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Sample records for alpha line profile

  1. Brackett-alpha line profiles of young stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persson, S. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Mcgregor, P. J.; Edwards, S.; Lonsdale, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Profiles of the Br-alpha line of H I at a velocity resolution of 45 km/s are presented for the compact imbedded infrared objects BN, S106/IRS 3, GLS 490, GL 961, GL 989, Mon. R2/IRS 2, and for the visible objects LkH-alpha 101, T Tau, and R Mon. A proportionality obtained between Br-alpha luminosity and bolometric luminosity is shown to extend over three orders of magnitude, supporting the idea that the physical conditions and gas motions in the circumstellar envelopes of stellar objects are closely related over a wide range of luminosities. The Br-alpha line strengths are compared to radio continuum flux densities in the context of stellar wind models. Momentum deposition rates deduced from Br-alpha or radio continuum fluxes are consistent with those available in the radiation fields, which appear capable of driving the ionized gas outflows in the vicinity of the core sources. The results of a comparison of the H-alpha and Br-alpha profiles for T Tau are discussed.

  2. Alpha Virginis: line-profile variations and orbital elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, David; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Olguín, Enrique; Ilyin, Ilya; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Lara, Bruno; Moreno, Edmundo

    2016-05-01

    Context. Alpha Virginis (Spica) is a B-type binary system whose proximity and brightness allow detailed investigations of the internal structure and evolution of stars undergoing time-variable tidal interactions. Previous studies have led to the conclusion that the internal structure of Spica's primary star may be more centrally condensed than predicted by theoretical models of single stars, raising the possibility that the interactions could lead to effects that are currently neglected in structure and evolution calculations. The key parameters in confirming this result are the values of the orbital eccentricity e, the apsidal period U, and the primary star's radius, R1. Aims: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact that Spica's line profile variability has on the derivation of its orbital elements and to explore the use of the variability for constraining R1. Methods: We use high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution observations obtained in 2000, 2008, and 2013 to derive the orbital elements from fits to the radial velocity curves. We produce synthetic line profiles using an ab initio tidal interaction model. Results: The general variations in the line profiles can be understood in terms of the tidal flows, whose large-scale structure is relatively fixed in the rotating binary system reference frame. Fits to the radial velocity curves yield e = 0.108 ± 0.014. However, the analogous RV curves from theoretical line profiles indicate that the distortion in the lines causes the fitted value of e to depend on the argument of periastron; i.e., on the epoch of observation. As a result, the actual value of e may be as high as 0.125. We find that U = 117.9 ± 1.8, which is in agreement with previous determinations. Using the value R1 = 6.8 R⊙ derived by Palate et al. (2013) the value of the observational internal structure constant k2,obs is consistent with theory. We confirm the presence of variability in the line profiles of the secondary star. RV

  3. The Ly(alpha) Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina L.; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Wong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Ly(alpha) emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Ly(alpha) profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km/s in three H II-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Ly(alpha) line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Ly(alpha) attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Ly(alpha) photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Ly(alpha) and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Ly(alpha) emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1-1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H II-dominated ULIRGs.

  4. PROFILES OF Ly{alpha} EMISSION LINES OF THE EMITTERS AT z = 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Morimoto, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kousai, K.; Hayashino, T.; Umemura, M.

    2012-05-20

    We present the results of the observations of the Ly{alpha} line profiles of 91 emission-line galaxies at z = 3.1 with a spectral resolution of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}(FWHM) Almost-Equal-To 1700 or 180 km s{sup -1}. A significant fraction of {approx}50% of the observed objects show the characteristic double peaks in their Ly{alpha} profile. The red peak is much stronger than the blue one for most of the cases. The red peaks themselves also show weak but significant asymmetry and their widths are correlated with the velocity separation of the red and the blue peaks. This implies that the peaks are not isolated multiple components with different velocities but parts of a single line that are modified by the absorption and/or scattering by the associated neutral hydrogen gas. The characteristic profile can be naturally explained by scattering in the expanding shell of the neutral hydrogen surrounding the Ly{alpha} emitting region while the attenuation by the intergalactic medium should also be considered. Our results suggest that the star formation in these Ly{alpha} emitters are dominated by young burst-like events that produce the intrinsic Ly{alpha} emission as well as the gas outflow.

  5. The intrinsic H I Lyman-alpha line profiles of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, J. E.; Landsman, W. B.; Bookbinder, J. A.; Linsky, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha line of neutral hydrogen is probably the most important cooling channel for chromospheric plasma in late-type stars, yet it is also the least studied major line in the far ultraviolet. The scattering of much of the stellar Lyman-alpha flux by interstellar hydrogen, coupled with the geocoronal emission foreground, seriously complicates the analysis of the Lyman-alpha spectra. The influence of the local interstellar medium on the observed profiles was circumvented by observing stars with radial velocities sufficiently high to Doppler shift the center of the stellar emission line out of the interstellar absorption core. There are several stars that have high radial velocities by virtue of their presence in close binary systems. High resolution IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) spectra of Ly alpha line of two such eclipsing binary stars, AR Lac and TY Pyx, are obtained, at each orbital quadrature phase, when the projected orbital velocity is a maximum. By combining the spectra from opposite quadratures it is possible to piece together the entire stellar emission profiles. The third star in this study, delta Lep, is a single star with a high space velocity.

  6. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  7. The asymmetric profile of the H76 alpha line emission from MWC349

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, L. F.; Canto, J.; Escalante, V.; Moran, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    MWC349 is an emission-line star found by Merrill, Humason and Burwell (1932). Braes, Habing and Schoenmaker (1972) discovered that it is a strong radio source. The radio emission originates in a massive ionized wind that is expanding with a velocity of about 50 km s(-1). Its continuum spectrum fits well a nu(0.6) power law from the cm wavelengths to the far-IR. Radio recombination line emission from the envelope of MWC349 was first detected by Altenhoff, Strittmatter and Wendker (1981). We have obtained good signal-to-noise ratio, Very Large Array observations of the H76 alpha radio recombination line from the ionized wind of MWC349. Our data reveal that the profile is markedly asymmetric, with a steep rise on the blue side. This asymmetry could be due to non-LTE effects in the formation and transfer of the line or to intrinsic asymmetries in the envelope. Our analysis suggests that most probably the peculiar profile is caused by a non-LTE enhancement of the line emission from the side of the envelope nearer to the observer. This asymmetry has the opposite sense than that observed in optical and IR recombination lines, where a different effect (absorption of the stellar continuum by the gas in the wind between the star and the observer) is known to be dominant, leading to the classic P Cygni profile. We propose that the profiles of the radio recombination lines from ionized stellar winds will have this characteristic shape, while optical and IR recombination lines are characterized by P Cygni-like profiles. Unfortunately, at present the detection of radio recombination lines from ionized stellar winds is only feasible for MWC349 and a few other objects.

  8. Kinetic-Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms from Analysis of the D Lyman-Alpha Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, M.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D(2p) atoms resulting from electron-impact dissociation of D2 has been measured. A high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer was employed for the first measurement of the D Lyman-alpha (D L(alpha)) emission line profiles at 20- and 100-eV excitation energies. Analysis of the deconvoluted line profile of D L(alpha) at 100 eV reveals the existence of a narrow line central peak of 29+/-2 mA full width at half maximum and a broad pedestal wing structure about 190 mA wide. The wings of the line can be used to determine the fast atom distribution. The wings of D L(alpha) arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited states that cross the Franck-Condon region between 23 and 40 eV. The fast atom distribution at 100-eV electron impact energy spans the energy range from 1 to 10 eV with a peak value near 6 eV. Slow D(2p) atoms characterized by a distribution function with peak energy near 100 meV produce the central peak profile, which is nearly independent of the impact energy. The deconvoluted line profiles of the central peak at 20 eV for dissociative excitation of D2 and H2 are fitted with an analytical function for use in calibration of space flight instrumentation equipped with a D/H absorption cell. The kinetic-energy and line profile results are compared to similar measurements for H2. The absolute cross sections for the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coefficients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  9. Study of H-alpha Spicule Profiles with Line Inversion Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, K.; Kontogiannis, I.; Tsiropoula, G.; Kotrc, P.

    2008-09-01

    High resolution optical spectra of chromospheric spicules obtained in the H? line are studied together with slit-jaw filtergrams. The spectra were recorded along a vertical slit parallel to the solar limb with the HSFA2 (Horizontal-Sonnen-Forschungs-Anlage) Solar Spectrograph at Ondrejov Observatory on August 19, 2007 and show H? line profiles taken in spicules - due to the limb curvature - at different heights from the solar limb. A multi-cloud model that considers two or more spicules along the line-of-sight (LOS), together with a statistical approach that takes into account a large set of initial conditions for solving the radiative transfer equation, is used for the fitting of the observed profiles and the derivation of several parameters such as the LOS velocity, the source function, the optical thickness and the Doppler width that describe the respective spicules. The height-dependence of the shape of the observed profiles, as well as their dependence on the values of the derived parameters are studied in detail. The derived results are compared with the statistical theoretical results of a multi-cloud model where the aforementioned physical parameters, as well as a random number of spicules along the LOS were taken into account, in order to define the dependence of several spicule profile characteristics on them. Specific steps of the used procedures, as well as crucial problems are discussed.

  10. Doppler line profiles measurement of the Jovian Lyman Alpha emission with OAO-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, E. S.; Cochran, W. D.; Smith, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Observation of Jupiter made with the high resolution ultraviolet spectrometer of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory copernicus in April and May, 1980, yield a Jovian Lyman alpha emission intensity of 7 + or 2.5 RR. This indicates a decrease by about a factor of two since the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer measurements, nearly a year earlier. An unusually high column abundance of hydrogen atoms above the methane homopause at the Voyager epoch is indicated. Since the auroral charged particle bombardment of molecular hydrogen is expected to contribute significantly to the global population of the hydrogen atoms, it is suggested that at the time of the Voyager Jupiter encounter unusually high auroral activity existed, perhaps d to the high concentration of the Io plasma torus. The temporal variation of the Saturn lyman alpha emission, when contrasted with the Jovian data, reveals that the auroral processes are not nearly as important in determining the Saturn Lyman alpha intensity in the nonauroral region.

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha regulates cell detachment and cell death profiles induced by nitric oxide donors in the A431 human carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo E; Batista, Wagner L; Curcio, Marli F; Moraes, Miriam S; Borges, Roberta Eller; Nascimento, Patrícia A; Travassos, Luiz R; Monteiro, Hugo P

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTPα) expression in the cell death profile of the A431 human carcinoma cell line that was induced by cytotoxic concentrations of the nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3,3-bis-(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene (NOC-18). Both NO donors promoted extensive cell detachment in A431 parental cells as compared to the detachment observed for A431 cells that ectopically expressed PTPα (A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells). The NO-induced cell death characteristics for both cell lines were examined. After incubation for 10 hours with 2.0 mM SNP, attached or detached A431 cells underwent apoptosis. Cells were highly positive for Annexin-V, featured increased cleavage of procaspase-8, activation of downstream caspase-3, and activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1). In contrast, exposure of A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells to 2.0 mM SNP produced an increase in the release of lactate dehydrogenase and enhanced incorporation of propidium iodide. In addition, A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells showed partial inhibition of the activities of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP-1 upon detachment and cell death induced by SNP treatment. Results indicate that necrotic cell damage was induced, characterized by cellular swelling and lysis. We conclude from these results that PTPα regulates the A431 tumor cell death profile mediated by NO donors. Expression of PTPα or its absence may determine the occurrence of NO-induced cell death with necrotic or apoptotic features, respectively.

  12. Genomic Profiling of a Human Leukemic Monocytic Cell-Line (THP-1) Exposed to Alpha Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study examined alpha (α-) particle radiation effects on global changes in gene expression in human leukemic monocytic cells (THP-1) for the purposes of mining for candidate biomarkers that could be used for the development of a biological assessment tool. THP-1 cells were exposed to α-particle radiation at a dose range of 0 to 1.5 Gy. Twenty-four hours and three days after exposure gene expression was monitored using microarray technology. A total of 16 genes were dose responsive and classified as early onset due to their expression 24 h after exposure. Forty-eight transcripts were dose responsive and classified as late-onset as they were expressed 72 h after exposure. Among these genes, 6 genes were time and dose responsive and validated further using alternate technology. These transcripts were upregulated and associated with biological processes related to immune function, organelle stability and cell signalling/communication. This panel of genes merits further validation to determine if they are strong candidate biomarkers indicative of α-particle exposure. PMID:23097634

  13. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  14. COMPLEX VARIABILITY OF THE H{alpha} EMISSION LINE PROFILE OF THE T TAURI BINARY SYSTEM KH 15D: THE INFLUENCE OF ORBITAL PHASE, OCCULTATION BY THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK, AND ACCRETION PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N. E-mail: cmj@rice.edu E-mail: wherbst@wesleyan.edu

    2012-06-01

    We have obtained 48 high-resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary system KH 15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 days, e {approx} 0.6, M{sub A} = 0.6 M{sub Sun }, M{sub B} = 0.7 M{sub Sun }). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk (CBD) seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The H{alpha} line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to 'edge effects' and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the H{alpha} emission line profile changes from an inverse P-Cygni-type profile during ingress to an enhanced double-peaked profile, with both a blue and a red emission component, during egress. Each of these interpreted variations are complicated by the fact that there is also a chaotic, irregular component present in these profiles. We find that the complex data set can be largely understood in the context of accretion onto the stars from a CBD with gas flows as predicted by the models of eccentric T Tauri binaries put forward by Artymowicz and Lubow, Guenther and Kley, and de Val-Borro et al. In particular, our data provide strong support for the pulsed accretion phenomenon, in which enhanced accretion occurs during and after perihelion passage.

  15. The line profile variable B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The observational status of the line profile variable B stars is summarized. The following areas are discussed: recent history; evolutionary status; line profile variations; line strength variations; and photometric variations.

  16. THE LINE POLARIZATION WITHIN A GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Smith, Paul S.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Dey, Arjun

    2011-04-01

    Recent theoretical work has suggested that Ly{alpha} nebulae could be substantially polarized in the Ly{alpha} emission line, depending on the geometry, kinematics, and powering mechanism at work. Polarization observations can therefore provide a useful constraint on the source of ionization in these systems. In this Letter, we present the first Ly{alpha} polarization measurements for a giant Ly{alpha} nebula at z{approx} 2.656. We do not detect any significant linear polarization of the Ly{alpha} emission: P{sub Ly{alpha}} = 2.6% {+-} 2.8% (corrected for statistical bias) within a single large aperture. The current data also do not show evidence for the radial polarization gradient predicted by some theoretical models. These results rule out singly scattered Ly{alpha} (e.g., from the nearby active galactic nucleus, AGN) and may be inconsistent with some models of backscattering in a spherical outflow. However, the effects of seeing, diminished signal-to-noise ratio, and angle averaging within radial bins make it difficult to put strong constraints on the radial polarization profile. The current constraints may be consistent with higher density outflow models, spherically symmetric infall models, photoionization by star formation within the nebula or the nearby AGN, resonant scattering, or non-spherically symmetric cold accretion (i.e., along filaments). Higher signal-to-noise ratio data probing to higher spatial resolution will allow us to harness the full diagnostic power of polarization observations in distinguishing between theoretical models of giant Ly{alpha} nebulae.

  17. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-. cap alpha. line profile observations

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya.

  18. Balmer line profiles for infalling T Tauri envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1992-01-01

    The possibility that the Balmer emission lines of T Tauri stars arise in infalling envelopes rather than winds is considered. Line profiles for the upper Balmer lines are presented for models with cone geometry, intended to simulate the basic features of magnetospheric accretion from a circumstellar disk. An escape probability treatment is used to determine line source functions in nonspherically symmetric geometry. Thermalization effects are found to produce nearly symmetric H-alpha line profiles at the same time the higher Balmer series lines exhibit inverse P Cygni profiles. The infall models produce centrally peaked emission line wings, in good agreement with observations of many T Tauri stars. It is suggested that the Balmer emission of many T Tauri stars may be produced in an infalling envelope, with blue shifted absorption contributed by an overlying wind. Some of the observed narrow absorption components with small blueshifts may also arise in the accretion column.

  19. THE FORMATION OF THE H{alpha} LINE IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2012-04-20

    We use state-of-the-art radiation-MHD simulations and three-dimensional (3D) non-LTE radiative transfer computations to investigate H{alpha} line formation in the solar chromosphere and apply the results of this investigation to develop the potential of H{alpha} as a diagnostic of the chromosphere. We show that one can accurately model H{alpha} line formation assuming statistical equilibrium and complete frequency redistribution provided the computation of the model atmosphere included non-equilibrium ionization of hydrogen and the Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} line profiles are described by Doppler profiles. We find that 3D radiative transfer is essential in modeling hydrogen lines due to the low photon destruction probability in H{alpha}. The H{alpha} opacity in the upper chromosphere is mainly sensitive to the mass density and only weakly sensitive to the temperature. We find that the H{alpha} line-core intensity is correlated with the average formation height: The larger the average formation height is, the lower the intensity will be. The line-core width is a measure of the gas temperature in the line-forming region. The fibril-like dark structures seen in H{alpha} line-core images computed from our model atmosphere are tracing magnetic field lines. These structures are caused by field-aligned ridges of enhanced chromospheric mass density that raise their average formation height, and therefore make them appear dark against their deeper-formed surroundings. We compare with observations, and find that the simulated line-core widths are very similar to the observed ones, without the need for additional microturbulence.

  20. The XMM-Newton Iron Line Profile of NGC 3783

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Nandra, K.; George, I. M.; Pounds, K. A.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.

    2003-01-01

    We report on observations of the iron K line in the nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy, NGC 3783, obtained in a long, 2 orbit (approx. 240 ks) XMM-Newton observation. The line profile obtained exhibits two strong narrow peaks at 6.4 keV and at 7.0 keV, with measured line equivalent widths of 120 and 35 eV respectively. The 6.4 keV emission is the K(alpha) line from near neutral Fe, whilst the 7.0 keV feature probably originates from a blend of the neutral Fe K(beta) line and the Hydrogen-like line of Fe at 6.97 keV. The relatively narrow velocity width of the K(alpha) line (approx. less than 5000 km/s), its lack of response to the continuum emission on short timescales and the detection of a neutral Compton reflection component are all consistent with a distant origin in Compton-thick matter such as the putative molecular torus. A strong absorption line from highly ionized iron (at 6.67 keV) is detected in the time-averaged iron line profile, whilst the depth of the feature appears to vary with time, being strongest when the continuum flux is higher. The iron absorption line probably arises from the highest ionization component of the known warm absorber in NGC 3783, with an ionization of log xi approx 3 and column density of N(sub H) approx. 5 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and may originate from within 0.1 pc of the nucleus. A weak red-wing to the iron K line profile is also detected below 6.4 keV. However when the effect of the highly ionized warm absorber on the underlying continuum is taken into account, the requirement for a relativistic iron line component from the inner disk is reduced.

  1. Non-Voigt Lyalpha Absorption Line Profiles.

    PubMed

    Outram; Carswell; Theuns

    2000-02-01

    Recent numerical simulations have lead to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the intergalactic medium and the loss of a physical justification for Voigt profile fitting of the Lyalpha forest. Many individual lines seen in simulated spectra have significant departures from the Voigt profile, yet could be well fitted by a blend of two or more such lines. We discuss the expected effect on the line profiles due to ongoing gravitational structure formation and Hubble expansion. We develop a method to detect departures from Voigt profiles of the absorption lines in a statistical way and apply this method to simulated Lyalpha forest spectra, confirming that the profiles seen do statistically differ from Voigt profiles. PMID:10622758

  2. Anomalous Broadening of Balmer H{sub {alpha}} Line in Aluminum and Copper Hollow Cathode Glow Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Sisovic, N. M.; Majstorovic, G. Lj.; Konjevic, N.

    2008-10-22

    The presented results are concerned with the shape of Balmer alpha line emitted from a low pressure DC glow discharge with aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) hollow cathode (HC) in pure H{sub 2} and Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture. The analysis indicates that the line profile represents a convolution of Gaussian profiles resulting from different collision excitation processes.

  3. Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.

    1987-12-10

    The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.

  4. Anisotropic alpha emission from on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Vanneste, L.

    1986-05-05

    A systematic on-line nuclear-orientation study of heavy isotopes using anisotropic ..cap alpha.. emission is reported for the first time. The anisotrophies recorded for /sup 199/At, /sup 201/At, and /sup 203/At are remarkably pronounced and strongly varying. At lower neutron number the ..cap alpha.. particles are more preferentially emitted perpendicularly to the nuclear-spin direction. This may be interpreted in terms of the high sensitivity of the ..cap alpha..-emission probability to changes in the nuclear shape.

  5. ASYMMETRIC ABSORPTION PROFILES OF Ly{alpha} AND Ly{beta} IN DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee-Won

    2013-08-01

    Damped Ly{alpha} systems observed in the quasar spectra are characterized by a high neutral hydrogen column density, N{sub HI} > 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. The absorption wing profiles are often fitted using the Voigt function due to the fact that the scattering cross section near the resonant line center is approximately described by the Lorentzian function. Since a hydrogen atom has infinitely many p states that participate in the electric dipole interaction, the cross section starts to deviate from the Lorentzian in an asymmetric way in the line wing regions. We investigate this asymmetry in the absorption line profiles around Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} as a function of the neutral hydrogen column density N{sub HI}. In terms of {Delta}{lambda} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {alpha}}, we expand the Kramers-Heisenberg formula around Ly{alpha} to find {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} (0.5f{sub 12}){sup 2}{sigma}{sub T}({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}}){sup -2}[1 + 3.792({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}})], where f{sub 12} and {sigma}{sub T} are the oscillator strength of Ly{alpha} and the Thomson scattering cross section, respectively. In terms of {Delta}{lambda}{sub 2} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {beta}} in the vicinity of Ly{beta}, the total scattering cross section, given as the sum of cross sections for Rayleigh and Raman scattering, is shown to be {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} {sigma}{sub T}(0.5f{sub 13}){sup 2}(1 + R{sub 0})({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}}){sup -2}[1 - 24.68({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}})] with f{sub 13} and the factor R{sub 0} = 0.1342 being the oscillator strength for Ly{beta} and the ratio of the Raman cross section to Rayleigh cross section, respectively. A redward asymmetry develops around Ly{alpha}, whereas a blue asymmetry is obtained for Ly{beta}. The absorption center shifts are found to be almost proportional to the neutral hydrogen column density.

  6. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations of K alpha line emission from S, Ar, Ca and Fe are presented. It is reported that on the basis of data for hard X-ray bursts, the flux during most impulsive, non-thermal events is likely to be weak, though for a few strong bursts, a flux of approximately 100 photons/cm/s may be expected. The amount of S K alpha emission particularly is sensitively dependent on the value of the lower energy bound of the non-thermal electron distribution, offering a possible means of determining this. Thermal K alpha emission is only significant for Fe ions. The calculated thermal K alpha radiation is much less than that observed during an intense soft X-ray burst. It is concluded that a detailed temperature structure for the emission source is required in order to explain the discrepancy.

  7. Line profile asymmetries in chromospherically active stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Granados, Arno F.; Henry, Gregory W.; Hall, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    A powerful, new probe of chromospheric activity, cross-correlation, has been developed and applied to a variety of stars. In this particular application, an entire CCD spectrum of an active star is correlated with the spectrum of a narrow-line, inactive star of similar spectral type and luminosity class. Using a number of strong lines in this manner enables the detection of absorption profile asymmetries at moderate resolution (lambda/Delta lambda about 40,000) and S/N 150:1. This technique has been applied to 14 systems mostly RS CVn's, with 10 not greater than nu sin i not greater than 50 km/s and P not less than 7 d. Distortions were detected for the first time in five systems: Sigma Gem, IM Peg, GX Lib, UV Crb, and Zeta And. Detailed modeling, incorporating both spectral line profiles and broad-band photometry, is applied to Sigma Gem. Profile asymmetries for this star are fitted by two high-latitude spots covering 5 percent of the stellar surface. The derived spot temperature of 3400 K is lower than found in previous studies. In addition, two well-known systems have been studied: HD 199178 and V711 Tau. Polar spots are found on both.

  8. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-01-15

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-{alpha}) and 2.88 nm (He-{alpha}) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} radiation.

  9. The sensitivity of H alpha profiles to rapid electron beam fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.; Gayley, Kenneth G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to understand the temporal relationship between H alpha and hard X-ray emission predicted by the nonthermal electron thick target model of impulsive-phase energy transport the time-dependent theoretical H alpha profiles were computed for the dynamic model atmospheres of Fisher, Canfield, and McClymont, which simulate the effects of an impulsively initiated power-law beam of electrons. On the basis of the physical analysis it was expected that a very rapid H alpha response to an instantaneous increase in the flux of a nonthermal deka-keV electron beam, as compared to the timescale associated with the propagation of these electrons over characteristic flare coronal loop spatial scales. It was concluded that observational efforts to test the thick target nonthermal electron model through detection of impulsive H alpha brightenings associated with impulsive hard X-ray or microwave bursts should initially focus attention on the H alpha line center. Additional simultaneous blue-wing measurements will have substantial diagnostic potential.

  10. A long-term study of H(alpha) line variations in FK Comae Berenices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Iyengar, Mrinal; Nations, Harold L.; Buzasi, Derek L.

    1993-01-01

    We present observations of H(alpha) V/R ratio variations in FK Comae Berencies obtained during several observing seasons from 1981 to 1992. The raw H(alpha) emission profile is always observed to be double peaked due to the stellar-absorption component. During the most years the V/R ratio varies regularly with the period of the photometric light curve. The V/R periodicity is most obvious when time spans no longer than several stellar rotations are considered. We propose that the bulk of the emission component of the H(alpha) line arises in corotating circumstellar material that may be similar to that of a quiescent solar prominence. The lifetime of these structures appears to be on the order of weeks. A weak contribution from a circumstellar disk is evident and chromospheric emission may also be present. The appearance or disappearance of circumstellar structures over periods longer than a few weeks, or the total absence of such structures, blurs the more regular variations in H(alpha) seen over short time scales. Other more stochastic activity, such as flares, also clearly occurs. Phase shifts of the V/R ratio from year to year rule out the hypothesis that mass tranfer in a close binary system is responsible for the V/R variations.

  11. Asymmetries of solar oscillation line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jefferies, S. M.; Harvey, J. W.; Osaki, Y.; Pomerantz, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Asymmetries of the power spectral line profiles of solar global p-modes are detected in full-disk intensity observations of the Ca II K Fraunhofer line. The asymmetry is a strong function of temporal frequency being strongest at the lowest frequencies observed and vanishing near the peak of the power distribution. The variation with spherical harmonic degree is small. The asymmetry is interpreted in terms of a model in which the solar oscillation cavity is compared to a Fabry-Perot interferometer with the source slightly outside the cavity. A phase difference between an outward direct wave and a corresponding inward wave that passes through the cavity gives rise to the asymmetry. The asymmetry is different in velocity and intensity observations. Neglecting the asymmetry when modeling the power spectrum can lead to systematic errors in the measurement of mode frequencies of as much as 10 exp -4 of the mode frequency. The present observations and interpretation locate the source of the oscillations to be approximately 60 km beneath the photosphere, the shallowest position suggested to date.

  12. Magnetic Turbulence and Line Broadening in Simulations of Lyman-Alpha Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvich, Alex; Burkhart, Blakesley K.; Bird, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    We use the Illustris cosmological AREPO simulations to study the effects of gas turbulence and magnetic fields on measurements from the Lyman-Alpha forest. We generate simulated Lyman-Alpha spectra and plot the distributions of Column Density (CDD) and Doppler Width (b) both by adhering to the canonical method of fitting Voigt profiles to absorption lines and by directly measuring the column density and equivalent widths from snapshot data .We investigate the effects of additional unresolved gas turbulence in Illustris by adding an additional broadening term to the line profiles to mimic turbulent broadening. When we do this, we find a measurable effect in the CDD and an offset in the mean of the b distribution corresponding to the additional turbulence. We also compare different MHD runs in AREPO we find that the CDD can measurably differentiate between magnetic seed field at redshifts as low as z=0.1, but we do not find that the b distribution is affected at a detectable level. Our work suggests that the effects of turbulence and magnetic fields from z=2-0.1 can potentially be measured with these diagnostics. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  13. Dayglow Emission Line Profiles from the Outer Planets Cycle 4-MED Part 2 OF 5414

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John

    1994-01-01

    Recent IUE observations of the H Ly alpha emission line profilefrom Jupiter's dayglow and aurora reveal a substantial line broadening,implying that the observed high brightness is due to resonantscattering of solar emission with a broad line rather than chargedparticle excitation. This may reflect highly energetic processesproducing a 5-10 km/sec suprathermal population of H atoms in Jupiter'supper atmosphere, which in turn may be related to the unresolved questionof the high exospheric temperatures of 400-1200 K detected on all 4 giantplanets during the Voyager encounters. It is clear that if the bright HLy alpha emissions from the outer planets are due mainly to resonantscattering of solar and interplanetary emissions, as observedon Jupiter and Saturn from long term correlations with the solarLy alpha flux, then the lines from all 4 planets must be broad toexplain the observed high albedos. The H Ly alpha lineshapes providea discriminant between the processes of resonant scattering andcharged particle excitation. We propose to obtain high signal to noiseH Ly alpha line profile measurements from Saturn, Uranus, and Neptuneto resolve the questions about the excitation processes for the brightairglow emissions.SATURN PART ONLY - NEPTUNE AND URANUS IN ORIGIAL PROP (5414).

  14. Relativistic formulation for the Doppler-broadened line profile

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Young-Sea; Chiue, Juang-Han; Huang, Yi-Chi; Hsiung, Te-Chih

    2010-07-15

    Profiles of spectral lines due to the thermal motion of light-emitting particles are formulated based on the classical and the relativistic Doppler effects, respectively. For the classical case, the well-known Doppler-broadened line profile is reproduced. For the relativistic case, the line profile obtained is asymmetrically broadened with increasing temperature. However, the peak frequency remains unshifted, in contrast to blueshifted, as has been predicted in the current literature. Reasoning is given as to why the relativistic Doppler-broadened line profile currently accepted is probably invalid.

  15. Metallic line profiles of the AOV star Vega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. Murray; Gulliver, Austin F.; Adelman, Saul J.; Crowley, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    High dispersion ultrahigh signal to noise Reticon spectra of Vega were obtained with the coude spectrograph of the 1.2 m telescope. A mean signal to noise ratio of 2500 over the spectral region lambdas from 3825 to 5435 was achieved. Examination of the line profiles confirmed the presence of two different types of profiles which were previously seen in IIIaJ and lower signal to noise Reticon spectra. The profiles of the strong lines are essentially classical rotational profiles with enhanced wings which are slightly stronger than expected while those of weak lines are clearly flat-bottomed resulting in a trapezoidal appearance. A few possible theoretical explanations are presented.

  16. Metallic line profiles of the AO V star Vega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulliver, Austin F.; Adelman, Saul J.; Cowley, Charles R.; Fletcher, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    High dispersion ultrahigh signal to noise Reticon spectra of Vega were obtained with the coude spectrograph of the 1.2 m telescope. A mean signal to noise ratio of 2500 over the spectral region lambdas from 3825 to 5435 was achieved. Examination of the line profiles confirmed the presence of two different types of profiles which were previously seen in IIIaJ and lower signal to noise Reticon spectra. The profiles of the strong lines are essentially classical rotational profiles with enhanced wings which are slightly stronger than expected while those of weak lines are clearly flat-bottomed resulting in a trapezoidal appearance. A few possible theoretical explanations are presented.

  17. On systematic errors in spectral line parameters retrieved with the Voigt line profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, V. P.

    2012-08-01

    Systematic errors inherent in the Voigt line profile are analyzed. Molecular spectrum processing with the Voigt profile is shown to underestimate line intensities by 1-4%, with the errors in line positions being 0.0005 cm-1 and the decrease in pressure broadening coefficients varying from 5% to 55%.

  18. Speed-dependent spectral line profile including line narrowing and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, Victor P.

    2016-07-01

    A line profile model was developed that accounts for all essential underlying physical mechanisms. The model is based on the quantum-mechanical collision integral kernel calculated for intermolecular interaction potentials ∝r-n with n=3…6 where r is the distance between colliding molecules. It was shown that collisions of molecules with scattering on classical small angles flatten the line profile. The relative flattening reaches 10% for n=3 and has a smaller value, ~2%, for n=6 in conditions of inhomogeneous line broadening. An algebraic expression for the line profile was obtained, which allows processing recorded spectra with preliminary estimation and constraint of some of the profile's parameters.

  19. Profiles of emission lines in Be stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the broadening functions resulting from a gaseous ring in circular motion around a star according to Kepler's law. When the distribution in the gaseous ring has a circular symmetry in the equatorial plane, the broadening profile is related to the surface density distribution along the radius by an integral equation which can be transformed into the Abel integral equation and solved analytically. Profiles corresponding to gaseous rings with a uniform density distribution but different widths are used to illustrate the general properties of the profile broadened by the gaseous ring in circular motion. The emission profile has also been studied for cases in which the circular motion does not follow Kepler's law.

  20. Profiled spectral lines generated in the field of Kerr superspinars

    SciTech Connect

    Schee, Jan; Stuchlík, Zdenek E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz

    2013-04-01

    String Theory suggests existence of primordial Kerr superspinars, extremely compact objects with external spacetime described by the Kerr naked singularity geometry. The primordial Kerr superspinars have to be converted to a near-extreme black hole due to accretion, but they could survive to the era of highly redshifted quasars. We study the shape of the profiled spectral lines generated by radiating rings or the innermost parts of Keplerian discs orbiting the Kerr superspinars. Influence of the superspinar surface location on the profiled lines is also considered. We demonstrate strong difference of the character of the profiled lines generated by radiating rings for all values of the superspinar spin and all values of the inclination angles of the observer when compared to those generated in the field of Kerr black holes. For small and mediate inclination angles there are large quantitative differences in the extension and position of the lines. For large inclination angles even strong qualitative difference appears as the profiled lines have a clear doubled character. The smaller, redshifted region of the profiled line is related to the photons reaching the regions near the superspinar surface. Strong differences are obtained also for profiled lines generated by the innermost parts of Keplerian discs especially in the shape of the line. The influence of the superspinar surface location is reflected in the intermediate parts of the the profiled lines. The line profiles can give a clear signature of the presence of a Kerr superspinar and in principle enable estimates of its surface location since the signatures of the superspinar surface location are of different character as those corresponding to the presence of the black hole horizon.

  1. QSO emission line profiles from Keplerian cloud ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, S. E.; Puetter, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Quasar broad emission line profile calculations are presented for spherically symmetric ensembles of flattened broad-line clouds in elliptical Keplerian orbits. In general, it is found that high eccentricity monoenergetic orbital ensembles tend to provide more acceptable profiles than low eccentricity monoenergetic ensembles. The investigation of elliptical cloud orbits evolving under the influence of Poynting-Robertson drag or drag from an intercloud media shows that acceptable line profiles naturally result from the decay of initially monoenergetic, high eccentricity ensembles independent of the assumed emission anisotropy, provided the drag is not so great as to cause the immediate capture or disruption of the clouds.

  2. ANALYSIS OF CORONAL GREEN LINE PROFILES: EVIDENCE OF EXCESS BLUESHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, K. P.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ashok, N. M. E-mail: chandra@prl.res.in

    2011-08-01

    Coronal green line (Fe XIV 5303 A) profiles were obtained from Fabry-Perot interferometric observations of the solar corona during the total solar eclipse of 2001 June 21 from Lusaka, Zambia. The instrumental width is about 0.2 A and the spectral resolution is about 26,000. About 300 line profiles were obtained within a radial range of 1.0-1.5 R{sub sun} and a position angle coverage of about 240{sup 0}. The line profiles were fitted with single Gaussians, and their intensities, Doppler velocities, and line widths were obtained. Also obtained were the centroids of the line profiles, which give a measure of line asymmetry. The histograms of Doppler velocity show excess blueshifts, while the centroids reveal a predominant blue wing in the line profiles. It was found that the centroids and the Doppler velocities are highly correlated. This points to the presence of multiple components in the line profiles, with an excess of blueshifted components. We then obtained the (Blue-Red) wing intensities, which clearly reveal the secondary components, the majority of which are blueshifted. This confirms that the coronal green line profiles often contain multicomponents with excess blueshifts, which also depend on the solar activity. The magnitude of the Doppler velocity of the secondary components is in the range of 20-40 km s{sup -1} and shows an increase toward the poles. Possible explanations of the multicomponents are the type II spicules that were recently found to be important to coronal heating or the nascent solar wind flow, but the cause of the blue asymmetry in the coronal lines above the limb remains unclear.

  3. Modeling Asymmetric Forbidden Line Emission Profiles in Supernovae with Clumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrington, Jessica; Ignace, R.; Hole, K. T.

    2010-01-01

    There are some supernovae that display emission line profiles that are asymmetric in shape. One cause for asymmetry could be an in-homogeneous density distribution, or "clumps". We explore the effects of clumps on the emission line profiles of forbidden lines. Our model assumes the ejecta shell is spherically symmetric in velocity, with a central cavity. The model assigns density perturbations to conical sections in the ejecta. To model the emission profile for a forbidden line, we use Sobolev theory. Our model gives asymmetric profiles when the clumping is introduced. The amount of asymmetry varies with the range of density perturbations allowed, and the relative asymmetry evolves in time. This project was funded by a partnership between the National Science Foundation (NSF AST-0552798), Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), and the Department of Defense (DoD) ASSURE (Awards to Stimulate and Support Undergraduate Research Experiences) programs.

  4. Fe XXV line profiles in colliding wind binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, Gregor; Mossoux, Enmanuelle; Nazé, Yaël

    2016-02-01

    Strong wind-wind collisions in massive binaries generate a very hot plasma that frequently produces a moderately strong iron line. The morphology of this line depends upon the properties of the wind interaction zone and its orientation with respect to the line of sight. As the binary components revolve around their common centre of mass, the line profiles are thus expected to vary. With the advent of the next generation of X-ray observatories (Astro-H, Athena) that will offer high-resolution spectroscopy above 6 keV, it will become possible to exploit these changes as the most sensitive probe of the inner parts of the colliding wind interaction. Using a simple prescription of the wind-wind interaction in an early-type binary, we have generated synthetic line profiles for a number of configurations and orbital phases. These profiles can help constrain the properties of the stellar winds in such binary systems.

  5. Discovery of the Red-Skewed K-alpha Iron Line in Cyg X-2 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    We report on the Suzaku observation of neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 which reveals strong iron K-alpha emission line. The line profile shows a prominent red wing extending down to 4 keV. This discovery increases the number of neutron star sources where red-skewed iron lines were observed and strongly suggests that this phenomenon is common not only in black holes but also in other types of compact objects. We examine the line profile by fitting it with the model which attributes its production to the relativistic effects due to disk reflection of X-ray radiation. We also apply an alternative model where the red wing is a result of down-scattering effect of the first order with respect to electron velocity in the wind outflow. Both models describe adequately the observed line profile. However, the X-ray variability in a state similar to that in the Suzaku observation which we establish by analysing RXTE observation favors the wind origin of the line formation.

  6. Cytosine methylation profiling of cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Mathias; Turner, Julia; Gibbs, Peter; Lipton, Lara; Giovanneti, Mara; Cantor, Charles; van den Boom, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    DNA-methylation changes in human cancer are complex and vary between the different types of cancer. Capturing this epigenetic variability in an atlas of DNA-methylation changes will be beneficial for basic research as well as translational medicine. Hypothesis-free approaches that interrogate methylation patterns genome-wide have already generated promising results. However, these methods are still limited by their quantitative accuracy and the number of CpG sites that can be assessed individually. Here, we use a unique approach to measure quantitative methylation patterns in a set of >400 candidate genes. In this high-resolution study, we employed a cell-line model consisting of 59 cancer cell lines provided by the National Cancer Institute and six healthy control tissues for discovery of methylation differences in cancer-related genes. To assess the effect of cell culturing, we validated the results from colon cancer cell lines by using clinical colon cancer specimens. Our results show that a large proportion of genes (78 of 400 genes) are epigenetically altered in cancer. Although most genes show methylation changes in only one tumor type (35 genes), we also found a set of genes that changed in many different forms of cancer (seven genes). This dataset can easily be expanded to develop a more comprehensive and ultimately complete map of quantitative methylation changes. Our methylation data also provide an ideal starting point for further translational research where the results can be combined with existing large-scale datasets to develop an approach that integrates epigenetic, transcriptional, and mutational findings. PMID:18353987

  7. Archival Search for METAL LINES in QUASAR LYMAN-ALPHA SYSTEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytler, David

    1995-07-01

    QSO Lyman-alpha forest absorption systems have traditionally been considered intergalactic primordial gas clouds, but new data suggest that many of them at high redshift contain metals with abundances of C/H eq -3, which means 10^-3 solar. We propose to search for metals in HST spectra of LyAlpha forest systems at low redshift. The search has two parts: first we look for 2 Sigma metal lines at the expected positions of known LyAlpha lines, and we estimate the number of chance identifications. Second, we align and coadd spectra at the expected positions of the metal lines in each LyAlpha systems. We will look for the strong metal lines {C IV, O VI, N V, C III, Mg X and Ne VIII} in this composite. There are five reasons why we expect to find metals. {1} We are finding C IV in LyAlpha clouds at high z. {2} The number of C IV systems increases with decreasing redshift. {3} In general, abundances should be higher at low z. {4} We are now identifying many low redshift LyAlpha lines with the outer regions of galaxies. {5} O VI should be stronger than C IV. O VI is not easily seen at high z because of confusion in the LyAlpha forest, but it will be accessible in HST data. With 100 LyAlpha systems from the HST spectra of 167 QSOs we should reach a limit of C/H <= -2.3 for C IV, and worse for other ions. If we find metals, we begin to determine if they are more common in LyAlpha clouds which are associated with galaxies, and especially whether they occur in clouds which are intergalactic.

  8. Modeling of hot Jupiter H alpha transmission spectral line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chenliang; Arras, Phil; Christie, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The upper atmosphere of hot Jupiters is subject to the strong stellar radiation field of the host star, which can heat and ionize the gas, as well as excite atoms to higher energy levels. For planets near the parent star, a thick layer of atomic hydrogen may be present, which has now been observed through both Lyman alpha and H alpha absorption of starlight during transit. Motivated by these observations, we revisit the calculations of Christie et al to study the hydrogen level populations in detail, including radiative (de-)excitation, collisional (de-)excitation, collisional ell-mixing processes up to n = 6 states, as well as radiative ionization, recombination and collisional ionization processes. Using theHD 189733b thermal and photoionization equilibrium hydrostatic balance atmosphere model of Christie et al, we find that the 2s state population is dominated by a) creation and destruction channels via np states (n > 2), which was not considered previously, and b) 2s to 2p collisional ℓ-mixing process, which was treated incorrectly. I will show our modeling of H alpha transit depth observation with new level populations module.

  9. Lens proteome map and alpha-crystallin profile of the catfish Rita rita.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Bhattacharjee, Soma; Das, Manas Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Crystallins are a diverse group of proteins that constitute nearly 90% of the total soluble proteins of the vertebrate eye lens and these tightly packed crystallins are responsible for transparency of the lens. These proteins have been studied in different model and non-model species for understanding the modifications they undergo with ageing that lead to cataract, a disease of protein aggregation. In the present investigation, we studied the lens crystallin profile of the tropical freshwater catfish Rita rita. Profiles of lens crystallins were analyzed and crystallin proteome maps of Rita rita were generated for the first time. alphaA-crystallins, member of the alpha-crystallin family, which are molecular chaperons and play crucial role in maintaining lens transparency were identified by 1- and 2-D immunoblot analysis with anti-alphaA-crystallin antibody. Two protein bands of 19-20 kDa were identified as alphaA-crystallins on 1-D immunoblots and these bands separated into 10 discrete spots on 2-D immunoblot. However, anti-alphaB-crystallin and antiphospho-alphaB-crystallin antibodies were not able to detect any immunoreactive bands on 1- and 2-D immunoblots, indicating alphaB-crystallin was either absent or present in extremely low concentration in Rita rita lens. Thus, Rita rita alpha-crystallins are more like that of the catfish Clarias batrachus and the mammal kangaroo in its alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin content (contain low amount from 5-9% of alphaB-crystallin) and unlike the dogfish, zebrafish, human, bovine and mouse alpha-crystallins (contain higher amount of alphaB-crystallin from 25% in mouse and bovine to 85% in dogfish). Results of the present study can be the baseline information for stimulating further investigation on Rita rita lens crystallins for comparative lens proteomics. Comparing and contrasting the alpha-crystallins of the dogfish and Rita rita may provide valuable information on the functional attributes of alphaA- and alphaB-isoforms, as

  10. Characterization of homogeneous recombinant rat ovarian 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: fluorescent properties and inhibition profile.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H; Penning, T M

    1999-01-01

    In rat ovary, 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD), a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, converts progesterone into the inactive progestin 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and has been implicated in the termination of pregnancy. Here we report a convenient overexpression system that permits the purification of milligram quantities of homogeneous recombinant 20alpha-HSD with wild-type enzyme activity. The availability of this enzyme has permitted detailed kinetic, inhibition and fluorescence analyses. The enzyme exhibited narrow steroid specificity, catalysing reactions only at C-20; it reduced progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and oxidized 20alpha-hydroxypregnanes. It also turned over common AKR substrates, such as 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. The intrinsic fluorescence spectrum of 20alpha-HSD was characterized and was quenched on the binding of NADP(H), yielding a KNADPd of 0.36 microM and a KNADPHd of 0.64 microM. NADP(H) binding generated an energy transfer band that could not be quenched by steroids. Inhibition studies conducted with non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and synthetic oestrogens indicated that even though rat ovarian 20alpha-HSD and rat liver 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) share more than 67% amino acid identity, their inhibition profiles are markedly different. Unlike 3alpha-HSD, most of these compounds did not inhibit 20alpha-HSD. Only meclofenamic acid and hexoestrol were potent competitive inhibitors for 20alpha-HSD, yielding K(i) values of 18.9 and 14.3 microM respectively. These studies suggest that selective non-steroidal AKR inhibitors could be developed for 20alpha-HSD that might be useful in maintaining pregnancy and that specific inhibitors might be developed from either N-phenylanthranilates or biphenols. PMID:10417353

  11. Characterization of homogeneous recombinant rat ovarian 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: fluorescent properties and inhibition profile.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Penning, T M

    1999-08-01

    In rat ovary, 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD), a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, converts progesterone into the inactive progestin 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and has been implicated in the termination of pregnancy. Here we report a convenient overexpression system that permits the purification of milligram quantities of homogeneous recombinant 20alpha-HSD with wild-type enzyme activity. The availability of this enzyme has permitted detailed kinetic, inhibition and fluorescence analyses. The enzyme exhibited narrow steroid specificity, catalysing reactions only at C-20; it reduced progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and oxidized 20alpha-hydroxypregnanes. It also turned over common AKR substrates, such as 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. The intrinsic fluorescence spectrum of 20alpha-HSD was characterized and was quenched on the binding of NADP(H), yielding a KNADPd of 0.36 microM and a KNADPHd of 0.64 microM. NADP(H) binding generated an energy transfer band that could not be quenched by steroids. Inhibition studies conducted with non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and synthetic oestrogens indicated that even though rat ovarian 20alpha-HSD and rat liver 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) share more than 67% amino acid identity, their inhibition profiles are markedly different. Unlike 3alpha-HSD, most of these compounds did not inhibit 20alpha-HSD. Only meclofenamic acid and hexoestrol were potent competitive inhibitors for 20alpha-HSD, yielding K(i) values of 18.9 and 14.3 microM respectively. These studies suggest that selective non-steroidal AKR inhibitors could be developed for 20alpha-HSD that might be useful in maintaining pregnancy and that specific inhibitors might be developed from either N-phenylanthranilates or biphenols. PMID:10417353

  12. The locations of Alpha-2 Herculis and Alpha-2 Scorpii along the line of sight. [spectrum analysis for stellar location determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernat, A. P.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Kondo, Y.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of line formation along the line of sight to the visual companions of M stars undergoing spherically symmetric mass loss is developed. The theory is then used to determine the position of the companions relative to the primary. It is found that Alpha-2 Her is 1470 AU further along the line of sight than Alpha-1 Her for an adopted distance of 150 pc; Alpha-2 Sco is 420 AU closer than Alpha-1 Sco for an adopted distance of 185 pc.

  13. LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES AND THE CHROMOSPHERIC FLARE VELOCITY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kennedy, M.; Keenan, F. P.; Simões, P. J. A.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der; Fletcher, L.; Carlsson, M.; Jafarzadeh, S.; Allred, J. C.; Kowalski, A. F.; Graham, D.

    2015-11-10

    The asymmetries observed in the line profiles of solar flares can provide important diagnostics of the properties and dynamics of the flaring atmosphere. In this paper the evolution of the Hα and Ca ii λ8542 lines are studied using high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution ground-based observations of an M1.1 flare obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. The temporal evolution of the Hα line profiles from the flare kernel shows excess emission in the red wing (red asymmetry) before flare maximum and excess in the blue wing (blue asymmetry) after maximum. However, the Ca ii λ8542 line does not follow the same pattern, showing only a weak red asymmetry during the flare. RADYN simulations are used to synthesize spectral line profiles for the flaring atmosphere, and good agreement is found with the observations. We show that the red asymmetry observed in Hα is not necessarily associated with plasma downflows, and the blue asymmetry may not be related to plasma upflows. Indeed, we conclude that the steep velocity gradients in the flaring chromosphere modify the wavelength of the central reversal in the Hα line profile. The shift in the wavelength of maximum opacity to shorter and longer wavelengths generates the red and blue asymmetries, respectively.

  14. Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit gene are expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chini, B; Clementi, F; Hukovic, N; Sher, E

    1992-01-01

    alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha Bgtx) is a toxin known to interact with muscle nicotinic receptors and with some neuronal nicotinic receptors. We show that alpha Bgtx binding sites are also expressed in nonmuscle and nonneuronal human cells, including small cell lung carcinoma and several epithelial cell lines. These receptors are immunologically related to the alpha Bgtx receptors of unknown function described in the nervous system and in the IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line and are distinct from muscle nicotinic receptors. We have also cloned from IMR32 cells the human alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit, which is supposed to participate in the formation of alpha Bgtx receptors. Transcripts corresponding to the alpha 5-subunit gene were found not only in neuroblastoma cells but also in all the cell lines expressing alpha Bgtx receptors, with the exception of the TE671 cell line, whose nicotinic receptor subunits are of the muscle type. We conclude that both alpha Bgtx receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic subunit gene are not neuron-specific, as previously thought, but are expressed in a number of human cell lines of various origin. Images PMID:1542648

  15. On correlation of microturbulence and the line depth of S II line profile in iota Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, N. M. M.; Razelan, M. M.; Chong, H. Y.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Zainuddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss about the correlation between microturbulence and the fluctuations of central depth of S II line profile of iota Herculis a B3 IV star, based on 144 spectra from the ELODIE archive data (May 17 to 21, 1995) and 47 spectra from the archive data of Ritter Observatory (February 6, 1994 to October 30, 1995). The variations of central depth of S II line profile of this star are analyzed using the IRAF software, and the evaluations of microturbulence are determined by using the important equation of the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the line profile for Doppler broadening. From both datasets, we found that there is a connection between the variations of central depth of S II line profile and the microturbulence of iota Herculis. The central depth of S II line profile becomes deeper when the microturbulent velocity increases and vice versa. We propose the connection between microturbulence and the fluctuations of central depth of S II line profile in this star is due to the sub-photospheric iron convection zones (FeCZ) which have the connection with the origin of microturbulence phenomenon, stellar temperature and the opacity of this star

  16. Velocity profiles of high-excitation molecular hydrogen lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Profiles of three lines of molecular hydrogen near 2.2 microns, originating from widely spaced energy levels, have been measured at a resolution of 32 km/s at Peak 1 in the Orion molecular outflow. The three lines, 1 - 0 S(1), 2 - 1 S(1), and 3 - 2 S(3), are found to have identical profiles. This result rules out any significant contribution to the population of the higher energy levels of molecular hydrogen at Peak 1 by fluorescence, and is generally consistent with emission from multiple J-type shocks.

  17. Molecular profiling reveals primary mesothelioma cell lines recapitulate human disease.

    PubMed

    Chernova, T; Sun, X M; Powley, I R; Galavotti, S; Grosso, S; Murphy, F A; Miles, G J; Cresswell, L; Antonov, A V; Bennett, J; Nakas, A; Dinsdale, D; Cain, K; Bushell, M; Willis, A E; MacFarlane, M

    2016-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, fatal tumor strongly associated with asbestos exposure. There is an urgent need to improve MM patient outcomes and this requires functionally validated pre-clinical models. Mesothelioma-derived cell lines provide an essential and relatively robust tool and remain among the most widely used systems for candidate drug evaluation. Although a number of cell lines are commercially available, a detailed comparison of these commercial lines with freshly derived primary tumor cells to validate their suitability as pre-clinical models is lacking. To address this, patient-derived primary mesothelioma cell lines were established and characterized using complementary multidisciplinary approaches and bioinformatic analysis. Clinical markers of mesothelioma, transcriptional and metabolic profiles, as well as the status of p53 and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and NF2, were examined in primary cell lines and in two widely used commercial lines. Expression of MM-associated markers, as well as the status of CDKN2A, NF2, the 'gatekeeper' in MM development, and their products demonstrated that primary cell lines are more representative of the tumor close to its native state and show a degree of molecular diversity, thus capturing the disease heterogeneity in a patient cohort. Molecular profiling revealed a significantly different transcriptome and marked metabolic shift towards a greater glycolytic phenotype in commercial compared with primary cell lines. Our results highlight that multiple, appropriately characterised, patient-derived tumor cell lines are required to enable concurrent evaluation of molecular profiles versus drug response. Furthermore, application of this approach to other difficult-to-treat tumors would generate improved cellular models for pre-clinical evaluation of novel targeted therapies.

  18. Molecular profiling reveals primary mesothelioma cell lines recapitulate human disease

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, T; Sun, X M; Powley, I R; Galavotti, S; Grosso, S; Murphy, F A; Miles, G J; Cresswell, L; Antonov, A V; Bennett, J; Nakas, A; Dinsdale, D; Cain, K; Bushell, M; Willis, A E; MacFarlane, M

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, fatal tumor strongly associated with asbestos exposure. There is an urgent need to improve MM patient outcomes and this requires functionally validated pre-clinical models. Mesothelioma-derived cell lines provide an essential and relatively robust tool and remain among the most widely used systems for candidate drug evaluation. Although a number of cell lines are commercially available, a detailed comparison of these commercial lines with freshly derived primary tumor cells to validate their suitability as pre-clinical models is lacking. To address this, patient-derived primary mesothelioma cell lines were established and characterized using complementary multidisciplinary approaches and bioinformatic analysis. Clinical markers of mesothelioma, transcriptional and metabolic profiles, as well as the status of p53 and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and NF2, were examined in primary cell lines and in two widely used commercial lines. Expression of MM-associated markers, as well as the status of CDKN2A, NF2, the ‘gatekeeper' in MM development, and their products demonstrated that primary cell lines are more representative of the tumor close to its native state and show a degree of molecular diversity, thus capturing the disease heterogeneity in a patient cohort. Molecular profiling revealed a significantly different transcriptome and marked metabolic shift towards a greater glycolytic phenotype in commercial compared with primary cell lines. Our results highlight that multiple, appropriately characterised, patient-derived tumor cell lines are required to enable concurrent evaluation of molecular profiles versus drug response. Furthermore, application of this approach to other difficult-to-treat tumors would generate improved cellular models for pre-clinical evaluation of novel targeted therapies. PMID:26891694

  19. 20. GEOLOGY, PLAN AND PROFILE, SHOWING LINED AND UNLINED SECTIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GEOLOGY, PLAN AND PROFILE, SHOWING LINED AND UNLINED SECTIONS, AND DETAILED TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no number, revised 3-20-42. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  20. Protein profiling of alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Liang; Ye, Fei; Qu, Linlin; Wang, Daguang; Cui, Miao; Wei, Chengguo; Xing, Yanpeng; Lee, Peng; Suo, Jian; Zhang, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) producing gastric adenocarcinoma is considered as a rare subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma. Compared with AFP non-producing gastric adenocarcinoma, our study and other previous studies showed that AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma is more aggressive and prone to liver metastasis. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 11 of out of 286 proteins tested were found to be differentially expressed between AFP producing (n=32) and AFP non-producing (n=45) gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. In addition, the high level expression of XIAP and IGF-Irβ in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues was independent factors for poor prognosis in AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma patients. A risk model based on the XIAP and IGF-Irβ expression levels can separate AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma patients into 2 subgroups and each subgroup had a distinct set of signaling pathways involved. In conclusion, AFP producing gastric adenocarcinoma is a heterogeneous cancer with different clinical outcomes, biological behaviors and underlying molecular alterations. PMID:27057629

  1. Human alpha and beta papillomaviruses use different synonymous codon profiles.

    PubMed

    Cladel, Nancy M; Bertotto, Alex; Christensen, Neil D

    2010-06-01

    Human papillomaviruses use rare codons relative to their hosts. It has been theorized that this is a mechanism to allow the virus to escape immune surveillance. In the present study, we examined the codings of four major genes of 21 human alpha (mucosatropic) viruses and 16 human beta (cutaneous-tropic) viruses. We compared the codon usage of different genes from a given papillomavirus and also the same genes from different papillomaviruses. Our data showed that codon usage was not always uniform between two genes of a given papillomavirus or between the same genes of papillomaviruses from different genera. We speculate as to why this might be and conclude that codon usage in the papillomaviruses may not only play a role in facilitating escape from immune surveillance but may also underlie some of the unanswered questions in the papillomavirus field.

  2. P CYGNI PROFILES OF MOLECULAR LINES TOWARD ARP 220 NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Aalto, Susanne; Black, John H.; Conway, John E.; Costagliola, Francesco; Wilner, David J.; Peck, Alison B.; Spaans, Marco; Wang, Junzhi; Wiedner, Martina C.

    2009-08-01

    We report {approx}100 pc (0.''3) resolution observations of (sub)millimeter HCO{sup +} and CO lines in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. The lines peak at two merger nuclei, with HCO{sup +} being more spatially concentrated than CO. Asymmetric line profiles with blueshifted absorption and redshifted emission are discovered in HCO{sup +}(3-2) and (4-3) toward the two nuclei and in CO(3-2) toward one nucleus. We suggest that these P Cygni profiles are due to {approx}100 km s{sup -1} outward motion of molecular gas from the nuclei. This gas is most likely outflowing from the inner regions of the two nuclear disks rotating around individual nuclei, clearing the shroud around the luminosity sources there.

  3. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  4. Resolved line profiles of PNe in NGC6822.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Duran, S.; Peña, M.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; García-Rojas, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    2014-04-01

    "Using high resolution spectroscopic data obtained with Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) at the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory it was possible to resolve the emission line profiles of [OIII] 5007, Ha and [NII] 6583 in two planetary nebulae belonging to the Local Group galaxy NGC 6822 (Flores-Durán et al. submitted). The two PNe, called PN4 and PN7 were identified after Leisy et al. (2005, A&A, x436, 437). In the case of PN4, it presents wide lines that show a structure with three components. The [NII] 6583 line profile clearly shows a central component surrounded by what appears to be a shell with an expantion velocity of 25 km s-1. For PN7, the [OIII] emission lines present two very close components differing in velocity by about 15 km s-1 and, in the [N II] 6583 profile a faint very-wide component is apparent. This latter component represents a sort of bipolar outflow at high velocities (about 140 km s-1) as the case of the galactic M1-32, M3-15 and others (Medina et al. 2006, RMAA, 42, 53; Akras & López 2012, MNRAS, 425, 2197; Rechy-García et al., this meeting)."

  5. EVOLUTION OF [O III] {lambda}5007 EMISSION-LINE PROFILES IN NARROW EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Mao, Y. F.; Wei, J. Y.

    2011-11-01

    The active galactic nucleus (AGN)-host co-evolution issue is investigated here by focusing on the evolution of the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission-line profile. A large sample of narrow emission-line galaxies is selected from the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog to simultaneously measure both the [O III] line profile and circumnuclear stellar population in an individual spectrum. By requiring that (1) the [O III] line signal-to-noise ratio is larger than 30 and (2) the [O III] line width is larger than the instrumental resolution by a factor of two, our sample is narrowed down to 2333 Seyfert galaxies/LINERs (AGNs), 793 transition galaxies, and 190 star-forming galaxies. In addition to the commonly used profile parameters (i.e., line centroid, relative velocity shift, and velocity dispersion), two dimensionless shape parameters, skewness and kurtosis, are used to quantify the line shape deviation from a pure Gaussian function. We show that the transition galaxies are systematically associated with narrower line widths and weaker [O III] broad wings than the AGNs, which implies that the kinematics of emission-line gas are different in the two kinds of objects. By combining the measured host properties and line shape parameters, we find that the AGNs with stronger blue asymmetries tend to be associated with younger stellar populations. However, a similar trend is not identified in the transition galaxies. The failure likely results from a selection effect in which the transition galaxies are systematically associated with younger stellar populations than the AGNs. The evolutionary significance revealed here suggests that both narrow-line region kinematics and outflow feedback in AGNs co-evolve with their host galaxies.

