating a vitellogenin A2 ERE-LacZ reporter gene into the genome, we found that BPA induced expression of the reporter in colonies transformed with the ER{alpha} expression plasmid, illustrating BPA-mediated regulation within a chromatin context. Additionally, a reporter gene transiently transfected into the endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cell line also showed BPA activity, although at 100-fold less potency than E2. To compare global gene expression in response to BPA and E2, we used a variant of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line stably expressing HA-tagged ER{alpha}. Cultures were treated for 3 h with an ethanol vehicle, E2 (10{sup -8} M), or BPA (10{sup -6} M), followed by isolation of RNA and microarray analysis with the human U95A probe array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). More than 300 genes were changed 2-fold or more by either or both agents, with roughly half being up-regulated and half down-regulated. A number of growth- and development-related genes, such as HOXC1 and C6, Wnt5A, Frizzled, TGF{beta}-2, and STAT inhibitor 2, were found to be affected exclusively by BPA. We used quantitative real-time PCR to verify regulation of the HOXC6 gene, which showed decreased expression of approximately 2.5-fold by BPA. These results reveal novel effects by BPA and E2, raising interesting possibilities regarding the role of endocrine disruptors in sexual development.

  13. Gene expression profiling of hematologic malignant cell lines resistant to oncolytic virus treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Hee; Kim, Mikyung; Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Seong-Geun; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Hwang, Tae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirpvec; JX-594) has emerged as an attractive tool in oncolytic virotherapy. Pexa-Vec demonstrates oncolytic and immunotherapeutic mechanisms of action. But the determinants of resistance to Pexa-Vec are mostly unknown. We treated hemoatologic malignant cells with Pexa-Vec and examined the gene-expression pattern of sensitive and resistant cells. Human myeloid malignant cell lines (RPMI-8226, IM-9, K562, THP-1) and lymphoid cancer cell lines (MOLT4, CCRF-CEM, Ramos, U937) were treated with Pexa-Vec. Pexa-Vec was cytotoxic on myeloid cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and fluorescent imaging and qPCR revealed that Pexa-Vec expression was low in RAMOS than IM-9 after 24 hrs and 48 hrs of infection. Gene expression profiles between two groups were analyzed by microarray. Genes with at least 2-fold increase or decrease in their expression were identified. A total of 660 genes were up-regulated and 776 genes were down-regulated in lymphoid cancer cell lines. The up- and down-regulated genes were categorized into 319 functional gene clusters. We identified the top 10 up-regulated genes in lymphoid cells. Among them three human genes (LEF1, STAMBPL1, and SLFN11) strongly correlated with viral replication. Up-regulation of PVRIG, LPP, CECR1, Arhgef6, IRX3, IGFBP2, CD1d were related to resistant to Pexa-Vec. In conclusion, lymphoid malignant cells are resistant to Pexa-Vec and displayed up-regulated genes associated with resistance to oncolytic viral therapy. These data provide potential targets to overcome resistance, and suggest that molecular assays may be useful in selecting patients for further clinical trials with Pexa-Vec. PMID:27901484

  14. Profile of the alpha-bungarotoxin-binding regions on the extracellular part of the alpha-chain of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mulac-Jericevic, B; Atassi, M Z

    1987-01-01

    The continuous alpha-neurotoxin-binding regions on the extracellular part (residues 1-210) of the alpha-chain of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor were localized by reaction of 125I-labelled alpha-bungarotoxin with synthetic overlapping peptides spanning this entire part of the chain. The specificity of the binding was confirmed by inhibition with unlabelled toxin and, for appropriate peptides, with unlabelled anti-(acetylcholine receptor) antibodies. Five toxin-binding regions were localized within residues 1-10, 32-41, 100-115, 122-150 and 182-198. The third, fourth and fifth (and to a lesser extent the first and second) toxin-binding regions overlapped with regions recognized by anti-(acetylcholine receptor) antibodies. The five toxin-binding regions may be distinct sites or, alternatively, different 'faces' in one (or more) sites. PMID:3435488

  15. Profile of Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha -308 G/A Gene Polymorphism in Psoriatic Patients in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Deepa; Chowdappa, Chaitra; Gurumurthy, Rajesh; Kutty, A.V. Moideen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) gene -308G/A polymorphism (rs1800629) are associated with psoriasis in several populations worldwide. Presently, there is no literature on the status of this polymorphism in the South Indian population. Aim To determine the profile of TNFα -308G/A polymorphism among psoriatic patients. Materials and Methods This case-control study involved 74 patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris (PsV) and 74 age and gender matched healthy individuals. Patients were recruited from the Department of Dermatology of R.L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Tamaka, Kolar, Karnataka, India, from March 2014 to March 2016. TNFα -308G/A polymorphism was genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results The frequency of TNFα -308A allele 7.4% among psoriatic and 8.8% among non-psoriatic individuals. The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.82). Conclusion Our results indicate that TNFα gene -308G/A polymorphism is not a significant marker for the risk of developing PsV among South Indian (Karnataka) psoriatic patients.

  16. Evolution of the Iron K-Alpha Emission Line in the Black Hole Candidate GX339-4 During and Outburst Decay Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y.; Zhang, S.-N.; Chen, W.; Cui, Wei

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of the iron K-alpha line emission feature was found from the black hole candidate GX339-4 when its X-ray flux (2 to 10 keV) decreased significantly. With RXTE observations, a broad line emission feature around 7 keV was detected in its quiescent and low flux state; while in the high flux state, an emission line feature around 6.4 keV was detected. A similar 6.4 keV line feature was also detected with previous ASCA observations in a high flux state. We consider that the evolution could be the evidence of the variations in the geometric structure and the physical properties of the accretion flow when the accretion rate changed. This is because that the 7 keV line feature can be produced by the radiative recombination cascade, collisional excitation, and fluorescence of Fe XXVI and Fe XXV, which can exist in a very high temperature plasma; while the 6.4 keV line feature can be produced by fluorescent K-alpha line emission of neutral iron atoms in the cold accretion disk. (copyright) 1999 American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Resolution H-Band Spectroscopy of Be Stars With SDSS-III/Apogee: I. New Be Stars, Line Identifications, and Line Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Whelan, David G.; Wisniewski, John P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Hall, Matthew; Shetrone, Matthew; Beaton, Rachael; Burton, Adam; Damke, Guillermo; Eikenberry, Steve; Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Wilson, John; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Ebelke, Garrett; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Marchante, Moses; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R˜22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ˜6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Δ{{v}p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ˜2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Δ{{v}p} toward the weaker Br12-Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Δ{{v}p} compared to the Br11-Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 Å and 16781 Å remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any evidence of

  18. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Hall, Matthew; Beaton, Rachael; Burton, Adam; Damke, Guillermo; Wilson, John; Whelan, David G.; Wisniewski, John P.; Shetrone, Matthew; Eikenberry, Steve; Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R∼22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ∼6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Δv{sub p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ∼2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Δv{sub p} toward the weaker Br12–Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Δv{sub p} compared to the Br11–Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 Å and 16781 Å remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any

  19. Line-profile and continuum variations of the contact binary SV Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, J.; Drechsel, H.; Wargau, W.

    1982-01-01

    A total of five high and ten low dispersion UV spectra of the interacting contact binary SV Centauri obtained between 1979 and 1982 are analyzed. The low resolution observations cover the whole phase range, while a few selected phases were observed in high dispersion. The UV data were complemented with optical photometric and spectroscopic observations, in order to determine the tructure and absolute dimensions of the system. The profiles of prominent UV resonance and metastable lines undergo drastic changes with phase angle and time. Their overall appearance indicates relatively strong mass loss from the system, exhibiting pronounced variations of the stellar wind. The far UV continuum distribution suggests the presence of a luminous hot radiation source with maximum emission in the soft X-ray range, which is most apparently seen during the first quadrature phase, while it is weakest close to primary minimum. The case exchange and mass loss process as well as the evolutionary stage of SV Centauri are discussed.

  20. Magnetic field connected fast line profile variability in spectra of bright O supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A.; Brown, J.; Fabrika, S.; Surkov, A.

    2004-10-01

    Results of study of fast line profile variability (lpv) in the spectra of selected bright O-stars are reported. A regular component of lpv in the spectra of the star λ Ori A with estimated period P≈ 3 d have been detected. We suppose that the formation of long time-scale regular components of lpv can be explained in the framework of the magnetically confined wind-shock (MCWS) model of Babel & Montmerle (1997a). In the context of testing the MCWS model the program of searching for weak magnetic fields in bright O and early B stars is outlined. The possibility of measuring weak longitudinal magnetic fields (Bl ≈ 100 G) is demonstrated.

  1. Free surface profile of evaporative liquids at the vicinity of the contact line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssainy, Sammy; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2014-11-01

    Interfacial phenomenon, specifically those associated with evaporation from thin liquid films near the contact line of a liquid drop, play a major role in many current engineering applications which require high local heat fluxes, as evident in heat pipes, grooved evaporators, fuel cells and suction nucleate boiling devices. This study will prove useful in the improvement of such applications. Fluoresces microscopy was used as our main technique of investigating the free surface profiles of evaporative liquids, as it delivers sufficient range and resolution to address the challenge of capturing the microscopic and macroscopic aspects of this phenomenon. Subsequent to our experimental findings, the results are compared with non-volatile liquids for both contact angle and free surface structures.

  2. The effect of line-tying on the radiative MHD stability of coronal plasmas with radial pressure profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of photospheric line-tying, i.e., solar coronal loop structures, was investigated in terms of the effect on radiative modes and the influence that different radial pressure profiles exert on the effects of line-tying on radiative MHD stability. Energy is assumed dissipated by heat conduction and radiation and zero- and first-order solutions are obtained for the radiative time scales. Line-tying is a magnetic tension in the zero-order MHD mode and produces stability. Heat conduction occurs along bent field lines in first-order MHD modes when plasmas cross the field lines. Irradiated cool-core loops can experience MHD instabilities in the cylinder center, while line-tying can stabilize the plasma in the surrounding hot medium. Line-tying also adds stability to magnetosonic and condensation modes.

  3. Analysis of H α spectral line profile in a DC hydrogen discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhinova, I.; Iordanova, S.; Pashov, A.

    2016-11-01

    This contribution reports an experimental study of characteristics of the neutrals in a DC hydrogen discharge, designed for production of NiH. The investigations are carried out at gas pressure in the range p  =  (200-1600) mTorr and current I  =  200 mA. Optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics are based on analysis of the H α line profile. The profile is formed from the emission of three energetically distinct groups of atoms in the n  =  3 excited state. The first one is the group of thermalized atoms, with a mean energy of about 0.1 eV, the second—fast atoms, with mean energies about 10 eV and the third—superfast atoms with a mean energy of about 90 eV. The experimental technique leads to accurate values of the relative densities of these atoms and their mean energies for various working conditions.

  4. On the Doppler Shift and Asymmetry of Stokes Profiles of Photospheric FeI and Chromospheric MgI Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-15

    10/09 ON THE DOPPLER SHIFT AND ASYMMETRY OF STOKES PROFILES OF PHOTOSPHERIC Fe I AND CHROMOSPHERIC Mg I LINES NA DENG AND DEBI PRASAD CHOUDHARY...photospheric (Fe I 630.15 and 630.25 nm) and chromospheric (Mg I b2 517.27 nm) lines. The data were obtained with the HAO/NSO Advanced Stokes...among the three spectral lines, which helps us to better understand the chromospheric lines and the magnetic and flow fields in different magnetic

  5. Extracellular matrix proteins expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly--over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis.

  6. Hour-timescale profile variations in the broad Balmer lines of the Seyfert galaxy Hour-timescale profile variations in the broad Balmer lines of the Seyfert galaxy Markarian 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asatrian, Norayr S.

    2014-07-01

    Part of results of the multi-epoch intranight optical spectroscopic monitoring of the Markarian 6 nucleus carried out at the telescopes of 6-m of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia), 2.6-m of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (Armenia) and 2-m of the Tautenburg Observatory (Germany) is presented. Observations were made in 1979, 1986, 1988-1991 and 2007-2009 during a total of 33 nights with an average sampling rate of 4 spectra per night. TV-scanner and long-slit spectrographs equipped with Image Tube and CCD detector arrays were used. Altogether we analyzed 110 Hβ and 58 Hα region spectra to search for intranight variability in the broad hydrogen emission line profiles. The typical spectral resolutions were 4 Å for scanner spectra, 6 Å for photographic spectra, and 5 Å and 10 Å for CCD spectra. The S/N ratio at the continuum level near the Hβ and Hα lines was in the range 15-50. The purpose of the search was to look for the characteristic variability signatures of different kinematical models of the broad emission-line region. We considered the centering and guiding errors which can result in differences between spectra. We found variations in the broad Balmer line difference profiles on time scale of hour with the level of significance of 3.6 σ to 5.0 σ. Variations take the form of narrow, small bumps located at the blue and red sides or only at the blue side of the lines. In the intermediate level of broad line flux, the Hβ and Hα profiles show fine structure. Detected profile changes occurred at the same radial velocity shifts as the details in the fine structure. The variability is at least 2 orders of magnitude more rapid than any observed for broad Balmer line profiles in AGNs that we are aware of in the literature. Discovered extremely rapid line-profile variability may be associated with reverberation effects. Two-sided profile changes may indicate the response of circularly rotating hydrogen clouds in the BLR to a light pulse

  7. The Relativistic Iron Line Profile in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy IC4329a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Zycki, P. T.

    2000-01-01

    We present simultaneous ASCA and RXTE data on the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy IC4329a. The iron line is significantly broadened, but not to the extent expected from an accretion disk which extends down to the last stable orbit around a black hole. We marginally detect a narrow line component, presumably from the molecular torus, but, even including this gives a line profile from the accretion disk which is significantly narrower that that seen in MCG-6-30-15, and is much more like that seen from the low/hard state galactic black hole candidates. This is consistent with the inner disk being truncated before the last stable orbit, forming a hot flow at small radii as in the ADAF models. However. we cannot rule out the presence of an inner disk which does not contribute to the reflected spectrum. either because of extreme ionisation suppressing the characteristic atomic features of the reflected spectrum or because the X-ray source is intrinsically anisotropic, so it does not illuminate the inner disk. The source was monitored by RXTE every 2 days for 2 months, and these snapshot spectra show that there is intrinsic spectral variability. The data are good enough to disentangle the power law from the reflected continuum and we see that the power law softens as the source brightens. The lack of a corresponding increase in the observed reflected spectrum implies that either the changes in disk inner radial extent/ionization structure are small, or that the variability is actually driven by changes in the seed photons which are decoupled from the hard X-ray mechanism.

  8. Precision Fe K-Alpha and Fe K-Beta Line Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy NGC 2992 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Murphy, Kendrah D.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Haba, Yoshito; Inoue, Hajime; Itoh, Takeshi; Kelley, Richard; Kokubun, Motohide; Markowitz, Alex; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andrew; Reeves, James; Selemitos, Peter J.; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Terashima, Yuichi

    2006-01-01

    We present detailed time-averaged X-ray spectroscopy in the 0.5-10 keV band of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992 with the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometers (XIS). The source had a factor approximately 3 higher 2-10 keV flux (approximately 1.2 x l0(exp -11) erg per square cm per s) than the historical minimum and a factor approximately 7 less than the historical maximum. The XIS spectrum of NGC 2992 can be described by several components. There is a primary continuum, modeled as a power-law with a photon index of Gamma = 1.57(sup +0.06) (sup -0.03) that is obscured by a Compton-thin absorber with a column density of 8.01(sup +0.6) (sup -0.5)x l0 (exp 21) per square cm. . There is another, weaker, unabsorbed power-law component (modeled with the same slope as the primary), that is likely to be due to the primary continuum being electron-scattered into our line-of-sight by a region extended on a scale of hundreds of parsecs. We measure the Thomson depth of the scattering zone to be Tau = 0.072 +/- 0.021. An optically-thin thermal continuum emission component, which probably originates in the same extended region, is included in the model and yields a temperature and luminosity of KT = 0.656(sup +0.088) (sup -0.0.61) keV and approximately 1.2 +/- 0.4 x l0 (exp 40) erg per s respectively. We detect an Fe K emission complex which we model with broad and narrow lines and we show that the intensities of the two components are decoupled at a confidence level > 3 sigma. The broad Fe K alpha line has an equivalent width of 118(sup +32) (sup -61) eV and could originate in an accretion disk (with inclination angle greater than approximately 30 deg) around the putative central black hole. The narrow Fe K alpha line has an equivalent width of 1632(sup +47) (sup -26) eV and is unresolved (FWHM < 4630 km per s) and likely originates in distant matter. The absolute flux in the narrow line implies that the column density out of the line-of-sight could be much higher than measured in

  9. Combined activity of interleukin-1 alpha or TNF-alpha and doxorubicin on multidrug resistant cell lines: evidence that TNF and DXR have synergistic antitumor and differentiation-inducing effects.

    PubMed

    Borsellino, N; Crescimanno, M; Flandina, C; Flugy, A; D'Alessandro, N

    1994-01-01

    We report on the antiproliferative effects that interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1) or TNF-alpha (TNF) in combination with doxorubicin (DXR) exert on DXR-sensitive (B16 melanoma, Friend, K562 and CCRF/CEM leukemias) and -resistant (B16-DXR, FLC-DXR, K562-DXR) cell lines in vitro. Multidrug resistance (MDR) of the latter lines entails cross-resistance to vincristine and overexpression of P-glycoprotein. Il-1 showed only a very marginal growth inhibitory activity and the effects of its combination with DXR were essentially additive in all the cell lines, except in chemosensitive B16, where a slight synergism occurred. TNF demonstrated greater antiproliferative activity in the MDR B16 and Friend tumors than in their parent variants. The combination of TNF and DXR produced synergistic growth inhibition in B16, K562 and, particularly, also in the MDR sublines of these two tumors. In addition, TNF and DXR induced synergistically erythroid differentiation in K562 and multidirectional differentiation in K562-DXR. The synergism was critically schedule-dependent in that it was achieved only when DXR application preceded or was simultaneous with that of TNF. Finally, TNF did not modify drug accumulation and retention in the cells. Our present findings stress especially the fact that DXR and TNF may exert useful antitumor synergism even in MDR lines; however, it is not likely that their interaction will occur at the specific MDR process level.

  10. Effects of carbocisteine on sialyl-Lewis x expression in an airway carcinoma cell line stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Imai, Shigeru; Inouye, Yoshio; Okano, Teruo; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2006-01-20

    Carbocisteine is a mucoregulatory drug normalizing sialic acid and fucose contents in mucins through the regulation of glycosyltransferase activities. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced overexpression of sialyl-Lewis x epitopes, containing sialic acid and fucose, in mucins were previously reported to be regulated by glycosyltransferase mRNAs expression through phosphatidyl inositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling pathways [Ishibashi, Y., Inouye, Y., Okano, T., Taniguchi, A., 2005. Regulation of sialyl-Lewis x epitope expression by TNF-alpha and EGF in an airway carcinoma cell line. Glycoconj. J. 22, 53-62]. To investigate the mechanism behind the mucoregulatory action of carbocisteine, the present study evaluated the effects of carbocisteine on TNF-alpha-induced overexpression of sialyl-Lewis x epitopes in NCI-H292 cells. 100 mug/ml of carbocisteine was able to inhibit the TNF-alpha-induced expression of hST3GallV mRNA, FUT3 mRNA, C2/4GnT mRNA and sialyl-Lewis x epitopes as well as the TNF-alpha-induced activity of PI-PLC in NCI-H292 cells. These findings suggest that carbocisteine may normalize the sialyl-Lewis x epitopes expression in mucins through the inhibition of cellular PI-PLC activity in vivo.

  11. Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer Cell Lines Defines Relevant Tumor Models and Provides a Resource for Cancer Gene Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Melanie; Choi, Yoon-La; Girard, Luc; Gandhi, Jeet; Kwei, Kevin A.; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Wang, Pei; Gazdar, Adi F.; Minna, John D.; Pollack, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast cancer cell lines have been used widely to investigate breast cancer pathobiology and new therapies. Breast cancer is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, and it is important to understand how well and which cell lines best model that diversity. In particular, microarray studies have identified molecular subtypes–luminal A, luminal B, ERBB2-associated, basal-like and normal-like–with characteristic gene-expression patterns and underlying DNA copy number alterations (CNAs). Here, we studied a collection of breast cancer cell lines to catalog molecular profiles and to assess their relation to breast cancer subtypes. Methods Whole-genome DNA microarrays were used to profile gene expression and CNAs in a collection of 52 widely-used breast cancer cell lines, and comparisons were made to existing profiles of primary breast tumors. Hierarchical clustering was used to identify gene-expression subtypes, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to discover biological features of those subtypes. Genomic and transcriptional profiles were integrated to discover within high-amplitude CNAs candidate cancer genes with coordinately altered gene copy number and expression. Findings Transcriptional profiling of breast cancer cell lines identified one luminal and two basal-like (A and B) subtypes. Luminal lines displayed an estrogen receptor (ER) signature and resembled luminal-A/B tumors, basal-A lines were associated with ETS-pathway and BRCA1 signatures and resembled basal-like tumors, and basal-B lines displayed mesenchymal and stem/progenitor-cell characteristics. Compared to tumors, cell lines exhibited similar patterns of CNA, but an overall higher complexity of CNA (genetically simple luminal-A tumors were not represented), and only partial conservation of subtype-specific CNAs. We identified 80 high-level DNA amplifications and 13 multi-copy deletions, and the resident genes with concomitantly altered gene-expression, highlighting known and novel

  12. Modelling supernova line profile asymmetries to determine ejecta dust masses: SN 1987A from days 714 to 3604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Antonia; Barlow, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    The late-time optical and near-IR line profiles of many core-collapse supernovae exhibit a red-blue asymmetry as a result of greater extinction by internal dust of radiation emitted from the receding parts of the supernova ejecta. We present here a new code, DAMOCLES, that models the effects of dust on the line profiles of core-collapse supernovae in order to determine newly formed dust masses. We find that late-time dust-affected line profiles may exhibit an extended red scattering wing (as noted by Lucy et al. 1989) and that they need not be flux-biased towards the blue, although the profile peak will always be blueshifted. We have collated optical spectra of SN 1987A from a variety of archival sources and have modelled the Hα line from days 714 to 3604 and the [O I] 6300,6363 Å doublet between days 714 and 1478. Our line profile fits rule out day 714 dust masses >3 × 10-3 M⊙ for all grain types apart from pure magnesium silicates, for which no more than 0.07 M⊙ can be accommodated. Large grain radii ( ≥ 0.6 μm) are generally required to fit the line profiles even at the earlier epochs. We find that a large dust mass (≥0.1 M⊙) had formed by day 3604 and infer that the majority of the present dust mass must have formed after this epoch. Our findings agree with recent estimates from spectral energy distribution fits for the dust mass evolution of SN 1987A and support the inference that the majority of SN 1987A's dust formed many years after the initial explosion.

  13. Lyman alpha emission in starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Daniel

    1999-07-01

    We propose to perform a deep study of Ly-alpha emission and destruction in 3 star-forming galaxies. These objects have been already observed with the GHRS and exhibit a variety of situations, with Ly-alpha showing P Cyg profiles, secondary emissions or even a deep damped absorption line with no emission. They also span a range of intrinsic properties: IZW18 is a gas-rich, metal deficient dust free dwarf galaxy, Haro 2 has a simple morphology while IRAS 08339+6517 is a luminous IRAS starburst galaxy with more dust and complex Ly- alpha profile. The use of STIS will allow for the first time to study the geometrical/kinematical configuration of the ionized and neutral gas across the galaxies nuclear regions and pin point the effects of porosity and the kinematical structure of the ISM, that may play the key roles {in addition to dust} in the detectability of the line. This study will have important impact for cosmology since Ly-alpha emitters are nowaday found at high-re dshift. We strongly emphasize that since Ly-alpha is primarely a diagnostic of the ISM, a full understanding of how the ISM and Ly-alpha are related is a necessary step before we can hope to correlate Ly-alpha to the cosmic star-formation rate. Our results will be interpreted against the model of superbubble evolution developed with G. Tenorio Tagle.

  14. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensionalassays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Myers, Connie A.; Neve, RichardM.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Spellman, Paul T.; Lorenz, Katrin; Lee, Eva H.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-01-31

    3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments.

  15. Caustics and Caustic-Diffraction in Laser Shadowgraphy of a Sessile Drop and Identification of Profile Near Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Neng-Li; Chao, David F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an optical method based on the caustics and caustic-difraction in laser shadowgaphy of a sessile drop to identify and estimate the drop profile near the contact line. A parallel laser beam passes through a liquid sessile drop placed on a transparent substrate to produce a shadowgraphic image of the drop on the screen far from the substrate. Along the inflection line of the drop the Gaussian curvature of the wavefront deformed by the drop vanishes, and therefore the inflection line gives caustics in the far field of the wave, which can be seen on the screen. The neighboring light rays at both sides of the inflection line interfere with each other to form interference fringes at the inner side of the caustics. According to the pattern of the caustics, the drop-profile shape can be identified and estimated.

  16. Gene expression profiles in a panel of childhood leukemia cell lines mirror critical features of the disease.

    PubMed

    Kees, Ursula R; Ford, Jette; Watson, Marcia; Murch, Ashleigh; Ringńer, Markus; Walker, Robert L; Meltzer, Paul

    2003-07-01

    The development of new drugs against cancer requires established cell lines. They are needed for in vitro studies to identify candidate drugs and in xenograft models to measure drug efficacy in vivo. Specific criteria need to be fulfilled by cell lines used in the evaluation of potential novel therapeutic agents. It is imperative that they display the features of the particular cancer under investigation. Given the documented heterogeneity of cancers, relevant subtypes need to be represented. In this study, we have examined these aspects for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A panel of 13 leukemia cell lines recently established in our laboratory was analyzed. We used cDNA microarrays to define the gene expression profiles and compared the data with immunophenotyping and cytogenetic analyses. The expression profiles obtained showed excellent concordance with corresponding protein levels. Importantly, the panel of lines displayed the critical genetic features identified in clinically important acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes in childhood leukemia patients.

  17. Seasonal Variations in the CO Line Profile and the Retrieved Thermal/Pressure Structures in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayat, Alain; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Riesen, T. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    2013-10-01

    We report retrievals of temperature vertical profiles up to 100 km over Tharsis and Syrtis regions on Mars obtained by inverting the strong rotational (3-2) line of carbon monoxide (CO) at 346 GHz. Observations of CO were made from mid Northern Spring to early Northern Summer on Mars (Ls= 36°-108°, 23 Nov, 2011 - 13 May, 2012) using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory's (CSO) high-resolution heterodyne receiver (Barney) on top of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. The temperature profiles were derived using our radiative transfer model that considers the latest spectroscopic constants for CO collisionally broadened by CO2. We observe notable changes of the line profile for different dates, which are directly related to seasonal variations in the thermal/pressure structure of the atmosphere. The seasonal variability of the martian CO line profile, the extracted temperature profiles, and comparisons with modeled profiles from the Mars Climate Database (Lewis et al, 1999) will be presented. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program , NASA Astrobiology Institute, Planetary Atmospheres programs. This material is based upon work at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation, grant number AST-0838261.

  18. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Line Profiles in Searches for Binary Supermassive Black Holes: Comparison of Models with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. We are particularly interested in modeling the profiles of the broad emission lines, which have been used as a tool to search for SBHBs. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. Our first generation model shows that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to constrain the statistical distribution of these parameters. We present the results of a second generation model, which improves upon the treatment of radiative transfer by taking into account the effect of line-driven winds on the properties of the model emission line profiles. This improvement allows a preliminary comparison of the model profiles with the observed SBHB candidates and AGN population in general.