  6. Deconvolution of H-. cap alpha. profiles measured by Thomson scattering collecting optics

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, B.; Grek, B.

    1986-08-01

    A method using a multipoint Thomson scattering system to obtain spatially resolved local emissivity is described. The method involves Fourier decomposition with auxiliary constraints. Optimum solution is determined from an analysis of the entropy and the error of the inversion. The technique is applied to H-..cap alpha.. emission profiles from the PDX tokamak.

  7. The Deepest Spectrum in the Universe? Line Emission from Lyman-alpha Clouds at z 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Andrew J.; Rauch, M.; Haehnelt, M.; Becker, G.; Marleau, F.; Graham, J.; Research, European; Inter-Galactic Medium, Training Network on the

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of an extremely deep long-slit optical spectroscopic search for low-luminosity Lyman-alpha emitters. Over several years we have accumulated 150-hours integration on a single field with 8-10m telescopes (VLT/FORS2, Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS) at a spectral resolution of 300km/s. This is the deepest spectrum ever obtained - our 1 sigma sensitivity to line emission in a 1 arcsec2 aperture is 1019erg/cm2/s. We have significant detections of 30 emission line objects, which are most likely Lyman-alpha emitters at 2.7line emission may be powered by star formation in conditions of low metallicity and low dust, or alternatively may arise from cooling radiation or perhaps external photoionzation by the metagalactic Lyman continuum background. Many of the line emitters are significantly spatially extended (with median size 4arcsec, 30kpc) and could plausibly be the host population of the high column density Lyman-alpha absorption clouds seen in QSO spectra (the Damped Lyman-alpha Systems and the Lyman-Limit Systems).

  8. Observation and Analysis of High Resolution Optical Line Profiles in Comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, M. R.; Cochran, A. L.

    1997-07-01

    Very high resolution (R=200,000) and high signal-to-noise echelle spectra were obtained of comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2 using the 2DCoude spectrograph on the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory during late March and early April 1996. Doppler resolved profiles are presented for individual lines of most of the major optical neutral species: CN, C_2, O((1) D) at 6300{ Angstroms}, O((1) S) at 5577{ Angstroms} , NH_2, and H Balmer-alpha at 6563{ Angstroms}. These may be the first ever to be published for CN, C_2, and O((1) S). In all cases the instrument spectral function is smaller than the intrinsic line widths of the individual cometary lines, so the observations provide clear signatures of lines which are Doppler broadened by different combinations of the coma expansion, exothermic photochemical ejection speeds, and collisional thermalization. For modeling analysis of these data we have used a hybrid fluid/kinetic Monte Carlo approach which can realistically include all of the relevant physical/chemical processes important for shaping the spectral lines. Because of the very short lifetime of the NH_2 parent (NH_3), the NH_2 is collisionally thermalized and provides an excellent probe of the outflow of the expanding coma. Because O((1) D) atoms in the region sampled are produced mainly by the photodissociation of water and the resulting photon is a prompt emission, the line retains signatures of both the basic coma expansion velocity and the 1.6 km s(-1) ejection speed of the O({(1}) D) atoms. The O((1) S) profile is consistent with that for the O((1) D). The profiles of CN and C_2 are somewhat broadened (CN more so than C_2), compared with NH_2, and seem to require a combination of coma expansion and the exothermic ejection speed they receive upon their production. Although the H Balmer-alpha line is complicated by a chance coincidence of an H_2O(+) line and optical depth effects in the solar Lyman-beta which pumps the Balmer-alpha emission, the spread of the wings

  9. FIR line profiles as probes of warm gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the shapes, velocities, and intensities of FIR lines all help to probe the dynamics, physical associations, and excitation conditions of warm gas in molecular clouds. With this in mind, we have observed the J=9-8, 12-11,14-13, and 16-15 lines of (12)CO and the 158 micron line of C II in a number of positions in 4 selected clouds. The data were obtained with a laser heterodyne spectrometer aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Line measurements at 0.6 km/s resolution allow us to resolve the profiles completely, and thereby to distinguish between UV-and shock-heating mechanisms for the high-excitation gas. For CO, the high-J linewidths lie in the range of 4-20 km/s (FWHM), similar to those observed for low-J (J less than 4) transitions in these sources. This correspondence suggests that the hotter gas (T = 200-600 K) is dynamically linked to the quiescent gas component, perhaps by association with the UV-heated peripheries of the numerous cloud clumps. Much of the C II emission is thought to emanate from these cloud peripheries, but the line profiles generally do not match those seen in CO. None of the observed sources show any evidence in high-J (12)CO emission for shock-excitation (i.e., linewidths greater than 30 km/s).

  10. Sodium D-line emission from Io - Comparison of observed and theoretical line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Bergstralh, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of the D-line profiles have been obtained for Io's sodium emission cloud. These lines, which are produced through resonance scattering of sunlight, are broad and asymmetric and can be used to infer source and dynamical properties of the sodium cloud. In this paper we compare line profile data with theoretical line shapes computed for several assumed initial velocity distributions corresponding to various source mechanisms. We also examine the consequences of source distributions which are nonuniform over the surface of Io. It is found that the experimental data are compatible with escape of sodium atoms from the leading hemisphere of Io and with velocity distributions characteristic of sputtering processes. Thermal escape and simple models of plasma sweeping are found to be incompatible with the observations.

  11. The determinants of alpha-amylase pH-activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J E; Borchert, T V; Vriend, G

    2001-07-01

    The glycosyl hydrolases present a large family of enzymes that are of great significance for industry. Consequently, there is considerable interest in engineering the enzymes in this family for optimal performance under a range of very diverse conditions. Until recently, tailoring glycosyl hydrolases for specific industrial processes mainly involved stability engineering, but lately there has also been considerable interest in engineering their pH-activity profiles. We mutated four neutral residues (N190, F290, N326 and Q360) in the chimeric Bacillus Ba2 alpha-amylase to both charged and neutral amino acids. The results show that the pH-activity profile of the Ba2 alpha-amylase can be changed by inserting charged residues close to the active site. The changes in the pH-activity profile for these neutral --> charged mutations do not, however, correlate with the predictions from calculations of the p K(a) values of the active site residues. More surprisingly, the neutral --> neutral mutations change the pH-activity profile as much as the neutral --> charged mutations. From these results, it is concluded that factors other than electrostatics, presumably the dynamic aspects of the active site, are important for the shape of the pH-activity profiles of the alpha-amylases. PMID:11522925

  12. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  13. Predicting the Redshift 2 H-Alpha Luminosity Function Using [OIII] Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Dai, Y. S.; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Rafelski, Marc; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; Bagley, Micaela; Beck, Melanie; Ross, Nathaniel R.; Rutkowski, Michael; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of H-alpha emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8 - 1.65 micrometers wavelength range and allowing the detection of H-alpha emitters up to z approximately equal to 1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z approximately equal to 2.3. We derive the H-alpha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z approximately equal to 1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the H-alpha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z approximately equal to 2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between H-alpha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the H-alpha number counts at z approximately equal to 2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7 less than z less than 2, we expect approximately 3000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of 3 x 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and approximately 20,000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of approximately 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).

  14. Fundamental Parameters Line Profile Fitting in Laboratory Diffractometers.

    PubMed

    Cheary, R W; Coelho, A A; Cline, J P

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental parameters approach to line profile fitting uses physically based models to generate the line profile shapes. Fundamental parameters profile fitting (FPPF) has been used to synthesize and fit data from both parallel beam and divergent beam diffractometers. The refined parameters are determined by the diffractometer configuration. In a divergent beam diffractometer these include the angular aperture of the divergence slit, the width and axial length of the receiving slit, the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits, the length and projected width of the x-ray source, the absorption coefficient and axial length of the sample. In a parallel beam system the principal parameters are the angular aperture of the equatorial analyser/Soller slits and the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits. The presence of a monochromator in the beam path is normally accommodated by modifying the wavelength spectrum and/or by changing one or more of the axial divergence parameters. Flat analyzer crystals have been incorporated into FPPF as a Lorentzian shaped angular acceptance function. One of the intrinsic benefits of the fundamental parameters approach is its adaptability any laboratory diffractometer. Good fits can normally be obtained over the whole 20 range without refinement using the known properties of the diffractometer, such as the slit sizes and diffractometer radius, and emission profile. PMID:27366594

  15. The presence of two skeletal muscle alpha-actinins correlates with troponin-tropomyosin expression and Z-line width

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Two species of alpha-actinin from rabbit fast skeletal muscles were identified with a monospecific antisera. Designated alpha-actinin1f and alpha-actinin2f, their distribution in muscles does not correlate with histochemically defined fast fiber type. Rather, the presence of each correlates with Z-line width and with the expression of different thin filament Ca2+-regulatory complexes. alpha-Actinin1f is expressed with troponin T 1f-alpha beta tropomyosin, and alpha-actinin2f with troponin T 2f-alpha 2 tropomyosin. CNBr peptide maps show that the fast alpha- actinin species differ in primary structure. In contrast, the slow alpha-actinin is indistinguishable from alpha-actinin1f. Further evidence for the similarity of alpha-actinin1f and slow alpha-actinin comes from electron microscopic studies which show that fibers that express these species exhibit thick Z-lines. So, unlike other contractile proteins, the multiple forms of alpha-actinin do not reflect the distinction between fast- and slow-twitch muscles. PMID:4030889

  16. The RNA polymerase II of an alpha-amanitin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    Lobban, P E; Siminovitch, L; Ingles, C J

    1976-05-01

    Amal, an alpha-amanitin-resistant mutant of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, contains an RNA polymerase activity which elutes from DEAE-Sephadex at a salt concentration characteristic of an RNA polymerase II, but which is not sensitive to alpha-amanitin at levels where the polymerase II of wild-type cells is strongly inhibited. This result suggests that Amal owes its amanitin-resistant phenotype to a mutation affecting one of its genes for RNA polymerase II. To test this hypothesis, we purified the enzyme from Amal and then compared its properties with those of the wild-type enzyme. The mutant enzyme is indeed a polymerase II, and is over 600 times less sensitive to alpha-amanitin and more thermolabile than the wild-type enzyme. PMID:954093

  17. Pressure effects on water vapour lines: beyond the Voigt profile.

    PubMed

    Ngo, N H; Tran, H; Gamache, R R; Hartmann, J M

    2012-06-13

    A short overview of recent results on the effects of pressure (collisions) regarding the shape of isolated infrared lines of water vapour is presented. The first part of this study considers the basic collisional quantities, which are the pressure-broadening and -shifting coefficients, central parameters of the Lorentzian (and Voigt) profile and thus of any sophisticated line-shape model. Through comparisons of measured values with semi-classical calculations, the influences of the molecular states (both rotational and vibrational) involved and of the temperature are analysed. This shows the relatively unusual behaviour of H(2)O broadening, with evidence of a significant vibrational dependence and the fact that the broadening coefficient (in cm(-1) atm(-1)) of some lines increases with temperature. In the second part of this study, line shapes beyond the Voigt model are considered, thus now taking 'velocity effects' into account. These include both the influence of collisionally induced velocity changes that lead to the so-called Dicke narrowing and the influence of the dependence of collisional parameters on the speed of the radiating molecule. Experimental evidence of deviations from the Voigt shape is presented and analysed. The interest of classical molecular dynamics simulations, to model velocity changes, together with semi-classical calculations of the speed-dependent collisional parameters for line-shape predictions from 'first principles', are discussed. PMID:22547229

  18. Comparative proteomic profiling of Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vergara, D; Simeone, P; De Matteis, S; Carloni, S; Lanuti, P; Marchisio, M; Miscia, S; Rizzello, A; Napolitano, R; Agostinelli, C; Maffia, M

    2016-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a malignancy with complex pathogenesis. The hallmark of the disease is the presence of large mononucleated Hodgkin and bi- or multinucleated Reed/Sternberg (H/RS) cells. The origin of HRS cells in cHL is controversial as these cells show the coexpression of markers of several lineages. Using a proteomic approach, we compared the protein expression profile of cHL models of T- and B-cell derivation to find proteins differentially expressed in these cell lines. A total of 67 proteins were found differentially expressed between the two cell lines including metabolic proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and/or cell migration, which were further validated by western blotting. Additionally, the expression of selected B- and T-cell antigens was also assessed by flow cytometry to reveal significant differences in the expression of different surface markers. Bioinformatics analysis was then applied to our dataset to find enriched pathways and networks, and to identify possible key regulators. In the present study, a proteomic approach was used to compare the protein expression profiles of two cHL cell lines. The identified proteins and/or networks, many of which not previously related to cHL, may be important to better define the pathogenesis of the disease, to identify novel diagnostic markers, and to design new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26588820

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water ({approximately}40 Tm), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, Tecogen, a division of Thermo Power Corporation, a Thermo Electron company, is developing a real-time, field-deployable, alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (patent pending, to be assigned to the Department of Energy). The Thermo Alpha Monitor (TAM) will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste Focus Area and D&D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This instrument for direct counting of alpha-emitters in aqueous streams is presently being developed by Thermo Power under a development program funded by the DOE Environmental Management program (DOE-EM), administered by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Under this contract, Thermo Power has demonstrated a solid-state, silicon-based semiconductor instrument, which uses a proprietary film-based collection system to quantitatively extract the

  20. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  1. Path integral formalism for the spectral line shape in plasmas: Lyman-{alpha} with fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bedida, N.; Meftah, M. T.; Boland, D.; Stamm, R.

    2008-10-22

    We examine in this work the expression of the dipolar autocorrelation function for an emitter in the plasma using the path integrals formalism. The results for Lyman alpha lines with fine structure are retrieved in a compact formula. The expression of the dipolar autocorrelation function takes into account the ions dynamics and the fine structure effects. The electron's effect is represented by the impact operator {phi}{sub e} in the final formula.

  2. Evaluation of the pharmacological selectivity profile of alpha 1 adrenoceptor antagonists at prostatic alpha 1 adrenoceptors: binding, functional and in vivo studies.

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, B. A.; Miller, A. M.; Williamson, I. J.; O'Connell, J.; Chalmers, D. H.; Naylor, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The profile of a range of alpha 1 adrenoceptor antagonists was determined in vitro against cloned human alpha 1A, alpha 1B and alpha 1D adrenoceptors and against noradrenaline-mediated contractions of rat aorta and human prostate. The in vivo profile of compounds was determined in an anaesthetized dog model which allowed the simultaneous assessment of antagonist potency against phenylephrine-mediated increases in blood pressure and prostatic pressure. 2. The quinazoline antagonists, prazosin, doxazosin and alfuzosin displayed high affinity but were non selective for the three cloned human alpha 1 adrenoceptors. Indoramin and SNAP 1069 showed selectivity for alpha 1A and alpha 1B adrenoceptors relative to the alpha 1D subtype. Rec 15/2739, WB 4101, SL 89,0591, (+)- and (-)- tamsulosin showed selectivity for alpha 1A and alpha 1D adrenoceptors relative to the alpha 1B subtype. RS 17053 showed high affinity and selectivity for alpha 1A adrenoceptors (pKi 8.6) relative to alpha 1B (pKi = 7.3) and alpha 1D (pKi = 7.1) subtypes. 3. (+)-Tamsulosin, (-)-tamsulosin, SL 89,0591, Rec 15/2739, SNAP 1069 and RS 17053 appeared to act as competitive antagonists of noradrenaline-mediated contractions of rat aorta yielding pA2 affinity estimates which were similar to binding affinities at cloned human alpha 1D adrenoceptors. The following rank order was obtained: prazosin = (-)-tamsulosin > doxazosin > SL 89,0591 = (+)-tamsulosin > Rec 15/2739 > RS 17053 = SNAP 1069. 4. (-)-Tamsulosin was a very potent, insurmountable antagonist of noradrenaline-mediated contractions of human prostate, yielding an approximate pA2 estimate of 9.8 at 1 nM. The corresponding (+)-enantiomer was 30 fold weaker. SL 89,0591, SNAP 1069 and Rec 15/2739 yielded pA2 estimates which compared well with their alpha 1A binding affinities. The affinity estimate for prazosin on human prostate was lower than the corresponding binding affinity determined at alpha 1A adrenoceptors and RS 17053 was a very weak

  3. Detection and Characterisation of H-{alpha} Emission Lines from Gaia BP/RP Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenes, Juergen; Laur, Sven; Kolka, Indrek

    2008-12-05

    The Gaia probe, set to launch in 2011, will measure an estimated billion astronomical objects, producing an enormous amount of data. One of the data analysis tasks will be the identification and classification of measured objects. A vast majority of them will be 'ordinary' stars from our Galaxy but a certain percentage will belong to 'peculiar' objects. We are interested in detecting emission line stars (ELS). The characteristic feature of most ELS is the presence of a H-{alpha} emission line in their spectra. In the case of Gaia measurements, the influence of this line could be detected in low resolution prismatic spectra which will be recorded both in blue (BP) and red (RP) spectral region. In this work, we compare different algorithms for detecting and characterising H-{alpha} lines in Gaia spectra. These include a simple, integrated flux ratio-based algorithm and several machine learning algorithms, such as neural networks, support vector machines and support vector regression. We study line detection both from single-transit and over-sampled end-of-mission data.

  4. Comparative Metabolic Flux Profiling of Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Richardson, Adam D.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Knutzen, Christine A.; Chiang, Gary G.; Ronai, Ze'ev A.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rewiring is an established hallmark of cancer, but the details of this rewiring at a systems level are not well characterized. Here we acquire this insight in a melanoma cell line panel by tracking metabolic flux using isotopically labeled nutrients. Metabolic profiling and flux balance analysis were used to compare normal melanocytes to melanoma cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. All melanoma cells exhibited the Warburg phenomenon; they used more glucose and produced more lactate than melanocytes. Other changes were observed in melanoma cells that are not described by the Warburg phenomenon. Hypoxic conditions increased fermentation of glucose to lactate in both melanocytes and melanoma cells (the Pasteur effect). However, metabolism was not strictly glycolytic, as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was functional in all melanoma lines, even under hypoxia. Furthermore, glutamine was also a key nutrient providing a substantial anaplerotic contribution to the TCA cycle. In the WM35 melanoma line glutamine was metabolized in the “reverse” (reductive) direction in the TCA cycle, particularly under hypoxia. This reverse flux allowed the melanoma cells to synthesize fatty acids from glutamine while glucose was primarily converted to lactate. Altogether, this study, which is the first comprehensive comparative analysis of metabolism in melanoma cells, provides a foundation for targeting metabolism for therapeutic benefit in melanoma. PMID:21998308

  5. Gene expression profile of human lymphocytes exposed to (211)At alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Turtoi, A; Brown, I; Schläger, M; Schneeweiss, F H A

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the Whole Human Genome 44K DNA microarray assay was used for the first time to obtain gene expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes 2 h after exposure (in suspension) to 6.78 MeV mean energy alpha particles from extracellular (211)At. Lymphocytes were exposed to fluences of 0.3-9.6 x 10(6) alpha particles/cm(2) [corresponding to mean absorbed alpha-particle doses (D(alpha)) of 0.05-1.60 Gy] over 30 min. Significantly modulated expression was identified in 338 early-response genes. Up-regulated expression was evident in 183 early-response genes, while the remaining 155 were down-regulated. Over half of the up-regulated genes and 40% of the down-regulated genes had a known biological process related primarily to cell growth and maintenance and cell communication. Genes associated with cell death were found only in the up-regulated genes and those with development only in the down-regulated genes. Eight selected early-response genes that displayed a sustained up- or down-regulation (CD36, HSPA2, MS4A6A, NFIL3, IL1F9, IRX5, RASL11B and SULT1B1) were further validated in alpha-particle-irradiated lymphocytes of two human individuals using the TaqMan(R) RT-qPCR technique. The results confirmed the observed microarray gene expression patterns. The expression modulation profiles of IL1F9, IRX5, RASL11B and SULT1B1 genes demonstrated similar trends in the two individuals studied. However, no significant linear correlation between increasing relative gene expression and the alpha-particle dose was evident. The results suggest the possibility that a panel of genes that react to alpha-particle radiation does exist and that they merit further study in a greater number of individuals to determine their possible value regarding alpha-particle biodosimetry. PMID:20681779

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-03-14

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water ({approximately}40 Im), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, the Advanced Technologies Group of Thermo Power Corporation (a Thermo Electron company) is developing a real-time, field-deployable alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (US Patent 5,652,013 and pending, assigned to the US Department of Energy). The Thermo Water Alpha Monitor will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium, and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This report details the program's accomplishments to date. Most significantly, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was successfully field demonstrated on water 100X below the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed safe drinking water limit--down to under 1 pCi/1. During the Field Test, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument successfully analyzed isotopic uranium levels on a total of five different surface water, process water, and

  7. Fast variations in the ultraviolet resonance lines of Alpha Camelopardalis (O9.5 Ia) - Evidence for blobs in the wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, Henry J. G. L. M.; Snow, Theodore P.; De Jager, Cornelis; Langerwerf, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 72 IUE spectra of Alpha Cam and 19 IUE spectra of Kappa Cas, obtained during 72 hours of continuous IUE time in September 1978 were searched for variations in the profiles of the resonance lines of Si IV, C IV, and N V, and the results are discussed. The UV resonance lines in the spectra of Alpha Cam showed variations at the 2 percent level near -1800, -700, and +700 km/s. The first two variations can be explained by absorption components of outward-accelerated blobs or shells with an average acceleration of 1.5 cm/sq s. The characteristics of the blobs and shells are discussed, including the column densities and masses. No variations were found in the spectra of Kappa Cas.

  8. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  9. On the atomic line profiles in high pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J. F. J.; Gnybida, M.; Rijke, A. J.; Dijk, J. van; Suijker, J. L. G.

    2013-11-14

    In a previous contribution to this journal [H. P. Stormberg, J. Appl. Phys. 51(4), 1963 (1980)], Stormberg presented an analytical expression for the convolution of Lorentz and Levy line profiles, which models atomic radiative transitions in high pressure plasmas. Unfortunately, the derivations are flawed with errors and the final expression, while correct, is accompanied by misguiding comments about the meaning of the symbols used therein, in particular the “complex error function.” In this paper, we discuss the broadening mechanisms that give rise to Stormberg's model and present a correct derivation of his final result. We will also provide an alternative expression, based on the Faddeeva function, which has decisive computational advantages and emphasizes the real-valuedness of the result. The MATLAB/Octave scripts of our implementation have been made available on the publisher's website for future reference.

  10. On the atomic line profiles in high pressure plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, J. F. J.; Gnybida, M.; Suijker, J. L. G.; Rijke, A. J.; van Dijk, J.

    2013-11-01

    In a previous contribution to this journal [H. P. Stormberg, J. Appl. Phys. 51(4), 1963 (1980)], Stormberg presented an analytical expression for the convolution of Lorentz and Levy line profiles, which models atomic radiative transitions in high pressure plasmas. Unfortunately, the derivations are flawed with errors and the final expression, while correct, is accompanied by misguiding comments about the meaning of the symbols used therein, in particular the "complex error function." In this paper, we discuss the broadening mechanisms that give rise to Stormberg's model and present a correct derivation of his final result. We will also provide an alternative expression, based on the Faddeeva function, which has decisive computational advantages and emphasizes the real-valuedness of the result. The MATLAB/Octave scripts of our implementation have been made available on the publisher's website for future reference.

  11. MicroRNA profiles in various hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Iwama, Hisakazu; Fujihara, Shintaro; Sakamoto, Teppei; Fujita, Koji; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Himoto, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Although surgery is considered the most effective treatment for patients with HCC, its indication is restricted by limited criteria and a high relapse rate following surgery; therefore, systemic chemotherapy is required for patients with advanced-stage HCC to prolong their survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs of 18–22 nucleotides in length. It has been reported that aberrant expression of miRNAs is a feature shared by various types of human cancer. Previous studies have indicated that the modulation of non-coding RNAs, particularly miRNAs, may be a valuable therapeutic target for HCC. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the miRNA profiles associated with differentiation and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection observed in HCC cell lines. The human Alex, Hep3B, HepG2, HuH1, HuH7, JHH1, JHH2, JHH5, JHH6, HLE, HLF and Li-7 HCC cell lines were used for an miRNA array. Replicate data were analyzed following their classification into: i) Poorly- and well-differentiated human HCC cells and ii) HBV-positive and -negative human HCC cells. Out of the 1,719 miRNAs, 4 were found to be significantly upregulated and 52 significantly downregulated in the poorly-differentiated cells, as compared with the well-differentiated cells. Conversely, in the HBV-positive cells 125 miRNAs were found to be upregulated and 2 downregulated, as compared with the HBV-negative cells. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis with Pearson's correlation revealed that the miRNA expression levels were clustered both together and separately in each group. In conclusion, miRNA profile characterization based on various parameters may be a novel approach to determine the etiology of HCC. PMID:27588118

  12. Role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors 1alpha and 2alpha in the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in a human trophoblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Meade, E S; Ma, Y Y; Guller, S

    2007-10-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAIs) play critical roles in regulating hemostatic and invasive functions of trophoblasts through suppression of plasmin-dependent fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix degradation. The expression of PAI-1 is increased under hypoxic conditions, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. In the current study we used HTR-8/SVneo cells, a first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, and siRNA technology to examine the role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs)-1alpha and -2alpha in the regulation of PAI-1 expression. Using serum-containing and serum-free media culture media it was initially noted that levels of PAI-1, but not PAI-2 protein, were markedly induced by hypoxic (2-3% oxygen) treatment. Under hypoxic conditions, Western blotting revealed that the presence of siRNAs to HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha suppressed expression of their respective proteins, whereas treatment with non-targeting and cyclophilin B siRNAs did not. Importantly, incubation with siRNA to HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha alone reduced PAI-1 protein levels to a similar extent, with the combined treatment inducing a more profound effect. The presence of HIF siRNAs reduced levels of PAI-1 mRNA as measured by quantitative real-time PCR, indicating that HIF-1alpha and HIF-2 alpha regulate PAI-1 expression at a transcriptional level. These results indicate that both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha play important and similar roles in hypoxia-mediated stimulation of PAI-1 expression in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our findings provide insight into the physiological regulation of trophoblast PAI-1 expression in early pregnancy when placental oxygen levels are low, as well as a mechanism for over-expression of placental PAI-1 noted in pregnancies with preeclampsia.

  13. THE DIFFERENCE IN NARROW Fe K{alpha} LINE EMISSION BETWEEN SEYFERT 1 AND SEYFERT 2 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Teng; Wang Junxian E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.c

    2010-12-20

    We compile a sample of 89 Seyfert galaxies with both [O IV] 25.89 {mu}m line luminosities observed by Spitzer IRS and X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton EPIC. Using [O IV] emission as a proxy for active galactic nucleus (AGN) intrinsic luminosity, we find that although type 2 AGNs have higher line equivalent widths, the narrow Fe K{alpha} lines in Compton-thin and Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies are 2.9{sup +0.8}{sub -0.6} and 5.6{sup +1.9}{sub -1.4} times weaker in terms of luminosity than Seyfert 1 galaxies, respectively. This indicates that different correction factors need to be applied for various types of AGNs before the narrow Fe K{alpha} line luminosity could serve as an intrinsic AGN luminosity indicator. We also find that Seyfert 1 galaxies in our sample have on average marginally larger line widths and higher line centroid energies, suggesting contamination from highly ionized Fe line or broader line emission from much smaller radius, but this effect is too weak to explain the large difference in narrow Fe K{alpha} line luminosity between type 1 and type 2 AGNs. This is the first observational evidence showing that the narrow Fe K{alpha} line emission in AGNs is anisotropic. The observed difference is consistent with theoretical calculations assuming a smoothly distributed obscuring torus and could provide independent constraints on the clumpiness of the torus.

  14. The Line-Profile Variations of Theta2 Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennelly, E. J.; Walker, G. A. H.

    1996-04-01

    With a 5.4-hour time series of high-resolution CFHT spectra, the oscillations of the rapidly-rotating delta Scuti star Theta2 Tauri (A7 IV + A5 V) are investigated. Line-profile variations are discovered and identified with the spectrum of the primary star of this binary system. Radial velocity variations are derived from the data and analyzed to reveal an oscillation frequency near 13.7 cycles day^-1. Variations within the absorption profiles are analyzed with a Fourier-Doppler Imaging (FDI) technique to reveal that high-degree oscillations with a frequency of 16.1 cycles day ^-1 and an apparent degree of about l = 8 are also present in the star. Whereas the low-degree variations of Theta2 Tau have been shown to be consistent with p-modes of radial order n=2 or 3, the identification of the high-degree variations in terms of pressure modes requires confirmation with theoretical models. (SECTION: Stars)

  15. Tracking the Lyman alpha emission line in the CircumGalactic Medium in MUSE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, R.; Maho, P.; Chatelain, F.; Michel, O.

    2016-09-01

    Since 2014, the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument generates hyperspectral datacubes (300 by 300 pixels by 3600 wavelength in the visible range) of the deep Universe. One of the main purposes of the wide field spectrograph MUSE is to analyse galaxies and their surroundings by the study of their spectra. Galaxy spectra are composed of a continuum emission and of sparse emission (or absorption) peaks. On the contrary surrounding gas only contains peak such as the Lyman alpha emission line. Several methods are developed here to detect the gas signature as far as possible in the galaxy surroundings. These methods combined clustering approaches and several pre-processing steps.

  16. Isolation and characterisation of Kasumi-1 human myeloid leukaemia cell line resistant to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ido, M.; Hayashi, K.; Kato, S.; Ogawa, H.; Komada, Y.; Zhau, Y. W.; Zhang, X. L.; Sakurai, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukaemia cell line, Kasumi-1. To examine the role of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, a variant cell line resistant to TNF-alpha was established by an intermittent challenge of Kasumi-1 cells with increasing concentrations of TNF-alpha for 6 months. The mechanism of resistance to TNF-alpha appears to be in the post-receptor pathway because expression of p55 TNF receptor in the variant cells is increased compared with that of the parental Kasumi-1 cells. In renaturation assays, TNF-alpha induced a rapid activation of different protein kinases of different molecular weights, including the 50 kDa protein kinase (PK50) followed by the 35 kDa protein kinase (PK35), in the parental Kasumi-1 cells. The dose-response of TNF-alpha required to activate PK50 and PK35 was closely related to concentrations of TNF-alpha that induced apoptosis. Treatment of Kasumi-1 cells with ceramide also activated PK35. In TNF-resistant variant cells, activation of PK35 in response to TNF-alpha or ceramide was practically nil. These findings suggest that activation of PK35 through the ceramide pathway may play an important role in signal transduction of TNF-alpha in the Kasumi-1 cell line, while the decreased activation of PK35 may explain the insensitivity of the variant cells towards TNF-alpha. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8562342

  17. On one-dimensional velocity approximation for speed-dependent spectral line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    An application of one-dimensional velocity approach to calculation of speed-dependent spectral line profiles was considered. It was shown that a mean deviation of the line profile obtained within this approach from the line profile derived with integrating over three projections of an absorbing molecule's velocity does not exceed 1.1% at mass ratios of perturbing and absorbing molecules ≤9. Analytical approximate expressions for speed-dependent line profiles, including spectral line narrowing and mixing, were obtained for one- and three-dimensional velocity approaches.

  18. Calibration of H-alpha/H-beta Indexes for Emission Line Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Joner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    In Joner and Hintz (2015) they report on a standard star system for calibration of H-alpha and H-beta observations. This work was based on data obtained with the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1.2-m telescope. As part of the data acquisition for that project, a large number of emission line objects were also observed. We will report on the preliminary results for the emission line data set. This will include a comparison of equivalent width measurements of each line with the matching index. We will also examine the relation between the absorption line objects previously published and the emission line objects, along with a discussion of the transition point. Object types included are Be stars, high mass x-ray binaries, one low mass x-ray binary, Herbig Ae/Be stars, pre-main sequence stars, T Tauri stars, young stellar objects, and one BY Draconis star. Some of these objects come from Cygnus OB-2, NGC 659, NGC 663, NGC 869 and NGC 884.

  19. The interstellar medium near the sun. II - The line of sight to Alpha Virginis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Kinahan, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the UV interstellar lines in Alpha Vir between 935 and 2960 A are reported. The derived abundances indicate significant depletion of Al, Si, Mn, Fe, and possibly Mg, whereas S, C, Ar, and O appear to be essentially undepleted. About half the gas is shown to be ionized, with a mean electron density of no more than 1 per cu cm, and the remainder is neutral, though both regions have the same velocity to within 2 km/s. A small fraction of the gas is apparently at a temperature of 400,000 K. The possibility of measuring the temperature of the H I gas is discussed, using the observed relationship between Doppler width and mass. A detailed discussion is included of the data analysis useful for comparatively simple lines of sight in terms of density, temperature, and extent of the possible physical regions, and of the relevant radiation field. An unidentified feature at 1063.2 A is reported.

  20. DA white dwarf effective temperatures determined from IUE Lyman-alpha profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Basile, J.; Wesemael, F.

    1986-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha profiles of 12 DA white dwarfs have been obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite. Analysis of these profiles provides an improved, uniform, and relatively bias-free measure of effective temperature for these stars over the range 20,000-60,000 K. Simultaneous estimates of surface gravity yield a mean gravity of log g = 7.96 for the entire sample, with the hottest stars tending to have the lowest gravities. A significant exception to this trend occurs in the case of the gravitation of HZ 43. An important by-product of this work has been the determination of a correction to IUE fluxes over the 1150-1350 A range.

  1. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee; Okamura, Sadanori

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including H{alpha} on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Ly{alpha} line, {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}}, and LIS absorption lines, {Delta}v {sub abs}, with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z {approx} 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} = 175 {+-} 35 km s{sup -1}, which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}. The stacked FUV spectrum gives {Delta}v {sub abs} = -179 {+-} 73 km s{sup -1}, comparable to that of LBGs. These positive {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} and negative {Delta}v {sub abs} suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} is as small as |{Delta}v {sub abs}|, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Ly{alpha} emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) and {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Ly{alpha} transmissivity may need to be revised.

  2. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  3. First Detection of a Foreground Damped Ly-Alpha Absorber Along a GRB Line of Sight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Fruchter, A. S.; Pian, E.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaper, L.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N.; Frontera, F.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a VLT spectrum of the optical afterglow of GRB 991216, taken 1.5 days after the burst, and HST (Hubble Space Telescope) imaging of the host galaxy, obtained four months later. The spectrum contains three metal absorption-line systems with redshifts z = 1.024, z = 0.803, and z = 0.771, where the highest redshift most likely reflects the distance to the host galaxy. For the z = 1.024 and z = 0.803 systems we tentatively detect MgI which suggests a dense environment at these redshifts. This and the strength of the z = 0.803 Fe lines indicate that this system very likely is a damped Ly-alpha absorber (DLA), which would be the first foreground DLA to be detected along a GRB afterglow sight line. The HST images are consistent with these findings: they show two blobs of light, one underneath the projected OT position, the presumed host galaxy, and the other 0.6" away, which is probably responsible for the absorption lines at z = 0.803. The lowest redshift system can be explained by either one of the two galaxies that are located roughly 2" away from the transient. Including these newly found systems, the total number of DLAS and Lyman limit systems along GRB afterglow sight lines is consistent with the number expected from QSO (quasi-stellar object) absorption line studies. We expect early spectroscopy of GRB afterglows to significantly increase the number of detected foreground absorption systems, and we discuss some advantages over QSO lines of sight.

  4. Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B receptors in the OK cell, an opossum kidney cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B (5HT{sub 1B}) receptors, both negatively-coupled to adenylyl cyclase, were characterized in the OK cell line, a renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line derived from the kidney of a North American opossum. In membrane saturation radioligand binding experiments, ({sup 3}H)yohimbine and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine labeled an equivalent number of binding sites. Detailed pharmacological analysis of OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in competition binding assays indicate this receptor is neither an alpha-2A nor an alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtype, although the alpha-2B receptor subtype-selective drugs prazosin, ARC-239 and chlorpromazine have affinities for OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors similar to those at the alpha-2B receptor subtype. Determinations of agonist potency for inhibition of PTH-stimulated cyclic AMP production and radioligand binding analysis using ({sup 125}I)({minus})-cyanopindolol indicate that a 5HT{sub 1B} receptor is expressed in the OK cell line. A biochemical effector system coupled to this receptor subtype has not been previously described. Several compounds appear to be potent agonists at the 5TH{sub 1B} receptor including the beta adrenergic antagonists cyanopindolol, pindolol, propranolol and alprenolol.

  5. A new method for the identification of non-Gaussian line profiles in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Franx, Marijn

    1993-01-01

    A new parameterization for the line profiles of elliptical galaxies, the Gauss-Hermite series, is proposed. This approach expands the line profile as a sum of orthogonal functions which minimizes the correlations between the errors in the parameters of the fit. This method also make use of the fact that Gaussians provide good low-order fits to observed line profiles. The method yields measurements of the line strength, mean radial velocity, and the velocity dispersion as well as two extra parameters, h3 and h4, that measure asymmetric and symmetric deviations of the line profiles from a Gaussian, respectively. The new method was used to derive profiles for three elliptical galaxies which all have asymmetric line profiles on the major axis with symmetric deviations from a Gaussian. Results confirm that elliptical galaxies have complex structures due to their complex formation history.

  6. TRIM32 promotes retinoic acid receptor {alpha}-mediated differentiation in human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomonobu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 enhanced RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 stabilized RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells induced granulocytic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 may function as a coactivator for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in APL cells. -- Abstract: Ubiquitination, one of the posttranslational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (RAR{alpha}). We previously reported that an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32, interacts with several important proteins including RAR{alpha} and enhances transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha} in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA), which acts as a ligand to nuclear receptors including RAR{alpha}, plays crucial roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and apoptosis. In this study, we found that TRIM32 enhances RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA and stabilizes RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Moreover, we found that overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells suppresses cellular proliferation and induces granulocytic differentiation even in the absence of RA. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the coactivators for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL) cells, and thus TRIM32 may become a potentially therapeutic target for APL.

  7. Evolution of Iron K Alpha Line Emission in the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y. X.; Zhang, S. N.; Sun, X.; Durouchoux, Ph.; Chen, Wan; Cui, Wei

    2001-01-01

    GX 339-4 was regularly monitored with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer during a period (in 1999) when its X-ray flux decreased significantly (from 4.26 x 10(exp -10) to 7.6 x 10(exp -12) ergs in the 3-20 keV band), as the source settled into the 'off state.' Our spectral analysis revealed the presence of a prominent iron K alpha line in the observed spectrum of the source for all observations. The line shows an interesting evolution: it is centered at approx. 6.4 keV when the measured flux is above 5 x 10(exp -1) ergs per sq cm/s but is shifted to approx. 6.7 keV at lower fluxes. The equivalent width of the line appears to increase significantly toward lower fluxes, although it is likely to be sensitive to calibration uncertainties. While the fluorescent emission of neutral or mildly ionized iron atoms in the accretion disk can perhaps account for the 6.4 keV line, as is often invoked for black hole candidates, it seems difficult to understand the 6.7 keV line with this mechanism because the disk should be less ionized at lower fluxes (unless its density changes drastically). On the other hand, the 6.7 keV line might be due to a recombination cascade of hydrogen- or helium-like iron ions in an optically thin, highly ionized plasma. We discuss the results in the context of proposed accretion models.

  8. Non-LTE profiles of the Al I autoionization lines. [for solar model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, G. D.; Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    A non-LTE formulation is given for the transfer of radiation in the autoionizing lines of neutral aluminum at 1932 and 1936 A through both the Bilderberg and Harvard-Smithsonian model atmospheres. Numerical solutions for the common source function of these lines and their theoretical line profiles are calculated and compared with the corresponding LTE profiles. The results show that the non-LTE profiles provide a better match with the observations. They also indicate that the continuous opacity of the standard solar models should be increased in this wavelength region if the center-limb variations of observed and theoretical profiles of these lines are to be in reasonable agreement.

  9. Brain blood vessel segmentation using line-shaped profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Danilo; Pižurica, Aleksandra; De Vylder, Jonas; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, especially for embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In order to perform embolization of the AVM, the structural and geometric information of blood vessels from 3D images is of utmost importance. For this reason, the in-depth segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is usually done as a fusion of different segmentation techniques, often requiring extensive user interaction. In this paper we introduce the idea of line-shaped profiling with an application to brain blood vessel and AVM segmentation, efficient both in terms of resolving details and in terms of computation time. Our method takes into account both local proximate and wider neighbourhood of the processed pixel, which makes it efficient for segmenting large blood vessel tree structures, as well as fine structures of the AVMs. Another advantage of our method is that it requires selection of only one parameter to perform segmentation, yielding very little user interaction.

  10. Observations of Ha Line Profiles in Be Stars Using 45 cm Cassegrain Telescope at Arthur C Clarke Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekera, S.; Adassuriya, J.; Medagangoda, N. I.

    2008-12-01

    H-alpha line profiles of 13 Be starts (mv d6.9) were observed using 45 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Arthur C Clarke Institute, Sri Lanka during the period of August 2005 to March 2006. High resolution spectra of these Be stars were obtained using 1200 lines/mm reflective grating in first order with resolution R=λ/Δλ=76800 and linear spectral dispersion 0.31 Å per pixel at 6563 Å in order to find out line parameters such as equivalent width, full width at half-maxima, V/R ratios etc. A study of the correlations between different pairs of parameters was obtained and compared with previous analysis to see the behavior of circumstellar disk. We found a good correlation (0.8) between FWHM and v sin i and strong correlation (0.96) between the Ip/Ic and the equivalent width. The drastic changes of the V/R ratio in profiles HR5941 and HR6712 imply the circumstellar disk is more likely an elliptical shape and undergoes slow apsidal motion. The inclination angles (i) were estimated for each star using the theoretical vsin i values and assuming star rotates in 0.8Vc and are matched with the structure of the line profiles.

  11. Iron K-Alpha Lines from Ionized Discs in Z-Type X-Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. M.; Matt, G.

    1994-06-01

    The properties of the iron Kα line emitted by a photoionized accretion disc in a Z-type X-ray binary system are determined for different values of the mass accretion rate and disc inclination angle. We consider a geometry where the accretion disc is illuminated by X-rays emitted from a spherical, optically thick Comptonized cloud, representing the magnetosphere on the horizontal branch, and the magnetosphere plus puffed accretion disc on the normal and flaring branches. We find that line profiles can be complex due to Doppler, relativistic, shadowing, line-blending, resonant trapping and other effects. The iron Kα line equivalent width, intrinsic width and centroid energy vary in a tortuous manner as a function of the accretion rate, cloud radius and inclination angle. We examine the reasons for this behaviour and discuss how it will affect inferences about the physical states of Z-sources based on their iron line properties. We compare our results with available data, in particular on Cygnus X-2, and indicate how tests of Z-source models could be made using high-energy-resolution measurements like those expected from AS CA.

  12. Up-regulation of alpha1-microglobulin by hemoglobin and reactive oxygen species in hepatoma and blood cell lines.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Magnus G; Allhorn, Maria; Olofsson, Tor; Akerström, Bo

    2007-03-15

    alpha(1)-Microglobulin is a 26-kDa glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, secreted to the blood, and rapidly distributed to the extravascular compartment of all tissues. Recent results show that alpha(1)-microglobulin has heme-binding and heme-degrading properties and it has been suggested that the protein is involved in the defense against oxidation by heme and reactive oxygen species. In the present study the influence of hemoglobin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the cellular expression of alpha(1)-microglobulin was investigated. Oxy- and methemoglobin, free heme, and Fenton reaction-induced hydroxyl radicals induced a dose-dependent up-regulation of alpha(1)-microglobulin on both mRNA and protein levels in hepatoma cells and an increased secretion of alpha(1)-microglobulin. The up-regulation was reversed by the addition of catalase and ascorbate, and by reacting hemoglobin with cyanide which prevents redox reactions. Furthermore, the blood cell lines U937 and K562 expressed alpha(1)-microglobulin at low levels, and this expression increased up to 11-fold by the addition of hemoglobin. These results suggest that alpha(1)-microglobulin expression is induced by ROS, arising from redox reactions of hemoglobin or from other sources and are consistent with the hypothesis that alpha(1)-microglobulin participates in the defense against oxidation by hemoglobin, heme, and reactive oxygen species.

  13. Characterization of human NSCLC cell line with innate etoposide-resistance mediated by cytoplasmic localization of topoisomerase II alpha.

    PubMed

    de Lucio, Bautista; Manuel, Victor; Barrera-Rodríguez, Raul

    2005-11-01

    Topoisomerase (topo) II alpha is a target for many chemotherapeutic agents in clinical use. In tumor cells resistant to topo II poisons, there have been descriptions of quantitative and qualitative alterations involved in this enzyme. More recently, the cytoplasmic localization of topo II alpha has been described as a mechanism to confer drug resistance. Here, we report the characterization of a human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, INER-37, which shows an innate resistance to etoposide. In this cell line, etoposide resistance was directly associated with the expression of topo II alpha resident mainly in the cytoplasmic region. At the molecular level, INER-37 cells carry on a heterozygous gene deletion, transcribing two different topo II alpha mRNAs: 4.8 kb and 2.0 kb. The bigger 4.8 kb mRNA (missing 1.3 kb of 3' mRNA and including the untranslated region) is translated into a truncated cytoplasmic protein of approximately 160 kDa. The protein truncation affects at least 96 amino acids in the COOH-terminal region where the more proximal bipartite nuclear localization signal is located. The INER-37 cell line is the first cancer cell line reported with an innate mutation affecting the 3'-end region of the topo II alpha gene that confers a cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme and therefore an increased resistance to etoposide.

  14. A catalog of early-type emission-line stars and Hα line profiles from LAMOST DR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wen; Luo, A.-Li; Hu, Jing-Yao; Yang, Hai-Feng; Du, Chang-De; Liu, Chao; Lee, Chien-De; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Zi-Huang; Hou, Yong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    We present a catalog including 11 204 spectra of 10 436 early-type emission-line stars from LAMOST DR2, among which 9752 early-type emission-line spectra are newly discovered. For these early-type emission-line stars, we discuss the morphological and physical properties of their low-resolution spectra. In this spectral sample, the Hα emission profiles display a wide variety of shapes. Based on the Hα line profiles, these spectra are categorized into five distinct classes: single-peak emission, single-peak emission in absorption, double-peak emission, double-peak emission in absorption, and P-Cygni profiles. To better understand what causes the Hα line profiles, we divide these objects into four types from the perspective of physical classification, which include classical Be stars, Herbig Ae/Be stars, close binaries and spectra contaminated by HΠ regions. The majority of Herbig Ae/Be stars and classical Be stars are identified and separated using a (H-K, K-W1) color-color diagram. We also discuss 31 binary systems that are listed in the SIMBAD on-line catalog and identify 3600 spectra contaminated by HΠ regions after cross-matching with positions in the Dubout-Crillon catalog. A statistical analysis of line profiles versus classifications is then conducted in order to understand the distribution of Hα profiles for each type in our sample. Finally, we also provide a table of 172 spectra with Fe Π emission lines and roughly calculate stellar wind velocities for seven spectra with P-Cygni profiles.

  15. Design of a D-alpha beam-ion profile diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Burrell, K.H.

    2004-10-01

    Injected neutral beams ionize to create a population of beam ions. As they orbit around the tokamak and pass through the heating beams, some beam ions re-neutralize and emit D-alpha light. The intensity of this emission is weak compared to the signals from the injected neutrals, the warm (halo) neutrals, and the edge recombination neutrals but, for a favorable viewing geometry, the emission is Doppler shifted away from these bright interfering signals. Preliminary data from the DIII-D tokamak show that signals from re-neutralized beam ions have already been detected. A three-channel prototype instrument consisting of a spectrometer, mask, camera lenses, and frame-transfer charge coupled device is under development for measurements of the spatial profile of the beam ions.

  16. Effect of a progressive sound wave on the profiles of spectral lines. 2: Asymmetry of faint Fraunhofer lines. [absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostyk, R. I.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficient profile was calculated for lines of different chemical elements in a medium with progressive sound waves. Calculations show that (1) the degree and direction of asymmetry depend on the atomic ionization potential and the potential of lower level excitation of the individual line; (2) the degree of asymmetry of a line decreases from the center toward the limb of the solar disc; and (3) turbulent motions 'suppress' the asymmetry.

  17. The blueshifted Pa alpha broad line component and the origin of strong iron emission in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 07598+6508

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawara, Kimiaki; Murayama, Takashi; Sato, Yasunori

    1994-01-01

    We present the Pa alpha emission profile of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULFIRG) IRAS 07598+6508 which is an unusually strong Fe II emitter in the optical. The Pa alpha emission line profile shows a blueshifted broad component (FWHM approximately equal to 3900 km/sec) together with a narrow core (FWHM less than or equal to 530 km/sec). The presence of the broad line component strongly suggests that IRAS 07598+6508 has an active galactic nucleus, supporting a scenario of merger-induced quasar formation proposed by Sanders et al. (1988), although we cannot rule out the possibility of a supernova-driven high speed wind. Possible detection of (Fe II) 1.893 micrometer emission is also reported. It is shown that strong Fe II emitters such as IRAS 07598+6508 have intermediate IRAS color properties between normal quasars and cold ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We thus suggest an evolutionary link from cold ULFIRG through warm ULFIRG and Fe II ULFIRG to quasars.

  18. Comparative gene expression profiles induced by PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Renaud, Marie Pierre; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, Andre; Spire, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists between rodent and human liver. PPAR{alpha} agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPAR{gamma} agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPAR{alpha} agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes induced by PPAR{gamma} and dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24 h treatment with two PPAR{gamma} (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPAR{alpha} targets were also modulated by both PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes.

  19. Reliable and efficient program for fitting Galatry and Voigt profiles to spectral data on multiple lines.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, X; Varghese, P L

    1989-04-15

    Experimental data with multiple overlapping spectral lines must often be fitted to theoretical line shape models. This paper describes an efficient program for performing least-squares fits of such data to Galatry and Voigt profiles. The algorithm and program design considerations are presented in detail, and some examples are given to demonstrate its use. The procedure described in this paper may also be used for more complex line shape profiles. PMID:20548696

  20. A comparison of H-alpha intensity and radio wave scattering on eight low-latitude lines of sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Reynolds, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Radio scattering and H-alpha measurements for eight sources in Cygnus are compared. The diameter of the radio scattering disk at 1 GHz is found to be correlated with emission measure as determined from the H-alpha measurements, and that strong radio scattering characterized by a diameter of about 30 milliarcsec is produced in regions with emission measures of about 100/cm exp 6 pc or less. The slope of diameter-emission measure correlation is steeper than would be the case if all lines of sight were characterized by the same turbulent outer scale and modulation index. It is suggested that the lines of sight to unscattered or lightly scattered sources traverse only a diffuse medium which is revealed by H-alpha observations at high latitudes. Heavily scattered sources are viewed through an additional component of interstellar H II which has turbulence with different properties.

  1. Analysis of magnesium XI line profiles from solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, R. L.; Cowan, R. D.; Felthauser, H.; Fenimore, E. E.; Hockaday, M. P.; Bely-Dubau, F.; Faucher, P.; Steenman-Clark, L.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution solar spectra of the Mg XI 1s2 1S0-1s2p 1P1 resonance line at 9.169 A and the associated nearby satellite lines obtained from two rocket-borne crystal spectrometer measurements are presented. Comparisons with two independent sets of theoretical calculations for the 1s2nl-1s2pnl dielectronic satellite lines with n = 3-7 indicate electron temperatures of 4-4.5 million K. Measured line widths indicate either that the ion temperature exceeds the electron temperature by about a million K or that about 28 km/s of turbulence is present.

  2. Measurements of neutral density profiles using a deuterium Balmer-alpha diagnostic in the C-2 FRC plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Deng, B. H.; Knapp, K.; Sun, X.; Thompson, M. C.

    2012-10-15

    In C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) device, low neutral density outside the FRC separatrix is required to minimize the charge exchange loss of fast particles. Titanium gettering is used in C-2 to reduce the wall recycling and keep the neutral density low in plasma edge. The measurements of neutral density radial profile are desirable to understand the plasma recycling and the effects of titanium gettering. These measurements are also needed to study the interaction of neutral beams with FRC plasma and confinement of fast ions. Diagnostic based on absolute deuterium Balmer-alpha (D-alpha) radiation measurements is developed and deployed on C-2 device to measure the radial profile of neutral density. Simultaneous measurements of electron density and temperature are done using CO{sub 2} interferometer, Thomson scattering, and triple probes diagnostics along with absolute D-alpha radiation. Abel inversion was performed to get the time dependent radial profile of the local D-alpha emission density. Neutral density profiles are obtained under different machine conditions of titanium deposition.

  3. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase splice variants in benign and malignant ovarian cell lines and tissue.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dorothea; Thomé, Marlene; Becker, Steffi; Cordes, Tim; Diedrich, Klaus; Friedrich, Michael; Thill, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Calcitriol is judged to have a positive effect on control of the immune system, cell growth and differentiation and therefore, the prevention of cancer genesis. The aim of this study was to detect any possible differences in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alphaOHase)-expression between benign and malignant ovarian tissue and cell lines. The analysis was conducted quantitatively, by means of nested "touchdown" PCR and Western blot, and qualitatively, with the use of real-time PCR and Western blot. The gene structure was sequenced. Compared to the benign cell line, the malignant cell lines showed a significantly higher expression of 1alphaOHase at the RNA level. A statistically lower expression of the 1alphaOHase protein was found in the malignant tissue. In the malignant cell lines and tissues, divergent bands were detected, which led to various splice variants on sequencing. Their increased expression in malignancy is possibly bound to the reduction of enzyme activity, which may lead to the genesis of ovarian cancer. In the future, preventive and therapeutic activities may result from these findings. PMID:19667158

  4. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  5. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors of the human retinoblastoma cell line (Y79) may represent an additional example of the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, M. M.; Hieble, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    1. In agreement with the literature, correlation of the ability of a series of agonists and antagonists to displace [3H]-rauwolscine binding shows the alpha 2-adrenoceptors of HT29 cells, NG108-15 cells, OK cells and homogenates of rat sublingual gland to represent four distinct subtypes. 2. [3H]-rauwolscine also bound with high affinity (KD = 0.30 +/- 0.10 mM) to a human retinoblastoma cell line (Y79). Specific binding represents 73% of total binding, and a Bmax of 38 +/- 1 fmol mg-1 protein was determined. 3. Correlation of antagonist affinities against [3H]-rauwolscine with corresponding values in the other four tissue sources showed the Y79 cells to resemble most closely the OK cells, the prototype example of an alpha 2C-adrenoceptor, with a correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a regression slope of 1.01 being obtained for 10 antagonists in these two systems. 4. Comparison of KD values for [3H]-rauwolscine also showed a similarity between the OK cells (0.19 +/- 0.07 nM) and Y79 cells. 5. These data suggest that the human retinoblastoma cell line may represent an additional example of the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor subtype. PMID:1358385

  6. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  7. The alpha Centauri Line of Sight: D/H Ratio, Physical Properties of Local Interstellar Gas, and Measurement of Heated Hydrogen (The 'Hydrogen Wall') Near the Heliopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze high-resolution spectra of the nearby (1.34 pc) stars alpha Cen A (G2 V) and alpha Cen B (K1 V), which were obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The observations consist of echelle spectra of the Mg II 2800 A and Fe II 2599 A resonance lines and the Lyman-alpha lines of hydrogen and deuterium. The interstellar gas has a velocity (v = - 18.0 +/- 0.2 km/s) consistent with the local flow vector proposed for this line of sight by Lailement & Berlin (1992). The temperature and nonthermal velocity inferred from the Fe II, Mg II, and D I line profiles are T = 5400 +/- 500 K and xi = 1.20 +/- 0.25 km/s, respectively. However, single-component fits to the H I Lyman-alpha lines yield a Doppler parameter (b(sub HI) = 11.80 km/s) that implies a significantly warmer temperature of 8350 K, and the velocity of the H I absorption (v = - 15.8 +/- 0.2 km/s) is redshifted by about 2.2 km/s with respect to the Fe II, Mg II, and D I lines. The one-component model of the interstellar gas suggests natural logarithm N base HI = 18.03 +/- 0.01 and D/H = (5.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp -6) . These parameters lead to a good fit to the observed spectra, but this model does not explain the higher temperature and redshift of H I relative to the other interstellar lines. The most sensible way to resolve the discrepancy between H(I) and the other lines is to add a second absorption component to the H(I) lines. This second component is hotter (T approx. equals 30,000 K), is redshifted relative to the primary component by 2-4 km/s, and has a column density too low to be detected in the Fe(II), Mg(II), and D(I) lines. We propose that the gas responsible for this component is located near the heliopause, consisting of the heated H I gas from the interstellar medium that is compressed by the solar wind. This so-called 'hydrogen wall' is predicted by recent multifluid gasdynamical models of the interstellar gas and solar wind interaction. Our data

  8. Short tandem repeat profiling provides an international reference standard for human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masters, John R.; Thomson, Jim A.; Daly-Burns, Bernadette; Reid, Yvonne A.; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Packer, Phil; Toji, Lorraine H.; Ohno, Tadao; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Arlett, Colin F.; Kelland, Lloyd R.; Harrison, Maureen; Virmani, Arvind; Ward, Timothy H.; Ayres, Karen L.; Debenham, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    Cross-contamination between cell lines is a longstanding and frequent cause of scientific misrepresentation. Estimates from national testing services indicate that up to 36% of cell lines are of a different origin or species to that claimed. To test a standard method of cell line authentication, 253 human cell lines from banks and research institutes worldwide were analyzed by short tandem repeat profiling. The short tandem repeat profile is a simple numerical code that is reproducible between laboratories, is inexpensive, and can provide an international reference standard for every cell line. If DNA profiling of cell lines is accepted and demanded internationally, scientific misrepresentation because of cross-contamination can be largely eliminated. PMID:11416159

  9. [Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Affects U0126-Induced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT116)].

    PubMed

    Ljujic, M; Mijatovic, S; Bulatovic, M Z; Mojic, M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radojkovic, D; Topic, A

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an acute phase protein, is the principal circulatory anti-protease. This multifunctional protein is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. Although AAT was recognised as a potential tumour marker, its role in cancer biology remains unknown. Given that it has been demonstrated that AAT has an anti-apoptotic property against non-malignant cells, we aimed to investigate whether AAT affects apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116). The presence of AAT in the HCT116 cell culture antagonized cytotoxicity of blockers of MEK1/2, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as NF-κB. The dominantly recovered cell viability was observed in the co-treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. In addition, it was revealed that AAT almost completely abolished U0126-induced apoptosis through maintenance of the autophagy process. Our study revealed for the first time that the observed cyto-protection triggered by AAT was accompanied by sustained autophagy which opposed apoptosis. These results may contribute to understanding of the role of AAT in cancer development and evaluation of efficacy of cancer therapy.

  10. Recommended Isolated-Line Profile for Representing High-Resolution Spectroscoscopic Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, J.; Bernath, P. F.; Campargue, A.; Császár, A. G.; Daumont, L.; Gamache, R. R.; Hodges, J. T.; Lisak, D.; Naumenko, O. V.; Rothman, L. S.; Tran, H.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Zobov, N. F.; Buldyreva, J.; Boone, C. D.; De Vizia, M. Domenica; Gianfrani, L.; McPheat, R.; Weidmann, D.; Murray, J.; Ngo, N. H.; Polyansky, O. L.

    2014-06-01

    Recommendations of an IUPAC Task Group, formed in 2011 on "Intensities and line shapes in high-resolution spectra of water isotopologues from experiment and theory" (Project No. 2011-022-2-100), on line profiles of isolated high-resolution rotational-vibrational transitions perturbed by neutral gas-phase molecules are presented. The well-documented inadequacies of the Voigt profile, used almost universally by databases and radiative-transfer codes to represent pressure effects and Doppler broadening in isolated vibrational-rotational and pure rotational transitions of the water molecule, have resulted in the development of a variety of alternative line profile models. These models capture more of the physics of the influence of pressure on line shapes but, in general, at the price of greater complexity. The Task Group recommends that the partially-Correlated quadratic-Speed-Dependent Hard-Collision profile should be adopted as the appropriate model for high-resolution spectroscopy. For simplicity this should be called the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP). This profile is sophisticated enough to capture the various collisional contributions to the isolated line shape, can be computed in a straightforward and rapid manner, and reduces to simpler profiles, including the Voigt profile, under certain simplifying assumptions. For further details see: J. Tennyson et al, Pure Appl. Chem., 2014, in press.

  11. Ultraviolet observations of cool stars. IV - Intensities of Lyman-alpha and Mg II in epsilon Pegasi and epsilon Eridani, and line width-luminosity correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, W.; Linsky, J. L.; Henry, R. C.; Moos, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    A spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite has been used to confirm the existence of a line width-luminosity relation for the Ly-alpha and Mg II 2800-A chromospheric emission lines in K-type stars by observation of a K2 dwarf (epsilon Eri) and a K2 supergiant (epsilon Peg). Combined with previously reported observations of lines in three K giants (alpha Boo, alpha Tau, and beta Gem), the data are consistent with an identical dependence of line width on absolute visual magnitude for the Ca II K, Ly-alpha, and Mg II 2795-A lines. Surface fluxes of Ly-alpha, Mg II 2800-A, and O V 1218-A (upper limit) for epsilon Eri, and of Mg II 2800-A for epsilon Peg are also compared with values reported previously for the three giant stars.

  12. An Analysis of Water Line Profiles in Star Formation Regions Observed by SWAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Plume, Rene; Carpenter, John M.; Neufeld, David A.; Chin, Gordon; Erickson, Neal R.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Harwit, Martin; Howe, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    We present spectral line profiles for the 557 GHz 1(sub 1,0) yields 1(sub 0,1) ground-state rotational transition of ortho-H2(16)O for 18 galactic star formation regions observed by SWAS. 2 Water is unambiguously detected in every source. The line profiles exhibit a wide variety of shapes, including single-peaked spectra and self-reversed profiles. We interpret these profiles using a Monte Carlo code to model the radiative transport. The observed variations in the line profiles can be explained by variations in the relative strengths of the bulk flow and small-scale turbulent motions within the clouds. Bulk flow (infall, outflow) must be present in some cloud cores, and in certain cases this bulk flow dominates the turbulent motions.

  13. The generalization of upper atmospheric wind and temperature based on the Voigt line shape profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunmin; He, Jian

    2006-12-25

    The principle of probing the upper atmospheric wind field, which is the Voigt profile spectral line shape, is presented for the first time. By the Fourier Transform of Voigt profile, with the Imaging Spectroscope and the Doppler effect of electromagnetic wave, the distribution and calculation formulae of the velocity field, temperature field, and pressure field of the upper atmosphere wind field are given. The probed source is the two major aurora emission lines originated from the metastable O(1S) and O(1D) at 557.7nm and 630.0nm. From computer simulation and error analysis, the Voigt profile, which is the correlation of the Gaussian profile and Lorentzian profile, is closest to the actual airglow emission lines. PMID:19532147

  14. The Case for General Relativistic Effects in the Fe K(alpha) Profile of an Active Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Mushotzky, R.; Yaqoob, T.; George, I. M.; Snowden, S. L.; Netzer, H.; Kraemer, S. B.; Nandra, K.; Chelouche, D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results from a simultaneous Chandra HETG (High Energy Transmission Grating) and XMM (X-ray Multi-mirror Mission)-Newton observation of NGC 3516. We find evidence for several narrow components of Fe K(alpha) along with a broad line. We consider the possibility that the lines arise in a blob of material ejected from the nucleus with velocity of approximately 0.25c. We also consider an origin in a neutral accretion disk, suffering enhanced illumination at 35 and 175 R(sub g), perhaps due to magnetic reconnection. The presence of these narrow features indicates there is no Comptonizing region along the line-of-sight to the nucleus. This in turn is compelling support for the hypothesis that broad Fe K(alpha) components are, in general, produced by strong gravity.

  15. Magnetospheric accretion models for T Tauri stars. 1: Balmer line profiles without rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee; Hewett, Robert; Calvet, Nuria

    1994-01-01

    We argue that the strong emission lines of T Tauri stars are generally produced in infalling envelopes. Simple models of infall constrained to a dipolar magnetic field geometry explain many peculiarities of observed line profiles that are difficult, if not impossible, to reproduce with wind models. Radiative transfer effects explain why certain lines can appear quite symmetric while other lines simultaneously exhibit inverse P Cygni profiles, without recourse to complicated velocity fields. The success of the infall models in accounting for qualitative features of observed line profiles supports the proposal that stellar magnetospheres disrupt disk accretion in T Tauri stars, that true boundary layers are not usually present in T Tauri stars, and that the observed 'blue veiling' emission arises from the base of the magnetospheric accretion column.

  16. Pharmacological Profiles of Alpha 2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists Identified Using Genetically Altered Mice and Isobolographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Stone, Laura S.; Wilcox, George L.

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous, descending noradrenergic fibers convey powerful analgesic control over spinal afferent circuitry mediating the rostrad transmission of pain signals. These fibers target alpha 2 adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) on both primary afferent terminals and secondary neurons, and their activation mediates substantial inhibitory control over this transmission, rivaling that of opioid receptors which share similar a similar pattern of distribution. The terminals of primary afferent nociceptive neurons and secondary spinal dorsal horn neurons express α2AAR and α2CAR subtypes, respectively. Spinal delivery of these agents serves to reduce their side effects, which are mediated largely at supraspinal sites, by concentrating the drugs at the spinal level. Targeting these spinal α2ARs with one of five selective therapeutic agonists, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, brimonidine, ST91 and moxonidine, produces significant antinociception that can work in concert with opioid agonists to yield synergistic antinociception. Application of several genetically altered mouse lines had facilitated identification of the primary receptor subtypes that likely mediate the antinociceptive effects of these agents. This review provides first an anatomical description of the localization of the three subtypes in the central nervous system, second a detailed account of the pharmacological history of each of these six primary agonists, and finally a comprehensive report of the specific interactions of other GPCR agonists with each of the six principal α2AR agonists featured. PMID:19393691

  17. Evaluating Possible Heating Mechanisms Using the Transition Region Line Profiles of Late-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    Our analysis of high-resolution Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) spectra of late-type stars shows that the Si IV and C IV lines formed near 10(exp 5) K can be decomposed into the sum of two Gaussians, a broad component and a narrow component. We find that the flux contribution of the broad components is correlated with both the C IV and X-ray surface fluxes. For main-sequence stars, the widths of the narrow components suggest subsonic nonthermal velocities, and there appears to be a tight correlation between these nonthermal velocities and stellar surface gravity [xi(sub nc) varies as g(sup (-.68 +/-.07))]. For evolved stars with lower surface gravities, the nonthermal velocities suggested by the narrow components are at or just above the sound speed. Nonthermal velocities computed from the widths of the broad components are always highly supersonic. We propose that the broad components are diagnostics for microflare heating. Turbulent dissipation and Alfven waves are both viable candidates for the narrow component heating mechanism. A solar analog for the broad components might be the 'explosive events' detected by the High-Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) experiment. The broad component we observe for the Si IV lambda 1394 line of alpha Cen A, a star that is nearly identical to the Sun, has a FWHM of 109 +/- 10 km/s and is blueshifted by 9 +/- 3 km/s relative to the narrow component. Both of these properties are consistent with the properties of the solar explosive events. However, the alpha Cen A broad component accounts for 25% +/- 4% of the total Si IV line flux, while solar explosive events are currently thought to account for no more than 5% of the Sun's total transition region emission. This discrepancy must be resolved before the connection between broad components and explosive events can be positively established. In addition to our analysis of the Si IV and C IV lines of many stars, we also provide a more thorough analysis of all

  18. WHAT DO SPECTRAL LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES TELL US ABOUT THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE?

    SciTech Connect

    MartInez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo; McIntosh, Scott W.

    2011-05-10

    Recently, analysis of solar spectra obtained with the EUV Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) onboard the Hinode satellite has revealed the ubiquitous presence of asymmetries in transition region (TR) and coronal spectral line profiles. These asymmetries have been observed especially at the footpoints of coronal loops and have been associated with strong upflows that may play a significant role in providing the corona with hot plasma. Here, we perform a detailed study of the various processes that can lead to spectral line asymmetries, using both simple forward models and state-of-the-art three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere using the Bifrost code. We describe a novel technique to determine the presence and properties of faint secondary components in the wings of spectral line profiles. This method is based on least-squares fitting of observed so-called R(ed)B(lue) asymmetry profiles with pre-calculated RB asymmetry profiles for a wide variety of secondary component properties. We illustrate how this method could be used to perform reliable double Gaussian fits that are not over- or under-constrained. We also find that spectral line asymmetries appear in TR and coronal lines that are synthesized from our three-dimensional MHD simulations. Our models show that the spectral asymmetries are a sensitive measure of the velocity gradient with height in the TR of coronal loops. The modeled TR shows a large gradient of velocity that increases with height: this occurs as a consequence of ubiquitous, episodic heating at low heights in the model atmosphere. We show that the contribution function of spectral lines as a function of temperature is critical for sensitivity to velocity gradients and thus line asymmetries: lines that are formed over a temperature range that includes most of the TR are the most sensitive. As a result, lines from lithium-like ions (e.g., O VI) are found to be the most sensitive to line asymmetries. We compare the simulated line

  19. Microbial community profile of a lead service line removed from a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A

    2011-08-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments.

  20. The comparison of two speed-dependent Voigt line profile models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasevich, A. E.

    2013-07-01

    Numerical calculations of the ratio of line width and maximum value of two speed-dependent Voigt line profiles to the respective values of their speed-independent analogs are performed in the high-pressure limit. The intercomparison demonstrates considerable disagreement between different speed-dependent models.

  1. Impact of dislocation cell elastic strain variations on line profiles from deformed copper.

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L. E.; Larson, B. C.; Tischler, J. Z.; Geantil, P.; Kassner, M. E.; Liu, W.; Stoudt, M. R.; NIST; ORNL; Univ. of Southern California

    2008-01-01

    Energy scanned, sub-micrometer X-ray beams were used to obtain diffraction line profiles from individual dislocation cells in copper single crystals deformed in compression. Sub-micrometer depth resolution was provided by translating a wire through the diffracted beams and using triangulation to determine the depths of the diffracting volumes. Connection to classic volume-averaged results was made by adding the line profiles from 52 spatially resolved dislocation cell measurements. The resulting sub profile is smooth and symmetric, in agreement with early assumptions; the mean strain and full width half maximum are consistent with the average of the parameters extracted from the more exact individual dislocation cell measurements.

  2. LINE PROFILES OF CORES WITHIN CLUSTERS. I. THE ANATOMY OF A FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rowan J.; Shetty, Rahul; Klessen, Ralf S.; Stutz, Amelia M.

    2012-05-01

    Observations are revealing the ubiquity of filamentary structures in molecular clouds. As cores are often embedded in filaments, it is important to understand how line profiles from such systems differ from those of isolated cores. We perform radiative transfer calculations on a hydrodynamic simulation of a molecular cloud in order to model line emission from collapsing cores embedded in filaments. We model two optically thick lines, CS(2-1) and HCN(1-0), and one optically thin line, N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0), from three embedded cores. In the hydrodynamic simulation, gas self-gravity, turbulence, and bulk flows create filamentary regions within which cores form. Though the filaments have large dispersions, the N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) lines indicate subsonic velocities within the cores. We find that the observed optically thick line profiles of CS(2-1) and HCN(1-0) vary drastically with viewing angle. In over 50% of viewing angles, there is no sign of a blue asymmetry, an idealized signature of infall motions in an isolated spherical collapsing core. Profiles that primarily trace the cores, with little contribution from the surrounding filament, are characterized by a systematically higher HCN(1-0) peak intensity. The N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) lines do not follow this trend. We demonstrate that red asymmetric profiles are also feasible in the optically thick lines, due to emission from the filament or one-sided accretion flows onto the core. We conclude that embedded cores may frequently undergo collapse without showing a blue asymmetric profile, and that observational surveys including filamentary regions may underestimate the number of collapsing cores if based solely on profile shapes of optically thick lines.

  3. Line Profiles of Cores within Clusters. I. The Anatomy of a Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Shetty, Rahul; Stutz, Amelia M.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-05-01

    Observations are revealing the ubiquity of filamentary structures in molecular clouds. As cores are often embedded in filaments, it is important to understand how line profiles from such systems differ from those of isolated cores. We perform radiative transfer calculations on a hydrodynamic simulation of a molecular cloud in order to model line emission from collapsing cores embedded in filaments. We model two optically thick lines, CS(2-1) and HCN(1-0), and one optically thin line, N2H+(1-0), from three embedded cores. In the hydrodynamic simulation, gas self-gravity, turbulence, and bulk flows create filamentary regions within which cores form. Though the filaments have large dispersions, the N2H+(1-0) lines indicate subsonic velocities within the cores. We find that the observed optically thick line profiles of CS(2-1) and HCN(1-0) vary drastically with viewing angle. In over 50% of viewing angles, there is no sign of a blue asymmetry, an idealized signature of infall motions in an isolated spherical collapsing core. Profiles that primarily trace the cores, with little contribution from the surrounding filament, are characterized by a systematically higher HCN(1-0) peak intensity. The N2H+(1-0) lines do not follow this trend. We demonstrate that red asymmetric profiles are also feasible in the optically thick lines, due to emission from the filament or one-sided accretion flows onto the core. We conclude that embedded cores may frequently undergo collapse without showing a blue asymmetric profile, and that observational surveys including filamentary regions may underestimate the number of collapsing cores if based solely on profile shapes of optically thick lines.

  4. LY-alpha Line Emission in a Field of Super-Clustered Damped LY-alpha Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Palle; Warren, Stephen J.

    1993-12-01

    The quasar pair Q2138-4427 and Q2139-4434 is separated by 8 arcmin on the sky (~ 6 Mpc), and they have correlated damped \\lya absorption (DLA) at two redshifts, z=2.380 and z=2.853 (Francis, P. J., and Hewett, P. C., 1993, AJ 105, 1633). On three nights in September 1993 we imaged the field of Q2138-4427 in B, I, and a narrow band tuned to the DLA at z=2.853. The observations were carried out with the ESO 3.6m telescope. We find two emission line candidates in the field. The two candidates have line fluxes similar to the three sources found in the field of Q0528-250 (M{\\o}ller, P., and Warren, S. J., 1993, \\aa 270, 43) but they are much brighter in the continuum. The two candidates are lying quite far from the quasar, so even if they are spectroscopically confirmed to be \\lya emitters, they are unlikely to be identified with the absorber. Their continuum fluxes make them more likely to be either OII emitters at low redshift, or high redshift AGNs associated with the super-cluster structure reported by Francis and Hewett. \\lya emission sources similar to the ones detected in the field of Q0528-250 are not seen. A comparison of these new results with our previous detections will allow us to draw general conclusions on the nature of the damped systems.

  5. The alpha-galactosyl specific lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia distinguishes between two lymphoma lines with different metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E; Khang, N Q; Brossmer, R

    1997-01-01

    A lectin purified from the seeds of the Vietnamese Artocarpus integrifolia distinguishes between the mouse T-cell lymphoma cell lines Eb and ESb, with low and high metastatic potential, respectively. It agglutinates Eb cells as well as human erythrocytes, but not ESb cells or the human colon carcinomas cells HT29. The haemagglutinin is specific for alpha-galactosyl residues and has a molecular mass of 62 kDa.

  6. Fiber Optic Picosecond Laser Pulse Transmission Line for Hydrogen Ion Beam Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for non-intrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multi-killowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large mode area polarization maintaining optical fiber to ensure a high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter and pulse width broadening over a 100-ft fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H- beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. Our experiment is the first demonstration of particle beam profile diagnostics using fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  7. Fiber optic picosecond laser pulse transmission line for hydrogen ion beam longitudinal profile measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunning; Liu, Yun; Aleksandrov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for nonintrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H(-)) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multikilowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large-mode-area polarization-maintaining optical fiber to ensure high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter, and pulse width broadening over a 30 m long fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H(-) beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. The experiment is the first demonstration to our knowledge of particle beam profile diagnostics using a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  8. Variability of Hell and hydrogen line profiles in the spectrum of HD 93521

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzaev, A. Kh.; Panchuk, V. E.

    2008-03-01

    We have studied the variability of the Hell λλ 4686 and 5411 Å H β, and H α lines in the spectrum of the pulsating star HD 93521. All these line profiles display the same variability pattern relative to the average profiles: a sinusoidal wave that moves systematically from the short-to the long-wavelength wing of the profile. This variability is due to non-radial pulsations. To study the pulsation movements and stratification of the radial velocity in the atmosphere of HD 93521, we analyzed the variability of the radial velocities measured individually for the blue and red halves of the absorption profile at the half-level of the line intensity. The periods and amplitudes of this radial-velocity variability are different for different lines and are well correlated with their central depths. In the transition from weak to strong lines (i.e., from lower to upper layers of the atmosphere), the period of the radial-velocity variations measured using both halves of the absorption profile increases, while its amplitude decreases. When the morphology and variability of photospheric and wind-driven lines are compared, it is clear that the variability of their absorption components is due to the same process—non-radial pulsations. In this way, the non-radial pulsations partly affect the variability of the stellar wind. The effect of the stellar wind on the profiles of strong lines is observed as a variable absorption feature that moves along the profiles synchronous with the axial rotation of the star.

  9. Space and time variations of the solar Na D line profiles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaughter, C. D.; Wilson, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of observations of the solar Na D lines obtained with high space and time resolution. The line profiles vary strongly with space and time implying that time averaging over a long period and large area will not produce the 'true' profile. The centre-limb increase in apparent Doppler width in the D lines is intrinsic. It is not due to space or time averaging. The amplitude of the 300-sec oscillation may range up to 1.5 km/sec in the region of formation of the D lines. The variation of the D line profile caused by the 300-sec oscillation may be described as follows: (1) the core is raised and lowered without change of shape, and (2) the wings broaden as the central intensity rises and narrow as it falls. Doppler width values derived from pairs of D line profiles are strongly correlated with the motion of the element observed. Indications of running waves have been found in the time variation of the core line bisectors.

  10. Uranus' (3-0) H2 quadrupole line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, L.

    1987-04-01

    Spectra of Uranus' S3(0) and S3(1) H2 quadrupole lines, obtained during the 1978-1980 apparitions, are analyzed, and are found to require the presence of a deep cloud. Modifications of the Baines and Bergstralh (1986) standard model, including an additional haze layer above the 16-km-am H2 level which contains strongly absorbing particles, are needed to fit the observations. For a Rayleigh phase function, such a haze (uniformly mixed with the gas above this level) would have an absorption optical depth of 0.16 and a single scattering particle albedo of 0.30. This modification would imply a fraction of normal H2 equal to 0.25 + or - 0.10, in agreement with the Baines and Bergstralh standard model.

  11. Gene expression profiling analysis of osteosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    SUN, LU; LI, JIE; YAN, BING

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary bone malignancy and has a poor prognosis. To investigate the mechanisms of osteosarcoma, the present analyzed the GSE28424 microarray. GSE28424 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and included a collective of 19 OS cell lines and four normal bone cell lines, which were used as controls. Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the Limma package in Bioconductor. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, interactions between the proteins encoded by the DEGs were identified using STRING, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized using Cytoscape. In addition, modular analysis of the PPI network was performed using the Clique Percolation Method (CPM) in CFinder. A total of 1,170 DEGs were screened, including 530 upreguated and 640 downregulated genes. The enriched functions included organelle fission, immune response and response to wounding. In addition, RPL8 was observed to be involved with the ribosomal pathway in module A of the PPI network of the DEGs. PLCG1, SYK and PLCG2 were also involved in the B-cell receptor signaling pathway in module B and the Fc-epsilon RI signaling pathway in module C. In addition, AURKA (degree=39), MAD2L1 (degree=38), CDCA8 (degree=38), BUB1 (degree=37) and MELK (degree=37) exhibited higher degrees of connectivity in module F. The results of the present study suggested that the RPL8, PLCG1, PLCG2, SYK, MAD2L1, AURKA, CDCA8, BUB1 and MELK genes may be involved in OS. PMID:26096802

  12. Winds from T Tauri stars. II - Balmer line profiles for inner disk winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Hewett, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of calculations of Balmer emission line profiles using escape probability methods for T Tauri wind models with nonspherically symmetric geometry. The wind is assumed to originate in the inner regions of an accretion disk surrounding the T Tauri star, and flows outward in a 'cone' geometry. Two types of wind models are considered, both with monotonically increasing expansion velocities as a function of radial distance. For flows with large turbulent velocities, such as the HF Alfven wave-driven wind models, the effect of cone geometry is to increase the blue wing emission, and to move the absorption reversal close to line center. Line profiles for a wind model rotating with the same angular velocity as the inner disk are also calculated. The Balmer lines of this model are significantly broader than observed in most objects, suggesting that the observed emission lines do not arise in a region rotating at Keplerian velocity.

  13. Experimental phase determination of the structure factor from Kossel line profile

    PubMed Central

    Faigel, G.; Bortel, G.; Tegze, M.

    2016-01-01

    Kossel lines are formed when radiation from point x-ray sources inside a single crystal are diffracted by the crystal itself. In principle, Kossel line patterns contain full information on the crystalline structure: phase and magnitude of the structure factors. The phase is coded into the profile of the lines. Although this was known for a long time, experimental realization has not been presented. In this work we demonstrate experimentally that phases can be directly determined from the profile of the Kossel lines. These measurements are interesting not only theoretically, but they would facilitate structure solution of samples within extreme conditions, such as high pressure, high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields and extremely short times. The parallel measurement of many diffraction lines on a stationary sample will allow a more efficient use of the new generation of x-ray sources the X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). PMID:26965321

  14. Theoretical profiles of the Mg+ resonance lines perturbed by collisions with He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, N. F.; Guillon, G.; Alekseev, V. A.; Kielkopf, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The effects of collision broadening by He are central to understanding the opacity of cool stellar atmospheres. Aims: DZ white dwarfs show metal lines which are, in many cases, believed to come from some rocky material, a remnant of a former exoplanetary system. The analysis of the Mg+ resonance lines is a valuable method to determine the chemical abundances in these systems. Methods: Unified profiles of the strongest of the UV lines of Mg+ have been calculated in the semi-classical approach using very recent ab initio potential energies. Results: We present the first theoretical line profile calculations of the resonance lines of Mg+ that have been perturbed by helium in physical conditions of atmospheres in helium-rich white dwarfs with metal traces.

  15. Bioenergetic analysis of ovarian cancer cell lines: profiling of histological subtypes and identification of a mitochondria-defective cell line.

    PubMed

    Dier, Usawadee; Shin, Dong-Hui; Hemachandra, L P Madhubhani P; Uusitalo, Larissa M; Hempel, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal of all gynecological cancers, and encompasses distinct histological subtypes that have specific genetic and tissues-of-origin differences. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) represents approximately 10% of cases and has been termed a stress responsive cancer. OCCC is characterized by increased expression of oxidative stress and glycolysis-related genes. In the present study, we hypothesized that bioenergetic profiling might uniquely distinguish OCCC from other EOC histological subtypes. Using an extracellular flux analyzer, OCCC lines (ES-2, TOV-21-G) were shown to be highly metabolically active, with high oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and high extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), indicative of enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic rate, respectively. A high bioenergetics profile was associated with the cell lines' ability to form anchorage independent spheroids. Given their high glycolytic and mitochondrial activity, OCCC cells displayed strong sensitivity to 2-deoxy-D-glucose and Rotenone growth inhibition, although this chemosensitivity profile was not specific to only OCCC cells. Bioenergetic profiling also identified a non-OCCC cell line, OVCA420, to have severely compromised mitochondrial function, based on low OCR and a lack of stimulation of maximal respiration following application of the uncoupler FCCP. This was accompanied by mitochondrial morphology changes indicative of enhanced fission, increased expression of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and dependence on glycolysis. Importantly, this loss of mitochondrial function was accompanied by the inability of OVCA420 cells to cope with hypoxic stress, and a compromised ability to stabilize HIF-1α in response to 1% O2 hypoxia. This knowledge may be imperative for researchers planning to utilize this cell line for further studies of metabolism and hypoxia, and suggests that

  16. THE SCATTERING POLARIZATION OF THE Ly{alpha} LINES OF H I AND He II TAKING INTO ACCOUNT PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION AND J-STATE INTERFERENCE EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Stepan, Jiri

    2012-08-10

    Recent theoretical investigations have pointed out that the cores of the Ly{alpha} lines of H I and He II should show measurable scattering polarization signals when observing the solar disk, and that the magnetic sensitivity, through the Hanle effect, of such linear polarization signals is suitable for exploring the magnetism of the solar transition region. Such investigations were carried out in the limit of complete frequency redistribution (CRD) and neglecting quantum interference between the two upper J-levels of each line. Here we relax both approximations and show that the joint action of partial frequency redistribution and J-state interference produces much more complex fractional linear polarization (Q/I) profiles, with large amplitudes in their wings. Such wing polarization signals turn out to be very sensitive to the temperature structure of the atmospheric model, so that they can be exploited for constraining the thermal properties of the solar chromosphere. Finally, we show that the approximation of CRD without J-state interference is however suitable for estimating the amplitude of the linear polarization signals in the core of the lines, where the Hanle effect operates.

  17. Proliferative and antiproliferative effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell lines derived from cervical and ovarian malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch, D.G.; Massad, L.S.; Kao, M.S.; Collins, J.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Four human cell lines derived from cervical carcinomas (ME-180, SiHa, HT-3, and MS751) and three human cell lines derived from ovarian carcinomas (SK-OV-3, Caov-3, and NIH:OVCAR-3) were analyzed in vitro to determine the effect of recombinant interferon-gamma and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth and survival. The effects of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and both interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth were measured after 24 and 72 hours of incubation by the incorporation of chromium 51. The results of this analysis showed that all seven cell lines were resistant to the antiproliferative action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, that the growth of most cell lines was inhibited by interferon-gamma by 72 hours of incubation, and that after 72 hours of incubation all cell lines demonstrated a synergistic antiproliferative response to the combination of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, the effects of these cytokines on cell growth were found to differ among cell lines and varied with the concentration and the duration of incubation. The growth of one cell line (Caov-3) was stimulated by both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. These results suggest that the clinical effects of these cytokines on the growth of gynecologic cancers may be more complex than previously supposed.

  18. Semi-automated Search For Lyman-alpha And Other Emission Lines In The DEEP2 And DEEP3 Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Katherine; Alvarez-Buylla, A.; Dean, V.; Guhathakurta, P.; Lai, K.; Sawicki, M.; Lemaux, B.; Grishaw-Jones, C.; DEEP2; DEEP3

    2012-01-01

    The DEEP2 and DEEP3 redshift surveys have obtained spectra of approximately 75,000 distant galaxies. In an effort to obtain as much information as possible from these spectra, we have performed a semi-automated, systematic search for emission lines in the DEEP2 and DEEP3 databases. The process is a two-step one: first, we run the SExtractor software on sky-subtracted 2D DEIMOS spectra to find emission lines and we categorize these emission lines based on whether they are associated with the target galaxy, single emission lines, possible artifacts resulting from poorly subtracted night sky emission lines, etc. Next, we supplement the automated search with both a guided and an unguided visual search and compare our findings with the output of the program. During this visual inspection process, we check the program for completeness and contamination. By introducing an automated element to the search we have compiled a more objective and complete census of the emission lines in the DEEP2 and DEEP3 databases than a pure visual search would yield. Our program has detected some faint emission lines that had been missed by the human eye. In addition, through our semi-automated search, we have located several possible serendipitous high redshift Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies in the redshift range of 3 to 7. This research was funded by the NSF and the Science Internship Program (SIP) at UCSC.

  19. Does the Iron K and Alpha: Line of Active Galactic Nuclei Arise from the Cerenkov Line-like Radiation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, J. H.; Liu, D. B.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, L.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    When thermal relativistic electrons with isotropic distribution of velocities move in a gas region or impinge upon the surface of a cloud that consists of a dense gas or doped dusts, the Cerenkov effect produces peculiar atomic or ionic emission lines, which is known as the Cerenkov line - like radiation. This newly recognized emission mechanism may find wide applications in high-energy astrophysics. In this paper we tentatively adopt this new line emission mechanism to discuss the origin of the iron Kα feature of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The motivation of this research is to attempt a solution to a problem encountered by the "disk fluorescence line" model, i.e. , the lack of temporal response of the observed iron Kα line flux to the changes of the X-ray continuum flux. If the Cerenkov line emission is indeed responsible significant ly for the iron Kα feature, the conventional scenario around the central supermassive black holes of AGNs would need to be modified to accomodate more energetic, more violent, and much denser environments than previously thought.

  20. New observations with the HST Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph of the low-redshift Lyman-Alpha clouds in the 3C 273 line of sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weymann, Ray; Rauch, Michael; Williams, Robert; Morris, Simon; Heap, Sally

    1995-01-01

    We presenty spectra of 3C 273 between 1216 and 1250 A obtained in the (pre-COSTAR (Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement instrument)) configuration of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) taken with the G160M grating with a resolution approximately = 20 km/s. The two strong Ly alpha lines at velocities of approximately 1000 and approximately 1600 km/s are well fitted with Voigt profiles and yield column densities, Doppler parameters and redshifts of log N(H I)=14.19 +/- 0.04 V(sub Dop)=40.7 +/- 3.0 km/s, V = 1012.4 +/- 2.0 km/s, and log N(H I)=14.22 +/- 0.07, V(sub Dop)=34.2 +/- 3.3 km/s and V = 1582.0 +/- 2.0 km/s, respectively. Motivated by the initial announcement by Williams and Schommer of detectable H alpha emission associated with the approximately 1600 km/s cloud, we discuss the difficulty of finding models which can account for emission of that magnitude given the observed neutral hydrogen column density, though a recent reobservation by these authors has shown the initial detection to be spurious. The C/H abundance ratio is probably less than about one-fourth of the solar abundance in these clouds, although this result is very uncertain and model dependent.

  1. A Experimental Study of Ion Dynamic Effects on Helium Line Profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, Dennis Carl

    Time-resolved spectral line profiles for several neutral helium lines were determined in the afterglow of a linear z-discharge. The plasma temperature ((TURNEQ)10,000(DEGREES)K) was derived from both absolute and relative line intensities and was nearly constant during the afterglow. A monotonically decreasing electron density (5 x 10('14) > N(,e) > 4 x 10('13) cm('-3)) was measured using H(,(beta)) profile fitting and laser interferometry. Additional diagnostics indicated that the afterglow plasma was homogeneous and reproducible, and thereby confirmed its usefulness for detailed spectroscopic investigations. Detailed profiles were obtained for five neutral helium lines with nearby forbidden (i.e. (DELTA)l (NOT=) (+OR-)1) components: 2('3)P-4('3)D,('3)F ((lamda) 4471(ANGSTROM)); 2('3)P-5('3)D,('3)F,('3)G ((lamda) 4026(ANGSTROM)); 2('3)P -6('3)D,('3)F,('3)G,('3)H ((lamda) 3819(ANGSTROM)); 2('1)P -4('1)D,('1)F ((lamda) 4921(ANGSTROM)); and 2('1)P-5('1)D,('1)F,('1)G ((lamda) 4388(ANGSTROM)). Comparison of these profiles was made to published theoretical Stark broadening calculations which assumed either static ions or dynamic ions. Substantial discrepancies were found when comparing static ion calculations to the experimental profiles. The observed differences, a forbidden line which was too broad and a filled-in dip between the allowed and forbidden lines, agreed qualitatively with the results of published experimental data at higher densities. Excellent agreement was found between experimental profiles and those Stark broadening calculations which included the effects of ion dynamics. The high instrumental resolution used ((delta)(lamda)(,FWHM)(TURNEQ) .08(ANGSTROM)), the low electron densities, and the good plasma reproducibility enabled a number of subtle contributors to the line profile structure to be discerned including: hydrogen molecular lines, which had integrated intensities < 10('-4) that of the principal helium lines; intercombination lines, which were

  2. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of Hα and Hβ radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  3. Automated decomposition algorithm for Raman spectra based on a Voigt line profile model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunliang; Dai, Liankui

    2016-05-20

    Raman spectra measured by spectrometers usually suffer from band overlap and random noise. In this paper, an automated decomposition algorithm based on a Voigt line profile model for Raman spectra is proposed to solve this problem. To decompose a measured Raman spectrum, a Voigt line profile model is introduced to parameterize the measured spectrum, and a Gaussian function is used as the instrumental broadening function. Hence, the issue of spectral decomposition is transformed into a multiparameter optimization problem of the Voigt line profile model parameters. The algorithm can eliminate instrumental broadening, obtain a recovered Raman spectrum, resolve overlapping bands, and suppress random noise simultaneously. Moreover, the recovered spectrum can be decomposed to a group of Lorentzian functions. Experimental results on simulated Raman spectra show that the performance of this algorithm is much better than a commonly used blind deconvolution method. The algorithm has also been tested on the industrial Raman spectra of ortho-xylene and proved to be effective.

  4. Automated decomposition algorithm for Raman spectra based on a Voigt line profile model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunliang; Dai, Liankui

    2016-05-20

    Raman spectra measured by spectrometers usually suffer from band overlap and random noise. In this paper, an automated decomposition algorithm based on a Voigt line profile model for Raman spectra is proposed to solve this problem. To decompose a measured Raman spectrum, a Voigt line profile model is introduced to parameterize the measured spectrum, and a Gaussian function is used as the instrumental broadening function. Hence, the issue of spectral decomposition is transformed into a multiparameter optimization problem of the Voigt line profile model parameters. The algorithm can eliminate instrumental broadening, obtain a recovered Raman spectrum, resolve overlapping bands, and suppress random noise simultaneously. Moreover, the recovered spectrum can be decomposed to a group of Lorentzian functions. Experimental results on simulated Raman spectra show that the performance of this algorithm is much better than a commonly used blind deconvolution method. The algorithm has also been tested on the industrial Raman spectra of ortho-xylene and proved to be effective. PMID:27411136

  5. Lyman-alpha line as a solar activity index for calculations of solar spectrum in the EUV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Katyushina, Valeria; Woods, Thomas

    It is investigated a possibility of retrieval of solar spectrum data using intensity observational data of the only solar spectral line L (Hydrogen Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm).Using as an example spectra obtained by SEE instruments on TIMED satellite, it was shown, that both for lines and for continuum in the spectral range 27-105 nm, which is essential for ionization processes in the ionosphere, a correlation between their intensities and L was high. Therefore it becomes possible to use L measurements data as a natural solar activity index for calculations of EUV solar emission spectrum for solving aeronomical problems. It is noticed, that EUV model, obtained with using SEE data, does not allow to calculate correctly critical frequencies of ionospheric E-layer owing to low intensities of lines 97.7 and 102.6 nm, which produce the main part of ionization in ionospheric E-region.

  6. Modeling the Scattering Polarization of the Hydrogen Ly-alpha Line Observed by CLASP in a Filament Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepan, J.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Gunar, S.; del Pino Aleman, T.; Heinzel, P.; Kano, R.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, M.; Bando, T.; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, K.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The 400 arcsec spectrograph slit of CLASP crossed predominantly quiet regions of the solar chromosphere, from the limb towards the solar disk center. Interestingly, in the CLASP slit-jaw images and in the SDO images of the He I line at 304 A, we can identify a filament channel (FC) extending over more than 60 arcsec crossing the spectrograph slit. In order to interpret the peculiar spatial variation of the Q/1 and U/1 signals observed by CLASP in the hydrogen Ly-alpha line (1216 A) and in the Si Ill line (1206 A) in such a filament channel, it is necessary to perform multi-dimensional radiative transfer modeling. In this contribution, we show the first results of the two-dimensional calculations we are carrying out in given filament models, with the aim of determining the filament thermal and magnetic structure by comparing the theoretical and the observed polarization signals.

  7. CpG island methylation profiling in human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Carmen S; Shen, Lanlan; Estécio, Marcos R H; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2009-06-01

    A better understanding of key molecular changes during the pathogenesis of melanoma could impact strategies to reduce mortality from this cancer. Two epigenetic events involved in the pathogenesis of cancer are hypermethylation of tumor-suppressor gene promoters associated with transcriptional repression and hypomethylation associated with gene reexpression and genomic instability. We analyzed 16 melanoma cell lines for aberrant hypermethylation of 15 cancer-linked genes (ER alpha, MGMT, RAR beta 2, RIL, RASSF1A, PAX7, PGR beta, PAX2, NKX2-3, OLIG2, HAND1, ECAD, CDH13, MLH1, and p16) and hypomethylation of two genes (MAGEA1, maspin) and two repetitive sequences (LINE-1 and Alu) using pyrosequencing. We observed hypermethylation of ER alpha in 50% of the cell lines, MGMT (50%), RAR beta 2 (44%), RIL (88%), RASSF1A (69%), PAX7 (31%), PGR beta (56%), PAX2 (38%), NKX2-3 (63%), OLIG2 (63%), HAND1 (63%), ECAD (88%), CDH13 (44%), MLH1 (0%), and p16 (6%). In human melanoma cell lines, hypomethylation of MAGEA1 (44%), maspin (25%), LINE-1 (75%), and Alu (13%) is frequently observed. We analyzed a panel of cell lines for BRAF V600E and NRAS codon 61 mutations. In melanoma cell lines, the BRAF and NRAS mutations had no association with aberrant methylation. We found that the cumulative aberrant hypermethylation of the gene promoters was correlated with the level of global DNA methylation. We conclude that aberrant hypermethylation, is frequent in melanoma cell lines, directly correlated with global DNA methylation, and independent of BRAF and NRAS mutations.

  8. On-line (HPLC-NMR) and off-line phytochemical profiling of the Australian plant, Lasiopetalum macrophyllum.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Michael; Urban, Sylvia

    2011-11-01

    On-line (HPLC-NMR) and off-line (HPLC, NMR and MS) methodologies were used to profile the constituents present in the crude extract of Lasiopetalum macrophyllum. On-flow and stop-flow HPLC-NMR supported the presence of trans-tiliroside and permitted partial identification of cis-tiliroside and 4'-methoxy-trans-tiliroside. Off-line isolation led to the unequivocal identification of four flavanoid glycosides including a new structural derivative, 4'-methoxy-cis-tiliroside. This is the first report of flavonoid glycosides occurring in this plant genus. In addition, a number of structure revisions have been proposed for previously reported flavonoid glycosides that were incorrectly assigned.

  9. On-line (HPLC-NMR) and off-line phytochemical profiling of the Australian plant, Lasiopetalum macrophyllum.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Michael; Urban, Sylvia

    2012-05-01

    On-line (HPLC-NMR) and off-line (HPLC, NMR and MS) methodologies were used to profile the constituents present in the crude extract of Lasiopetalum macrophyllum. On-flow and stop-flow HPLC-NMR supported the presence of trans-tiliroside and permitted partial identification of cis-tiliroside and 4'-methoxy-trans-tiliroside. Off-line isolation led to the unequivocal identification of four flavanoid glycosides including a new structural derivative, 4'-methoxycis-tiliroside. This is the first report of flavonoid glycosides occurring in this plant genus. In addition, a number of structure revisions have been proposed for previously reported flavonoid glycosides that were incorrectly assigned.

  10. X-RAY EMISSION LINE PROFILES FROM WIND CLUMP BOW SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ignace, R.; Waldron, W. L.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Burke, A. E. E-mail: wwaldron@satx.rr.com E-mail: burke.alexander@gmail.com

    2012-05-01

    The consequences of structured flows continue to be a pressing topic in relating spectral data to physical processes occurring in massive star winds. In a preceding paper, our group reported on hydrodynamic simulations of hypersonic flow past a rigid spherical clump to explore the structure of bow shocks that can form around wind clumps. Here we report on profiles of emission lines that arise from such bow shock morphologies. To compute emission line profiles, we adopt a two-component flow structure of wind and clumps using two 'beta' velocity laws. While individual bow shocks tend to generate double-horned emission line profiles, a group of bow shocks can lead to line profiles with a range of shapes with blueshifted peak emission that depends on the degree of X-ray photoabsorption by the interclump wind medium, the number of clump structures in the flow, and the radial distribution of the clumps. Using the two beta law prescription, the theoretical emission measure and temperature distribution throughout the wind can be derived. The emission measure tends to be power law, and the temperature distribution is broad in terms of wind velocity. Although restricted to the case of adiabatic cooling, our models highlight the influence of bow shock effects for hot plasma temperature and emission measure distributions in stellar winds and their impact on X-ray line profile shapes. Previous models have focused on geometrical considerations of the clumps and their distribution in the wind. Our results represent the first time that the temperature distribution of wind clump structures are explicitly and self-consistently accounted for in modeling X-ray line profile shapes for massive stars.

  11. ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han; Bertello, Luca E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu

    2013-04-10

    We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

  12. [Raman Lidar measuring tropospheric temperature profiles with many rotational Raman lines].

    PubMed

    Su, Jia; Zhang, Yin-chao; Hu, Shun-xing; Cao, Kai-fa; Zhao, Pei-tao; Wang, Shao-lin; Xie, Jun

    2008-08-01

    Due to lower tropospheric aerosols, the Rayleigh and vibrational Raman methods can't measure lower tropospheric temperature profiles accurately. By using N2 and O2 molecular pure rotational Raman scattering signals, lower tropospheric temperature profiles can be gained without influence of lower tropospheric aerosols. So we decide to use a pure rotational Raman Lidar to get lower tropospheric temperature profiles. At present, because the most light-splitting systems of pure rotational Raman Lidar measure temperature by gaining a single rotational Raman line, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of these Lidar systems are very low. So we design a new kind of Lidar light-splitting system which can sum different rotational Raman lines and it can improve SNR And we can find the sensitivity of the temperature of the ratios of multi rotational Raman lines is as same as single rotational Raman line's through theoretical analysis. Moreover, we can obtain the temperature profiles with good SNR fromthis new the system with a normal laser and a small telescope up to several kilometers. At last, with the new light-splitting system, the lower tropospheric temperature profiles are measured from 0.3 km to 5 km altitude. They agree well with radiosonde observations, which demonstrate the results of our rotational Raman lidar are reasonable.

  13. Change in center-limb profiles of faint Fraunhofer lines, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtovenko, E. A.; Kondrashova, N. N.

    1973-01-01

    The precise photoelectric center-to-limb observations of the ten very faint lines (d sub O 10%) were made, using a double-pass spectrograph. The profiles of more intensive (d sub O 10%) were made, using a double-pass spectrograph. The profiles of more intensive lines (35 d sub O 10%) undergo a center-to-limb change from the V-shaped form with very faint wings to the U-shaped one without appreciable wings. The equivalent width changes differently and in general satisfies no simplified photospheric scheme.

  14. Radial distribution studies on water soluble polymers using XRD line profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urs, G. Thejas; Prakash, M. B. Nanda; Ananda, H. T.; Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Pair correlation and line profile analyses of X-ray data obtained for some man-made polymers have been carried out in this report. Results obtained show that the pair correlation is pronounced in the region of 2Å and dies away for regions greater than 10Å in general for all the samples in the neighborhood of the point where X-rays are incident on the sample. Complementary to this study, line profile analysis shows that the crystallite size and strain obtained from Williamson-Hall plot method in these polymers do change significantly. This information is in no way connected to the results of pair correlation study.

  15. Energetic ion, atom, and molecule reactions and excitation in low-current H2 discharges: H(alpha) Doppler profiles.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Z Lj; Phelps, A V

    2009-12-01

    Absolute spectral emissivities for Doppler broadened H(alpha) profiles are measured and compared with predictions of energetic hydrogen ion, atom, and molecule behavior in low-current electrical discharges in H2 at very high electric field E to gas density N ratios E/N and low values of Nd , where d is the parallel-plate electrode separation. These observations reflect the energy and angular distributions for the excited atoms and quantitatively test features of multiple-scattering kinetic models in weakly ionized hydrogen in the presence of an electric field that are not tested by the spatial distributions of H(alpha) emission. Absolute spectral intensities agree well with predictions. Asymmetries in Doppler profiles observed parallel to the electric field at 4profiles are consistent with models of reactions among H+, H2+, H3 , H, and H2 leading to fast H atoms and then fast excited H(n=3) atoms. PMID:20365280

  16. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-10

    If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.

  17. Prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha inhibit growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III with simultaneous stimulation of cyclic AMP production.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Chiba, T; Yamatani, T; Yamaguchi, A; Inui, T; Morishita, T; Kadowaki, S; Fujita, T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III were investigated. PGE2 as well as PGF2 alpha significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the growth of this gastric carcinoma cell line (PGE2 greater than PGF2 alpha). This inhibition of cell growth by the PGs was associated with the increase in cyclic AMP production (PGE2 greater than PGF2 alpha), whereas inositol-phospholipid turnover was not affected by either PGE2 or PGF2 alpha as assessed by the formation of 3H-inositol phosphates. Furthermore, the proliferation of these gastric carcinoma cells was also suppressed by the administration of forskolin as well as of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha inhibit the growth of cultured human gastric carcinoma cells KATO III via stimulation of cyclic AMP production. PMID:2536452

  18. The mucosal T cell integrin alpha M290 beta 7 recognizes a ligand on mucosal epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K; Kilshaw, P J

    1993-07-01

    The integrin alpha M290 beta 7 is expressed at high levels on mucosal T cells, particularly on those within the epithelium of the gut. We now report that a mouse T cell hybridoma, MTC-1, with similar surface expression of this molecule, adhered strongly to cells of the mouse rectal carcinoma line CMT93 and that adhesion was blocked completely by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) M290. Other mAb to the alpha M290 or beta 7 subunits had little or no inhibitory effect. M290 also inhibited adhesion of the hybridoma to cells of the mouse lung carcinomas CTM64/61 and KLN205 but had little or no effect on adhesion to seven other mouse epithelial cell lines or to the human colon carcinoma line, HT29. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) isolated from the small intestine of BALB/c mice displayed potent T cell receptor-dependent cytotoxic effector function against CMT93 in the presence of low concentrations of Phytolacca americana lectin. This cytotoxic activity also was inhibited by the M290 mAb. Treatment of CMT93 cells with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma induced expression de novo of ICAM-1 and reduced the inhibitory effect of M290 in tests both for adhesion and cytotoxicity. In further experiments cytotoxic activity of IEL against the mastocytoma P815 was investigated. This target cell was considered not to possess a ligand for the integrin. In this case cytotoxic effector function was triggered by anti-CD3 mAb and, in contrast to results with CMT93, target cell lysis was increased in the presence of M290 and other antibodies to the integrin, suggesting a co-stimulatory effect. These results show that alpha M290 beta 7 recognizes a ligand on the surface of certain epithelial cell lines. Further, they provide the first clear indication that this integrin may play an important role in functional interactions between T cells and the mucosal epithelium.

  19. Variability of Solar UV Irradiance Related to Bright Magnetic Features Observed in Call K-Line: Relationship between Lyman alpha and K-line Report for UARS funding agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Cameron, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In this report we comment on the relationship between the Lyman alpha and Calcium K-line emission from the Sun. We firstly examine resolved Lyman alpha images (from TRACE) and resolved K-line images. We find that the Lyman alpha emission is consistent with a linear dependence on the K-line emission. As this is in conflict with the analysis of Johannesson et al.(1995, 1998) we proceed by comparing the disk integrated Lyman alpha flux as a function of ratio between the disk integrated Mg II core and wing fluxes (Johannesson et al (1998) having previously found a linear dependence between this index and the BBSO K-line index). We find that a reasonably good fit can be obtained, however note the discrepancies which lead Johannesson et al to consider the square root relationship. We suggest an alternative interpretation of the discrepancy.

  20. K{alpha} x-ray satellite lines of Si induced in collisions with 1-3-MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Kavcic, Matjaz

    2003-08-01

    The K{alpha} x-ray emission spectra of Si bombarded by 1-3-MeV protons were measured with a crystal spectrometer in Johansson geometry, enabling energy resolution below the natural linewidth of the measured K{alpha} line. The K{alpha}L{sup 1} and K{alpha}L{sup 2} (K{alpha}L{sup 1,2}) x-ray satellite lines appearing in these spectra as a result of the radiative decay of atomic states with one hole in the K shell and one or two in the L subshells were precisely measured. The energies and intensities of the main components that could be resolved within the satellite lines are given. It has been demonstrated that the latter do not depend on proton energy and are essentially the same as in photon-induced spectra. The overall K{alpha}L{sup 1} satellite intensity relative to the K{alpha} diagram line has been used to deduce the L-shell ionization probabilities induced in near-central proton collisions. The experimental values were compared to the theoretical values calculated with the semiclassical approximation, with the three-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo model, and the classical binary-encounter-based geometrical model.

  1. SUPERNOVA RESONANCE-SCATTERING LINE PROFILES IN THE ABSENCE OF A PHOTOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Brian; Baron, E.; Branch, David; Chen Bin; Parrent, Jerod T.; Thomas, R. C.

    2012-11-15

    In supernova (SN) spectroscopy relatively little attention has been given to the properties of optically thick spectral lines in epochs following the photosphere's recession. Most treatments and analyses of post-photospheric optical spectra of SNe assume that forbidden-line emission comprises most if not all spectral features. However, evidence exists that suggests that some spectra exhibit line profiles formed via optically thick resonance-scattering even months or years after the SN explosion. To explore this possibility, we present a geometrical approach to SN spectrum formation based on the 'Elementary Supernova' model, wherein we investigate the characteristics of resonance-scattering in optically thick lines while replacing the photosphere with a transparent central core emitting non-blackbody continuum radiation, akin to the optical continuum provided by decaying {sup 56}Co formed during the explosion. We develop the mathematical framework necessary for solving the radiative transfer equation under these conditions and calculate spectra for both isolated and blended lines. Our comparisons with analogous results from the Elementary Supernova code SYNOW reveal several marked differences in line formation. Most notably, resonance lines in these conditions form P Cygni-like profiles, but the emission peaks and absorption troughs shift redward and blueward, respectively, from the line's rest wavelength by a significant amount, despite the spherically symmetric distribution of the line optical depth in the ejecta. These properties and others that we find in this work could lead to misidentification of lines or misattribution of properties of line-forming material at post-photospheric times in SN optical spectra.

  2. Modeling X-ray emission line profiles from massive star winds - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignace, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes have led to numerous advances in the study and understanding of astrophysical X-ray sources. Particularly important has been the much increased spectral resolution of modern X-ray instrumentation. Wind-broadened emission lines have been spectroscopically resolved for many massive stars. This contribution reviews approaches to the modeling of X-ray emission line profile shapes from single stars, including smooth winds, winds with clumping, optically thin versus thick lines, and the effect of a radius-dependent photoabsorption coefficient.

  3. Observations and analysis of O(1D) and NH2 line profiles for the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Scherb, Frank

    1995-01-01

    A set of high-resolution Fabry-Perot measurements of the coma of comet P/Halley was acquired in the (O I) 6300 A and NH2 6298.62 A emission lines. These high-resolution measurements provide the first optical observations capable of studying directly the photochemical kinetics and dynamic outflow of the coma. The observations were analyzed by a Monte Carlo Particle Trajectory Model. The agreement of the model and observed line profiles was excellent and verified the underlying dynamics, exothermic photodissociative chemistry, and collisional thermalization in the coma. The somewhat wider intrinsic line profile width for the O(1D) emission in 1986 January compared to 1986 May, is, for example, produced by the larger outflow speeds and gas temperatures nearer perihelion in January. The January O(1D) profile, which is wider than the January NH2 profile, is indicative of the photochemical kinetics in the dissociation of the parent molecules H2O and OH in the coma. The absolute calibration of the observations in 1986 January allowed the production rates for H2O and the NH2-parent molecules to be determined. The average daily water production rates derived from the O(1D) emission data for January 16 and 17 are presented. These very large water production rates are consistent with the extrapolated (and 7.6 day time variable) water production rates determined from the analysis of lower spectral resolution observations for O(1D) and H-alpha emissions that covered the time period up to January 13. The large production rates on January 16 and 17 establish that the maximum water production rate for comet Halley accurred pre-perihelion in January. Implications drawn from comparison with 18 cm radio emission data in January suggest that the peak water production rate was even larger. The average production rate for NH3 determined from the NH2 emission data for January 17 was (1.48 +/- 0.10) x 10(exp 28) molecules/s, yielding an NH3/H2O production rate ratio of 0.55%.

  4. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  5. Observations of gamma-ray line profiles from SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Teegarden, B. J.; Leventhal, M.

    1990-01-01

    Fully resolved gamma-ray line observations from the decay of Co-56 in SN 1987A are presented. Data are from the first two balloon flights of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer. On day 433 (after the initial optical sighting) the 847 and 1238 keV lines from Co-56 were observed at 2.3 and 4.3 sigma significance. On day 613, the lines at 847, 1238, and 2599 keV were observed at 4.6, 3.4, and 1.9 sigma, respectively. The combined significance for the three-line complex in both flights is 7.8 sigma. Gaussian profiles yield acceptable least-squares fits to the lines. The line profiles are centered on the red side of the rest energy with typical velocity dispersions of about 3500 km/s FWHM, consistent with an optically thin source, but the line intensities are less than about 30 percent of those produced by the 0.075 solar mass of Co-56 determined from the bolometric light curve.

  6. THE Ly{alpha} LINES OF H I AND He II: A DIFFERENTIAL HANLE EFFECT FOR EXPLORING THE MAGNETISM OF THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Stepan, Jiri; Belluzzi, Luca E-mail: stepan@iac.es

    2012-02-10

    The Ly{alpha} line of He II at 304 Angstrom-Sign is one of the spectral lines of choice for EUV channels of narrowband imagers on board space telescopes, which provide spectacular intensity images of the outer solar atmosphere. Since the magnetic field information is encoded in the polarization of the spectral line radiation, it is important to investigate whether the He II line radiation from the solar disk can be polarized, along with its magnetic sensitivity. Here we report some theoretical predictions concerning the linear polarization signals produced by scattering processes in this strong emission line of the solar transition region, taking into account radiative transfer and the Hanle effect caused by the presence of organized and random magnetic fields. We find that the fractional polarization amplitudes are significant ({approx}1%), even when considering the wavelength-integrated signals. Interestingly, the scattering polarization of the Ly{alpha} line of He II starts to be sensitive to the Hanle effect for magnetic strengths B {approx}> 100 G (i.e., for magnetic strengths of the order of and larger than the Hanle saturation field of the hydrogen Ly{alpha} line at 1216 Angstrom-Sign ). We therefore propose simultaneous observations of the scattering polarization in both Ly{alpha} lines to facilitate magnetic field measurements in the upper solar chromosphere. Even the development of a narrowband imaging polarimeter for the He II 304 Angstrom-Sign line alone would be already of great diagnostic value for probing the solar transition region.

  7. Microvariability of line profiles in the spectra of OB stars: III. The supergiant ρ LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.; Fabrika, S. N.; Burlakova, T. E.; Valyavin, G. G.; Chuntonov, G. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Kang, D.; Yushkin, M. V.; Galazutdinov, G. A.

    2007-11-01

    We observed the bright supergiant ρ Leo (B1 lab) in January-February 2004 using the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia) and the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). 47 spectra with high time resolution (4-10 min), signal-to-noise ratios 300-1000, and spectral resolutions 45 000-60 000 were obtained. We detected variability in the HeI, SiII, SiIII, and NII line profiles, which may be due to rotational modulation of the profiles and photospheric pulsations of ρ Leo. The possible influence of the stellar magnetic field on the line-profile variations is discussed.

  8. Dispersion corrections to the Gaussian profile describing the Doppler broadening of spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójtewicz, S.; Wcisło, P.; Lisak, D.; Ciuryło, R.

    2016-04-01

    A dispersionally corrected Gaussian profile describing Doppler-broadened spectral line shapes is presented. Proposed corrections include the frequency dependence of the Doppler shifting caused by dispersion as well as by light frequency variation over the whole spectral line shape. It is shown that the frequency dependence of the Doppler shifting can have a non-negligible influence on the line-shape model and can affect the line shape even at the relative level of 10-5. Moreover, this effect also influences the determination of the line position at the level of kilohertz. Finally, the impact of the presented results on the Doppler width thermometry and precise molecular spectroscopy for fundamental studies is emphasized.

  9. Line printing solution-processable small molecules with uniform surface profile via ink-jet printer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Tan, Wanyi; Zhu, Xuhui; Wang, Jian; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Line printing offers a feasible approach to remove the pixel well structure which is widely used to confine the ink-jet printed solution. In the study, a uniform line is printed by an ink-jet printer. To achieve a uniform surface profile of the printed line, 10vol% low-volatile solvent DMA (3,4-Dimethylanisole) is mixed with high-volatile solvent Pxy (p-xylene) as the solvent. After a solution-processable small molecule is dissolved, the surface tension of DMA solution becomes lower than that of Pxy solution, which creates an inward Marangoni flow during the solvent evaporation. The inward Marangoni flow balances out the outward capillary flow, thereby forming a flat film surface. The line width of the printed line depends on the contact angle of the solution on the hole injection layer.

  10. Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W. S.; Kruglikov, I. L.

    1992-01-01

    Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed.

  11. THE HANLE EFFECT OF THE HYDROGEN Ly{alpha} LINE FOR PROBING THE MAGNETISM OF THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Stepan, JirI; Casini, Roberto E-mail: stepan@iac.es

    2011-09-01

    We present some theoretical predictions concerning the amplitude and magnetic sensitivity of the linear-polarization signals produced by scattering processes in the hydrogen Ly{alpha} line of the solar transition region. To this end, we have calculated the atomic-level polarization (population imbalances and quantum coherences) induced by anisotropic radiation pumping in semiempirical and hydrodynamical models of the solar atmosphere, taking into account radiative transfer and the Hanle effect caused by the presence of organized and random magnetic fields. The line-center amplitudes of the emergent linear-polarization signals are found to vary typically between 0.1% and 1%, depending on the scattering geometry and the strength and orientation of the magnetic field. The results shown here encourage the development of UV polarimeters for sounding rockets and space telescopes with the aim of opening up a diagnostic window for magnetic field measurements in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun.

  12. Detection of a LY alpha Emission-Line Companion to the z=4.69 Quasar BR 1202$-0725

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Esther M.; McMahon, Richard G.; Egami, Eiichi

    1996-03-01

    We report the detection of a nearby emission-line companion to the z = 4.695 quasar BR 1202-0725. Deep narrowband exposures on this field from the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope show a Ly alpha flux of 1.5 x 10-16 ergs cm-2 s-1. High-resolution imaging in the F814W filter band with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) shows continuum structure near the emission position, at 2."6 northwest of the quasar, corresponding to a projected separation of ~7.5 h-1 kpc for q0 = 0.5, where h ≡ H0/100 km s-1 Mpc-1. We discuss possible explanations for the combined line and color properties. The ionization is most likely produced by the quasar, but, if due to underlying star formation, would require a star formation rate of ~7 h-2 M⊙ yr-1.

  13. New pterocarpanquinones: synthesis, antineoplasic activity on cultured human malignant cell lines and TNF-alpha modulation in human PBMC cells.

    PubMed

    Netto, Chaquip D; da Silva, Alcides J M; Salustiano, Eduardo J S; Bacelar, Thiago S; Riça, Ingred G; Cavalcante, Moises C M; Rumjanek, Vivian M; Costa, Paulo R R

    2010-02-15

    A new pterocarpanquinone (5a) was synthesized through a palladium catalyzed oxyarylation reaction and was transformed, through electrophilic substitution reaction, into derivatives 5b-d. These compounds showed to be active against human leukemic cell lines and human lung cancer cell lines. Even multidrug resistant cells were sensitive to 5a, which presented low toxicity toward peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cells and decreased the production of TNF-alpha by these cells. In the laboratory these pterocarpanquinones were reduced by sodium dithionite in the presence of thiophenol at physiological pH, as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoredutase-1 (NQO1) catalyzed two-electron reduction, and the resulting hydroquinone undergo structural rearrangements, leading to the formation of Michael acceptors, which were intercepted as adducts of thiophenol. These results suggest that these compounds could be activated by bioreduction. PMID:20117936

  14. Spectral Line-Shape Model to Replace the Voigt Profile in Spectroscopic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisak, Daniel; Ngo, Ngoc Hoa; Tran, Ha; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    The standard description of molecular line shapes in spectral databases and radiative transfer codes is based on the Voigt profile. It is well known that its simplified assumptions of absorber free motion and independence of collisional parameters from absorber velocity lead to systematic errors in analysis of experimental spectra, and retrieval of gas concentration. We demonstrate1,2 that the partially correlated quadratic speed-dependent hardcollision profile3. (pCqSDHCP) is a good candidate to replace the Voigt profile in the next generations of spectroscopic databases. This profile takes into account the following physical effects: the Doppler broadening, the pressure broadening and shifting of the line, the velocity-changing collisions, the speed-dependence of pressure broadening and shifting, and correlations between velocity- and phase/state-changing collisions. The speed-dependence of pressure broadening and shifting is incorporated into the pCqSDNGP in the so-called quadratic approximation. The velocity-changing collisions lead to the Dicke narrowing effect; however in many cases correlations between velocityand phase/state-changing collisions may lead to effective reduction of observed Dicke narrowing. The hard-collision model of velocity-changing collisions is also known as the Nelkin-Ghatak model or Rautian model. Applicability of the pCqSDHCP for different molecular systems was tested on calculated and experimental spectra of such molecules as H2, O2, CO2, H2O in a wide span of pressures. For all considered systems, pCqSDHCP is able to describe molecular spectra at least an order of magnitude better than the Voigt profile with all fitted parameters being linear with pressure. In the most cases pCqSDHCP can reproduce the reference spectra down to 0.2% or better, which fulfills the requirements of the most demanding remote-sensing applications. An important advantage of pCqSDHCP is that a fast algorithm for its computation was developedab4,5 and allows

  15. Absorption line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10(exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  16. Morphology and variability of helium line profiles in the P Cygni spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.