  19. Physiological Basis and Transcriptional Profiling of Three Salt-Tolerant Mutant Lines of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Concha; Lalanne, Eric; Catalá, María M.; Pla, Eva; Reig-Valiente, Juan L.; Talón, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a complex trait that affects growth and productivity in many crops, including rice. Mutation induction, a useful tool to generate salt tolerant plants, enables the analysis of plants with similar genetic background, facilitating the understanding of the salt tolerance mechanisms. In this work, we generated three salt tolerant mutant lines by irradiation of a salt-sensitive cultivar plants and screened M2 plants at seedling stage in the presence of high salinity. These three lines, SaT20, SaS62, and SaT58, showed different responses to salinity, but exhibited similar phenotype to wild type plants, except SaT20 that displayed shorter height when grown in the absence of salt. Under salt conditions, all three mutants and the parental line showed similar reduction in yield, although relevant differences in other physiological parameters, such as Na+ accumulation in healthy leaves of SaT20, were registered. Microarray analyses of gene expression profiles in roots revealed the occurrence of common and specific responses in the mutants. The three mutants showed up-regulation of responsive genes, the activation of oxido-reduction process and the inhibition of ion transport. The participation of jasmonate in the plant response to salt was evident by down-regulation of a gene coding for a jasmonate O-methyltransferase. Genes dealing with lipid transport and metabolism were, in general, up-regulated except in SaS62, that also exhibited down-regulation of genes involved in ion transport and Ca2+ signal transduction. The two most tolerant varieties, SaS62 and SaT20, displayed lower levels of transcripts involved in K+ uptake. The physiological study and the description of the expression analysis evidenced that the three lines showed different responses to salt: SaT20 showed a high Na+ content in leaves, SaS62 presented an inhibition of lipid metabolism and ion transport and SaT58 differs in both features in the response to salinity. The analysis of these salt

  20. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  1. Measurements of Spatial Line Emission Profiles in the Main Scrape-Off Layer of the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, M; Ellis, R; Brooks, N; Fenstermacher, M; Lasnier, C; Meyer, W; Moller, J

    2009-06-05

    A video camera system is described that measures the spatial distribution of visible line emission emitted from the main scrape-off layer (SOL) of plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. A wide-angle lens installed on an equatorial port and an in-vessel mirror which intercepts part of the lens view provide simultaneous tangential views of the SOL on the low-field and high-field sides of the plasma's equatorial plane. Tomographic reconstruction techniques are used to calculate the 2-D poloidal profiles from the raw data, and 1-D poloidal profiles simulating chordal views of other optical diagnostics from the 2-D profiles. The 2-D profiles can be compared with SOL plasma simulations; the 1-D profiles with measurements from spectroscopic diagnostics. Sample results are presented which elucidate carbon transport in plasmas with toroidally uniform injection of methane and argon transport in disruption mitigation experiments with massive gas jet injection.

  2. Gene Expression Profiles Deciphering Leaf Senescence Variation between Early- and Late-Senescence Cotton Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A. Egrinya; Li, Weijiang; Lu, Hequan

    2013-01-01

    Leaf senescence varies greatly among genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutium L), possibly due to the different expression of senescence-related genes. To determine genes involved in leaf senescence, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the main-stem leaves of an early- (K1) and a late-senescence (K2) cotton line at 110 day after planting (DAP) using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis indicated that 1132 genes were up-regulated and 455 genes down-regulated in K1 compared with K2 at 110 DAP. The Solexa data were highly consistent with, and thus were validated by those from real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR). Most of the genes related to photosynthesis, anabolism of carbohydrates and other biomolecules were down-regulated, but those for catabolism of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and nutrient recycling were mostly up-regulated in K1 compared with K2. Fifty-one differently expressed hormone-related genes were identified, of which 5 ethylene, 3 brassinosteroid (BR), 5 JA, 18 auxin, 8 GA and 1 ABA related genes were up-regulated in K1 compared with K2, indicating that these hormone-related genes might play crucial roles in early senescence of K1 leaves. Many differently expressed transcription factor (TF) genes were identified and 11 NAC and 8 WRKY TF genes were up-regulated in K1 compared with K2, suggesting that TF genes, especially NAC and WRKY genes were involved in early senescence of K1 leaves. Genotypic variation in leaf senescence was attributed to differently expressed genes, particularly hormone-related and TF genes. PMID:23922821

  3. Authentication of newly established human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (YM-1) using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling method.

    PubMed

    Ayyoob, Khosravi; Masoud, Khoshnia; Vahideh, Kazeminejad; Jahanbakhsh, Asadi

    2016-03-01

    Cross-contamination during or early after establishment of a new cell line could result in the worldwide spread of a misidentified cell line. Therefore, newly established cell lines need to be authenticated by a reference standard method. This study was conducted to investigate the authenticity of a newly established epithelial cell line of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) called YM-1 using short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling method. Primary human ESCC epithelial cells were cultured from the fresh tumor tissue of an adult female patient. Growth characteristics and epithelial originality of YM-1 cells were studied. Genomic DNA was isolated from YM-1 cells harvested at passage 22 and ESCC donor tumor sample on two different days to prevent probable DNA contamination. STR profiling was performed using AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit. To address whether YM-1 cells undergo genetic alteration as the passage number increases, STR profiling was performed again on harvested cells at passage 51. YM-1 cells grew as a monolayer with a population doubling time of 40.66 h. Epithelial originality of YM-1 cells was confirmed using ICC/IF staining of cytokeratins AE1/AE3. The STR profile of the ESCC donor tumor sample was the same with YM-1 cells at passage 22. However, STR profile of the donor tumor sample showed an off-ladder (OL) allele in their D7S820 locus. Also, re-profiling of YM-1 cells at passage 51 showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at D18S51 locus. This suggests that long-term culture of cell lines may alter their DNA profile. Comparison of the DNA fingerprinting results in DSMZ, and ATCC STR profiling databases confirmed unique identity of YM-1 cell line. This study provides an easy, fast, and reliable procedure for authentication of newly established cell lines, which helps in preventing the spread of misidentified cells and improving the reproducibility and validity of experiments, consequently.

  4. Profiling of differential expression of messenger RNA in normal, benign, and metastatic prostate cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Ratna; Robles, Liza D; Gibson, Jane; Muroski, Megan

    2002-12-01

    To understand the phenotypic changes associated with prostate cancer development and metastasis, we investigated differential gene expression in primary and established prostate cell lines used as models. We have used a differential display of messenger RNA (DDRT-PCR) technique using 168 primer combinations and total RNA from BPH-1, LNCaP, and PC3 cells to identify filter-based cDNA microarrays containing 18,376 nonredundant clones of genes and expressed sequence tags (EST) using mRNA from PrEC and MDAPCa2a cells to identify genes that are differentially expressed in normal, benign, and cancerous prostate cell lines. Twenty-five cDNA with a significant difference in expression of 76 candidate cDNA, as identified by DDRT-PCR and confirmed by slot-blot analysis, were selected for sequence analysis. Of these, 14 cDNA were further confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data showed that a variety of genes/EST were up- or down-regulated in the metastatic prostate tumor cells and a majority of these genes encode cytoskeletal proteins and proteins with regulatory function. Expression profile of two EST was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We also have identified a number of genes exhibiting differential expression in prostate cancer cells, which were not known earlier to be involved in prostate cancer. This report provides a comparative analysis of differential gene expression between normal prostatic epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells, and a foundation to facilitate in-depth studies on the mechanism of prostate cancer development and metastasis.

  5. Dips in spectral line profiles and their applications in plasma physics and atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, E.; Oks, E.; Renner, O.

    2017-03-01

    We review studies of two kinds of dips in spectral line profiles emitted by plasmas - the dips that have been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally: Langmuir-wave-caused dips (L-dips) and charge-exchange-caused dips (X-dips). There is a principal difference with respect to positions of L-dips and X-dips relative to the unperturbed wavelength of a spectral line: positions of L-dips scale with the electron density Ne roughly as Ne1/2, while positions of X-dips are almost independent of Ne (the dependence is much weaker than for L-dips). L-dips and X-dips phenomena are important both fundamentally and practically. The fundamental importance is due to a rich physics behind each of these phenomena. As for important practical applications, they are as follows. Observations of L-dips constitute a very accurate method to measure the electron density in plasmas - the method that does not require the knowledge of the electron temperature. L-dips also allow measuring the amplitude of the electric field of Langmuir waves - the only one spectroscopic method available for this purpose. Observations of X-dips provide an opportunity to determine rate coefficient of charge exchange between multi-charged ions. This is an important reference data virtually inaccessible by other experimental methods. The rate coefficients of charge exchange are important for magnetic fusion in Tokamaks, for population inversion in the soft x-ray and VUV ranges, for ion storage devices, as well as for astrophysics (e.g., for the solar plasma and for determining the physical state of planetary nebulae).

  6. Construction of a lipopolysaccharide reporter cell line and its use in identifying mutants defective in endotoxin, but not TNF-alpha, signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Delude, R L; Yoshimura, A; Ingalls, R R; Golenbock, D T

    1998-09-15

    Gram-negative bacterial LPS is a potent activator of inflammatory responses. The binding of LPS to CD14 initiates signal transduction; however, the molecular processes immediately following this event remain unclear. We engineered an LPS-inducible fibroblast reporter cell line to facilitate the use of molecular genetic techniques to study the LPS signaling pathway. A plasmid containing the human Tac Ag cDNA under transcriptional control of the human E selectin promoter was cotransfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells together with a CD14 expression plasmid. A cell line was obtained, 3E10, which upregulated expression of Tac following stimulation with LPS. Pools of mutagenized cells were exposed to LPS and then labeled with anti-Tac mAb. Cells that failed to up-regulate Tac expression were enriched by flow cytometry. Thirty clonal mutant cell lines were identified that continued to express CD14 and bind LPS, but failed to express Tac or translocate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) following LPS exposure. TNF-alpha-treated mutant cells continued to express Tac and translocate NF-kappaB. An analysis of LPS-induced NF-kappaB activity in heterokaryons derived from polyethylene glycol-fused cell lines indicated that recessive mutations in genes encoding components of the LPS signaling pathway accounted for the signaling defects. To date, two complementation groups have been identified from 11 cell lines analyzed. These data demonstrate that the TNF-alpha signaling pathway diverges from the LPS pathway early in the signal-transduction cascade despite similarities in LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced responses. Identification of the genes affected in these mutant reporter cells should identify heretofore-elusive components of the LPS signaling cascade.

  7. PROJECT VeSElkA: ANALYSIS OF BALMER LINE PROFILES OF SLOWLY ROTATING CHEMICALLY PECULIAR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Khalack, V.; LeBlanc, F.

    2015-07-15

    We present results for the estimation of gravity, effective temperature, and radial velocity of poorly studied chemically peculiar stars recently observed with the spectropolarimeter Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for Observations of Stars at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope in the frame of the Vertical Stratification of Element Abundances project. The effective temperature and surface gravity values are determined for the very first time for four of the stars from our sample (HD 23878, HD 83373, HD 95608, and HD 164584). Grids of stellar atmosphere models with the corresponding fluxes have been calculated using version 15 of the PHOENIX code for effective temperatures in the range of 5000–15,000 K, for the logarithm of surface gravities in the range of 3.0–4.5 and for the metallicities from −1.0 to +1.5. We used these fluxes to fit the Balmer line profiles employing the code FITSB2 that produces estimates of the effective temperature, gravity, and radial velocity for each star. When possible, our results are compared to those previously published. The physical characteristics of 16 program stars are discussed with the future aim to study the abundance anomalies of chemical species and the possible vertical abundance stratification in their stellar atmosphere.

  8. Targeting kidney CLC-K channels: pharmacological profile in a human cell line versus Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Imbrici, Paola; Liantonio, Antonella; Gradogna, Antonella; Pusch, Michael; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2014-10-01

    CLC-K chloride channels play a crucial role in kidney physiology and genetic mutations, affecting their function are responsible for severe renal salt loss in humans. Thus, compounds that selectively bind to CLC-Ka and/or CLC-Kb channels and modulate their activity may have a significant therapeutic potential. Here, we compare the biophysical and pharmacological behaviors of human CLC-K channels expressed either in HEK293 cells or in Xenopus oocytes and we show that CLC-K channel properties are greatly influenced by the biochemical environment surrounding the channels. Indeed, in HEK293 cells the potentiating effect of niflumic acid (NFA) on CLC-Ka/barttin and CLC-Kb/barttin channels seems to be absent while the blocking efficacy of niflumic acid and benzofuran derivatives observed in oocytes is preserved. The NFA block does not seem to involve the accessory subunit barttin on CLC-K1 channels. In addition, the sensitivity of CLC-Ks to external Ca(2+) is reduced in HEK293 cells. Based on our findings, we propose that mammalian cell lines are a suitable expression system for the pharmacological profiling of CLC-Ks.

  9. GENERATION OF TWO STABLE CELL LINES THAT EXPRESS HER-ALPHA OR HER-ALPHA AND -BETA AND FIREFLY LUCIFERASE GENES FOR ENDOCRINE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of Two Stable Cell Lines that Express hERa or
    hERa and b and Firefly Luciferase Genes for Endocrine Screening

    K.L. Bobseine*1, W.R. Kelce2, P.C. Hartig*1, and L.E. Gray, Jr.1

    1USEPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC, 2Searle, Reprod...

  10. In vitro study of alpha 2-adrenoceptor turnover and metabolism using the adenocarcinoma cell line HT29

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, H.; Taouis, M.; Galitzky, J.

    1987-11-01

    The biosynthesis rate of the receptor was studied in postconfluent HT29 cells, when its density expressed as fmol/mg of cell membrane protein is constant, by following the recovery of the receptor binding capacity after blockade with the non-reversible alpha-adrenergic antagonist benextramine. Study of the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)yohimbine and (/sup 3/H)UK-14,304 binding showed that benextramine was a more potent antagonist at alpha 2-adrenoceptor than phenoxybenzamine. The incubation of intact HT29 cells for 30 min in the presence of 10(-5) M benextramine irreversibly blocked more than 95% of the alpha 2-adrenoceptors and totally suppressed the inhibitory effect of UK-14,304 on cyclic AMP production. The blockade appeared specific, since benextramine effects were prevented by alpha 2-adrenergic agents. Moreover, neither vasoactive intestinal polypeptide responsiveness nor other tested aspects of the regulation of the adenylate cyclase was altered by the treatment. Study of the time course of receptor recovery after irreversible blockade indicated that alpha 2-adrenoceptors reappeared in the cells with a monoexponential kinetic. The linearization of the repopulation curve obtained with the labeled antagonist (/sup 3/H)yohimbine allowed the determination of the rate constant for receptor degradation (k = 0.0268 +/- 0.0025 hr-1) and the rate of receptor synthesis (6.91 +/- 0.64 fmol/mg of cell membrane protein/hr) corresponding to the synthesis of about 500 receptors/cell/hr. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor half-life was 26 +/- 3 hr. Measurement of the biological effects associated to the alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation during the course of receptor recovery indicated a relationship between the number of cell receptors and the percentage of inhibition of the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by forskolin.

  11. Theoretical Emission-Line Profiles of Active Galactic Nuclei and the Unified Model. I. The Face-on Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintilio, R.; Viegas, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Theoretical emission-line profiles are obtained for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taking into account the presence of an obscuring torus around the central energy source. For the sake of simplicity, the torus is represented by a cylindrical shell characterized by the inner and outer radius and the opening angle. In this paper we discuss the results with angle of sight equal to 0, i.e., for a face-on torus. Different line profiles are obtained following the torus parameters. The line profiles may show more than one peak and bumps, depending on the torus dimensions. The main parameter determining the number of peaks or bumps is the opening angle. Thus, the observed line shape may be a good indicator of the torus characteristics. As an example, the fit to the observed [O III] λ5007 emission line of NGC 4151 is presented. The model reproduces the FWHM and the asymmetrical bumps observed. Partially supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) under Grant 92/4335-9.

  12. On parameterization of spectral line profiles including the speed-dependence in the case of gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    The physically grounded parameterization of a line profile including the speed-dependence was performed. It was shown that two actual parameters of the quadratic speed-dependence appear in gas mixtures instead of a single parameter in a pure gas. One of the parameters is associated with hard elastic velocity-changing collisions; the second is connected with the other sorts of collisions. For comparable concentrations of gas species, they may differ by 50% and depend nonlinearly on partial gas pressures. The dimensionless line narrowing parameter also reveals nonlinear pressure-dependence. The computational expressions for the line profile including all main physical mechanisms of its forming in conditions of gas mixtures are derived.

  13. Fabry-Perot line profiles in the 5303 A and 6374 A coronal lines obtained during the 1983 Indonesian eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, T.; Desai, J. N.; Ashok, N. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.

    1991-01-01

    During the total solar eclipse of 11 June, 1983, an imaging dual-channel Fabry-Pérot interferometer was used to obtain line proffles simultaneously in the green λ5303 Å [Fe XIV] and the red λ6374 Å [Fe X] coronal lines at various positions in the corona. Extensive microdensitometry followed by multi- Gaussian curve-fitting analysis has resulted in the determination of coronal temperatures and velocity separations between different pockets of coronal gas in the line of sight over a large extent of the corona. Fewer high temperature zones are to be found in the corona of 1983 compared with our similar green-line measurements of the solar maximum corona of 1980. The data are consistent with a temperature maximum occurring at 1.2 Rsun, as found at the 1980 eclipse, but our new data are insufficient to observe farther out than this radius and so determine the position of a maximum. The velocity field in the corona at the 1983 eclipse is less structured compared with that at the 1980 eclipse and is mainly confined to the zone 20-30 km s-1.

  14. MicroRNA profiling of human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell lines reveals biliary epithelial cell-specific microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Mishima, Takuya; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Arima, Yasuo; Yokomuro, Shigeki; Kanda, Tomohiro; Ishibashi, Osamu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Tajiri, Takashi; Takizawa, Toshihiro

    2009-08-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), which arises in the small bile ducts of the liver, is the second most common liver malignancy. Although modulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been shown to be a potent sign of malignant tumors, miRNA profiles of ICC remains unclear. We performed sequencing analysis of the small RNA libraries of 2 ICC cell lines (HuCCT1 and MEC) and one normal intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell line (HIBEpiC) to produce the miRNA profiles of ICC in vitro. Furthermore, by means of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) we validated the differential expression of miRNAs cloned exclusively or predominantly from each of the cell lines. A total of 35,759 small RNA clones were obtained from the 3 cell lines. We identified 27 miRNAs that were expressed exclusively or predominantly in each cell line. Subsequent validation with the real-time PCR confirmed that the miRNAs hsa-miR-22, -125a, -127, -199a, -199a*, -214, -376a, and -424 were expressed specifically in HIBEpiC but were downregulated in the ICC cell lines. Our study provides important information for facilitating studies of the functional role(s) of miRNAs in carcinogenesis of the hepatobiliary system. The biliary epithelial cell-specific miRNAs identified in this study may serve as potential biomarkers for ICC.

  15. Metabolomic profiling and genomic analysis of wheat aneuploid lines to identify genes controlling biochemical pathways in mature grain.

    PubMed

    Francki, Michael G; Hayton, Sarah; Gummer, Joel P A; Rawlinson, Catherine; Trengove, Robert D

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly important tool in plant genomics to decipher the function of genes controlling biochemical pathways responsible for trait variation. Although theoretical models can integrate genes and metabolites for trait variation, biological networks require validation using appropriate experimental genetic systems. In this study, we applied an untargeted metabolite analysis to mature grain of wheat homoeologous group 3 ditelosomic lines, selected compounds that showed significant variation between wheat lines Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line, tracked the genes encoding enzymes of their biochemical pathway using the wheat genome survey sequence and determined the genetic components underlying metabolite variation. A total of 412 analytes were resolved in the wheat grain metabolome, and principal component analysis indicated significant differences in metabolite profiles between Chinese Spring and each ditelosomic lines. The grain metabolome identified 55 compounds positively matched against a mass spectral library where the majority showed significant differences between Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line. Trehalose and branched-chain amino acids were selected for detailed investigation, and it was expected that if genes encoding enzymes directly related to their biochemical pathways were located on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes, then corresponding ditelosomic lines would have a significant reduction in metabolites compared with Chinese Spring. Although a proportion showed a reduction, some lines showed significant increases in metabolites, indicating that genes directly and indirectly involved in biosynthetic pathways likely regulate the metabolome. Therefore, this study demonstrated that wheat aneuploid lines are suitable experimental genetic system to validate metabolomics-genomics networks.

  16. A cell line with decreased sensitivity to the methyl mercury-induced stimulation of alpha-amanitin sensitive RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, G D; Ducote, J; Reboulleau, C P; Gierthy, J

    1988-01-01

    1. In nuclei isolated from cells of the B50 rat neuroblastoma line the stimulatory effect of methyl mercury on alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis is very much reduced compared to the stimulatory effect in HeLa nuclei (see: Frenkel G. D. and Randles K. (1982) Specific stimulation of alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis in isolated HeLa nuclei by methyl mercury. J. biol. Chem. 257, 6275-6279). 2. The stimulatory effect of another mercury compound, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, was also much less pronounced in the B50 nuclei. 3. Similar results were obtained with nuclei isolated from B50 cells which had been induced to differentiate by exposure to dibutaryl cyclic AMP. 4. Nuclei isolated from cells of another rat neuroblastoma line (B35), and nuclei from cells of a human neuroblastoma line both exhibited levels of stimulation similar to that of HeLa nuclei. 5. The B50 and HeLa cells were also compared as to their sensitivity to other effects of methyl mercury.

  17. Identification of IL11RA and MELK amplification in gastric cancer by comprehensive genomic profiling of gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Takeno, Sylvia Santomi; Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Araújo, Taíssa Maíra Thomaz; Lima, Eleonidas Moura; Melaragno, Maria Isabel; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marília Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify common copy number alterations on gastric cancer cell lines. METHODS Four gastric cancer cell lines (ACP02, ACP03, AGP01 and PG100) underwent chromosomal comparative genome hybridization and array comparative genome hybridization. We also confirmed the results by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using the bacterial artificial chromosome clone and quantitative real time PCR analysis. RESULTS The amplification of 9p13.3 was detected in all cell lines by both methodologies. An increase in the copy number of 9p13.3 was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Moreover, the interleukin 11 receptor alpha (IL11RA) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) genes, which are present in the 9p13.3 amplicon, revealed gains of the MELK gene in all the cell lines studied. Additionally, a gain in the copy number of IL11RA and MELK was observed in 19.1% (13/68) and 55.9% (38/68) of primary gastric adenocarcinoma samples, respectively. CONCLUSION The characterization of a small gain region at 9p13.3 in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric adenocarcinoma samples has revealed MELK as a candidate target gene that is possibly related to the development of gastric cancer. PMID:27920471

  18. Profiling Cesium Iodide Detectors and Using Pulse Shape Discrimination to Identify Alpha Particles, Neutrons, and Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Emily; Rogachev, Grigory; Hooker, Joshua; Salyer, Kaitlin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the properties of detectors that are to be used in future experiments. First, we investigated the properties of a cesium iodide detector. We placed a mask over the detector's face and used an alpha source to measure the detector's resolution on different areas of the detector. In the second part, we investigated the pulse shape discrimination capabilities of a plastic scintillator. We used the scintillator to detect alpha particles, neutrons, and gamma rays and applied various analysis techniques to identify the waveforms of each type. Texas A&M, NSF.

  19. Observations of chromospheric lines from OSO-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann-Doerth, U.; Kneer, F.; Uexkuell, M.; Artzner, G. E.; Vial, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Results of OSO-8 measurements of the line profiles of the solar Lyman alpha, Ca II K and Mg II k lines are presented. Observations were obtained with the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire spectrometer at spectral resolutions of 0.25 and 0.060 A for Lyman alpha and 0.025 A for the Mg II and Ca II lines. The Lyman alpha profiles are found to be highly variable according to spatial position with the intensities of the three lines well correlated, and confirm previous observations of the quiet solar chromosphere. Data suggest that the quiet chromosphere is a dynamical phenomenon whose description in terms of a static model atmosphere is only qualitatively valid at best.

  20. Can emission line profiles from perturbed accretion disks mimic those from the broad line region of a black hole in a supermassive binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephanie Meghan; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Boroson, Todd A.; Halpern, Jules P.

    2016-01-01

    Both observations and simulations from the last decade suggest a link between the evolution of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes. An important ingredient in these evolutionary models is galactic interaction and mergers. Consequently, we expect to see dual active galactic nuclei at the early stages of an interaction and close, bound binary black holes after the parent galaxies have merged. While binary active galactic nuclei have been detected at large separations, it has proven difficult to detect close, bound binaries. Our team has been carrying out an observing campaign to find binary black holes with sub-parsec separations. Thus, we have been studying a sample of 88 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey whose broad Hβ lines are offset from their nominal wavelength by a few thousand km/s. These offsets suggest orbital motion of one of the black holes and the gas that is bound to it. In this work, we play devil's advocate by exploring an alternative interpretation of the broad emission lines. We ask whether lines formed in a perturbed, non-axisymmetric disks can have profiles similar to those observed. Two categories of non-axisymmetric disks are explored - one with a prominent spiral arm and one that is elliptical. To make the model as general as possible, the radial emissivity of the disk was allowed to have a broken power-law profile. For certain combinations of model parameters, these models can match the observed profile shapes. A subset of these model parameters can mimic the sinusoidal procession of the peak velocity we would expect to see in a binary system on an observable time scale. However, the predominate, observed statistical trend between the Pearson Skewness and the peak position is not reproduced; instead, other trends are predicted by the models that we do not observe.

  1. Effect of nearest-neighbor ions on excited ionic states, emission spectra, and line profiles in hot and dense plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzmann, D.; Stein, J.; Goldberg, I. B.; Pratt, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the cylindrical symmetry imposed by the nearest-neighbor ions on the ionic levels and the emission spectra of a Li-like Kr ion immersed in hot and dense plasmas is investigated using the Stein et al. (1989) two-centered model extended to include computations of the line profiles, shifts, and widths, as well as the energy-level mixing and the forbidden transition probabilities. It is shown that the cylindrical symmetry mixes states with different orbital quantum numbers l, particularly for highly excited states, and, thereby, gives rise to forbidden transitions in the emission spectrum. Results are obtained for the variation of the ionic level shifts and mixing coefficients with the distance to the nearest neighbor. Also obtained are representative computed spectra that show the density effects on the spectral line profiles, shifts, and widths, and the forbidden components in the spectrum.

  2. Line-profile microvariability in OB-star spectra: the Supergiant λ Cep (O6If(n))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.; Sudnik, N. P.; Burlakova, T. E.; Valyavin, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    We observed the bright O6If(n) supergiant λ Cep in 1997 with the 6-m optical telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory and in 2007 with the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A total of 90 spectra of the star were acquired, with good time resolution (10 minutes), signal-to-noise ratios 150-300, and spectral resolutions of 45 000-60 000. We detected line-profile variations of H, HeI, and HeII lines. It is suggested that the detected variations are due to non-radial photospheric pulsations and the star's rotation (rotational profile modulation).

  3. [Effect of L-lysine alpha-oxidase from Trichoderma cf. aureoviride Rifai ВКМF-4268D on pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line].

    PubMed

    Lukasheva, E V; Ribakova, Yu S; Fedorova, T N; Makletsova, M G; Arinbasarova, A Yu; Medentzev, A G; Berezov, T T

    2015-01-01

    L-Amino acid oxidases (L-ААО, EC 1.4.3.2) comprise a group of flavoproteins, catalyzing oxidative deamination of L-alpha amino acids to the corresponding alpha-keto acids, NH3 and Н2О2. In most cases these enzymes present homodimeric molecules with a molecular mass of 100-150 kDa, which were shown to possess antiviral, antifungal and antitumor activity. L-lysine alpha-oxidase (LO) holds an outstanding place among this group of enzymes and its biological role may differ significantly from the other L-AAO, because it cleaves an essential amino acid - L-lysine without significant action on the other amino acids. Although much research has examined LO effects in the organism, the molecular basis of these effects is yet to be identified. To fill this gap, the present work addressed one of hypothetical mechanisms of LO biological action using the enzyme from Trichoderma cf. aureoviride Rifai ВКМF-4268D and rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 as a model cell line. Using flow cytometry a dose-dependent cytotoxicity of LO was shown. The significant growth of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, detected by 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay, implies generation of peroxide as one of the molecular mechanisms of LO cytotoxic action, although this does not rule out other probable ways of LO action in the organizm.