    1993-03-01

    Results are presented on a three-year study of the morphology and variability of 13 helium lines in the P Cygni optical spectrum. It was found that most lines in the P Cygni spectrum show profiles with a complicated structure: discrete components (with the most probable values for the velocity ranging from -140 to -180 km/s and from -200 to -220 km/s), which are superposed on a broader 'underlying' P Cygni profile. The central velocity of the helium discrete components is nearly the same for all lines in a given spectrum (sigma(v) = +/- 4 km/s). However, this velocity varies with time; the variations are qualitatively similar to those observed in other ions in the spectrum, e.g., HI (Markova, 1986, 1990), O II, Si III, and N II (Markova and Kolka, 1988), and Fe III (Lamers et al., 1985).

  17. Absorption-line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass-losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10 (exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  18. THE Lyα LINE PROFILES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: FAST WINDS AND LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Crystal L.; Wong, Joseph; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding −1000 km s{sup −1} in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1–1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  19. Thermonuclear Supernovae: Probing Magnetic Fields by Positrons and Late-time IR Line Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penney, R.; Hoeflich, P.

    2014-11-01

    We show the importance of γ and positron transport for the formation of late-time spectra in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The goal is to study the imprint of magnetic fields (B) on late-time IR line profiles, particularly the [Fe II] feature at 1.644 μm, which becomes prominent two to three months after the explosion. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass (M Ch) white dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model that can reproduce the light curves and spectra for a Branch-normal SN Ia. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 109 G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We show that positron transport effects must be taken into account for the interpretation of emission features starting at about one to two years after maximum light, depending on the size of B. The [Fe II] line profile and its evolution with time can be understood in terms of the overall energy input by radioactive decay and the transition from a γ-ray to a positron-dominated regime. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 μm can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. At later times, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. After about day 300, the line profile allows one to probe the size of the B-field. The profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B at about day 500. In the presence of a large-scale dipole field, a broad line is produced in M Ch mass explosions that may appear flat-topped or rounded depending on the inclination at which the SN is observed. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. We note that narrow-line profiles require central 56Ni as shown in our previous studies. Persistent broad-line, flat-topped profiles require high-density burning, which is the signature of a WD close to M Ch. Good time coverage is required to separate the effects of optical

  20. Thermonuclear supernovae: probing magnetic fields by positrons and late-time IR line profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, R.; Hoeflich, P. E-mail: rpenney@g.clemson.edu

    2014-11-01

    We show the importance of γ and positron transport for the formation of late-time spectra in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The goal is to study the imprint of magnetic fields (B) on late-time IR line profiles, particularly the [Fe II] feature at 1.644 μm, which becomes prominent two to three months after the explosion. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass (M {sub Ch}) white dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model that can reproduce the light curves and spectra for a Branch-normal SN Ia. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 10{sup 9} G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We show that positron transport effects must be taken into account for the interpretation of emission features starting at about one to two years after maximum light, depending on the size of B. The [Fe II] line profile and its evolution with time can be understood in terms of the overall energy input by radioactive decay and the transition from a γ-ray to a positron-dominated regime. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 μm can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. At later times, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. After about day 300, the line profile allows one to probe the size of the B-field. The profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B at about day 500. In the presence of a large-scale dipole field, a broad line is produced in M {sub Ch} mass explosions that may appear flat-topped or rounded depending on the inclination at which the SN is observed. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. We note that narrow-line profiles require central {sup 56}Ni as shown in our previous studies. Persistent broad-line, flat-topped profiles require high-density burning, which is the signature of a WD close to M {sub Ch}. Good time coverage is required to

  1. Live image profiling of neural crest lineages in zebrafish transgenic lines.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jina; Park, Ok Kyu; Jung, Yoo Jung; Hwang, Byung Joon; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Kee, Yun

    2013-03-01

    Zebrafish transgenic lines are important experimental tools for lineage tracing and imaging studies. It is crucial to precisely characterize the cell lineages labeled in transgenic lines to understand their limitations and thus properly interpret the data obtained from their use; only then can we confidently select a line appropriate for our particular research objectives. Here we profiled the cell lineages labeled in the closely related neural crest transgenic lines Tg(foxd3:GFP), Tg(sox10:eGFP) and Tg(sox10:mRFP). These fish were crossed to generate embryos, in which foxd3 and sox10 transgenic neural crest labeling could be directly compared at the cellular level using live confocal imaging. We have identified key differences in the cell lineages labeled in each line during early neural crest development and demonstrated that the most anterior cranial neural crest cells initially migrating out of neural tube at the level of forebrain and anterior midbrain express sox10:eGFP and sox10:mRFP, but not foxd3:GFP. This differential profile was robustly maintained in the differentiating progeny of the neural crest lineages until 3.5dpf. Our data will enable researchers to make an informed choice in selecting transgenic lines for future neural crest research.

  2. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer. PMID:26218769

  3. Photoelectric photometry of diffuse gaseous nebulae in the H-alpha line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, J.-L.

    1980-04-01

    Results are given of the H-alpha photometry of diffuse gaseous nebulae observed with a nebula photometer attached to the 60-cm reflector of the Pic du Midi Observatory. Isophote maps are given for the following objects: the Orion nebula, the Rosette nebula, IC 410, IC 434 and NGC 2024, and M 8 (NGC 6523); several scans are presented for NGC 6514, NGC 7000, and Barnard's Loop. In cases where the spherical model approximation may be performed, the variation of electron density with radius was determined; for the Rosette nebula a steeper decrease toward the center than previously established was found.

  4. Radial dependence of line profile variability in seven O9-B0.5 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Marcolino, W.; Hillier, D. J.; Donati, J.-F.; Bouret, J.-C.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Massive stars show a variety of spectral variabilities: discrete absorption components in UV P-Cygni profiles, optical line profile variability, X-ray variability, and radial velocity modulations. Aims: Our goal is to study the spectral variability of single OB stars to better understand the relation between photospheric and wind variability. For that, we rely on high spectral resolution and on high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra collected with the spectrograph NARVAL on the Télescope Bernard Lyot at Pic du Midi. Methods: We investigated the variability of twelve spectral lines by means of the temporal variance spectrum. The selected lines probe the radial structure of the atmosphere from the photosphere to the outer wind. We also performed a spectroscopic analysis with atmosphere models to derive the stellar and wind properties and to constrain the formation region of the selected lines. Results: We show that variability is observed in the wind lines of all bright giants and supergiants on a daily timescale. Lines formed in the photosphere are sometimes variable, sometimes not. The dwarf stars do not show any sign of variability. If variability is observed on a daily timescale, it can also (but not always) be observed on hourly timescales, albeit with lower amplitude. There is a very clear correlation between amplitude of the variability and fraction of the line formed in the wind. Strong anti-correlations between the different parts of the temporal variance spectrum are observed. Conclusions: Our results indicate that variability is stronger in lines formed in the wind. A link between photospheric and wind variability is not obvious from our study, since wind variability is observed regardless of the level of photospheric variability. Different photospheric lines also show different degrees of variability. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Line profiles of water for the non-uniform density distribution in a cometary coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szutowicz, S.

    2014-07-01

    Observations and modeling of the molecular lines provide powerful diagnostics of the physical conditions in a cometary coma such as the density and the velocity structure. The pure rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water for several comets has been recently successfully provided by the Herschel space telescope. The rotational lines of water are optically thick. The water line shapes and the OTF maps taken with the high-resolution instrument Herschel/HIFI allowed to localize an active region on the nucleus of comet 10P/Tempel 2, close to its pole [1]. The evidence of anisotropic outgassing of comets may be interpreted with models of non-uniform distribution of activity. A numerical model for the simulation of water line emission in cometary coma is presented. The model is based on a non-uniform density distribution and the escape probability method for treating radiative transfer. The excitation model includes collisions with water and electrons, and infrared pumping. The equations of statistical equilibrium are solved in all cells of the coma with constant properties like density, temperature, and expansion velocity. The gas density profile in the regions of enhanced activity is described by a density function for emission into the cone. The density within the cone can be constant or vary as a function of the angle with respect to the outgassing axis. The outgassing pattern model assumes also the isotropic emission or uniform emission outside the cone where the temperature, the density and the expansion velocity can differ from those within the cone. Two different parts of the coma (material inside the cone and outside it) are radiatively coupled, thus the integrated mean intensity depends also on the non-local contributions to the radiation field. Synthetic line profiles of water (ground-level rotational transition) as seen with different telescope beams (e.g., Herschel, or MIRO - the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter) are computed at various

  6. Effects of culture media on metabolic profiling of the human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zicheng; Shao, Wei; Gu, Jinping; Hu, Xiaomin; Shi, Yuanzhi; Xu, Wenqi; Huang, Caihua; Lin, Donghai

    2015-07-01

    Cell culture metabolomics has demonstrated significant advantages in cancer research. However, its applications have been impeded by some influencing factors such as culture media, which could significantly affect cellular metabolic profiles and lead to inaccuracy and unreliability of comparative metabolomic analysis of cells. To evaluate the effects of different culture media on cellular metabolic profiling, we performed NMR-based metabolomic analysis of the human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 cultured in both RPMI1640 and DMEM. We found that SGC7901 cultured in the two media exhibited distinct metabolic profiles with obviously different levels of discrepant metabolites, even though they showed almost the same cellular morphology and proliferation rates. When SGC7901 originally cultured in RPMI1640 was gradually acclimated in DMEM, both the metabolic profiles and most of the discrepant metabolite levels gradually converged toward those of the cells originally cultured in DMEM without significantly altered cell proliferation rates. However, several metabolite levels did not show the converging trends. Our results indicate that the effects of culture media on metabolic profiling must be carefully taken into account for comparative metabolomic analysis of cell lines. This work may be of benefit to the development of cell culture metabolomics.

  7. Stark broadening for diagnostics of the electron density in non-equilibrium plasma utilizing isotope hydrogen alpha lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lin; Tan, Xiaohua; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Qian, Muyang; Li, Gongping

    2014-04-28

    Two Stark broadening parameters including FWHM (full width at half maximum) and FWHA (full width at half area) of isotope hydrogen alpha lines are simultaneously introduced to determine the electron density of a pulsed vacuum arc jet. To estimate the gas temperature, the rotational temperature of the C{sub 2} Swan system is fit to 2500 ± 100 K. A modified Boltzmann-plot method with b{sub i}-factor is introduced to determine the modified electron temperature. The comparison between results of atomic and ionic lines indicates the jet is in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electron temperature is close to 13 000 ± 400 K. Based on the computational results of Gig-Card calculation, a simple and precise interpolation algorithm for the discrete-points tables can be constructed to obtain the traditional n{sub e}-T{sub e} diagnostic maps of two Stark broadening parameters. The results from FWHA formula by the direct use of FWHM = FWHA and these from the diagnostic map are different. It can be attributed to the imprecise FWHA formula form and the deviation between FWHM and FWHA. The variation of the reduced mass pair due to the non-equilibrium effect contributes to the difference of the results derived from two hydrogen isotope alpha lines. Based on the Stark broadening analysis in this work, a corrected method is set up to determine n{sub e} of (1.10 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, the reference reduced mass μ{sub 0} pair of (3.30 ± 0.82 and 1.65 ± 0.41), and the ion kinetic temperature of 7900 ± 1800 K.

  8. The effect of interferon-alpha on the ecto 5'-nucleotidase of human lymphoblastoid B-cell lines depends on the class of immunoglobulin secreted.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S M

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen immunoglobulin-secreting mycoplasma-free human cell lines were treated with increasing concentrations of lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in order to study the activity of their CD73 ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5'N), their rate of growth and their immunoglobulin (Ig) production. Although IFN-alpha did not immediately affect the activity of the 5'N on the cell plasma membranes, the class of Ig secreted by the cell lines determined whether culturing the cells in the presence of IFN-alpha gave a small increase in the 5'N enzyme activity (IgM), or had no effect (IgE), or showed a marked decrease in activity (IgG). The 5'N activity of two IgG4-secreting clones was more suppressed by IFN-alpha than that of the four IgG1-secreting clones. The clone with the highest 5'N was killed by IFN-alpha. A high 5'N activity inhibited the growth rate of the cells, since the rate of growth of the three IgG-producing lines with high 5'N was increased when their 5'N was inhibited by increasing concentrations of IFN-alpha. The growth rate of three other Ig-producing lines was uninhibited by up to 10(5) U/ml IFN-alpha, whereas the rest were partially or strongly inhibited. Excluding the clone which died, 10/11 lines or cultures increased their Ig/cell by a mean of 25% at 100 U/ml IFN-alpha; their total Ig production also increased despite any growth inhibition. One IgG-secreting clone decreased its Ig production at 100 U/ml IFN-alpha by 11%. The Ig/cell of 4/5 of the cell lines increased with IFN-alpha concentrations up to at least 10(4) U/ml. The increase in Ig/cell was not related to the class of Ig, the growth rate of the cells or the amount of 5'N. PMID:1937572

  9. Calculated resonance line profiles of [Mg II], [C II], and [Si IV] in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Avrett, E.; McKillop, S.; Landi, E.

    2013-12-20

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph space mission, launched 2013 June 27, is intended to study the structure of the solar chromosphere and the transition region between the chromosphere and corona. The spectral lines to be observed include the Mg II k line at 2796.5 Å, the C II 1334.5 Å line, and the Si IV line at 1393.8 Å, which are formed in the middle chromosphere, the upper chromosphere, and the lower transition region, respectively. Here we calculate the profiles of these lines from four models of the solar atmosphere, intended to represent the faint and mean internetwork, a network lane, and bright network. We show how the profiles change from the center of the solar disk toward the limb of the Sun and in response to outflows and inflows. These results are intended to cover the range of expected quiet-Sun observations and assist in their interpretation. We expect that the observations will lead to improvements in the models, which can then be used to estimate the required non-radiative heating in the different regions.

  10. Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan induces nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha production in a macrophage cell line: down regulation by taurine chloramine.

    PubMed Central

    Schuller-Levis, G B; Levis, W R; Ammazzalorso, M; Nosrati, A; Park, E

    1994-01-01

    Avirulent mycobacterium H37Ra lipoarabinomannan (LAM) elicited nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha in a dose-dependent manner in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. H37Ra LAM and recombinant gamma interferon were highly synergistic for NO production. The production of NO and the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated by H37Ra LAM plus recombinant gamma interferon in RAW 264.7 cells are inhibited by taurine chloramine. PMID:7927739

  11. Time evolution of a miniflare as seen in H-alpha, UV lines, and X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1994-01-01

    A miniflare that occurred in active region Hale 16896 on 1980 June 15 was observed in H-alpha, UV lines, and soft X-rays. These data allow us to analyze the flare emission and derive the energetics and dynamics of the chromospheric plasma involved. Our results indicate that the energy released by the miniflare was about 10(exp 28) ergs, about four orders of magnitude smaller than that of a large flare. However, hard X-rays (5.5-8.0 keV) were observed which indicated a plasma with temperature as high as 27 x 10(exp 6) K. The H-alpha wings, C IV, and X-rays all showed a short-lived and compact (3 sec x 3 sec) brightening in a location near the leading sunspot. At this location, small-scale changes in the magnetic field were observed from about 2 hr before to about 6 hr after the miniflare. Only very small velocities seem to have been associated with most of the event in H-alpha. The data are consistent with short and dense loops at temperatures above 10(exp 7) K which lost a large fraction of their energy via downward conduction through regions at the footpoints. Several secondary events appear to have been triggered by the miniflare along an arch filament which itself was not greatly affected. A number of much less energetic (10(exp 25)-10(exp 26) erg) events preceded and followed the mini-flare. One of these occurred 11 minutes after the mini-flare and displayed a highly Doppler-shifted signature from the foot-point of a C IV arch. This arch delineates the connection that existed between the location of the mini-flare and the location of secondary events triggered by the flare.

  12. Enhanced detection of hydraulically active fractures by temperature profiling in lined heated bedrock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehme, P. E.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Molson, J. W.; Greenhouse, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of borehole profiling using a temperature probe for identifying hydraulically active fractures in rock has improved due to the combination of two advances: improved temperature sensors, with resolution on the order of 0.001 °C, and temperature profiling within water inflated flexible impermeable liners used to temporarily seal boreholes from hydraulic cross-connection. The open-hole cross-connection effects dissipate after inflation, so that both the groundwater flow regime and the temperature distribution return to the ambient (background) condition. This paper introduces a third advancement: the use of an electrical heating cable that quickly increases the temperature of the entire static water column within the lined hole and thus places the entire borehole and its immediate vicinity into thermal disequilibrium with the broader rock mass. After heating for 4-6 h, profiling is conducted several times over a 24 h period as the temperature returns to background conditions. This procedure, referred to as the Active Line Source (ALS) method, offers two key improvements over prior methods. First, there is no depth limit for detection of fractures with flow. Second, both identification and qualitative comparison of evidence for ambient groundwater flow in fractures is improved throughout the entire test interval. The benefits of the ALS method are demonstrated by comparing results from two boreholes tested to depths of 90 and 120 m in a dolostone aquifer used for municipal water supply and in which most groundwater flow occurs in fractures. Temperature logging in the lined holes shows many fractures in the heterothermic zone both with and without heating, but only the ALS method shows many hydraulically active fractures in the deeper homothermic portion of the hole. The identification of discrete groundwater flow at many depths is supported by additional evidence concerning fracture occurrence, including continuous core visual inspection

  13. Heterologous protein expression by transimmortalized differentiated liver cell lines derived from transgenic mice (hepatomas/alpha 1 antitrypsin/ONC mouse).

    PubMed

    Dalemans, W; Perraud, F; Le Meur, M; Gerlinger, P; Courtney, M; Pavirani, A

    1990-07-01

    A number of therapeutic plasma proteins are synthesized by human hepatocytes. Since many of these proteins undergo liver-specific post-translational modifications which are required for full biological activity, it may therefore be necessary to develop hepatocyte-based expression systems for their production. Using transgenic mice we have developed a transimmortalisation technique for the isolation of differentiated hepatic cell lines, already engineered to secrete human alpha 1 antitrypsin (alpha 1 AT), a plasma protein which is produced mainly in liver cells. This was achieved by co-expression of the mouse c-myc proto-oncogene and a genomic copy of the human alpha 1 AT gene, both under the control of the human alpha 1 AT promoter. Transgenic mice carrying this construct developed hepatomas producing human alpha 1 AT. Under defined culture conditions, cell lines secreting active alpha 1 AT were derived from these tumours. These cells maintain a differentiated hepatic phenotype and continue to secrete human alpha 1 AT for at least 40 generations. PMID:2257132

  14. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Wilkins, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alpha- (α-) particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF) was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific. PMID:22619631

  15. Profiles of neutral lines emitted from weakly non-ideal helium plasmas produced in flashlamps

    SciTech Connect

    Vitel, Yves; El Bezzari, Mohammed; D'yachkov, Lev G.; Kurilenkov, Yuri K.

    1999-04-01

    High pressure helium arcs are created in linear flashlamps. Plasma diagnostics taking into account non-ideality effects, give on axis electron densities in the range 2 10{sup 17}-1.7 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and temperatures included between 20000 and 30000 K. In these conditions of dense plasmas, profiles of emitted neutral lines are recorded and compared with other experimental values and theoretical calculations.

  16. Selection and Characterization of [alpha]-Methyltryptophan-Resistant Lines of Lemna gibba Showing a Rapid Rate of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Y. Y.; Slovin, J. P.; Cohen, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Turnover rate is an important aspect of the regulation of plant processes by plant growth substances. To study turnover of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), two [alpha]-methyltryptophan-resistant lines (MTR1 and MTR2) of Lemna gibba were generated by nitrosomethyl urea treatment of an inbred line derived from L. gibba G-3. In this report we describe: (a) the development of a selection system using this near isogenic line of L. gibba; (b) techniques for chemical mutation of the lines and selection for [alpha]-methyltryptophan resistance; and (c) the partial characterization of the selected lines. MTR lines contained 3-fold higher levels of anthranilate synthase activity. The enzyme in the MTR lines required higher levels of tryptophan for feedback inhibition. MTR lines also contained 8-fold higher levels of tryptophan, 3-fold higher levels of free IAA, and similar levels of total IAA compared to the inbred line. Turnover rates in the inbred and selected lines were calculated, using the first-order rate equation, based on the decrease over time in isotopic enrichment of I3C6-IAA introduced into L. gibba during a 1-h pulse period. Isotope enrichment in IAA was determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both MTR lines had an approximately 10-fold higher rate of IAA turnover than the parent inbred line. PMID:12228344

  17. Method for measuring radial impurity emission profiles using correlations of line integrated signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-04-01

    A method of determining radial impurity emission profiles is outlined. The method uses correlations between line integrated signals and is based on the assumption of cylindrically symmetric fluctuations. Measurements at the reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R show that emission from impurities expected to be close to the edge is clearly different in raw as well as analyzed data to impurities expected to be more central. Best fitting of experimental data to simulated correlation coefficients yields emission profiles that are remarkably close to emission profiles determined using more conventional techniques. The radial extension of the fluctuations is small enough for the method to be used and bandpass filtered signals indicate that fluctuations below 10kHz are cylindrically symmetric. The novel method is not sensitive to vessel window attenuation or wall reflections and can therefore complement the standard methods in the impurity emission reconstruction procedure.

  18. Fourier-Doppler Imaging of Line Profile Variations in ζ Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankov, S.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Leister, N. V.

    2000-09-01

    We present, for the first time, the Fourier-Doppler Imaging (FDI) analysis of periodic line profile variations in a ζ Oph-type star. For this purpose we obtained, in the period from 1996 May 3 to May 5, a total of 242 high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of the Be star ζ Oph itself. Using the FDI technique, we examine the variations in both time and wavelength and complement it with time series analysis. This kind of analysis is valid for both the nonradial pulsator model and the rotation modulation model, but we discuss the results in terms of the former model, considering it the more likely explanation for the observed line profile variability. Two distinct groups of modes are detected: medium (4<=l~|m|<=8) and high-degree modes (which could be associated with 13<=l~|m|<=17). It is shown that the high-frequency oscillations were strongly confined to an equatorial belt narrower than 20° and that the line profile variability was caused predominantly by sectoral modes, although tesseral modes |m|=l-1 are not excluded in taking into account the effect of fast rotation. We discuss the modal nature of the waves with respect to the characteristic oscillation periods in the corotating frame and the high amplitude of the projected rotational velocity variations (~20 km s-1).

  19. A comparative study of SG-HMXBS and SFXTS using iron K-alpha line as a tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Pragati; Paul, Biswajit; Bozzo, Enrico

    2016-07-01

    We present a comparative study of classical supergiant HMXB and SFXT systems by making a detailed study of the variation of the equivalent width of iron k-alpha line with the absorption column density using out-of-eclipse observations from Suzaku, XMM, and Chandra (and taking care not to mix observations in different spectral states). Analysis of the entire archival Suzaku observations of these systems show that the equivalent width of SFXTs is significantly smaller compared to those of classical supergiant HMXBs even when the hydrogen column density of both are comparable. We discuss the results of the analysis in the light of two theories on SFXTS: the clumpy wind and the magnetic gating model. The findings are also used to make a comparison between these two systems as a class.

  20. Anti-lymphoproliferative activity of alpha-2-macroglobulin in the plasma of hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels and woodchucks.

    PubMed

    Sieckmann, Donna G; Jaffe, Howard; Golech, Susanne; Cai, DeCheng; Hallenbeck, John M; McCarron, Richard M

    2014-09-15

    Plasma from hibernating (HIB) woodchucks (Marmota monax) or 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) suppressed (3)H-thymidine uptake in mouse spleen cell cultures stimulated with Concanavalin A (ConA); plasma from non-hibernating animals were only slightly inhibitory. Maximum inhibition occurred when HIB plasma was added to the cultures prior to ConA. After HPLC size exclusion chromatography of the HIB ground squirrel plasma, a single fraction (fraction-14) demonstrated inhibitory activity. Assay of fraction-14 from 8 HIB squirrels showed inhibition ranging from 13 to 95%; inhibition was correlated to the time the squirrels were exposed to cold prior to hibernation. Western blot analysis showed the factor to be a large molecular weight protein (>300 kDa), and mass spectrometry identified sequences that were 100% homologous with alpha-2-macroglobulin from humans and other species. These findings indicate a hibernation-related protein that may be responsible for immune system down regulation.

  1. A bipolar outflow of ionized gas in K3-50A: H76 alpha radio recombination line and continuum observations of K3-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depree, C. G.; Goss, W. M.; Palmer, Patrick; Rubin, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The H II regions near K3-50 (G70.3 + 1.6) have been imaged at high angular resolution (approximately 1 sec .3) in the continuum and the recombination lines H76(sub alpha and He76(sub alpha) using the Very Large Array (VLA). The helium line is detected in only the brightest component K3-50A while the hydrogen line is detected in three components (K3-50A, B and C1). K3-50A shows a pronounced velocity gradient of approximately 150 km/sec/pc along its major axis (P.A. = 160 deg); in addition a wide range of line widths are observed, from 20 to 65 km/sec. Kinematics from the line data and the morphology of the continuum emission suggest that the ionized material associated with K3-50A is undergoing a high-velocity bipolar outflow.

  2. First evidence of non-Gaussian solar flare EUV spectral line profiles and accelerated non-thermal ion motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Context. The properties of solar flare plasma can be determined from the observation of optically thin lines. The emitting ion distribution determines the shape of the spectral line profile, with an isothermal Maxwellian ion distribution producing a Gaussian profile. Non-Gaussian line profiles may indicate more complex ion distributions. Aims: We investigate the possibility of determining flare-accelerated non-thermal ion and/or plasma velocity distributions. Methods: We study EUV spectral lines produced during a flare SOL2013-05-15T01:45 using the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The flare is located close to the eastern solar limb with an extended loop structure, allowing the different flare features: ribbons, hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints and the loop-top source to be clearly observed in UV, EUV and X-rays. EUV line spectroscopy is performed in seven different regions covering the flare. We study the line profiles of the isolated and unblended Fe XVI lines (λ262.9760 Å ) mainly formed at temperatures of ~2 to 4 MK. Suitable Fe XVI line profiles at one time close to the peak soft X-ray emission and free of directed mass motions are examined using: 1. a higher moments analysis, 2. Gaussian fitting, and 3. by fitting a kappa distribution line profile convolved with a Gaussian to account for the EIS instrumental profile. Results: Fe XVI line profiles in the flaring loop-top, HXR footpoint and ribbon regions can be confidently fitted with a kappa line profile with an extra variable κ, giving low, non-thermal κ values between 2 and 3.3. An independent higher moments analysis also finds that many of the spectral line kurtosis values are higher than the Gaussian value of 3, even with the presence of a broad Gaussian instrumental profile. Conclusions: A flare-accelerated non-thermal ion population could account for both the observed non-Gaussian line profiles, and for the Fe XVI "excess" broadening found from Gaussian fitting, if the emitting ions are interacting

  3. The implementation of non-Voigt line profiles in the HITRAN database: H2 case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, P.; Gordon, I. E.; Tran, H.; Tan, Y.; Hu, S.-M.; Campargue, A.; Kassi, S.; Romanini, D.; Hill, C.; Kochanov, R. V.; Rothman, L. S.

    2016-07-01

    Experimental capabilities of molecular spectroscopy and its applications nowadays require a sub-percent or even sub-per mille accuracy of the representation of the shapes of molecular transitions. This implies the necessity of using more advanced line-shape models which are characterized by many more parameters than a simple Voigt profile. It is a great challenge for modern molecular spectral databases to store and maintain the extended set of line-shape parameters as well as their temperature dependences. It is even more challenging to reliably retrieve these parameters from experimental spectra over a large range of pressures and temperatures. In this paper we address this problem starting from the case of the H2 molecule for which the non-Voigt line-shape effects are exceptionally pronounced. For this purpose we reanalyzed the experimental data reported in the literature. In particular, we performed detailed line-shape analysis of high-quality spectra obtained with cavity-enhanced techniques. We also report the first high-quality cavity-enhanced measurement of the H2 fundamental vibrational mode. We develop a correction to the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP) which adjusts the HTP to the particular model of the velocity-changing collisions. This allows the measured spectra to be better represented over a wide range of pressures. The problem of storing the HTP parameters in the HITRAN database together with their temperature dependences is also discussed.

  4. Large-Scale Profiling of Kinase Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, James; Ryan, Colm J.; Brough, Rachel; Bajrami, Ilirjana; Pemberton, Helen N.; Chong, Irene Y.; Costa-Cabral, Sara; Frankum, Jessica; Gulati, Aditi; Holme, Harriet; Miller, Rowan; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Rafiq, Rumana; Wei, Wenbin; Williamson, Chris T.; Quigley, David A.; Tym, Joe; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Fenton, Timothy; Natrajan, Rachael; Strauss, Sandra J.; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary One approach to identifying cancer-specific vulnerabilities and therapeutic targets is to profile genetic dependencies in cancer cell lines. Here, we describe data from a series of siRNA screens that identify the kinase genetic dependencies in 117 cancer cell lines from ten cancer types. By integrating the siRNA screen data with molecular profiling data, including exome sequencing data, we show how vulnerabilities/genetic dependencies that are associated with mutations in specific cancer driver genes can be identified. By integrating additional data sets into this analysis, including protein-protein interaction data, we also demonstrate that the genetic dependencies associated with many cancer driver genes form dense connections on functional interaction networks. We demonstrate the utility of this resource by using it to predict the drug sensitivity of genetically or histologically defined subsets of tumor cell lines, including an increased sensitivity of osteosarcoma cell lines to FGFR inhibitors and SMAD4 mutant tumor cells to mitotic inhibitors. PMID:26947069

  5. Berry phases and profiles of line wings and rainbow satellites induced by optical collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuryło, R.; Szudy, J.; Baylis, W. E.

    2015-09-01

    The concept of Berry phase is included in an analysis of the intensity distribution in far wings of pressure-broadened spectral lines emitted or absorbed by atoms placed in an external cone-rotating electric field. Particular attention is focused on frequency regions where rainbow satellite bands appear. A classical-path treatment that employs the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is used to derive an expression for the line shape, and it uses a dipole transition moment calculated with quasimolecular wave functions given by the Berry version of the adiabatic approximation. It is found that in the presence of an external rotating electric field, the intensity distribution in far wings can be expressed in terms of the universal line shape function of the unified Franck-Condon theory once energy shifts due to Stark and Berry effects are taken into account. We show that the influence of Berry phase in the profiles of the far wings can be manifested either in the form of deviations of observed profiles from the quasistatic distribution or the appearance of additional features in the vicinity of the maximum of the rainbow satellite band. As an example, the modification of the rainbow satellite at 162.3 nm in the red wing of the self-broadened Lyman-α line of hydrogen, caused by an external rotating electric field, is considered.

  6. Expression profile of hypothalamic neuropeptides in chicken lines selected for high or low residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sintubin, P; Greene, E; Collin, A; Bordas, A; Zerjal, T; Tesseraud, S; Buyse, J; Dridi, S

    2014-08-01

    The R(+) and R(-) chicken lines have been divergently selected for high (R(+)) or low (R(-)) residual feed intake. For the same body weight and egg production, the R(+) chickens consume 40% more food than their counterparts R(-) lines. In the present study we sought to determine the hypothalamic expression profile of feeding-related neuropeptides in these lines maintained under fed or food-deprived conditions. In the fed condition, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was 17-fold lower (P<0.05) and the ghrelin receptor was 7-fold higher (P<0.05) in R(+) compared to R(-) chicken lines. The hypothalamic expression of the other studied genes remained unchanged between the two lines. In the fasted state, orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide were more responsive, with higher significant levels in the R(+) compared to R(-) chickens, while no significant differences were seen for the anorexigenic neuropeptides pro-opiomelanocortin and corticotropin releasing hormone. Interestingly, C-reactive protein, adiponectin receptor 1 and ghrelin receptor gene expression were significantly higher (12-, 2- and 3-folds, respectively), however ghrelin and melanocortin 5 receptor mRNA levels were lower (4- and 2-folds, P=0.05 and P=0.03, respectively) in R(+) compared to R(-) animals. We identified several key feeding-related genes that are differently expressed in the hypothalamus of R(+) and R(-) chickens and that might explain the difference in feed intake observed between the two lines.

  7. Generation and gene expression profiling of 48 transcription-factor-inducible mouse embryonic stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Nishiyama, Akira; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into a wide range – and possibly all cell types in vitro, and thus provide an ideal platform to study systematically the action of transcription factors (TFs) in cell differentiation. Previously, we have generated and analyzed 137 TF-inducible mouse ESC lines. As an extension of this “NIA Mouse ESC Bank,” we generated and characterized 48 additional mouse ESC lines, in which single TFs in each line could be induced in a doxycycline-controllable manner. Together, with the previous ESC lines, the bank now comprises 185 TF-manipulable ESC lines (>10% of all mouse TFs). Global gene expression (transcriptome) profiling revealed that the induction of individual TFs in mouse ESCs for 48 hours shifts their transcriptomes toward specific differentiation fates (e.g., neural lineages by Myt1 Isl1, and St18; mesodermal lineages by Pitx1, Pitx2, Barhl2, and Lmx1a; white blood cells by Myb, Etv2, and Tbx6, and ovary by Pitx1, Pitx2, and Dmrtc2). These data also provide and lists of inferred target genes of each TF and possible functions of these TFs. The results demonstrate the utility of mouse ESC lines and their transcriptome data for understanding the mechanism of cell differentiation and the function of TFs. PMID:27150017

  8. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN MACROTURBULENT BROADENING AND LINE-PROFILE VARIATIONS IN OB SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon-Diaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Castro, N.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Puls, J.

    2010-09-10

    The spectra of O and B supergiants (Sgs) are known to be affected by a significant form of extra line broadening (usually referred to as macroturbulence) in addition to that produced by stellar rotation. Recent analyses of high-resolution spectra have shown that the interpretation of this line broadening as a consequence of large-scale turbulent motions would imply highly supersonic velocity fields in photospheric regions, making this scenario quite improbable. Stellar oscillations have been proposed as a likely alternative explanation. As part of a long-term observational project, we are investigating the macroturbulent broadening in O and B Sgs and its possible connection with spectroscopic variability phenomena and stellar oscillations. In this Letter, we present the first encouraging results of our project, namely, firm observational evidence for a strong correlation between the extra broadening and photospheric line-profile variations in a sample of 13 Sgs with spectral types ranging from O9.5 to B8.

  9. On the line profiles in the spectra of the zodiacal light.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, D.; Matthews, S. A.; Mundell, C. G.; Weir, A. S.

    1996-04-01

    The model proposed by Hong (1985) describing the surface brightness variation with elongation of the Zodiacal Light has been applied to predict the spectral line profiles produced by Doppler effects associated with scattering from interplanetary dust for the simple case of prograde Keplerian orbits. Over the greater elongation range, the predictions are substantially the same as for previous models but with shallower line depths and more pronounced asymmetries. At elongations ~30deg and less, however, Hong's mixture of phase angle scattering functions predicts bifurcation of the lines so providing an alternative explanation to the two dust stream model of Beavers et al. (1980) proposed as the interpretation of their spectra of the F corona. The work also highlights a general problem of using radial velocity correlation masks for investigations of Zodiacal Light spectra.

  10. Functional properties of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors co-expressed with RIC-3 in a stable recombinant CHO-K1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Roncarati, Renza; Seredenina, Tamara; Jow, Brian; Jow, Flora; Papini, Silvia; Kramer, Angela; Bothmann, Hendrick; Dunlop, John; Terstappen, Georg C

    2008-04-01

    Heterologous functional expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is difficult to achieve in mammalian cell lines, and the reasons have been associated with a lack of expression of the putative chaperone factor RIC-3. Here, we describe the generation and functional and pharmacological characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line co-expressing the human alpha7 nAChR and RIC-3. Stable recombinant cells expressing alpha7 nAChR on the plasma membrane were selected by binding of fluorochrome-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The presence of functional alpha7 channels was demonstrated by whole cell patch clamp recordings. Nicotine and acetylcholine induced rapid desensitizing currents with 50% effective concentration values of 14 and 37 microM, respectively, with agonist-evoked currents detected in approximately 75% of the cell population. Surprisingly, when tested in a FLIPR (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) Ca(2+) assay, activation of alpha7 nAChRs was measured only when nicotinic agonists were applied either in the presence of the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) PNU-120596 or after pretreatment of cells with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. No Ca(2+) influx was measured upon addition of agonists alone or together with allosteric potentiators such as 5-hydroxyindole that predominantly increase the apparent peak amplitude without robustly affecting the current desensitization rate, as exemplified by PNU-120596. These results show that functional alpha7 nAChRs can stably be expressed in the non-neuronal CHO-K1 cell line. This recombinant cell system is useful for characterization of alpha7 nAChRs and to study the mechanism of action of chemical modulators, in particular the detection of PAMs capable of slowing receptor desensitization kinetics.

  11. Identification of circadian-related gene expression profiles in entrained breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Monreal, Miguel A; Treviño, Victor; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E; Scott, Sean-Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells have broken circadian clocks when compared to their normal tissue counterparts. Moreover, it has been shown in breast cancer that disruption of common circadian oscillations is associated with a more negative prognosis. Numerous studies, focused on canonical circadian genes in breast cancer cell lines, have suggested that there are no mRNA circadian-like oscillations. Nevertheless, cancer cell lines have not been extensively characterized and it is unknown to what extent the circadian oscillations are disrupted. We have chosen representative non-cancerous and cancerous breast cell lines (MCF-10A, MCF-7, ZR-75-30, MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1954) in order to determine the degree to which the circadian clock is damaged. We used serum shock to synchronize the circadian clocks in culture. Our aim was to initially observe the time course of gene expression using cDNA microarrays in the non-cancerous MCF-10A and the cancerous MCF-7 cells for screening and then to characterize specific genes in other cell lines. We used a cosine function to select highly correlated profiles. Some of the identified genes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and further evaluated in the other breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that breast cancer and non-cancerous cultured cells are able to generate specific circadian expression profiles in response to the serum shock. The rhythmic genes, suggested via microarray and measured in each particular subtype, suggest that each breast cancer cell type responds differently to the circadian synchronization. Future results could identify circadian-like genes that are altered in breast cancer and non-cancerous cells, which can be used to propose novel treatments. Breast cell lines are potential models for in vitro studies of circadian clocks and clock-controlled pathways. PMID:27010605

  12. Role of SIRT1 in regulation of LPS- or two ethanol metabolites-induced TNF-alpha production in cultured macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheng; Ajmo, Joanne M; Rogers, Christopher Q; Liang, Xiaomei; Le, Lisa; Murr, Michel M; Peng, Yanhua; You, Min

    2009-05-01

    Dysregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is an NAD(+)-dependent class III protein deacetylase that is known to be involved in regulating production of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha. In the present study, we examined the role of SIRT1 signaling in TNF-alpha generation stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acetaldehyde (AcH), or acetate (two major metabolites of ethanol) in two cultured macrophage cell lines. In both rat Kupffer cell line 1 (RKC1) and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, treatment with either LPS, AcH, or acetate caused significant decreases in SIRT1 transcription, translation, and activation, which essentially demonstrated an inverse relationship with TNF-alpha levels. LPS, AcH, and acetate each provoked the release of TNF-alpha from RKC1 cells, whereas coincubation with resveratrol (a potent SIRT1 agonist) inhibited this effect. Conversely, addition of sirtinol (a known SIRT1 inhibitor) or knocking down SIRT1 by the small silencing SIRT1 plasmid (SIRT1shRNA) augmented TNF-alpha release, suggesting that impairment of SIRT1 may contribute to TNF-alpha secretion. Further mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of SIRT1 by LPS, AcH, or acetate was associated with a marked increase in the acetylation of the RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear transcription factor (NF-kappaB) and promotion of NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT1-NF-kappaB signaling is involved in regulating LPS- and metabolites-of-ethanol-mediated TNF-alpha production in rat Kupffer cells and in murine macrophages. Our study provides new insights into understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:19299582

  13. Profiling of the Tox21 10K compound library for agonists and antagonists of the estrogen receptor alpha signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Martin, Matt T.; Reif, David M.; Judson, Richard S.; Houck, Keith A.; Casey, Warren; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Shockley, Keith R.; Ceger, Patricia; Fostel, Jennifer; Witt, Kristine L.; Tong, Weida; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Zhao, Tongan; Shinn, Paul; Simeonov, Anton; Dix, David J.; Austin, Christopher P.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Tice, Raymond R.; Xia, Menghang

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Tox21 program has screened a library of approximately 10,000 (10K) environmental chemicals and drugs in three independent runs for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist and antagonist activity using two types of ER reporter gene cell lines, one with an endogenous full length ERα (ER-luc; BG1 cell line) and the other with a transfected partial receptor consisting of the ligand binding domain (ER-bla; ERα β-lactamase cell line), in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format. The ability of the two assays to correctly identify ERα agonists and antagonists was evaluated using a set of 39 reference compounds with known ERα activity. Although both assays demonstrated adequate (i.e. >80%) predictivity, the ER-luc assay was more sensitive and the ER-bla assay more specific. The qHTS assay results were compared with results from previously published ERα binding assay data and showed >80% consistency. Actives identified from both the ER-bla and ER-luc assays were analyzed for structure-activity relationships (SARs) revealing known and potentially novel ERα active structure classes. The results demonstrate the feasibility of qHTS to identify environmental chemicals with the potential to interact with the ERα signaling pathway and the two different assay formats improve the confidence in correctly identifying these chemicals. PMID:25012808

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. I - First observational results, including Lyman-alpha and Lyman-limit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Sargent, W. L. W.; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turnshek, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra are presented for 37 quasars with small and moderate redshifts; the quasars were observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the HST. New higher resolution measurements of the absorption lines in the UV spectra of 11 quasars with emission-line redshifts that lie between 0.3 and 1.0 are reported. Calibrated spectra and continuum fits are shown for each object. A total of 104 extragalactic Ly-alpha systems are identified, nine of which are found at the same redshifts as metal-line systems. The local number density of Ly-alpha systems with rest equivalent widths larger than 0.32 A and without detected metal lines is about 15.1 +/- 4.3 Ly-alpha systems per unit redshift with gamma = 0.30 +/- 0.62 and W* = 0.22 +/- 0.02 A. A total of 10 Lyman-limit systems with an optical depth greater than 0.4 are identified. The paucity of damped Ly-alpha lines at small and moderate redshifts shows that the number density of damped absorption systems decreases with decreasing redshift.

  15. Increased proteasome-dependent degradation of estrogen receptor-alpha by TGF-beta1 in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Petrel, Trevor A; Brueggemeier, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Normal mammary epithelial cells are rapidly induced to G(1) arrest by the widely expressed cytokine, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1). Studies in established breast cancer cell lines that express the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) have demonstrated loss of this responsiveness. This inverse correlation suggests interpathway signaling important to cell growth and regulation. The adenocarcinoma breast cell line BT474, which was not growth arrested by TGF-beta1, was used as a model of estrogen-inducible growth to explore interpathway crosstalk. Although BT474 cells were not growth-arrested by TGF-beta1 as determined by flow cytometry analysis and 5'-bromo-3'-deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA, estrogen receptor protein levels were attenuated by 100 pM TGF-beta1 after 6 h. This decrease in ERalpha reached 50% of untreated control levels by 24 h of treatment and was further supported by a 50% decrease in estrogen-inducible DNA synthesis. Inspection of ERalpha transcripts suggested that this decrease was primarily the result of altered ERalpha protein stability or availability. Use of the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, abolished all effects on ERalpha by TGF-beta1. Collectively, this data supports a role for TGF-beta1 in regulating the growth of otherwise insensitive breast cancer cells through modulation of ERalpha stability. PMID:12461787

  16. Targeted Biomarker Discovery by High Throughput Glycosylation Profiling of Human Plasma Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. Renee; Koeleman, Carolien A. M.; Uh, Hae-Won; Stam, Jord C.; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Protein N-glycosylation patterns are known to show vast genetic as well as physiological and pathological variation and represent a large pool of potential biomarkers. Large-scale studies are needed for the identification and validation of biomarkers, and the analytical techniques required have recently been developed. Such methods have up to now mainly been applied to complex mixtures of glycoproteins in biofluids (e.g. plasma). Here, we analyzed N-glycosylation profiles of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) enriched fractions by 96-well microtitration plate based high-throughput immuno-affinity capturing and N-glycan analysis using multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). Human plasma samples were from the Leiden Longevity Study comprising 2415 participants of different chronological and biological ages. Glycosylation patterns of AAT enriched fractions were found to be associated with chronological (calendar) age and they differed between females and males. Moreover, several glycans in the AAT enriched fraction were associated with physiological parameters marking cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Pronounced differences were found between males and females in the glycosylation profiles of IgA enriched fractions. Our results demonstrate that large-scale immuno-affinity capturing of proteins from human plasma using a bead-based method combined with high-throughput N-glycan analysis is a powerful tool for the discovery of glycosylation-based biomarker candidates. PMID:24039863

  17. Line-profile variations in radial-velocity measurements. Two alternative indicators for planetary searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Pepe, F.; Lovis, C.; Nardetto, N.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We introduce two methods to identify false-positive planetary signals in the context of radial-velocity exoplanet searches. The first is the bi-Gaussian cross-correlation function fitting (and monitoring of the parameters derived from it), and the second is the measurement of asymmetry in radial-velocity spectral line information content, Vasy. We assess the usefulness of each of these methods by comparing their results with those delivered by current indicators. Methods: We make a systematic analysis of the most used common line profile diagnosis, Bisector Inverse Slope and Velocity Span, along with the two proposed ones. We evaluate all these diagnosis methods following a set of well-defined common criteria and using both simulated and real data. We apply them to simulated cross-correlation functions that are created with the program SOAP and which are affected by the presence of stellar spots. We consider different spot properties on stars with different rotation profiles and simulate observations as obtained with high-resolution spectrographs. We then apply our methodology to real cross-correlation functions, which are computed from HARPS spectra, for stars with a signal originating in activity (thus spots) and for those with a signal rooted on a planet. Results: We demonstrate that the bi-Gaussian method allows a more precise characterization of the deformation of line profiles than the standard bisector inverse slope. The calculation of the deformation indicator is simpler and its interpretation more straightforward. More importantly, its amplitude can be up to 30% larger than that of the bisector span, allowing the detection of smaller-amplitude correlations with radial-velocity variations. However, a particular parametrization of the bisector inverse slope is shown to be more efficient on high-signal-to-noise data than both the standard bisector and the bi-Gaussian. The results of the Vasy method show that this indicator is more effective than any of

  18. Inhibition of HIV-2(ROD) replication in a lymphoblastoid cell line by the alpha1-antitrypsin Portland variant (alpha1-PDX) and the decRVKRcmk peptide: comparison with HIV-1(LAI).

    PubMed

    Bahbouhi, B; Bendjennat, M; Chiva, C; Kogan, M; Albericio, F; Giralt, E; Seidah, N G; Bahraoui, E

    2001-11-01

    We investigated the effects of alpha1-antitrypsine Portland variant (alpha1-PDX) and decanoylRVKRchloromethylketone (decRVKRcmk) on HIV-2(ROD) replication in the Jurkat lymphoblastoid cell line. To this end, cells were stably transfected with the alpha1-PDX (J-PDX) and used as targets for HIV-2(ROD) infection. Controls were prepared with the empty vector (J-pcDNA3). HIV-2(ROD) and HIV-1(LAI) replications were significantly inhibited and delayed in the presence of the alpha1-PDX protein. When decRVKRcmk was used at 35 microM, inhibition rates were 70-80% for HIV-2(ROD) and HIV-1(LAI), while total inhibition occurred at 70 microM. Control peptides consisting of decanoylRVKR and acetylYVADcmk had no effect. In the presence of the alpha1-PDX or the decRVKRcmk at 35 microM, the infectivity of HIV-2(ROD) and HIV-1(LAI) produced was 3-4-fold lower. Both molecules inhibited syncytium formation by HIV-2(ROD) and HIV-1(LAI) to a considerable extent. Finally, the inhibition of viral replication was correlated with the ability of the decRVKRcmk at 35 and 70 microM and of the alpha1-PDX, to inhibit the processing of envelope glycoprotein precursors. The alpha1-PDX protein and the decRVKRcmk peptide at 35 microM inhibited HIV-2 and HIV-1 to a similar level suggesting that identical or closely related endoproteases are involved in the maturation of their envelope glycoprotein precursors into surface and transmembrane glycoproteins. The significant inhibition observed with alpha1-PDX indicates that furin or furin-like endoproteases appear to play a major role in the maturation process.

  19. Some regularities in the variation of the Balmer line profiles in the P CYG spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N. St.

    1986-06-01

    Using the Coude focus of the 2 m RCC telescope at the National Astronomical Observatory of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, 47 spectrograms covering the range from 3500 to 4900 A (about 1400 A) with a reciprocal dispersion of 9 a/mm and a spectral resolution of 0.18 A were obtained. The photometric and position behavior of Balmer lines were investigated over a long time-scale, i.e., March 1981 to August 1982. The hydrogen line profiles were rectified in the way described by de Grot (1969). It is found that the absorption consists of three and sometimes four components. Their position behavior may be explained by the existence of two kinds of shells, pulsating and steadily expanding, and it is quite possible that shells of the first type may become shells of the second type in the outer parts of the P Cyg envelope. The total emission and absorption equivalent widths of the H11, H9, and H-delta lines change with conspicuous minima and maxima. The amplitude of these variations increases with decrease in the upper quantum number. For example, the total absorption equivalent widths change by about 38 percent for H-delta and 22 percent for H9. The data suggest a periodic change in the radial velocities, intensity of each separate absorption component, total equivalent widths and profiles.

  20. Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Degree of Variability in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines: Impact for Human Disease Modeling.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jens; Halvardson, Jonatan; Pilar Lorenzo, Laureanne; Ameur, Adam; Sobol, Maria; Raykova, Doroteya; Annerén, Göran; Feuk, Lars; Dahl, Niklas

    2015-10-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has become an important tool for disease modeling. Insufficient data on the variability among iPSC lines derived from a single somatic parental cell line have in practice led to generation and analysis of several, usually three, iPSC sister lines from each parental cell line. We established iPSC lines from a human fibroblast line (HDF-K1) and used transcriptome sequencing to investigate the variation among three sister lines (iPSC-K1A, B, and C). For comparison, we analyzed the transcriptome of an iPSC line (iPSC-K5B) derived from a different fibroblast line (HDF-K5), a human embryonic stem cell (ESC) line (ESC-HS181), as well as the two parental fibroblast lines. All iPSC lines fulfilled stringent criteria for pluripotency. In an unbiased cluster analysis, all stem cell lines (four iPSCs and one ESC) clustered together as opposed to the parental fibroblasts. The transcriptome profiles of the three iPSC sister lines were indistinguishable from each other, and functional pathway analysis did not reveal any significant hits. In contrast, the expression profiles of the ESC line and the iPSC-K5B line were distinct from that of the sister lines iPSC-K1A, B, and C. Differentiation to embryoid bodies and subsequent analysis of germ layer markers in the five stem cell clones confirmed that the distribution of their expression profiles was retained. Taken together, our observations stress the importance of using iPSCs of different parental origin rather than several sister iPSC lines to distinguish disease-associated mechanisms from genetic background effects in disease modeling.

  1. Polarization measurements of the Lyman-(alpha)1 x-ray emission lines of hydrogenlike Ar17+ and Fe25+ at high electron impact energies

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D L; Beiersdorfer, P; Faenov, A Y; Pikuz, T A; Thorn, D B; Chen, H; Reed, K J; Smith, A J; Brown, G V; Kelley, R L; Kilbouren, C A; Porter, F S

    2006-01-29

    We have measured the polarization of the 2p{sub 3/2} {yields} 1s{sub 1/2} Lyman-{alpha}{sub 1} x-ray line of hydrogenlike Ar{sup 17+} and Fe{sup 25+} at electron impact energies ranging from 7 to 25 threshold units. The highly charged argon and iron ions were produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap. A combination of two crystal spectrometers and a microcalorimeter were used to record the Lyman-{alpha} x-ray emission of Ar{sup 17+} and Fe{sup 25+} and to infer the polarization of the Lyman-{alpha}{sub 1} line. Our results show a systematic discrepancy with the predictions of distorted-wave calculations.

  2. Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-dependent succinylation of proteins in neurons and neuronal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Xu, Hui; Chen, Huan-Lian; Chen, Wei; Denton, Travis; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Reversible post-translation modifications of proteins are common in all cells and appear to regulate many processes. Nevertheless, the enzyme(s) responsible for the alterations and the significance of the modification are largely unknown. Succinylation of proteins occurs and causes large changes in the structure of proteins; however, the source of the succinyl groups, the targets, and the consequences of these modifications on other proteins are unknown. These studies focused on succinylation of mitochondrial proteins. The results demonstrate that the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) can serve as a trans-succinylase that mediates succinylation in an α-ketoglutarate-dependent manner. Inhibition of KGDHC reduced suc-cinylation of both cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in cultured neurons and in a neuronal cell line. Purified KGDHC can succinylate multiple proteins including other enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle leading to modification of their activity. Inhibition of KGDHC also modifies acetylation by modifying the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The much greater effectiveness of KGDHC than succinyl CoA suggests that the catalysis due to the E2k suc-cinyltransferase is important. Succinylation appears to be a major signaling system and it can be mediated by KGDHC. PMID:25772995

  3. Transcriptional and Secretomic Profiling of Epidermal Cells Exposed to Alpha Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Greene, Hillary Boulay; Wilkins, Ruth C

    2012-01-01

    Alpha (α)-particle emitters are probable isotopes to be used in a terrorist attack. The development of biological assessment tools to identify those who have handled these difficult to detect materials would be an asset to our current forensic capacity. In this study, for the purposes of biomarker discovery, human keratinocytes were exposed to α-particle and X-radiation (0.98 Gy/h at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 Gy) and assessed for differential gene and protein expression using microarray and Bio-Plex technology, respectively. Secretomic analysis of supernatants showed expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13 and PDGF-bb) to be exclusively affected in α-particle exposed cells. The highest dose of α-particle radiation modulated a total of 67 transcripts (fold change>|1.5|, (False discovery rate) FDR<0.05) in exposed cells. Several genes which responded with high expression levels (>2 fold) included KIF20A, NEFM, C7orf10, HIST1H2BD, BMP6, and HIST1H2AC. Among the high expressing genes, five (CCNB2, BUB1, NEK2, CDC20, AURKA) were also differentially expressed at the medium (1.0 Gy) dose however, these genes were unmodulated following exposure to X-irradiation. Networks of these genes clustered around tumor protein-53 and transforming growth factor-beta signaling. This study has identified some potential gene /protein responses and networks that may be validated further to confirm their specificity and potential to be signature biomarkers of α-particle exposure. PMID:23002402

  4. Performance comparison of digital microRNA profiling technologies applied on human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Erik; Fiskaa, Tonje; Ursvik, Anita; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Perander, Maria; Lund, Eiliv; Seternes, Ole Morten; Johansen, Steinar D; Andreassen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA profiling represents an important first-step in deducting individual RNA-based regulatory function in a cell, tissue, or at a specific developmental stage. Currently there are several different platforms to choose from in order to make the initial miRNA profiles. In this study we investigate recently developed digital microRNA high-throughput technologies. Four different platforms were compared including next generation SOLiD ligation sequencing and Illumina HiSeq sequencing, hybridization-based NanoString nCounter, and miRCURY locked nucleic acid RT-qPCR. For all four technologies, full microRNA profiles were generated from human cell lines that represent noninvasive and invasive tumorigenic breast cancer. This study reports the correlation between platforms, as well as a more extensive analysis of the accuracy and sensitivity of data generated when using different platforms and important consideration when verifying results by the use of additional technologies. We found all the platforms to be highly capable for microRNA analysis. Furthermore, the two NGS platforms and RT-qPCR all have equally high sensitivity, and the fold change accuracy is independent of individual miRNA concentration for NGS and RT-qPCR. Based on these findings we propose new guidelines and considerations when performing microRNA profiling.

  5. On the reliability of powder diffraction Line Profile Analysis of plastically deformed nanocrystalline systems

    PubMed Central

    Rebuffi, Luca; Troian, Andrea; Ciancio, Regina; Carlino, Elvio; Amimi, Amine; Leonardi, Alberto; Scardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    An iron-molybdenum alloy powder was extensively deformed by high energy milling, so to refine the bcc iron domain size to nanometer scale (~10 nm) and introduce a strong inhomogeneous strain. Both features contribute to comparable degree to the diffraction peak profile broadening, so that size and strain contributions can be easily separated by exploiting their different dependence on the diffraction angle. To assess the reliability of Line Profile Analysis, results were compared with evidence from other techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray small angle scattering. Results confirm the extent of the size broadening effect, whereas molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into the origin of the local atomic, inhomogeneous strain, pointing out the role of dislocations, domain boundaries and interactions among crystalline domains. PMID:26860471

  6. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis of KBr thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R.; Triloki, Triloki; Singh, B. K.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, the microcrystalline characteristics of KBr thin films have been investigated by evaluating the breadth of diffraction peak. The Williamson-Hall, the Size-Strain plot and the single-line Voigt methods are employed to deconvolute the finite crystallite size and microstrain contribution from the broaden X-ray profile. The texture coefficient and dislocation density have been determined along each diffraction peak. Other relevant physical parameters such as stress, Young's modulus and energy density are also estimated using uniform stress deformation and uniform deformation energy density approximation of Williamson-Hall method.

  7. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines.

  8. Simultaneous hour-timescale variations in the profiles of the broad Balmer lines of the Seyfert galaxy Markarian 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asatrian, N. S.

    2016-09-01

    Results of the multi-epoch intranight optical spectroscopic monitoring of the Markarian 6 nucleus are presented. We found significant changes in the Hα and Hβ line profiles on time scale of hour. Rapid broad-line profile variations are important to look for the characteristic variability signatures of different kinematical models of the BLR. The obtained observational results evidence in favour of the hydrogen gas clouds rotating by the differently inclined Keplerian orbits in the BLR of Mark 6 AGN.

  9. Complex X-ray Absorption and the Fe K(alpha) Profile in NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.; George, I. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Botorff, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    We present data from simultaneous Chandra, XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516, taken during 2001 April and November. We have investigated the nature of the very flat observed X-ray spectrum. Chandra grating data show the presence of X-ray absorption lines, revealing two distinct components of the absorbing gas, one which is consistent with our previous model of the UV/X-ray absorber while the other, which is outflowing at a velocity of approximately 1100 kilometers per second, has a larger column density and is much more highly ionized. The broad-band spectral characteristics of the X-ray continuum observed with XMM during 2001 April, reveal the presence of a third layer of absorption consisting of a very large column (approximately 2.5 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter) of highly ionized gas with a covering fraction approximately 50%. This low covering fraction suggests that the absorber lies within a few 1t-days of the X-ray source and/or is filamentary in structure. Interestingly, these absorbers are not in thermal equilibrium with one another. The two new components are too highly ionized to be radiatively accelerated, which we suggest is evidence for a hydromagnetic origin for the outflow. Applying our model to the November dataset, we can account for the spectral variability primarily by a drop in the ionization states of the absorbers, as expected by the change in the continuum flux. When this complex absorption is accounted for we find the underlying continuum to be typical of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The spectral curvature attributed to the high column absorber, in turn, reduces estimates of the flux and extent of any broad Fe emission line from the accretion disk.

  10. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha induces translocation of protein kinase C in tumour necrosis factor-sensitive cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, N; Fuchimoto, S; Orita, K

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether the anti-proliferative effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was associated with the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), using PANC-1 cells (TNF-alpha sensitive) and LoVo cells (TNF-alpha resistant). In combination with 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of PKC, TNF-alpha caused marked inhibition of the growth of LoVo cells. Inhibition of PANC-1 cell growth by TNF-alpha was blocked by pretreatment with TPA for 24 hr, along with down-regulation of PKC activity. Intracellular translocation of PKC from cytosol to membrane was induced by TNF-alpha treatment in PANC-1 cells but not in LoVo cells. PMID:1916896

  11. EFFECTS OF AN ACCRETION DISK WIND ON THE PROFILE OF THE BALMER EMISSION LINES FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Flohic, Helene M. L. G.; Eracleous, Michael; Bogdanovic, Tamara E-mail: mce@astro.psu.edu

    2012-07-10

    We explore the connection between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with single- and double-peaked broad Balmer emission lines by using models dealing with radiative transfer effects through a disk wind. Our primary goal is to assess the applicability of the Murray and Chiang model by making an extensive and systematic comparison of the model predictions with data. In the process, we also verify the original derivation and evaluate the importance of general relativistic effects. As the optical depth through the emission layer increases, the peaks of a double-peaked profile move closer and eventually merge, producing a single peak. The properties of the emission line profile depend as sensitively on the geometric parameters of the line-emitting portion of the disk as they do on the disk-wind parameters. Using a parameter range that encompasses the expected characteristics of the broad-line regions in AGNs, we construct a database of model profiles and measure a set of diagnostic properties. Comparisons of the model profiles with emission lines from a subset of Sloan digital Sky Survey quasars show that observed lines are consistent with moderately large optical depth in the disk wind and a range of disk inclinations i {approx}< 45 Degree-Sign . Including relativistic effects is necessary to produce the asymmetries of observed line profiles.

  12. Pericarp anatomy and hormone profiles of cypselas in dormant and non-dormant inbred sunflower lines.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A; Riera, N; Lindstrom, L; Alemano, S; Alvarez, D; Abdala, G; Vigliocco, A

    2015-03-01

    The pericarp anatomy and the effects of storage after harvest, storage temperature and early cypsela imbibition on phytohormone profiles were studied in inbred sunflower lines B123 and B91. On day 0, germination of B123 cypselas was near 0%, indicating dormancy, whereas that of B91 cypselas was near 100%, indicating non-dormancy. The germination of B123 and B91 on day 33 at room temperature (25 °C) storage was similar. Cell wall thickness and sclerification of the pericarp were higher in B123 than B91, suggesting that structural characteristics may contribute to physical dormancy in B123. Jasmonates (JAs), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were measured in dry and imbibed pericarps. SA content of dry pericarp was higher on day 33 than day 0. SA content during imbibition on day 33 was similar for room and low (-20 °C) storage temperatures. ABA content after 12 h imbibition was similar on days 0 and 33 at low temperature, but it increased on day 33 at room temperature for B123. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was maximal on day 0 for B123, but peaked at day 33 at low temperature for B91. JA was higher on days 0 and 33 at room temperature as compared with low temperature. Our findings indicate that pericarp hormone profiles are affected in the two lines with different dormancy degree depending on storage conditions and imbibition processes. PMID:25272333

  13. Time-course gene profiling and networks in demethylated retinoblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Malusa, Federico; Taranta, Monia; Zaki, Nazar; Cinti, Caterina; Capobianco, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma, a very aggressive cancer of the developing retina, initiatiates by the biallelic loss of RB1 gene, and progresses very quickly following RB1 inactivation. While its genome is stable, multiple pathways are deregulated, also epigenetically. After reviewing the main findings in relation with recently validated markers, we propose an integrative bioinformatics approach to include in the previous group new markers obtained from the analysis of a single cell line subject to epigenetic treatment. In particular, differentially expressed genes are identified from time course microarray experiments on the WERI-RB1 cell line treated with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine; DAC). By inducing demethylation of CpG island in promoter genes that are involved in biological processes, for instance apoptosis, we performed the following main integrative analysis steps: i) Gene expression profiling at 48h, 72h and 96h after DAC treatment; ii) Time differential gene co-expression networks and iii) Context-driven marker association (transcriptional factor regulated protein networks, master regulatory paths). The observed DAC-driven temporal profiles and regulatory connectivity patterns are obtained by the application of computational tools, with support from curated literature. It is worth emphasizing the capacity of networks to reconcile multi-type evidences, thus generating testable hypotheses made available by systems scale predictive inference power. Despite our small experimental setting, we propose through such integrations valuable impacts of epigenetic treatment in terms of gene expression measurements, and then validate evidenced apoptotic effects. PMID:26143641

  14. Isophotes of a field in the Cygnus loop photographed in the (O III) and (N II)+H. cap alpha. lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnik, T.G.; Toropova, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    From interference-filter image-tube photographs of a 9' field in the western part of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, taken in the lambda5007 (O III) and lambdalambda 6584, 6563 (N II) + H..cap alpha.. lines, sets of isophotes are derived by an equidensitometry technique based on the Sabattier effect. The emission regions in these lines exhibit a relative displacement, interpreted as evidence for radiative cooling of the gas behind the shock generated in the supernova outburst. An explanation is offered for the differing morphology of the nebular filaments in the (O III) and (N II) + H..cap alpha.. lines. The anomalously high I/sub Otsi/II/I/sub H/..beta.. intensity ratio may reflect a spatial separation of the corresponding emission zones.

  15. Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  16. Cell growth kinetics of the human cell line Colo-205 irradiated with photons and astatine-211 alpha-particles.

    PubMed

    Palm, S; Andersson, H; Bäck, T; Claesson, I; Delle, U; Hultborn, R; Jacobsson, L; Köpf, I; Lindegren, S

    2000-01-01

    Cell growth kinetics following Astatine-211 (211At, alpha-particle emitter) and photon irradiation were studied for the human colorectal cell line Colo-205. A growth assay using 96-well plates was chosen. The growth kinetics could be simulated by assuming certain fractions of cells with various proliferative capacities, i.e. from none up to 5 cell doublings, in addition to the defined survivors with remaining unlimited clonogenic capacity. No significant difference in cell growth characteristics was seen between 211At and photon irradiation. The cell doubling time, as calculated from the increment in optical density, was compared with the results from BrdU experiments in the early phases of growth (Tpot = 18.5 +/- 0.6 h for LDR (low dose rate) photon irradiated and 20.3 +/- 0.8 hours for sham-irradiated cells 40-45 hours post-irradiation) confirming the transient accelerated growth of irradiated cells. No statistically significant difference in growth was found between LDR, MDR (medium dose rate) and HDR (high dose rate) photon irradiation.

  17. Kinetic Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms From Analysis of the D Lyman-a Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, Marco; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The absolute cross sections of the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coeffiecients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  18. Geocoronal Balmer α line profile observations and forward-model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Bishop, J.; Roesler, F. L.; Nossal, S. M.

    2006-05-01

    High spectral resolution geocoronal Balmer α line profile observations from Pine Bluff Observatory (PBO) are presented in the context of forward-model analysis. Because Balmer series column emissions depend significantly on multiple scattering, retrieval of hydrogen parameters of general aeronomic interest from these observations (e.g., the hydrogen column abundance) currently requires a forward modeling approach. This capability is provided by the resonance radiative transfer code LYAO_RT. We have recently developed a parametric data-model comparison search procedure employing an extensive grid of radiative transport model input parameters (defining a 6-dimensional parameter space) to map-out bounds for feasible forward model retrieved atomic hydrogen density distributions. We applied this technique to same-night (March, 2000) ground-based Balmer α data from PBO and geocoronal Lyman β measurements from the Espectrógrafo Ultravioleta extremo para la Radiación Difusa (EURD) instrument on the Spanish satellite MINISAT-1 (provided by J.F. Gómez and C. Morales of the Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Física Fundamental, INTA, Madrid, Spain) in order to investigate the modeling constraints imposed by two sets of independent geocoronal intensity measurements, both of which rely on astronomical calibration methods. In this poster we explore extending this analysis to the line profile information also contained in the March 2000 PBO Balmer α data set. In general, a decrease in the Doppler width of the Balmer α emission with shadow altitude is a persistent feature in every night of PBO observations in which a wide range of shadow altitudes are observed. Preliminary applications of the LYAO_RT code, which includes the ability to output Doppler line profiles for both the singly and multiply scattered contributions to the Balmer α emission line, displays good qualitative agreement with regard to geocoronal Doppler width trends observed from PBO. Model-data Balmer

  19. Radiation Changes the Metabolic Profiling of Melanoma Cell Line B16

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yating; Liang, Wei; Zheng, Qinghui; Huang, Xianing; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can be an effective way to kill cancer cells using ionizing radiation, but some tumors are resistant to radiation therapy and the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. It is therefore necessary to establish an appropriate working model to study and monitor radiation-mediated cancer therapy. In response to cellular stress, the metabolome is the integrated profiling of changes in all metabolites in cells, which can be used to investigate radiation tolerance mechanisms and identify targets for cancer radiation sensibilization. In this study, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance for untargeted metabolic profiling in radiation-tolerant mouse melanoma cell line B16, we comprehensively investigated changes in metabolites and metabolic network in B16 cells in response to radiation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis indicated the difference in cellular metabolites between the untreated cells and X-ray radiated cells. In radiated cells, the content of alanine, glutamate, glycine and choline was increased, while the content of leucine, lactate, creatine and creatine phosphate was decreased. Enrichment analysis of metabolic pathway showed that the changes in metabolites were related to multiple metabolic pathways including the metabolism of glycine, arginine, taurine, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Taken together, with cellular metabolome study followed by bioinformatic analysis to profile specific metabolic pathways in response to radiation, we deepened our understanding of radiation-resistant mechanisms and radiation sensibilization in cancer, which may further provide a theoretical and practical basis for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:27631970

  20. Radiation Changes the Metabolic Profiling of Melanoma Cell Line B16.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lige; Hu, Zixi; Huang, Yingying; Yu, Yating; Liang, Wei; Zheng, Qinghui; Huang, Xianing; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can be an effective way to kill cancer cells using ionizing radiation, but some tumors are resistant to radiation therapy and the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. It is therefore necessary to establish an appropriate working model to study and monitor radiation-mediated cancer therapy. In response to cellular stress, the metabolome is the integrated profiling of changes in all metabolites in cells, which can be used to investigate radiation tolerance mechanisms and identify targets for cancer radiation sensibilization. In this study, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance for untargeted metabolic profiling in radiation-tolerant mouse melanoma cell line B16, we comprehensively investigated changes in metabolites and metabolic network in B16 cells in response to radiation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis indicated the difference in cellular metabolites between the untreated cells and X-ray radiated cells. In radiated cells, the content of alanine, glutamate, glycine and choline was increased, while the content of leucine, lactate, creatine and creatine phosphate was decreased. Enrichment analysis of metabolic pathway showed that the changes in metabolites were related to multiple metabolic pathways including the metabolism of glycine, arginine, taurine, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Taken together, with cellular metabolome study followed by bioinformatic analysis to profile specific metabolic pathways in response to radiation, we deepened our understanding of radiation-resistant mechanisms and radiation sensibilization in cancer, which may further provide a theoretical and practical basis for personalized cancer therapy.

  1. Line profiles variations from atmospheric eclipses: Constraints on the wind structure in Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, L. H.; Koenigsberger, G.

    1994-01-01

    Binary systems in which one of the components has a stellar wind may present a phenomenon known as 'wind' or 'atmospheric eclipse', in which that wind occults the luminous disk of the companion. The enhanced absorption profile, relative to the spectrum at uneclipsed orbital phases, can be be modeled to yield constraints on the spatial structure of the eclipsing wind. A new, very efficient approach to the radiative transfer problem, which makes no requirements with respect to monotonicity of the velocity gradient or size of that gradient, is presented. The technique recovers both the comoving frame calculation and the Sobolev approximation in the appropiate limits. Sample computer simulations of the line profile variations induced by wind eclipses are presented. It is shown that the location of the wind absorption features in frequency is a diagnostic tool for identifying the size of the wind acceleration region. Comparison of the model profile variations with the observed variations in the Wolf-Rayet (W-R)+6 binary system V444 Cyg illustrate how the method can be used to derive information on the structure of the wind of the W-R star constrain the size of the W-R core radius.

  2. Radiation Changes the Metabolic Profiling of Melanoma Cell Line B16.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lige; Hu, Zixi; Huang, Yingying; Yu, Yating; Liang, Wei; Zheng, Qinghui; Huang, Xianing; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can be an effective way to kill cancer cells using ionizing radiation, but some tumors are resistant to radiation therapy and the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. It is therefore necessary to establish an appropriate working model to study and monitor radiation-mediated cancer therapy. In response to cellular stress, the metabolome is the integrated profiling of changes in all metabolites in cells, which can be used to investigate radiation tolerance mechanisms and identify targets for cancer radiation sensibilization. In this study, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance for untargeted metabolic profiling in radiation-tolerant mouse melanoma cell line B16, we comprehensively investigated changes in metabolites and metabolic network in B16 cells in response to radiation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis indicated the difference in cellular metabolites between the untreated cells and X-ray radiated cells. In radiated cells, the content of alanine, glutamate, glycine and choline was increased, while the content of leucine, lactate, creatine and creatine phosphate was decreased. Enrichment analysis of metabolic pathway showed that the changes in metabolites were related to multiple metabolic pathways including the metabolism of glycine, arginine, taurine, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Taken together, with cellular metabolome study followed by bioinformatic analysis to profile specific metabolic pathways in response to radiation, we deepened our understanding of radiation-resistant mechanisms and radiation sensibilization in cancer, which may further provide a theoretical and practical basis for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:27631970

  3. Gene expression profiling reveals novel regulation by bisphenol-A in estrogen receptor-{alpha}-positive human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, David W.; Feng, Yuxin; Yang, Jun; Puga, Alvaro; Lee, Adrian V.; Khan, Sohaib A. . E-mail: sohaib.khan@uc.edu

    2006-01-15

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) shows proliferative actions in uterus and mammary glands and may influence the development of male and female reproductive tracts in utero or during early postnatal life. Because of its ability to function as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, BPA has the potential to disrupt normal endocrine signaling through regulation of ER target genes. Some genes are regulated by both estradiol (E2) and BPA, but those exclusive to either agent have not been described. Using a yeast strain incorporating a vitellogenin A2 ERE-LacZ reporter gene into the genome, we found that BPA induced expression of the reporter in colonies transformed with the ER{alpha} expression plasmid, illustrating BPA-mediated regulation within a chromatin context. Additionally, a reporter gene transiently transfected into the endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cell line also showed BPA activity, although at 100-fold less potency than E2. To compare global gene expression in response to BPA and E2, we used a variant of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line stably expressing HA-tagged ER{alpha}. Cultures were treated for 3 h with an ethanol vehicle, E2 (10{sup -8} M), or BPA (10{sup -6} M), followed by isolation of RNA and microarray analysis with the human U95A probe array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). More than 300 genes were changed 2-fold or more by either or both agents, with roughly half being up-regulated and half down-regulated. A number of growth- and development-related genes, such as HOXC1 and C6, Wnt5A, Frizzled, TGF{beta}-2, and STAT inhibitor 2, were found to be affected exclusively by BPA. We used quantitative real-time PCR to verify regulation of the HOXC6 gene, which showed decreased expression of approximately 2.5-fold by BPA. These results reveal novel effects by BPA and E2, raising interesting possibilities regarding the role of endocrine disruptors in sexual development.

  4. Asymmetric profiles and prewetting lines in the filling of planar slits with Ne.

    PubMed

    Sartarelli, Salvador A; Szybisz, Leszek

    2013-05-23

    The filling of slits with identical planar walls is investigated in the frame of the density functional theory. For this kind of slit, the confining potential is symmetric with respect to its central plane. Closed and open systems are studied by applying, respectively, the canonical and grand canonical ensembles (CE and GCE). Results obtained for the confinement of fluid Ne by alkaline surfaces are reported. The behavior of these systems is analyzed by varying the strength of the Ne-substrate attraction, the temperature T, and the coverage Γ(l). It is assumed that the one-body density of the fluid, ρ(r), is uniform along the (x, y) planes parallel to the walls, becoming a function of the coordinate z perpendicular to those planes. Two sorts of solutions are found for the density profile: (i) symmetric ones that follow the left-right symmetry of the potential exerted by the walls and (ii) asymmetric ones that break the symmetry of the slit. The pores are wide enough for determining prewetting (PW) lines and wetting and critical PW temperatures, i.e., T(w) and T(cpw), from the analysis of symmetric solutions provided by both the CE and GCE schemes. Asymmetric species are examined in detail for T > T(w). It is shown that for a given Ne-substrate pair at a fixed T both the CE and GCE frames yield only one asymmetric 2-fold degenerate stable profile (formed by a "thin" wetting film at one wall and a "thick" wetting film at the other) coexisting with two symmetric profiles (formed by "thin" or "thick" wetting films at the two walls), while the remaining asymmetric states are at best metastable. This feature occurs along PW lines and disappears at T(cpw).

  5. Determination of line profiles on photomasks using DUV, EUV, and x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, F.; Bodermann, B.; Burger, S.; Endres, J.; Haase, A.; Krumrey, M.; Laubis, C.; Soltwisch, V.; Ullrich, A.; Wernecke, J.

    2014-10-01

    Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. GISAXS provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range which allow for much steeper angles of incidence but preserve the large range of momentum transfer that can be observed. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV and deep ultraviolet (DUV) scatterometry. For EUV photomasks, the actinic wavelength EUV scatterometry yields particular advantages. A significant polarization dependence of the diffraction intensities for 0th and +1st orders in the geometry with the grating lines perpendicular to the plane of reflection is observed and the 0th order intensity shows sufficient sensitivity to the line width such that a CD-resolution below 0.1 nm is within reach. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings using GISAXS, and EUV and DUV scatterometry and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV and DUV scatterometry.

  6. Differential role of p38 in IL-1alpha induction of MMP-9 and MMP-13 in an established liver myofibroblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Miau, Luo-Hwa; Chen, Chien-Hung; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Yang, Pei-Ming; Sheu, Jin-Chuan

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in the regulation of the expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in many mesenchymal cell types, but its role in liver myofibroblasts (MFs) has not been elucidated. A myofibroblast-like cell line, MG2, was derived from an isolate of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). These cells expressed desmin, vimentin, smooth muscle alpha-actin, and fibulin-2. Using a recombinant IL-1alpha at 5 ng/ml, it was shown that IL-1alpha would upregulate, while IL-1Ra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, would down-regulate the expression of IL-1alpha mRNA in MG2 cells, indicating the presence of an autostimulatory loop of IL-1alpha in these cells. Besides, a paracrine source of IL-1 may be produced from Kupffer cells, as we showed primarily cultured Kupffer cells responded much more remarkably than MG2 cells to lipopolysaccharide stimuli to produce both IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. Recombinant IL-1alpha upregulated the expression of both MMP-9 and -13, and the induction of MMP-13 but not MMP-9 could be inhibited by SB203580, an inhibitor of p38. Similarly, in primarily cultured human liver MFs, upregulation of MMP-1 by IL-1alpha was also shown to be inhibited by SB203580. All of these data suggested that, during liver inflammation, IL-1 produced by an autocrine model from MFs or by a paracrine model from Kupffer cells might play a crucial role in the remodeling of liver fibrosis through an either p38-dependent or p38-independent pathway to regulate the expression of various MMPs by liver MFs.

  7. Increased in vitro and in vivo tumoricidal activity of a macrophage cell line genetically engineered to express IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-6, or TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, K; Barth, R F; Wilkie, N; Lang, J C; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H; Everson, M P; Lotze, M T

    1995-06-01

    Genetically engineered monocytes and macrophages may have potential as effector cells for the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer. As a first step, we have transfected the genes encoding either mouse interferon (IFN)-gamma, human interleukin (IL)-6, mouse IL-4, or mouse tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha into the mouse macrophage cell line, J774A.1 cells using retroviral vectors. In vitro activation of J774A.1 cells by gene modification was assessed by morphological changes, proliferative activity was determined by [3H]-TdR uptake, and cytolytic activity was assessed using an 18-hour chromium-51 (51Cr) release assay. In vivo tumoricidal activity was studied by means of local adoptive immunotherapy using intratumoral injection of transfected effector cells. IFN-gamma gene-transfected J774A.1 [J7(IFN-gamma)] cells developed filamentous processes, increased doubling times, and enhanced tumoricidal activity against three tumor cell lines: the TNF-sensitive fibrosarcoma line WEHI 164 and the TNF-alpha-resistant cell lines B16 melanoma and C1300 neuroblastoma. IL-6-, TNF-alpha-, and IL-4-gene-transfected J774A.1 cells also had augmented tumoricidal activity but did not display any changes in morphology or growth. Cytolytic activity was markedly reduced after the addition of anti-TNF-alpha antibodies. Cytolytic J7(IFN-gamma) cells showed upregulated expression of TNF-alpha messenger RNA. After intratumoral injection of J7(IL-4) and J7(IFN-gamma) cell mixtures, 50% of established B16 melanomas were rejected by C57BL/6 mice, thereby demonstrating synergistic killing. Further studies on gene-transfected macrophages should better define their potential usefulness in tumor immunotherapy.

  8. Evolution of the Iron K-Alpha Emission Line in the Black Hole Candidate GX339-4 During and Outburst Decay Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y.; Zhang, S.-N.; Chen, W.; Cui, Wei

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of the iron K-alpha line emission feature was found from the black hole candidate GX339-4 when its X-ray flux (2 to 10 keV) decreased significantly. With RXTE observations, a broad line emission feature around 7 keV was detected in its quiescent and low flux state; while in the high flux state, an emission line feature around 6.4 keV was detected. A similar 6.4 keV line feature was also detected with previous ASCA observations in a high flux state. We consider that the evolution could be the evidence of the variations in the geometric structure and the physical properties of the accretion flow when the accretion rate changed. This is because that the 7 keV line feature can be produced by the radiative recombination cascade, collisional excitation, and fluorescence of Fe XXVI and Fe XXV, which can exist in a very high temperature plasma; while the 6.4 keV line feature can be produced by fluorescent K-alpha line emission of neutral iron atoms in the cold accretion disk. (copyright) 1999 American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhomogeneous speed effects on H2 vibrational line profiles in ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, P.; Bruet, X.; Bonamy, J.; Robert, D.; Chaussard, F.; Saint-Loup, R.; Berger, H.

    2000-12-01

    A study of speed inhomogeneous broadening of the hydrogen vibrational line profiles in the collisional regime for ternary mixtures is reported. The Q(1) line of H2 in H2-Ar-N2, H2-He-Ar, and H2-He-N2 mixtures is investigated by high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy for various concentrations and temperatures. A model, successfully used for binary mixtures, is extended to ternary mixtures. An excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment for H2-Ar-N2, by using the collisional parameters previously obtained from binary mixtures study. For H2-He-Ar and H2-He-N2, H2-He collisions play a "hardening" effect in the H2 soft speed memory mechanism for H2-Ar or H2-N2. The present experimental results allow us, via the frame of our model, to determine the "hardness" parameter values for H2-He (inaccessible from binary mixtures data) and to get an accurate description of the spectral line shape. This study should be useful for hydrogen coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy thermometry in H2/air flames at high pressure through its possible extension to the H2-N2-H2O system.

  10. DISTORTED CYCLOTRON LINE PROFILE IN CEP X-4 AS OBSERVED BY NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Fürst, F.; Miyasaka, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Tendulkar, S. P.; Walton, D. J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Bhalerao, V.; Bachetti, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Tomsick, J. A.; Christensen, F. E.; Grinberg, V.; Hailey, C. J.; Kennea, J. A.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-06-20

    We present spectral analysis of Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and Swift observations of Cep X-4 during its outburst in 2014. We observed the source once during the peak of the outburst and once during the decay, finding good agreement in the spectral shape between the observations. We describe the continuum using a power law with a Fermi–Dirac cutoff at high energies. Cep X-4 has a very strong cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) around 30 keV. A simple absorption-like line with a Gaussian optical depth or a pseudo-Lorentzian profile both fail to describe the shape of the CRSF accurately, leaving significant deviations at the red side of the line. We characterize this asymmetry with a second absorption feature around 19 keV. The line energy of the CRSF, which is not influenced by the addition of this feature, shows a small but significant positive luminosity dependence. With luminosities between (1–6) × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}, Cep X-4 is below the theoretical limit where such a correlation is expected. This behavior is similar to Vela X-1 and we discuss parallels between the two systems.

  11. LINE PROFILES OF CORES WITHIN CLUSTERS. II. SIGNATURES OF DYNAMICAL COLLAPSE DURING HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rowan J.; Shetty, Rahul; Klessen, Ralf S.; Beuther, Henrik; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2013-07-01

    Observations of atomic or molecular lines can provide important information about the physical state of star-forming regions. In order to investigate the line profiles from dynamical collapsing massive star-forming regions (MSFRs), we model the emission from hydrodynamic simulations of a collapsing cloud in the absence of outflows. By performing radiative transfer calculations, we compute the optically thick HCO{sup +} and optically thin N{sub 2}H{sup +} line profiles from two collapsing regions at different epochs. Due to large-scale collapse, the MSFRs have large velocity gradients, reaching up to 20 km s{sup -1} pc{sup -1} across the central core. The optically thin lines typically contain multiple velocity components resulting from the superposition of numerous density peaks along the line of sight. The optically thick lines are only marginally shifted to the blue side of the optically thin line profiles, and frequently do not have a central depression in their profiles due to self-absorption. As the regions evolve, the lines become brighter and the optically thick lines become broader. The lower-order HCO{sup +} (1-0) transitions are better indicators of collapse than the higher-order (4-3) transitions. We also investigate how the beam sizes affect profile shapes. Smaller beams lead to brighter and narrower lines that are more skewed to the blue in HCO{sup +} relative to the true core velocity, but show multiple components in N{sub 2}H{sup +}. High-resolution observations (e.g., with Atacama Large Millimeter Array) can test these predictions and provide insights into the nature of MSFRs.

  12. Evidence for the Importance of Resonance Scattering in X-Ray Emission Line Profiles of the O Star Zeta Puppis

    SciTech Connect

    Leutenegger, M.A.; Owocki, S.P.; Kahn, S.M.; Paerels, F.B.S.; /Columbia U.

    2006-10-10

    We fit the Doppler profiles of the He-like triplet complexes of O VII and N VI in the X-ray spectrum of the O star {zeta} Pup, using XMM-Newton RGS data collected over {approx} 400 ks of exposure. We find that they cannot be well fit if the resonance and intercombination lines are constrained to have the same profile shape. However, a significantly better fit is achieved with a model incorporating the effects of resonance scattering, which causes the resonance line to become more symmetric than the intercombination line for a given characteristic continuum optical depth {tau}{sub *}. We discuss the plausibility of this hypothesis, as well as its significance for our understanding of Doppler profiles of X-ray emission lines in O stars.

  13. Growth arrest and decrease of alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression by palmitic acid in the rat hepatic stellate cell line PAV-1.

    PubMed

    Abergel, Armand; Sapin, Vincent; Dif, Nicolas; Chassard, Christophe; Darcha, Claude; Marcand-Sauvant, Julie; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Rock, Edmond; Dechelotte, Pierre; Sauvant, Patrick

    2006-05-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by an activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). During primary culture HSC evolve from a quiescent into an activated phenotype which is characterized by alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) up-regulation, increase in cell growth, and extracellular matrix secretion. HSC culture with trans-resveratrol can lead to deactivation of myofibroblast-like HSC. We used an HSC line, PAV-1, to check the role of retinol and palmitic acid in the deactivation process of HSC. Using mass and metabolic-based methods, Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays, we demonstrated that treatment with palmitic acid (75 muM) alone or in combination with retinol (2 muM) significantly decreased cell proliferation and alpha-SMA expression. We also established that the association of both compounds strongly decreased collagen type I expression. Our results suggest the potential use of palmitic acid alone or in combination with retinol to induce HSC deactivation.

  14. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Hall, Matthew; Beaton, Rachael; Burton, Adam; Damke, Guillermo; Wilson, John; Whelan, David G.; Wisniewski, John P.; Shetrone, Matthew; Eikenberry, Steve; Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R∼22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ∼6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Δv{sub p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ∼2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Δv{sub p} toward the weaker Br12–Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Δv{sub p} compared to the Br11–Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 Å and 16781 Å remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any

  15. The effects of HIF-1alpha on gene expression profiles of NCI-H446 human small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene targeted therapy refers to any therapy focused on one of the many biological features of the tumor. Such features are mediated by specific genes that are involved in tumor metastasis, recurrence, poor response to chemotherapy and others. Hypoxia is an important pathognomonic feature of many malignant tumors including SCLC (small cell lung cancer). HIF-1alpha, which is induced by hypoxia, is the most important regulatory factor of many specific genes that can influence the biological features of tumors. Methods In this study, we tried to elucidate the changes in gene expression profiles of SCLC NCI-H446 cells mediated by HIF-1alpha. According to different treatments of cells, three experimental pairwise comparisons were designed: hypoxia group vs. control group, Ad5-HIF-1alpha group vs. Ad5 group, and Ad5-siHIF-1 alpha group Vs Ad5 group. Results Results from the analysis of gene expression profiles indicated that there were 65 genes upregulated and 28 genes downregulated more than two-fold in all three experimental pairwise comparisons. These genes were involved in transport, signal-transduction, cell adhesion/motility, growth factor/cytokines, transcription, inflammatory response, metabolic process, in addition to others. SOCS1, IGFBP5, IL-6 and STAT3 were also upregulated at protein level. SOCS1 could significantly induce apoptosis and suppress growth of NCI-H446 cells but HIF-1alpha could induce growth and suppress apoptosis. Conclusions Through this research, we are trying to find novel functional genes that are mediated by HIF-1alpha and provide the theoretical basis for new therapeutic targets. HIF-1 alpha maybe upregulate the expression of SOCS1 through mediation of STAT3 and IL-6. In addition, SOCS1 could significantly induce apoptosis and suppress growth of NCI-H446 cells. This was contrary to HIF-1alpha and it indicated that there might be an antagonism effect between HIF-1alpha and SOCS1 on regulating growth and apoptosis of NCI-H446

  16. Neon and [C II] 158 μm Emission Line Profiles in Dusty Starbursts and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonyan, Anahit; Weedman, Daniel; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Barry, Donald; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2016-09-01

    A sample of 379 extragalactic sources is presented that has mid-infrared, high-resolution spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and also spectroscopy of the [C ii] 158 μm line from the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The emission line profiles of [Ne ii] 12.81 μm, [Ne iii] 15.55 μm, and [C ii] 158 μm are presented, and intrinsic line widths are determined (full width half maximum of Gaussian profiles after instrumental correction). All line profiles, together with overlays comparing the positions of PACS and IRS observations, are made available in the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources. Sources are classified from active galactic nucleus (AGN) to starburst based on equivalent widths of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. It is found that intrinsic line widths do not change among classifications for [C ii], with median widths of 207 km s-1 for AGNs, 248 km s-1 for composites, and 233 km s-1 for starbursts. The [Ne ii] line widths also do not change with classification, but [Ne iii] lines are progressively broader from starburst to AGN. A few objects with unusually broad lines or unusual redshift differences in any feature are identified.

  17. Mid-Infrared [NeII] and [NeIII] Emission Line Profiles in Starbursts and AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonyan, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Line profiles and velocities of the [CII] 157μm line observed with the Herschel PACS instrument are compared to high resolution [NeII] 12.81μm and [NeIII] 15.55μm emission lines observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We are analysing spectra of at least 400 galaxies having both IRS high resolution and Herschel PACS [CII] line profiles that are available from the public archives. The goal of the work is the comparison of emission line velocity profiles and fluxes to locate and understand differences in the origins of [CII] compared to the mid-infrared Neon lines. Line velocities and widths are carefully measured, and errors are analyzed to determine if there is any kinematic evidence for [CII] arising from clouds not visible in the mid-infrared emission lines. This will give an answer to two questions: 1. Is there evidence that [CII] is more diffuse, distributed throughout galaxies, than the mid infrared starburst indicators [NeII] and [NeIII]?; 2. Is there evidence for specific, very dusty clouds of [CII] with so much extinction that the [CII] can be seen but the [NeII] and [NeIII] is not seen?

  18. Multi-omic profiling of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell-lines

    PubMed Central

    Dassi, Erik; Greco, Valentina; Sidarovich, Viktoryia; Zuccotti, Paola; Arseni, Natalia; Scaruffi, Paola; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Quattrone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric cancer, arising from the neural crest cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Its most aggressive subtype, characterized by the amplification of the MYCN oncogene, has a dismal prognosis and no effective treatment is available. Understanding the alterations induced by the tumor on the various layers of gene expression is therefore important for a complete characterization of this neuroblastoma subtype and for the discovery of new therapeutic opportunities. Here we describe the profiling of 13 MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines at the genome (copy number), transcriptome, translatome and miRome levels (GEO series GSE56654, GSE56552 and GSE56655). We provide detailed experimental and data analysis procedures by means of which we derived the results described in [1]. PMID:26697401

  19. Line-profile and continuum variations of the contact binary SV Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, J.; Drechsel, H.; Wargau, W.

    1982-01-01

    A total of five high and ten low dispersion UV spectra of the interacting contact binary SV Centauri obtained between 1979 and 1982 are analyzed. The low resolution observations cover the whole phase range, while a few selected phases were observed in high dispersion. The UV data were complemented with optical photometric and spectroscopic observations, in order to determine the tructure and absolute dimensions of the system. The profiles of prominent UV resonance and metastable lines undergo drastic changes with phase angle and time. Their overall appearance indicates relatively strong mass loss from the system, exhibiting pronounced variations of the stellar wind. The far UV continuum distribution suggests the presence of a luminous hot radiation source with maximum emission in the soft X-ray range, which is most apparently seen during the first quadrature phase, while it is weakest close to primary minimum. The case exchange and mass loss process as well as the evolutionary stage of SV Centauri are discussed.

  20. Comparative transcriptomic profiling of two tomato lines with different ascorbate content in the fruit.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Antonio; Sacco, Adriana; De Stefano, Rosalba; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, interest in tomato breeding for enhanced antioxidant content has increased as medical research has pointed to human health benefits from antioxidant dietary intake. Ascorbate is one of the major antioxidants present in tomato, and little is known about mechanisms governing ascorbate pool size in this fruit. In order to provide further insights into genetic mechanisms controlling ascorbate biosynthesis and accumulation in tomato, we investigated the fruit transcriptome profile of the Solanum pennellii introgression line 10-1 that exhibits a lower fruit ascorbate level than its cultivated parental genotype. Our results showed that this reduced ascorbate level is associated with an increased antioxidant demand arising from an accelerated oxidative metabolism mainly involving mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm. Candidate genes for controlling ascorbate level in tomato fruit were identified, highlighting the role of glycolysis, glyoxylate metabolism, and purine breakdown in modulating the ascorbate pool size.

  1. Deciphering the Correlation between Breast Tumor Samples and Cell Lines by Integrating Copy Number Changes and Gene Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Liu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with high incident rate and high mortality rate worldwide. Although different breast cancer cell lines were widely used in laboratory investigations, accumulated evidences have indicated that genomic differences exist between cancer cell lines and tissue samples in the past decades. The abundant molecular profiles of cancer cell lines and tumor samples deposited in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and The Cancer Genome Atlas now allow a systematical comparison of the breast cancer cell lines with breast tumors. We depicted the genomic characteristics of breast primary tumors based on the copy number variation and gene expression profiles and the breast cancer cell lines were compared to different subgroups of breast tumors. We identified that some of the breast cancer cell lines show high correlation with the tumor group that agrees with previous knowledge, while a big part of them do not, including the most used MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D. We presented a computational framework to identify cell lines that mostly resemble a certain tumor group for the breast tumor study. Our investigation presents a useful guide to bridge the gap between cell lines and tumors and helps to select the most suitable cell line models for personalized cancer studies. PMID:26273658

  2. Structure of the T-cell receptor in a Ti alpha beta, Ti gamma delta double positive T-cell line.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J; Geisler, C

    1993-02-01

    The multichain T-cell receptor is composed of at least six different polypeptide chains. The clonotypic Ti heterodimer (Ti alpha beta or Ti gamma delta) is non-covalently associated with the CD3 chains (CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta). The exact number of subunits constituting the T-cell receptor is still not known. It has been suggested that each T-cell receptor contains two Ti dimers. To gain insight into the structure of the T-cell receptor we constructed a Ti alpha beta, Ti gamma delta double positive T-cell line which contained four functional Ti chains (Ti alpha, beta, gamma, and delta). The data demonstrated an absence of Ti dimers containing mixtures of chains other than the typical Ti alpha beta and Ti gamma delta combinations. Furthermore, by co-modulation experiments we demonstrated that the Ti alpha beta and the Ti gamma delta dimers were not expressed in the same T-cell receptor. Our data indicate that the T-cell receptor does not contain two Ti dimers.

  3. Precision Fe K-Alpha and Fe K-Beta Line Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy NGC 2992 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Murphy, Kendrah D.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Haba, Yoshito; Inoue, Hajime; Itoh, Takeshi; Kelley, Richard; Kokubun, Motohide; Markowitz, Alex; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andrew; Reeves, James; Selemitos, Peter J.; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Terashima, Yuichi

    2006-01-01

    We present detailed time-averaged X-ray spectroscopy in the 0.5-10 keV band of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992 with the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometers (XIS). The source had a factor approximately 3 higher 2-10 keV flux (approximately 1.2 x l0(exp -11) erg per square cm per s) than the historical minimum and a factor approximately 7 less than the historical maximum. The XIS spectrum of NGC 2992 can be described by several components. There is a primary continuum, modeled as a power-law with a photon index of Gamma = 1.57(sup +0.06) (sup -0.03) that is obscured by a Compton-thin absorber with a column density of 8.01(sup +0.6) (sup -0.5)x l0 (exp 21) per square cm. . There is another, weaker, unabsorbed power-law component (modeled with the same slope as the primary), that is likely to be due to the primary continuum being electron-scattered into our line-of-sight by a region extended on a scale of hundreds of parsecs. We measure the Thomson depth of the scattering zone to be Tau = 0.072 +/- 0.021. An optically-thin thermal continuum emission component, which probably originates in the same extended region, is included in the model and yields a temperature and luminosity of KT = 0.656(sup +0.088) (sup -0.0.61) keV and approximately 1.2 +/- 0.4 x l0 (exp 40) erg per s respectively. We detect an Fe K emission complex which we model with broad and narrow lines and we show that the intensities of the two components are decoupled at a confidence level > 3 sigma. The broad Fe K alpha line has an equivalent width of 118(sup +32) (sup -61) eV and could originate in an accretion disk (with inclination angle greater than approximately 30 deg) around the putative central black hole. The narrow Fe K alpha line has an equivalent width of 1632(sup +47) (sup -26) eV and is unresolved (FWHM < 4630 km per s) and likely originates in distant matter. The absolute flux in the narrow line implies that the column density out of the line-of-sight could be much higher than measured in

  4. Chromatic line-profile tomography to reveal exoplanetary atmospheres: application to HD 189733b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, F.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy can be used to constrain the properties of exoplanetary atmospheres. During a transit, the light blocked from the atmosphere of the planet leaves an imprint in the light coming from the star. This has been shown for many exoplanets with both photometry and spectroscopy, using different analysis methods. Aims: We test chromatic line-profile tomography as a new tool to investigate exoplanetary atmospheres. The signal imprinted on the cross-correlation function (CCF) by a planet transiting its star is dependent on the planet-to-star radius ratio. We want to verify whether the precision reachable on the CCF obtained from a subset of the spectral orders of the HARPS spectrograph is high enough to determine the radius of a planet at different wavelengths. Methods: We analyze HARPS archival data of three transits of HD 189733b. We divide the HARPS spectral range into seven broadbands, calculating for each band the ratio between the area of the out-of-transit CCF and the area of the signal imprinted by the planet on it during the full part of the transit. We take into account the effect of the limb darkening using the theoretical coefficients of a linear law. Averaging the results of three different transits allows us to obtain a good-quality broadband transmission spectrum of HD 189733b with a greater precision than that of the chromatic Rossiter McLaughlin effect. Results: We proved that chromatic line-profile tomography is an interesting way to reveal broadband transmission spectra of exoplanets: our analysis of the atmosphere of HD 189733b is in agreement with other ground- and space-based observations. The independent analysis of different transits emphasizes the probability that stellar activity plays a role in the extracted transmission spectrum. Therefore, care should be taken when claiming that Rayleigh scattering is present in the atmosphere of exoplanets orbiting active stars using only one transit.

  5. Absolute fluxes, equivalent width and centre-to-limb profiles of the solar MG II resonance lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, A.; McKeith, C. D.

    1980-10-01

    For the average quiet Sun we derive from high resolution Fabry Perot-echelle spectrograms profiles of the Mg II resonance lines in the wavelength region 2760 Å ≲ λ ≲ 2820 Å for the radial positions 1.0 ≧ = μ ≧ 0.995, 0.60±0.06 and 0.43±0.10. The profile of a plage region near the disc centre is also presented. From the absolute flux calibrated observations of Kachalov and Jakovleva (1962), and Tousey et al. (1974), we derive the Mg II flux profile in the wavelength region 2660 Å ≲ λ ≲ 2940 Å. The Minnaert-Houtgast method is applied to the far wings of this profile in order to determine the undisturbed continuum level. Related to this continuum the equivalent width of the Mg II resonance lines is 83 Å. For the region 2770 Å ≲ λ ≲ 2820 Å a wavelength averaged limb darkening curve is derived. The Mg II profiles are calibrated using a combination of this limb darkening curve and the low spectral resolution flux profile. Our profile for the disc centre agrees in shape and absolute intensity with Kohl and Parkinson's (1976) recent observation. In the Appendix we generalize the Minnaert-Houtgast method for a blend of two strong multiplet lines and a linear variation of the continuum intensity.

  6. Molecular line profiles as diagnostics of protostellar collapse: modelling the `blue asymmetry' in inside-out infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Yates, J. A.; Viti, S.

    2008-08-01

    The evolution of star-forming core analogues undergoing inside-out collapse is studied with a multipoint chemodynamical model which self-consistently computes the abundance distribution of chemical species in the core. For several collapse periods the output chemistry of infalling tracer species such as HCO+, CS and N2H+ is then coupled to an accelerated Λ-iteration radiative transfer code, which predicts the emerging molecular line profiles using two different input gas/dust temperature distributions. We investigate the sensitivity of the predicted spectral line profiles and line asymmetry ratios to the core temperature distribution, the time-dependent model chemistry, as well as to ad hoc abundance distributions. The line asymmetry is found to be strongly dependent on the adopted chemical abundance distribution. In general, models with a warm central region show higher values of blue asymmetry in optically thick HCO+ and CS lines than models with a starless core temperature profile. We find that in the formal context of Shu-type inside-out infall, and in the absence of rotation or outflows, the relative blue asymmetry of certain HCO+ and CS transitions is a function of time and, subject to the foregoing caveats, can act as a collapse chronometer. The sensitivity of simulated HCO+ line profiles to linear radial variations, subsonic or supersonic, of the internal turbulence field is investigated in the separate case of static cores.

  7. Expression profiles of human interferon-alpha and interferon-lambda subtypes are ligand- and cell-dependent.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Philippa; Mane, Viraj P; Schramm, Lynnsie M; Puig, Montserrat; Verthelyi, Daniela; Chen, Aaron; Zhao, Zeng; Navarro, Maria B; Kirschman, Kevin D; Bykadi, Srikant; Jubin, Ronald G; Rabin, Ronald L

    2012-09-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies suggest distinct roles for 12 human interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and 3 IFN-λ subtypes that may be elucidated by defining the expression patterns of these sets of genes. To overcome the impediment of high homology among each of the sets, we designed a quantitative real-time PCR assay that incorporates the use of molecular beacon and locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes, and in some instances, LNA oligonucleotide inhibitors. We then measured IFN subtype expression by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by purified monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and -dendritic cells (MDDC) in response to poly I:C, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), imiquimod and CpG oligonucleotides. We found that in response to poly I:C and LPS, monocytes, MDM and MDDC express a subtype pattern restricted primarily to IFN-β and IFN-λ1. In addition, while CpG elicited expression of all type I IFN subtypes by pDC, imiquimod did not. Furthermore, MDM and mDC highly express IFN-λ, and the subtypes of IFN-λ are expressed hierarchically in the order IFN-λ1 followed by IFN-λ2, and then IFN-λ3. These data support a model of coordinated cell- and ligand-specific expression of types I and III IFN. Defining IFN subtype expression profiles in a variety of contexts may elucidate specific roles for IFN subtypes as protective, therapeutic or pathogenic mediators.

  8. Extracellular matrix proteins expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly--over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis.

  9. Profiles of the He I 23P-33D line at high densities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büscher, S.; Glenzer, S.; Wrubel, T.; Kunze, H.-J.

    1995-08-01

    The authors report on measurements of Stark profiles of the He I 23P-33D transition at λ = 587.6 nm performed in a plasma of the gas-liner pinch discharge. The line shape and peak shift have been measured at densities in the range of ne = 0.5-2.5×1018cm-3 and temperatures of kB, T = 4-5.5 eV and compared with theoretical calculations using several approximations. The plasma parameters were determined independently by Thomson scattering. For higher densities the width of the He I 23P-33D transition grows nonlinearly with increasing density, and the shift of the line center shows a change of the sign from a blue to a red shift. For lower densities the Stark width and shift are excellently predicted by the calculations, but, as expected, for higher densities the agreement becomes worse, especially for the shift, when the validity range of the approximations is exceeded.

  10. [Study on spectral line profile of volume discharge and surface discharge in dielectric barrier discharge].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Fang; Zhao, Long-Hu; Wang, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ye-Nan

    2014-02-01

    The volume discharge (VD) and surface discharge (SD) were observed in dielectric barrier discharge with a relatively large discharge gap simultaneously by using a high-speed camera. The variations of the spectral line profiles of VD and SD as a function of the discharge parameters were studied by using optical emission spectra. The changes in the width and shift of Ar I (2P2-->1S5) spectral lines of VD and SD with gas pressure and discharge gap were measured in dielectric barrier discharge in argon. It was found that both the width and shift of SD are bigger than those of VD, indicating that the electron density of SD is higher than that of VD. The width and shift of VD and SD increase with the gas pressure increasing, indicating that the electron density of VD and SD increases with the gas pressure increasing. The width of VD and SD increases with the gas gap d increasing from 3. 8 to 4. 4 mm, reflecting that the electron density of VD and SD increases with d increasing.

  11. Integrative fitting of absorption line profiles with high accuracy, robustness, and speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Julian; Habig, Jan Christoph; Ebert, Volker

    2014-08-01

    The principle of the integrative evaluation of absorption line profiles relies on the numeric integration of absorption line signals to retrieve absorber concentrations, e.g., of trace gases. Thus, it is a fast and robust technique. However, previous implementations of the integrative evaluation principle showed shortcomings in terms of accuracy and the lack of a fit quality indicator. This has motivated the development of an advanced integrative (AI) fitting algorithm. The AI fitting algorithm retains the advantages of previous integrative implementations—robustness and speed—and is able to achieve high accuracy by introduction of a novel iterative fitting process. A comparison of the AI fitting algorithm with the widely used Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) fitting algorithm indicates that the AI algorithm has advantages in terms of robustness due to its independence from appropriately chosen start values for the initialization of the fitting process. In addition, the AI fitting algorithm shows speed advantages typically resulting in a factor of three to four shorter computational times on a standard personal computer. The LM algorithm on the other hand retains advantages in terms of a much higher flexibility, as the AI fitting algorithm is restricted to the evaluation of single absorption lines with precomputed line width. Comparing both fitting algorithms for the specific application of in situ laser hygrometry at 1,370 nm using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) suggests that the accuracy of the AI algorithm is equivalent to that of the LM algorithm. For example, a signal-to-noise ratio of 80 and better typically yields a deviation of <1 % between both fitting algorithms. The properties of the AI fitting algorithm make it an interesting alternative if robustness and speed are crucial in an application and if the restriction to a single absorption line is possible. These conditions are fulfilled for the 1,370 nm TDLAS hygrometry at the

  12. The Relativistic Iron Line Profile in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy IC4329a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Zycki, P. T.

    2000-01-01

    We present simultaneous ASCA and RXTE data on the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy IC4329a. The iron line is significantly broadened, but not to the extent expected from an accretion disk which extends down to the last stable orbit around a black hole. We marginally detect a narrow line component, presumably from the molecular torus, but, even including this gives a line profile from the accretion disk which is significantly narrower that that seen in MCG-6-30-15, and is much more like that seen from the low/hard state galactic black hole candidates. This is consistent with the inner disk being truncated before the last stable orbit, forming a hot flow at small radii as in the ADAF models. However. we cannot rule out the presence of an inner disk which does not contribute to the reflected spectrum. either because of extreme ionisation suppressing the characteristic atomic features of the reflected spectrum or because the X-ray source is intrinsically anisotropic, so it does not illuminate the inner disk. The source was monitored by RXTE every 2 days for 2 months, and these snapshot spectra show that there is intrinsic spectral variability. The data are good enough to disentangle the power law from the reflected continuum and we see that the power law softens as the source brightens. The lack of a corresponding increase in the observed reflected spectrum implies that either the changes in disk inner radial extent/ionization structure are small, or that the variability is actually driven by changes in the seed photons which are decoupled from the hard X-ray mechanism.

  13. Determination of line profiles on nano-structured surfaces using EUV and x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwisch, Victor; Wernecke, Jan; Haase, Anton; Probst, Jürgen; Schoengen, Max; Krumrey, Michael; Scholze, Frank; Pomplun, Jan; Burger, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, EUV small angle scattering (EUVSAS), which allows for much steeper angles of incidence but preserves the range of momentum transfer that can be observed. Generally, the potentially higher momentum transfer at shorter wavelengths is counterbalanced by decreasing diffraction efficiency. This results in a practical limit of about 10 nm pitch for which it is possible to observe at least the +/- 1st diffraction orders with reasonable efficiency. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, based on a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and a particle swarm based least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV-SAS and GISAXS. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV-SAS and GISAXS.

  14. Hydrogen Ly-α and Ly-β full Sun line profiles observed with SUMER/SOHO (1996-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, P.; Vial, J.-C.; Curdt, W.; Schühle, U.; Wilhelm, K.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Accurate hydrogen spectra emitted by the entire solar disc in the Ly-α and Ly-βlines are valuable for deriving the distribution and the behaviour of atomic hydrogen in the heliosphere, for understanding the UV emissions of solar type stars better, and finally for estimating the solar energy input that mainly initiates the chemical processes occurring in the planetary and cometary outer atmospheres. Aims: In this paper we want to accurately determine the irradiance solar spectral profiles of Ly-α and Ly-β and their evolution through the solar activity cycle 23. Methods: The SUMER/SOHO spectrometer is a slit spectrometer that is only able to analyse a small part of the solar image. Consequently, we used the scattered light properties of the telescope to obtain average spectra over the solar disc. Then the profile is calibrated using the SOLSTICE/UARS and TIMED/SEE irradiance spectra. Results: We obtained a set of irradiance Ly-α and Ly-β solar spectra with a 0.002 nm resolution through the solar activity cycle 23. In each line a relation between the integrated profile and the line centre intensity was obtained.Knowing the line irradiance, it is possible to deduce the central line profile intensity, a critical input into the interplanetary and planetary oxygen and hydrogen fluorescent processes. Conclusions: The observation of H i Ly-α and Ly-β line profiles by SUMER/SOHO during the cycle 23 allows analysis of the evolution of their characteristics and accurate determination of UV radiation input into the solar system. Profiles are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A26

  15. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  16. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensionalassays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Myers, Connie A.; Neve, RichardM.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Spellman, Paul T.; Lorenz, Katrin; Lee, Eva H.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-01-31

    3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments.

  17. Seasonal Variations in the CO Line Profile and the Retrieved Thermal/Pressure Structures in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayat, Alain; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Riesen, T. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    2013-10-01

    We report retrievals of temperature vertical profiles up to 100 km over Tharsis and Syrtis regions on Mars obtained by inverting the strong rotational (3-2) line of carbon monoxide (CO) at 346 GHz. Observations of CO were made from mid Northern Spring to early Northern Summer on Mars (Ls= 36°-108°, 23 Nov, 2011 - 13 May, 2012) using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory's (CSO) high-resolution heterodyne receiver (Barney) on top of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. The temperature profiles were derived using our radiative transfer model that considers the latest spectroscopic constants for CO collisionally broadened by CO2. We observe notable changes of the line profile for different dates, which are directly related to seasonal variations in the thermal/pressure structure of the atmosphere. The seasonal variability of the martian CO line profile, the extracted temperature profiles, and comparisons with modeled profiles from the Mars Climate Database (Lewis et al, 1999) will be presented. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program , NASA Astrobiology Institute, Planetary Atmospheres programs. This material is based upon work at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation, grant number AST-0838261.

  18. Physiological Basis and Transcriptional Profiling of Three Salt-Tolerant Mutant Lines of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Concha; Lalanne, Eric; Catalá, María M.; Pla, Eva; Reig-Valiente, Juan L.; Talón, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a complex trait that affects growth and productivity in many crops, including rice. Mutation induction, a useful tool to generate salt tolerant plants, enables the analysis of plants with similar genetic background, facilitating the understanding of the salt tolerance mechanisms. In this work, we generated three salt tolerant mutant lines by irradiation of a salt-sensitive cultivar plants and screened M2 plants at seedling stage in the presence of high salinity. These three lines, SaT20, SaS62, and SaT58, showed different responses to salinity, but exhibited similar phenotype to wild type plants, except SaT20 that displayed shorter height when grown in the absence of salt. Under salt conditions, all three mutants and the parental line showed similar reduction in yield, although relevant differences in other physiological parameters, such as Na+ accumulation in healthy leaves of SaT20, were registered. Microarray analyses of gene expression profiles in roots revealed the occurrence of common and specific responses in the mutants. The three mutants showed up-regulation of responsive genes, the activation of oxido-reduction process and the inhibition of ion transport. The participation of jasmonate in the plant response to salt was evident by down-regulation of a gene coding for a jasmonate O-methyltransferase. Genes dealing with lipid transport and metabolism were, in general, up-regulated except in SaS62, that also exhibited down-regulation of genes involved in ion transport and Ca2+ signal transduction. The two most tolerant varieties, SaS62 and SaT20, displayed lower levels of transcripts involved in K+ uptake. The physiological study and the description of the expression analysis evidenced that the three lines showed different responses to salt: SaT20 showed a high Na+ content in leaves, SaS62 presented an inhibition of lipid metabolism and ion transport and SaT58 differs in both features in the response to salinity. The analysis of these salt

  19. Measurements of nuclear {gamma}-ray line emission in interactions of protons and {alpha} particles with N, O, Ne, and Si

    SciTech Connect

    Benhabiles-Mezhoud, H.; Kiener, J.; Thibaud, J.-P.; Tatischeff, V.; Deloncle, I.; Coc, A.; Duprat, J.; Hamadache, C.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Dalouzy, J.-C.; Grancey, F. de; Oliveira, F. de; Dayras, F.; Sereville, N. de; Pellegriti, M.-G.; Lamia, L.; Ouichaoui, S.

    2011-02-15

    {gamma}-ray production cross sections have been measured in proton irradiations of N, Ne, and Si and {alpha}-particle irradiations of N and Ne. In the same experiment we extracted also line shapes for strong {gamma}-ray lines of {sup 16}O produced in proton and {alpha}-particle irradiations of O. For the measurements gas targets were used for N, O, and Ne and a thick foil for Si. All targets were of natural isotopic composition. Beams in the energy range up to 26 MeV for protons and 39 MeV for {alpha} particles were delivered by the Institut de Physique Nucleaire-Orsay tandem accelerator. The {gamma} rays were detected with four high-purity Ge detectors in the angular range 30 deg. to 135 deg. We extracted 36 cross-section excitation functions for proton reactions and 14 for {alpha}-particle reactions. For the majority of the excitation functions no other data exist to our knowledge. Where comparison with existing data was possible, usually a very good agreement was found. It is shown that these data are very interesting for constraining nuclear reaction models. In particular, the agreement of cross section calculations in the nuclear reaction code talys with the measured data could be improved by adjusting the coupling schemes of collective levels in the target nuclei {sup 14}N, {sup 20,22}Ne, and {sup 28}Si. The importance of these results for the modeling of nuclear {gamma}-ray line emission in astrophysical sites is discussed.

  20. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  1. GENERATION OF TWO STABLE CELL LINES THAT EXPRESS HER-ALPHA OR HER-ALPHA AND -BETA AND FIREFLY LUCIFERASE GENES FOR ENDOCRINE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of Two Stable Cell Lines that Express hERa or
    hERa and b and Firefly Luciferase Genes for Endocrine Screening

    K.L. Bobseine*1, W.R. Kelce2, P.C. Hartig*1, and L.E. Gray, Jr.1

    1USEPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC, 2Searle, Reprod...

  2. Measurements of Spatial Line Emission Profiles in the Main Scrape-Off Layer of the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, M; Ellis, R; Brooks, N; Fenstermacher, M; Lasnier, C; Meyer, W; Moller, J

    2009-06-05

    A video camera system is described that measures the spatial distribution of visible line emission emitted from the main scrape-off layer (SOL) of plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. A wide-angle lens installed on an equatorial port and an in-vessel mirror which intercepts part of the lens view provide simultaneous tangential views of the SOL on the low-field and high-field sides of the plasma's equatorial plane. Tomographic reconstruction techniques are used to calculate the 2-D poloidal profiles from the raw data, and 1-D poloidal profiles simulating chordal views of other optical diagnostics from the 2-D profiles. The 2-D profiles can be compared with SOL plasma simulations; the 1-D profiles with measurements from spectroscopic diagnostics. Sample results are presented which elucidate carbon transport in plasmas with toroidally uniform injection of methane and argon transport in disruption mitigation experiments with massive gas jet injection.

  3. A comparison of lyman alpha and HeI lambda 10830 line structure and variations in early-type star atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meisel, D. D.

    1977-01-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometric profiles for fifty of the early-type stars including supergiants, eclipsing binaries, Bp and Ap stars, Be and shell stars, and variable stars have been obtained. Results for beta Persei (Algol) just before primary and secondary eclipses show strong emission profiles lasting about 0.1 phase. An absorption line was seen during secondary eclipse. Bright supergiant stars (O9-A2) show time-variable, complicated absorption/emission profiles similar to those obtained for the Be/shell stars.

  4. Authentication of newly established human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (YM-1) using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling method.

    PubMed

    Ayyoob, Khosravi; Masoud, Khoshnia; Vahideh, Kazeminejad; Jahanbakhsh, Asadi

    2016-03-01

    Cross-contamination during or early after establishment of a new cell line could result in the worldwide spread of a misidentified cell line. Therefore, newly established cell lines need to be authenticated by a reference standard method. This study was conducted to investigate the authenticity of a newly established epithelial cell line of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) called YM-1 using short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling method. Primary human ESCC epithelial cells were cultured from the fresh tumor tissue of an adult female patient. Growth characteristics and epithelial originality of YM-1 cells were studied. Genomic DNA was isolated from YM-1 cells harvested at passage 22 and ESCC donor tumor sample on two different days to prevent probable DNA contamination. STR profiling was performed using AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit. To address whether YM-1 cells undergo genetic alteration as the passage number increases, STR profiling was performed again on harvested cells at passage 51. YM-1 cells grew as a monolayer with a population doubling time of 40.66 h. Epithelial originality of YM-1 cells was confirmed using ICC/IF staining of cytokeratins AE1/AE3. The STR profile of the ESCC donor tumor sample was the same with YM-1 cells at passage 22. However, STR profile of the donor tumor sample showed an off-ladder (OL) allele in their D7S820 locus. Also, re-profiling of YM-1 cells at passage 51 showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at D18S51 locus. This suggests that long-term culture of cell lines may alter their DNA profile. Comparison of the DNA fingerprinting results in DSMZ, and ATCC STR profiling databases confirmed unique identity of YM-1 cell line. This study provides an easy, fast, and reliable procedure for authentication of newly established cell lines, which helps in preventing the spread of misidentified cells and improving the reproducibility and validity of experiments, consequently.

  5. The pore-lining region of shaker voltage-gated potassium channels: comparison of beta-barrel and alpha-helix bundle models.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, I D; Sansom, M S

    1997-01-01

    Although there is a large body of site-directed mutagenesis data that identify the pore-lining sequence of the voltage-gated potassium channel, the structure of this region remains unknown. We have interpreted the available biochemical data as a set of topological and orientational restraints and employed these restraints to produce molecular models of the potassium channel pore region, H5. The H5 sequence has been modeled either as a tetramer of membrane-spanning beta-hairpins, thus producing an eight-stranded beta-barrel, or as a tetramer of incompletely membrane-spanning alpha-helical hairpins, thus producing an eight-staved alpha-helix bundle. In total, restraints-directed modeling has produced 40 different configurations of the beta-barrel model, each configuration comprising an ensemble of 20 structures, and 24 different configurations of the alpha-helix bundle model, each comprising an ensemble of 24 structures. Thus, over 1300 model structures for H5 have been generated. Configurations have been ranked on the basis of their predicted pore properties and on the extent of their agreement with the biochemical data. This ranking is employed to identify particular configurations of H5 that may be explored further as models of the pore-lining region of the voltage-gated potassium channel pore. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 12 PMID:9251779

  6. Expression Profile of MiR-128 in the Astrocytoma Patients and Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Liu, Yuqiong; Guo, Si; Ma, Shengli; Xiao, Lin; Wei, Na; Xue, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors. The critical characterizes of astrocyomas are their aggressive and infiltrative in the brain, which leads to uncontrollable by conventional forms of therapy. MicroRNAs are small RNAs that had been found to regulate their targets by specific binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA. Recent advances in understanding the molecular biology of these tumors have revealed that microRNA (miRNA) disruption may play important roles in the pathogenesis of astrocytomas. And some of the miRNA alterations were found in the serum of astrocytoma patients. In this study, we studied the expression profile of miR-128, in the different stages of astrocytoma tissues and two human astrocytoma cell lines, A172 and T98G cells. We found that the levels of miR-128 are decreased in the A172 and T98G cells when compared to normal human astrocyte (NHA). Furthermore, the levels of miR-128 decreased gradually to the pathological stages of astrocytomas. We also identified that TROVE2 is a novel target of miR-128 by the luciferase reporter system. Furthermore, the expression levels of TROVE2 are dramatically increased with the pathological stages increasing. Finally, the levels of TROVE2 are negatively correlated with miR-128 in astrocytoma tissues. Our data provided novel evidence for the miR-128 and TROVE2 in the development of human astrocytomas. PMID:26307612

  7. PROJECT VeSElkA: ANALYSIS OF BALMER LINE PROFILES OF SLOWLY ROTATING CHEMICALLY PECULIAR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Khalack, V.; LeBlanc, F.