  4. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  5. Anticancer drug clustering based on proteomic profiles and a sensitivity database in a lung cancer cell line panel

    PubMed Central

    HINO, MITSUNORI; MATSUDA, KUNIKO; MIYANAGA, AKIHIKO; KURIBAYASI, HIDEHIKO; MIZUTANI, HIDEAKI; NORO, RINTARO; MINEGISHI, YUJI; OKANO, TETSUYA; SEIKE, MASAHIRO; KAWAKAMI, AKIKO; YOSHIMURA, AKINOBU; OGAWA, NAOKI; UESAKA, HARUKA; KUDOH, SHOJI; GEMMA, AKIHIKO

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we performed a molecular pharmacological study that applied a combination of DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling and drug sensitivity tests in vitro with a view to designing an improved chemotherapeutic strategy for advanced lung cancer. Utilizing recent key technological advances in proteomics, particularly antibody array-based methodologies, the current study aimed to examine the benefit of protein expression profiling in an analogous molecular pharmacological context. We performed protein expression analysis in a panel of lung cancer cell lines via an antibody array approach. Using a modified NCI program, we related cell line-specific proteomic profiles to the previously determined cytotoxic activity of a selection of commonly used anticancer agents, namely docetaxel, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), SN38, cisplatin (CDDP) and carboplatin (CBDCA). In addition, we compared these results with those obtained from our prior DNA microarray-based transcriptomic study. In our expression-drug correlation analysis using antibody array, gemcitabine consistently belonged to an isolated cluster. Docetaxel, paclitaxel, 5-FU, SN38, CBDCA and CDDP were gathered together into one large cluster. These results coincided with those generated by the prior transcriptomic study. Various genes were commonly listed that differentiated gemcitabine from the others. The identified factors associated with drug sensitivities were different between both analyses. Our proteomic profiling data provided confirmation of the previous transcript expression-drug sensitivity correlation analysis. These results suggest that chemotherapy regimens that include gemcitabine should be evaluated in second-line chemotherapy in cases where the first-line chemotherapy did not include this drug. Protein expression-drug sensitivity correlations in lung cancer cells in vitro may provide useful information in determining the most appropriate therapeutic options

  6. Double-Peaked Profiles: Ubiquitous Signatures of Disks in the Broad Emission Lines of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Schimoia, J. S.; Peterson, B. M.; Elvis, M.; Denney, K. D.; Eracleous, M.; Nemmen, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Broad (∼10,000 km s‑1), double-peaked emission-line profiles of Balmer lines emitted by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are thought to originate in the outer parts of an accretion disk surrounding a nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH), at ∼1000 gravitational radii, and are most frequently observed in the nuclear spectra of low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) and radio galaxies. In the present paper we argue that broad double-peaked profiles are present also in the spectra of other type 1 AGN, such as Seyfert 1 galaxies, suggesting that the inner part of the broad-line region (BLR) is also the outer part of the accretion disk. We use the Palomar spectral survey of nearby galaxies to show that the only difference between Seyfert 1 BLR line profiles and “bona fide” double-peakers is that, in most cases, besides a disk component, we need an additional Gaussian component attributed to nondisk clouds. The recognition that the inner and most variable part of the BLR has a disk geometry suggests that the factor f in the expression to obtain the SMBH mass in type 1 AGN, {M}{BH}=f({R}{BLR}{{Δ }}{V}2/G), is f=1/{\\sin }2i for the disk-dominated sources. Our median i = 27° implies f = 4.5, very close to the most recent value of f = 4.3 ± 1.05, obtained from independent studies. We derive a relation between f and the FWHM of the broad profile that may help to reduce the uncertainties in the SMBH mass determinations of AGN.

  7. Study of LiOH etching of polyethyleneterephtalate irradiated with 11.4 MeV/amu Pb ions by neutron depth profiling and alpha particle transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacík, J.; Červená, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Fink, D.; Strauss, P.

    1998-12-01

    Polyethyleneterephtalate (PETP) foils, 23 μm thick, irradiated with 11.4 MeV/amu Pb ions to the fluence of about 1 × 107 cm-2 were etched in 5M LiOH solution at the temperature of 40°C for 30-570 min and the etching process kinetics was examined by combined alpha particle transmission (APT) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) techniques. The etching process was visualized from very initial stages up to the breakthrough and the appearance of first openings after about 300 min of etching. Several parameters characterizing the etching process were determined and the pore internal profile was determined by comparing the measured APT spectra with those simulated by Monte-Carlo method.

  8. Asymmetry of the Balmer-alpha line shape and recovery of the effective hydrogen temperature in the tokamak scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect

    Neverov, V. S. Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisgo, S. W. Kukushkin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. G.

    2015-02-15

    An algorithm for recovering the effective temperature of atoms of hydrogen (and its isotopes) in the tokamak scrape-off layer from the asymmetry of the Balmer-alpha line shape is proposed. The algorithm is based on the parametrization of the asymmetry of the line shape caused by the nonlocal character of neutral hydrogen flux from the wall into the tokamak plasma. The accuracy of the algorithm is tested against the results of simulations of the velocity distribution function of deuterium neutrals in the scrape-off layer by the EIRENE code with the use of the source data on the main plasma component in the quasi-stationary stage of the inductive mode of ITER operation calculated by the SOLPS4.3 (B2-EIRENE) code.

  9. An off-line data processing system for biochemistry profiling based on a 2K programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    James, R M

    1976-03-01

    An off-line data processing system based on a Hewlett Packard 2K programmable calculator to be used with a biochemistry profiling system is described. The program is in two sections. A Data Acquisition phase calculates results from Auto Analyser II peak heights after corrections for drift and stores them on magnetic tape cassettes. Quality control statistics are produced. A Reporting phase types the profile results on self-adhesive pre-printed labels to be attached to the test-request form and also prepares a laboratory record sheet. The system is routinely used to process up to 2000 peak heights per day. Non-profile heights may also be read using this program.

  10. Proposed rocket experiments to measure the profile and intensity of the solar He1584A resonance line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity and profile of the helium resonance line at 584 A from the entire disc of the sun was investigated using a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer and a curve of growth technique. The line profile was found to be accurately represented by a Gaussian profile with full width at half maximum of 122 plus or minus 10m A while the integrated intensity was measured to be (2.6 plus or minus 1.3) x 10 to the 9th power/photons sec sq cm at solar levels of F sub 10.7 = 90.8 x 10 to the minus 22th power/sq m H sub z and R sub z = 27. The measured linewidth is in good agreement with previous spectrographic measurement but the integrated intensity is larger than most previous photoelectric measurements. However, the derived line center flux of (2.0 plus or minus 1.0) x 10 to the 10th power/photons sec sq cm A is in good agreement with values inferred from airglow measurements.

  11. NGC 5548: LACK OF A BROAD Fe K{alpha} LINE AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE LOCATION OF THE HARD X-RAY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, L. W.; Elvis, M.; Krongold, Y.; Liu, Y.; Mathur, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the co-added and individual 0.7-40 keV spectra from seven Suzaku observations of the Sy 1.5 galaxy NGC 5548 taken over a period of eight weeks. We conclude that the source has a moderately ionized, three-zone warm absorber, a power-law continuum, and exhibits contributions from cold, distant reflection. Relativistic reflection signatures are not significantly detected in the co-added data, and we place an upper limit on the equivalent width of a relativistically broad Fe K{alpha} line at EW {<=} 26 eV at 90% confidence. Thus NGC 5548 can be labeled as a 'weak' type 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in terms of its observed inner disk reflection signatures, in contrast to sources with very broad, strong iron lines such as MCG-6-30-15, which are likely much fewer in number. We compare physical properties of NGC 5548 and MCG-6-30-15 that might explain this difference in their reflection properties. Though there is some evidence that NGC 5548 may harbor a truncated inner accretion disk, this evidence is inconclusive, so we also consider light bending of the hard X-ray continuum emission in order to explain the lack of relativistic reflection in our observation. If the absence of a broad Fe K{alpha} line is interpreted in the light-bending context, we conclude that the source of the hard X-ray continuum lies at radii r{sub s} {approx}> 100 r{sub g}. We note, however, that light-bending models must be expanded to include a broader range of physical parameter space in order to adequately explain the spectral and timing properties of average AGNs, rather than just those with strong, broad iron lines.

  12. The Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 2110: Hard X-Ray Emission Observed by NuStar and Variability of the Iron K-Alpha Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.; Lu, T. N.; Arevalo, P.; Balokovic, M.; Ballantyne, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Stern, D.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the bright Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 obtained in 2012, when the source was at the highest flux level ever observed, and in 2013, when the source was at a more typical flux level. We include archival observations from other X-ray satellites, namely XMM-Newton, Suzaku, BeppoSAX, Chandra and Swift. Simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift broad band spectra (in the 3-80 keV range) indicate a cutoff energy E(sub c) greater than 210 keV, with no detectable contribution from Compton reflection. NGC 2110 is one of the very few sources where no evidence for distant Compton thick scattering is found and, by using temporal information collected over more than a decade, we investigate variations of the iron K(alpha) line on time scales of years. The Fe K alpha line is likely the sum of two components: one constant (originating from distant Compton-thick material) and the other one variable and linearly correlated with the source flux (possibly arising from Compton-thin material much closer to the black hole).

  13. Expanding shell and P Cygni profiles of 27 Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, K. K.

    1990-09-01

    H-alpha and He I profiles of 27 CMa obtained between January 1985 and February 1989 are presented. Velocities of blue absorption and red emission components of H-alpha were different from that of He I, suggesting that the regions of formation of H-alpha and He I were different in the expanding shell of 27 CMa. Velocities of all the components of H-alpha were variable between April 16 and 18, 1989. But, from April 18, when the blue emission velocities were almost unchanged, the blue absorption and red emission velocities were decreasing and those for He I components were increasing. Equivalent widths of blue emission components of He I lines were almost constant during the observational interval, while red emission strengths of H-alpha profile displayed weak variations between April 16 and 26. He I and H-alpha profiles clearly show that 27 CMa has entered into a new shell phase.

  14. Spectral line profiles of nickel and argon in supernova 1987A - Expansion velocity and electron scattering effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witteborn, F. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Wooden, D. H.; Pinto, P. A.; Rank, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra of SN 1987A showing the Ni II 6.634-micron and Ar II 6.983-micron fine-structure lines were obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory in April 1988. The signal-to-noise ratio of 100 near the peaks and resolving power of 200 are sufficient to show the average velocity of expansion from the core of about 1400 km/s and to indicate the range of velocities. An asymmetry in the profiles of both lines and a redshift of the line centroids of about 440 km/s above the 280-km/s recessional velocity of the LMC can be explained in terms of scattering of the photons by electrons in the expanding hydrogen envelope of the supernova. A mass of 0.0030 solar masses of Ni II can be deduced from the line strength of the Ni II line and a mass of 0.0009 solar masses of Ar II from the Ar II line strength.

  15. Beam Profile Measurement in MTA Beam Line for High Pressure RF Cavity Beam Test

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, M.R.; Bross, A.; Chung, M.; Greer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwartz, T.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /PDT, Torino

    2012-05-15

    Recent High Pressure RF (HPRF) cavity experiment at MuCool Test Area (MTA) has used 400 MeV Linac proton beam to study the beam loading effect. When the energetic proton beam passes through the cavity, it ionizes the inside gas and produces the electrons. These electrons consume RF power inside the cavity. Number of electrons produced per cm inside the cavity (at 950 psi Hydrogen gas) per incident proton is {approx} 1200. The measurement of beam position and profile are necessary. MTA is flammable gas (Hydrogen) hazard zone so we have developed a passive beam diagnostic instrument using Chromox-6 scintillation screen and CCD camera. This paper presents quantitative information about beam position and beam profile. Neutral density filter was used to avoid saturation of CCD camera. Image data is filtered and fitted with Gaussian function to compute the beam size. The beam profile obtained from scintillation screen shall be compared with multi-wire beam profile.

  16. On Use of Pseudo-Voigt Profiles in Diffraction Line Broadening Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Prabal

    Sample-related X-ray diffraction profiles are often fitted with a pseudo-Voigt function, which is a linear combination of a Cauchy and a Gaussian function, particularly for the cases of size-strain analysis. This work reveals that Cauchy content, h, must be greater than 0.328 in case of pseudo-Voigt profile, otherwise one can not expect any meaningful accuracy in terms of data on crystallite size extracted from such profiles. h values published by several authors, who have made use of pseudo-Voigt function as profile fitting function, were thoroughly studied and it was found that their reported h values agree with the present theory.

  17. IRIS Si iv LINE PROFILES: AN INDICATION FOR THE PLASMOID INSTABILITY DURING SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.-J.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-10

    Our understanding of the process of fast reconnection has undergone a dramatic change in the last 10 years driven, in part, by the availability of high-resolution numerical simulations that have consistently demonstrated the break-up of current sheets into magnetic islands, with reconnection rates that become independent of Lundquist number, challenging the belief that fast magnetic reconnection in flares proceeds via the Petschek mechanism which invokes pairs of slow-mode shocks connected to a compact diffusion region. The reconnection sites are too small to be resolved with images, but these reconnection mechanisms, Petschek and the plasmoid instability, have reconnection sites with very different density and velocity structures and so can be distinguished by high-resolution line-profile observations. Using IRIS spectroscopic observations we obtain a survey of typical line profiles produced by small-scale events thought to be reconnection sites on the Sun. Slit-jaw images are used to investigate the plasma heating and re-configuration at the sites. A sample of 15 events from 2 active regions is presented. The line profiles are complex with bright cores and broad wings extending to over 300 km s{sup −1}. The profiles can be reproduced with the multiple magnetic islands and acceleration sites that characterize the plasmoid instability but not by bi-directional jets that characterize the Petschek mechanism. This result suggests that if these small-scale events are reconnection sites, then fast reconnection proceeds via the plasmoid instability, rather than the Petschek mechanism during small-scale reconnection on the Sun.

  18. IRIS Si IV Line Profiles: An Indication for the Plasmoid Instability during Small-scale Magnetic Reconnection on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.-J.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of the process of fast reconnection has undergone a dramatic change in the last 10 years driven, in part, by the availability of high-resolution numerical simulations that have consistently demonstrated the break-up of current sheets into magnetic islands, with reconnection rates that become independent of Lundquist number, challenging the belief that fast magnetic reconnection in flares proceeds via the Petschek mechanism which invokes pairs of slow-mode shocks connected to a compact diffusion region. The reconnection sites are too small to be resolved with images, but these reconnection mechanisms, Petschek and the plasmoid instability, have reconnection sites with very different density and velocity structures and so can be distinguished by high-resolution line-profile observations. Using IRIS spectroscopic observations we obtain a survey of typical line profiles produced by small-scale events thought to be reconnection sites on the Sun. Slit-jaw images are used to investigate the plasma heating and re-configuration at the sites. A sample of 15 events from 2 active regions is presented. The line profiles are complex with bright cores and broad wings extending to over 300 km s-1. The profiles can be reproduced with the multiple magnetic islands and acceleration sites that characterize the plasmoid instability but not by bi-directional jets that characterize the Petschek mechanism. This result suggests that if these small-scale events are reconnection sites, then fast reconnection proceeds via the plasmoid instability, rather than the Petschek mechanism during small-scale reconnection on the Sun.

  19. Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) Modulates Signaling Pathways in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SQ20B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Pamela D.; Sakwe, Amos; Koumangoye, Rainelli; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Ochieng, Josiah; Marshall, Dana R.

    2014-02-15

    This study was performed to identify the potential role of Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) tumorigenesis using an HNSCC cell line model. HNSCC cell lines are unique among cancer cell lines, in that they produce endogenous AHSG and do not rely, solely, on AHSG derived from serum. To produce our model, we performed a stable transfection to down-regulate AHSG in the HNSCC cell line SQ20B, resulting in three SQ20B sublines, AH50 with 50% AHSG production, AH20 with 20% AHSG production and EV which is the empty vector control expressing wild-type levels of AHSG. Utilizing these sublines, we examined the effect of AHSG depletion on cellular adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in a serum-free environment. We demonstrated that sublines EV and AH50 adhered to plastic and laminin significantly faster than the AH20 cell line, supporting the previously reported role of exogenous AHSG in cell adhesion. As for proliferative potential, EV had the greatest amount of proliferation with AH50 proliferation significantly diminished. AH20 cells did not proliferate at all. Depletion of AHSG also diminished cellular migration and invasion. TGF-β was examined to determine whether levels of the TGF-β binding AHSG influenced the effect of TGF-β on cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas higher levels of AHSG blunted TGF-β influenced SMAD and ERK signaling, it did not clearly affect proliferation, suggesting that AHSG influences on adhesion, proliferation, invasion and migration are primarily due to its role in adhesion and cell spreading. The previously reported role of AHSG in potentiating metastasis via protecting MMP-9 from autolysis was also supported in this cell line based model system of endogenous AHSG production in HNSCC. Together, these data show that endogenously produced AHSG in an HNSCC cell line, promotes in vitro cellular properties identified as having a role in tumorigenesis. Highlights: • Head

  20. Cell Line Derived 5-FU and Irinotecan Drug-Sensitivity Profiles Evaluated in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Trial Data

    PubMed Central

    Delorenzi, Mauro; Jensen, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Buhl; Bosman, Fred; Tejpar, Sabine; Roth, Arnaud; Brunner, Nils; Hansen, Anker; Knudsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates whether gene signatures for chemosensitivity for irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) derived from in vitro grown cancer cell lines can predict clinical sensitivity to these drugs. Methods To test if an irinotecan signature and a SN-38 signature could identify patients who benefitted from the addition of irinotecan to 5-FU, we used gene expression profiles based on cell lines and clinical tumor material. These profiles were applied to expression data obtained from pretreatment formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue from 636 stage III colon cancer patients enrolled in the PETACC-3 prospective randomized clinical trial. A 5-FU profile developed similarly was assessed by comparing the PETACC-3 cohort with a cohort of 359 stage II colon cancer patients who underwent surgery but received no adjuvant therapy. Results There was no statistically significant association between the irinotecan or SN-38 profiles and benefit from irinotecan. The 5-FU sensitivity profile showed a statistically significant association with relapse free survival (RFS) (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.54 (0.41–0.71), p<1e-05) and overall survival (HR = 0.47 (0.34–0.63), p<1e-06) in the PETACC-3 subpopulation. The effect of the 5-FU profile remained significant in a multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards model, adjusting for several relevant clinicopathological parameters. No statistically significant effect of the 5-FU profile was observed in the untreated cohort of 359 patients (relapse free survival, p = 0.671). Conclusion The irinotecan predictor had no predictive value. The 5-FU predictor was prognostic in stage III patients in PETACC-3 but not in stage II patients with no adjuvant therapy. This suggests a potential predictive ability of the 5-FU sensitivity profile to identify colon cancer patients who may benefit from 5-FU, however, any biomarker predicting benefit for adjuvant 5-FU must be rigorously evaluated in independent cohorts. Given differences

  1. H{alpha} ABSORPTION IN TRANSITING EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li Zhiyun E-mail: pla7y@virginia.edu

    2013-08-01

    Absorption of stellar H{alpha} by the upper atmosphere of the planet HD 189733b has recently been detected by Jensen et al. Motivated by this observation, we have developed a model for atomic hydrogen in the n = 2 state and compared the resulting H{alpha} line profile to the observations. The model atmosphere is in hydrostatic balance, as well as thermal and photoionization equilibrium. Collisional and radiative transitions are included in the determination of the n = 2 state level population. We find that H{alpha} absorption is dominated by an optical depth {tau} {approx} 1 shell, composed of hydrogen in the metastable 2s state that is located below the hydrogen ionization layer. The number density of the 2s state within the shell is found to vary slowly with radius, while that of the 1s state falls rapidly. Thus while the Ly{alpha} absorption, for a certain wavelength, occurs inside a relatively well defined impact parameter, the contribution to H{alpha} absorption is roughly uniform over the entire atomic hydrogen layer. The model can approximately reproduce the observed Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} integrated transit depths for HD 189733b by using an ionization rate enhanced over that expected for the star by an order of magnitude. For HD 209458b, we are unable to explain the asymmetric H{alpha} line profile observed by Jensen et al., as the model produces a symmetric line profile with transit depth comparable to that of HD 189733b. In an appendix, we study the effect of the stellar Ly{alpha} absorption on the net cooling rate.

  2. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  3. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a

  4. On the line-shape analysis of Compton profiles and its application to neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, G.; Krzystyniak, M.

    2016-05-01

    Analytical properties of Compton profiles are used in order to simplify the analysis of neutron Compton scattering experiments. In particular, the possibility to fit the difference of Compton profiles is discussed as a way to greatly decrease the level of complexity of the data treatment, making the analysis easier, faster and more robust. In the context of the novel method proposed, two mathematical models describing the shapes of differenced Compton profiles are discussed: the simple Gaussian approximation for harmonic and isotropic local potential, and an analytical Gauss-Hermite expansion for an anharmonic or anisotropic potential. The method is applied to data collected by VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS neutron and muon pulsed source (UK) on Copper and Aluminium samples at ambient and low temperatures.

  5. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, AnhThu; Rauch, Tibor A.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Hu, Valerie W.

    2010-01-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well as between both twins and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially methylated genes demonstrated enrichment for high-level functions including gene transcription, nervous system development, cell death/survival, and other biological processes implicated in autism. The methylation status of 2 of these candidate genes, BCL-2 and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA), was further confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue arrays containing slices of the cerebellum and frontal cortex of autistic and age- and sex-matched control subjects revealed decreased expression of RORA and BCL-2 proteins in the autistic brain. Our data thus confirm the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression via differential DNA methylation in idiopathic autism, and furthermore link molecular changes in a peripheral cell model with brain pathobiology in autism.—Nguyen, A., Rauch, T. A., Pfeifer, G. P., Hu, V. W. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain. PMID:20375269

  6. Circadian rhythms, Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR alpha/gamma profiles in diseases with primary or secondary cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lecarpentier, Yves; Claes, Victor; Duthoit, Guillaume; Hébert, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clock mechanisms are far-from-equilibrium dissipative structures. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) play a key role in metabolic regulatory processes, particularly in heart muscle. Links between circadian rhythms (CRs) and PPARs have been established. Mammalian CRs involve at least two critical transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1 (Gekakis et al., 1998; Hogenesch et al., 1998). PPAR gamma plays a major role in both glucose and lipid metabolisms and presents circadian properties which coordinate the interplay between metabolism and CRs. PPAR gamma is a major component of the vascular clock. Vascular PPAR gamma is a peripheral regulator of cardiovascular rhythms controlling circadian variations in blood pressure and heart rate through BMAL1. We focused our review on diseases with abnormalities of CRs and with primary or secondary cardiac dysfunction. Moreover, these diseases presented changes in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and PPARs, according to two opposed profiles. Profile 1 was defined as follows: inactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with increased expression of PPAR gamma. Profile 2 was defined as follows: activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with decreased expression of PPAR gamma. A typical profile 1 disease is arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetic cardiac disease which presents mutations of the desmosomal proteins and is mainly characterized by fatty acid accumulation in adult cardiomyocytes mainly in the right ventricle. The link between PPAR gamma dysfunction and desmosomal genetic mutations occurs via inactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway presenting oscillatory properties. A typical profile 2 disease is type 2 diabetes, with activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and decreased expression of PPAR gamma. CRs abnormalities are present in numerous pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, sympathetic/parasympathetic dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes

  7. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  8. Thermal Iron K and Alpha: Line Emission from the X-Ray Binary GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. D.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, D. B.; Chen, L.; Xu, H. G.; You, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The accretion rate of the black hole candidate X-ray binary GX 339-4 in the 'off' state is low, and an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) is present. Hydrogen-like and helium-like iron Kbalpha; emission lines at 6.7 and 6.95 keV from hot plasma of ADAF can be produced by recombination-cascade processes with moderately high intensities, which are markedly distinguished from the fluorescent iron Kα line at approximately 6.4 keV. We show that the observational features of GX 339-4 can be explained by the ADAF model, if the iron abundance is more than 10 times the solar value, though the reason for such a high abundance is still unclear. We suggest that the increase of the accretion rate makes GX 339-4 change from off, low, intermediate, to high and very high states, and the line center of iron Kbalpha; will therefore shift from approximately 6.83 to approximately 6.4 keV, i.e. to the fluorescent disc-line, since the disappearance of the ADAF due to its high accretion rate.

  9. The Broad-Line Region Cloud Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Matthias

    Generally, it is believed that the broad-emission lines are emitted by rapidly moving clouds or filaments within the BLR. The line profiles are expected to be variable on time scales of years due to redistribution of the clouds. However, observations show that profile changes can occur more rapidly than this indicating that hydrodynamical instabilities are associated with the BLR clouds themselves. Since the number of clouds is estimated to at least ~ 10^7 it is difficult to explain how stochastic events affecting individual clouds can yield detectable profile variations. Small-scale fluctuations due to as many as 4 x 10^6 clouds would be still observable in emission-line profiles taken with high spectral resolution and high S/N ratio (cf. Capriotti et al. 1981). Echelle spectra of 3C 273 and NGC 5548 will be presented. The line profiles of H\\alpha and H\\beta have been studied with high spectral resolution (\\Delta v ~ 10 km s^{-1}). The statistical variations of the residua of the H\\alpha and H\\beta line profiles will be used to test whether this is consistent with the expected statistical scatter due to the finite number of line emitting clouds. Based on these fluctuations it will be possible to derive an estimation of the total number of emission-line clouds. The results will be compared with simulations of cloud ensembles with different distributions, geometries, and numbers of individual emitters.

  10. Phenotypic and ionome profiling of Triticum aestivum x Aegiolps tauschii introgression lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighty-four single homozygous introgressions of the Aegilops tauschii D-genome in the ‘Chinese Spring’ genetic background were used to study phenotypic and ionome profiles during two years of field experiments. An augmented design was used with a repeated check of a local bread wheat cultivar was im...

  11. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corroded lead water pipe was removed from a drinking water distribution system and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rDNA techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of biofilm on a surface of a corroded lead drinking water pipe. The majority of ...

  12. Integrative proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cell lines reveals precursor cell associated proteins and functional status

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, F.; Watters, K. M.; Curtis, M.; Eckert, M. A.; Chiang, C. Y.; Tyanova, S.; Montag, A.; Lastra, R. R.; Lengyel, E.; Mann, M.

    2016-01-01

    A cell line representative of human high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) should not only resemble its tumour of origin at the molecular level, but also demonstrate functional utility in pre-clinical investigations. Here, we report the integrated proteomic analysis of 26 ovarian cancer cell lines, HGSOC tumours, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and fallopian tube epithelial cells via a single-run mass spectrometric workflow. The in-depth quantification of >10,000 proteins results in three distinct cell line categories: epithelial (group I), clear cell (group II) and mesenchymal (group III). We identify a 67-protein cell line signature, which separates our entire proteomic data set, as well as a confirmatory publicly available CPTAC/TCGA tumour proteome data set, into a predominantly epithelial and mesenchymal HGSOC tumour cluster. This proteomics-based epithelial/mesenchymal stratification of cell lines and human tumours indicates a possible origin of HGSOC either from the fallopian tube or from the ovarian surface epithelium. PMID:27561551

  13. Investigation of thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced aluminum plasma using the Hα line profiles and Thomson scattering spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvejić, M.; DzierŻega, K.; Pieta, T.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied isothermal equilibrium in the laser-induced plasma from aluminum pellets in argon at pressure of 200 mbar by using a method which combines the standard laser Thomson scattering and analysis of the Hα, Stark-broadened, line profiles. Plasma was created using 4.5 ns, 4 mJ pulses from a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. While electron density and temperature were determined from the electron feature of Thomson scattering spectra, the heavy particle temperature was obtained from the Hα full profile applying computer simulation including ion-dynamical effects. We have found strong imbalance between these two temperatures during entire plasma evolution which indicates its non-isothermal character. At the same time, according to the McWhirter criterion, the electron density was high enough to establish plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium.

  14. Protonation linked equilibria and apparent affinity constants: the thermodynamic profile of the alpha-chymotrypsin-proflavin interaction.

    PubMed

    Bruylants, Gilles; Wintjens, René; Looze, Yvan; Redfield, Christina; Bartik, Kristin

    2007-12-01

    Protonation/deprotonation equilibria are frequently linked to binding processes involving proteins. The presence of these thermodynamically linked equilibria affects the observable thermodynamic parameters of the interaction (K(obs), DeltaH(obs)(0) ). In order to try and elucidate the energetic factors that govern these binding processes, a complete thermodynamic characterisation of each intrinsic equilibrium linked to the complexation event is needed and should furthermore be correlated to structural information. We present here a detailed study, using NMR and ITC, of the interaction between alpha-chymotrypsin and one of its competitive inhibitors, proflavin. By performing proflavin titrations of the enzyme, at different pH values, we were able to highlight by NMR the effect of the complexation of the inhibitor on the ionisable residues of the catalytic triad of the enzyme. Using ITC we determined the intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of the different equilibria linked to the binding process. The possible driving forces of the interaction between alpha-chymotrypsin and proflavin are discussed in the light of the experimental data and on the basis of a model of the complex. This study emphasises the complementarities between ITC and NMR for the study of binding processes involving protonation/deprotonation equilibria.