    2015-07-15

    We present results for the estimation of gravity, effective temperature, and radial velocity of poorly studied chemically peculiar stars recently observed with the spectropolarimeter Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for Observations of Stars at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope in the frame of the Vertical Stratification of Element Abundances project. The effective temperature and surface gravity values are determined for the very first time for four of the stars from our sample (HD 23878, HD 83373, HD 95608, and HD 164584). Grids of stellar atmosphere models with the corresponding fluxes have been calculated using version 15 of the PHOENIX code for effective temperatures in the range of 5000–15,000 K, for the logarithm of surface gravities in the range of 3.0–4.5 and for the metallicities from −1.0 to +1.5. We used these fluxes to fit the Balmer line profiles employing the code FITSB2 that produces estimates of the effective temperature, gravity, and radial velocity for each star. When possible, our results are compared to those previously published. The physical characteristics of 16 program stars are discussed with the future aim to study the abundance anomalies of chemical species and the possible vertical abundance stratification in their stellar atmosphere.

  8. Line profile analysis and low temperature AC susceptibility of Cu-Zn ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Lamani, Ashok. R.; Jayanna, H. S.; Prasanna, G. D.

    2012-06-05

    The Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0{center_dot}2, 0{center_dot}4, 0{center_dot}6, 0{center_dot}8, 1.0) samples were prepared using double sintering ceramic method by adding Zn{sup 2+} at different concentration. The X-ray line profile analysis were carried out to confirm the spinel phase formation as well as to know the (%) strain in the crystal. The real and imaginary part of a.c. susceptibility measured from 77K to room temperature. The high temperature peak corresponds to magnetic blocking of individual particles, while the low temperature peak is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing. To prove the dynamics of the spin (dis)order in both regimes of freezing and blocking, the frequency dependent ac susceptibility is investigated under a biasing dc field. The frequency shift in the ''frozen'' low-temperature ac susceptibility peak is fitted to a dynamic scaling law which indicates a spin-glass phase. Exchange bias is turned on at low temperature which signifies the existence of a strong core-shell interaction.

  9. Molecular rotational line profiles from oxygen-rich red giant winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justtanont, K.; Skinner, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a radiative transfer model of the dust and gas envelopes around late-type stars. The gas kinetic temperature for each star is calculated by solving equations of motion and the energy balance simultaneously. The main processes include viscous heating and adiabatic and radiative cooling. Heating is dominated by viscosity as the grains stream outward through the gas, with some contribution in oxygen-rich stars by near-IR pumping of H2O followed by collisional de-excitation in the inner envelope. For O-rich stars, rotational H2O cooling is a dominant mechanism in the middle part of the envelope, with CO cooling being less significant. We have applied our model to three well-studied oxygen-rich red giant stars. The three stars cover a wide range of mass-loss rates, and hence they have different temperature structures. The derived temperature structures are used in calculating CO line profiles for these objects. Comparison of the dust and gas mass-loss rates suggests that mass-loss rates are not constant during the asymptotic giant branch phase. In particular, the results show that the low CO 1-0 antenna temperatures of OH/IR stars reflect an earlier phase of much lower mass-loss rate.

  10. Laser beam direct writing of fine lines of alpha-Fe2O3 from metalorganic spin-coated films and transient behavior study of laser decomposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Songsheng; Ousi-Benomar, Wahib; Lessard, Roger A.

    1994-07-01

    Fine lines of (alpha) -Fe2O3 have been formed on quartz substrates by laser beam direct writing on metalorganic spin-coated films. A modulated krypton ion writing laser beam and a He-Ne probing laser beam were colinearly focused onto the films with a spot size about 10 to 50 micrometers in diameter. A series of characterizations have been conducted on the written lines by employing different techniques ranging from thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction to transmission electron microscopy. In this way, a better understanding has been achieved regarding the metalorganic decomposition mechanism, structure, and morphology of the laser written lines. From the time-resolved transmittance change induced by the krypton ion laser pulse irradiation, transient behavior of laser decomposition process of metalorganic materials has also been studied.

  11. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting and Gene Expression Profiling of GFP-Positive Cells from Transgenic Zebrafish Lines.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hideyuki; Seki, Masahide; Itoh, Mari; Deepak, Ailani; Lal, Pradeep; Horiuchi, Terumi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kawakami, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression profiling is a useful approach for deeper understanding of the specificity of cells, tissues, and organs in the transcriptional level. Recent development of high-throughput next-generation sequence (NGS) allows the RNA-seq method for this profiling. This method provides precise information of transcripts about the quantitation and the structure such as the splicing variants. In this chapter, we describe a method for gene expression profiling of GFP-positive cells from transgenic zebrafish by RNA-seq. We labeled specific cells in the brain with GFP by crossing a Gal4 driver line with the UAS:GFP line, isolated those cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and analyzed by RNA-seq. PMID:27464803

  12. Evidence for a disk in the wind of HD 93521: UV line profiles from an axisymmetric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, J. E.; Ignace, R.; Tripp, T. M.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested (Massa 1992; Howarth & Reid 1993), from the C IV ultraviolet resonance line profile of HD 93521, that there is a high-speed component in the polar outflow from the star as well as a low-speed component in the equatorial regions. In this paper we present theoretical calculations of the line profiles that would be produced by such a model. We find from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) observations of HD 93521 that the observed C IV profile can be produced if the star has an inclination angle very close to 90 deg and if the star is surrounded by a thin disk, whose half-width is approximately 3 deg in latitude. The geometry of this disk is similar to what one would expect from the wind-compressed disk model of Bjorkman & Cassinelli, so this star may provide an ideal observational test of that model. In addition to the C IV resonance line, we examine both the Si IV and N V resonance lines. The Si IV line exhibits low-velocity absorption that is similar to that seen in the C IV line, but the emission is much weaker. On the other hand, the N V line has weaker absorption and much stronger emission than the C IV line. N V is a higher ionization state than C IV, so it is likely that N V is one stage above the dominant state, N IV. Apart from fitting individual line profiles, we also examine the differences between the two Hubble Space Telescope observations of HD 93521. We find evidence for a pair of narrow absorption components, seen at low velocity, as well as evidence for a discrete emission feature in the blueshifted absorption cores of the lines. This blueshifted emission at low velocity can cause what instead appears to be an interstella absorption line. Without multiple observations that can reveal the temporary emission, one must be very careful when determining interstellar column densities to stars like HD 93521.

  13. Evidence for a temperature rise in the outer layers of alpha Lyrae, from Copernicus observations of Lyman-alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praderie, F.; Simonneau, E.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Copernicus satellite observations of the Ly-alpha profiles in alpha Lyrae (Vega) are used to determine whether classical radiative-equilibrium LTE model atmospheres can fit the thermal structure in the outer layers of that star. Two plane-parallel LTE model photospheres of alpha Lyrae are considered: a line-blanketed radiative-equilibrium model with an effective temperature of 9650 K and log g of 4.05, and the same model with a temperature of 9500 K and log g of 4.0. The profiles of the Ly-alpha wings are computed, and it is found that classical LTE models are unable to predict either the observed violet wing or the red wing longwards of 1239 A, regardless of the line source function. It is concluded that the electron temperature must increase outwards over the surface value reached in radiative equilibrium.

  14. Structure and dynamics of alpha-tocopherol in model membranes and in solution: a broad-line and high-resolution NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiel, I.H.; Hughes, L.; Burton, G.W.; Jovall, P.A.; Ingold, K.U.; Smith, I.C.

    1988-03-08

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been applied to study the conformational dynamics of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in solution and in model membranes. In nonviscous solution, /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that alpha-tocopherol is in rapid equilibrium between two or more puckered conformers of its heterocyclic ring. The most likely conformers to be so involved are the two half-chair forms. Deuterium NMR spectra of specifically deuteriated alpha-tocopherol in multilamellar dispersions of egg phosphatidylcholine, measured in the liquid-crystalline state, were characteristic of axially symmetric motional averaging. The orientation of the rotational axis within the molecular framework was determined. Studies on oriented multilamellar membranes revealed that this axis is perpendicular to the surface of the membrane. The profile of quadrupolar splittings along the hydrophobic tail does not have a plateau, in contrast to that of the fatty acyl chains of the membrane lipids. Longitudinal relaxation times (T1) were short. The presence of a minimum in their temperature dependence shows that molecular motion with an effective correlation time tau eff approximately equal to 3 X 10(-9)s is responsible for relaxation. However, the temperatures and absolute values of the minima depend on the position of the deuterium in the molecule, demonstrating that tau eff represents a complex blend of motions.

  15. Decreased 8N sub 3 -(gamma- sup 32 P)GTP photolabeling of G sub s. alpha. in tumorigenic lung epithelial cell lines: Association with decreased hormone responsiveness and loss of contact-inhibited growth

    SciTech Connect

    Droms, K.A.; Malkinson, A.M. ); Haley, B.E. ); Smith, G.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The 45-kDa {alpha} subunit of the signal transducing G{sub s} protein complex, which stimulates receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase, incorporated less of the photoaffinity probe, 8N{sub 3}-({gamma}-{sup 32}P)GTP, in extracts from tumorigenic cell lines in comparison with nontumorigenic cell lines derived from mouse lung epithelium. Immunoblotting experiments using anti-G{sub s}{alpha} antibodies demonstrated that tumor cells do not have a decreased amount of G{sub s}{alpha} and photolabeling of tumor cell G{sub s}{alpha} increased when the rate of nucleotide exchange was promoted. Therefore, tumor cell G{sub s}{alpha} function may be altered. Consistent with this hypothesis is the observation that the tumor cells exhibited decreased responsiveness to the {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. G{sub s}{alpha} photolabeling in growing nontumorigenic cells was reduced to a level resembling that observed in tumor cells, but photolabeling increased when cells became contact-inhibited. This increase in 8N{sub 3}-({gamma}-{sup 32}P)GTP incorporation into G{sub s}{alpha} by normal cells at confluence was not seen in the tumorigenic cells. Since G{sub s}{alpha} photolabeling was inversely proportional to the percentage of ({sup 3}H) thymidine-labeled nuclei at confluence, the authors suggest that the altered G{sub s}{alpha} in tumor cells is involved in the loss of cell growth regulation.

  16. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  17. An Extreme, Blueshifted Iron-Line Profile in the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PG 1402+261: An Edge-on Accretion Disk or Highly Ionized Absorption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Porquet, D.; Turner, T. J.

    2004-11-01

    We report on a short XMM-Newton observation of the radio-quiet narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PG 1402+261. The EPIC X-ray spectrum of PG 1402+261 shows a strong excess of counts between 6 and 9 keV in the rest frame. This feature can be modeled by an unusually strong (equivalent width 2 keV) and very broad (FWHM velocity of 110,000 km s-1) iron K-shell emission line. The line centroid energy at 7.3 keV appears blueshifted with respect to the iron Kα emission band between 6.4 and 6.97 keV, while the blue wing of the line extends to 9 keV in the quasar rest frame. The line profile can be fitted by reflection from the inner accretion disk, but an inclination angle of >60° is required to model the extreme blue wing of the line. Furthermore, the extreme strength of the line requires a geometry whereby the hard X-ray emission from PG 1402+261 above 2 keV is dominated by the pure-reflection component from the disk, while little or none of the direct hard power law is observed. Alternatively, the spectrum above 2 keV may be explained by an ionized absorber, if the column density is sufficiently high (NH>3×1023 cm-2) and if the matter is ionized enough to produce a deep (τ~1) iron K-shell absorption edge at 9 keV. This absorber could originate in a large column density, high-velocity outflow, perhaps similar to those that appear to be observed in several other high accretion rate active galactic nuclei. Further observations, especially at higher spectral resolution, are required to distinguish between the accretion disk reflection and outflow scenarios.

  18. A computer program for a line-by-line calculation of spectra from diatomic molecules and atoms assuming a Voight line profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Lyle, G. C.; Whiting, E. E.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program predicts the spectra resulting from electronic transitions of diatomic molecules and atoms in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The program produces a spectrum by accounting for the contribution of each rotational and atomic line considered.

  19. Asymmetry of the Balmer-alpha line shape and recovery of the effective hydrogen temperature in the tokamak scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect

    Neverov, V. S. Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisgo, S. W. Kukushkin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. G.

    2015-02-15

    An algorithm for recovering the effective temperature of atoms of hydrogen (and its isotopes) in the tokamak scrape-off layer from the asymmetry of the Balmer-alpha line shape is proposed. The algorithm is based on the parametrization of the asymmetry of the line shape caused by the nonlocal character of neutral hydrogen flux from the wall into the tokamak plasma. The accuracy of the algorithm is tested against the results of simulations of the velocity distribution function of deuterium neutrals in the scrape-off layer by the EIRENE code with the use of the source data on the main plasma component in the quasi-stationary stage of the inductive mode of ITER operation calculated by the SOLPS4.3 (B2-EIRENE) code.

  20. Broadening of the Spectral Atomic Lines Analysis in High Density Argon Corona Plasma by Using Voigt Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, M.; Bonifaci, N.; Denat, A.; Atrazhev, V. M.

    2015-06-01

    Studies of spectrum emission from high density argon plasma corona has been done. The analysis of the boardening of spectral atomic lines of Ar-I profile has been curried out by using an empirical approximation based on a Voigt profile. Full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the spectral-lines of 763.5 nm has been determined from atmospheric pressure until liquid state. The study liquid argon was curried out in a variation of temperature from K to 151.2 K and hydrostatics pressure from 2.1 MPa to 6.4 MPa. These pressure gives the densities N∞ (i.e. density very far from ionization zone) a variation from 1.08 1022 to 2.11 1022 cm-3. FWHM of Voigt approximation (Wv) of the line 763,5 nm of 'Ar I for: the emission lamp very low pressure (Wv = 0,160 nm) and our corona discharge at a pressure of MPa (Wv = 0,67 nm) and at a pressure of 9,5 MPa (Wv = 1,16 nm). In gas, corona plasma has been generated from 0.1 MPa to 9.5 MPa. We found that the broadening spectral line increase by increasing densities both for. the spectral-lines of 763.5 nm and 696.5 nm. We concluded that broadening of spectrum cause of Van der Waals force.

  1. NGC 5548: LACK OF A BROAD Fe K{alpha} LINE AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE LOCATION OF THE HARD X-RAY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, L. W.; Elvis, M.; Krongold, Y.; Liu, Y.; Mathur, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the co-added and individual 0.7-40 keV spectra from seven Suzaku observations of the Sy 1.5 galaxy NGC 5548 taken over a period of eight weeks. We conclude that the source has a moderately ionized, three-zone warm absorber, a power-law continuum, and exhibits contributions from cold, distant reflection. Relativistic reflection signatures are not significantly detected in the co-added data, and we place an upper limit on the equivalent width of a relativistically broad Fe K{alpha} line at EW {<=} 26 eV at 90% confidence. Thus NGC 5548 can be labeled as a 'weak' type 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in terms of its observed inner disk reflection signatures, in contrast to sources with very broad, strong iron lines such as MCG-6-30-15, which are likely much fewer in number. We compare physical properties of NGC 5548 and MCG-6-30-15 that might explain this difference in their reflection properties. Though there is some evidence that NGC 5548 may harbor a truncated inner accretion disk, this evidence is inconclusive, so we also consider light bending of the hard X-ray continuum emission in order to explain the lack of relativistic reflection in our observation. If the absence of a broad Fe K{alpha} line is interpreted in the light-bending context, we conclude that the source of the hard X-ray continuum lies at radii r{sub s} {approx}> 100 r{sub g}. We note, however, that light-bending models must be expanded to include a broader range of physical parameter space in order to adequately explain the spectral and timing properties of average AGNs, rather than just those with strong, broad iron lines.

  2. The Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 2110: Hard X-Ray Emission Observed by NuStar and Variability of the Iron K-Alpha Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.; Lu, T. N.; Arevalo, P.; Balokovic, M.; Ballantyne, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Stern, D.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the bright Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 obtained in 2012, when the source was at the highest flux level ever observed, and in 2013, when the source was at a more typical flux level. We include archival observations from other X-ray satellites, namely XMM-Newton, Suzaku, BeppoSAX, Chandra and Swift. Simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift broad band spectra (in the 3-80 keV range) indicate a cutoff energy E(sub c) greater than 210 keV, with no detectable contribution from Compton reflection. NGC 2110 is one of the very few sources where no evidence for distant Compton thick scattering is found and, by using temporal information collected over more than a decade, we investigate variations of the iron K(alpha) line on time scales of years. The Fe K alpha line is likely the sum of two components: one constant (originating from distant Compton-thick material) and the other one variable and linearly correlated with the source flux (possibly arising from Compton-thin material much closer to the black hole).

  3. Anxiolytic-like profile of mirtazapine in rat conditioned fear stress model: Functional significance of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor and alpha1-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Nobukazu; Yokoyama, Fumikazu; Yamauchi, Miki; Kitamura, Koichi; Imanishi, Taiichiro; Inoue, Takeshi; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2009-05-01

    Mirtazapine is an antidepressant with a unique mechanism of action and has been categorized as a Noradrenergic and Specific Serotonergic Antidepressant (NaSSA). Although numerous clinical trials suggested the usefulness of mirtazapine for not only major depressive disorders but also a variety of anxiety disorders, efficacy studies in animal anxiety models have been rarely reported. The present study investigated a potential anxiolytic-like profile of mirtazapine in rat conditioned fear stress model. A 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor partial agonist, buspirone (1-5 mg/kg) exhibited a significant reduction in freezing time, and its maximal effect was reversed by a selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY-100635 (1 mg/kg). Mirtazapine (1-10 mg/kg) also reduced the freezing time in a dose-related fashion, a substantial proportion (approx. 50%) of which was likewise antagonized by WAY-100635 (1 mg/kg). Mianserin (1-30 mg/kg), a structural analogue for mirtazapine, was ineffective. Furthermore, co-administration of alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.03 mg/kg) completely reversed mirtazapine (10 mg/kg)-induced reduction of freezing time. These findings represent the first demonstration that the anxiolytic-like action of mirtazapine involves activation of 5-HT(1A) receptor and alpha1 adrenoceptor to different extents, and are compatible with one aspect of mirtazapine's pharmacological profile as NaSSA. PMID:19167420

  4. Line-profile microvariability in OB-star spectra: the Supergiant λ Cep (O6If(n))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.; Sudnik, N. P.; Burlakova, T. E.; Valyavin, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    We observed the bright O6If(n) supergiant λ Cep in 1997 with the 6-m optical telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory and in 2007 with the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A total of 90 spectra of the star were acquired, with good time resolution (10 minutes), signal-to-noise ratios 150-300, and spectral resolutions of 45 000-60 000. We detected line-profile variations of H, HeI, and HeII lines. It is suggested that the detected variations are due to non-radial photospheric pulsations and the star's rotation (rotational profile modulation).

  5. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of the cytokine genes interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha into human neuroblastoma cells: consequences for cell line behavior and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Coze, C; Leimig, T; Jimeno, M T; Mannoni, P

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated the value of a gene therapy approach for neuroblastoma (NB), based on retroviral transduction of the IL-1beta or TNF-alpha cytokine genes into human NB lines. Secretion of the corresponding cytokine, was demonstrated in all lines, although with considerable quantitative variations. Cytokine gene expression significantly reduced the proliferation index (p = 0.0001); this effect was associated with either terminal neuronal (one TNF-alpha line) or fibroblast-like differentiation (two IL-1beta lines), leading to growth arrest after a few weeks. Cell surface levels of CD54 and HLA class II remained unaffected, but HLA class I (p < 0.001) and CD58 expression (p = 0.01) increased on SKNSH after TNF-alpha gene transfer. Mononuclear cells from normal allogeneic donors cocultured with both IL-1beta (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha lines (p < 0.01), showed a significant increase in the proportion of activated T cells (CD3+DR+); however, their cytotoxicity and proliferation rate remained unchanged. Immunotherapy of neuroblastoma will require identification of transduced lines in which cytokine secretion induces phenotypic changes in such a way as to augment their likely immunomodulatory properties without impeding cell growth. Because of the limited efficacy of IL-1beta or TNF-alpha gene transfer alone, further studies should focus on combination with other immunomodulatory agents, to improve their potential efficacy in neuroblastoma.

  6. Sensitivity of alpha-particle-driven Alfvén eigenmodes to q-profile variation in ITER scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, P.; Figueiredo, A. C. A.; Borba, D.; Coelho, R.; Fazendeiro, L.; Ferreira, J.; Loureiro, N. F.; Nabais, F.; Pinches, S. D.; Polevoi, A. R.; Sharapov, S. E.

    2016-11-01

    A perturbative hybrid ideal-MHD/drift-kinetic approach to assess the stability of alpha-particle-driven Alfvén eigenmodes in burning plasmas is used to show that certain foreseen ITER scenarios, namely the {{I}\\text{p}}=15 MA baseline scenario with very low and broad core magnetic shear, are sensitive to small changes in the background magnetic equilibrium. Slight variations (of the order of 1% ) of the safety-factor value on axis are seen to cause large changes in the growth rate, toroidal mode number, and radial location of the most unstable eigenmodes found. The observed sensitivity is shown to proceed from the very low magnetic shear values attained throughout the plasma core, raising issues about reliable predictions of alpha-particle transport in burning plasmas.

  7. Proposed rocket experiments to measure the profile and intensity of the solar He1584A resonance line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity and profile of the helium resonance line at 584 A from the entire disc of the sun was investigated using a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer and a curve of growth technique. The line profile was found to be accurately represented by a Gaussian profile with full width at half maximum of 122 plus or minus 10m A while the integrated intensity was measured to be (2.6 plus or minus 1.3) x 10 to the 9th power/photons sec sq cm at solar levels of F sub 10.7 = 90.8 x 10 to the minus 22th power/sq m H sub z and R sub z = 27. The measured linewidth is in good agreement with previous spectrographic measurement but the integrated intensity is larger than most previous photoelectric measurements. However, the derived line center flux of (2.0 plus or minus 1.0) x 10 to the 10th power/photons sec sq cm A is in good agreement with values inferred from airglow measurements.

  8. Observation and Analysis of High-Resolution Optical Line Profiles in Comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, M. R.; Cochran, A. L.; Cochran, W. D.; Lambert, D. L.; Johns-Krull, C. M.

    1999-02-01

    Very high resolution (R~200,000) and high signal-to-noise echelle spectra were obtained of comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) using the 2D coudé spectrograph on the 2.7 m telescope at W. J. McDonald Observatory during 1996 in late March and early April. Doppler resolved profiles are presented for individual lines of the major optical neutral species: CN, C2, NH2, O(1D) at 6300 Å, and H Balmer-α at 6563 Å. They are consistent with the expected expansion of a water-dominated cometary coma. Because of the small aperture and the small geocentric distance of the comet, the profiles of CN, C2, and NH2 are totally shaped by the outflowing hydrodynamic coma. The NH2 is the narrowest of the group because of the very short lifetime of the NH2 parent (NH3). The profile of C2 is somewhat broadened, compared with NH2, because of the relatively larger contribution of C2 radicals farther from the nucleus where the bulk outflow speed is larger. Any exothermic ejection speed they receive upon their production would be quenched. Although the profile of CN is broader than C2, this is due to the fact that most of the CN lines are blends of two closely spaced but nearly equal strength components. Because O(1D) atoms in the region samples are produced mainly by the photodissociation of water which results in a prompt emission photon, the line retains contributions of both the basic coma expansion velocity and the 1.6 km s-1 exothermal ejection speed of the O(1D) atoms. The H Balmer-α line is complicated by a chance coincidence of a line of H2O+ and/or NH2 and by optical depth effects in solar Lyβ which are primarily responsible for the Balmer-α excitation. However, the width of the line wings is consistent with other comet observations, including Hyakutake itself, and the production by dissociation of H2O and OH and partial thermalization. We have successfully reproduced these data using a hybrid kinetic/hydrodynamic and Monte Carlo approach which include the important physical

  9. Line profile and translational temperature of Pb and metastable He atoms at middle pressures in micro hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Mari; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Hori, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    Hollow cathode discharges have been studied as light sources. Conventional hollow cathode discharges have been operated at low pressure, while micro hollow cathode discharges at near atmospheric pressure. At the middle pressures below 40 kPa, the emission of metallic atoms is observed due to sputtering. Moreover, the line profile of atom shits from a Gaussian to Voigt profile as increasing pressure. In this study, the behaviors of Pb and metastable He atoms in the micro hollow cathode discharge at pressures of the order of kPa have been investigated by diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The pressure broadening effect for absorption line-profile was overlapped to Doppler profile and was estimated to be 0.26 MHz/Pa for metastable He atoms in the range from 5 to 10 kPa. The translational temperature decreased from 830 to 410 K with increasing the pressure. For Pb atoms, the temperature decreased from 820 to 610 K with increasing He pressure from 4.9 to 7.4 kPa. The pressure broadening effect for Pb atom has been estimated to be 0.22 MHz/Pa.

  10. Line-of-sight effects on spectroscopic measurements in the inner solar wind region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth; Withbroe, George L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the integration along the line of sight on the spectral line profiles of the resonantly scattered Lyman alpha radiation emitted by low-density coronal holes at heights above 1.5 Rs from sun center is investigated. It is shown how the spectral lines from this region are influenced by the Lyman alpha emission from surrounding regions with higher densities. The coronal hole and the surrounding areas are described by a two-fluid solar wind model. It is shown that the line-of-sight effects can be important for the interpretation of the Lyman alpha spectral line measurements in the outer corona and inner solar wind.

  11. Fast inversion of Zeeman line profiles using central moments. II. Stokes V moments and determination of vector magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mein, P.; Uitenbroek, H.; Mein, N.; Bommier, V.; Faurobert, M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. In the case of unresolved solar structures or stray light contamination, inversion techniques using four Stokes parameters of Zeeman profiles cannot disentangle the combined contributions of magnetic and nonmagnetic areas to the observed Stokes I. Aims: In the framework of a two-component model atmosphere with filling factor f, we propose an inversion method restricting input data to Q , U, and V profiles, thus overcoming ambiguities from stray light and spatial mixing. Methods: The V-moments inversion (VMI) method uses shifts SV derived from moments of V-profiles and integrals of Q2, U2, and V2 to determine the strength B and inclination ψ of a magnetic field vector through least-squares polynomial fits and with very few iterations. Moment calculations are optimized to reduce data noise effects. To specify the model atmosphere of the magnetic component, an additional parameter δ, deduced from the shape of V-profiles, is used to interpolate between expansions corresponding to two basic models. Results: We perform inversions of HINODE SOT/SP data for inclination ranges 0 <ψ< 60° and 120 <ψ< 180° for the 630.2 nm Fe i line. A damping coefficient is fitted to take instrumental line broadening into account. We estimate errors from data noise. Magnetic field strengths and inclinations deduced from VMI inversion are compared with results from the inversion codes UNNOFIT and MERLIN. Conclusions: The VMI inversion method is insensitive to the dependence of Stokes I profiles on the thermodynamic structure in nonmagnetic areas. In the range of Bf products larger than 200 G, mean field strengths exceed 1000 G and there is not a very significant departure from the UNNOFIT results because of differences between magnetic and nonmagnetic model atmospheres. Further improvements might include additional parameters deduced from the shape of Stokes V profiles and from large sets of 3D-MHD simulations, especially for unresolved magnetic flux tubes.

  12. H{alpha} ABSORPTION IN TRANSITING EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li Zhiyun E-mail: pla7y@virginia.edu

    2013-08-01

    Absorption of stellar H{alpha} by the upper atmosphere of the planet HD 189733b has recently been detected by Jensen et al. Motivated by this observation, we have developed a model for atomic hydrogen in the n = 2 state and compared the resulting H{alpha} line profile to the observations. The model atmosphere is in hydrostatic balance, as well as thermal and photoionization equilibrium. Collisional and radiative transitions are included in the determination of the n = 2 state level population. We find that H{alpha} absorption is dominated by an optical depth {tau} {approx} 1 shell, composed of hydrogen in the metastable 2s state that is located below the hydrogen ionization layer. The number density of the 2s state within the shell is found to vary slowly with radius, while that of the 1s state falls rapidly. Thus while the Ly{alpha} absorption, for a certain wavelength, occurs inside a relatively well defined impact parameter, the contribution to H{alpha} absorption is roughly uniform over the entire atomic hydrogen layer. The model can approximately reproduce the observed Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} integrated transit depths for HD 189733b by using an ionization rate enhanced over that expected for the star by an order of magnitude. For HD 209458b, we are unable to explain the asymmetric H{alpha} line profile observed by Jensen et al., as the model produces a symmetric line profile with transit depth comparable to that of HD 189733b. In an appendix, we study the effect of the stellar Ly{alpha} absorption on the net cooling rate.

  13. Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) Modulates Signaling Pathways in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SQ20B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Pamela D.; Sakwe, Amos; Koumangoye, Rainelli; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Ochieng, Josiah; Marshall, Dana R.

    2014-02-15

    This study was performed to identify the potential role of Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) tumorigenesis using an HNSCC cell line model. HNSCC cell lines are unique among cancer cell lines, in that they produce endogenous AHSG and do not rely, solely, on AHSG derived from serum. To produce our model, we performed a stable transfection to down-regulate AHSG in the HNSCC cell line SQ20B, resulting in three SQ20B sublines, AH50 with 50% AHSG production, AH20 with 20% AHSG production and EV which is the empty vector control expressing wild-type levels of AHSG. Utilizing these sublines, we examined the effect of AHSG depletion on cellular adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in a serum-free environment. We demonstrated that sublines EV and AH50 adhered to plastic and laminin significantly faster than the AH20 cell line, supporting the previously reported role of exogenous AHSG in cell adhesion. As for proliferative potential, EV had the greatest amount of proliferation with AH50 proliferation significantly diminished. AH20 cells did not proliferate at all. Depletion of AHSG also diminished cellular migration and invasion. TGF-β was examined to determine whether levels of the TGF-β binding AHSG influenced the effect of TGF-β on cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas higher levels of AHSG blunted TGF-β influenced SMAD and ERK signaling, it did not clearly affect proliferation, suggesting that AHSG influences on adhesion, proliferation, invasion and migration are primarily due to its role in adhesion and cell spreading. The previously reported role of AHSG in potentiating metastasis via protecting MMP-9 from autolysis was also supported in this cell line based model system of endogenous AHSG production in HNSCC. Together, these data show that endogenously produced AHSG in an HNSCC cell line, promotes in vitro cellular properties identified as having a role in tumorigenesis. Highlights: • Head

  14. Stokes profile analysis and vector magnetic fields. I - Inversion of photospheric lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skumanich, A.; Lites, B. W.

    1987-11-01

    The authors consider improvements to the Auer, Heasley, and House method for the analytic inversion of Stokes profiles via nonlinear least squares. In the application of this method to actual sunspot observations, the authors have found that its simplifications often yield erroneous solutions or nonconvergent behavior. By including damping wings and magneto-optical birefringence and by decoupling the intensity profile from the three-vector polarization profile in the analysis, the authors develop a more robust inversion method that provides a more reliable and accurate estimate of sunspot vector magnetic fields without significant loss of economy.

  15. Spectral line profiles of nickel and argon in supernova 1987A - Expansion velocity and electron scattering effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witteborn, F. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Wooden, D. H.; Pinto, P. A.; Rank, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra of SN 1987A showing the Ni II 6.634-micron and Ar II 6.983-micron fine-structure lines were obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory in April 1988. The signal-to-noise ratio of 100 near the peaks and resolving power of 200 are sufficient to show the average velocity of expansion from the core of about 1400 km/s and to indicate the range of velocities. An asymmetry in the profiles of both lines and a redshift of the line centroids of about 440 km/s above the 280-km/s recessional velocity of the LMC can be explained in terms of scattering of the photons by electrons in the expanding hydrogen envelope of the supernova. A mass of 0.0030 solar masses of Ni II can be deduced from the line strength of the Ni II line and a mass of 0.0009 solar masses of Ar II from the Ar II line strength.

  16. Metabolite Profiling of Soybean Seed Extracts from Near-Isogenic Low and Normal Phytate Lines Using Orthogonal Separation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Judith; Kastl, Christin; Hildreth, Sherry B; Biyashev, Ruslan; Grabau, Elizabeth A; Saghai-Maroof, Mohammad A; Helm, Richard F

    2015-11-11

    Untargeted metabolomic profiling using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied to lipid-depleted methanolic extracts of soybean seeds utilizing orthogonal chromatographic separations (reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction) in both positive and negative ionization modes. Four near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing in mutations for two genes encoding highly homologous multidrug resistant proteins (MRPs) were evaluated. The double mutant exhibited a low phytate phenotype, whereas the other three NILs, the two single mutants and the wild type, did not. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the four LC-MS data sets fully separated the low phytate line from the other three. While the levels of neutral oligosaccharides were the same for all lines, there were significant metabolite differences residing in the levels of malonyl isoflavones, soyasaponins, and arginine. Two methanol-soluble polypeptides were also found as differing in abundance levels, one of which was identified as the allergen Gly m 1. PMID:26487475

  17. Molecule survival in magnetized protostellar disk winds. II. Predicted H2O line profiles versus Herschel/HIFI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvart, W.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Ferreira, J.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The origin of molecular protostellar jets and their role in extracting angular momentum from the accreting system are important open questions in star formation research. In the first paper of this series we showed that a dusty magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disk wind appeared promising to explain the pattern of H2 temperature and collimation in the youngest jets. Aims: We wish to see whether the high-quality H2O emission profiles of low-mass protostars, observed for the first time by the HIFI spectrograph on board the Herschel satellite, remain consistent with the MHD disk wind hypothesis, and which constraints they would set on the underlying disk properties. Methods: We present synthetic H2O line profiles predictions for a typical MHD disk wind solution with various values of disk accretion rate, stellar mass, extension of the launching area, and view angle. We compare them in terms of line shapes and intensities with the HIFI profiles observed by the WISH key program towards a sample of 29 low-mass Class 0 and Class 1 protostars. Results: A dusty MHD disk wind launched from 0.2-0.6 AU AU to 3-25 AU can reproduce to a remarkable degree the observed shapes and intensities of the broad H2O component observed in low-mass protostars, both in the fundamental 557 GHz line and in more excited lines. Such a model also readily reproduces the observed correlation of 557 GHz line luminosity with envelope density, if the infall rate at 1000 AU is 1-3 times the disk accretion rate in the wind ejection region. It is also compatible with the typical disk size and bolometric luminosity in the observed targets. However, the narrower line profiles in Class 1 sources suggest that MHD disk winds in these sources, if present, would have to be slower and/or less water rich than in Class 0 sources. Conclusions: MHD disk winds appear as a valid (though not unique) option to consider for the origin of the broad H2O component in low-mass protostars. ALMA appears ideally suited to

  18. Stratospheric and Mesospheric Pressure-Temperature Profiles from the Rotational Analysis of CO subscript2 Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, M.; Lowes, L.; Abrams, M.; Raper, O.; Farmer, C.; Stiller, G.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C.

    1994-01-01

    A simple, classical, and expedient method for the retrieval of atmospheric pressure-temperature profiles has been applied to the high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra obtained with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument.

  19. Efficacy and HIV drug resistance profile of second-line ART among patients having received long-term first-line regimens in rural China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Jia; Yue, Yanchao; Yang, Shimei; Huang, Huimin; He, Cui; Liao, Lingjie; Xing, Hui; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has significantly expanded and an increased proportion of patients have switched to second-line regimens in China. We describe the outcomes of second-line therapy among patients having received long-term first-line ART. A prospective follow-up study was conducted in rural areas in China. We compared the virological, immunological outcomes and genotypic drug resistance (DR) profiles before and after regimen switches. A total of 303 patients were enrolled, 283 (93.4%) were retained at 12 months. Of 90 participants with HIV-RNA ≥ 1000 copies/ml before switch, the proportion of viral load (VL) ≥ 1000 copies/ml at 6 and 12 months was 49.4% and 43.9%, respectively. Of 213 patients with HIV-RNA < 1000 copies/ml before switch, the proportion of VL ≥ 1000 copies/ml at 6 and 12 months was 4.8% and 6.5%, respectively. The rates of drug resistance to NNRTIs, NRTIs, PIs decreased from 65.5%, 53.3%, and 1.1% before regimen switch to 26.8%, 18.3%, and 0% at 12 months, respectively. DDI-based initial ART regimens and missing doses in past month were associated with HIV RNA ≥ 1000 copies/ml at 12 months. The results showed that patients having received long-term first-line ART and experiencing virological failure had good virological outcomes after switching to second-line treatment in China. PMID:26445885

  20. IRIS Si IV Line Profiles: An Indication for the Plasmoid Instability during Small-scale Magnetic Reconnection on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.-J.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of the process of fast reconnection has undergone a dramatic change in the last 10 years driven, in part, by the availability of high-resolution numerical simulations that have consistently demonstrated the break-up of current sheets into magnetic islands, with reconnection rates that become independent of Lundquist number, challenging the belief that fast magnetic reconnection in flares proceeds via the Petschek mechanism which invokes pairs of slow-mode shocks connected to a compact diffusion region. The reconnection sites are too small to be resolved with images, but these reconnection mechanisms, Petschek and the plasmoid instability, have reconnection sites with very different density and velocity structures and so can be distinguished by high-resolution line-profile observations. Using IRIS spectroscopic observations we obtain a survey of typical line profiles produced by small-scale events thought to be reconnection sites on the Sun. Slit-jaw images are used to investigate the plasma heating and re-configuration at the sites. A sample of 15 events from 2 active regions is presented. The line profiles are complex with bright cores and broad wings extending to over 300 km s-1. The profiles can be reproduced with the multiple magnetic islands and acceleration sites that characterize the plasmoid instability but not by bi-directional jets that characterize the Petschek mechanism. This result suggests that if these small-scale events are reconnection sites, then fast reconnection proceeds via the plasmoid instability, rather than the Petschek mechanism during small-scale reconnection on the Sun.

  1. IRIS Si iv LINE PROFILES: AN INDICATION FOR THE PLASMOID INSTABILITY DURING SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.-J.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-10

    Our understanding of the process of fast reconnection has undergone a dramatic change in the last 10 years driven, in part, by the availability of high-resolution numerical simulations that have consistently demonstrated the break-up of current sheets into magnetic islands, with reconnection rates that become independent of Lundquist number, challenging the belief that fast magnetic reconnection in flares proceeds via the Petschek mechanism which invokes pairs of slow-mode shocks connected to a compact diffusion region. The reconnection sites are too small to be resolved with images, but these reconnection mechanisms, Petschek and the plasmoid instability, have reconnection sites with very different density and velocity structures and so can be distinguished by high-resolution line-profile observations. Using IRIS spectroscopic observations we obtain a survey of typical line profiles produced by small-scale events thought to be reconnection sites on the Sun. Slit-jaw images are used to investigate the plasma heating and re-configuration at the sites. A sample of 15 events from 2 active regions is presented. The line profiles are complex with bright cores and broad wings extending to over 300 km s{sup −1}. The profiles can be reproduced with the multiple magnetic islands and acceleration sites that characterize the plasmoid instability but not by bi-directional jets that characterize the Petschek mechanism. This result suggests that if these small-scale events are reconnection sites, then fast reconnection proceeds via the plasmoid instability, rather than the Petschek mechanism during small-scale reconnection on the Sun.

  2. Protein profile and alpha-lactalbumin concentration in the milk of standard and transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, H; Schirm, M; Deslauriers, J; Turcotte, C; Bordignon, V

    2009-08-01

    The expression of recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical interest in the milk of transgenic farm animals can result in phenotypes exhibiting compromised lactation performance, as a result of the extraordinary demand placed on the mammary gland. In this study, we investigated differences in the protein composition of milk from control and transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase. In Experiment 1, the milk was characterized by gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to identify protein bands that were uniquely visible in the transgenic milk and/or at differing band densities compared with controls. Differences in protein content were additionally evaluated by computer assisted band densitometry. Proteins identified in the transgenic milk only included serum proteins (i.e. complement component 3b, ceruloplasmin), a cytoskeleton protein (i.e. actin) and a stress-induced protein (94 kDA glucose-regulated protein). Proteins exhibiting evident differences in band density between the transgenic and control groups included immunoglobulins, serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin. These results were found to be indicative of compromised epithelial tight junctions, premature mammary cell death, and protein synthesis stress resulting from transgene expression. In Experiment 2, the concentration of alpha-lactalbumin was determined using the IDRing assay and was found to be significantly reduced on day 1 of lactation in transgenic goats (4.33 +/- 0.97 vs. 2.24 +/- 0.25 mg/ml, P < 0.01), but was not different from non-transgenic controls by day 30 (0.99 +/- 0.46 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.11 mg/ml, P > 0.05). We concluded that a decreased/delayed expression of the alpha-lactalbumin gene may be the cause for the delayed start of milk production observed in this herd of transgenic goats.

  3. Circadian rhythms, Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR alpha/gamma profiles in diseases with primary or secondary cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lecarpentier, Yves; Claes, Victor; Duthoit, Guillaume; Hébert, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clock mechanisms are far-from-equilibrium dissipative structures. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) play a key role in metabolic regulatory processes, particularly in heart muscle. Links between circadian rhythms (CRs) and PPARs have been established. Mammalian CRs involve at least two critical transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1 (Gekakis et al., 1998; Hogenesch et al., 1998). PPAR gamma plays a major role in both glucose and lipid metabolisms and presents circadian properties which coordinate the interplay between metabolism and CRs. PPAR gamma is a major component of the vascular clock. Vascular PPAR gamma is a peripheral regulator of cardiovascular rhythms controlling circadian variations in blood pressure and heart rate through BMAL1. We focused our review on diseases with abnormalities of CRs and with primary or secondary cardiac dysfunction. Moreover, these diseases presented changes in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and PPARs, according to two opposed profiles. Profile 1 was defined as follows: inactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with increased expression of PPAR gamma. Profile 2 was defined as follows: activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with decreased expression of PPAR gamma. A typical profile 1 disease is arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetic cardiac disease which presents mutations of the desmosomal proteins and is mainly characterized by fatty acid accumulation in adult cardiomyocytes mainly in the right ventricle. The link between PPAR gamma dysfunction and desmosomal genetic mutations occurs via inactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway presenting oscillatory properties. A typical profile 2 disease is type 2 diabetes, with activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and decreased expression of PPAR gamma. CRs abnormalities are present in numerous pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, sympathetic/parasympathetic dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes

  4. Cell Line Derived 5-FU and Irinotecan Drug-Sensitivity Profiles Evaluated in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Trial Data

    PubMed Central

    Delorenzi, Mauro; Jensen, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Buhl; Bosman, Fred; Tejpar, Sabine; Roth, Arnaud; Brunner, Nils; Hansen, Anker; Knudsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates whether gene signatures for chemosensitivity for irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) derived from in vitro grown cancer cell lines can predict clinical sensitivity to these drugs. Methods To test if an irinotecan signature and a SN-38 signature could identify patients who benefitted from the addition of irinotecan to 5-FU, we used gene expression profiles based on cell lines and clinical tumor material. These profiles were applied to expression data obtained from pretreatment formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue from 636 stage III colon cancer patients enrolled in the PETACC-3 prospective randomized clinical trial. A 5-FU profile developed similarly was assessed by comparing the PETACC-3 cohort with a cohort of 359 stage II colon cancer patients who underwent surgery but received no adjuvant therapy. Results There was no statistically significant association between the irinotecan or SN-38 profiles and benefit from irinotecan. The 5-FU sensitivity profile showed a statistically significant association with relapse free survival (RFS) (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.54 (0.41–0.71), p<1e-05) and overall survival (HR = 0.47 (0.34–0.63), p<1e-06) in the PETACC-3 subpopulation. The effect of the 5-FU profile remained significant in a multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards model, adjusting for several relevant clinicopathological parameters. No statistically significant effect of the 5-FU profile was observed in the untreated cohort of 359 patients (relapse free survival, p = 0.671). Conclusion The irinotecan predictor had no predictive value. The 5-FU predictor was prognostic in stage III patients in PETACC-3 but not in stage II patients with no adjuvant therapy. This suggests a potential predictive ability of the 5-FU sensitivity profile to identify colon cancer patients who may benefit from 5-FU, however, any biomarker predicting benefit for adjuvant 5-FU must be rigorously evaluated in independent cohorts. Given differences

  5. A four-straight-line model for the proteinase-binding characteristics of human blood serum.

    PubMed Central

    Topping, R M; Seilman, S

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic evaluation of the capacity of human blood serum to form complexes with bovine trypsin generated partition profiles that may be approximated by a series of four intersecting straight lines. Such profiles are suggested to reflect the binding of trypsin to alpha 2-macroglobulin in a kinetically preferred mode (alpha-sites), followed by a subsidiary mode (beta-sites) and finally to alpha 1-antitrypsin. The form of the profile, in addition to revealing a hitherto unreported proteinase-binding capability of alpha 2-macroglobulin (beta-sites), also indicates that saturation of alpha-sites corresponds to a molar binding ratio of alpha 2-macroglobulin/trypsin of 1:2. Finally the profile provides, for certain pathological states, a clinically valuable characteristic. PMID:435247

  6. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a

  7. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  8. Spectral Line Profile Analysis Using Higher Diffraction Order in Vacuum Ultraviolet Region

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, M.; Daltrini, A. M.; Severo, J. H. F.; Nascimento, I. C.; Sanada, E. K.; Elizondo, J. I.; Kuznetsov, Y. K.; Galvao, R. M. O.

    2008-04-07

    Using a one meter VUV spectrometer and a MCP coupled to a CCD detector on TCABR tokamak, ion temperatures from impurity species have been measured and much better spectral resolution was obtained using higher order diffraction lines. Due to very small Doppler effect in the VUV region compared to large instrumental broadening, ion temperatures obtained from first order diffraction present large errors. The use of second, third and fourth order diffraction emissions increases the line broadening and results in lower error temperature measurements.

  9. Phenoxazine derivative, 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha,7-dimethyl-3H-phenoxazine-3-one suppresses growth of human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Keisuke; Usui, Yoshihiko; Hattori, Takaaki; Yamakawa, Naohiko; Goto, Hiroshi; Usui, Masahiko; Okada, Shinya; Shirato, Ken; Tomoda, Akio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha,7-dimethyl-3H-phenoxazine-3-one (Phx-1) on the human retinoblastoma cell line Y79. The in vitro effects of Phx-1 on cell viability and apoptosis of the human retinoblastoma Y79 cells, were studied by using colorimetric and flow-cytometric methods. The in vivo antitumor effects of Phx-1 on the human retinoblastoma Y79 cells subcutaneously transplanted in BALB/c nude mice were studied, examining the tumor size, the adverse effects on the mice and the histopathological evaluations including hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining in the mass of tumors of human retinoblastoma Y79 cells isolated from the mice. Phx-1 suppressed the viability of Y79 cells dose- and time-dependently and induced apoptosis in Y79 cells in vitro. Phx-1 markedly reduced the growth of Y79 cells transplanted into the mice without causing bodyweight loss. Pathological findings of the tumor mass isolated from mice revealed that the tumor of Y79 cells treated with Phx-1 had a decreased mitotic index, decreased expression of Ki67 and p53, no alteration of bcl-2 level and increased caspase-3 activity compared with the the control. Present results suggested that Phx-1 demonstrated antitumor activity against the human retinoblastoma Y79 cells in vitro and in vivo, by inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. In addition, Phx-1 exerted few adverse side effects on the mice. Phx-1 may be a useful antitumor drug in the treatment of retinoblastoma, which is the most common and serious intraocular malignant tumor. PMID:18097569

  10. On the line-shape analysis of Compton profiles and its application to neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, G.; Krzystyniak, M.

    2016-05-01

    Analytical properties of Compton profiles are used in order to simplify the analysis of neutron Compton scattering experiments. In particular, the possibility to fit the difference of Compton profiles is discussed as a way to greatly decrease the level of complexity of the data treatment, making the analysis easier, faster and more robust. In the context of the novel method proposed, two mathematical models describing the shapes of differenced Compton profiles are discussed: the simple Gaussian approximation for harmonic and isotropic local potential, and an analytical Gauss-Hermite expansion for an anharmonic or anisotropic potential. The method is applied to data collected by VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS neutron and muon pulsed source (UK) on Copper and Aluminium samples at ambient and low temperatures.

  11. The Broad-Line Region Cloud Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Matthias

    Generally, it is believed that the broad-emission lines are emitted by rapidly moving clouds or filaments within the BLR. The line profiles are expected to be variable on time scales of years due to redistribution of the clouds. However, observations show that profile changes can occur more rapidly than this indicating that hydrodynamical instabilities are associated with the BLR clouds themselves. Since the number of clouds is estimated to at least ~ 10^7 it is difficult to explain how stochastic events affecting individual clouds can yield detectable profile variations. Small-scale fluctuations due to as many as 4 x 10^6 clouds would be still observable in emission-line profiles taken with high spectral resolution and high S/N ratio (cf. Capriotti et al. 1981). Echelle spectra of 3C 273 and NGC 5548 will be presented. The line profiles of H\\alpha and H\\beta have been studied with high spectral resolution (\\Delta v ~ 10 km s^{-1}). The statistical variations of the residua of the H\\alpha and H\\beta line profiles will be used to test whether this is consistent with the expected statistical scatter due to the finite number of line emitting clouds. Based on these fluctuations it will be possible to derive an estimation of the total number of emission-line clouds. The results will be compared with simulations of cloud ensembles with different distributions, geometries, and numbers of individual emitters.

  12. An isolated line-shape model to go beyond the Voigt profile in spectroscopic databases and radiative transfer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N. H.; Lisak, D.; Tran, H.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate that a previously proposed model opens the route for the inclusion of refined non-Voigt profiles in spectroscopic databases and atmospheric radiative transfer codes. Indeed, this model fulfills many essential requirements: (i) it takes both velocity changes and the speed dependences of the pressure-broadening and -shifting coefficients into account. (ii) It leads to accurate descriptions of the line shapes of very different molecular systems. Tests made for pure H2, CO2 and O2 and for H2O diluted in N2 show that residuals are down to ≃0.2% of the peak absorption, (except for the untypical system of H2 where a maximum residual of ±3% is reached), thus fulfilling the precision requirements of the most demanding remote sensing experiments. (iii) It is based on a limited set of parameters for each absorption line that have known dependences on pressure and can thus be stored in databases. (iv) Its calculation requires very reasonable computer costs, only a few times higher than that of a usual Voigt profile. Its inclusion in radiative transfer codes will thus induce bearable CPU time increases. (v) It can be extended in order to take line-mixing effects into account, at least within the so-called first-order approximation.

  13. Detection of harmonics and recovery of the absorption line profile using logarithmic-transformed wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Menglong; Sun, Dandan

    2016-07-01

    A versatile signal processing strategy for eliminating the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) and distortion in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy is theoretically demonstrated and experimentally validated. The strategy involves logarithmic transformation and differential detection, which are achieved using a homemade circuit. Through the logarithmic transformation, the optical intensity modulation of the laser, which performs as the source of RAM and distortion, is separated from the absorption-induced power attenuation and further balanced during the differential detection. The first harmonic, which is proportional to the first-order derivative of the absorption line profile in the case of a small modulation index, is extracted along with the second harmonic and is integrated for the recovery of the absorption line profile. The experiments are carried out for CH4 at its R(3) absorption line of the 2ν3 overtone for validation of the system, and the derived results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical simulations. These promising results indicate the high potential of the strategy for absorption spectrum-based determination of gas properties.

  14. Metabolism and Fatty Acid Profile in Fat and Lean Rainbow Trout Lines Fed with Vegetable Oil: Effect of Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies. PMID:24124573

  15. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  16. Search for Correlations of Lyman-Alpha Clouds and Metal Systems on Closely Spaced Lines of Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elowitz, R. M.; Green, Richard F.; Impey, Chris D.

    1995-02-01

    Spectra of four quasars projected within 2°.8 on the sky with emission redshifts near 1.9 were analyzed for correlations of metal-line and Lyα absorbers. The group of bright quasars LB 9601, LB 9605, LB 9612, and LB 9615 probes scales on the sky of clusters and superclusters of galaxies. No significant correlation signal was detected in any of the three pairs of sight lines tested out to a velocity separation of 10,000 km s-1. One common pair of Lyα absorbers was newly detected, with velocities identical to within 10 km s-1. Four new heavy-element absorption systems are reported. Three C IV systems, one along each of three of the lines of sight, agree in velocity to within 4% of the accessible velocity range, which may indicate that the absorbers are associated. No evidence is found that intervening hydrogen clouds are correlated on the scale of superclusters of galaxies.

  17. Quasimolecules and spectral line broadening in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Arranz, J. P.; Butaux, J.; Nguyen, H.; Reggadi, A.

    1997-01-05

    The energy levels and transition probabilities for transient diatomic molecules have been obtained by means of a self-consistent field method and used to compute the static and dynamical NeX Lyman {alpha} and Lyman {beta} line profiles emitted from dense plasmas. The typical excitation of molecular satellite lines is pointed out.

  18. Quasimolecules and spectral line broadening in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Arranz, J.P.; Butaux, J.; Nguyen, H.; Reggadi, A.

    1997-01-01

    The energy levels and transition probabilities for transient diatomic molecules have been obtained by means of a self-consistent field method and used to compute the static and dynamical NeX Lyman {alpha} and Lyman {beta} line profiles emitted from dense plasmas. The typical excitation of molecular satellite lines is pointed out. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corroded lead water pipe was removed from a drinking water distribution system and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rDNA techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of biofilm on a surface of a corroded lead drinking water pipe. The majority of ...

  20. Cohort Profile: LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K R; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Stolk, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants of the northern part of The Netherlands and their families were invited to participate, thereby contributing to a three-generation design. Participants visited one of the LifeLines research sites for a physical examination, including lung function, ECG and cognition tests, and completed extensive questionnaires. Baseline data were collected for 167 729 participants, aged from 6 months to 93 years. Follow-up visits are scheduled every 5 years, and in between participants receive follow-up questionnaires. Linkage is being established with medical registries and environmental data. LifeLines contains information on biochemistry, medical history, psychosocial characteristics, lifestyle and more. Genomic data are available including genome-wide genetic data of 15 638 participants. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples are processed on the day of collection and stored at -80 °C in a fully automated storage facility. The aim of LifeLines is to be a resource for the national and international scientific community. Requests for data and biomaterials can be submitted to the LifeLines Research Office [LLscience@umcg.nl].

  1. Genomic profiling of invasive melanoma cell lines by array comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Koroknai, Viktória; Ecsedi, Szilvia; Vízkeleti, Laura; Kiss, Tímea; Szász, István; Lukács, Andrea; Papp, Orsolya; Ádány, Róza; Balázs, Margit

    2016-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Invasion of cells is the first step in metastasis, resulting in cell migration through tissue compartments. We aimed to evaluate genomic alterations specifically associated with the invasive characteristics of melanoma cells. Matrigel invasion assays were used to determine the invasive properties of cell lines that originated from primary melanomas. Array comparative genomic hybridization analyses were carried out to define the chromosome copy number alterations (CNAs). Several recurrent CNAs were identified by array comparative genomic hybridization that affected melanoma-related genes. Invasive primary cell lines showed high frequencies of CNAs, including the loss of 7q and gain of 12q chromosomal regions targeting PTPN12, ADAM22, FZD1, TFPI2, GNG11, COL1A2, SMURF1, VGF, RELN and GLIPR1 genes. Gain of the GDNF (5p13.1), GPAA1, PLEC and SHARPIN (8q24.3) genes was significantly more frequent in invasive cell lines compared with the noninvasive ones. Importantly, copy number gains of these genes were also found in cell lines that originated from metastases, suggesting their role in melanoma metastasis formation. The present study describes genomic differences between invasive and noninvasive melanoma cell lines that may contribute toward the aggressive phenotype of human melanoma cells. PMID:26656572

  2. Integrative proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cell lines reveals precursor cell associated proteins and functional status

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, F.; Watters, K. M.; Curtis, M.; Eckert, M. A.; Chiang, C. Y.; Tyanova, S.; Montag, A.; Lastra, R. R.; Lengyel, E.; Mann, M.

    2016-01-01

    A cell line representative of human high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) should not only resemble its tumour of origin at the molecular level, but also demonstrate functional utility in pre-clinical investigations. Here, we report the integrated proteomic analysis of 26 ovarian cancer cell lines, HGSOC tumours, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and fallopian tube epithelial cells via a single-run mass spectrometric workflow. The in-depth quantification of >10,000 proteins results in three distinct cell line categories: epithelial (group I), clear cell (group II) and mesenchymal (group III). We identify a 67-protein cell line signature, which separates our entire proteomic data set, as well as a confirmatory publicly available CPTAC/TCGA tumour proteome data set, into a predominantly epithelial and mesenchymal HGSOC tumour cluster. This proteomics-based epithelial/mesenchymal stratification of cell lines and human tumours indicates a possible origin of HGSOC either from the fallopian tube or from the ovarian surface epithelium. PMID:27561551

  3. The inclusion of Duroc breed in maternal line affects pork quality and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Verónica; Muela, Erica; Gutiérrez, Beatriz; Calanche, Juan Benito; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of including different percentages of Duroc (D) breed in maternal line [Landrace (LR) × Large White (LW); LR × (LW × D); LR × D] and gender on meat quality and intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fatty acid composition. No significant differences were found among dam lines in ultimate pH, L* values and drip and cooking losses. There were higher percentages of saturated fatty acids in LR × D and LR × (LW × D) lines and higher percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids in LR × LW line in IMF and SCF. Also, LR × D line produced pork with a lower Warner-Bratzler shear force values and higher IMF content and potential of lipid oxidation. Furthermore, the L*, a* and b* values and drip loss were greater in pork from entire males than females. The IMF and SCF of females were more monounsaturated and less polyunsaturated than those from entire males. PMID:25938812

  4. The Influence of the Photoionizing Radiation Spectrum on Metal-Line Ratios in Ly(alpha) Forest Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shull, J. Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recent measurements of Si IV/C IV ratios in the high-redshift Ly(alpha) forest (Songaila & Cowie, AJ, 112, 335 (1996a); Savaglio et at., A&A (in press) (1997)) have opened a new window on chemical enrichment and the first generations of stars. However, the derivation of accurate Si/C abundances requires reliable ionization corrections, which are strongly dependent on the spectral shape of the metagalactic ionizing background and on the 'local effects' of hot stars in nearby galaxies. Recent models have assumed power-law quasar ionizing backgrounds plus a decrement at 4 Ryd to account for He II attenuation in intervening clouds. However, we show that realistic ionizing backgrounds based on cosmological radiative transfer models produce more complex ionizing spectra between 1-5 Ryd that are critical to interpreting ions of Si and C. We also make a preliminary investigation of the effects of He II ionization front nonoverlap. Because the attenuation and reemission by intervening clouds enhance Si IV relative to C the observed high Si IV/C IV ratios do not require an unrealistic Si overproduction (Si/C greater than or equal to 3 (Si/C)(solar mass)). If the ionizing spectrum is dominated by 'local effects' from massive stars, even larger Si IV/C IV ratios are possible. However, unless stellar radiation dominates quasars by more than a factor of 10, we confirm the evidence for some Si overproduction by massive stars; values Si/C approx. 2(Si/C)(solar mass) fit the measurements better than solar abundances. Ultimately, an adequate interpretation of the ratios of C IV, Si IV, and C II may require hot, collisionally ionized gas in a multiphase medium.

  5. Effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines: phospholipid profiling by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Rae Ung; Lim, Sangsoo; Kim, Myoung Ok; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2011-08-01

    D-Allose, a rare, naturally occurring monosaccharide, is known to exert anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. The effects of D-allose on the cellular membranes of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell line (DU145), hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), and normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) were studied at the molecular level by phospholipid (PL) profiling using a shotgun lipidomic method. The molecular structures of 85 PL species including 23 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 11 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 16 phosphatidylinositols, 9 phosphatidic acids (PAs), and 14 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) were identified by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation of nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the PL amounts were quantified. The addition of D-allose to prostate cancer cell lines during their growth phases had negligible or decreased effects on the relative regulation of PL species, but several new PS molecules (two for DU145 and three for LNCaP) emerged. In contrast, experiments on the PrEC cell line revealed that some high abundant species (14:0/14:0-PE, 16:2/16:0-PG, and 20:6/18:1-PA) showed significant increases in concentration. These findings support a mechanism for the anti-proliferative effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines that involves the induction of programmed cell death since PS molecules are known to induce apoptosis. Principal component analysis was carried out to examine differences in PL distributions among the three cell lines promoted by D-allose.

  6. Variability of the X-Ray P Cygni Line Profiles from Circinus X-1 near Zero Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, N. S.; Brandt, W. N.

    2002-06-01

    The luminous X-ray binary Circinus X-1 has been observed twice near zero orbital phase using the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) on board Chandra. The source was in a high-flux state during a flare for the first observation, and it was in a low-flux state during a dip for the second. Spectra from both flux states show clear P Cygni lines, predominantly from H-like and He-like ion species. These indicate the presence of a high-velocity outflow from the Cir X-1 system, which we interpret as an equatorial accretion-disk wind, and from the blueshifted resonance absorption lines we determine outflow velocities of 200-1900 km s-1 with no clear velocity differences between the two flux states. The line strengths and profiles, however, are strongly variable both between the two observations as well as within the individual observations. We characterize this variability and suggest that it is due to both changes in the amount of absorbing material along the line of sight as well as changes in the ionization level of the wind. We also refine constraints on the accretion-disk wind model using improved plasma diagnostics such as the He-like Mg XI triplet, and we consider the possibility that the X-ray absorption features seen from superluminal jet sources can generally be explained via high-velocity outflows.

  7. Line profile analysis of an astronomical spectrograph with a laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Gang; Lo Curto, Gaspare; Wang, Hui-Juan; Liu, Yu-Juan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    We present a study of the spectral line shape associated with a High Resolution Spectrograph on the 2.16 m telescope at the Xinglong Observing Station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This measurement is based on modeling the instrumental line shape obtained by unresolved modes from a Yb-fiber mode-locked laser frequency comb. With the current repetition rate of 250 MHz and 26 GHz mode spacing on the spectrograph, we find the absolute variation of the line center, 0.0597 pixel in the direction of the CCDs, and 0.00275 pixel (~3 m s-1) for relative variation in successive exposures on a short timescale. A novel double-Gaussian model is presented to improve the quality of the fit by a factor of 2.47 in a typical single exposure. We also use analysis with raw moments and central moments to characterize the change in line shape across the detector. A trend in charge transfer efficiency can be found on the E2V 4096 × 4096 CCD that provides a correction for wavelength calibration aiming to reach a level of precision for radial velocity below 1 ms-1.

  8. Effects of the pesticides prochloraz and methiocarb on human estrogen receptor alpha and beta mRNA levels analyzed by on-line RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, M V; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E C

    2004-08-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupters such as dioxins, PCBs and certain pesticides are suspected to affect human reproductive health. We have analyzed the effect of the currently used pesticides prochloraz and methiocarb on the estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and beta mRNA levels in parallel with the natural ligand, 17beta-estradiol (E2). Using the highly sensitive on-line RT-PCR technique we were able to quantify the ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA levels in the human breast cancer cell line, MCF7-BUS. Upon exposure with E2 or prochloraz a down regulation of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs was observed after 48 h of treatment. Co-treatment with the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 abolished these mRNA down regulations. Western blot analyses elicited a decreased ER protein level after 3 h of exposure with prochloraz but after 24 h the ERalpha protein level had recovered to basal level. Methiocarb exposure had no effect on the ERalpha mRNA level, whereas an increase in the ERbeta mRNA level was observed after 3 h of exposure. Our study demonstrates that like E2, prochloraz had the potential to down regulate the expression of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs as well as the ERalpha protein level in MCF7-BUS cells.

  9. The partial characterization of tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] resistance, and differential interferon-[alpha] and -[gamma] regulation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene in a human cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbro, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of action of Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF) on human tumor cells, the author has analyzed a TNF-resistant (TNFr) cell variant of ME180. Studies of the resistant clone showed an increase in in vitro generated free radical resistance, superoxide dismutase, and catalase mRNAs. The analysis of a TNFr clone and its karyotype compared to the parental line, suggest that TNFr could be due to an increase in free radical scavenger proteins and/or chromosomal aberrations. The second component of the thesis involves the analysis of another cytotoxic cytokine, interferon-[gamma], and its ability to induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). IDO is the rate limiting enzyme in the catabolism of tryptophan in most cell types. It is predominantly induced following treatment with IFN-[gamma], at a low level or not at all by IFN-[alpha] or-[beta]. The author has determined that the differential regulation of the IDO gene by IFNs may be the result of different interactions of proteins with the regulatory sequences of the IDO gene. The IDO gene has been mapped to chromosome 8.

  10. MiRNA Profiles in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines of Finnish Prostate Cancer Families

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Daniel; Wahlfors, Tiina; Mattila, Henna; Oja, Hannu; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Schleutker, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Heritable factors are evidently involved in prostate cancer (PrCa) carcinogenesis, but currently, genetic markers are not routinely used in screening or diagnostics of the disease. More precise information is needed for making treatment decisions to distinguish aggressive cases from indolent disease, for which heritable factors could be a useful tool. The genetic makeup of PrCa has only recently begun to be unravelled through large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The thus far identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain, however, only a fraction of familial clustering. Moreover, the known risk SNPs are not associated with the clinical outcome of the disease, such as aggressive or metastasised disease, and therefore cannot be used to predict the prognosis. Annotating the SNPs with deep clinical data together with miRNA expression profiles can improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of different phenotypes of prostate cancer. Results In this study microRNA (miRNA) profiles were studied as potential biomarkers to predict the disease outcome. The study subjects were from Finnish high risk prostate cancer families. To identify potential biomarkers we combined a novel non-parametrical test with an importance measure provided from a Random Forest classifier. This combination delivered a set of nine miRNAs that was able to separate cases from controls. The detected miRNA expression profiles could predict the development of the disease years before the actual PrCa diagnosis or detect the existence of other cancers in the studied individuals. Furthermore, using an expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) analysis, regulatory SNPs for miRNA miR-483-3p that were also directly associated with PrCa were found. Conclusion Based on our findings, we suggest that blood-based miRNA expression profiling can be used in the diagnosis and maybe even prognosis of the disease. In the future, miRNA profiling could possibly be used in

  11. Adverse effects of conjugated alpha-linolenic acids (CLnA) on lipoprotein profile on experimental atherosclerosis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Plourde, M; Ledoux, M; Grégoire, S; Portois, L; Fontaine, J J; Carpentier, Y A; Angers, P; Chardigny, J M; Sébédio, J L

    2007-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) such as rumenic acid (RA) have the potential to alter blood lipid profiles in animals and in humans. In contrast, physiological effects of conjugated α-linolenic acids (CLnAs), which concomitantly are omega-3 and conjugated fatty acids, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of CLnA to interfere in early steps of atherosclerosis by altering lipoprotein profiles and fatty streaks in the aortas. F1B hamsters were fed a control or one of the three hypercholesterolemic (HC) diets: HC-control, HC-RA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) or HC-CLnA (CLnA: equimolar mixture of 18:3 cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 and cis-9, trans-13, cis-15) diet. In low-cholesterol control-fed hamsters, the proportion of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was around 45% while in HC-fed hamsters, HDL-C was around 10% and cholesterol was mostly (80%) carried by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides (TGs) increased by approximately 60% in hamsters fed either HC-RA or HC-CLnA compared with HC-controls but not compared with the low-cholesterol control diet. HDL cholesterol decreased by 24% and 16% in hamsters fed HC-RA and HC-CLnA, respectively. Small dense LDL-cholesterol increased by approximately 60% in hamsters fed HC-RA and HC-CLnA compared with the HC-control group and by more than a 100% compared with hamsters on the control diet. The relative percentage of liver cholesteryl ester content increased by 88% in hamsters fed HC diets compared with the control diet. Significant differences in fatty streaks were observed between control and HC-diet-fed hamsters. However, no significant difference was observed among the HC-diet-fed hamsters. This study shows that animals fed any one of the HC diets developed an adverse lipoprotein profile compared with a normolipidic diet. Also, HC-RA or HC-CLnA diets altered lipoprotein profile compared with animals fed the HC-control diet but had no beneficial

  12. [Alpha-lipoic acid triggers elimination of cells with abnormal nuclei in human carcinoma epidermoid cell line].

    PubMed

    Kisurina-Evgen'eva, O P; Onishchenko, G E

    2010-01-01

    The skin is usually exposed to adverse environmental conditions that may cause pathological cell proliferation and cellular transformations leading to the formation of malignant cells. Antioxidants may affect these processes and induce the elimination of transformed cell. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of alfa-lipoic acid on human carcinoma epidermoid cell line A431. Our results showed that alfa-lipoic acid induced inhibition of cell proliferation or stimulated apoptotic cell death. Cells with abnormal nuclei were eliminated by apoptosis. Electron microscopy showed that survived cells had typical for control cells shape and organization of the nuclei, organization of the cytoplasm and organelles. Thus, alfa-lipoic acid not only triggered apoptosis of carcinoma cells, but it may also activate the mechanism of elimination of cells with abnormal chromosome number.

  13. Doppler shift measurement of Balmer-alpha line spectrum emission from a plasma in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M. Doi, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Nishiura, M.

    2015-04-08

    Balmer-α light emission from the extraction region of the LHD one-third ion source has shown a characteristic Doppler broadening in the wavelength spectrum detected by a high resolution spectrometer. The spectrum resembles Gaussian distribution near the wavelength of the intensity peak, while it has an additional component of a broader foot. The measured broadening near the wavelength of the intensity peak corresponds to 0.6 eV hydrogen atom temperature. The spectrum exhibits a larger expansion in the blue wing which becomes smaller when the line of sight is tilted toward the driver region from the original observation axis parallel to the plasma grid. A surface collision simulation model predicts the possibility of hydrogen reflection at the plasma grid surface to form a broad Balmer-α light emission spectrum.

  14. Stable transfection of protein kinase C alpha cDNA in hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Tonetti, D A; Chisamore, M J; Grdina, W; Schurz, H; Jordan, V C

    2000-01-01

    An inverse relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) activity and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in human breast cell lines and tumours has been firmly established over the past 10 years. To determine whether specific alterations in PKC expression accompany hormone-independence, we examined the expression of PKC isozymes in the hormone-independent human breast cancer cell clones MCF-7 5C and T47D:C42 compared with their hormone-dependent counterparts, MCF-7 A4, MCF-7 WS8 and T47D:A18 respectively. Both hormone-independent cell clones exhibit elevated PKCα expression and increased basal AP-1 activity compared with the hormone-dependent cell clones. To determine whether PKCα overexpression is sufficient to mediate the hormone-independent phenotype, we stably transfected an expression plasmid containing PKCα cDNA to the T47D:A18 and MCF-7 A4 cell lines. This is the first report of PKCα transfection in T47D cells. In contrast to MCF-7 cells, T47D has the propensity to lose the ER and more readily forms tamoxifen-stimulated tumours in athymic mice. We find that in T47D:A18/PKCα clones, there is concomitant up-regulation of PKC βI and δ, whereas in the MCF-7 A4/PKCα transfectants PKC ɛ is up-regulated. In T47D:A18, but not in MCF-7 A4, PKCα stable transfection is accompanied by down-regulation of ER function whilst basal AP-1 activity is elevated. Our results suggest PKCα overexpression may play a role in growth signalling during the shift from hormone dependent to hormone-independent breast cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10952784

  15. Characterization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expression profile in Y79: a retinoblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Hendig, Doris; Langmann, Thomas; Zarbock, Ralf; Schmitz, Gerd; Kleesiek, Knut; Götting, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Chemotherapy failure was reported in treatment of retinoblastoma suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Little is known about the expression pattern of ABC proteins in this cancer type. We investigated the gene expression profile of 47 ABC proteins in the human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 by TaqMan low-density array. Analysis revealed 31 ABC transporter genes expressed in this tumor cell line. Y79 cells demonstrate high gene expression of ABCA7, ABCA12, ABCB7, ABCB10, ABCC1, ABCC4, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCF2, and ABCF3 (more than twofold compared to pooled RNA from different tissues). Moreover, we show that Y79 cells exhibit an active calcein efflux pointing to multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-like transporter activity. In summary, we present for the first time an ABC transporter gene expression profile in cells derived from retinoblastoma. Most of the highly expressed ABC transporter genes are typical markers of cancer cells and might exhibit potential targets for medical treatment of retinoblastoma. PMID:19266166

  16. On the line profile changes observed during the X2.2 class flare in the active region NOAA 11158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Bayanna, Ankala; Kumar, Brajesh; Venkatakrishnan, Parameswaran; Kunchandy Mathew, Shibu; Ravindra, Belur; Mathur, Savita; Garcia, Rafael A.

    2014-02-01

    The solar active region NOAA 11158 produced a series of flares during its passage through the solar disk. The first major flare (of class X2.2) of the current solar cycle occurred in this active region on 2011 February 15 around 01:50 UT. We have analyzed the Dopplergrams and magnetograms obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory to examine the photospheric velocity and magnetic field changes associated with this flare. The HMI instrument provides high-quality Doppler and magnetic maps of the solar disk with 0.5″ spatial scale at a cadence of 45 s along with imaging spectroscopy. We have identified five locations of velocity transients in the active region during the flare. These transient velocity signals are located in and around the flare ribbons as observed by Hinode in the Ca II H wavelength and the footpoints of hard X-ray enhancement are in the energy range 12-25 keV from RHESSI. The changes in shape and width of two circular polarization states have been observed at the time of transients in three out of five locations. Forward modeling of the line profiles shows that the change in atmospheric parameters such as magnetic field strength, Doppler velocity and source function could explain the observed changes in the line profiles with respect to the pre-flare condition.

  17. The expansion velocities of laser-produced plasmas determined from extreme ultraviolet spectral line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Behring, W. E.; Cohen, L.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of laser-produced plasma is determined from the shapes of spectral lines of highly ionized iron emitted in the extreme ultraviolet. The plasmas were produced by focusing the pulse from a Nd:glass laser onto solid planar targets, and spectra were recorded with a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrograph. From the Doppler broadening of lines of Fe XX and Fe XXI, expansion velocities of about 830 km/s were determined. The relative time-averaged ion abundances of Fe XVIII, Fe XIX, Fe XX, and Fe XXI are estimated for three different spectra. The abundances do not differ by more than a factor of 4 for any of the spectra.

  18. In Situ Characterizing Membrane Lipid Phenotype of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines Using Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    PubMed Central

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Ren, Junling; Li, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolisms are closely associated with cancers. In this study, mass spectrometry was employed to in situ investigate the associations of membrane lipid phenotypes of six human lung cancer cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, H1975 from adenocarcinoma, H157 and H1703 from squamous cell carcinomas, and H460 from a large cell carcinoma) with cancer cell types and finally total 230 lipids were detected. Based these 230 lipids, partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that fifteen lipids (i.e., PE 18:0_18:1, PI 18:0_20:4, SM 42:2, PE 16:0_20:4, PE 36:2, PC 36:2, SM 34:1, PA 38:3,C18:0, C22:4, PA 34:2, C20:5, C20:2, C18:2, and CerP 36:2) with variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of > 1.0 could be used to differentiate six cancer cell lines with the Predicted Residual Sum of Square (PRESS) score of 0.1974. Positive correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., C20:4, C22:4, C22:5, and C22:6) and polyunsaturated phospholipids (PE 16:0_20:4, PE 38:4, and PI 18:0_20:4) was observed in lung adenocarcinoma cells, especially for H1975 cells. Three adenocarcinoma cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, and H1975) could be differentiated from other lung cancer cell lines based on the expression of C18:1, C20:1, C20:2, C20:5, and C22:6. PMID:27162539

  19. Profile of on-line anatomy information resources: design and instructional implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Brinkley, J F; Rosse, C

    2003-01-01

    This study is based on a review of 40 on-line anatomy web resources compiled from sites selected from our own searches as well as sites reviewed and published by an external group (Voiglio et al., 1999, Surg. Radiol. Anat. 21:65-68; Frasca et al., 2000, Surg. Radiol. Anat. 22:107-110). The purpose of our survey was to propose criteria by which anatomy educators could judge the characteristics of the currently available web-based resources for incorporation into the courses they teach. Each site was reviewed and scored based on a survey matrix that included four main categories: 1). site background information, 2). content components, 3). interactivity features, and 4). user interface design components. The average score of the reviewed sites was 3.3 of the total possible score of 10, indicating the limited use of computer-based design features by the majority of sites. We found, however, a number of programs in each of the survey categories that could serve as prototypes for designing future on-line anatomy resources. From the survey we conclude that various design features are less important than the comprehensiveness, depth, and logical organization of content. We suggest that the content should be sufficient for supporting explicitly defined educational objectives, which should target specific end-user populations. The majority of anatomy programs currently accessible on-line fall short of these requirements. There is a need for a coordinated and synergistic effort to generate a comprehensive anatomical information resource that is of sufficient quality and depth to support higher levels of learning beyond the memorization of structure names. Such a resource is a prerequisite for meaningful on-line anatomy education. PMID:12486740

  20. Molecular and functional profiling of histamine receptor-mediated calcium ion signals in different cell lines.

    PubMed

    Meisenberg, Annika; Kaschuba, Dagmar; Balfanz, Sabine; Jordan, Nadine; Baumann, Arnd

    2015-10-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play a pivotal role in cellular physiology. Often Ca(2+)-dependent processes are studied in commonly available cell lines. To induce Ca(2+) signals on demand, cells may need to be equipped with additional proteins. A prominent group of membrane proteins evoking Ca(2+) signals are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins register external signals such as photons, odorants, and neurotransmitters and convey ligand recognition into cellular responses, one of which is Ca(2+) signaling. To avoid receptor cross-talk or cross-activation with introduced proteins, the repertoire of cell-endogenous receptors must be known. Here we examined the presence of histamine receptors in six cell lines frequently used as hosts to study cellular signaling processes. In a concentration-dependent manner, histamine caused a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) in HeLa, HEK 293, and COS-1 cells. The concentration for half-maximal activation (EC50) was in the low micromolar range. In individual cells, transient Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+) oscillations were uncovered. The results show that (i) HeLa, HEK 293, and COS-1 cells express sufficient amounts of endogenous receptors to study cellular Ca(2+) signaling processes directly and (ii) these cell lines are suitable for calibrating Ca(2+) biosensors in situ based on histamine receptor evoked responses.

  1. Pharmacological profiling of kinase dependency in cell lines across triple-negative breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Lauren S.; Beatty, Alexander; Devarajan, Karthik; Peri, Suraj; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Her2 amplification, are resistant to standard targeted therapies and exhibit a poor prognosis. Furthermore, they are highly heterogeneous with respect to genomic alterations, and common therapeutic targets are lacking though substantial evidence implicates dysregulated kinase signaling. Recently, six subtypes of TNBC were identified based on gene expression and were proposed to predict sensitivity to a variety of therapeutic agents including kinase inhibitors. To test this hypothesis, we screened a large collection of well-characterized, small-molecule kinase inhibitors for growth inhibition in a panel of TNBC cell lines representing all six subtypes. Sensitivity to kinase inhibition correlated poorly with TNBC subtype. Instead, unsupervised clustering segregated TNBC cell lines according to clinically relevant features including dependence on epidermal growth factor signaling and mutation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. We further report the discovery of kinase inhibitors with selective toxicity to these groups. Overall, however, TNBC cell lines exhibited diverse sensitivity to kinase inhibition consistent with the lack of common driver mutations in this disease. While our findings support specific kinase dependencies in subsets of TNBC, they are not associated with gene expression-based subtypes. Instead we find that mutation status can be an effective predictor of sensitivity to inhibition of particular kinase pathways for subsets of TNBC. PMID:25344583

  2. Inositol Pyrophosphate Profiling of Two HCT116 Cell Lines Uncovers Variation in InsP8 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunfang; Wilson, Miranda S. C.; Jessen, Henning J.; Saiardi, Adolfo; Shears, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The HCT116 cell line, which has a pseudo-diploid karotype, is a popular model in the fields of cancer cell biology, intestinal immunity, and inflammation. In the current study, we describe two batches of diverged HCT116 cells, which we designate as HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL. Using both gel electrophoresis and HPLC, we show that HCT116UCL cells contain 6-fold higher levels of InsP8 than HCT116NIH cells. This observation is significant because InsP8 is one of a group of molecules collectively known as ‘inositol pyrophosphates’ (PP-InsPs)—highly ‘energetic’ and conserved regulators of cellular and organismal metabolism. Variability in the cellular levels of InsP8 within divergent HCT116 cell lines could have impacted the phenotypic data obtained in previous studies. This difference in InsP8 levels is more remarkable for being specific; levels of other inositol phosphates, and notably InsP6 and 5-InsP7, are very similar in both HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines. We also developed a new HPLC procedure to record 1-InsP7 levels directly (for the first time in any mammalian cell line); 1-InsP7 comprised <2% of total InsP7 in HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines. The elevated levels of InsP8 in the HCT116UCL lines were not due to an increase in expression of the PP-InsP kinases (IP6Ks and PPIP5Ks), nor to a decrease in the capacity to dephosphorylate InsP8. We discuss how the divergent PP-InsP profiles of the newly-designated HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines should be considered an important research opportunity: future studies using these two lines may uncover new features that regulate InsP8 turnover, and may also yield new directions for studying InsP8 function. PMID:27788189

  3. Metabolomic profile of response to supplementation with β-carotene in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study123

    PubMed Central

    Mondul, Alison M; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Evans, Anne M; Karoly, Edward D; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two chemoprevention trials found that supplementation with β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. The biologic basis of these findings remains poorly understood. Objective: The objective was to compare the on-study change in metabolomic profiles of men randomly assigned to receive or not receive β-carotene supplements in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Design: The ATBC Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary cancer prevention trial; participants were Finnish male smokers assigned to 1 of 4 intervention groups: 1) α-tocopherol, 2) β-carotene, 3) both, or 4) placebo. Fifty participants with both baseline and follow-up fasting serum samples were randomly selected from each of these groups. Metabolomic profiling was conducted by mass spectrometry. The association between change in each metabolite over time and trial assignment (β-carotene or no β-carotene) was estimated by linear regression. Results: We measured 489 metabolites, and 17 changed significantly (P < 0.05) in response to β-carotene supplementation. More of these 17 metabolites were of xenobiotic origin than would be expected by chance (9 of 60, or 15%; P = 0.00004). We also found a suggestive association with 1,5-anhydroglucitol—a marker of glycemic control (β = −0.379, P = 0.0071). Conclusions: Male smokers supplemented with β-carotene developed metabolomic profiles consistent with the induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, the primary metabolizers of xenobiotics in humans. These findings may shed light on the increased mortality associated with β-carotene supplementation in the ATBC Study and suggest the need to explore potential interactions between medication use and dietary supplements, particularly among smokers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342992. PMID:23803886

  4. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.

    2016-05-01

    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  5. Comparative neurochemical profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its metabolite alpha-methyldopamine on key targets of MDMA neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Escubedo, E; Abad, S; Torres, I; Camarasa, J; Pubill, D

    2011-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of MDMA or "Ecstasy" in rats is selectively serotonergic, while in mice it is both dopaminergic and serotonergic. MDMA metabolism may play a key role in this neurotoxicity. The function of serotonin and dopamine transporter and the effect of MDMA and its metabolites on them are essential to understand MDMA neurotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of MDMA and its metabolite alpha-methyldopamine (MeDA) on several molecular targets, mainly the dopamine and serotonin transporter functionality, to provide evidence for the role of this metabolite in the neurotoxicity of MDMA in rodents. MeDA had no affinity for the serotonin transporter but competed with serotonin for its uptake. It had no persistent effects on the functionalism of the serotonin transporter, in contrast to the effect of MDMA. Moreover, MeDA inhibited the uptake of dopamine into the serotonergic terminal and also MAO(B) activity. MeDA inhibited dopamine uptake with a lower IC(50) value than MDMA. After drug washout, the inhibition by MeDA persisted while that of MDMA was significantly reduced. The effect of MDMA on the dopamine transporter is related with dopamine release from vesicular stores, as this inhibition disappeared in reserpine-treated animals. However, the effect of MeDA seems to be a persistent conformational change of this transporter. Moreover, in contrast with MDMA, MeDA did not show affinity for nicotinic receptors, so no effects of MeDA derived from these interactions can be expected. The metabolite reduced cell viability at lower concentrations than MDMA. Apoptosis plays a key role in MDMA induced cellular toxicity but necrosis is the major process involved in MeDA cytotoxicity. We conclude that MeDA could protect against the serotonergic lesion induced by MDMA but potentiate the dopaminergic lesion as a result of the persistent blockade of the dopamine transporter induced this metabolite.

  6. Time resolved metal line profile by near-ultraviolet tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelaru, C.; de Poucques, L.; Minea, T. M.; Popa, G.

    2011-03-01

    Pulsed systems are extensively used to produce active species such as atoms, radicals, excited states, etc. The tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TD-LAS) is successfully used to quantify the density of absorbing species, but especially for stationary or slow changing systems. The time resolved-direct absorption profile (TR-DAP) measurement method by TD-LAS, with time resolution of μs is proposed here as an extension of the regular use of diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The spectral narrowness of laser diodes, especially in the blue range (˜0.01 pm), combined with the nanosecond fast trigger of the magnetron pulsed plasma and long trace recording on the oscilloscope (period of second scale) permit the detection of the sputtered titanium metal evolution in the afterglow (˜ms). TR-DAP method can follow the time-dependence of the temperature (Doppler profile) and the density (deduced from the absorbance) of any medium and heavy species in a pulsed system.

  7. Genomic profiling of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor and interleukin-1 receptor knockout mice reveals a link between TNF-alpha signaling and increased severity of 1918 pandemic influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Belisle, Sarah E; Tisoncik, Jennifer R; Korth, Marcus J; Carter, Victoria S; Proll, Sean C; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Tumpey, Terrence M; Katze, Michael G

    2010-12-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918 to 1919 was one of the worst global pandemics in recent history. The highly pathogenic nature of the 1918 virus is thought to be mediated in part by a dysregulation of the host response, including an exacerbated proinflammatory cytokine response. In the present study, we compared the host transcriptional response to infection with the reconstructed 1918 virus in wild-type, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1 knockout (TNFRKO), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-1 knockout (IL1RKO) mice as a means of further understanding the role of proinflammatory cytokine signaling during the acute response to infection. Despite reported redundancy in the functions of IL-1β and TNF-α, we observed that reducing the signaling capacity of each of these molecules by genetic disruption of their key receptor genes had very different effects on the host response to infection. In TNFRKO mice, we found delayed or decreased expression of genes associated with antiviral and innate immune signaling, complement, coagulation, and negative acute-phase response. In contrast, in IL1RKO mice numerous genes were differentially expressed at 1 day postinoculation, including an increase in the expression of genes that contribute to dendritic and natural killer cell processes and cellular movement, and gene expression profiles remained relatively constant at later time points. We also observed a compensatory increase in TNF-α expression in virus-infected IL1RKO mice. Our data suggest that signaling through the IL-1 receptor is protective, whereas signaling through the TNF-α receptor increases the severity of 1918 virus infection. These findings suggest that manipulation of these pathways may have therapeutic benefit.

  8. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha variety.

    PubMed

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Hengel, Matt J; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism. PMID:22363586

  9. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha variety.

    PubMed

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Hengel, Matt J; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  10. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on Metalaxyl Degradation and Metabolite Profile of Potato Seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) Alpha Variety

    PubMed Central

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G.; Miller, Marion G.; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L.; Hengel, Matt J.; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC–TOF–MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism. PMID:22363586

  11. Lyman-Alpha Observations of High Radial Velocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1990-12-01

    H I LYMAN -ALPHA (LY-A) IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LINES EMITTED BY PLASMA IN THE TEMPERATURE RANGE OF 7000 TO 10 TO THE FIFTH POWER K IN LATE-TYPE STARS. IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF THE TOTAL RADIATIVE LOSS RATE, AND IT PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN DETERMINING THE ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE AND IN FLUORESCING OTHER UV LINES. YET IT IS ALSO THE LEAST STUDIED MAJOR LINE IN THE FAR UV, BECAUSE MOST OF THE LINE FLUX IS ABSORBED BY THE ISM ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT AND BECAUSE IT IS STRONGLY COMTAMINATED BY THE GEOCORONAL BACKGROUND. A KNOWLEDGE OF THE Ly-A PROFILE IS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR STUDIES OF DEUTERIUM IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. BY OBSERVING HIGH RADIAL VELOCITY STARS WE WILL OBTAIN FOR THE FIRST TIME HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRA OF THE CORE OF A STELLAR H I LYMAN-A EMISSION LINE PROFILE.

  12. Data on alteration of hormone and growth factor receptor profiles over progressive passages of breast cancer cell lines representing different clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhumathy G; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S; Hari, P S; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T S

    2016-09-01

    Human breast cancers are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours consisting of several molecular subtypes with a variable profile of hormone, growth factor receptors and cytokeratins [1]. Here, the data shows immunofluorescence profiling of four different cell lines belonging to distinct clinical subtypes of breast cancer. Post revival, the cell lines were passaged in culture and immunophenotyping was done for ER, HER-2, AR and EGFR. Data for the markers from early passage (5th) through passages as late as 25 for the different cell lines is presented. PMID:27508248

  13. Radial profile measurement of electron temperature in edge stochastic magnetic field layer of LHD using intensity ratio of extreme ultraviolet line emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Murakami, Izumi; Goto, Motoshi; Dong Chunfeng

    2012-10-15

    Vertical profile of neon line emissions in 30-650 A wavelength range has been observed in horizontally elongated plasma cross section of Large Helical Device (LHD). Intensity ratio between the neon line emissions is studied to measure the radial profile of electron temperature in the edge stochastic magnetic field layer of LHD. The edge temperature profile successfully obtained from the line ratio of NeVIII 2s-3p to 2p-3s transitions is compared with the simulation based on three-dimensional edge transport code. The result shows a reasonably good agreement with the edge temperature profile analyzed from atomic data and analysis structure code. The electron temperature at last closed flux surface measured from the intensity ratio is also in good agreement with that measured from Thomson scattering.

  14. [Determination of relative error of pressure-broadening linewidth for the experimentally indistinguishable overlapped spectral lines with Voigt profile].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie-Li; Huang, Yi-Qing; Lu, Hong

    2005-01-01

    The simulation and fitting of the overlapped spectral lines with Voigt profile were presented in this paper. The relative errors epsilon of the fitted pressure-broadening linewidth when taking the overlapped spectral line as one spectrum were discussed in detail. The relationship between such error and the two spectral lines center distance deltav0, and theoretical pressure-broadening linewidth deltav(L)0 were analyzed. Epsilon is found to be very large and the relationship between epsilon and deltav0, deltav(L)0 is very complicated when the value of pressure-broadening linewidth is considerably less than that of Dopplerian one deltavD. When deltav(L)0 is comparative to deltaVD the relationship between epsilon and deltav0 is close to the smooth two-order polynomial curve. However, the slop of this curve is negative while deltav(L)0 is smaller than deltavD and is positive when larger. Generally, epsilon decreases with the increase of proportion of deltav(l)0 to the whole spectral linewidth. All the above conclusion and corresponding data are the significant reference to determine the precise pressure-broadening coefficient from the experimentally indistinguishable overlapped spectrum, as well as to correct the fitted pressure-broadening linewidth. PMID:15852837

  15. Protein expression profile related to cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer cell lines detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Ohashi, Kazuya; Minamida, Satoru; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Nagi, Shoji; Saito, Tatsuya; Kodera, Yoshio; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    We used a proteomic approach to compare the differentially regulated protein expression profiles of cisplatin-naïve and cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cell lines to screen candidate molecules related to cisplatin resistance. The cisplatin-resistant cell line T24 was established by the stepwise exposure of T24 cells to up to 40 μM of cisplatin. We performed a comprehensive study of protein expression in bladder cancer cell lines that included cisplatin-naïve (T24) and cisplatin-resistant cells (T24CDDPR) by means of agarose two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by analysis of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. We identified 25 obviously different spots for T24 and T24 CDDPR. Seven spots had increased expression and 18 spots had decreased expression in T24CDDPR compared to those in T24. Cytoskeletal proteins and enzyme modulators were prominent among differential proteins. Of the 25 proteins, we selected HNRNPA3, PCK2, PPL, PGK1, TKT, SERPINB2, GOT2, and EIF3A for further validation by Western blot. HNRNPA3, PGK1, TKT, and SERPINB2 had more than 1.5-times incremental expression in T24CDDPR compared to that in T24. PCK2 and PPL expressions were decreased less than 20% in T24CDDPR compared to that in T24. The results of 25 new proteins in this study could be valuable and could lead to the development of a new molecular marker. PMID:26299484

  16. Mitochondrial-related gene expression profiles suggest an important role of PGC-1alpha in the compensatory mechanism of endemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shu-Lan; Tan, Wu-Hong; Zhang, Zeng-Tie; Zhang, Feng; Qu, Cheng-Juan; Lei, Yan-Xia; Zhu, Yan-He; Yu, Han-Jie; Xiang, You-Zhang; and others

    2013-10-15

    Keshan disease (KD) is an endemic dilated cardiomyopathy with unclear etiology. In this study, we compared mitochondrial-related gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from 16 KD patients and 16 normal controls in KD areas. Total RNA was isolated, amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human 4×44k whole genome microarrays. Mitochondrial-related genes were screened out by the Third-Generation Human Mitochondria-Focused cDNA Microarray (hMitChip3). Quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemical and biochemical parameters related mitochondrial metabolism were conducted to validate our microarray results. In KD samples, 34 up-regulated genes (ratios≥2.0) were detected by significance analysis of microarrays and ingenuity systems pathway analysis (IPA). The highest ranked molecular and cellular functions of the differentially regulated genes were closely related to amino acid metabolism, free radical scavenging, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy production. Using IPA, 40 significant pathways and four significant networks, involved mainly in apoptosis, mitochondrion dysfunction, and nuclear receptor signaling were identified. Based on our results, we suggest that PGC-1alpha regulated energy metabolism and anti-apoptosis might play an important role in the compensatory mechanism of KD. Our results may lead to the identification of potential diagnostic biomarkers for KD in PBMCs, and may help to understand the pathogenesis of KD. Highlights: • Thirty-four up-regulated genes were detected in KD versus health controls. • Forty pathways and four networks were detected in KD. • PGC-1alpha regulated energy metabolism and anti-apoptosis in KD.

  17. Liposomal formulation of {alpha}-tocopheryl maleamide: In vitro and in vivo toxicological profile and anticancer effect against spontaneous breast carcinomas in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Turanek, Jaroslav Wang Xiufang; Knoetigova, Pavlina; Koudelka, Stepan; Dong Lanfeng; Vrublova, Eva; Mahdavian, Elahe; Prochazka, Lubomir; Sangsura, Smink; Vacek, Antonin; Salvatore, Brian A.; Neuzil, Jiri

    2009-06-15

    The vitamin E analogue {alpha}-tocopheryl succinate ({alpha}-TOS) is an efficient anti-cancer drug. Improved efficacy was achieved through the synthesis of {alpha}-tocopheryl maleamide ({alpha}-TAM), an esterase-resistant analogue of {alpha}-tocopheryl maleate. In vitro tests demonstrated significantly higher cytotoxicity of {alpha}-TAM towards cancer cells (MCF-7, B16F10) compared to {alpha}-TOS and other analogues prone to esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis. However, in vitro models demonstrated that {alpha}-TAM was cytotoxic to non-malignant cells (e.g. lymphocytes and bone marrow progenitors). Thus we developed lyophilized liposomal formulations of both {alpha}-TOS and {alpha}-TAM to solve the problem with cytotoxicity of free {alpha}-TAM (neurotoxicity and anaphylaxis), as well as the low solubility of both drugs. Remarkably, neither acute toxicity nor immunotoxicity implicated by in vitro tests was detected in vivo after application of liposomal {alpha}-TAM, which significantly reduced the growth of cancer cells in hollow fiber implants. Moreover, liposomal formulation of {alpha}-TAM and {alpha}-TOS each prevented the growth of tumours in transgenic FVB/N c-neu mice bearing spontaneous breast carcinomas. Liposomal formulation of {alpha}-TAM demonstrated anti-cancer activity at levels 10-fold lower than those of {alpha}-TOS. Thus, the liposomal formulation of {alpha}-TAM preserved its strong anti-cancer efficacy while eliminating the in vivo toxicity found of the free drug applied in DMSO. Liposome-based targeted delivery systems for analogues of vitamin E are of interest for further development of efficient and safe drug formulations for clinical trials.

  18. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries.

  19. Use of temperature profiles and stable isotopes to trace flow lines: Nagaoka area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Salem, Zenhom El-said; Taniguchi, Makoto; Sakura, Yasua

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we use borehole temperature data and stable isotopes to delineate the flow system and estimate the effect of urbanization in the Nagaoka area of Japan. Temperature profiles were measured four times in observation wells during the period 2000-2001 and compared with those measured in the same wells during the period 1977-1983 (Taniguchi 1986). Water was sampled in both observation and pumping wells during the same period. The temporal and spatial variability in temperature indicate clearly the effect of urban warming and heavy pumping on the ground water system. Urban warming caused higher temperatures recently as compared to the older values, and pumping caused induced recharge from the river to the ground water. The stable isotope data show the ground water flow system is divided into shallow, intermediate, and deep systems, and that land use and infiltration rate are affecting the shallow flow system.

  20. Observation of Quiet Limb in He I 1083.0 nm, H Paschen alpha1281.8 nm and H Brackett gamma 2166.1 nm lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we shall present the results of an observational study of the quiet solar limb in the near infrared lines using the New IR Array Camera (NAC) and the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope. The NAC, at the exit port of the spectrograph, was used to record the limb spectrum in HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen 1281.8 nm and Brackett 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024x1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. The limb spectrums were obtained by placing the spectrograph slit perpendicular to the limb at an interval of 10 degrees around the solar disk. We shall report the intensity profile, line-of-sight velocity and line width distribution around the sun derived from the spectra along the slit.

  1. Estimating genetic parameters for fertility in dairy cows from in-line milk progesterone profiles.

    PubMed

    Tenghe, A M M; Bouwman, A C; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E; Blom, J Y; Veerkamp, R F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define endocrine fertility traits from in-line milk progesterone (P4) records and to estimate genetic parameters for these traits. Correlations of classical fertility (calving interval and calving to first service) and milk production traits with endocrine fertility traits were also estimated. In-line milk P4 records (n=160,952) collected from June 2009 through November 2013 for 2,273 lactations of 1,561 Holstein-Friesian cows in 12 commercial herds in the Netherlands were analyzed for (the log of) the number of days from calving till commencement of luteal activity (lnC-LA), proportion of samples between 25 and 60 d in milk with luteal activity (PLA), presence or absence of luteal activity for a cow between 25 and 60 d in milk, interval from commencement of luteal activity to first service (CLAFS), first luteal phase length, length of first interluteal interval, and length of first interovulatory interval. Milk P4 records were sampled, on average, every 2 d. Genetic parameters were estimated using a mixed linear animal model. Heritability estimates (±SE) of endocrine fertility traits were 0.12±0.05 for lnC-LA, 0.12±0.05 for PLA, and 0.11±0.06 for CLAFS, and their repeatability estimates were 0.29±0.04, 0.21±0.04, and 0.15±0.06, respectively. The genetic correlation of lnC-LA with PLA was -0.91±0.06 and with CLAFS was -0.56±0.25. The genetic correlations of lnC-LA were 0.26±0.33 with calving interval and 0.37±0.21 with calving to first service. Genetic correlations of the milk production traits with lnC-LA ranged from 0.04 to 0.18 and 0.07 to 0.65 with classical fertility traits. The phenotypic correlations of all endocrine fertility traits with milk production traits were close to zero (0.01 to 0.07). This study shows that in-line P4 records can be used to define and explore several heritable endocrine fertility traits in dairy cows and might help in selection for improved fertility.

  2. Estimating genetic parameters for fertility in dairy cows from in-line milk progesterone profiles.

    PubMed

    Tenghe, A M M; Bouwman, A C; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E; Blom, J Y; Veerkamp, R F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define endocrine fertility traits from in-line milk progesterone (P4) records and to estimate genetic parameters for these traits. Correlations of classical fertility (calving interval and calving to first service) and milk production traits with endocrine fertility traits were also estimated. In-line milk P4 records (n=160,952) collected from June 2009 through November 2013 for 2,273 lactations of 1,561 Holstein-Friesian cows in 12 commercial herds in the Netherlands were analyzed for (the log of) the number of days from calving till commencement of luteal activity (lnC-LA), proportion of samples between 25 and 60 d in milk with luteal activity (PLA), presence or absence of luteal activity for a cow between 25 and 60 d in milk, interval from commencement of luteal activity to first service (CLAFS), first luteal phase length, length of first interluteal interval, and length of first interovulatory interval. Milk P4 records were sampled, on average, every 2 d. Genetic parameters were estimated using a mixed linear animal model. Heritability estimates (±SE) of endocrine fertility traits were 0.12±0.05 for lnC-LA, 0.12±0.05 for PLA, and 0.11±0.06 for CLAFS, and their repeatability estimates were 0.29±0.04, 0.21±0.04, and 0.15±0.06, respectively. The genetic correlation of lnC-LA with PLA was -0.91±0.06 and with CLAFS was -0.56±0.25. The genetic correlations of lnC-LA were 0.26±0.33 with calving interval and 0.37±0.21 with calving to first service. Genetic correlations of the milk production traits with lnC-LA ranged from 0.04 to 0.18 and 0.07 to 0.65 with classical fertility traits. The phenotypic correlations of all endocrine fertility traits with milk production traits were close to zero (0.01 to 0.07). This study shows that in-line P4 records can be used to define and explore several heritable endocrine fertility traits in dairy cows and might help in selection for improved fertility. PMID:26004838

  3. Small RNA Profiles of the Rice PTGMS Line Wuxiang S Reveal miRNAs Involved in Fertility Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyuan; Hu, Jihong; Qian, Qian; Chen, Hao; Jin, Jing; Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and developmental processes. In this study, RNA-seq was used to examine the expression profiles of miRNAs in a novel, photo-thermosensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) rice line, Wuxiang S (WXS), during fertility transition. A total of 497 known miRNAs and 273 novel miRNAs were identified. In a differential expression analysis, 26 miRNAs exhibited significant differential expression between WXS (Sterile, S) and WXS (Fertile, F). Some of these miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Among these miRNAs, 11 showed decreased expression levels, and 15 showed increased expression levels in WXS (S) compared to WXS (F). Some of these miRNAs, such as osa-miR156a-j, osa-miR164d, and osa-miR528, were shown to be negatively correlated with their targets. These targets have previously been reported to be related to pollen development and male sterility, suggesting that these miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of pollen development in the rice PTGMS line WXS. Furthermore, miRNA-mediated editing events were also observed. In this study, a possible model for the control of signaling pathways during the process of fertility transition in the rice PTGMS line WXS by miRNAs was developed. These findings contribute to our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during anther development in PTGMS lines in rice. PMID:27148335

  4. Recovery of acetylene absorption line profile basing on tunable diode laser spectroscopy with intensity modulation and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Thursby, Graham; Stewart, George; Arsad, Norhana; Uttamchandani, Deepak; Culshaw, Brian; Wang, Yiding

    2010-04-01

    A novel and direct absorption line recovery technique based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy with intensity modulation is presented. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied for high sensitivity, zero background and efficient acoustic enhancement at a low modulation frequency. A micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror driven by an electrothermal actuator is used for generating laser intensity modulation (without wavelength modulation) through the external reflection. The MEMS mirror with 10μm thick structure material layer and 100nm thick gold coating is formed as a circular mirror of 2mm diameter attached to an electrothermal actuator and is fabricated on a chip that is wire-bonded and placed on a PCB holder. Low modulation frequency is adopted (since the resonant frequencies of the photoacoustic gas cell and the electrothermal actuator are different) and intrinsic high signal amplitude characteristics in low frequency region achieved from measured frequency responses for the MEMS mirror and the gas cell. Based on the property of photoacoustic spectroscopy and Beer's law that detectable sensitivity is a function of input laser intensity in the case of constant gas concentration and laser path length, a Keopsys erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) with opto-communication C band and high output power up to 1W is chosen to increase the laser power. High modulation depth is achieved through adjusting the MEMS mirror's reflection position and driving voltage. In order to scan through the target gas absorption line, the temperature swept method is adopted for the tunable distributed feed-back (DFB) diode laser working at 1535nm that accesses the near-infrared vibration-rotation spectrum of acetylene. The profile of acetylene P17 absorption line at 1535.39nm is recovered ideally for ~100 parts-per-million (ppm) acetylene balanced by nitrogen. The experimental signal to noise ratio (SNR) of absorption line recovery for 500mW laser power was ~80 and hence the

  5. Molecular portrait of cisplatin induced response in human testis cancer cell lines based on gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Duale, Nur; Lindeman, Birgitte; Komada, Mitsuko; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Andreassen, Ashild; Soderlund, Erik J; Brunborg, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) respond well to cisplatin-based chemotherapy and show a low incidence of acquired resistance compared to most somatic tumors. The reasons for these specific characteristics are not known in detail but seem to be multifactorial. We have studied gene expression profiles of testicular and colon cancer derived cell lines treated with cisplatin. The main goal of this study was to identify novel gene expression profiles with their functional categories and the biochemical pathways that are associated with TGCT cells' response to cisplatin. Results Genes that were differentially expressed between the TGCT cell lines vs the (somatic) HCT116 cell line, after cisplatin treatment, were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) method. The response of TGCT cells was strikingly different from that of HCT116, and we identified 1794 genes that were differentially expressed. Functional classification of these genes showed that they participate in a variety of different and widely distributed functional categories and biochemical pathways. Database mining showed significant association of genes (n = 41) induced by cisplatin in our study, and genes previously reported to by expressed in differentiated TGCT cells. We identified 37 p53-responsive genes that were altered after cisplatin exposure. We also identified 40 target genes for two microRNAs, hsa-mir-372 and 373 that may interfere with p53 signaling in TGCTs. The tumor suppressor genes NEO1 and LATS2, and the estrogen receptor gene ESR1, all have binding sites for p53 and hsa-mir-372/373. NEO1 and LATS2 were down-regulated in TGCT cells following cisplatin exposure, while ESR1 was up-regulated in TGCT cells. Cisplatin-induced genes associated with terminal growth arrest through senescence were identified, indicating associations which were not previously described for TGCT cells. Conclusion By linking our gene expression data to publicly available databases and

  6. Comparison of analytical methods for profiling N- and O-linked glycans from cultured cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Togayachi, Akira; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Geyer, Rudolf; Galuska, Christina; Geyer, Hildegard; Kakehi, Kazuaki; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Karlsson, Niclas G.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kato, Koichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kondo, Sachiko; Kawasaki, Nana; Hashii, Noritaka; Kolarich, Daniel; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Packer, Nicolle H.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Nakano, Miyako; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Kurimoto, Ayako; Wada, Yoshinao; Tajiri, Michiko; Yang, Pengyuan; Cao, Weiqian; Li, Hong; Rudd, Pauline M.; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative (HGPI) is an activity in the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) supported by leading researchers from international institutes and aims at development of disease-related glycomics/glycoproteomics analysis techniques. Since 2004, the initiative has conducted three pilot studies. The first two were N- and O-glycan analyses of purified transferrin and immunoglobulin-G and assessed the most appropriate analytical approach employed at the time. This paper describes the third study, which was conducted to compare different approaches for quantitation of N- and O-linked glycans attached to proteins in crude biological samples. The preliminary analysis on cell pellets resulted in wildly varied glycan profiles, which was probably the consequence of variations in the pre-processing sample preparation methodologies. However, the reproducibility of the data was not improved dramatically in the subsequent analysis on cell lysate fractions prepared in a specified method by one lab. The study demonstrated the difficulty of carrying out a complete analysis of the glycome in crude samples by any single technology and the importance of rigorous optimization of the course of analysis from preprocessing to data interpretation. It suggests that another collaborative study employing the latest technologies in this rapidly evolving field will help to realize the requirements of carrying out the large-scale analysis of glycoproteins in complex cell samples. PMID:26511985

  7. Nd:GdVO4 slab laser with line-shaped end-pumping profile operating at 912 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, H.; Fu, X.; Gong, M.

    2011-05-01

    A continuous-wave laser with line-shaped end-pumping profile operating at 912 nm is presented. The maximum output power of 7.82 W is obtained, with a slop efficiency of 24.7% and beam quality factors of M {/x 2} ˜ 20, M {/y 2} ˜ 1.3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first laser diode bar directly pumped Nd:GdVO4 slab laser based on the quasi-three-level 4 F 3/2 → 4 F 9/2 transition in neodymium. Furthermore, we disclose that the experimental setups can be improved by inserting a plano-concave cylindrical lens in the cavity to form a new quasi-concentric resonator to improve die mode-matching in x-direction.

  8. An FE Based On-line Model for the Prediction of Work Roll Thermal Profile in Hot Strip Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Hyeung; Sun, Cheng Gang; Hwang, Sang Moo

    2010-06-01

    Prediction and control of the thermal deformation of the work roll is vital for enhancing product quality in hot strip and plate rolling. In this paper, we present an on-line model for the prediction of the work roll thermal profile. The model is developed on the basis of an integrated finite element model for the coupled analysis of heat transfer and deformation occurring at the bite zone, to rigorously take into account the effect of various rolling parameters on the thermal behavior of the work roll. The validity of the model is demonstrated through comparison with measurements made in an industrial hot strip mill. Also, an emphasis is given to the examination the effect of some selected rolling parameters in an actual production environment.

  9. The IL-6/sIL-6R treatment of a malignant melanoma cell line enhances susceptibility to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wagley, Yadav; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Seo, Han Geuk; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Kang, Keon Wook; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Oh, Jae-Wook . E-mail: ohjw@mail.chosun.ac.kr

    2007-03-23

    Melanoma is an intractable tumor that has shown very impressive and promising response to local administration of high dose recombinant TNF-{alpha} in combination with IFN-{gamma} in clinical studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-6/sIL-6R on TNF-{alpha}-resistant B16/F10.9 melanoma cells. A low dose of TNF-{alpha} or IL-6/sIL-6R had minimal affect on the cell growth. However, the highly active fusion protein of sIL-6R and IL-6 (IL6RIL6), covalently linked by a flexible peptide, sensitized TNF-{alpha}-resistant F10.9 melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Stimulation of the cells with IL6RIL6 plus TNF-{alpha} resulted in both the activation of caspase-3 and the reduction of bcl-2 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that IL6RIL6-upregulated TNF-R55 and TNF-R75 expression, suggesting an increase in TNF-{alpha} responsiveness by IL6RIL6 resulting from the induction of TNF receptors. Moreover, exposure of F10.9 cells to neutralizing antibody to TNF-R55 significantly inhibited IL6RIL6/TNF-{alpha}-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the IL6/sIL6R/gp130 system, which sensitizes TNF-{alpha}-resistant melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis, may provide a new target for immunotherapy.

  10. Ion Current-Based Proteomic Profiling for Understanding the Inhibitory Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha on Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengjian; Bu, Yahao; Vujcic, Marija; Shen, Shichen; Li, Jun; Qu, Miao; Hangauer, David; Clements, James L; Qu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Despite a demonstrated role for TNF-α in promoting muscle wasting and cachexia, the associated molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of myoblast differentiation dysregulated by TNF-α remain poorly understood. This study presents well-controlled proteomic profiling as a means to investigate the mechanisms of TNF-α-regulated myogenic differentiation. Primary human muscle precursor cells (MPCs) cultured in growth medium (GM), differentiation medium (DM) to induce myogenic differentiation, and DM with 20 ng/mL of TNF-α (n = 5/group) were comparatively analyzed by an ion current-based quantitative platform consisting of reproducible sample preparation/on-pellet digestion, a long-column nano-LC separation, and ion current-based differential analysis. The inhibition of myogenic differentiation by TNF-α was confirmed by reduced formation of multinucleated myotubes and the recovered expression of altered myogenic proteins such as MYOD and myogenin during myogenic differentiation. Functional analysis and validation by immunoassay analysis suggested that the cooperation of NF-κB and STAT proteins is responsible for dysregulated differentiation in MPCs by TNF-α treatment. Increased MHC class I components such as HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and beta-2-microglobulin were also observed in cultures in DM treated with TNF-α. Interestingly, inhibition of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway during myogenic differentiation induced by serum starvation was not recovered by TNF-α treatment, which combined with previous reports, implies that this process may be an early event of myogenesis. This finding could lay the foundation for the potential use of statins in modulating myogenesis through cholesterol, for example, in stem cell-based myocardial infarction treatment, where differentiation of myoblasts and stem cells into force-generating mature muscle cells is a key step to the therapeutic capacity. In conclusion, the landscapes of altered transcription regulators, metabolic

  11. Proteomic profiling of a robust Wolbachia infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line

    PubMed Central

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Baldridge, Abigail S; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W; Fallon, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis a widespread vertically transmitted intracellular bacterium, provides a tool for insect control through manipulation of host-microbe interactions. We report proteomic characterization of wStr, a Wolbachia strain associated with a strong cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype in its native host, Laodelphax striatellus. In the Aedes albopictus C/wStr1 mosquito cell line, wStr maintains a robust, persistent infection. MS/MS analyses of gel bands revealed a protein “footprint” dominated by Wolbachia-encoded chaperones, stress response and cell membrane proteins, including the surface antigen WspA, a peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein and a 73 kDa outer membrane protein. Functional classifications and estimated abundance levels of 790 identified proteins suggested that expression, stabilization and secretion of proteins predominate over bacterial genome replication and cell division. High relative abundances of cysteine desulfurase, serine/glycine hydroxymethyl transferase, and components of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in conjunction with above average abundances of glutamate dehydrogenase and proline utilization protein A support Wolbachia genome-based predictions for amino acid metabolism as a primary energy source. wStr expresses 15 Vir proteins of a Type IV secretion system and its transcriptional regulator. Proteomic characterization of a robust insect-associated Wolbachia strain provides baseline information that will inform further development of in vitro protocols for Wolbachia manipulation. PMID:25155417

  12. A Correlation between Lyα Spectral Line Profile and Rest-frame UV Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, Vivian; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Dickinson, Mark; Stern, Daniel; Spinrad, Hyron; Mallery, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    We explore the relationship between the spectral shape of the Lyα emission and the UV morphology of the host galaxy using a sample of 304 Lyα-emitting BVi-dropouts at 3 < z < 7 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and Cosmic Evolution Survey fields. Using our extensive reservoir of high-quality Keck DEIMOS spectra combined with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data, we measure the Lyα line asymmetries for individual galaxies and compare them to axial ratios measured from observed J- and H-band (restframe UV) images. We find that the Lyα skewness exhibits a large scatter at small elongation (a/b < 2), and this scatter decreases as the axial ratio increases. Comparison of this trend to radiative transfer models and various results from the literature suggests that these high-redshift Lyα emitters are not likely to be intrinsically round and symmetric disks, but they probably host galactic outflows traced by Lyα emitting clouds. The ionizing sources are centrally located, and the optical depth is a good indicator of the absorption and scattering events on the escape path of Lyα photons from the source. Our results find no evidence of evolution in Lyα asymmetry or axial ratio with look-back time.

  13. Metabolic Profiling and Physiological Analysis of a Novel Rice Introgression Line with Broad Leaf Size

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Guilian; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wensheng; Zhang, Wenhao; Fu, Binying; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhikang

    2015-01-01

    A rice introgression line, NIL-SS1, and its recurrent parent, Teqing, were used to investigate the influence of the introgression segment on plant growth. The current research showed NIL-SS1 had an increased flag leaf width, total leaf area, spikelet number per panicle and grain yield, but a decreased photosynthetic rate. The metabolite differences in NIL-SS1 and Teqing at different developmental stages were assessed using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry technology. Significant metabolite differences were observed across the different stages. NIL-SS1 increased the plant leaf nitrogen content, and the greatest differences between NIL-SS1 and Teqing occurred at the booting stage. Compared to Teqing, the metabolic phenotype of NIL-SS1 at the booting stage has closer association with those at the flowering stage. The introgression segment induced more active competition for sugars and organic acids (OAs) from leaves to the growing young spikes, which resulted in more spikelet number per plant (SNP). The results indicated the introgression segment could improve rice grain yield by increasing the SNP and total leaf area per plant, which resulted from the higher plant nitrogen content across growth stages and stronger competition for sugars and OAs of young spikes at the booting stage. PMID:26713754

  14. Metabolic Profiling and Physiological Analysis of a Novel Rice Introgression Line with Broad Leaf Size.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Guilian; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wensheng; Zhang, Wenhao; Fu, Binying; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhikang

    2015-01-01

    A rice introgression line, NIL-SS1, and its recurrent parent, Teqing, were used to investigate the influence of the introgression segment on plant growth. The current research showed NIL-SS1 had an increased flag leaf width, total leaf area, spikelet number per panicle and grain yield, but a decreased photosynthetic rate. The metabolite differences in NIL-SS1 and Teqing at different developmental stages were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. Significant metabolite differences were observed across the different stages. NIL-SS1 increased the plant leaf nitrogen content, and the greatest differences between NIL-SS1 and Teqing occurred at the booting stage. Compared to Teqing, the metabolic phenotype of NIL-SS1 at the booting stage has closer association with those at the flowering stage. The introgression segment induced more active competition for sugars and organic acids (OAs) from leaves to the growing young spikes, which resulted in more spikelet number per plant (SNP). The results indicated the introgression segment could improve rice grain yield by increasing the SNP and total leaf area per plant, which resulted from the higher plant nitrogen content across growth stages and stronger competition for sugars and OAs of young spikes at the booting stage. PMID:26713754

  15. A CORRELATION BETWEEN Lyα SPECTRAL LINE PROFILE AND REST-FRAME UV MORPHOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian U; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Mallery, Ryan; Dickinson, Mark; Stern, Daniel; Spinrad, Hyron

    2015-12-10

    We explore the relationship between the spectral shape of the Lyα emission and the UV morphology of the host galaxy using a sample of 304 Lyα-emitting BVi-dropouts at 3 < z < 7 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and Cosmic Evolution Survey fields. Using our extensive reservoir of high-quality Keck DEIMOS spectra combined with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data, we measure the Lyα line asymmetries for individual galaxies and compare them to axial ratios measured from observed J- and H-band (restframe UV) images. We find that the Lyα skewness exhibits a large scatter at small elongation (a/b < 2), and this scatter decreases as the axial ratio increases. Comparison of this trend to radiative transfer models and various results from the literature suggests that these high-redshift Lyα emitters are not likely to be intrinsically round and symmetric disks, but they probably host galactic outflows traced by Lyα emitting clouds. The ionizing sources are centrally located, and the optical depth is a good indicator of the absorption and scattering events on the escape path of Lyα photons from the source. Our results find no evidence of evolution in Lyα asymmetry or axial ratio with look-back time.

  16. In situ Proteomic Profiling of Curcumin Targets in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Jianbin; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Wong, Yin Kwan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Hua, Zi-Chun; Liu, Bin; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    To date, the exact targets and mechanism of action of curcumin, a natural product with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, remain elusive. Here we synthesized a cell permeable curcumin probe (Cur-P) with an alkyne moiety, which can be tagged with biotin for affinity enrichment, or with a fluorescent dye for visualization of the direct-binding protein targets of curcumin in situ. iTRAQTM quantitative proteomics approach was applied to distinguish the specific binding targets from the non-specific ones. In total, 197 proteins were confidently identified as curcumin binding targets from HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the targets are broadly distributed and enriched in the nucleus, mitochondria and plasma membrane, and they are involved in various biological functions including metabolic process, regulation, response to stimulus and cellular process. Ingenuity Pathway AnalysisTM (IPA) suggested that curcumin may exert its anticancer effects over multiple critical biological pathways including the EIF2, eIF4/p70S6K, mTOR signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways. Functional validations confirmed that curcumin downregulates cellular protein synthesis, and induces autophagy, lysosomal activation and increased ROS production, thus leading to cell death. PMID:26915414

  17. Establishment of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis profiles of the human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4.