  15. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) expression associated with cell survival and death in cancer cell lines infected with canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J A; Ferreira, H L; Vieira, F V; Gameiro, R; Andrade, A L; Eugênio, F R; Flores, E F; Cardoso, T C

    2015-09-16

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel strategy for treatment of cancer in humans and companion animals as well. Canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus, has proven to be oncolytic through induction of apoptosis in canine-derived tumour cells, yet the mechanism behind this inhibitory action is poorly understood. In this study, three human mammary tumour cell lines and one canine-derived adenofibrosarcoma cell line were tested regarding to their susceptibility to CDV infection, cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8). CDV replication-induced cytopathic effect, decrease of cell proliferation rates, and >45% of infected cells were considered death and/or under late apoptosis/necrosis. TNFAIP8 and CDVM gene expression were positively correlated in all cell lines. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was associated with increase in virus titres (p < 0.005). Thus, these results strongly suggest that both human and canine mammary tumour cells are potential candidates for studies concerning CDV-induced cancer therapy.

  16. Characterization of P1 promoter activity of the beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase I gene (siat 1) in cervical and hepatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Milflores-Flores, Lorena; Millán-Pérez, Lourdes; Santos-López, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica

    2012-06-01

    The level of beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6Gal I) mRNA, encoded by the gene siat1, is increased in malignant tissues. Expression is regulated by different promoters - P1, P2 and P3 - generating three mRNA isoforms H, X and YZ. In cervical cancer tissue the mRNA isoform H, which results from P1 promoter activity, is increased. To study the regulation of P1 promoter, different constructs from P1 promoter were evaluated by luciferase assays in cervical and hepatic cell lines. Deletion of a fragment of 1048 bp (-89 to +24 bp) increased 5- and 3-fold the promoter activity in C33A and HepG2 cell lines, respectively. The minimal region with promoter activity was a 37 bp fragment in C33A cells. The activity of this region does not require the presence of an initiator sequence. In HepG2 cells the minimal promoter activity was detected in the 66 bp fragment. Sp1 (-32) mutation increased the promoter activity only in HepG2 cells. HNF1 mutation decreased promoter activity in HepG2 cell line but not in C33A cells. We identified a large region that plays a negative regulation role. The regulation of promoter activity is cell type specific. Our study provides new insights into the complex transcriptional regulation of siat1 gene.

  17. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  18. The Influences of the Wheel Profiles on the Wheel Wear and Vibrational Characteristics of the Passenger Cars Running on the Seoul-Pusan Conventional Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bu-Byoung; Lee, Chan-Woo

    Wheels of the railway vehicle play the important role for driving train through wheel-rail interaction. Especially wheel profile is one of the most important design factors to rule the running stability and safety of train. Accordingly maintenance of wheel like wheel profile control is also very important for securing safety and stability of train operation. This study presents the wheel wear measurement results of Saemaeul running on the conventional line. The train set included three different cars which have different shape of wheel profile including KNR profile currently used in Saemaeul. Train set was operated on Seoul-Pusan line with fixed train set formation for commercial service. Wheel wear measurements were performed periodically. We can find the influence of wheel profile on the wheel wear of the train running on the conventional line through the measurement results.

  19. Influence of Collisions with Charged Particles on Heavy Metal Spectral Line Profiles in Spectra of A Stars and White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simic, Z.

    2009-09-01

    The significance of trace element spectral data, including Stark broadening parameters, increases with the development of space-born spectroscopy. Here, we investigated theoretically the influence of collisions with charged particles on heavy metal spectral line profiles for Te I, Cr II, Mn II, Au II, Cu III, Zn III, Se III, In III and Sn III in spectra of A stars and white dwarfs. In this work semiclassical theory (Sahal-Bréchot 1969ab) was applied particularly since the most of published results in literature until now are determined using this method. When it can not be applied in an adequate way, due to the lack of reliable atomic data, modified semiempirical theory (Dimitrijević and Konjević 1980, Dimitrijević and Kršljanin 1986) was used. Here, we obtained Stark broadening parameters, widths and shifts, for spectral lines of neutral emitter Te I, singly charged emitters Cr II, Mn II and Au II and doubly charged emitters Cu III, Zn III, Se III, In III and Sn III. In the case with the available experimental and other theoretical data for the considered spectral lines we analized an agreement or a disagreement with our theoretical results. Also, here we considered the contributions of different collision processes to the total Stark width in comparison with the Doppler one. We consider the effect of Stark broadening on the shapes of CrII spectral lines observed in stellar atmospheres of the middle part of the main sequence. Stark broadening parameters were calculated by the semiclassical perturbation approach. For stellar spectra synthesis, the improved version SYNTH3 of the code SYNTH for synthetic spectrum calculations was used. Stark broadening parameters for Cr II spectral lines of seven multiplets belonging to 4s-4p transitions were calculated. New calculated Stark parameters were applied to the analysis of Cr II line profiles observed in the spectrum of Cr-rich star HD 133792. We found that Stark broadening mechanism is very important and should be

  20. Effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines: phospholipid profiling by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Rae Ung; Lim, Sangsoo; Kim, Myoung Ok; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2011-08-01

    D-Allose, a rare, naturally occurring monosaccharide, is known to exert anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. The effects of D-allose on the cellular membranes of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell line (DU145), hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), and normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) were studied at the molecular level by phospholipid (PL) profiling using a shotgun lipidomic method. The molecular structures of 85 PL species including 23 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 11 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 16 phosphatidylinositols, 9 phosphatidic acids (PAs), and 14 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) were identified by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation of nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the PL amounts were quantified. The addition of D-allose to prostate cancer cell lines during their growth phases had negligible or decreased effects on the relative regulation of PL species, but several new PS molecules (two for DU145 and three for LNCaP) emerged. In contrast, experiments on the PrEC cell line revealed that some high abundant species (14:0/14:0-PE, 16:2/16:0-PG, and 20:6/18:1-PA) showed significant increases in concentration. These findings support a mechanism for the anti-proliferative effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines that involves the induction of programmed cell death since PS molecules are known to induce apoptosis. Principal component analysis was carried out to examine differences in PL distributions among the three cell lines promoted by D-allose.

  1. Reconstructing the velocity dispersion profiles from the line-of-sight kinematic data in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Y.

    2017-03-01

    We present a modification of the method for reconstructing the stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) in disc galaxies. Our version does not need any parametrization of the velocity dispersion profiles and uses only one assumption that the ratio σz/σR remains constant along the profile or along several pieces of the profile. The method was tested on two galaxies from the sample of other authors and for the first time applied to three lenticular galaxies NGC 1167, NGC 3245 and NGC 4150, as well as to one Sab galaxy NGC 338. We found that for galaxies with a high inclination (i >55° - 60°) it is difficult or rather impossible to extract the information about SVE, while for galaxies at an intermediate inclination the procedure of extracting is successful. For NGC 1167 we managed to reconstruct SVE, provided that the value of σz/σR is piecewise constant. We found σz/σR = 0.7 for the inner parts of the disc and σz/σR = 0.3 for the outskirts. We also obtained a rigid constraint on the value of the radial velocity dispersion σR for highly inclined galaxies, and tested the result using the asymmetric-drift equation, provided that the gas rotation curve is available.

  2. The expansion velocities of laser-produced plasmas determined from extreme ultraviolet spectral line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Behring, W. E.; Cohen, L.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of laser-produced plasma is determined from the shapes of spectral lines of highly ionized iron emitted in the extreme ultraviolet. The plasmas were produced by focusing the pulse from a Nd:glass laser onto solid planar targets, and spectra were recorded with a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrograph. From the Doppler broadening of lines of Fe XX and Fe XXI, expansion velocities of about 830 km/s were determined. The relative time-averaged ion abundances of Fe XVIII, Fe XIX, Fe XX, and Fe XXI are estimated for three different spectra. The abundances do not differ by more than a factor of 4 for any of the spectra.

  3. An Abel transform for deriving line-of-sight wind profiles from LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syndergaard, S.; Kirchengast, G.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a formula for the retrieval of the line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed from future low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite-to-satellite infrared laser occultation measurements. The formula involves an Abelian integral transform akin to the Abel transform widely used for deriving refractive index from bending angle in Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation measurements. Besides the Abelian integral transform, the formula is derived from a truncated series expansion of the volume absorption coefficient as a function of frequency and includes a simple absorption-line-asymmetry correction term. A first-order formulation (referred to as the standard formula) is complemented by higher-order terms that can be used for high-accuracy computations. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and perfect knowledge of spectroscopy, the residual l.o.s. wind error from using the standard formula rather than the high-accuracy formula is assessed to be small compared to that anticipated from measurement errors in a real experiment. Applying the new formula just in standard form to future infrared laser transmission profiles would therefore enable the retrieval of l.o.s. stratospheric wind profiles with an accuracy limited mainly by measurement errors, residual spectroscopic errors, and deviations from spherical symmetry.

  4. The Influence of the Photoionizing Radiation Spectrum on Metal-Line Ratios in Ly(alpha) Forest Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shull, J. Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recent measurements of Si IV/C IV ratios in the high-redshift Ly(alpha) forest (Songaila & Cowie, AJ, 112, 335 (1996a); Savaglio et at., A&A (in press) (1997)) have opened a new window on chemical enrichment and the first generations of stars. However, the derivation of accurate Si/C abundances requires reliable ionization corrections, which are strongly dependent on the spectral shape of the metagalactic ionizing background and on the 'local effects' of hot stars in nearby galaxies. Recent models have assumed power-law quasar ionizing backgrounds plus a decrement at 4 Ryd to account for He II attenuation in intervening clouds. However, we show that realistic ionizing backgrounds based on cosmological radiative transfer models produce more complex ionizing spectra between 1-5 Ryd that are critical to interpreting ions of Si and C. We also make a preliminary investigation of the effects of He II ionization front nonoverlap. Because the attenuation and reemission by intervening clouds enhance Si IV relative to C the observed high Si IV/C IV ratios do not require an unrealistic Si overproduction (Si/C greater than or equal to 3 (Si/C)(solar mass)). If the ionizing spectrum is dominated by 'local effects' from massive stars, even larger Si IV/C IV ratios are possible. However, unless stellar radiation dominates quasars by more than a factor of 10, we confirm the evidence for some Si overproduction by massive stars; values Si/C approx. 2(Si/C)(solar mass) fit the measurements better than solar abundances. Ultimately, an adequate interpretation of the ratios of C IV, Si IV, and C II may require hot, collisionally ionized gas in a multiphase medium.

  5. Profiling flavonoid cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cell lines: determination of structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Yadegarynia, Sina; Pham, Anh; Ng, Alex; Nguyen, Duong; Lialiutska, Tetiana; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Sivryuk, Valentin; Bremer, Martina; White, J Brandon

    2014-05-01

    Flavonoids have been shown to be cytotoxic to cancer cells. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity has not been clearly defined. It has previously been reported that HER2/ERBB2, the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and p53 were required for flavonoid induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines. We have used a panel of breast cancer cell lines, known to contain as well as be deficient in these signaling pathways, to screen fourteen different flavonoids. Comparing the cytotoxicity for all flavonoids allows us to determine if a structure-functional relationship exists between cytotoxicity and flavonoid, and if a particular signaling pathway is required for cytotoxicity. We show that several flavonoids are cytotoxic to all cell lines including primary mammary epithelial cells tested. The cytotoxic flavonoids are also able to inhibit Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Permeability while at the same time stimulate ATP levels whereas the non-cytotoxic flavonoids are not able to do this. We also show that both cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic flavonoids can transverse the cell membrane to enter MDA-MB-231 cells at different levels. Finally, all flavonoids regardless of their cytotoxicity were able to induce some form of cell cycle arrest. We conclude that for flavonoids to be strongly cytotoxic, they must possess the 2,3-double bond in the C-ring and we believe the cytotoxicity occurs through mitochondrial poisoning in both cancer and normal cells.

  6. Profiling flavonoid cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cell lines: determination of structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Yadegarynia, Sina; Pham, Anh; Ng, Alex; Nguyen, Duong; Lialiutska, Tetiana; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Sivryuk, Valentin; Bremer, Martina; White, J Brandon

    2012-10-01

    Flavonoids have been shown to be cytotoxic to cancer cells. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity has not been clearly defined. It has previously been reported that HER2/ERBB2, the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and p53 were required for flavonoid induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines. We have used a panel of breast cancer cell lines, known to contain as well as be deficient in these signaling pathways, to screen fourteen different flavonoids. Comparing the cytotoxicity for all flavonoids allows us to determine if a structure-functional relationship exists between cytotoxicity and flavonoid, and if a particular signaling pathway is required for cytotoxicity. We show that several flavonoids are cytotoxic to all cell lines including primary mammary epithelial cells tested. The cytotoxic flavonoids are also able to inhibit Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Permeability while at the same time stimulate ATP levels whereas the non-cytotoxic flavonoids are not able to do this. We also show that both cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic flavonoids can transverse the cell membrane to enter MDA-MB-231 cells at different levels. Finally, all flavonoids regardless of their cytotoxicity were able to induce some form of cell cycle arrest. We conclude that for flavonoids to be strongly cytotoxic, they must possess the 2,3-double bond in the C-ring and we believe the cytotoxicity occurs through mitochondrial poisoning in both cancer and normal cells.

  7. Genomic profiling in CEPH cell lines distinguishes between the camptothecins and indenoisoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Watson, Venita Gresham; Hardison, Nicholas E; Harris, Tyndall; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; McLeod, Howard L

    2011-10-01

    We have attempted to use a familial genetics strategy to study mechanisms of topoisomerase 1 (Top1) inhibition. Investigations have steadily been chipping away at the pathways involved in cellular response following Top1 inhibition for more than 20 years. Our system-wide approach, which phenotypes a collection of genotyped human cell lines for sensitivity to compounds and interrogates all genes and molecular pathways simultaneously. Previously, we characterized the in vitro sensitivity of 15 families of Centre d'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) cell lines (n = 142) to 9 camptothecin analogues. Linkage analysis revealed a pattern of 7 quantitative trait loci (QTL) shared by all of the camptothecins. To identify which, if any, QTLs are related to the general mechanism of Top1 inhibition or should be considered camptothecin specific, we characterized the in vitro sensitivity of the same panel of CEPH cell lines to the indenisoquinolones, a structurally distinct class of Top1 inhibitors. Four QTLs on chromosomes 1, 5, 11, and 16 were shared by both the camptothecins and the indenoisoquinolines and are considered associated with the general mechanism of Top1 inhibition. The remaining 3 QTLs (chromosomes 6 and 20) are considered specific to camptothecin-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, 8 QTLs were identified, which were unique to the indenoisoquinolines.

  8. The proliferative effects of 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone on cell cycle analysis and cell proliferation in MCF7, T47D and MDAMB231 breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Aspinall, S R; Stamp, S; Davison, A; Shenton, B K; Lennard, T W J

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that precursor steroids are implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. However, our understanding of the role of precursor steroids in breast cancer is complicated by fact that there are many precursor steroids, which are metabolically inter-related and have divergent proliferative activities on the growth of breast cancer cell lines. In this study the proliferative affects of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol, which may be considered true metabolites acting at a tissue level, on MCF7, T47D and MDAMB231 breast cancer cell lines have been examined by a flow cytometric technique. DNA cell cycle analysis demonstrates that 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol stimulates the proliferation of hormone-dependent cell lines at physiological levels by an oestrogen receptor mediated mechanism whereas 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone does not affect the proliferation of MCF7 and T47D cell lines at physiological levels over short (48 h) incubations. Both 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol stimulate proliferation of hormone-dependent cell lines at pharmacological levels via and interaction with the oestrogen receptor. In long (6-9 days) incubations both 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol inhibit the 17 beta-oestradiol induced proliferation of MCF7 and T47D cell lines, however, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone inhibits while 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol stimulates basal proliferation. These cell line studies suggest a model for the role of precursor steroids in pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer.

  9. Inositol Pyrophosphate Profiling of Two HCT116 Cell Lines Uncovers Variation in InsP8 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunfang; Wilson, Miranda S. C.; Jessen, Henning J.; Saiardi, Adolfo; Shears, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The HCT116 cell line, which has a pseudo-diploid karotype, is a popular model in the fields of cancer cell biology, intestinal immunity, and inflammation. In the current study, we describe two batches of diverged HCT116 cells, which we designate as HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL. Using both gel electrophoresis and HPLC, we show that HCT116UCL cells contain 6-fold higher levels of InsP8 than HCT116NIH cells. This observation is significant because InsP8 is one of a group of molecules collectively known as ‘inositol pyrophosphates’ (PP-InsPs)—highly ‘energetic’ and conserved regulators of cellular and organismal metabolism. Variability in the cellular levels of InsP8 within divergent HCT116 cell lines could have impacted the phenotypic data obtained in previous studies. This difference in InsP8 levels is more remarkable for being specific; levels of other inositol phosphates, and notably InsP6 and 5-InsP7, are very similar in both HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines. We also developed a new HPLC procedure to record 1-InsP7 levels directly (for the first time in any mammalian cell line); 1-InsP7 comprised <2% of total InsP7 in HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines. The elevated levels of InsP8 in the HCT116UCL lines were not due to an increase in expression of the PP-InsP kinases (IP6Ks and PPIP5Ks), nor to a decrease in the capacity to dephosphorylate InsP8. We discuss how the divergent PP-InsP profiles of the newly-designated HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines should be considered an important research opportunity: future studies using these two lines may uncover new features that regulate InsP8 turnover, and may also yield new directions for studying InsP8 function. PMID:27788189

  10. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.

    2016-05-01

    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  11. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Influence of the profile of the spectral line of vibrations of a medium on the time characteristics of stimulated scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel'dyugin, Igor'M.; Zolotarev, M. V.; Sviridov, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is made of the problem of the time taken to establish steady-state lasing as a result of various types of stimulated scattering (Raman, Brillouin, and excited by heat evolution in a medium) and of the law governing amplification of Stokes waves after times much shorter than the relaxation time of vibrations of the medium for an arbitrary spectral line profile. It is shown that the characteristic times for the establishment of steady-state lasing in the case of stimulated scattering near the maximum of the gain profile are of the same type for different spectral lines profiles and have similar values.

  12. Time resolved metal line profile by near-ultraviolet tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelaru, C.; de Poucques, L.; Minea, T. M.; Popa, G.

    2011-03-01

    Pulsed systems are extensively used to produce active species such as atoms, radicals, excited states, etc. The tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TD-LAS) is successfully used to quantify the density of absorbing species, but especially for stationary or slow changing systems. The time resolved-direct absorption profile (TR-DAP) measurement method by TD-LAS, with time resolution of μs is proposed here as an extension of the regular use of diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The spectral narrowness of laser diodes, especially in the blue range (˜0.01 pm), combined with the nanosecond fast trigger of the magnetron pulsed plasma and long trace recording on the oscilloscope (period of second scale) permit the detection of the sputtered titanium metal evolution in the afterglow (˜ms). TR-DAP method can follow the time-dependence of the temperature (Doppler profile) and the density (deduced from the absorbance) of any medium and heavy species in a pulsed system.

  13. Quantitative Profiling of Protein Tyrosine Kinases in Human Cancer Cell Lines by Multiplexed Parallel Reaction Monitoring Assays*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lin, De; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Li, Ming; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of PTK-activated pathways, often by receptor overexpression, gene amplification, or genetic mutation, is a causal factor underlying numerous cancers. In this study, we have developed a parallel reaction monitoring-based assay for quantitative profiling of 83 PTKs. The assay detects 308 proteotypic peptides from 54 receptor tyrosine kinases and 29 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in a single run. Quantitative comparisons were based on the labeled reference peptide method. We implemented the assay in four cell models: 1) a comparison of proliferating versus epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells, 2) a comparison of SW480Null (mutant APC) and SW480APC (APC restored) colon tumor cell lines, and 3) a comparison of 10 colorectal cancer cell lines with different genomic abnormalities, and 4) lung cancer cell lines with either susceptibility (11–18) or acquired resistance (11–18R) to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We observed distinct PTK expression changes that were induced by stimuli, genomic features or drug resistance, which were consistent with previous reports. However, most of the measured expression differences were novel observations. For example, acquired resistance to erlotinib in the 11–18 cell model was associated not only with previously reported up-regulation of MET, but also with up-regulation of FLK2 and down-regulation of LYN and PTK7. Immunoblot analyses and shotgun proteomics data were highly consistent with parallel reaction monitoring data. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring assays provide a targeted, systems-level profiling approach to evaluate cancer-related proteotypes and adaptations. Data are available through Proteome eXchange Accession PXD002706. PMID:26631510

  14. Doppler shift measurement of Balmer-alpha line spectrum emission from a plasma in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M. Doi, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Nishiura, M.

    2015-04-08

    Balmer-α light emission from the extraction region of the LHD one-third ion source has shown a characteristic Doppler broadening in the wavelength spectrum detected by a high resolution spectrometer. The spectrum resembles Gaussian distribution near the wavelength of the intensity peak, while it has an additional component of a broader foot. The measured broadening near the wavelength of the intensity peak corresponds to 0.6 eV hydrogen atom temperature. The spectrum exhibits a larger expansion in the blue wing which becomes smaller when the line of sight is tilted toward the driver region from the original observation axis parallel to the plasma grid. A surface collision simulation model predicts the possibility of hydrogen reflection at the plasma grid surface to form a broad Balmer-α light emission spectrum.

  15. [Alpha-lipoic acid triggers elimination of cells with abnormal nuclei in human carcinoma epidermoid cell line].

    PubMed

    Kisurina-Evgen'eva, O P; Onishchenko, G E

    2010-01-01

    The skin is usually exposed to adverse environmental conditions that may cause pathological cell proliferation and cellular transformations leading to the formation of malignant cells. Antioxidants may affect these processes and induce the elimination of transformed cell. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of alfa-lipoic acid on human carcinoma epidermoid cell line A431. Our results showed that alfa-lipoic acid induced inhibition of cell proliferation or stimulated apoptotic cell death. Cells with abnormal nuclei were eliminated by apoptosis. Electron microscopy showed that survived cells had typical for control cells shape and organization of the nuclei, organization of the cytoplasm and organelles. Thus, alfa-lipoic acid not only triggered apoptosis of carcinoma cells, but it may also activate the mechanism of elimination of cells with abnormal chromosome number.

  16. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study

  17. Conditional overexpression of the wild-type Gs alpha as the gsp oncogene initiates chronic extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 activation and hormone hypersecretion in pituitary cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romano, D; Magalon, K; Pertuit, M; Rasolonjanahary, R; Barlier, A; Enjalbert, A; Gerard, C

    2007-06-01

    In pituitary cells, activation of the cAMP pathway by specific G protein-coupled receptors controls differentiative functions and proliferation. Constitutively active forms of the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G(s) protein resulting from mutations at codon 201 or 227 (gsp oncogene) were first identified in 30-40% of human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. This rate of occurrence suggests that the gsp oncogene is not responsible for initiating the majority of these tumors. Moreover, there is a large overlap between the clinical phenotypes observed in patients with tumors bearing the gsp oncogene and those devoid of this oncogene. To explore the role of G(s)alpha in GH-secreting adenomas, we obtained somatolactotroph GH4C1 cell lines by performing doxycycline-dependent conditional overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein and expression of the gsp oncogene. Although the resulting adenylyl cyclase and cAMP levels were 10-fold lower in the wild-type G(s)alpha-overexpressing cell line, a sustained MAPK ERK1/2 activation was observed in both cell lines. Overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein as the gsp oncogene initiated chronic activation of endogenous prolactin synthesis and release, as well as chronic activation of ERK1/2-sensitive human prolactin and GH promoters.

  18. Proteomic profiling of rice embryos from a hybrid rice cultivar and its parental lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Meng, Bo; Ge, Xiaomeng; Song, Shuhui; Yang, Yue; Yu, Xiaomin; Wang, Liguo; Hu, Songnian; Liu, Siqi; Yu, Jun

    2008-11-01

    Elite rice hybrids, when compared to their parental lines, exhibit increased yield and other favorable agronomical traits, such as pathogen- and water-stress resistances, which are described as heterosis, and the molecular mechanism of heterosis remains to be elucidated. Since genomic sequences of the paternal (9311) and maternal lines (P64S) of a major rice hybrid variety LYP9 (Liang-You-Pei-Jiu) were acquired recently, we performed a proteomic study on mature embryos of this hybrid triad based on 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS analyses, and identified 54 differentially expressed proteins involved in major biological processes including nutrient reservoir, response to stress, and metabolism. We observed that most of the storage proteins exhibit overdominance and stress-induced proteins display additivity. We compared proteomic results with transcriptomic data generated from the same embryo samples and found 28 candidate heterosis-associated genes shared by the two datasets. We further traced back to their genomic structures including protein-coding and regulatory regions and found that most of these genes have multiple copies in rice genomes as paralogous genes. Based on alignment of coding and regulation regions, we found that most of the differentially expressed genes at both protein and RNA levels are recent gene duplicates (paralogous genes) with relative little difference in protein-coding regions between orthologous genes (between genes of the two parental genomes) as compared to regulatory regions that harbor numerous indels and base substitutions.

  19. Expression Profiling of a Human Thyroid Cell Line Stably Expressing the BRAFVV600E Mutation

    PubMed Central

    KIM*, BYOUNG-AE; JEE*, HYEON-GUN; WOOK YI*, JIN; KIM, SU-JIN; JUN CHAI, YOUNG; YOUNG CHOI, JUNE; EUN LEE, KYU

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: The BRAFV600E mutation acts as an initiator of cancer development in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Gene expression changes caused by the BRAFV600E mutation may have an important role in thyroid cancer development. Materials and Methods: To study genomic alterations caused by the BRAFV600E mutation, we made human thyroid cell lines that harbor the wild-type BRAF gene (Nthy/WT) and the V600E mutant-type BRAF gene (Nthy/V600E). Results: Flow cytometry and western blotting showed stable transfection of the BRAF gene. In functional experiments, Nthy/V600E showed increased anchorage-independent growth and invasion through Matrigel, compared to Nthy/WT. Microarray analysis revealed that 2,441 genes were up-regulated in Nthy/V600E compared to Nthy/WT. Gene ontology analysis showed that the up-regulated genes were associated with cell adhesion, migration, and the ERK and MAPK cascade, and pathway analysis showed enrichment in cancer-related pathways. Conclusion: Our Nthy/WT and Nthy/V600E cell line pair could be a suitable model to study the molecular characteristics of BRAFV600E PTC. *These Authors contributed equally to this study. PMID:28031237

  20. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries.

  1. Relaxation of molecular velocities and spectral line profiles of astrophysical masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Nels; Watson, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The rates at which the velocities of water molecules relax to a Maxwellian distribution are calculated under conditions that are representative of those in astrophysical water masers. Populations are calculated as a function of velocity for the lowest 40 rotational energy levels of ortho-water in order to make a detailed determination of the velocity relaxation rate. Relaxation rates for the 22 GHz maser at H2 densities of 10 exp 9/cu cm are 2.0/s and 5.1/s for temperatures of 400 K and 1000 K, respectively. Under these and other conditions, as well as for other maser transitions, the relaxation rate far exceeds the loss rate - usually by more than a factor of 10. Thus maser lines can remain narrow up to intensities that are at least a factor of 10 greater than the saturation intensity, and to path lengths that are at least a factor of 10 greater than the path length at which saturation occurs. Relaxation is dominated by the effects of trapped infrared radiation, though elastic and inelastic collisions are also included in the calculations. These relaxation rates, together with the observed line breadths of the 22 GHz masers, provide limits on maser luminosities which indicate that the brightest 22 GHz masers are highly beamed, with solid angles smaller than 10 exp -5 to 10 exp -4 Sr.

  2. Comparative neurochemical profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its metabolite alpha-methyldopamine on key targets of MDMA neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Escubedo, E; Abad, S; Torres, I; Camarasa, J; Pubill, D

    2011-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of MDMA or "Ecstasy" in rats is selectively serotonergic, while in mice it is both dopaminergic and serotonergic. MDMA metabolism may play a key role in this neurotoxicity. The function of serotonin and dopamine transporter and the effect of MDMA and its metabolites on them are essential to understand MDMA neurotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of MDMA and its metabolite alpha-methyldopamine (MeDA) on several molecular targets, mainly the dopamine and serotonin transporter functionality, to provide evidence for the role of this metabolite in the neurotoxicity of MDMA in rodents. MeDA had no affinity for the serotonin transporter but competed with serotonin for its uptake. It had no persistent effects on the functionalism of the serotonin transporter, in contrast to the effect of MDMA. Moreover, MeDA inhibited the uptake of dopamine into the serotonergic terminal and also MAO(B) activity. MeDA inhibited dopamine uptake with a lower IC(50) value than MDMA. After drug washout, the inhibition by MeDA persisted while that of MDMA was significantly reduced. The effect of MDMA on the dopamine transporter is related with dopamine release from vesicular stores, as this inhibition disappeared in reserpine-treated animals. However, the effect of MeDA seems to be a persistent conformational change of this transporter. Moreover, in contrast with MDMA, MeDA did not show affinity for nicotinic receptors, so no effects of MeDA derived from these interactions can be expected. The metabolite reduced cell viability at lower concentrations than MDMA. Apoptosis plays a key role in MDMA induced cellular toxicity but necrosis is the major process involved in MeDA cytotoxicity. We conclude that MeDA could protect against the serotonergic lesion induced by MDMA but potentiate the dopaminergic lesion as a result of the persistent blockade of the dopamine transporter induced this metabolite.

  3. The Clinical Profile of Subjects Included in the Swedish National Register on Individuals with Severe Alpha 1-Antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Piitulainen, Eeva; Tanash, Hanan A

    2015-05-01

    The Swedish national register of severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency was established in 1991. The main aims are to prospectively study the natural history of severe AAT deficiency, and to improve the knowledge of AAT deficiency. The inclusion criteria in the register are age ≥ 18 years, and the PiZ phenotype diagnosed by isoelectric focusing. The register is kept updated by means of repeated questionnaires providing data to allow analysis of the mode of identification, lung and liver function, smoking-habits, respiratory symptoms and diagnoses as reported by physicians. Until February 2014, a total of 1553 PiZZ individuals had been included in the register. The 1102 subjects still alive constituted about 20% of the adult PiZZ individuals in Sweden. Forty-three percent of the subjects had been identified during investigation of respiratory symptoms, 7% by an investigation of liver disease, 26% in an investigation of other pathological conditions, and 24% in a population or family screening. Forty five percent of the subjects had never smoked, 47% were ex-smokers, and 8% current smokers. Twenty-eight percent of the never-smokers, 72% of the ex-smokers, and 61% of the current smokers fulfilled the criteria for COPD with a FEV1/FVC ratio of <0.70. Among the 451 deceased, the most common cause of death was respiratory diseases (55%), followed by liver diseases (13%). We conclude that the detection rate of severe AAT deficiency is relatively high in Sweden. Large numbers of subjects are identified for other reasons than respiratory symptoms, and the majority of these have never smoked.

  4. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha variety.

    PubMed

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Hengel, Matt J; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  5. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on Metalaxyl Degradation and Metabolite Profile of Potato Seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) Alpha Variety

    PubMed Central

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G.; Miller, Marion G.; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L.; Hengel, Matt J.; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC–TOF–MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism. PMID:22363586

  6. Recovery of acetylene absorption line profile basing on tunable diode laser spectroscopy with intensity modulation and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Thursby, Graham; Stewart, George; Arsad, Norhana; Uttamchandani, Deepak; Culshaw, Brian; Wang, Yiding

    2010-04-01

    A novel and direct absorption line recovery technique based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy with intensity modulation is presented. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied for high sensitivity, zero background and efficient acoustic enhancement at a low modulation frequency. A micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror driven by an electrothermal actuator is used for generating laser intensity modulation (without wavelength modulation) through the external reflection. The MEMS mirror with 10μm thick structure material layer and 100nm thick gold coating is formed as a circular mirror of 2mm diameter attached to an electrothermal actuator and is fabricated on a chip that is wire-bonded and placed on a PCB holder. Low modulation frequency is adopted (since the resonant frequencies of the photoacoustic gas cell and the electrothermal actuator are different) and intrinsic high signal amplitude characteristics in low frequency region achieved from measured frequency responses for the MEMS mirror and the gas cell. Based on the property of photoacoustic spectroscopy and Beer's law that detectable sensitivity is a function of input laser intensity in the case of constant gas concentration and laser path length, a Keopsys erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) with opto-communication C band and high output power up to 1W is chosen to increase the laser power. High modulation depth is achieved through adjusting the MEMS mirror's reflection position and driving voltage. In order to scan through the target gas absorption line, the temperature swept method is adopted for the tunable distributed feed-back (DFB) diode laser working at 1535nm that accesses the near-infrared vibration-rotation spectrum of acetylene. The profile of acetylene P17 absorption line at 1535.39nm is recovered ideally for ~100 parts-per-million (ppm) acetylene balanced by nitrogen. The experimental signal to noise ratio (SNR) of absorption line recovery for 500mW laser power was ~80 and hence the

  7. CONTINUUM INTENSITY AND [O i] SPECTRAL LINE PROFILES IN SOLAR 3D PHOTOSPHERIC MODELS: THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbian, D.; Moreno-Insertis, F. E-mail: fmi@iac.es

    2015-04-01

    The importance of magnetic fields in three-dimensional (3D) magnetoconvection models of the Sun’s photosphere is investigated in terms of their influence on the continuum intensity at different viewing inclination angles and on the intensity profile of two [O i] spectral lines. We use the RH numerical radiative transfer code to perform a posteriori spectral synthesis on the same time series of magnetoconvection models used in our publications on the effect of magnetic fields on abundance determination. We obtain a good match of the synthetic disk-center continuum intensity to the absolute continuum values from the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observational spectrum; the match of the center-to-limb variation synthetic data to observations is also good, thanks, in part, to the 3D radiation transfer capabilities of the RH code. The different levels of magnetic flux in the numerical time series do not modify the quality of the match. Concerning the targeted [O i] spectral lines, we find, instead, that magnetic fields lead to nonnegligible changes in the synthetic spectrum, with larger average magnetic flux causing both of the lines to become noticeably weaker. The photospheric oxygen abundance that one would derive if instead using nonmagnetic numerical models would thus be lower by a few to several centidex. The inclusion of magnetic fields is confirmed to be important for improving the current modeling of the Sun, here in particular in terms of spectral line formation and of deriving consistent chemical abundances. These results may shed further light on the still controversial issue regarding the precise value of the solar oxygen abundance.

  8. Polyphenolic Profile and Targeted Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Mediterranean Ethnomedicinal Plants on Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Pollio, Antonino; Zarrelli, Armando; Romanucci, Valeria; Di Mauro, Alfredo; Barra, Federica; Pinto, Gabriele; Crescenzi, Elvira; Roscetto, Emanuela; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2016-03-23

    The methanol extracts of the aerial part of four ethnomedicinal plants of Mediterranean region, two non-seed vascular plants, Equisetum hyemale L. and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, and two Spermatophyta, Juniperus communis L. (J. communis) and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (C. coggygria), were screened against four human cells lines (A549, MCF7, TK6 and U937). Only the extracts of J. communis and C. coggygria showed marked cytotoxic effects, affecting both cell morphology and growth. A dose-dependent effect of these two extracts was also observed on the cell cycle distribution. Incubation of all the cell lines in a medium containing J. communis extract determined a remarkable accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase, whereas the C. coggygria extract induced a significant increase in the percentage of G1 cells. The novelty of our findings stands on the observation that the two extracts, consistently, elicited coherent effects on the cell cycle in four cell lines, independently from their phenotype, as two of them have epithelial origin and grow adherent and two are lymphoblastoid and grow in suspension. Even the expression profiles of several proteins regulating cell cycle progression and cell death were affected by both extracts. LC-MS investigation of methanol extract of C. coggygria led to the identification of twelve flavonoids (compounds 1-11, 19) and eight polyphenols derivatives (12-18, 20), while in J. communis extract, eight flavonoids (21-28), a α-ionone glycoside (29) and a lignin (30) were found. Although many of these compounds have interesting individual biological activities, their natural blends seem to exert specific effects on the proliferation of cell lines either growing adherent or in suspension, suggesting potential use in fighting cancer.

  9. Lyman-Alpha Observations of High Radial Velocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1990-12-01

    H I LYMAN -ALPHA (LY-A) IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LINES EMITTED BY PLASMA IN THE TEMPERATURE RANGE OF 7000 TO 10 TO THE FIFTH POWER K IN LATE-TYPE STARS. IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF THE TOTAL RADIATIVE LOSS RATE, AND IT PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN DETERMINING THE ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE AND IN FLUORESCING OTHER UV LINES. YET IT IS ALSO THE LEAST STUDIED MAJOR LINE IN THE FAR UV, BECAUSE MOST OF THE LINE FLUX IS ABSORBED BY THE ISM ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT AND BECAUSE IT IS STRONGLY COMTAMINATED BY THE GEOCORONAL BACKGROUND. A KNOWLEDGE OF THE Ly-A PROFILE IS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR STUDIES OF DEUTERIUM IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. BY OBSERVING HIGH RADIAL VELOCITY STARS WE WILL OBTAIN FOR THE FIRST TIME HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRA OF THE CORE OF A STELLAR H I LYMAN-A EMISSION LINE PROFILE.

  10. Mitochondrial-related gene expression profiles suggest an important role of PGC-1alpha in the compensatory mechanism of endemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shu-Lan; Tan, Wu-Hong; Zhang, Zeng-Tie; Zhang, Feng; Qu, Cheng-Juan; Lei, Yan-Xia; Zhu, Yan-He; Yu, Han-Jie; Xiang, You-Zhang; and others

    2013-10-15

    Keshan disease (KD) is an endemic dilated cardiomyopathy with unclear etiology. In this study, we compared mitochondrial-related gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from 16 KD patients and 16 normal controls in KD areas. Total RNA was isolated, amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human 4×44k whole genome microarrays. Mitochondrial-related genes were screened out by the Third-Generation Human Mitochondria-Focused cDNA Microarray (hMitChip3). Quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemical and biochemical parameters related mitochondrial metabolism were conducted to validate our microarray results. In KD samples, 34 up-regulated genes (ratios≥2.0) were detected by significance analysis of microarrays and ingenuity systems pathway analysis (IPA). The highest ranked molecular and cellular functions of the differentially regulated genes were closely related to amino acid metabolism, free radical scavenging, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy production. Using IPA, 40 significant pathways and four significant networks, involved mainly in apoptosis, mitochondrion dysfunction, and nuclear receptor signaling were identified. Based on our results, we suggest that PGC-1alpha regulated energy metabolism and anti-apoptosis might play an important role in the compensatory mechanism of KD. Our results may lead to the identification of potential diagnostic biomarkers for KD in PBMCs, and may help to understand the pathogenesis of KD. Highlights: • Thirty-four up-regulated genes were detected in KD versus health controls. • Forty pathways and four networks were detected in KD. • PGC-1alpha regulated energy metabolism and anti-apoptosis in KD.

  11. Comparison of analytical methods for profiling N- and O-linked glycans from cultured cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Togayachi, Akira; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Geyer, Rudolf; Galuska, Christina; Geyer, Hildegard; Kakehi, Kazuaki; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Karlsson, Niclas G.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kato, Koichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kondo, Sachiko; Kawasaki, Nana; Hashii, Noritaka; Kolarich, Daniel; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Packer, Nicolle H.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Nakano, Miyako; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Kurimoto, Ayako; Wada, Yoshinao; Tajiri, Michiko; Yang, Pengyuan; Cao, Weiqian; Li, Hong; Rudd, Pauline M.; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative (HGPI) is an activity in the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) supported by leading researchers from international institutes and aims at development of disease-related glycomics/glycoproteomics analysis techniques. Since 2004, the initiative has conducted three pilot studies. The first two were N- and O-glycan analyses of purified transferrin and immunoglobulin-G and assessed the most appropriate analytical approach employed at the time. This paper describes the third study, which was conducted to compare different approaches for quantitation of N- and O-linked glycans attached to proteins in crude biological samples. The preliminary analysis on cell pellets resulted in wildly varied glycan profiles, which was probably the consequence of variations in the pre-processing sample preparation methodologies. However, the reproducibility of the data was not improved dramatically in the subsequent analysis on cell lysate fractions prepared in a specified method by one lab. The study demonstrated the difficulty of carrying out a complete analysis of the glycome in crude samples by any single technology and the importance of rigorous optimization of the course of analysis from preprocessing to data interpretation. It suggests that another collaborative study employing the latest technologies in this rapidly evolving field will help to realize the requirements of carrying out the large-scale analysis of glycoproteins in complex cell samples. PMID:26511985

  12. Observation of Quiet Limb in He I 1083.0 nm, H Paschen alpha1281.8 nm and H Brackett gamma 2166.1 nm lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we shall present the results of an observational study of the quiet solar limb in the near infrared lines using the New IR Array Camera (NAC) and the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope. The NAC, at the exit port of the spectrograph, was used to record the limb spectrum in HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen 1281.8 nm and Brackett 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024x1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. The limb spectrums were obtained by placing the spectrograph slit perpendicular to the limb at an interval of 10 degrees around the solar disk. We shall report the intensity profile, line-of-sight velocity and line width distribution around the sun derived from the spectra along the slit.

  13. Liposomal formulation of {alpha}-tocopheryl maleamide: In vitro and in vivo toxicological profile and anticancer effect against spontaneous breast carcinomas in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Turanek, Jaroslav Wang Xiufang; Knoetigova, Pavlina; Koudelka, Stepan; Dong Lanfeng; Vrublova, Eva; Mahdavian, Elahe; Prochazka, Lubomir; Sangsura, Smink; Vacek, Antonin; Salvatore, Brian A.; Neuzil, Jiri

    2009-06-15

    The vitamin E analogue {alpha}-tocopheryl succinate ({alpha}-TOS) is an efficient anti-cancer drug. Improved efficacy was achieved through the synthesis of {alpha}-tocopheryl maleamide ({alpha}-TAM), an esterase-resistant analogue of {alpha}-tocopheryl maleate. In vitro tests demonstrated significantly higher cytotoxicity of {alpha}-TAM towards cancer cells (MCF-7, B16F10) compared to {alpha}-TOS and other analogues prone to esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis. However, in vitro models demonstrated that {alpha}-TAM was cytotoxic to non-malignant cells (e.g. lymphocytes and bone marrow progenitors). Thus we developed lyophilized liposomal formulations of both {alpha}-TOS and {alpha}-TAM to solve the problem with cytotoxicity of free {alpha}-TAM (neurotoxicity and anaphylaxis), as well as the low solubility of both drugs. Remarkably, neither acute toxicity nor immunotoxicity implicated by in vitro tests was detected in vivo after application of liposomal {alpha}-TAM, which significantly reduced the growth of cancer cells in hollow fiber implants. Moreover, liposomal formulation of {alpha}-TAM and {alpha}-TOS each prevented the growth of tumours in transgenic FVB/N c-neu mice bearing spontaneous breast carcinomas. Liposomal formulation of {alpha}-TAM demonstrated anti-cancer activity at levels 10-fold lower than those of {alpha}-TOS. Thus, the liposomal formulation of {alpha}-TAM preserved its strong anti-cancer efficacy while eliminating the in vivo toxicity found of the free drug applied in DMSO. Liposome-based targeted delivery systems for analogues of vitamin E are of interest for further development of efficient and safe drug formulations for clinical trials.

  14. Liposomal formulation of alpha-tocopheryl maleamide: in vitro and in vivo toxicological profile and anticancer effect against spontaneous breast carcinomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Turánek, Jaroslav; Wang, Xiu-Fang; Knötigová, Pavlína; Koudelka, Stepán; Dong, Lan-Feng; Vrublová, Eva; Mahdavian, Elahe; Procházka, Lubomír; Sangsura, Smink; Vacek, Antonín; Salvatore, Brian A; Neuzil, Jiri

    2009-06-15

    The vitamin E analogue alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS) is an efficient anti-cancer drug. Improved efficacy was achieved through the synthesis of alpha-tocopheryl maleamide (alpha-TAM), an esterase-resistant analogue of alpha-tocopheryl maleate. In vitro tests demonstrated significantly higher cytotoxicity of alpha-TAM towards cancer cells (MCF-7, B16F10) compared to alpha-TOS and other analogues prone to esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis. However, in vitro models demonstrated that alpha-TAM was cytotoxic to non-malignant cells (e.g. lymphocytes and bone marrow progenitors). Thus we developed lyophilized liposomal formulations of both alpha-TOS and alpha-TAM to solve the problem with cytotoxicity of free alpha-TAM (neurotoxicity and anaphylaxis), as well as the low solubility of both drugs. Remarkably, neither acute toxicity nor immunotoxicity implicated by in vitro tests was detected in vivo after application of liposomal alpha-TAM, which significantly reduced the growth of cancer cells in hollow fiber implants. Moreover, liposomal formulation of alpha-TAM and alpha-TOS each prevented the growth of tumours in transgenic FVB/N c-neu mice bearing spontaneous breast carcinomas. Liposomal formulation of alpha-TAM demonstrated anti-cancer activity at levels 10-fold lower than those of alpha-TOS. Thus, the liposomal formulation of alpha-TAM preserved its strong anti-cancer efficacy while eliminating the in vivo toxicity found of the free drug applied in DMSO. Liposome-based targeted delivery systems for analogues of vitamin E are of interest for further development of efficient and safe drug formulations for clinical trials.

  15. Immunoassay-based proteome profiling of 24 pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Alhamdani, Mohamed Saiel Saeed; Youns, Mahmoud; Buchholz, Malte; Gress, Thomas M; Beckers, Marie-Claire; Maréchal, Daniel; Bauer, Andrea; Schröder, Christoph; Hoheisel, Jörg D

    2012-06-27

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most deadly forms of cancers, with a mortality that is almost identical to incidence. The inability to predict, detect or diagnose the disease early and its resistance to all current treatment modalities but surgery are the prime challenges to changing the devastating prognosis. Also, relatively little is known about pancreatic carcinogenesis. In order to better understand relevant aspects of pathophysiology, differentiation, and transformation, we analysed the cellular proteomes of 24 pancreatic cancer cell lines and two controls using an antibody microarray that targets 741 cancer-related proteins. In this analysis, 72 distinct disease marker proteins were identified that had not been described before. Additionally, categorizing cancer cells in accordance to their original location (primary tumour, liver metastases, or ascites) was made possible. A comparison of the cells' degree of differentiation (well, moderately, or poorly differentiated) resulted in unique marker sets of high relevance. Last, 187 proteins were differentially expressed in primary versus metastatic cancer cells, of which the majority is functionally related to cellular movement.

  16. In situ Proteomic Profiling of Curcumin Targets in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Jianbin; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Wong, Yin Kwan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Hua, Zi-Chun; Liu, Bin; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    To date, the exact targets and mechanism of action of curcumin, a natural product with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, remain elusive. Here we synthesized a cell permeable curcumin probe (Cur-P) with an alkyne moiety, which can be tagged with biotin for affinity enrichment, or with a fluorescent dye for visualization of the direct-binding protein targets of curcumin in situ. iTRAQTM quantitative proteomics approach was applied to distinguish the specific binding targets from the non-specific ones. In total, 197 proteins were confidently identified as curcumin binding targets from HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the targets are broadly distributed and enriched in the nucleus, mitochondria and plasma membrane, and they are involved in various biological functions including metabolic process, regulation, response to stimulus and cellular process. Ingenuity Pathway AnalysisTM (IPA) suggested that curcumin may exert its anticancer effects over multiple critical biological pathways including the EIF2, eIF4/p70S6K, mTOR signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways. Functional validations confirmed that curcumin downregulates cellular protein synthesis, and induces autophagy, lysosomal activation and increased ROS production, thus leading to cell death. PMID:26915414

  17. A Correlation between Lyα Spectral Line Profile and Rest-frame UV Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, Vivian; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Dickinson, Mark; Stern, Daniel; Spinrad, Hyron; Mallery, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    We explore the relationship between the spectral shape of the Lyα emission and the UV morphology of the host galaxy using a sample of 304 Lyα-emitting BVi-dropouts at 3 < z < 7 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and Cosmic Evolution Survey fields. Using our extensive reservoir of high-quality Keck DEIMOS spectra combined with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data, we measure the Lyα line asymmetries for individual galaxies and compare them to axial ratios measured from observed J- and H-band (restframe UV) images. We find that the Lyα skewness exhibits a large scatter at small elongation (a/b < 2), and this scatter decreases as the axial ratio increases. Comparison of this trend to radiative transfer models and various results from the literature suggests that these high-redshift Lyα emitters are not likely to be intrinsically round and symmetric disks, but they probably host galactic outflows traced by Lyα emitting clouds. The ionizing sources are centrally located, and the optical depth is a good indicator of the absorption and scattering events on the escape path of Lyα photons from the source. Our results find no evidence of evolution in Lyα asymmetry or axial ratio with look-back time.

  18. A CORRELATION BETWEEN Lyα SPECTRAL LINE PROFILE AND REST-FRAME UV MORPHOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian U; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Mallery, Ryan; Dickinson, Mark; Stern, Daniel; Spinrad, Hyron

    2015-12-10

    We explore the relationship between the spectral shape of the Lyα emission and the UV morphology of the host galaxy using a sample of 304 Lyα-emitting BVi-dropouts at 3 < z < 7 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and Cosmic Evolution Survey fields. Using our extensive reservoir of high-quality Keck DEIMOS spectra combined with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data, we measure the Lyα line asymmetries for individual galaxies and compare them to axial ratios measured from observed J- and H-band (restframe UV) images. We find that the Lyα skewness exhibits a large scatter at small elongation (a/b < 2), and this scatter decreases as the axial ratio increases. Comparison of this trend to radiative transfer models and various results from the literature suggests that these high-redshift Lyα emitters are not likely to be intrinsically round and symmetric disks, but they probably host galactic outflows traced by Lyα emitting clouds. The ionizing sources are centrally located, and the optical depth is a good indicator of the absorption and scattering events on the escape path of Lyα photons from the source. Our results find no evidence of evolution in Lyα asymmetry or axial ratio with look-back time.

  19. Metabolic Profiling and Physiological Analysis of a Novel Rice Introgression Line with Broad Leaf Size

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Guilian; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wensheng; Zhang, Wenhao; Fu, Binying; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhikang

    2015-01-01

    A rice introgression line, NIL-SS1, and its recurrent parent, Teqing, were used to investigate the influence of the introgression segment on plant growth. The current research showed NIL-SS1 had an increased flag leaf width, total leaf area, spikelet number per panicle and grain yield, but a decreased photosynthetic rate. The metabolite differences in NIL-SS1 and Teqing at different developmental stages were assessed using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry technology. Significant metabolite differences were observed across the different stages. NIL-SS1 increased the plant leaf nitrogen content, and the greatest differences between NIL-SS1 and Teqing occurred at the booting stage. Compared to Teqing, the metabolic phenotype of NIL-SS1 at the booting stage has closer association with those at the flowering stage. The introgression segment induced more active competition for sugars and organic acids (OAs) from leaves to the growing young spikes, which resulted in more spikelet number per plant (SNP). The results indicated the introgression segment could improve rice grain yield by increasing the SNP and total leaf area per plant, which resulted from the higher plant nitrogen content across growth stages and stronger competition for sugars and OAs of young spikes at the booting stage. PMID:26713754

  20. Proteomic profiling of a robust Wolbachia infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line

    PubMed Central

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Baldridge, Abigail S; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W; Fallon, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis a widespread vertically transmitted intracellular bacterium, provides a tool for insect control through manipulation of host-microbe interactions. We report proteomic characterization of wStr, a Wolbachia strain associated with a strong cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype in its native host, Laodelphax striatellus. In the Aedes albopictus C/wStr1 mosquito cell line, wStr maintains a robust, persistent infection. MS/MS analyses of gel bands revealed a protein “footprint” dominated by Wolbachia-encoded chaperones, stress response and cell membrane proteins, including the surface antigen WspA, a peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein and a 73 kDa outer membrane protein. Functional classifications and estimated abundance levels of 790 identified proteins suggested that expression, stabilization and secretion of proteins predominate over bacterial genome replication and cell division. High relative abundances of cysteine desulfurase, serine/glycine hydroxymethyl transferase, and components of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in conjunction with above average abundances of glutamate dehydrogenase and proline utilization protein A support Wolbachia genome-based predictions for amino acid metabolism as a primary energy source. wStr expresses 15 Vir proteins of a Type IV secretion system and its transcriptional regulator. Proteomic characterization of a robust insect-associated Wolbachia strain provides baseline information that will inform further development of in vitro protocols for Wolbachia manipulation. PMID:25155417

  1. Characterization of core–shell MOF particles by depth profiling experiments using on-line single particle mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Cahill, J. F.; Fei, H.; Cohen, S. M.; ...

    2015-01-05

    Materials with core-shell structures have distinct properties that lend themselves to a variety of potential applications. Characterization of small particle core-shell materials presents a unique analytical challenge. Herein, single particles of solid-state materials with core-shell structures were measured using on-line aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS). Laser 'depth profiling' experiments verified the core-shell nature of two known core-shell particle configurations (< 2 mu m diameter) that possessed inverted, complimentary core-shell compositions (ZrO2@SiO2 versus SiO2@ZrO2). The average peak area ratios of Si and Zr ions were calculated to definitively show their core-shell composition. These ratio curves acted as a calibrant for anmore » uncharacterized sample - a metal-organic framework (MOF) material surround by silica (UiO-66(Zr)@SiO2; UiO = University of Oslo). ATOFMS depth profiling was used to show that these particles did indeed exhibit a core-shell architecture. The results presented here show that ATOFMS can provide unique insights into core-shell solid-state materials with particle diameters between 0.2-3 mu m.« less

  2. Establishment of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis profiles of the human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4.

    PubMed

    He, Pengcheng; Liu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Huaiyu; Xi, Jieying; Wei, Kaihua; Wang, Hongli; Zhao, Jing

    2012-09-01

    To explore optimum conditions for establishing a two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) map of the human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4 and to analyze its protein profiles, we extracted total proteins from NB4 cells using cell disruption, liquid nitrogen freeze-thawing and fracturing by ultrasound, and quantified the extracted protein samples using Bradford's method. 2-DE was applied to separate the proteins, which were silver-stained in the gel. Well‑separated protein spots were selected from the gel using the ImageMaster™ 2D Platinum analysis system. Moreover, the effects of various protein sample sizes (140, 160 and 180 µg) on the 2-DE maps of the NB4 cells were determined and compared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database searching were used to identify the proteins. When the quantity of loading proteins was 160 µg, clear, well-resolved, reproducible 2-DE proteomic profiles of the NB4 cells were obtained. The average number of protein spots in 3 gels was 1160±51 with an average matching rate of 81%. A total of 10 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and database queries, certain proteins were products of oncogenes and others were involved in cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. In summary, 2-DE profiles of the proteome of NB4 cells were established and certain proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and PMF which lay the foundation of further proteomic research of NB4 cells. These data should be useful for establishing a human APL proteome database.

  3. Comprehensive Lipidome Profiling of Isogenic Primary and Metastatic Colon Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fhaner, Cassie J.; Liu, Sichang; Ji, Hong; Simpson, Richard J.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2012-01-01

    A ‘shotgun’ lipidomics strategy consisting of sequential functional group selective chemical modification reactions coupled with high-resolution / accurate mass spectrometry and ‘targeted’ tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis has been developed and applied toward the comprehensive identification, characterization and quantitative analysis of changes in relative abundances of >600 individual glycerophospholipid, glycerolipid, sphingolipid and sterol lipids between a primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, SW480, and its isogenic lymph node metastasized derivative, SW620. Selective chemical derivatization of glycerophosphoethanolamine and glycerophosphoserine lipids using a ‘fixed charge’ sulfonium ion containing, d6-S,S′-dimethylthiobutanoylhydroxysuccinimide ester (d6-DMBNHS) reagent was used to eliminate the possibility of isobaric mass overlap of these species with the precursor ions of all other lipids in the crude extracts, thereby enabling their unambiguous assignment, while subsequent selective mild acid hydrolysis of plasmenyl (vinyl-ether) containing lipids using formic acid enabled these species to be readily differentiated from isobaric mass plasmanyl (alkyl-ether) containing lipids. Using this approach, statistically significant differences in the abundances of numerous lipid species previously identified as being associated with cancer progression, or that play known roles as mediators in a range of physiological and pathological processes, were observed between the SW480 and SW620 cells. Most notably, these included increased plasmanylcholine and triglyceride lipid levels, decreased plasmenylethanolamine lipids, decreased C-16 containing sphingomyelin and ceramide lipid levels, and a dramatic increase in the abundances of total cholesterol ester and triglyceride lipids in the SW620 cells compared to those in the SW480 cells. PMID:23039336

  4. Profile of Exosomal and Intracellular microRNA in Gamma-Herpesvirus-Infected Lymphoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hoshina, Shiho; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Michiyo; Hasegawa, Hideki; Hamada, Hiromichi; Kuroda, Makoto; Katano, Harutaka

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles released from cells, into which microRNAs (miRNA) are specifically sorted and accumulated. Two gamma-herpesviruses, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein—Barr virus (EBV), encode miRNAs in their genomes and express virus-encoded miRNAs in cells and exosomes. However, there is little information about the detailed distribution of virus-encoded miRNAs in cells and exosomes. In this study, we thus identified virus- and host-encoded miRNAs in exosomes released from KSHV- or EBV-infected lymphoma cell lines and compared them with intracellular miRNAs using a next-generation sequencer. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that 48% of the annotated miRNAs in the exosomes from KSHV-infected cells originated from KSHV. Human mir-10b-5p and mir-143-3p were much more highly concentrated in exosomes than in cells. Exosomes contained more nonexact mature miRNAs that did not exactly match those in miRBase than cells. Among the KSHV-encoded miRNAs, miRK12-3-5p was the most abundant exact mature miRNA in both cells and exosomes that exactly matched those in miRBase. Recently identified EXOmotifs, nucleotide motifs that control the loading of miRNAs into exosomes were frequently found within the sequences of KSHV-encoded miRNAs, and the presence of the EXOmotif CCCT or CCCG was associated with the localization of miRNA in exosomes in KSHV-infected cells. These observations suggest that specific virus-encoded miRNAs are sorted by EXOmotifs and accumulate in exosomes in virus-infected cells. PMID:27611973

  5. Study of meridional flow using Ca-K line profiles during solar cycles 22 and 23

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhuja, G.; Singh, Jagdev; Ravindra, B.

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of Ca-K line spectra as a function of solar latitude and integrated over longitudes taken during the period of 1989-2011 indicates that the K{sub 1} width attains maximum amplitude at various latitude belts at different phases of the solar cycle. The FWHM of the K{sub 1} distribution at different latitudes shows that its width varies by about 30% for the equatorial belt (<30°) and 11% for the polar region (>70°) latitudes. Interestingly, the K{sub 1} width varies by ∼6% only in the 40-60° latitude belts during the solar cycle. The analysis of cross-correlation coefficients of the K{sub 1} width between the 35° latitude and other latitude belts as a function of phase differences indicates that the activity representing toroidal field shifted at a uniform rate of about 5.1 m s{sup –1} in the northern hemisphere from mid-latitudes toward the equator. In the southern hemisphere, activity shifted at a faster rate, ∼14 m s{sup –1}, in the beginning of the cycle and the speed decreased with time, yielding an average speed of 7.5 m s{sup –1} toward the equator. The shift of activity in the higher latitude belts showed complex behavior, indicating poleward and equatorward migration. These findings, especially the fewer variations in mid-latitude belts as compared to polar regions, asymmetry in the speed of the shift in the activity in both hemispheres, and complex variation in the direction of the shift in the activity representing poloidal fields in mid-latitude belts, will have an important implication on the modeling of the solar dynamo.

  6. New aspects of absorption line formation in intervening turbulent clouds - II. Monte Carlo simulation of interstellar H+D Lyalpha absorption profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.; Mazets, Igor E.

    1997-07-01

    Stochastic velocity fields with finite correlation lengths affect the formation of interstellar (intergalactic) absorption lines in a way not accounted for in the standard analysis procedure in which Voigt profiles are fitted to the observed line profiles. We investigate these effects, accounting in particular for the fact that interstellar absorption spectra reflect only one realization of the velocity field, since (i) actually only one line of sight is observed and (ii) the velocity structure of the cloud has to be considered to be `frozen' over the exposure time. This paper presents results of Monte Carlo calculations. In this technique an ensemble of line profiles is computed, each one of which corresponds to one realization of the random velocity field. The most important results are the following. (1) The individual line profiles may deviate substantially from each other and from the ensemble average. (2) Correlated velocity fields may cause complex multicomponent absorption features which in a traditional analysis would be attributed to several clouds, i.e. to density and/or kinetic temperature inhomogeneities. (3) Each line of sight has its own curve-of-growth. (4) Applying the standard analysis to such line profiles may produce misleading results concerning the physical parameters of the cloud. (5) In particular, the apparent scatter of the D/H ratio revealed in the ISM on the basis of the Copernicus, IUE, and HST observations may be caused by an inadequate analysis. Finally, we discuss under which conditions cloud characteristics may be derived from absorption lines without relying on a particular physical model.

  7. MicroRNA expressing profiles in A53T mutant alpha-synuclein transgenic mice and Parkinsonian

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Mingshu; Xiao, Yousheng; Huang, Shuxuan; Cen, Luan; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Limin; Luo, Qin; Li, Shaomin; Yang, Xinling; Lin, Xian; Xu, Pingyi

    2017-01-01

    α-synuclein gene mutations can cause α-synuclein protein aggregation in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in the metabolism of α-synuclein but the mechanism involved in synucleinopathy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the miRNA profiles in A53T-α-synuclein transgenic mice and analyzed the candidate miRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients. The 12-month A53T-transgenic mouse displayed hyperactive movement and anxiolytic-like behaviors with α-synuclein aggregation in midbrain. A total of 317,759 total and 289,207 unique small RNA sequences in the midbrain of mice were identified by high-throughput deep sequencing. We found 644 miRNAs were significantly changed in the transgenic mice. Based on the conserved characteristic of miRNAs, we selected 11 candidates from the 40 remarkably expressed miRNAs and explored their expression in 44 CSF samples collected from PD patients. The results revealed that 11 microRNAs were differently expressed in CSF, emphatically as miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p, which were dramatically up-regulated in both A53T-transgenic mice and PD patients, and had a helpful accuracy for the PD prediction. The ordered logistic regression analysis showed that the severity of PD has strong correlation with an up-expression of miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p in CSF. Taken together, our data suggested that miRNAs in CSF, such as miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p, may be useful to the PD diagnosis as potential biomarkers. PMID:27965467

  8. Gene expression profile of ewing sarcoma cell lines differing in their EWS-FLI1 fusion type.

    PubMed

    Bandrés, Eva; Malumbres, Raquel; Escalada, Alvaro; Cubedo, Elena; González, Iranzu; Honorato, Beatriz; Zarate, Ruth; García-Foncillas, Jesus; de Alava, Enrique

    2005-10-01

    The t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation is present in up to 95% of Ewing tumor patients and results in the formation of an EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene that encodes a chimeric transcription factor. Many alternative forms of EWS-FLI-1 exist because of variations in the location of the EWS and FLI-1 genomic breakpoints. Previous reports have shown that the type 1 fusion is associated with a significantly better prognosis than the other fusion types. It has been suggested that the observed clinical discrepancies result from different transactivation potentials of the various EWS-FLI-1 fusion proteins. In an attempt to identify genes whose expression levels are differentially modulated by structurally different EWS-FLI-1 transcription factors, we have used microarray technology to interrogate 19,000 sequence genes to compare gene expression profile of type 1 or non-type 1 Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Data analysis showed few qualitative differences on gene expression; expression of only 41 genes (0.215% of possible sequences analyzed) differed significantly between Ewing tumor cell lines carrying EWS-FLI-1 fusion type 1 with respect to those with non-type 1 fusion.

  9. Automated quantum mechanical total line shape fitting model for quantitative NMR-based profiling of human serum metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mihaleva, Velitchka V; Korhonen, Samuli-Petrus; van Duynhoven, John; Niemitz, Mathias; Vervoort, Jacques; Jacobs, Doris M

    2014-05-01

    An automated quantum mechanical total line shape (QMTLS) fitting model was implemented for quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based profiling of 42 metabolites in ultrafiltrated human serum samples. Each metabolite was described by a set of chemical shifts, J-couplings, and line widths. These parameters were optimized for each metabolite in each sample by iteratively minimizing the difference between the calculated and the experimental spectrum. In total, 92.0 to 98.1 % of the signal intensities in the experimental spectrum could be explained by the calculated spectrum. The model was validated by comparison to signal integration of metabolites with isolated signals and by means of standard additions. Metabolites present at average concentration higher than 50 μM were quantified with average absolute relative error less than 10 % when using different initial parameters for the fitting procedure. Furthermore, the biological applicability of the QMTLS model was demonstrated on 287 samples from an intervention study in 37 human volunteers undergoing an exercise challenge. Our automated QMTLS model was able to cope with the large dynamic range of metabolite concentrations in serum and proved to be suitable for high-throughput analysis.

  10. Expression of interferon and interferon--induced genes in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cell lines SHK-1 and TO following infection with Salmon AlphaVirus SAV.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, Suresh K; Ellis, Anthony E; Collet, Bertrand

    2009-04-01

    Salmon AlphaVirus (SAV) is the aetiological agent of Salmon Pancreas Disease (SPD), a serious disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. Currently there is no available information on the ability of this virus to stimulate or suppress aspects of innate immunity in host cells. Two different Atlantic salmon cell lines (SHK-1 and TO), both derived from head kidney leucocytes, were infected with SAV and the kinetics and magnitude of gene expression were studied by real-time quantitative PCR. SAV nsP1 gene transcripts for strain P42P increased rapidly in TO cells with subsequent development of a cytopathic effect (CPE) while this virus strain hardly replicated at all SHK-1 cells causing no CPE. SAV P42P induced strong expression of type I IFN (IFN) and the antiviral IFN-induced gene MX transcripts in SHK-1 cells. Although the IFN response in infected TO cells was higher than in SHK-1 cells, the level of MX transcripts was lower. This may be because the virus was able to interfere with IFN-signaling and suppress MX transcription or that the TO cells are less able to transcribe the MX gene. Either way, it may account for why the SHK-1 cells suppress SAV replication while the TO cells are highly susceptible and succumb to the virus. The present results provide the first evidence for differential induction of expression of the interferon-induced antiviral gene, MX, correlating with resistant (SHK-1) and susceptible (TO) Atlantic salmon cell lines in response to infection by SAV.

  11. Activity and gene expression profile of certain antioxidant enzymes in different organs of rats after subacute cyanide exposure: effect of alpha-ketoglutarate.

    PubMed

    Hariharakrishnan, Janardhanan; Anand, Tamatam; Satpute, Ravindra M; Jayaraj, Ravindran; Prasad, G B K S; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in mediating cyanide toxicity. The present study addresses the effect of cyanide on activity and gene-expression profile of certain antioxidant enzymes and the expression of heat shock protein (HSP-70) in different organs of rats. Rats were treated with 0.50 LD(50) (7.0 mg/kg) of potassium cyanide (KCN; oral) and/or alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG; 1.0 g/kg; oral) daily for 14 days, and various biochemical variables were measured in brain, liver, and kidney after 7 and 14 days of treatments and a 7-day recovery period. Cyanide significantly reduced the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CA) in all the organs after 7 days, while the activity of GPx in brain, liver, and kidney, GR in liver, and CA in brain remained diminished up to 14 days. The gene-expression profile of corresponding enzymes did not show any difference between the control and treatment groups. Elevated levels of malondialdehyde were observed in brain and kidney 7 and 14 days after cyanide. Cyanide also increased the expression of HSP-70 activity in brain after 7 days alone. Regression of toxicity was observed after the withdrawal of KCN. Treatment of A-KG was found to prevent all the biochemical alterations caused by cyanide. This study reveals that oxidative stress caused by cyanide was independent of the expression of antioxidant enzyme activity at the gene level, and all changes responded favorably to A-KG, indicating its therapeutic potential.

  12. The IL-6/sIL-6R treatment of a malignant melanoma cell line enhances susceptibility to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wagley, Yadav; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Seo, Han Geuk; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Kang, Keon Wook; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Oh, Jae-Wook . E-mail: ohjw@mail.chosun.ac.kr

    2007-03-23

    Melanoma is an intractable tumor that has shown very impressive and promising response to local administration of high dose recombinant TNF-{alpha} in combination with IFN-{gamma} in clinical studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-6/sIL-6R on TNF-{alpha}-resistant B16/F10.9 melanoma cells. A low dose of TNF-{alpha} or IL-6/sIL-6R had minimal affect on the cell growth. However, the highly active fusion protein of sIL-6R and IL-6 (IL6RIL6), covalently linked by a flexible peptide, sensitized TNF-{alpha}-resistant F10.9 melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Stimulation of the cells with IL6RIL6 plus TNF-{alpha} resulted in both the activation of caspase-3 and the reduction of bcl-2 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that IL6RIL6-upregulated TNF-R55 and TNF-R75 expression, suggesting an increase in TNF-{alpha} responsiveness by IL6RIL6 resulting from the induction of TNF receptors. Moreover, exposure of F10.9 cells to neutralizing antibody to TNF-R55 significantly inhibited IL6RIL6/TNF-{alpha}-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the IL6/sIL6R/gp130 system, which sensitizes TNF-{alpha}-resistant melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis, may provide a new target for immunotherapy.

  13. H{alpha} measurements and neutral particle transport in Heliotron J

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, S.; Yabutani, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Higashizono, Y.; Nagasaki, K.; Mizuuchi, T.; Okada, H.; Sano, F.; Cappa, A.; Kondo, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Suzuki, Y.

    2006-10-15

    A multichannel system of the H{alpha}-line emission detector is developed in order to investigate the neutral particle transport in the Heliotron J plasma. The application of a multianode photomultiplier tube to the filter measurement system enables us to observe the H{alpha} emission profile with 32 chords. The absolute calibration with a standard lamp is performed and the cross-talk between each of the adjoining channels is evaluated to be less than 6%, while the photomultiplier tube has a typical cross-talk of 3% in nominal value. The temporal and spatial profiles of the H{alpha} emission are measured in detail in the plasma breakdown by electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The H{alpha} emission profile in the ECH plasma is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation using a three-dimensional mesh model. The fueling rates of the wall recycling and the gas puffing are estimated by means of the simulation and the measurement.

  14. The variability of the double-peaked Balmer lines in the active nucleus of NGC 1097

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Eracleous, Michael; Livio, Mario; Wilson, Andrew S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Halpern, Jules P.

    1995-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nucleus of the Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxy NGC 1097 spanning the period 1991-1994. The goal was to monitor anticipated variations of the broad, double-peaked Balmer lines which appeared abruptly in 1991. We find that the broad Balmer lines have varied significantly over the monitoring period, both in their integrated fluxes and in their profile shapes. The integrated H-alpha flux has decreased by a factor of 2, the (H-alpha)/(H-beta) ratio has increased, and the originally asymmetric H-alpha profile has become symmetric. The decline of the H-alpha flux and the change in the (H-alpha)/(H-beta) ratio can be interpreted as consequences of either increased obscuration along the line of sight, or a decline in the ionizing continuum, but neither of these scenarios can account for the change in profile shapes. A model attributing the line emission to a precessing elliptical ring around a 10(exp 6) solar mass nuclear black hole can reproduce the observed profile variations. In this scenario, the line-emitting ring is the result of the tidal disruption of a star by the black hole. Alternative scenarios associating the broad-line emission with a collimated bipolar outflow also remain viable, but binary black holes and inhomogeneous accretion disks are disfavored by the observed pattern of variability.

  15. Use of the human EF-1alpha promoter for expression can significantly increase success in establishing stable cell lines with consistent expression: a study using the tetracycline-inducible system in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gopalkrishnan, R V; Christiansen, K A; Goldstein, N I; DePinho, R A; Fisher, P B

    1999-12-15

    Establishing cells with an exogenously introduced gene of interest under the inducible control of tetracycline (Tc) initially requires clonal cell lines stably expressing the tetracycline activator (tTA or rtTA). The originally described plasmid vectors expressing tTA/rtTA are driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early (IE) promoter-enhancer, known for its robust activity in a wide spectrum of cell types. While many reports testify to the utility and efficacy of this construct, instances of inexplicable failure to establish cell lines having inducible expression of the cDNA under study are encountered. Spontaneous extinction of CMV promoter activity in cells has been observed in a temporal and cell type-dependent manner. This could be a contributing factor in the failure to establish Tc-responsive cell lines. We here report that a change of the expression cassette to the human elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) promoter has permitted successful establishment of several inducible cell lines from diverse human tumor tissue origins. We interpret these results to imply that extinction of rtTA (or tTA) expression might be a significant factor in the lack of success in establishing Tc-inducible cell lines. Moreover, the present findings have general relevance to experiments requiring the use of stable cell lines.

  16. Clinical improvement and normalized Th1 cytokine profile in early and long-term interferon-alpha treatment in a suspected case of hyper-IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Ulrike; Cattaneo, Federica; Aiuti, Alessandro; Flores-D'Arcais, Alberto; Gelmetti, Carlo; Viscardi, Matteo; Callegaro, Luciano; Mirolo, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Bacchetta, Rosa

    2008-09-01

    We are reporting on a 7-months-old boy with suspected hyper-IgE syndrome, presenting with a therapy resistant severe eczema and an overall reduction of in vitro cytokine production. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment resulted in a marked and stable clinical improvement and normalization of in vitro T-cell cytokine production, indicating a valid therapeutic potential of IFN-alpha as immunomodulating drug.

  17. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L. Computer Sciences Corp., Seabrook, MD Iowa State Univ., Ames )

    1989-12-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs.

  18. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, AnhThu; Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Hu, Valerie W

    2010-08-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well as between both twins and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially methylated genes demonstrated enrichment for high-level functions including gene transcription, nervous system development, cell death/survival, and other biological processes implicated in autism. The methylation status of 2 of these candidate genes, BCL-2 and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA), was further confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue arrays containing slices of the cerebellum and frontal cortex of autistic and age- and sex-matched control subjects revealed decreased expression of RORA and BCL-2 proteins in the autistic brain. Our data thus confirm the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression via differential DNA methylation in idiopathic autism, and furthermore link molecular changes in a peripheral cell model with brain pathobiology in autism.

  19. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Koronowicz, Aneta A.; Kopeć, Aneta; Master, Adam; Smoleń, Sylwester; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Rakoczy, Roksana; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Pysz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment. PMID:26799209

  20. On-line monitoring of Soxhlet extraction by chromatography and mass spectrometry to reveal temporal extract profiles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ssu-Ying; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-06-30

    Soxhlet extraction is a popular sample preparation technique used in chemical analysis. It enables liberation of molecules embedded in complex matrices (for example, plant tissues, foodstuffs). In most protocols, samples are analyzed after the extraction process is complete. However, in order to optimize extraction conditions and enable comparisons between different types of extraction, it would be desirable to monitor it in real time. The main development of this work is the design and construction of the interface between Soxhlet extractor and GC-MS as well as ESI-MS system. The temporal extract profiles, obtained in the course of real-time GC-MS monitoring, have been fitted with mathematical functions to analyze extraction kinetics of different analytes. For example, the mass transfer coefficients of pinene, limonene and terpinene in lemon sample, estimated using the first-order kinetic model, are 0.540h(-1), 0.507h(-1) and 0.722h(-1), respectively. On the other hand, the Peleg model provides the following extraction rates of pinene, limonene and terpinene: 0.370nMh(-1), 0.216nMh(-1) and 0.596nMh(-1), respectively. The results suggest that both first-order kinetic and Peleg equations can be used to describe the progress of Soxhlet extraction. On-line monitoring of Soxhlet extraction reveals extractability of various analytes present in natural samples (plant tissue), and can potentially facilitate optimization of the extraction process.

  1. Transcriptome Profile of Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines for β-Conglycinin α-Subunit Deficiency during Seed Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo; An, Lixin; Han, Yanjing; Gao, Hongxiu; Ren, Hongbo; Zhao, Xue; Wei, Xiaoshuang; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2016-01-01

    Crossing, backcrossing, and molecular marker-assisted background selection produced a soybean (Glycine max) near-isogenic line (cgy-2-NIL) containing the cgy-2 allele, which is responsible for the absence of the allergenic α-subunit of β-conglycinin. To identify α-null-related transcriptional changes, the gene expressions of cgy-2-NIL and its recurrent parent DN47 were compared using Illumina high-throughput RNA-sequencing of samples at 25, 35, 50, and 55 days after flowering (DAF). Seeds at 18 DAF served as the control. Comparison of the transcript profiles identified 3,543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two genotypes, with 2,193 genes downregulated and 1,350 genes upregulated. The largest numbers of DEGs were identified at 55 DAF. The DEGs identified at 25 DAF represented a unique pattern of GO category distributions. KEGG pathway analyses identified 541 altered metabolic pathways in cgy-2-NIL. At 18DAF, 12 DEGs were involved in arginine and proline metabolism. The cgy-2 allele in the homozygous form modified the expression of several Cupin allergen genes. The cgy-2 allele is an alteration of a functional allele that is closely related to soybean protein amino acid quality, and is useful for hypoallergenic soybean breeding programs that aim to improve seed protein quality. PMID:27532666

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, Aneta A; Kopeć, Aneta; Master, Adam; Smoleń, Sylwester; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Rakoczy, Roksana; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Pysz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

  3. Secretome profiling of differentiated neural mes-c-myc A1 cell line endowed with stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Severino, Valeria; Farina, Annarita; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Reccia, Mafalda Giovanna; Volpicelli, Floriana; Parente, Augusto; Chambery, Angela

    2013-11-01

    Neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation play a crucial role in the formation and wiring of neuronal connections forming neuronal circuits. During neural tissues development, a large diversity of neuronal phenotypes is produced from neural precursor cells. In recent years, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which specific types of neurons are generated have been explored with the aim to elucidate the complex events leading to the generation of different phenotypes via distinctive developmental programs that control self-renewal, differentiation, and plasticity. The extracellular environment is thought to provide instructive influences that actively induce the production of specific neuronal phenotypes. In this work, the secretome profiling of differentiated neural mes-c-myc A1 (A1) cell line endowed with stem cell properties was analyzed by applying a shotgun LC-MS/MS approach. The results provide a list of secreted molecules with potential relevance for the functional and biological features characterizing the A1 neuronal phenotype. Proteins involved in biological processes closely related to nervous system development including neurites growth, differentiation of neurons and axonogenesis were identified. Among them, proteins belonging to extracellular matrix and cell-adhesion complexes as well as soluble factors with well established neurotrophic properties were detected. The presented work provides the basis to clarify the complex extracellular protein networks implicated in neuronal differentiation and in the acquisition of the neuronal phenotype. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

  4. Direct potential and temperature effects on the MgHe line-core and far-wing photoabsorption profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Reggami, L.; Bouledroua, M.

    2011-03-15

    The present study deals with the collisional broadening of monatomic magnesium, evolving in a helium buffer gas, in the wavelength and temperature ranges 260-310 nm and 100-3000 K, respectively. The computed emission and absorption spectral profiles are based on the most recent potential-energy curves and transition dipole moments. The required interatomic Mg(3s{sup 2})+He(1s{sup 2}) and Mg(3s3p)+He(1s{sup 2}) potentials are constructed from two different sets. The purpose of this treatment is twofold. First, using the quantum-mechanical Baranger impact approximation, the width and shift of the line-core spectra are determined and their variation law with temperature is examined. Then, the satellite structures in the blue and red wings are analyzed quantum mechanically. The calculations show especially that the free-free transitions contribute most to the MgHe photoabsorption spectra and that a satellite structure is observable beyond the temperature 1800 K around the wavelengths 272 or 276 nm, depending on the used potential set. Weak satellites have also been investigated and, for all cases, the obtained results showed good agreement with those already published.

  5. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated.

  6. An Implementation of the Fundamental Parameters Approach for Analysis of X-ray Powder Diffraction Line Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Mullen, Katharine; Cline, James P.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an open implementation of the Fundamental Parameters Approach (FPA) models for analysis of X-ray powder diffraction line profiles. The original literature describing these models was examined and code was developed to allow for their use within a Python based least squares refinement algorithm. The NIST interest in the FPA method is specific to its ability to account for the optical aberrations of the powder diffraction experiment allowing for an accurate assessment of lattice parameter values. Lattice parameters are one of the primary certified measurands of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for powder diffraction. Lattice parameter values obtained from analysis of data from SRMs 640e and 660c using both the NIST FPA Python code and the proprietary, commercial code Topas, that constitutes the only other actively supported, complete implementation of FPA models within a least-squares data analysis environment, agreed to within 2 fm. This level of agreement demonstrates that both the NIST code and Topas constitute an accurate implementation of published FPA models. PMID:26958448

  7. Application of a Continued-Fraction-Based Theory to Line-Profile in Mn-Doped GaN Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Il; Lee, Hyeong-Rag; Lee, Su-Ho

    2012-05-01

    Starting with the Kubo formalism and using the projection operator technique (POT) introduced by Kawabata, the optical quantum transition line-profiles (QTLPs) formula for a Mn-doped wurtzite GaN film was derived as a function of temperature at a frequency of 9.49 GHz (X-band), on the basis of continued fraction representation (CFR) which is a counterpart of the conventional series expansion (CSE). Utilizing this formula we obtained the fine-structure parameter a - F = 9.4 ×10-4 cm-1 and fitting parameter ζ= 4.1. The optical quantum transition half-widths (QTHWs) obtained with the use of these parameters agrees quite well with the existing experimental result in the temperature region T > 20 K. The QTHWs increase with increasing temperature due to the interaction of electrons with optical phonons. Thus, the present technique is considered to be more convenient to explain the resonant system as in the case of other optical transition problems.

  8. De-phosphorylation of TR{alpha}-1 by p44/42 MAPK inhibition enhances T{sub 3}-mediated GLUT5 gene expression in the intestinal cell line Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Sakaguchi, Naomi; Takabe, Satsuki; Goda, Toshinao . E-mail: gouda@fns1.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2007-08-10

    Thyroid hormone and p44/42 MAPK inactivation are important in intestinal differentiation. We demonstrated not only that treatment with p44/42 MAPK inhibitor U0126 in intestinal cell line Caco-2 cells reduced the phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues of TR{alpha}-1, but also that T{sub 3} and U0126 synergistically induced GLUT5 gene expression. EMSA demonstrated that the binding activity of TR{alpha}-1-RXR heterodimer on GLUT5-TRE in nuclear proteins of Caco-2 cells was synergistically enhanced by co-incubation in vitro with T{sub 3} and CIAP, which strongly de-phosphorylates proteins. ChIP and transfection assays revealed that co-treatment of T{sub 3} and U0126 induces TR{alpha}-1-RXR binding to GLUT5-TRE on the human GLUT5 enhancer region, and recruitment of the transcriptional complex in cells. These results suggest that inactivation of p44/42 MAPK enhances T{sub 3}-induced GLUT5 gene expression in Caco-2 cells through increasing TR{alpha}-1 transactivity and binding activity to the GLUT5-TRE, probably due to de-phosphorylation of TR{alpha}-1.

  9. Mars Ozone Absorption Line Shapes from Infrared Heterodyne Spectra Applied to GCM-Predicted Ozone Profiles and to MEX/SPICAM Column Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Annen, J.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 microns with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60degN 112degW was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone-profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.

  10. The 4850 cm^{-1} Spectral Region of CO_2: Constrained Multispectrum Nonlinear Least Squares Fitting Including Line Mixing, Speed Dependent Line Profiles and Fermi Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Nugent, Emily; Brown, Linda R.; Miller, Charles E.; Toth, Robert A.; Sung, Keeyoon

    2009-06-01

    Room temperature spectra of carbon dioxide were obtained with the Fourier transform spectrometers at the National Solar Observatory's McMath-Pierce telescope and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique is being used to derive accurate spectral line parameters for the strongest CO_2 bands in the 4700-4930 cm^{-1} spectral region. Positions of the spectral lines were constrained to their quantum mechanical relationships, and the rovibrational constants were derived directly from the fit. Similarly, the intensities of the lines within each of the rovibrational bands were constrained to their quantum mechanical relationships, and the band strength and Herman-Wallis coefficients were derived directly from the fit. These constraints even include a pair of interacting bands with the interaction coefficient derived directly using both the positions and intensities of the spectral lines. Room temperature self and air Lorentz halfwidth and pressure induced line shift coefficients are measured for most lines. Constraints upon the positions improve measurement of pressure-induced shifts, and constraints on the intensities improve the measurement of the Lorentz halfwidths. Line mixing and speed dependent line shapes are also required and characterized. D. Chris Benner, C.P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M.A.H. Smith, and D. Atkins, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 705-721 (1995)

  11. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh C.; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  12. Pathway-specific profiling identifies the NF-kappa B-dependent tumor necrosis factor alpha-regulated genes in epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Banno, Tomohiro; Gazel, Alix; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2005-05-13

    Identification of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) as the key agent in inflammatory disorders led to new therapies specifically targeting TNF alpha and avoiding many side effects of earlier anti-inflammatory drugs. However, because of the wide spectrum of systems affected by TNF alpha, drugs targeting TNF alpha have a potential risk of delaying wound healing, secondary infections, and cancer. Indeed, increased risks of tuberculosis and carcinogenesis have been reported as side effects after anti-TNF alpha therapy. TNF alpha regulates many processes (e.g. immune response, cell cycle, and apoptosis) through several signal transduction pathways that convey the TNF alpha signals to the nucleus. Hypothesizing that specific TNF alpha-dependent pathways control specific processes and that inhibition of a specific pathway may yield even more precisely targeted therapies, we used oligonucleotide microarrays and parthenolide, an NF-kappa B-specific inhibitor, to identify the NF-kappa B-dependent set of the TNF alpha-regulated genes in human epidermal keratinocytes. Expression of approximately 40% of all TNF alpha-regulated genes depends on NF-kappa B; 17% are regulated early (1-4 h post-treatment), and 23% are regulated late (24-48 h). Cytokines and apoptosis-related and cornification proteins belong to the "early" NF-kappa B-dependent group, and antigen presentation proteins belong to the "late" group, whereas most cell cycle, RNA-processing, and metabolic enzymes are not NF-kappa B-dependent. Therefore, inflammation, immunomodulation, apoptosis, and differentiation are on the NF-kappa B pathway, and cell cycle, metabolism, and RNA processing are not. Most early genes contain consensus NF-kappaB binding sites in their promoter DNA and are, presumably, directly regulated by NF-kappa B, except, curiously, the cornification markers. Using siRNA silencing, we identified cFLIP/CFLAR as an essential NF-kappa B-dependent antiapoptotic gene. The results confirm our

  13. Analysis of the miRNA expression profile in an Aedes albopictus cell line in response to bluetongue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shanshan; Du, Junzheng; Gao, Shandian; Tian, Zhancheng; Zheng, Yadong; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be key regulators of virus-host interactions. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-borne virus that causes huge economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Aedes albopictus cell lines have become powerful and convenient tools for studying BTV-vector interactions. However, the role of miRNAs in A. albopictus cells during BTV infection is not well understood. In this study, we performed a deep sequencing analysis of small RNA libraries of BTV-infected and mock-infected A. albopictus cells, and a total of 11,206,854 and 12,125,274 clean reads were identified, respectively. A differential expression analysis showed that 140 miRNAs, including 15 known and 125 novel miRNAs, were significantly dysregulated after infection, and a total of 414 and 2307 target genes were annotated, respectively. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validated the expression patterns of 11 selected miRNAs and their mRNA targets. Functional annotation of the target genes suggested that these target genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, endocytosis, RNA transport, as well as the FoxO, Hippo, Jak-STAT, and MAPK signaling pathways. This is the first systematic study on the effect of BTV infection on miRNA expression in A. albopictus cells. This investigation provides information concerning the cellular miRNA expression profile in response to BTV infection, and it offers clues for identifying potential candidates for vector-based antiviral strategies.

  14. ON THE DOPPLER VELOCITY OF EMISSION LINE PROFILES FORMED IN THE 'CORONAL CONTRAFLOW' THAT IS THE CHROMOSPHERE-CORONA MASS CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Tian Hui; Sechler, Marybeth; De Pontieu, Bart

    2012-04-10

    This analysis begins to explore the complex chromosphere-corona mass cycle using a blend of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics. Single Gaussian fits (SGFs) to hot emission line profiles (formed above 1 MK) at the base of coronal loop structures indicate material blueshifts of 5-10 km s{sup -1}, while cool emission line profiles (formed below 1 MK) yield redshifts of a similar magnitude-indicating, to zeroth order, that a temperature-dependent bifurcating flow exists on coronal structures. Image sequences of the same region reveal weakly emitting upward propagating disturbances in both hot and cool emission with apparent speeds of 50-150 km s{sup -1}. Spectroscopic observations indicate that these propagating disturbances produce a weak emission component in the blue wing at commensurate speed, but that they contribute only a few percent to the (ensemble) emission line profile in a single spatio-temporal resolution element. Subsequent analysis of imaging data shows material 'draining' slowly ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) out of the corona, but only in the cooler passbands. We interpret the draining as the return flow of coronal material at the end of the complex chromosphere-corona mass cycle. Further, we suggest that the efficient radiative cooling of the draining material produces a significant contribution to the red wing of cool emission lines that is ultimately responsible for their systematic redshift as derived from an SGF when compared to those formed in hotter (conductively dominated) domains. The presence of counterstreaming flows complicates the line profiles, their interpretation, and asymmetry diagnoses, but allows a different physical picture of the lower corona to develop.

  15. Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, G. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Lowes, L. L.; Abrams, M. C.; Raper, O. F.; Farmer, C. B.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    A simple, classical, and expedient method for the retrieval of atmospheric pressure-temperature profiles has been applied to the high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra obtained with the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument. The basis for this method is a rotational analysis of retrieved apparent abundances from CO2 rovibrational absorption lines, employing existing constituent concentration retrieval software used in the analysis of data returned by ATMOS. Pressure-temperature profiles derived from spectra acquired during the ATLAS 1 space shuttle mission of March-April 1992 are quantitatively evaluated and compared with climatological and meteorological data as a means of assessing the validity of this approach.

  16. Aromaticity Parameters in Asphalt Binders Calculated From Profile Fitting X-ray Line Spectra Using Pearson VII and Pseudo-Voigt Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokoff, J.; Lewis, J. Courtenay

    2010-10-01

    The aromaticity and crystallite parameters in asphalt binders are calculated from data obtained after profile fitting x-ray line spectra using Pearson VII and pseudo-Voigt functions. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the peak profile fit parameters used, peak deconvolution procedure, and differences in calculated values that can arise owing to peak shape and additional peaks present in the pattern. These results have implications concerning the evaluation and performance of asphalt binders used in highways and road applications.

  17. Effect of X-ray Line Spectra Profile Fitting with Pearson VII, Pseudo-Voigt and Generalized Fermi Functions on Asphalt Binder Aromaticity and Crystallite Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebresellasie, K.; Shirokoff, J.; Lewis, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray line spectra profile fitting using Pearson VII, pseudo-Voigt and generalized Fermi functions was performed on asphalt binders prior to the calculation of aromaticity and crystallite size parameters. The effects of these functions on the results are presented and discussed in terms of the peak profile fit parameters, the uncertainties in calculated values that can arise owing to peak shape, peak features in the pattern and crystallite size according to the asphalt models (Yen, modified Yen or Yen-Mullins) and theories. Interpretation of these results is important in terms of evaluating the performance of asphalt binders widely used in the application of transportation systems (roads, highways, airports).

  18. MAP kinases p38 and JNK are activated by the steroid hormone 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 in the C2C12 muscle cell line.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Claudia G; Ronda, Ana C; de Boland, Ana Russo; Boland, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    In chick skeletal muscle cell primary cultures, we previously demonstrated that 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3], the hormonally active form of vitamin D, increases the phosphorylation and activity of the extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase isoforms ERK1 and ERK2, their subsequent translocation to the nucleus and involvement in DNA synthesis stimulation. In this study, we show that other members of the MAP kinase superfamily are also activated by the hormone. Using the muscle cell line C2C12 we found that 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 within 1 min phosphorylates and increases the activity of p38 MAPK. The immediately upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 3/6 (MKK3/MKK6) were also phosphorylated by the hormone suggesting their participation in p38 activation. 1Alpha,25(OH)2D3 was able to dephosphorylate/activate the ubiquitous cytosolic tyrosine kinase c-Src in C2C12 cells and studies with specific inhibitors imply that Src participates in hormone induced-p38 activation. Of relevance, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 induced in the C2C12 line the stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activating protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-kinase 2) and subsequent phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in a p38 kinase activation-dependent manner. Treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, blocked p38 phosphorylation caused by the hormone and inhibited the phosphorylation of its downstrean substrates. 1Alpha,25(OH)2D3 also promotes the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK 1/2), the response is fast (0.5-1 min) and maximal phosphorylation of the enzyme is observed at physiological doses of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 (1 nM). The relative contribution of ERK-1/2, p38, and JNK-1/2 and their interrelationships in hormonal regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation remain to be established.

  19. RNA-seq profiles of immune related genes in the spleen of Necrotic enteritis-afflicted chicken lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study aimed to compare the Necrotic enteritis (NE)-induced transcriptome differences in the spleen of two highly inbred White Leghorn chicken lines, line 6.3 that is Marek’s Disease (MD) resistant and line 7.2 that is MD susceptible. Induction of NE in the chickens was achieved by co-infection ...

  20. Transcriptional Profiles of Host-Pathogen Responses to Necrotic Enteritis and Differential Regulation of Immune Genes in Two Inbreed Chicken Lines Showing Disparate Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Jang, Seung I.; Lee, Sung Hyen; Hong, Yeong Ho; Cheng, Hans H.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important intestinal infectious disease of commercial poultry flocks caused by Clostridium perfringens. Using an experimental model of NE involving co-infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria maxima, transcriptome profiling and functional genomics approaches were applied to identify the genetic mechanisms that might regulate the host response to this disease. Microarray hybridization identified 1,049 transcripts whose levels were altered (601 increased, 448 decreased) in intestinal lymphocytes from C. perfringens/E. maxima co-infected Ross chickens compared with uninfected controls. Five biological functions, all related to host immunity and inflammation, and 11 pathways were identified from this dataset. To further elucidate the role of host genetics in NE susceptibility, two inbred chicken lines, ADOL line 6 and line 7 which share an identical B2 major histocompatibility complex haplotype but differ in their susceptibility to virus infection, were compared for clinical symptoms and the expression levels of a panel of immune-related genes during experimental NE. Line 6 chickens were more susceptible to development of experimental NE compared with line 7, as revealed by decreased body weight gain and increased E. maxima oocyst shedding. Of 21 immune-related genes examined, 15 were increased in C. perfringens/E. maxima co-infected line 6 vs. line 7 chickens. These results suggest that immune pathways are activated in response to experimental NE infection and that genetic determinants outside of the chicken B complex influence resistance to this disease. PMID:25504150

  1. Observations and theory of Mg II lines in early type stars. II - Theory and predicted profiles. III - The observations and a comparison with the predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snijders, M. A. J.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Profiles of the UV Mg II lines in the spectra of early type stars are computed in a grid of model atmospheres with effective temperatures between 8000 and 35,000 K and log g values of 2.5 to 4.0 using the LTE and non-LTE theories of line formation. The theoretical results indicate that the line cores are strengthened by non-LTE effects over the entire temperature range, resonance-line wings are weaker in the cooler models than in the LTE case, and very large deviations from LTE occur in the hot low-gravity models. These predictions are compared with the equivalent widths of the UV Mg II lines in 106 stars and of the visual lines in 48 stars (spectral types O4 to A3). The observed equivalent widths of normal stars in luminosity classes II through V are found to agree with the predictions over the entire range from O8 to A2 if a certain Mg/H abundance is adopted. The line intensities observed in supergiants, Be, Bp, and Ap stars are discussed.

  2. Cytokine profile of conditioned medium from human tumor cell lines after acute and fractionated doses of gamma radiation and its effect on survival of bystander tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Kumar, Amit; Laskar, S; Pandey, B N

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines are known to play pivotal roles in cancer initiation, progression and pathogenesis. Accumulating evidences suggest differences in basal and stress-induced cytokine profiles of cancers with diverse origin. However, a comprehensive investigation characterising the cytokine profile of various tumor types after acute and fractionated doses of gamma-irradiation, and its effect on survival of bystander cells is not well known in literature. In the present study, we have evaluated the cytokine secretion profile of human tumor cell lines (HT1080, U373MG, HT29, A549 and MCF-7) either before (basal) or after acute (2, 6 Gy) and fractionated doses (3×2 Gy) of gamma-irradiation in culture medium obtained from these cells by multiplex bead array/ELISA. Moreover, clonogenic assays were performed to evaluate the effect of conditioned medium (CM) on the survival and growth of respective cells. Based on the screening of 28 analytes, our results showed that the basal profiles of these cell lines varied considerably in terms of the number and magnitude of secreted factors, which was minimum in MCF-7. Interestingly, TNF-α, IL-1β, PDGF-AA, TGF-β1, fractalkine, IL-8, VEGF and GCSF were found in CM of all the cell lines. However, secretion of certain cytokines was cell line-specific. Moreover, CM caused increase in clonogenic survival of respective tumor cells (in the order HT1080>U373MG>HT29>A549>MCF-7), which was correlated with the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, GMCSF and VEGF in their CM. After irradiation, the levels of most of the cytokines increased markedly in a dose dependent manner. The fold change in cytokine levels was lower in irradiated conditioned medium (ICM) of tumor cells collected after fractionated than respective acute dose, except in MCF-7. Interestingly, amongst these cell lines, the radiation-induced fold increase in cytokine levels was maximum in ICM of A549 cells. Moreover, bystander A549 cells treated with respective ICM showed dose dependent

  3. Five different profiles of dihydropyridines in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes (Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)), Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), and Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I))) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Taiji; Nukada, Toshihide; Namiki, Yoshiko; Miyashita, Yoriko; Hatsuno, Kento; Ueno, Yasunari; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Isshiki, Takaaki

    2009-06-24

    1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca(2+) antagonists have recently been shown to block T-type Ca(2+) channels, which may render favorable actions on cardiovascular systems. However, this evaluation remains to be done systematically for each T-type Ca(2+) channel subtype except for the Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)) subtype. To address this issue at the molecular level, blocking effects of 14 kinds of DHPs (amlodipine, aranidipine, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine, cilnidipine, efonidipine, felodipine, manidipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nilvadipine, nimodipine, nitrendipine), which are clinically used for treatments of hypertension, on 3 subtypes of T-type Ca(2+) channels [Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I)), and Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G))] were investigated in the Xenopus oocyte expression system using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. These 3 kinds (alpha(1H), alpha(1I) and alpha(1G)) of T-type channels were blocked by amlodipine, manidipine and nicardipine. On the other hand, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine and efonidipine significantly blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1G), but not alpha(1I) channels, while nilvadipine and nimodipine apparently blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1I), but not alpha(1G) channels. Moreover, aranidipine blocked only alpha(1H) channels. By contrast, cilnidipine, felodipine, nifedipine and nitrendipine had little effects on these subtypes of T-type channels. The result indicates that the blockade of T-type Ca(2+) channels by derivatives of DHP Ca(2+) antagonist was selective for the channel subtype. Therefore, these selectivities of DHPs in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes would provide useful pharmacological and clinical information on the mode of action of the drugs including side-effects and adverse effects.

  4. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis of nanostructured nickel oxide: Shape factor and convolution of crystallite size and microstrain contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniammal, K.; Madhu, G.; Biju, V.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide is synthesized through a chemical route and annealed at different temperatures. Contribution of crystallite size and microstrain to X-ray diffraction line broadening are analyzed by Williamson-Hall analysis using isotropic and anisotropic models. None of the models perform well in the case of samples with smaller average crystallite sizes. For sample with crystallite size 3 nm all models show negative slope which is physically meaningless. Analysis of shape factor shows that the line profiles are more Gaussian like. Size-strain plot method, which assumes a different convolution of the crystallite size and microstrain contributions, is found to be most suitable. The study highlights the fact that the convolution of crystallite size and microstrain contributions may differ for samples and should be taken into account while analyzing the observed line broadening. Microstrain values show a regular decrease with increase in the annealing temperature.

  5. Cellular protein profiles of the Hodgkin's disease cell lines L428, KM-H2 and HDLM-2: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hock, B D; Hart, D N

    1992-01-01

    The origin of the malignant mononuclear Hodgkin's cell and the classic Reed-Sternberg cell in Hodgkin's disease (HD) remains controversial despite extensive immunohistological and lymphoid gene analysis. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in combination with protein staining and radioactive labelling has not been fully exploited in analysing the HD-derived cell lines available. The NP40 solubilised cellular proteins from the three HD cell lines, L428, KM-H2 and HDLM-2 were analysed using these techniques and compared with other haemopoietic cell lines and leucocytes of myeloid and lymphoid origin. The electrophoretic patterns of the three HD cell lines, although clearly different from one another, had many features in common. No major differences between the cell types were detected by Coomassie brilliant blue staining. The HD cell lines were more readily distinguished from the myeloid and to a lesser extent the lymphoid cell lines by silver staining, but HD cell line specific proteins (13, 19, 36, 60, 150 kD) were detected only on one line, L428. Iodination of cell membrane molecules, SDS-PAGE and subsequent autoradiography revealed three molecules (118, 22, 12 kD) which were restricted to the HD cell lines and the B-cell line Mann, and one molecule (144 kD) restricted to the HD cell lines and U937. Molecules unique to HDLM-2 (211 kD) and L428 (46 kD) were also detected by this method. Cell surface labelling with NaB3H4 identified a glycoprotein of 102 kD limited to HDLM-2 and L428, as well as a glycoprotein of 97 kD present on KM-H2 alone and one of 63 kD on L428 alone. Overall the HD cell line protein profiles displayed little similarity to the patterns of the other cell types studied and provide further evidence to support functional and phenotypic studies which identify Hodgkin's cells as a unique cell type. The molecules identified as HD cell line restricted may have potential as markers for this cell type.

  6. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasekar, Prasanna; Shyamsunder, Pavithra; Arun, Rajpranap; Santhakumar, Rajalakshmi; Kapadia, Nand Kishore; Kumar, Ravi; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated) and 2542 (downregulated) genes (>2 fold) in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated) and 444 (downregulated) genes (>2 fold) under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2. PMID:26295583

  7. Radial Profile of the 3.5 keV Line Out to R200 in the Perseus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franse, Jeroen; Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Boyarsky, Alexey; Markevitch, Maxim; Bautz, Mark; Iakubovskyi, Dmytro; Loewenstein, Mike; McDonald, Michael; Miller, Eric; Randall, Scott W.; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-10-01

    The recent discovery of the unidentified emission line at 3.5 keV in galaxies and clusters has attracted great interest from the community. As the origin of the line remains uncertain, we study the surface brightness distribution of the line in the Perseus cluster since that information can be used to identify its origin. We examine the flux distribution of the 3.5 keV line in the deep Suzaku observations of the Perseus cluster in detail. The 3.5 keV line is observed in three concentric annuli in the central observations, although the observations of the outskirts of the cluster did not reveal such a signal. We establish that these detections and the upper limits from the non-detections are consistent with a dark matter decay origin. However, absence of positive detection in the outskirts is also consistent with some unknown astrophysical origin of the line in the dense gas of the Perseus core, as well as with a dark matter origin with a steeper dependence on mass than the dark matter decay. We also comment on several recently published analyses of the 3.5 keV line.

  8. Proteome Profiling of Urinary Exosomes Identifies Alpha 1-Antitrypsin and H2B1K as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Wu, His-Chin; Lin, Ching-Chan; Chang, Kai-Po; Yang, Chi-Rei; Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chen, Chao-Jung

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF spectrometry has not been used for urinary exosome analysis. We used it for determining UC biomarkers. From 2012 to 2015, we enrolled 129 consecutive patients with UC and 62 participants without UC. Exosomes from their urine were isolated, and analyzed through MALDI-TOF spectrometry. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of another 122 UC and 26 non-UC tissues was conducted to verify the discovered biomarkers. Two peaks at m/z 5593 (fragmented peptide of alpha-1-antitrypsin; sensitivity, 50.4%; specificity, 96.9%) and m/z 5947 (fragmented peptide of histone H2B1K sensitivity, 62.0%; specificity, 92.3%) were identified as UC diagnosis exosome biomarkers. UC patients with detectable histone H2B1K showed 2.29- and 3.11-fold increased risks of recurrence and progression, respectively, compared with those with nondetectable histone H2B1K. Verification results of IHC staining revealed significantly higher expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin (p = 0.038) and H2B1K (p = 0.005) in UC tissues than in normal tissues. The expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin and H2B1K in UC tissues was significantly correlated with UC grades (p < 0.05). Urinary exosome proteins alpha 1-antitrypsin and histone H2B1K, which are identified through MALDI-TOF analysis, could facilitate rapid diagnosis and prognosis of UC. PMID:27686150

  9. Expression of human factor VIII under control of the platelet-specific alphaIIb promoter in megakaryocytic cell line as well as storage together with VWF.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q; Wilcox, D A; Fahs, S A; Kroner, P A; Montgomery, R R

    2003-05-01

    Hemophilia A, which results in defective or deficient factor VIII (FVIII) protein, is one of the genetic diseases that has been addressed through gene therapy trials. FVIII synthesis does not occur in normal megakaryocytes. In hemophilia patients who have inhibitors to FVIII activity, megakaryocytes could be a protected site of FVIII synthesis and subsequent release. Since von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a carrier protein for FVIII, we hypothesize that by directing FVIII synthesis to megakaryocytes, it would traffick together with VWF to storage in megakaryocyte alpha-granules and the platelets derived from these cells. Such synthesis would establish a protected, releasable alpha-granule pool of FVIII together with VWF. When platelets are activated in a region of local vascular damage, FVIII and VWF could potentially be released together to provide improved local hemostatic effectiveness. To direct FVIII expression to the megakaryocyte lineage, we designed a FVIII expression cassette where the human B-domain deleted FVIII cDNA was placed under the control of the megakaryocytic/platelet-specific glycoprotein IIb (alphaIIb) promoter. We demonstrated by means of a functional FVIII activity assay that the biosynthesis of FVIII occurred normally in Dami cells transfected with FVIII. FVIII production was higher when driven by the alphaIIb promoter compared to the CMV promoter, and was increased about 8-fold following PMA treatment of the transfected Dami cells. Immunofluorescence staining of the transfected cells showed that FVIII stored together with VWF in the granules. The data indicate that the megakaryocytic compartment of hematopoietic cells may represent a potential target of gene therapy for hemophilia A-especially in those patients who have developed inhibitors to plasma FVIII.

  10. A phase II trial of bevacizumab with dacarbazine and daily low-dose interferon-alpha2a as first line treatment in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Vihinen, Pia P; Hernberg, Micaela; Vuoristo, Meri-Sisko; Tyynelä, Kristiina; Laukka, Marjut; Lundin, Johan; Ivaska, Johanna; Pyrhönen, Seppo

    2010-08-01

    Metastatic melanomas are hypervascular tumours with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that treatment of metastatic melanoma with a combination of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, dacarbazine (DTIC) and low-dose interferon alpha-2a (IFN-alpha2a) might lead to a synergistic inhibition of angiogenesis and regression of tumours. Patients with metastatic melanoma were treated with bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks), DTIC (200 mg/m days 1-5 every 4 weeks) and IFN-alpha2a (three MIU subcutaneously daily from day 15 onwards). Patients exhibiting response or stable disease after 6 months were treated with bevacizumab+/-IFN-alpha2a until disease progression. The primary study objectives were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival and safety. Twenty-six patients were accrued. Response rate was 23% (two complete responses, four partial responses), and six patients showed stable disease. The median PFS for all patients was 2.3 months and for responders 8.1 months. The median overall survival for all patients was 11.5 months. Four life-threatening adverse events were seen: two pulmonary thromboembolisms, an intracerebral haemorrhage, and one grade 4 hypertension. One of the pulmonary emboli and the intracerebral haemorrhage were observed > or =3 months after the last bevacizumab-DTIC dose. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels changed during therapy. There was a trend towards favourable PFS among patients with only minimal or moderate change in these marker expression levels. The present regimen was active in this patient group but was also associated with remarkable vascular events.

  11. Broad emission lines in the duelling wind model of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasher, B.; Raine, D. J.

    1989-04-01

    The broad-line emission from clouds formed by the interaction of a nuclear mass outflow and a disk wind is investigated in the context of a quasar model. The line ratios and profiles are shown to be in general agreement with observations. Particular results include: (1) a density range compatible with suggested solutions to the Ly-alpha/H-beta problem which nevertheless yields the correct C III 1909-A flux; (2) broader lines from the inner higher density region despite an accelerated outflow; (3) compatibility between broad-line-region sizes from variability arguments and ionization parameters; and (4) blueshifted line-peaks apparently uncorrelated with line asymmetry.

  12. AN ATLAS OF z = 5.7 AND z = 6.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Trouille, L. E-mail: cowie@ifa.hawaii.ed E-mail: trouille@astro.wisc.ed E-mail: kakazu@astro.caltech.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present an atlas of 88 z {approx} 5.7 and 30 z {approx} 6.5 Ly{alpha} emitters obtained from a wide-field narrowband survey. We combined deep narrowband imaging in 120 A bandpass filters centered at 8150 A and 9140 A with deep BVRIz broadband imaging to select high-redshift galaxy candidates over an area of 4180 arcmin{sup 2}. The goal was to obtain a uniform selection of comparable depth over the seven targeted fields in the two filters. For the GOODS-North region of the Hubble Deep Field-North field, we also selected candidates using a 120 A filter centered at 9210 A. We made spectroscopic observations with Keck DEIMOS of nearly all the candidates to obtain the final sample of Ly{alpha} emitters. At the 3.3 A resolution of the DEIMOS observations the asymmetric profile for Ly{alpha} emission can be clearly seen in the spectra of nearly all the galaxies. We show that the spectral profiles are surprisingly similar for many of the galaxies and that the composite spectral profiles are nearly identical at z = 5.7 and z = 6.5. We analyze the distributions of line widths and Ly{alpha} equivalent widths and find that the lines are marginally narrower at the higher redshift, with median values of 0.77 A at z = 6.5 and 0.92 A at z = 5.7. The line widths have a dependence on the Ly{alpha} luminosity of the form {approx}L {sup 0.3}{sub {alpha}}. We compare the surface densities and the luminosity functions at the two redshifts and find that there is a multiplicative factor of two decrease in the number density of bright Ly{alpha} emitters from z = 5.7 to z = 6.5, while the characteristic luminosity is unchanged.

  13. Geocoronal Balmer-alpha Emission Observed by the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper During the Southern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Nossal, S. M.; Wilson, M. L.; Freer, C. W.; Babler, B.; Gardner, D.; Roesler, F. L.

    2015-12-01

    After a successful eleven-year run at Kitt Peak Observatory (AZ), the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) was moved to Cerro Tololo (Chile) in 2009 to complete the southern portion of the Galactic Balmer-alpha survey. Although WHAM is primarily used for making observations of the interstellar medium, the terrestrial emission present in each of WHAM's astronomical spectra offers a rich resource for studying the Earth's atmosphere. Here we present an overview of the terrestrial Balmer-alpha emission collected during WHAM's first five years of operation under southern skies. Seasonal trends and comparisons with northern hemisphere observations will be discussed. WHAM can detect Balmer-alpha emission as faint as 0.05R in a 30s exposure, covering a 200 km/s (4.4 Angstrom) spectral region with 12 km/s spectral resolution from a 1 degree beam on the sky. With this sensitivity, hundreds of spectra can be collected in a single clear night. Although not capable of fully resolving the geocoronal Balmer-alpha line profile itself, WHAM's sensitivity makes it an exceptional instrument for geocoronal Balmer-alpha intensity observations. This work is supported by NSF award AGS-1352311 and AST-1108911.

  14. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  15. RNA-seq Profiles of Immune Related Genes in the Spleen of Necrotic Enteritis-afflicted Chicken Lines

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Anh Duc; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun S.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the necrotic enteritis (NE)-induced transcriptome differences between the spleens of Marek’s disease resistant chicken line 6.3 and susceptible line 7.2 co-infected with Eimeria maxima/Clostridium perfringens using RNA-Seq. Total RNA from the spleens of two chicken lines were used to make libraries, generating 42,736,296 and 42,617,720 usable reads, which were assembled into groups of 29,897 and 29,833 mRNA genes, respectively. The transcriptome changes were investigated using the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) package, which indicated 3,255, 2,468 and 2,234 DEGs of line 6.3, line 7.2, and comparison between two lines, respectively (fold change ≥2, p<0.01). The transcription levels of 14 genes identified were further examined using qRT-PCR. The results of qRT-PCR were consistent with the RNA-seq data. All of the DEGs were analysed using gene ontology terms, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and the DEGs in each term were found to be more highly expressed in line 6.3 than in line 7.2. RNA-seq analysis indicated 139 immune related genes, 44 CD molecular genes and 150 cytokines genes which were differentially expressed among chicken lines 6.3 and 7.2 (fold change ≥2, p<0.01). Novel mRNA analysis indicated 15,518 novel genes, for which the expression was shown to be higher in line 6.3 than in line 7.2 including some immune-related targets. These findings will help to understand host-pathogen interaction in the spleen and elucidate the mechanism of host genetic control of NE, and provide basis for future studies that can lead to the development of marker-based selection of highly disease-resistant chickens. PMID:26323406

  16. Asymptotic expansions of the kernel functions for line formation with continuous absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Asymptotic expressions are obtained for the kernel functions M2(tau, alpha, beta) and K2(tau, alpha, beta) appearing in the theory of line formation with complete redistribution over a Voigt profile with damping parameter a, in the presence of a source of continuous opacity parameterized by beta. For a greater than 0, each coefficient in the asymptotic series is expressed as the product of analytic functions of a and eta. For Doppler broadening, only the leading term can be evaluated analytically.

  17. Analysis of genome-wide RNA-sequencing data suggests age of the CEPH/Utah (CEU) lymphoblastoid cell lines systematically biases gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Tian, Lei; Lu, Dongsheng; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-22

    In human, Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the CEPH/CEU (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain - Utah) family resource have been extensively used for examining the genetics of gene expression levels. However, we noted that CEU/CEPH cell lines were collected and transformed approximately thirty years ago, much earlier than the other cell lines from the pertaining individuals, which we suspected could potentially affect gene expression, data analysis and results interpretation. In this study, by analyzing RNA sequencing data of CEU and the other three European populations as well as an African population, we systematically examined and evaluated the potential confounding effect of LCL age on gene expression levels and patterns. Our results indicated that gene expression profiles of CEU samples have been biased by the older age of CEU cell lines. Interestingly, most of CEU-specific expressions are associated with functions related to cell proliferation, which are more likely due to older age of cell lines than intrinsic characters of the population. We suggested the results be carefully explained when CEU LCLs are used for transcriptomic data analysis in future studies.

  18. The transfer of resonance-line radiation in static astrophysical media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic solution is derived for the mean intensity of resonance-line radiation within an absorbing medium of large scattering optical depth but low density. The line profile, the mean number of scatterings before absorption or escape, the mean path length traveled, and the fraction of the photons which escape the medium are derived. Approximate methods are also developed which permit the treatment of media of intermediate optical depth, where scattering takes place in the Doppler core. Astrophysical applications include the absorption of H Ly-alpha radiation by stellar dust, the pumping of H2 Lyman band lines by H Ly-alpha and the Bowen fluorescence.

  19. Fast-wave Power Flow Along SOL Field Lines In NSTX nd The Associated Power Deposition Profile Across The SOL In Front Of The Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Roy

    2013-06-21

    Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat deposition on the lower divertor, albeit with a portion of the heat outside of the predictions. The field-line mapping can then be used to partially reconstruct the profile of lost fast-wave power at the midplane in front of the antenna, and the losses peak close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS) as well as the antenna. This profile suggests a radial standing-wave pattern formed by fast-wave propagation in the SOL, and this hypothesis will be tested on NSTX-U. Advanced RF codes must reproduce these results so that such codes can be used to understand this edge loss and to minimize RF heat deposition and erosion in the divertor region on ITER.

  20. CEL-I, an invertebrate N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin, induces TNF-alpha and G-CSF production by mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiko; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2007-11-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin purified from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata (Holothuroidea) showed potent cytotoxicity to several cell lines such as HeLa, MDCK and XC cells. In this study, we found that CEL-I induced increased secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte colony stimulation factor (G-CSF) by mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas this cell line was highly resistant to CEL-I cytotoxicity. The cytokine-inducing activity of CEL-I was stronger than that of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-L). A binding study using FITC-labelled CEL-I (F-CEL-I) indicated that the amount of bound F-CEL-I on RAW264.7 cells was greater than that of F-PHA-L, suggesting that the greater activity of CEL-I to induce cytokine secretion by RAW264.7 cells is partly due to the higher binding ability. Since the cell binding and cytokine-inducing activity of CEL-I were partly but significantly inhibited by the specific sugar (GalNAc), it is considered that the binding of CEL-I to cell-surface-specific saccharide moieties, which may be recognized by CEL-I with higher affinity than GalNAc, is essential for the induction of cytokine secretion. The secretion of TNF-alpha and G-CSF from CEL-I-treated RAW264.7 cells were almost completely prevented by brefeldin A (BFA), whereas increase in mRNA levels of these cytokines were not affected by BFA. Bio-Plex beads assay suggested that temporal increase in phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase occurred at relatively early time following CEL-I treatment. Furthermore, the secretion of TNF-alpha and G-CSF were inhibited by specific inhibitors for these MAP kinases. These results suggest that the intracellular signal transduction through the activation of MAP kinase system is involved in CEL-I-induced cytokine secretion.

  1. Purification and properties of the alpha-3/4-L-fucosyltransferase released into the culture medium during the growth of the human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P H; Donald, A S; Watkins, W M

    1993-04-01

    A soluble alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase secreted into the growth medium of the human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line has been purified 700,000 fold by a series of steps involving chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose 4B, CM-Sephadex C-50 and GDP-hexanolamine Sepharose 4B. The untreated spent culture medium transferred almost ten times more fucose to the subterminal N-acetylglucosamine residue in the Type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc) disaccharide than to the subterminal sugar in the Type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) disaccharide; the relative activity with these two substrates remained virtually unchanged throughout the purification procedure. At no stage was any alpha-3-fucosyltransferase species acting solely on N-acetylglucosamine residues in Type 2 chains separated from the bulk of the alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase activity. The purified enzyme preparation showed insignificant activity with glycoprotein substrates having N-linked oligosaccharide chains with terminal Type 2 sequences but transferred fucose to a mucin-type glycoprotein with O-linked oligosaccharide chains with terminal Type 1 structures. Lactose was a poor substrate but the activity of the enzyme was influenced by the presence of substituents on the terminal beta-galactosyl residue and 2'-fucosyllactose was almost as good an acceptor as the Type 1 disaccharide. The properties of the purified enzyme with regard to specificity, divalent cation requirements, pH optimum, and M(r), closely resembled those of the Lewis-blood-group gene associated alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase isolated from human milk.

  2. Acute effects of breakfasts containing alpha-lactalbumin, or gelatin with or without added tryptophan, on hunger, 'satiety' hormones and amino acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-06-01

    Proteins are the most satiating macronutrients. Tryptophan (TRP) may contribute to the satiating effect, as it serves as a precursor for the anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin. To address the role of TRP in the satiating properties of dietary protein, we compared three different breakfasts, containing either alpha-lactalbumin (high in TRP), gelatin (low in TRP) or gelatin with added TRP (gelatin+TRP, high in TRP), on appetite. Twenty-four subjects (22-29 kg/m2; aged 19-37 years) received a subject-specific breakfast at t = 0 with 10, 55 and 35 % energy from protein, carbohydrate and fat respectively in a randomised, single-blind design. Hunger, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, ghrelin, amino acid concentrations and energy intake during a subsequent lunch were determined. Suppression of hunger was stronger 240 min after the breakfast with alpha-lactalbumin compared with gelatin and gelatin+TRP. Total plasma amino acid concentrations were lower with alpha-lactalbumin compared with gelatin with or without TRP (from t = 180-240 min). TRP concentrations were higher after alpha-lactalbumin than after gelatin with or without TRP from t = 0-100 min, whereas from t = 100-240 min, TRP concentrations were lower after gelatin than after alpha-lactalbumin and gelatin+TRP. The plasma ratio of TRP to other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) was, only at t = 100 min, lower after gelatin+TRP than after the other breakfasts. Plasma amino acid responses, TRP concentrations and TRP:LNAA ratios were not correlated with hunger. GLP-1 and ghrelin concentrations were similar for all diets. Energy intake during a subsequent lunch was similar for all diets. Summarised, an alpha-lactalbumin breakfast suppresses hunger more than a gelatin or gelatin+TRP breakfast. This cannot be explained by (possible) differences found in TRP concentrations and TRP:LNAA ratios in the breakfasts and in plasma, as well as in circulating total amino acids, GLP-1 and ghrelin.

  3. High activity of N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester serine esterase and cytolytic perforin in cloned cell lines is not demonstrable in in-vivo-induced cytotoxic effector cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dennert, G; Anderson, C G; Prochazka, G

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations have suggested striking similarities between complement-mediated and cell-mediated lysis. Both pathways share the terminal insertion of channels into target membranes, and unique esterases have been postulated to participate in the activation of cytolytic effector molecules. Since killer-specific esterases and channel-forming proteins can be demonstrated in in vitro cell lines, it is important to ascertain that the described esterase and channel-forming proteins are also present in killer cells from in vivo sources. Results presented here show that killer-cell-specific N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester serine esterase is induced in vitro concomitant with the sensitization of cytotoxic effector cells. In contrast, in-vivo-primed cytotoxic T cells or natural killer (NK) cells fail to express high levels of this enzyme. Assay of different cytotoxic effector cells reveals the presence of N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester serine esterase in clones with T killer and NK activity, but enzyme levels do not correlate with cytolytic activity nor does inhibition of esterase activity interfere with granule-mediated cell lysis. A similar result is seen with granule-mediated cytolytic activity. Cloned NK and T killer cell lines possess granules that are able to lyse erythrocyte targets. However, T killer cells sensitized in mixed lymphocyte culture or in vivo have no detectable cytotoxic granules. Cytotoxic granules are also not detected in NK cells isolated from animals. PMID:2955414

  4. Alterations of the exo- and endometabolite profiles in breast cancer cell lines: A mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Hirschfeld, Marc; Erbes, Thalia; Neubauer, Hans; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2016-06-21

    In recent years, knowledge about metabolite changes which are characteristic for the physiologic state of cancer cells has been acquired by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Distinct molecularly characterized breast cancer cell lines provide an unbiased and standardized in vitro tumor model reflecting the heterogeneity of the disease. Tandem mass spectrometry is a widely applied analytical platform and highly sensitive technique for analysis of complex biological samples. Endo- and exometabolite analysis of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, -453 and BT-474 as well as the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A has been performed using two different analytical platforms: UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF based on a scheduled precursor list has been applied for highlighting of significant differences between cell lines and HPLC-ESI-QqQ using multiple reaction monitoring has been utilized for a targeted approach focusing on RNA metabolism and interconnected pathways, respectively. Statistical analysis enabled a clear discrimination of the breast epithelial from the breast cancer cell lines. As an effect of oxidative stress, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio has been detected in breast cancer cell lines. The triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 showed an elevation in nicotinamide, 1-ribosyl-nicotinamide and NAD+ reflecting the increased energy demand in triple negative breast cancer, which has a more aggressive clinical course than other forms of breast cancer. Obtained distinct metabolite pattern could be correlated with distinct molecular characteristics of breast cancer cells. Results and methodology of this preliminary in vitro study could be transferred to in vivo studies with breast cancer patients.

  5. EXTREMELY BROAD RADIO RECOMBINATION MASER LINES TOWARD THE HIGH-VELOCITY IONIZED JET IN CEPHEUS A HW2

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Serra, I.; Patel, N.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Baez-Rubio, A.; Thum, C. E-mail: npatel@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: baezra@cab.inta-csic.es

    2011-05-10

    We present the first detection of the H40{alpha}, H34{alpha}, and H31{alpha} radio recombination lines (RRLs) at millimeter wavelengths toward the high-velocity ionized jet in the Cepheus A HW2 star-forming region. From our single-dish and interferometric observations, we find that the measured RRLs show extremely broad asymmetric line profiles with zero-intensity line widths of {approx}1100 km s{sup -1}. From the line widths, we estimate a terminal velocity for the ionized gas in the jet of {>=}500 km s{sup -1}, consistent with that obtained from the proper motions of the HW2 radio jet. The total integrated line-to-continuum flux ratios of the H40{alpha}, H34{alpha}, and H31{alpha} lines are 43, 229, and 280 km s{sup -1}, clearly deviating from LTE predictions. These ratios are very similar to those observed for the RRL masers toward MWC349A, suggesting that the intensities of the RRLs toward HW2 are affected by maser emission. Our radiative transfer modeling of the RRLs shows that their asymmetric profiles could be explained by maser emission arising from a bi-conical radio jet with a semi-opening angle of 18 deg., electron density distribution varying as r {sup -2.11}, and turbulent and expanding wind velocities of 60 and 500 km s{sup -1}.

  6. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas: chromosomal and oligo-array profile of five new cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, R F; Roque, L; Krug, T; Leite, V

    2007-04-23

    Information on gene alterations associated to poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC) is scarce. Using human cancer cell lines as a tool for gene discovery, we performed a cytogenetic and oligo-array analysis in five new cell lines derived from two PDTC and three ATC. In PDTC we evidenced, as important, the involvement of the MAPK/ERK kinase pathway, and downregulation of a group of suppressor genes that include E-cadherin. In ATC, downregulation of a specific group of oncosuppressor genes was also observed. Our ATC cell lines presented chromosomal markers of gene amplification, and we were able to identify for the first time the nature of the involved amplicon target genes. We found that the main molecular differences between the two cell line types were related to signal transduction pathways, cell adhesion and motility process. TaqMan experiments performed for five amplicon target genes and for two genes, which allowed a clear distinction between ATC and PDTC: CDH13 and PLAU corroborated array results, not only in the cell lines, but also in an additional set of primary 14 PDTC and three ATC. We suggest that our findings may represent new tools for the development of more effective therapies to the hitherto untreatable ATC.

  7. Investigation of thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced aluminum plasma using the H{sub α} line profiles and Thomson scattering spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Cvejić, M. E-mail: krzysztof.dzierzega@uj.edu.pl; Dzierżęga, K. E-mail: krzysztof.dzierzega@uj.edu.pl; Pięta, T.

    2015-07-13

    We have studied isothermal equilibrium in the laser-induced plasma from aluminum pellets in argon at pressure of 200 mbar by using a method which combines the standard laser Thomson scattering and analysis of the H{sub α}, Stark-broadened, line profiles. Plasma was created using 4.5 ns, 4 mJ pulses from a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. While electron density and temperature were determined from the electron feature of Thomson scattering spectra, the heavy particle temperature was obtained from the H{sub α} full profile applying computer simulation including ion-dynamical effects. We have found strong imbalance between these two temperatures during entire plasma evolution which indicates its non-isothermal character. At the same time, according to the McWhirter criterion, the electron density was high enough to establish plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium.

  8. An efficient analytical platform for on-line microfluidic profiling of neuroactive snake venoms towards nicotinic receptor affinity.

    PubMed

    Heus, Ferry; Vonk, Freek; Otvos, Reka A; Bruyneel, Ben; Smit, August B; Lingeman, Henk; Richardson, Michael; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Kool, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Venomous snakes have evolved their efficient venomous arsenals mainly to immobilize prey. The highly variable toxic peptides in these venoms target a myriad of neurotoxic and haemotoxic receptors and enzymes and comprise highly interesting candidates for drug discovery. Discovery of bioactive compounds from snake venoms, however, is a challenge to achieve. We have developed and applied a methodology to rapidly assess bioactives in a snake venom proteome. Our microfluidic platform opens up efficient and rapid profiling of venomous anti-cholinergic receptor compounds. The key advantages of our methodology are: (i) nano amounts of venom needed; and (ii) a direct correlation of selected bioaffinities with accurate mass. To achieve this, we have for the first time successfully constructed a functional post nano-LC split to MS and bioaffinity profiling. In our method, comprehensive venom profiles with accurate masses and corresponding bioaffinities are obtained in one analytical run and will subsequently allow immediate purification of bioactive peptides with LC-MS, guided by accurate masses of the bioactives only. We profiled several neurotoxic Elapidae snake venoms using our methodology in combination with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) as biological target protein. The latter is a homologue of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a drug target in neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and in pain related diseases. Our methodology was evaluated and validated with high-affinity α-bungarotoxin and haemotoxic/proteolytic Vipera ammodytes venom spiked with α-bungarotoxin. Thereafter, the methodology was applied to profile the venom proteomes of Dendroaspis jamesoni kaimosae, Naja annulifera and Naja nivea. Gathering comprehensive profiling data took less than 2 h per snake venom measured. The data yielded 20 AChBP ligands of which the corresponding accurate masses were used to retrieve information from

  9. Jovian Equatorial H Lyman-alpha and the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, Gilda E.

    An excess of H Ly alpha emission has been a persistent feature in Jupiter's equatorial upper atmosphere since its discovery in 1978. This Ly alpha 'bulge' was found by high-resolution IUE observations to be due to broadening of the Jovian line increasing the resonant scattering of the solar Ly alpha, rather than from a local enhancement in the H density. The line broadening implies that the H column at the bulge is disturbed by a localized, non-thermal process, and two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this: one by the generation of turbulence from strong thermospheric winds or jets meeting at the bulge region and originating in the active Jovian auroral zones, the other involving a superthermal population of H atoms produced by a process analogous to the equatorial anomaly and tropical arcs on the Earth. Some line broadening was also observed in the off-bulge region while modelling of the usual bulge profile does not predict this behavior, but these observations may have been performed at a time of an unusually large extension of the bulge. We propose to make a series of high-dispersion observations (of improved S/N) for a detailed longitudinal study of the line profile which would be of benefit independently of the particular bulge conditions (to be determined with low-dispersion exposures). In addition, new insight will be gained with simultaneous ground-based observations of the newly discovered global ionospheric H3+ emissions. These emissions are diagnostic of the ionospheric temperature and ion density, and have already shown very particular characteristics in the H Ly alpha bulge region. Coordinated observations of the whole longitudinal range should therefore set new constraints on the mechanisms operating in the Jovian equatorial upper atmosphere.

  10. On Possible Manifestation of Non-Thermal Electrons in the Hα/Hβ Line Profile Ratio in the June 26, 1999 Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrc, P.; Kashapova, L. K.

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed the solar flare on 26 June 1999 which consisted of three subsequent phases. All of them were followed by events of quite different types (Kotrc et al., IAU Symp 223, 2004). Just the second phase of the flare was accompanied by radio bursts and HXR emission that could be considered as an indirect evidence of accelerated non-thermal particle beams. Theoretical calculations of thermal mechanisms coupled with accelerated electron beams in flares showed that the ratio of the Hα/Hβ line profiles could be a possible indicator whether a mechanism of non-thermal radiation excitation was present or absent (Kasparova & Heinzel, A&A, 2002). This effect should follow the occurrence of the particle beams in time and then decay. In the flare kernel associated thus possibly with the influence of non-thermal electron beams we found that the ratio of the Hα/Hβ line profiles demonstrated a very specific form which substantially differs from those ones obtained in "thermal" kernels (occurring in the first and in the another flare phases). This effect can be characterized by presence of specific "sidelobes" occurring in the ratio of the line profiles. The effect was observed in the region nearby the HXR sourcelocation where it appeared just after the end of the radio-spectrum spike and therefore it corresponds most probably to the occurrence of non-thermal processes in the flare. The associated HXR effect was rather short lasting, i.e. the effect of "sidelobes" disappeared earlier then the emission. We try to trace the evolution and the possible decay of this effect. On one hand the obtained results will be an additional evidence of the theoretical predictions, on the other hand they could be useful for development of technique for detecting the presence or absence of the non-thermal electron beams. Conclusions are discussed both from their observational and theoretical aspects.

  11. Identification and gene expression profiling of tumor-initiating cells isolated from human osteosarcoma cell lines in an orthotopic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rainusso, Nino; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Lau, Ching C; Hicks, John; Shen, Jianhe J; Yu, Alexander; Wang, Lisa L

    2011-01-01

    In the cancer stem cell model a cell hierarchy has been suggested as an explanation for intratumoral heterogeneity and tumor formation is thought to be driven by this tumor cell subpopulation. The identification of cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma (OS) and the biological processes dysregulated in this cell subpopulation, also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), may provide new therapeutic targets. The goal of this study, therefore, was to identify and characterize the gene expression profiles of TICs isolated from human OS cell lines. We analyzed the self-renewal capacity of OS cell lines and primary OS tumors based upon their ability to form sphere-like structures (sarcospheres) under serum-starving conditions. TICs were identify from OS cell lines using the long-term label retention dye PKH26. OS TICs and the bulk of tumor cells were isolated and used to assess their ability to initiate tumors in NOD/SCID mice. Gene expression profiles of OS TICs were obtained from fresh orthotopic tumor samples. We observed that increased sarcosphere efficiency correlated with an enhanced tumorigenic potential in OS. PKH26Hi cells were shown to constitute OS TICs based upon their capacity to form more sarcospheres, as well as to generate both primary bone tumors and lung metastases efficiently in NOD/SCID mice. Genomic profiling of OS TICs revealed that both bone development and cell migration processes were dysregulated in this tumor cell subpopulation. PKH26 labeling represents a valuable tool to identify OS TICs and gene expression analysis of this tumor cell compartment may identify potential therapeutic targets. PMID:21617384

  12. Cryogenic-temperature profiling of high-power superconducting lines using local and distributed optical-fiber sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Antonella; Palmieri, Luca; Consales, Marco; Giordano, Michele; Borriello, Anna; Bajas, Hugues; Galtarossa, Andrea; Bajko, Marta; Cusano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents distributed and multipoint fiber-optic monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting power transmission line down to 30 K and over 20 m distance. Multipoint measurements were conducted using fiber Bragg gratings sensors coated with two different functional overlays (epoxy and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)) demonstrating cryogenic operation in the range 300-4.2 K. Distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimide). The integrated system has been placed along the 20 m long cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Cool-down events from 300-30 K have been successfully measured in space and time, confirming the viability of these approaches to the monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line.

  13. Promising cytotoxic activity profile of fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar®) in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Thomas; Jordan, Karin; Voigt, Wieland

    2011-04-16

    Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) is currently used as nutrition supplement for cancer patients. Limited recent data suggest antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects which were at least in part exerted by two quinones, 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxybenzquinone as ingredients of FWGE. These activity data prompted us to further evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of FWGE alone or in combination with the commonly used cytotoxic drugs 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan in a broad spectrum of human tumor cell lines. We used the sulforhodamine B assay to determine dose response relationships and IC50-values were calculated using the Hill equation. Drug interaction of simultaneous and sequential drug exposure was estimated using the model of Drewinko and potential clinical activity was assessed by the model of relative antitumor activity (RAA). Apoptosis was detected by DNA gel electrophoresis.FWGE induced apoptosis and exerted significant antitumor activity in a broad spectrum of 32 human cancer cell lines. The highest activity was found in neuroblastoma cell lines with an average IC50 of 0.042 mg/ml. Furthermore, IC50-range was very narrow ranging from 0.3 mg/ml to 0.54 mg/ml in 8 colon cancer cell lines. At combination experiments in colon cancer cell lines when FWGE was simultaneously applied with either 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan we observed additive to synergistic drug interaction, particularly for 5-FU. At sequential drug exposure with 5-FU and FWGE the observed synergism was abolished.Taken together, FWGE exerts significant antitumor activity in our tumor model. Simultaneous drug exposure with FWGE and 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan yielded in additive to synergistic drug interaction. However, sequential drug exposure of 5-FU and FWGE in colon cancer cell lines appeared to be schedule-dependent (5-FU may precede FWGE).Further evaluation of FWGE as a candidate for clinical combination drug regimens appeared to be

  14. Promising cytotoxic activity profile of fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar®) in human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) is currently used as nutrition supplement for cancer patients. Limited recent data suggest antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects which were at least in part exerted by two quinones, 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxybenzquinone as ingredients of FWGE. These activity data prompted us to further evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of FWGE alone or in combination with the commonly used cytotoxic drugs 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan in a broad spectrum of human tumor cell lines. We used the sulforhodamine B assay to determine dose response relationships and IC50-values were calculated using the Hill equation. Drug interaction of simultaneous and sequential drug exposure was estimated using the model of Drewinko and potential clinical activity was assessed by the model of relative antitumor activity (RAA). Apoptosis was detected by DNA gel electrophoresis. FWGE induced apoptosis and exerted significant antitumor activity in a broad spectrum of 32 human cancer cell lines. The highest activity was found in neuroblastoma cell lines with an average IC50 of 0.042 mg/ml. Furthermore, IC50-range was very narrow ranging from 0.3 mg/ml to 0.54 mg/ml in 8 colon cancer cell lines. At combination experiments in colon cancer cell lines when FWGE was simultaneously applied with either 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan we observed additive to synergistic drug interaction, particularly for 5-FU. At sequential drug exposure with 5-FU and FWGE the observed synergism was abolished. Taken together, FWGE exerts significant antitumor activity in our tumor model. Simultaneous drug exposure with FWGE and 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan yielded in additive to synergistic drug interaction. However, sequential drug exposure of 5-FU and FWGE in colon cancer cell lines appeared to be schedule-dependent (5-FU may precede FWGE). Further evaluation of FWGE as a candidate for clinical combination drug regimens appeared to be

  15. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of astronomical and laboratory sources at 8.5 micron. [absorption line profiles of nitrogen oxide and black body emission from Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M.; Kostiuk, T.; Cohen, S.; Buhl, D.; Vonthuna, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    The first infrared heterodyne spectrometer using tuneable semiconductor (PbSe) diode lasers has been constructed and was used near 8.5 micron to measure absorption line profiles of N2O in the laboratory and black body emission from the Moon and from Mars. Spectral information was recorded over a 200 MHz bandwidth using an 8-channel filter bank. The resolution was 25 MHz and the minimum detectable (black body) power was 1 x 10 to the minus 16th power watts for 8 minutes of integration. The results demonstrate the usefulness of heterodyne spectroscopy for the study of remote and local sources in the infrared.

  16. Fed and fasted chicks from lines divergently selected for low or high body weight have differential hypothalamic appetite-associated factor mRNA expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiaqing; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Cline, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    We have demonstrated that chicken lines which have undergone intense divergent selection for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight (anorexic and obese containing, respectively) have differential food intake threshold responses to a range of intracerebroventricular injected neurotransmitters. The study reported herein was designed to measure endogenous appetite-associated factor mRNA profiles between these lines in an effort to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in their differential eating patterns. Whole hypothalamus was collected from 5 day-old chicks that had been fasted for 180 min or had free access to food. Total RNA was isolated, reverse transcribed, and real-time PCR performed. Although mRNAs encoding orexigenic neuropeptides including agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), prolactin-releasing peptide, and visfatin did not differ in expression between the lines, NPY receptor 5 mRNA was greater in fed LWS than HWS chicks, but fasting decreased the magnitude of difference. Anorexigenic factors including amylin, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and ghrelin were not differentially expressed between lines, while mRNA abundance of calcitonin, CRF receptor 1, leptin receptor, neuropeptide S, melanocortin receptor 3, and oxytocin were greater in LWS than HWS chicks. Pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA was lower in LWS than HWS chicks, while fasting decreased its expression in both lines. These results suggest that there are differences in gene expression of appetite-associated factors between LWS and HWS lines that might be associated with their differential food intake and thus contribute to differences in severity of anorexia, body weight, adiposity, and development of obesity.

  17. Constraints on Porosity and Mass Loss in O-star Winds from the Modeling of X-ray Emission Line Profile Shapes