    PubMed

    He, Pengcheng; Liu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Huaiyu; Xi, Jieying; Wei, Kaihua; Wang, Hongli; Zhao, Jing

    2012-09-01

    To explore optimum conditions for establishing a two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) map of the human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4 and to analyze its protein profiles, we extracted total proteins from NB4 cells using cell disruption, liquid nitrogen freeze-thawing and fracturing by ultrasound, and quantified the extracted protein samples using Bradford's method. 2-DE was applied to separate the proteins, which were silver-stained in the gel. Well‑separated protein spots were selected from the gel using the ImageMaster™ 2D Platinum analysis system. Moreover, the effects of various protein sample sizes (140, 160 and 180 µg) on the 2-DE maps of the NB4 cells were determined and compared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database searching were used to identify the proteins. When the quantity of loading proteins was 160 µg, clear, well-resolved, reproducible 2-DE proteomic profiles of the NB4 cells were obtained. The average number of protein spots in 3 gels was 1160±51 with an average matching rate of 81%. A total of 10 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and database queries, certain proteins were products of oncogenes and others were involved in cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. In summary, 2-DE profiles of the proteome of NB4 cells were established and certain proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and PMF which lay the foundation of further proteomic research of NB4 cells. These data should be useful for establishing a human APL proteome database. PMID:22736039

  18. Functional properties of homomeric, human alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in the SH-EP1 human epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingke; Kuo, Yen-Ping; George, Andrew A; Peng, Jian-Hong; Purandare, Madhuri Singh; Schroeder, Katherine M; Lukas, Ronald J; Wu, Jie

    2003-06-01

    alpha 7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha 7-nAChRs) are broadly distributed in the central nervous system, where they play important roles in chemical and electrical signaling, and perhaps in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal death/survival. To help elucidate their normal and pathophysiological roles, we have heterologously expressed human alpha 7-nAChR in transfected SH-EP1 human epithelial cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate expression of human alpha 7 subunits as messenger RNA. Patch-clamp recordings exploiting a novel strategy to prevent functional rundown of whole-cell peak current responses to repeated acute challenges with nicotinic agonists show successful expression of functional alpha 7-nAChR that mediate inward currents characterized by rapid phases of activation and inactivation. Concentration-response curves show that nicotine, acetylcholine, and choline are efficacious agonists at human alpha 7-nAChRs. Current-voltage relationships show inward rectification for agonist-induced currents. Human alpha 7-nAChRs exhibit some sensitivity to alpha 7-nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin (Bgt) or methyllycaconitine (MLA) when applied coincidentally with agonist, but much higher affinity block occurs when cells and alpha 7-nAChRs are pre-exposed to antagonists for 2 min before challenge with agonist. Both Bgt and MLA are competitive inhibitors of alpha 7-nAChR function. Whole-cell current peak amplitudes and half-times for inactivation of alpha 7-nAChR functional responses to nicotine are dramatically reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggestive of high Ca2+ permeability of the alpha 7-nAChR channel. Thus, heterologously expressed human alpha 7-nAChR in mammalian cells have properties of native alpha 7-nAChR or of alpha 7-nAChR heterologously expressed in other systems and serve as excellent models for studies of molecular bases of alpha 7-n

  19. Profile of Exosomal and Intracellular microRNA in Gamma-Herpesvirus-Infected Lymphoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Shiho; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Michiyo; Hasegawa, Hideki; Hamada, Hiromichi; Kuroda, Makoto; Katano, Harutaka

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles released from cells, into which microRNAs (miRNA) are specifically sorted and accumulated. Two gamma-herpesviruses, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), encode miRNAs in their genomes and express virus-encoded miRNAs in cells and exosomes. However, there is little information about the detailed distribution of virus-encoded miRNAs in cells and exosomes. In this study, we thus identified virus- and host-encoded miRNAs in exosomes released from KSHV- or EBV-infected lymphoma cell lines and compared them with intracellular miRNAs using a next-generation sequencer. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that 48% of the annotated miRNAs in the exosomes from KSHV-infected cells originated from KSHV. Human mir-10b-5p and mir-143-3p were much more highly concentrated in exosomes than in cells. Exosomes contained more nonexact mature miRNAs that did not exactly match those in miRBase than cells. Among the KSHV-encoded miRNAs, miRK12-3-5p was the most abundant exact mature miRNA in both cells and exosomes that exactly matched those in miRBase. Recently identified EXOmotifs, nucleotide motifs that control the loading of miRNAs into exosomes were frequently found within the sequences of KSHV-encoded miRNAs, and the presence of the EXOmotif CCCT or CCCG was associated with the localization of miRNA in exosomes in KSHV-infected cells. These observations suggest that specific virus-encoded miRNAs are sorted by EXOmotifs and accumulate in exosomes in virus-infected cells. PMID:27611973

  20. Profile of Exosomal and Intracellular microRNA in Gamma-Herpesvirus-Infected Lymphoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hoshina, Shiho; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Michiyo; Hasegawa, Hideki; Hamada, Hiromichi; Kuroda, Makoto; Katano, Harutaka

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles released from cells, into which microRNAs (miRNA) are specifically sorted and accumulated. Two gamma-herpesviruses, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein—Barr virus (EBV), encode miRNAs in their genomes and express virus-encoded miRNAs in cells and exosomes. However, there is little information about the detailed distribution of virus-encoded miRNAs in cells and exosomes. In this study, we thus identified virus- and host-encoded miRNAs in exosomes released from KSHV- or EBV-infected lymphoma cell lines and compared them with intracellular miRNAs using a next-generation sequencer. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that 48% of the annotated miRNAs in the exosomes from KSHV-infected cells originated from KSHV. Human mir-10b-5p and mir-143-3p were much more highly concentrated in exosomes than in cells. Exosomes contained more nonexact mature miRNAs that did not exactly match those in miRBase than cells. Among the KSHV-encoded miRNAs, miRK12-3-5p was the most abundant exact mature miRNA in both cells and exosomes that exactly matched those in miRBase. Recently identified EXOmotifs, nucleotide motifs that control the loading of miRNAs into exosomes were frequently found within the sequences of KSHV-encoded miRNAs, and the presence of the EXOmotif CCCT or CCCG was associated with the localization of miRNA in exosomes in KSHV-infected cells. These observations suggest that specific virus-encoded miRNAs are sorted by EXOmotifs and accumulate in exosomes in virus-infected cells. PMID:27611973

  1. Comprehensive Lipidome Profiling of Isogenic Primary and Metastatic Colon Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fhaner, Cassie J.; Liu, Sichang; Ji, Hong; Simpson, Richard J.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2012-01-01

    A ‘shotgun’ lipidomics strategy consisting of sequential functional group selective chemical modification reactions coupled with high-resolution / accurate mass spectrometry and ‘targeted’ tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis has been developed and applied toward the comprehensive identification, characterization and quantitative analysis of changes in relative abundances of >600 individual glycerophospholipid, glycerolipid, sphingolipid and sterol lipids between a primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, SW480, and its isogenic lymph node metastasized derivative, SW620. Selective chemical derivatization of glycerophosphoethanolamine and glycerophosphoserine lipids using a ‘fixed charge’ sulfonium ion containing, d6-S,S′-dimethylthiobutanoylhydroxysuccinimide ester (d6-DMBNHS) reagent was used to eliminate the possibility of isobaric mass overlap of these species with the precursor ions of all other lipids in the crude extracts, thereby enabling their unambiguous assignment, while subsequent selective mild acid hydrolysis of plasmenyl (vinyl-ether) containing lipids using formic acid enabled these species to be readily differentiated from isobaric mass plasmanyl (alkyl-ether) containing lipids. Using this approach, statistically significant differences in the abundances of numerous lipid species previously identified as being associated with cancer progression, or that play known roles as mediators in a range of physiological and pathological processes, were observed between the SW480 and SW620 cells. Most notably, these included increased plasmanylcholine and triglyceride lipid levels, decreased plasmenylethanolamine lipids, decreased C-16 containing sphingomyelin and ceramide lipid levels, and a dramatic increase in the abundances of total cholesterol ester and triglyceride lipids in the SW620 cells compared to those in the SW480 cells. PMID:23039336

  2. Study of meridional flow using Ca-K line profiles during solar cycles 22 and 23

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhuja, G.; Singh, Jagdev; Ravindra, B.

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of Ca-K line spectra as a function of solar latitude and integrated over longitudes taken during the period of 1989-2011 indicates that the K{sub 1} width attains maximum amplitude at various latitude belts at different phases of the solar cycle. The FWHM of the K{sub 1} distribution at different latitudes shows that its width varies by about 30% for the equatorial belt (<30°) and 11% for the polar region (>70°) latitudes. Interestingly, the K{sub 1} width varies by ∼6% only in the 40-60° latitude belts during the solar cycle. The analysis of cross-correlation coefficients of the K{sub 1} width between the 35° latitude and other latitude belts as a function of phase differences indicates that the activity representing toroidal field shifted at a uniform rate of about 5.1 m s{sup –1} in the northern hemisphere from mid-latitudes toward the equator. In the southern hemisphere, activity shifted at a faster rate, ∼14 m s{sup –1}, in the beginning of the cycle and the speed decreased with time, yielding an average speed of 7.5 m s{sup –1} toward the equator. The shift of activity in the higher latitude belts showed complex behavior, indicating poleward and equatorward migration. These findings, especially the fewer variations in mid-latitude belts as compared to polar regions, asymmetry in the speed of the shift in the activity in both hemispheres, and complex variation in the direction of the shift in the activity representing poloidal fields in mid-latitude belts, will have an important implication on the modeling of the solar dynamo.

  3. The variability of the double-peaked Balmer lines in the active nucleus of NGC 1097

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Eracleous, Michael; Livio, Mario; Wilson, Andrew S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Halpern, Jules P.

    1995-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nucleus of the Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxy NGC 1097 spanning the period 1991-1994. The goal was to monitor anticipated variations of the broad, double-peaked Balmer lines which appeared abruptly in 1991. We find that the broad Balmer lines have varied significantly over the monitoring period, both in their integrated fluxes and in their profile shapes. The integrated H-alpha flux has decreased by a factor of 2, the (H-alpha)/(H-beta) ratio has increased, and the originally asymmetric H-alpha profile has become symmetric. The decline of the H-alpha flux and the change in the (H-alpha)/(H-beta) ratio can be interpreted as consequences of either increased obscuration along the line of sight, or a decline in the ionizing continuum, but neither of these scenarios can account for the change in profile shapes. A model attributing the line emission to a precessing elliptical ring around a 10(exp 6) solar mass nuclear black hole can reproduce the observed profile variations. In this scenario, the line-emitting ring is the result of the tidal disruption of a star by the black hole. Alternative scenarios associating the broad-line emission with a collimated bipolar outflow also remain viable, but binary black holes and inhomogeneous accretion disks are disfavored by the observed pattern of variability.

  4. Role of glial cell-line derived neurotropic factor family receptor alpha2 in the actions of the glucagon-like peptides on the murine intestine.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Sean C; Lee, Jenny; Izzo, Angelo; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2007-08-01

    The intestinal glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2 inhibit intestinal motility, whereas GLP-2 also stimulates growth of the intestinal mucosa. However, the mechanisms of action of these peptides in the intestine remain poorly characterized. To determine the role of the enteric nervous system in the actions of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on the intestine, the glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor family receptor alpha(2) (GFRalpha2) knockout (KO) mouse was employed. The mice exhibited decreased cholinergic staining, as well as reduced mRNA transcripts for substance P-ergic excitatory motoneurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) (P < 0.05). Examination of parameters of intestinal growth (including small and large intestinal weight and small intestinal villus height, crypt depth, and crypt cell proliferation) demonstrated no differences between wild-type and KO mice in either basal or GLP-2-stimulated mucosal growth. Nonetheless, KO mice exhibited reduced numbers of synaptophysin-positive enteroendocrine cells (P < 0.05), as well as a markedly impaired basal gastrointestinal (GI) transit rate (P < 0.05). Furthermore, acute administration of GLP-1 and GLP-2 significantly inhibited transit rates in wild-type mice (P < 0.05-0.01) but had no effect in GFRalpha2 KO mice. Despite these changes, expression of mRNA transcripts for the GLP receptors was not reduced in the ENS of KO animals, suggesting that GLP-1 and -2 modulate intestinal transit through enhancement of inhibitory input to cholinergic/substance P-ergic excitatory motoneurons. Together, these findings demonstrate a role for GFRalpha2-expressing enteric neurons in the downstream signaling of the glucagon-like peptides to inhibit GI motility, but not in intestinal growth.

  5. Propanil inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by reducing nuclear levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappab in the macrophage cell line ic-21.

    PubMed

    Frost, L L; Neeley, Y X; Schafer, R; Gibson, L F; Barnett, J B

    2001-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an essential proinflammatory cytokine whose production is normally stimulated by bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during an infection. Macrophages stimulated with LPS in vitro produce several cytokines, including TNF-alpha. LPS-stimulated primary mouse macrophages produced less TNF-alpha protein and message after treatment with the herbicide propanil (Xie et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 145, 184-191, 1997). Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) tightly regulates TNF-alpha transcription. Therefore, as a step toward understanding the mechanism of the effect of propanil on TNF-alpha transcription, IC-21 cells were transfected with a TNF-alpha promoter-luciferase construct, and the effect of propanil on luciferase activity was measured. Cells transfected with promoter constructs containing a kappaB site showed decreased luciferase activity relative to controls after propanil treatment. These observations implicated NF-kappaB binding as an intracellular target of propanil. Further studies demonstrated a marked reduction in the nuclear levels of the stimulatory p65 subunit of NF-kappaB after propanil treatment, as measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. The p50 subunit of NF-kappaB was not found to be reduced after propanil exposure by Western blot. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays showed decreased DNA binding of both p65/p50 heterodimers and p50/p50 homodimers to the kappaB3 site of the TNF-alpha promoter of propanil-treated cells. The marked reduction in nuclear p65/p50 NF-kappaB levels and diminished binding to the TNF-alpha promoter in propanil-treated cells are consistent with reduced TNF-alpha levels induced by LPS. PMID:11312646

  6. De-phosphorylation of TR{alpha}-1 by p44/42 MAPK inhibition enhances T{sub 3}-mediated GLUT5 gene expression in the intestinal cell line Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Sakaguchi, Naomi; Takabe, Satsuki; Goda, Toshinao . E-mail: gouda@fns1.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2007-08-10

    Thyroid hormone and p44/42 MAPK inactivation are important in intestinal differentiation. We demonstrated not only that treatment with p44/42 MAPK inhibitor U0126 in intestinal cell line Caco-2 cells reduced the phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues of TR{alpha}-1, but also that T{sub 3} and U0126 synergistically induced GLUT5 gene expression. EMSA demonstrated that the binding activity of TR{alpha}-1-RXR heterodimer on GLUT5-TRE in nuclear proteins of Caco-2 cells was synergistically enhanced by co-incubation in vitro with T{sub 3} and CIAP, which strongly de-phosphorylates proteins. ChIP and transfection assays revealed that co-treatment of T{sub 3} and U0126 induces TR{alpha}-1-RXR binding to GLUT5-TRE on the human GLUT5 enhancer region, and recruitment of the transcriptional complex in cells. These results suggest that inactivation of p44/42 MAPK enhances T{sub 3}-induced GLUT5 gene expression in Caco-2 cells through increasing TR{alpha}-1 transactivity and binding activity to the GLUT5-TRE, probably due to de-phosphorylation of TR{alpha}-1.

  7. Characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group based on the profiling of ribosomal proteins coded in S10-spc-alpha operons as observed by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroaki; Torimura, Masaki; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hotta, Yudai; Tamura, Hiroto

    2012-10-01

    The taxonomy of the members of the Lactobacillus casei group is complicated because of their phylogenetic similarity and controversial nomenclatural status. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of ribosomal proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, termed S10-GERMS, was applied in order to classify 33 sample strains belonging to the L. casei group. A total of 14 types of ribosomal protein genes coded in the operon were first sequenced from four type strains of the L. casei group (L. casei JCM 1134(T), L. paracasei subsp. paracasei JCM 8130(T), L. paracasei subsp. tolerans JCM 1171(T), and L. rhamnosus JCM 1136(T)) together with L. casei JCM 11302, which is the former type strain of 'L. zeae'. The theoretical masses of the 14 types of ribosomal proteins used as biomarkers were classified into five types and compiled into a ribosomal protein database. The observed ribosomal proteins of each strain, identified by MALDI-TOF MS, were categorized into types based on their masses, summarized as ribosomal protein profiles, and they were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The 33 sample strains, together with seven genome-sequenced strains, could be classified into four major clusters, which coincided precisely with the taxa of the (sub)species within the L. casei group. Three "ancient" strains, identified as L. acidophilus and L. casei, were correctly re-identified as L. paracasei subsp. paracasei by S10-GERMS. S10-GERMS would thus appear to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic characterization, with considerable potential for management of culture collections.

  8. The modelome of line curvature: Many nonlinear models approximated by a single bi-linear metamodel with verbal profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaeva, Julia; Martens, Magni; Sæbø, Solve; Wyller, John A.; Martens, Harald

    2012-05-01

    A generic mathematical phenomenon (line curvature) is described quantitatively and linguistically: a range of very different in form and representation models z=Fm(x), m=1,2,…,38, each yielding smooth, but curved relationships z=f(x) with 0 or 1 inflection points, were collected from different fields of science, ranging from systems biology and statistics to trigonometry and psychophysics (Isaeva et al. (2011)). The behavioural repertoire of each of the models was realised by exhaustive statistically designed computer experiments, yielding a total of about 50,000 curves z=f(x), each recorded at 100 x-values. A modelome of curvature was formed by this set of arched or sigmoid curves and was preprocessed and combined in a joint metamodel based on a bi-linear subspace analysis. To describe a total of 99.9% of the variability in the curves, 12 eigenvectors were needed. These 12 common curve descriptors were successfully related back to the original model input parameters in each of the individual models. Furthermore, to give verbal meaning to the per se meaningless axes in this 12-dimensional eigenvector space, a total of 64 curve images were selected by a statistical design, printed and submitted to descriptive sensory analysis, using a panel of ten trained judges. A quantitative map between the eigenvector space and the sensory space was successfully established and then used for predicting what the human descriptive profiling would be for each of the 50,000 curves. Thus, a first version of a complete “modelome” of the mathematical phenomenon “line curvature” has been established by multivariate metamodelling and described in terms of quantitative maps both to the original model parameters in the 38 individual models and to human verbal description of curve shapes.

  9. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated.

  10. On-line monitoring of Soxhlet extraction by chromatography and mass spectrometry to reveal temporal extract profiles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ssu-Ying; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-06-30

    Soxhlet extraction is a popular sample preparation technique used in chemical analysis. It enables liberation of molecules embedded in complex matrices (for example, plant tissues, foodstuffs). In most protocols, samples are analyzed after the extraction process is complete. However, in order to optimize extraction conditions and enable comparisons between different types of extraction, it would be desirable to monitor it in real time. The main development of this work is the design and construction of the interface between Soxhlet extractor and GC-MS as well as ESI-MS system. The temporal extract profiles, obtained in the course of real-time GC-MS monitoring, have been fitted with mathematical functions to analyze extraction kinetics of different analytes. For example, the mass transfer coefficients of pinene, limonene and terpinene in lemon sample, estimated using the first-order kinetic model, are 0.540h(-1), 0.507h(-1) and 0.722h(-1), respectively. On the other hand, the Peleg model provides the following extraction rates of pinene, limonene and terpinene: 0.370nMh(-1), 0.216nMh(-1) and 0.596nMh(-1), respectively. The results suggest that both first-order kinetic and Peleg equations can be used to describe the progress of Soxhlet extraction. On-line monitoring of Soxhlet extraction reveals extractability of various analytes present in natural samples (plant tissue), and can potentially facilitate optimization of the extraction process. PMID:26041522

  11. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated. PMID:27435687

  12. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, Aneta A; Kopeć, Aneta; Master, Adam; Smoleń, Sylwester; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Rakoczy, Roksana; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Pysz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

  13. MOND implications for spectral line profiles of shell galaxies: shell formation history and mass-velocity scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, M.; Jungwiert, B.; Ebrová, I.; Bartošková, K.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Many ellipticals are surrounded by round stellar shells probably stemming from minor mergers. A new method for constraining gravitational potential in elliptical galaxies has recently been suggested. It uses the spectral line profiles of these shells to measure the circular velocity at the edge of the shell and the expansion velocity of the shell itself. MOND is an alternative to the dark matter framework aiming to solve the missing mass problem. Aims: We study how the circular and expansion velocities behave in MOND for large shells. Methods: The asymptotic behavior for infinitely large shells is derived analytically. The applicability of the asymptotic results for finitely sized shells is studied numerically on a grid of galaxies modeled with Sérsic spheres. Results: Circular velocity settles asymptotically at a value determined by the baryonic mass of the galaxy forming the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation known for disk galaxies. Shell expansion velocity also becomes asymptotically constant. The expansion velocities of large shells form a multibranched analogy to the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, together with the galactic baryonic masses. For many - but not all - shell galaxies, the asymptotic values of these two types of velocities are reached under the effective radius. If MOND is assumed to work in ellipticals, then the shell spectra allow many details of the history to be revealed about the formation of the shell system, including its age. The results pertaining to circular velocities apply to all elliptical galaxies, not only those with shells.

  14. Transcriptome Profile of Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines for β-Conglycinin α-Subunit Deficiency during Seed Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo; An, Lixin; Han, Yanjing; Gao, Hongxiu; Ren, Hongbo; Zhao, Xue; Wei, Xiaoshuang; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2016-01-01

    Crossing, backcrossing, and molecular marker-assisted background selection produced a soybean (Glycine max) near-isogenic line (cgy-2-NIL) containing the cgy-2 allele, which is responsible for the absence of the allergenic α-subunit of β-conglycinin. To identify α-null-related transcriptional changes, the gene expressions of cgy-2-NIL and its recurrent parent DN47 were compared using Illumina high-throughput RNA-sequencing of samples at 25, 35, 50, and 55 days after flowering (DAF). Seeds at 18 DAF served as the control. Comparison of the transcript profiles identified 3,543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two genotypes, with 2,193 genes downregulated and 1,350 genes upregulated. The largest numbers of DEGs were identified at 55 DAF. The DEGs identified at 25 DAF represented a unique pattern of GO category distributions. KEGG pathway analyses identified 541 altered metabolic pathways in cgy-2-NIL. At 18DAF, 12 DEGs were involved in arginine and proline metabolism. The cgy-2 allele in the homozygous form modified the expression of several Cupin allergen genes. The cgy-2 allele is an alteration of a functional allele that is closely related to soybean protein amino acid quality, and is useful for hypoallergenic soybean breeding programs that aim to improve seed protein quality. PMID:27532666

  15. Protein profiles reveal diverse responsive signaling pathways in kernels of two maize inbred lines with contrasting drought sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liming; Jiang, Tingbo; Fountain, Jake C; Scully, Brian T; Lee, Robert D; Kemerait, Robert C; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress is a major factor that contributes to disease susceptibility and yield loss in agricultural crops. To identify drought responsive proteins and explore metabolic pathways involved in maize tolerance to drought stress, two maize lines (B73 and Lo964) with contrasting drought sensitivity were examined. The treatments of drought and well water were applied at 14 days after pollination (DAP), and protein profiles were investigated in developing kernels (35 DAP) using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation). Proteomic analysis showed that 70 and 36 proteins were significantly altered in their expression under drought treatments in B73 and Lo964, respectively. The numbers and levels of differentially expressed proteins were generally higher in the sensitive genotype, B73, implying an increased sensitivity to drought given the function of the observed differentially expressed proteins, such as redox homeostasis, cell rescue/defense, hormone regulation and protein biosynthesis and degradation. Lo964 possessed a more stable status with fewer differentially expressed proteins. However, B73 seems to rapidly initiate signaling pathways in response to drought through adjusting diverse defense pathways. These changes in protein expression allow for the production of a drought stress-responsive network in maize kernels.

  16. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Koronowicz, Aneta A.; Kopeć, Aneta; Master, Adam; Smoleń, Sylwester; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Rakoczy, Roksana; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Pysz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment. PMID:26799209

  17. Transcriptome Profile of Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines for β-Conglycinin α-Subunit Deficiency during Seed Maturation.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; An, Lixin; Han, Yanjing; Gao, Hongxiu; Ren, Hongbo; Zhao, Xue; Wei, Xiaoshuang; Krishnan, Hari B; Liu, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing, backcrossing, and molecular marker-assisted background selection produced a soybean (Glycine max) near-isogenic line (cgy-2-NIL) containing the cgy-2 allele, which is responsible for the absence of the allergenic α-subunit of β-conglycinin. To identify α-null-related transcriptional changes, the gene expressions of cgy-2-NIL and its recurrent parent DN47 were compared using Illumina high-throughput RNA-sequencing of samples at 25, 35, 50, and 55 days after flowering (DAF). Seeds at 18 DAF served as the control. Comparison of the transcript profiles identified 3,543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two genotypes, with 2,193 genes downregulated and 1,350 genes upregulated. The largest numbers of DEGs were identified at 55 DAF. The DEGs identified at 25 DAF represented a unique pattern of GO category distributions. KEGG pathway analyses identified 541 altered metabolic pathways in cgy-2-NIL. At 18DAF, 12 DEGs were involved in arginine and proline metabolism. The cgy-2 allele in the homozygous form modified the expression of several Cupin allergen genes. The cgy-2 allele is an alteration of a functional allele that is closely related to soybean protein amino acid quality, and is useful for hypoallergenic soybean breeding programs that aim to improve seed protein quality. PMID:27532666

  18. Direct potential and temperature effects on the MgHe line-core and far-wing photoabsorption profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Reggami, L.; Bouledroua, M.

    2011-03-15

    The present study deals with the collisional broadening of monatomic magnesium, evolving in a helium buffer gas, in the wavelength and temperature ranges 260-310 nm and 100-3000 K, respectively. The computed emission and absorption spectral profiles are based on the most recent potential-energy curves and transition dipole moments. The required interatomic Mg(3s{sup 2})+He(1s{sup 2}) and Mg(3s3p)+He(1s{sup 2}) potentials are constructed from two different sets. The purpose of this treatment is twofold. First, using the quantum-mechanical Baranger impact approximation, the width and shift of the line-core spectra are determined and their variation law with temperature is examined. Then, the satellite structures in the blue and red wings are analyzed quantum mechanically. The calculations show especially that the free-free transitions contribute most to the MgHe photoabsorption spectra and that a satellite structure is observable beyond the temperature 1800 K around the wavelengths 272 or 276 nm, depending on the used potential set. Weak satellites have also been investigated and, for all cases, the obtained results showed good agreement with those already published.

  19. An Implementation of the Fundamental Parameters Approach for Analysis of X-ray Powder Diffraction Line Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Mullen, Katharine; Cline, James P.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an open implementation of the Fundamental Parameters Approach (FPA) models for analysis of X-ray powder diffraction line profiles. The original literature describing these models was examined and code was developed to allow for their use within a Python based least squares refinement algorithm. The NIST interest in the FPA method is specific to its ability to account for the optical aberrations of the powder diffraction experiment allowing for an accurate assessment of lattice parameter values. Lattice parameters are one of the primary certified measurands of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for powder diffraction. Lattice parameter values obtained from analysis of data from SRMs 640e and 660c using both the NIST FPA Python code and the proprietary, commercial code Topas, that constitutes the only other actively supported, complete implementation of FPA models within a least-squares data analysis environment, agreed to within 2 fm. This level of agreement demonstrates that both the NIST code and Topas constitute an accurate implementation of published FPA models. PMID:26958448

  20. Protein Profiling of Human Nonpigmented Ciliary Epithelium Cell Secretome: The Differentiation Factors Characterization for Retinal Ganglion Cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Hui; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R.; Jong, Shiang-Bin; Chu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Yuan-Han; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Dibas, Adnan; Yorio, Thomas; Chung, Tze-Wen; Tyan, Yu-Chang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to characterize proteins secreted from the human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (HNPE) cells, which have differentiated a rat retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5. Undifferentiated RGC-5 cells have been shown to express several marker proteins characteristic of retinal ganglion cells. However, RGC-5 cells do not respond to N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA), or glutamate. HNPE cells have been shown to secrete numbers of neuropeptides or neuroproteins also found in the aqueous humor, many of which have the ability to influence the activity of neuronal cells. This paper details the profile of HNPE cell-secreted proteins by proteomic approaches. The experimental results revealed the identification of 132 unique proteins from the HNPE cell-conditioned SF-medium. The biological functions of a portion of these identified proteins are involved in cell differentiation. We hypothesized that a differentiation system of HNPE cell-conditioned SF-medium with RGC-5 cells can induce a differentiated phenotype in RGC-5 cells, with functional characteristics that more closely resemble primary cultures of rat retinal ganglion cells. These proteins may replace harsh chemicals, which are currently used to induce cell differentiation. PMID:21860587

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, Aneta A; Kopeć, Aneta; Master, Adam; Smoleń, Sylwester; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Rakoczy, Roksana; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Pysz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment. PMID:26799209

  2. Protein Profiles Reveal Diverse Responsive Signaling Pathways in Kernels of Two Maize Inbred Lines with Contrasting Drought Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liming; Jiang, Tingbo; Fountain, Jake C.; Scully, Brian T.; Lee, Robert D.; Kemerait, Robert C.; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress is a major factor that contributes to disease susceptibility and yield loss in agricultural crops. To identify drought responsive proteins and explore metabolic pathways involved in maize tolerance to drought stress, two maize lines (B73 and Lo964) with contrasting drought sensitivity were examined. The treatments of drought and well water were applied at 14 days after pollination (DAP), and protein profiles were investigated in developing kernels (35 DAP) using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation). Proteomic analysis showed that 70 and 36 proteins were significantly altered in their expression under drought treatments in B73 and Lo964, respectively. The numbers and levels of differentially expressed proteins were generally higher in the sensitive genotype, B73, implying an increased sensitivity to drought given the function of the observed differentially expressed proteins, such as redox homeostasis, cell rescue/defense, hormone regulation and protein biosynthesis and degradation. Lo964 possessed a more stable status with fewer differentially expressed proteins. However, B73 seems to rapidly initiate signaling pathways in response to drought through adjusting diverse defense pathways. These changes in protein expression allow for the production of a drought stress-responsive network in maize kernels. PMID:25334062

  3. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dinesh C; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  4. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh C.; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  5. A HIFI view on circumstellar H2O in M-type AGB stars: radiative transfer, velocity profiles, and H2O line cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maercker, M.; Danilovich, T.; Olofsson, H.; De Beck, E.; Justtanont, K.; Lombaert, R.; Royer, P.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We aim to constrain the temperature and velocity structures, and H2O abundances in the winds of a sample of M-type asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We further aim to determine the effect of H2O line cooling on the energy balance in the inner circumstellar envelope. Methods: We use two radiative-transfer codes to model molecular emission lines of CO and H2O towards four M-type AGB stars. We focus on spectrally resolved observations of CO and H2O from HIFI aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The observations are complemented by ground-based CO observations, and spectrally unresolved CO and H2O observations with PACS aboard Herschel. The observed line profiles constrain the velocity structure throughout the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs), while the CO intensities constrain the temperature structure in the CSEs. The H2O observations constrain the o-H2O and p-H2O abundances relative to H2. Finally, the radiative-transfer modelling allows to solve the energy balance in the CSE, in principle including also H2O line cooling. Results: The fits to the line profiles only set moderate constraints on the velocity profile, indicating shallower acceleration profiles in the winds of M-type AGB stars than predicted by dynamical models, while the CO observations effectively constrain the temperature structure. Including H2O line cooling in the energy balance was only possible for the low-mass-loss-rate objects in the sample, and required an ad hoc adjustment of the dust velocity profile in order to counteract extreme cooling in the inner CSE. H2O line cooling was therefore excluded from the models. The constraints set on the temperature profile by the CO lines nevertheless allowed us to derive H2O abundances. The derived H2O abundances confirm previous estimates and are consistent with chemical models. However, the uncertainties in the derived abundances are relatively large, in particular for p-H2O, and consequently the derived o/p-H2O ratios are not well constrained.

  6. N-glycosylation Profiling of Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Reveals Association of Fucosylation with Differentiation and Caudal Type Homebox 1 (CDX1)/Villin mRNA Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Stephanie; Deuss, Anna J. M.; van Pelt, Gabi W.; van Vliet, Sandra J.; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Koeleman, Carolien A. M.; Deelder, André M.; Mesker, Wilma E.; Tollenaar, Rob A.; Rombouts, Yoann; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Various cancers such as colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with alterations in protein glycosylation. CRC cell lines are frequently used to study these (glyco)biological changes and their mechanisms. However, differences between CRC cell lines with regard to their glycosylation have hitherto been largely neglected. Here, we comprehensively characterized the N-glycan profiles of 25 different CRC cell lines, derived from primary tumors and metastatic sites, in order to investigate their potential as glycobiological tumor model systems and to reveal glycans associated with cell line phenotypes. We applied an optimized, high-throughput membrane-based enzymatic glycan release for small sample amounts. Released glycans were derivatized to stabilize and differentiate between α2,3- and α2,6-linked N-acetylneuraminic acids, followed by N-glycosylation analysis by MALDI-TOF(/TOF)-MS. Our results showed pronounced differences between the N-glycosylation patterns of CRC cell lines. CRC cell line profiles differed from tissue-derived N-glycan profiles with regard to their high-mannose N-glycan content but showed a large overlap for complex type N-glycans, supporting their use as a glycobiological cancer model system. Importantly, we could show that the high-mannose N-glycans did not only occur as intracellular precursors but were also present at the cell surface. The obtained CRC cell line N-glycan features were not clearly correlated with mRNA expression levels of glycosyltransferases, demonstrating the usefulness of performing the structural analysis of glycans. Finally, correlation of CRC cell line glycosylation features with cancer cell markers and phenotypes revealed an association between highly fucosylated glycans and CDX1 and/or villin mRNA expression that both correlate with cell differentiation. Together, our findings provide new insights into CRC-associated glycan changes and setting the basis for more in-depth experiments on glycan function and regulation

  7. Mars Ozone Absorption Line Shapes from Infrared Heterodyne Spectra Applied to GCM-Predicted Ozone Profiles and to MEX/SPICAM Column Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Annen, J.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 microns with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60degN 112degW was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone-profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.

  8. Measuring mass-loss rates and constraining shock physics using X-ray line profiles of O stars from the Chandra archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David H.; Wollman, Emma E.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Fullerton, Alex W.; Zsargó, Janos; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2014-03-01

    We quantitatively investigate the extent of wind absorption signatures in the X-ray grating spectra of all non-magnetic, effectively single O stars in the Chandra archive via line profile fitting. Under the usual assumption of a spherically symmetric wind with embedded shocks, we confirm previous claims that some objects show little or no wind absorption. However, many other objects do show asymmetric and blueshifted line profiles, indicative of wind absorption. For these stars, we are able to derive wind mass-loss rates from the ensemble of line profiles, and find values lower by an average factor of 3 than those predicted by current theoretical models, and consistent with Hα if clumping factors of fcl ≈ 20 are assumed. The same profile fitting indicates an onset radius of X-rays typically at r ≈ 1.5R*, and terminal velocities for the X-ray emitting wind component that are consistent with that of the bulk wind. We explore the likelihood that the stars in the sample that do not show significant wind absorption signatures in their line profiles have at least some X-ray emission that arises from colliding wind shocks with a close binary companion. The one clear exception is ζ Oph, a weak-wind star that appears to simply have a very low mass-loss rate. We also reanalyse the results from the canonical O supergiant ζ Pup, using a solar-metallicity wind opacity model and find dot{M}= 1.8 × 10^{-6} {M_{⊙ {yr^{-1}}}}, consistent with recent multiwavelength determinations.

  9. ON THE DOPPLER VELOCITY OF EMISSION LINE PROFILES FORMED IN THE 'CORONAL CONTRAFLOW' THAT IS THE CHROMOSPHERE-CORONA MASS CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Tian Hui; Sechler, Marybeth; De Pontieu, Bart

    2012-04-10

    This analysis begins to explore the complex chromosphere-corona mass cycle using a blend of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics. Single Gaussian fits (SGFs) to hot emission line profiles (formed above 1 MK) at the base of coronal loop structures indicate material blueshifts of 5-10 km s{sup -1}, while cool emission line profiles (formed below 1 MK) yield redshifts of a similar magnitude-indicating, to zeroth order, that a temperature-dependent bifurcating flow exists on coronal structures. Image sequences of the same region reveal weakly emitting upward propagating disturbances in both hot and cool emission with apparent speeds of 50-150 km s{sup -1}. Spectroscopic observations indicate that these propagating disturbances produce a weak emission component in the blue wing at commensurate speed, but that they contribute only a few percent to the (ensemble) emission line profile in a single spatio-temporal resolution element. Subsequent analysis of imaging data shows material 'draining' slowly ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) out of the corona, but only in the cooler passbands. We interpret the draining as the return flow of coronal material at the end of the complex chromosphere-corona mass cycle. Further, we suggest that the efficient radiative cooling of the draining material produces a significant contribution to the red wing of cool emission lines that is ultimately responsible for their systematic redshift as derived from an SGF when compared to those formed in hotter (conductively dominated) domains. The presence of counterstreaming flows complicates the line profiles, their interpretation, and asymmetry diagnoses, but allows a different physical picture of the lower corona to develop.

  10. Influence of thin porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on aluminum cathode to the H{sub a}lpha line shape in glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Steflekova, V.; Sisovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2009-06-01

    The results of the Balmer alfa line shape study in a plane cathode-hollow anode Grimm discharge with aluminum (Al) cathode covered with thin layer of porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are presented. The comparison with same line profile recorded with pure Al cathode shows lack of excessive Doppler broadened line wings, which are always detected in glow discharge with metal cathode. The effect is explained by the lack of strong electric field in the cathode sheath region, which is missing in the presence of thin oxide layer in, so called, spray discharge.

  11. Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, G. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Lowes, L. L.; Abrams, M. C.; Raper, O. F.; Farmer, C. B.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    A simple, classical, and expedient method for the retrieval of atmospheric pressure-temperature profiles has been applied to the high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra obtained with the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument. The basis for this method is a rotational analysis of retrieved apparent abundances from CO2 rovibrational absorption lines, employing existing constituent concentration retrieval software used in the analysis of data returned by ATMOS. Pressure-temperature profiles derived from spectra acquired during the ATLAS 1 space shuttle mission of March-April 1992 are quantitatively evaluated and compared with climatological and meteorological data as a means of assessing the validity of this approach.

  12. Concurrent visual diagnosis and susceptibility profiling of the first line drug against visceral leishmaniasis by plasmonic detection of PCR amplified genetic biomarker.

    PubMed

    Bose, Partha Pratim; Kumar, Prakash; Munagala, Narendar

    2015-12-01

    Visceral form of leishmaniasis (also known as Kala-azar) is a fatal neglected tropical disease affecting 95 countries worldwide. Recently, substantial proportion of resistance related treatment failure cases have been reported against its first line drug, sodium-antimony gluconate (SAG). We report an easy, fast, sensitive and cheap visual diagnosis and SAG susceptibility profiling for this disease based on recently recognized genetic biomarker and gold nanoparticle based plasmonic detection phenomenon. This is a non-gel, non-culture based detection technique, which can be used as simultaneous high throughput detection and SAG-susceptibility profiling in Leishmania endemic resource stringent countries.

  13. Effect of X-ray Line Spectra Profile Fitting with Pearson VII, Pseudo-Voigt and Generalized Fermi Functions on Asphalt Binder Aromaticity and Crystallite Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebresellasie, K.; Shirokoff, J.; Lewis, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray line spectra profile fitting using Pearson VII, pseudo-Voigt and generalized Fermi functions was performed on asphalt binders prior to the calculation of aromaticity and crystallite size parameters. The effects of these functions on the results are presented and discussed in terms of the peak profile fit parameters, the uncertainties in calculated values that can arise owing to peak shape, peak features in the pattern and crystallite size according to the asphalt models (Yen, modified Yen or Yen-Mullins) and theories. Interpretation of these results is important in terms of evaluating the performance of asphalt binders widely used in the application of transportation systems (roads, highways, airports).

  14. Resolution of the discrepancy between Balmer alpha emission rates, the solar Lyman beta flux, and models of geocoronal hydrogen concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur, A.-C.; Meier, R. R.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New satellite Balmer alpha measurements and solar Lyman beta flux and line profile measurements, together with new measurements of the zodiacal light intensity used in correcting both ground and satellite Balmer alpha measurements for the effects of the Fraunhofer line in the zodiacal light, have been used in a reevaluation of the long-standing discrepancy between ground-based Balmer alpha emission rates and other geocoronal hydrogen parameters. The solar Lyman beta line center flux is found to be (4.1 plus or minus 1.3) billion photons per sq cm per sec per angstrom at S(10.7) equals 110 and, together with a current hydrogen model which has 92,000 atoms per cu cm at 650 km for T(inf) equals 950 K, gives good agreement between calculated Balmer alpha emission rates and the ground-based and satellite measurements.

  15. RNA-seq profiles of immune related genes in the spleen of Necrotic enteritis-afflicted chicken lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study aimed to compare the Necrotic enteritis (NE)-induced transcriptome differences in the spleen of two highly inbred White Leghorn chicken lines, line 6.3 that is Marek’s Disease (MD) resistant and line 7.2 that is MD susceptible. Induction of NE in the chickens was achieved by co-infection ...

  16. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling in the NCI60 cancer cell line panel using high-throughput RT-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Mestdagh, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) form a new class of RNA molecules implicated in various aspects of protein coding gene expression regulation. To study lncRNAs in cancer, we generated expression profiles for 1707 human lncRNAs in the NCI60 cancer cell line panel using a high-throughput nanowell RT-qPCR platform. We describe how qPCR assays were designed and validated and provide processed and normalized expression data for further analysis. Data quality is demonstrated by matching the lncRNA expression profiles with phenotypic and genomic characteristics of the cancer cell lines. This data set can be integrated with publicly available omics and pharmacological data sets to uncover novel associations between lncRNA expression and mRNA expression, miRNA expression, DNA copy number, protein coding gene mutation status or drug response PMID:27377824

  17. Fludarabine plus alemtuzumab (FA) front-line treatment in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and an adverse biologic profile.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Francesca R; Molica, Stefano; Laurenti, Luca; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Carella, Angelo M; Zaja, Francesco; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Angrilli, Francesco; Nobile, Francesco; Marasca, Roberto; Musolino, Caterina; Brugiatelli, Maura; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Vignetti, Marco; Fazi, Paola; Gentile, Giuseppe; De Propris, Maria S; Della Starza, Irene; Marinelli, Marilisa; Chiaretti, Sabina; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Nanni, Mauro; Albano, Francesco; Cuneo, Antonio; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2014-02-01

    In 45, ≤ 60 years old patients with CLL and an adverse biologic profile, a front-line treatment with Fludarabine and Campath (Alemtuzumab(®)) was given. The overall response rate was 75.5%, the complete response rate (CR) 24.4% with the lowest CR rates, 16.7% and 8.3%, in 11q and 17p deleted cases. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 42.5% and 79.9%, respectively. PFS was significantly influenced by CLL duration, beta2-microglobulin, and improved by post-remissional stem cell transplantation. Front-line fludarabine and alemtuzumab showed a manageable safety profile and evidence of a benefit in a small series of CLL patients with adverse biologic features.

  18. Modeling the Zeeman effect in high-altitude SSMIS channels for numerical weather prediction profiles: comparing a fast model and a line-by-line model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Richard; Milz, Mathias; Rayer, Peter; Saunders, Roger; Bell, William; Booton, Anna; Buehler, Stefan A.; Eriksson, Patrick; John, Viju O.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comparison of a reference and a fast radiative transfer model using numerical weather prediction profiles for the Zeeman-affected high-altitude Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder channels 19-22. We find that the models agree well for channels 21 and 22 compared to the channels' system noise temperatures (1.9 and 1.3 K, respectively) and the expected profile errors at the affected altitudes (estimated to be around 5 K). For channel 22 there is a 0.5 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.24 K for the full set of atmospheric profiles. Concerning the same channel, there is 1.2 K on average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 1.4 K standard deviation. For channel 21 there is a 0.9 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.56 K. Regarding the same channel, there is 1.3 K on average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 2.4 K standard deviation. We consider the relatively small model differences as a validation of the fast Zeeman effect scheme for these channels. Both channels 19 and 20 have smaller average differences between the models (at below 0.2 K) and smaller standard deviations (at below 0.4 K) when both models use a two-dimensional magnetic field profile. However, when the reference model is switched to using a full three-dimensional magnetic field profile, the standard deviation to the fast model is increased to almost 2 K due to viewing geometry dependencies, causing up to ±7 K differences near the equator. The average differences between the two models remain small despite changing magnetic field configurations. We are unable to compare channels 19 and 20 to sensor measurements due to limited altitude range of the numerical weather prediction profiles. We recommended that numerical weather prediction software using the fast model takes the available fast Zeeman scheme into account for data assimilation of the affected sensor channels to

  19. Profiled spectral lines generated by Keplerian discs orbiting in the Bardeen and Ayòn-Beato-Garcìa spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schee, Jan; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2016-04-01

    Shape and frequency-shift maps of direct and indirect images of Keplerian discs orbiting in Bardeen and Ayòn-Beato-Garcìa (ABG) black hole and no-horizon spacetimes are determined. Then profiles of spectral lines generated in the innermost parts of the Keplerian discs in the Bardeen and ABG spacetimes are constructed. The frequency-shift maps and profiled spectral lines are compared to those generated in the field of Schwarzschild black holes and possible observationally relevant signatures of the regular black hole and no-horizon spacetimes are discussed. We demonstrate that differences relative to the Schwarzschild spacetimes are for the no-horizon spacetimes much more profound in comparison to the regular black hole spacetimes and increase with increasing charge parameter of the spacetime. The differences are greater for small and large inclination angles than for intermediate ones. For the no-horizon spacetimes, the differences enable us to distinguish the Bardeen and ABG spacetime, if inclination angle to the distant observer is known. We also show that contribution of the so-called ghost images to the profiled lines increases with increasing charge parameter of the spacetimes.

  20. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  1. Geocoronal Balmer-alpha Emission Observed by the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper During the Southern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Nossal, S. M.; Wilson, M. L.; Freer, C. W.; Babler, B.; Gardner, D.; Roesler, F. L.

    2015-12-01

    After a successful eleven-year run at Kitt Peak Observatory (AZ), the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) was moved to Cerro Tololo (Chile) in 2009 to complete the southern portion of the Galactic Balmer-alpha survey. Although WHAM is primarily used for making observations of the interstellar medium, the terrestrial emission present in each of WHAM's astronomical spectra offers a rich resource for studying the Earth's atmosphere. Here we present an overview of the terrestrial Balmer-alpha emission collected during WHAM's first five years of operation under southern skies. Seasonal trends and comparisons with northern hemisphere observations will be discussed. WHAM can detect Balmer-alpha emission as faint as 0.05R in a 30s exposure, covering a 200 km/s (4.4 Angstrom) spectral region with 12 km/s spectral resolution from a 1 degree beam on the sky. With this sensitivity, hundreds of spectra can be collected in a single clear night. Although not capable of fully resolving the geocoronal Balmer-alpha line profile itself, WHAM's sensitivity makes it an exceptional instrument for geocoronal Balmer-alpha intensity observations. This work is supported by NSF award AGS-1352311 and AST-1108911.

  2. Proteome Profiling of Urinary Exosomes Identifies Alpha 1-Antitrypsin and H2B1K as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Wu, His-Chin; Lin, Ching-Chan; Chang, Kai-Po; Yang, Chi-Rei; Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chen, Chao-Jung

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF spectrometry has not been used for urinary exosome analysis. We used it for determining UC biomarkers. From 2012 to 2015, we enrolled 129 consecutive patients with UC and 62 participants without UC. Exosomes from their urine were isolated, and analyzed through MALDI-TOF spectrometry. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of another 122 UC and 26 non-UC tissues was conducted to verify the discovered biomarkers. Two peaks at m/z 5593 (fragmented peptide of alpha-1-antitrypsin; sensitivity, 50.4%; specificity, 96.9%) and m/z 5947 (fragmented peptide of histone H2B1K sensitivity, 62.0%; specificity, 92.3%) were identified as UC diagnosis exosome biomarkers. UC patients with detectable histone H2B1K showed 2.29- and 3.11-fold increased risks of recurrence and progression, respectively, compared with those with nondetectable histone H2B1K. Verification results of IHC staining revealed significantly higher expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin (p = 0.038) and H2B1K (p = 0.005) in UC tissues than in normal tissues. The expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin and H2B1K in UC tissues was significantly correlated with UC grades (p < 0.05). Urinary exosome proteins alpha 1-antitrypsin and histone H2B1K, which are identified through MALDI-TOF analysis, could facilitate rapid diagnosis and prognosis of UC. PMID:27686150

  3. AN ATLAS OF z = 5.7 AND z = 6.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Trouille, L. E-mail: cowie@ifa.hawaii.ed E-mail: trouille@astro.wisc.ed E-mail: kakazu@astro.caltech.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present an atlas of 88 z {approx} 5.7 and 30 z {approx} 6.5 Ly{alpha} emitters obtained from a wide-field narrowband survey. We combined deep narrowband imaging in 120 A bandpass filters centered at 8150 A and 9140 A with deep BVRIz broadband imaging to select high-redshift galaxy candidates over an area of 4180 arcmin{sup 2}. The goal was to obtain a uniform selection of comparable depth over the seven targeted fields in the two filters. For the GOODS-North region of the Hubble Deep Field-North field, we also selected candidates using a 120 A filter centered at 9210 A. We made spectroscopic observations with Keck DEIMOS of nearly all the candidates to obtain the final sample of Ly{alpha} emitters. At the 3.3 A resolution of the DEIMOS observations the asymmetric profile for Ly{alpha} emission can be clearly seen in the spectra of nearly all the galaxies. We show that the spectral profiles are surprisingly similar for many of the galaxies and that the composite spectral profiles are nearly identical at z = 5.7 and z = 6.5. We analyze the distributions of line widths and Ly{alpha} equivalent widths and find that the lines are marginally narrower at the higher redshift, with median values of 0.77 A at z = 6.5 and 0.92 A at z = 5.7. The line widths have a dependence on the Ly{alpha} luminosity of the form {approx}L {sup 0.3}{sub {alpha}}. We compare the surface densities and the luminosity functions at the two redshifts and find that there is a multiplicative factor of two decrease in the number density of bright Ly{alpha} emitters from z = 5.7 to z = 6.5, while the characteristic luminosity is unchanged.

  4. Mycobacterial cell wall components induce the production of TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 by bovine monocytes and the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Adams, J L; Czuprynski, C J

    1994-06-01

    Johne's disease is characterized by a chronic enteritis that results in granulomatous inflammation, cachexia, and eventual death of cattle infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with granuloma formation and wasting in other disease syndromes. The potential role of these cytokines in the development and progression of Johne's disease has not been investigated. Freshly isolated bovine peripheral blood monocytes and the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were examined for their ability to release inflammatory cytokines in response to mycobacterial cell wall components. Bovine monocytes and RAW 264.7 cells incubated with M. paratuberculosis lipoarabinomannan (LAM), muramyl dipeptide (MDP), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) released TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 as detected by appropriate bioassays. Using the RAW 264.7 cells, cytokine mRNA levels were elevated after in vitro incubation with live M. paratuberculosis or LPS as determined using a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedure.

  5. A comparative study of leukaemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-1alpha intracellular content in a human keratinocyte cell line after exposure to cosmetic fragrances and sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Alessandro; Sanguineti, Roberta; Catalano, Mariafrancesca; Penco, Susanna; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Scanarotti, Chiara; Bassi, Anna Maria

    2010-02-01

    According to European laws animal testing in cosmetic industry will be prohibited in a few years and it will be replaced by alternative methods based on cell and tissue culture. Many ingredients of cosmetic formulations are potentially causes of skin inflammation and sensibilization. Since cytotoxicity is known, among other factors, to trigger irritation, in an alternative model for evaluation of skin irritation, it can be considered also the precocious release of inflammatory mediators, i.e. cytokines, originating mainly from keratinocytes. In this in vitro study we have analysed some parameters directly or indirectly related to irritation/inflammation, in NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes during short-time exposure to some potential irritants cosmetic fragrances, included in the European Laws 2003/15/EEC. IIC50 was extrapolated by MTT and NRU viability indexes after exposure of cell ultures to Geraniol Limonene and Benzylic Alcohol for 1, 3 and 6h. NCTC cells were then exposed to sub-toxic doses of selected compounds and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions were analysed as early proinflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge our findings demonstrated for the first time that NCTC cells synthesize and modulate LIF after exposure to selected irritating stimuli. Moreover, our results give evidence on LIF role as in vitro precocious endpoint for the assessment of the risk in cosmetic field, because its response under irritation stimuli is very quick and comparable to IL-1alpha.

  6. Determination of the Whiteside line on femur surface models by fitting high-order polynomial functions to cross-section profiles of the intercondylar fossa.

    PubMed

    Cerveri, Pietro; Marchente, Mario; Manzotti, Alfonso; Confalonieri, Norberto

    2011-01-01

    Innovative methods for morphological and functional analysis of bones have become a primary objective in the development of planning systems for total knee replacement (TKR). These methods involve the interactive identification of clinical landmarks (reference points, distances, angles, and functional axes of movement) and the determination of the optimal implant size and positioning. Among the functional axes used to estimate the correct alignment of the femoral component, the Whiteside line, namely, the anterior-posterior (AP) direction, is one of the most common. In this paper, we present a computational framework that allows automatic identification of the Whiteside line. The approach is based on geometric analysis of the saddle shape of the intercondylar fossa to extract the principal line in the AP direction. A plane parallel to the frontal plane is moved in the AP direction to obtain the 2D profiles of the intercondylar fossa. Each profile is fitted to a fifth-order polynomial curve and its maximum curvature point computed. The point set collected across all the profiles is then processed to compute the principal direction. The 2D profile-fitting and 3D line-fitting residual errors were analyzed to study the relationship between the intercondylar fossa aspect and the nominal saddle surface. The method was validated using femur specimens from elderly subjects reconstructed from CT scans. The repeatability of the method was evaluated across five different femur surface resolutions. For comparison, three expert orthopaedic surgeons identified, by virtual palpation, the Whiteside line on the same 3D femur models. The repeatability (median angular error) of the Whiteside lines computed by the automated method and by manual virtual palpation, was approximately 1.0° and 3.5°, respectively. The angular skew error between the two axes, measured on the axial plane, averaged approximately 4.00° (SD: 2.64°) with no statistical difference. The automated method

  7. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasekar, Prasanna; Shyamsunder, Pavithra; Arun, Rajpranap; Santhakumar, Rajalakshmi; Kapadia, Nand Kishore; Kumar, Ravi; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated) and 2542 (downregulated) genes (>2 fold) in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated) and 444 (downregulated) genes (>2 fold) under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2. PMID:26295583

  8. Radial Profile of the 3.5 keV Line Out to R200 in the Perseus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franse, Jeroen; Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Boyarsky, Alexey; Markevitch, Maxim; Bautz, Mark; Iakubovskyi, Dmytro; Loewenstein, Mike; McDonald, Michael; Miller, Eric; Randall, Scott W.; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-10-01

    The recent discovery of the unidentified emission line at 3.5 keV in galaxies and clusters has attracted great interest from the community. As the origin of the line remains uncertain, we study the surface brightness distribution of the line in the Perseus cluster since that information can be used to identify its origin. We examine the flux distribution of the 3.5 keV line in the deep Suzaku observations of the Perseus cluster in detail. The 3.5 keV line is observed in three concentric annuli in the central observations, although the observations of the outskirts of the cluster did not reveal such a signal. We establish that these detections and the upper limits from the non-detections are consistent with a dark matter decay origin. However, absence of positive detection in the outskirts is also consistent with some unknown astrophysical origin of the line in the dense gas of the Perseus core, as well as with a dark matter origin with a steeper dependence on mass than the dark matter decay. We also comment on several recently published analyses of the 3.5 keV line.

  9. Spectroscopy of Bright Quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope and Lyman-Alpha Absorption Lines in the Redshift Range 0.5 < Z < 1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C. D.; Petry, C. E.; Malkan, M. A.; Webb, W.

    1996-06-01

    We report ultraviolet spectroscopy of three bright quasars obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope. The good quality spectra covering the range 1800-3300 A result from spectropolarimetry acquired for these targets, the interpretation of which has been published elsewhere. Objective algorithms were used to select absorption lines whose strength exceeded 4 times the rms noise in the nearby continuum, resulting in 109 significant lines for PG 1222+228, 91 significant lines for PG 1634+706, and 19 significant lines for PG 2302+029. Most of the spectral range covers the region with a high density of lines due to intervening absorbers, blueward of the Lyman- α emission line. In PG 1222+228, we identify about 35% of the lines as being associated with the seven metal line systems already known in this quasar. Three have seven or more metal lines identified. An additional 12% are either galactic lines or Lyman-α, Lyman-β pairs with no associated metals. In PG 1634 + 706, nearly 42% of the absorption lines are identified with metal systems. Some are associated with the two metal line systems previously known in this quasar, others are associated with two newly identified C IV Systems at z = 0.6540 and z = 0.9057. Another 19% are galactic lines or Lyman-α, Lyman-β pairs with no associated metals. Six galactic lines are identified in the spectrum of PG 2302 + 029; no lines due to intervening absorbers could be identified. The data for PG 1222 + 228 and PG 1634 + 706 can be used to estimate the number density of Lyman-α absorbers in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.7. Above an effective rest equivalent width of 0.4 A there are 25 Lyman-α lines in PG 1222 + 228 in the wavelength range 2300- 3300 A, and 11 Lyman-α lines in PG 1634 + 706 in the wavelength range 1865-2650 A. We have been able to demonstrate that the identification procedure and the method of fitting lines in blended regions is unlikely to contribute systematic errors beyond

  10. The transfer of resonance-line radiation in static astrophysical media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic solution is derived for the mean intensity of resonance-line radiation within an absorbing medium of large scattering optical depth but low density. The line profile, the mean number of scatterings before absorption or escape, the mean path length traveled, and the fraction of the photons which escape the medium are derived. Approximate methods are also developed which permit the treatment of media of intermediate optical depth, where scattering takes place in the Doppler core. Astrophysical applications include the absorption of H Ly-alpha radiation by stellar dust, the pumping of H2 Lyman band lines by H Ly-alpha and the Bowen fluorescence.

  11. Line-of-sight effects on spectroscopic measurements in the inner solar wind region

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, R.; Withbroe, G.L. )

    1989-06-01

    The effect of the integration along the line of sight on the spectral line profiles of the resonantly scattered Lyman alpha radiation emitted by low-density coronal holes at heights above 1.5 R{sub S} from Sun center is investigated. It is shown how the spectral lines from this region are influenced by the Lyman alpha emission from surrounding regions with higher densities. The coronal hole and the surrounding areas are described by a two-fluid solar wind model. It is shown that the line-of-sight effects can be important for the interpretation of the Lyman alpha spectral line measurements in the outer corona and inner solar wind.

  12. RNA-seq Profiles of Immune Related Genes in the Spleen of Necrotic Enteritis-afflicted Chicken Lines

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Anh Duc; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun S.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the necrotic enteritis (NE)-induced transcriptome differences between the spleens of Marek’s disease resistant chicken line 6.3 and susceptible line 7.2 co-infected with Eimeria maxima/Clostridium perfringens using RNA-Seq. Total RNA from the spleens of two chicken lines were used to make libraries, generating 42,736,296 and 42,617,720 usable reads, which were assembled into groups of 29,897 and 29,833 mRNA genes, respectively. The transcriptome changes were investigated using the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) package, which indicated 3,255, 2,468 and 2,234 DEGs of line 6.3, line 7.2, and comparison between two lines, respectively (fold change ≥2, p<0.01). The transcription levels of 14 genes identified were further examined using qRT-PCR. The results of qRT-PCR were consistent with the RNA-seq data. All of the DEGs were analysed using gene ontology terms, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and the DEGs in each term were found to be more highly expressed in line 6.3 than in line 7.2. RNA-seq analysis indicated 139 immune related genes, 44 CD molecular genes and 150 cytokines genes which were differentially expressed among chicken lines 6.3 and 7.2 (fold change ≥2, p<0.01). Novel mRNA analysis indicated 15,518 novel genes, for which the expression was shown to be higher in line 6.3 than in line 7.2 including some immune-related targets. These findings will help to understand host-pathogen interaction in the spleen and elucidate the mechanism of host genetic control of NE, and provide basis for future studies that can lead to the development of marker-based selection of highly disease-resistant chickens. PMID:26323406

  13. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content.

    PubMed

    Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yi, Go-Eun; Laila, Rawnak; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Hye Ran; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA). The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062) and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total glucosinolates detected

  14. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarría, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims: We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with luminosity, mass, and evolutionary stage. Methods: We decompose high-resolution Herschel-HIFI line spectra near 990, 1110 and 1670 GHz into three distinct physical components. Dense cores (protostellar envelopes) are usually seen as narrow absorptions in the H2O 1113 and 1669 GHz ground-state lines, the H2O 987 GHz excited-state line, and the H218O 1102 GHz ground-state line. In a few sources, the envelopes appear in emission in some or all studied lines, indicating higher temperatures or densities. Broader features due to outflows are usually seen in absorption in the H2O 1113 and 1669 GHz lines, in 987 GHz emission, and not seen in H218O, indicating a lower column density and a higher excitation temperature than the envelope component. A few outflows are detected in H218O, indicating higher column densities of shocked gas. In addition, the H2O 1113 and 1669 GHz spectra show narrow absorptions by foreground clouds along the line of sight. The lack of corresponding features in the 987 GHz and H218O lines indicates a low column density and a low excitation temperature for these clouds, although their derived H2O ortho/para ratios are close to 3. Results: The intensity of the ground state lines of H2O at 1113 and 1669 GHz does not show significant trends with source luminosity, envelope mass, or evolutionary state. In contrast, the flux in the excited-state 987 GHz line appears correlated with luminosity and the H218O line flux appears correlated with the envelope mass. Furthermore, appearance of the envelope in absorption in the 987 GHz and H218O lines seems to be a sign of an early evolutionary stage, as probed by the mid-infrared brightness and the Lbol/Menv ratio of

  15. Fast-wave Power Flow Along SOL Field Lines In NSTX nd The Associated Power Deposition Profile Across The SOL In Front Of The Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Roy

    2013-06-21

    Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat d