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Sample records for alpha reduced widths

  1. Simple parametrization of fragment reduced widths in heavy ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Townsend, L W

    1994-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the observed reduced widths obtained in relativistic heavy ion fragmentation reactions is used to develop a phenomenological parametrization of these data. The parametrization is simple, accurate, and completely general in applicability.

  2. The gravity dependence of the H-alpha width in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarro, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical gravity-scaling law for the H-alpha absorption width in late-type stars is developed. The derivation is based upon (1) the hydrostatic thickening of stellar chromospheres with decreasing surface gravity, and (2) a dependence of the H-alpha width upon opacity and Doppler width in a region subject to a chromospheric temperature rise. The scaling relation is approximately consistent with the mean gravity dependence deduced from the empirical correlation between H-alpha and Ca II K Wilson-Bappu widths. The calculations suggest that gravity variations in chromospheric-mass column density may, in addition to Doppler velocity enhancements, control the width-luminosity broadening of the H-alpha profile in late-type stars.

  3. Alpha decay widths of excited states of 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, P. J.; Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Bloxham, T.; Curtis, N.; Bohlen, H. G.; Dorsch, T.; Kokalova, Tz; Wheldon, C.; Catford, W. N.; Patterson, N. P.; Thomas, J. S.

    2010-03-01

    The 12C(13C, 9Be)16O reaction has been used to populate excited states in 16O. The 9Be nuclei were detected in a magnetic spectrometer and the 12C decay product of the recoiling excited 16O nucleus was detected in an array of silicon strip detectors. The large angular coverage of the strip detector array allowed the α-decay widths of the 14.66 MeV, 5-, and 16.275 MeV, 6+, states to be determined with good accuracy. The present results, together with earlier measurements, allow precise values for the branching ratios to be calculated: Ex(16O) = 14.66 MeV, Jπ = 5-, Γα0/Γ = 0.951 ± 0.049 and Γα1/Γ < 0.05; Ex(16O) = 16.275 MeV, Jπ = 6+, Γα0/Γ = 0.982 ± 0.048 and Γα1/Γ < 0.02.

  4. High-resolution measurement of absolute {alpha}-decay widths in {sup 16}O

    SciTech Connect

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th.; Kruecken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2011-06-15

    By using a large-acceptance position-sensitive silicon detector array in coincidence with the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph, unambiguous measurements have been made of the absolute {alpha}-particle decay widths from excited states in {sup 16}O* in the energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV. Carbon targets have been bombarded with 42-MeV {sup 6}Li beams to induce {sub 6}{sup 12}C({sub 3}{sup 6}Li, d){sub 8}{sup 16}O* reactions. The deuteron ejectiles were measured in the Q3D and the results gated by {sup 4}He+{sup 12}C breakup products detected in the silicon array, the efficiency of which was modeled using Monte Carlo simulations. By comparing total population and breakup-gated spectra, the following absolute {alpha}-decay widths have been measured with high resolution: {Gamma}{sub {alpha}}0/{Gamma}{sub tot} = 0.87{+-}0.11 (13.980 MeV), 1.04{+-}0.15 (14.302 MeV), 0.92{+-}0.10 (14.399 MeV), 0.59{+-}0.04 (14.815 MeV), 0.88{+-}0.18 (15.785 MeV), and {Gamma}{sub {alpha}}1/{Gamma}{sub tot}=1.14{+-}0.08 (14.660 MeV), 0.46{+-}0.06 (14.815 MeV).

  5. The presence of two skeletal muscle alpha-actinins correlates with troponin-tropomyosin expression and Z-line width

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Two species of alpha-actinin from rabbit fast skeletal muscles were identified with a monospecific antisera. Designated alpha-actinin1f and alpha-actinin2f, their distribution in muscles does not correlate with histochemically defined fast fiber type. Rather, the presence of each correlates with Z-line width and with the expression of different thin filament Ca2+-regulatory complexes. alpha-Actinin1f is expressed with troponin T 1f-alpha beta tropomyosin, and alpha-actinin2f with troponin T 2f-alpha 2 tropomyosin. CNBr peptide maps show that the fast alpha- actinin species differ in primary structure. In contrast, the slow alpha-actinin is indistinguishable from alpha-actinin1f. Further evidence for the similarity of alpha-actinin1f and slow alpha-actinin comes from electron microscopic studies which show that fibers that express these species exhibit thick Z-lines. So, unlike other contractile proteins, the multiple forms of alpha-actinin do not reflect the distinction between fast- and slow-twitch muscles. PMID:4030889

  6. ON THE (NON-)ENHANCEMENT OF THE Ly{alpha} EQUIVALENT WIDTH BY A MULTIPHASE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Laursen, Peter; Duval, Florent; Oestlin, Goeran

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that radiative transfer effects may explain the unusually high equivalent widths (EWs) of the Ly{alpha} line, observed occasionally from starburst galaxies, especially at high redshifts. If the dust is locked up inside high-density clouds dispersed in an empty intercloud medium, the Ly{alpha} photons could scatter off of the surfaces of the clouds, effectively having their journey confined to the dustless medium. The continuum radiation, on the other hand, does not scatter, and would thus be subject to absorption inside the clouds. This scenario is routinely invoked when Ly{alpha} EWs higher than what is expected theoretically are observed, although the ideal conditions under which the results are derived usually are not considered. Here we systematically examine the relevant physical parameters in this idealized framework, testing whether any astrophysically realistic scenarios may lead to such an effect. It is found that although clumpiness indeed facilitates the escape of Ly{alpha}, it is highly unlikely that any real interstellar media should result in a preferential escape of Ly{alpha} over continuum radiation. Other possible causes are discussed, and it is concluded that the observed high EWs are more likely to be caused by cooling radiation from cold accretion and/or anisotropic escape of the Ly{alpha} radiation.

  7. Ultraviolet observations of cool stars. IV - Intensities of Lyman-alpha and Mg II in epsilon Pegasi and epsilon Eridani, and line width-luminosity correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, W.; Linsky, J. L.; Henry, R. C.; Moos, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    A spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite has been used to confirm the existence of a line width-luminosity relation for the Ly-alpha and Mg II 2800-A chromospheric emission lines in K-type stars by observation of a K2 dwarf (epsilon Eri) and a K2 supergiant (epsilon Peg). Combined with previously reported observations of lines in three K giants (alpha Boo, alpha Tau, and beta Gem), the data are consistent with an identical dependence of line width on absolute visual magnitude for the Ca II K, Ly-alpha, and Mg II 2795-A lines. Surface fluxes of Ly-alpha, Mg II 2800-A, and O V 1218-A (upper limit) for epsilon Eri, and of Mg II 2800-A for epsilon Peg are also compared with values reported previously for the three giant stars.

  8. Greater Step Widths Reduce Internal Knee Abduction Moments in Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis Patients During Stair Ascent.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Max R; Klipple, Gary; Zhang, Songning

    2015-08-01

    Increased step widths have been shown to reduce peak internal knee abduction moments in healthy individuals but not in knee osteoarthritis patients during stair descent. This study aimed to assess effects of increased step widths on peak knee abduction moments and associated variables in adults with medial knee osteoarthritis and healthy older adults during stair ascent. Thirteen healthy older adults and 13 medial knee osteoarthritis patients performed stair ascent using preferred, wide, and wider step widths. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) using an instrumented staircase were collected. Increased step width reduced first and second peak knee abduction moments, and knee abduction moment impulse. In addition, frontal plane GRF at time of first and second peak knee abduction moment and lateral trunk lean at time of first peak knee abduction moment were reduced with increased step width during stair ascent in both groups. Knee abduction moment variables were not different between knee osteoarthritis patients and healthy controls. Our findings suggest that increasing step width may be an effective simple gait alteration to reduce knee abduction moment variables in both knee osteoarthritis and healthy adults during stair ascent. However, long term effects of increasing step width during stair ascent in knee osteoarthritis and healthy adults remain unknown.

  9. Reduced model simulations of the scrape-off-layer heat-flux width and comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J. R.; Russell, D. A.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R. J.; Lundberg, D. P.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.; Boedo, J.; Umansky, M.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced model simulations of turbulence in the edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) region of a spherical torus or tokamak plasma are employed to address the physics of the scrape-off-layer heat flux width. The simulation model is an electrostatic two-dimensional fluid turbulence model, applied in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field at the outboard midplane of the torus. The model contains curvature-driven-interchange modes, sheath losses, and both perpendicular turbulent diffusive and convective (blob) transport. These transport processes compete with classical parallel transport to set the SOL width. Midplane SOL profiles of density, temperature and parallel heat flux are obtained from the simulation and compared with experimental results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to study the scaling of the heat flux width with power and plasma current. It is concluded that midplane turbulence is the main contributor to the SOL heat flux width for the low power H-mode discharges studied, while additional physics is required to explain the plasma current scaling of the SOL heat flux width observed experimentally in higher power discharges. Intermittent separatrix spanning convective cells are found to be the main mechanism that sets the near-SOL width in the simulations. The roles of sheared flows and blob trapping vs. emission are discussed.

  10. Reduced model simulations of the scrape-off-layer heat-flux width and comparison with experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Myra, J. R.; Russell, D. A.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R. J.; Lundberg, D. P.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.; Boedo, J.; et al

    2011-01-01

    Reduced model simulations of turbulence in the edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) region of a spherical torus or tokamak plasma are employed to address the physics of the scrape-off-layer heat flux width. The simulation model is an electrostatic two-dimensional fluid turbulence model, applied in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field at the outboard midplane of the torus. The model contains curvature-driven-interchange modes, sheath losses, and both perpendicular turbulent diffusive and convective (blob) transport. These transport processes compete with classical parallel transport to set the SOL width. Midplane SOL profiles of density, temperature and parallel heat flux are obtained from themore » simulation and compared with experimental results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to study the scaling of the heat flux width with power and plasma current. It is concluded that midplane turbulence is the main contributor to the SOL heat flux width for the low power H-mode discharges studied, while additional physics is required to explain the plasma current scaling of the SOL heat flux width observed experimentally in higher power discharges. Intermittent separatrix spanning convective cells are found to be the main mechanism that sets the near-SOL width in the simulations. The roles of sheared flows and blob trapping vs. emission are discussed.« less

  11. Anomalous fluctuations of s-wave reduced neutron widths of 192,194Pt resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, Paul Edward; Becvar, F.; Krticka, Milan; Harvey, John A; Guber, Klaus H

    2010-01-01

    We obtained an unprecedentedly large number of s-wave neutron widths through R-matrix analysis of neutron cross-section measurements on enriched Pt samples. Careful analysis of these data rejects the validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution with a statistical significance of at least 99.997%.

  12. A pulse width modulated picket fence pulser to reduce accelerator start-up transients

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, William A; Balmes, Anthony A; Bradley, Joseph T; Netz, Dana; Sandoval, Jacob B

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a solid state modulator used to control the input beam to the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center 'LANSCE' 800 MeV accelerator. This electrostatic Ground Level Deflector (GLD) chops the beam after the 750 keV injection energy. Two GLD's are utilized, one for the 'H+' beam and another for the 'H-' beam. These modulators are mounted on the vacuum beam pipe and directly operate sets of deflection plates. To minimize the accelerator beam start up transients, the beam is let into the accelerator cavity structures by a pulse width modulated picket fence operating between 0 and 12 kV. As the deflection plate structure appears as a capacitive load, a totem-pole switching network is utilized to facilitate rise and fall times of {approx}50 ns that is able to sink and source current to minimize beam induced sidewall activation. This paper will describe the system design and provides operational results as now presently utilized on the LANSCE accelerator system.

  13. Does formate reduce alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia to glutamate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, Q.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The reported reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia by formate is much slower than described (Morowitz et al., 1995). The formate reduction if any is small under these conditions. Glutamate is produced from a reduction by a second molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate involving an oxidative decarboxylation.

  14. Neonatal Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Reduces Cleft Palate Width and Lengthens Soft Palate, Influencing Palatoplasty in Patients With Pierre Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Collares, Marcus V M; Duarte, Daniele W; Sobral, Davi S; Portinho, Ciro P; Faller, Gustavo J; Fraga, Mariana M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) on cleft dimensions and on early palatoplasty outcomes in patients with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). In a prospective cohort study that enrolled 24 nonsyndromic patients with PRS, 12 submitted to the MDO group and 12 patients not treated (non-MDO group), the authors compared patients for cleft palate dimensions through 7 morphometric measurements at the moment of palatoplasty and for early palatoplasty outcomes. At palatoplasty, the MDO group presented a significant shorter distance between the posterior nasal spines (PNS-PNS, P < 0.001) and between uvular bases (UB-UB, P < 0.001), representing a reduction in cleft palate width. They also had significant soft palate lengthening represented by a larger distance between UB and retromolar space (UB-RM, P < 0.001) and UB and PNS (UB-PNS, P = 0.014). Their UB moved away from the posterior wall of the nasopharynx (UB-NPH, P < 0.001). The MDO group had a length of operative time significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and no early palatoplasty complications compared with the non-MDO group. In conclusion, MDO acted as an orthopedic procedure that reduced cleft palate width and elongated the soft palate in patients with PRS. These modifications enabled a reduction of around 11% in the length of operative time of palatoplasty (P < 0.001).

  15. Neonatal Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Reduces Cleft Palate Width and Lengthens Soft Palate, Influencing Palatoplasty in Patients With Pierre Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Collares, Marcus V M; Duarte, Daniele W; Sobral, Davi S; Portinho, Ciro P; Faller, Gustavo J; Fraga, Mariana M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) on cleft dimensions and on early palatoplasty outcomes in patients with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). In a prospective cohort study that enrolled 24 nonsyndromic patients with PRS, 12 submitted to the MDO group and 12 patients not treated (non-MDO group), the authors compared patients for cleft palate dimensions through 7 morphometric measurements at the moment of palatoplasty and for early palatoplasty outcomes. At palatoplasty, the MDO group presented a significant shorter distance between the posterior nasal spines (PNS-PNS, P < 0.001) and between uvular bases (UB-UB, P < 0.001), representing a reduction in cleft palate width. They also had significant soft palate lengthening represented by a larger distance between UB and retromolar space (UB-RM, P < 0.001) and UB and PNS (UB-PNS, P = 0.014). Their UB moved away from the posterior wall of the nasopharynx (UB-NPH, P < 0.001). The MDO group had a length of operative time significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and no early palatoplasty complications compared with the non-MDO group. In conclusion, MDO acted as an orthopedic procedure that reduced cleft palate width and elongated the soft palate in patients with PRS. These modifications enabled a reduction of around 11% in the length of operative time of palatoplasty (P < 0.001). PMID:27315309

  16. alpha-Chaconine inhibits angiogenesis in vitro by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Kun; Chen, Pei-Hsieng; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Huang, En-Tze; Liu, Cheng-Ruei; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Chaconine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts, was found to possess anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation, migration, invasion, and inducing apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the effect of alpha-chaconine on tumor angiogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of alpha-chaconine on angiogenesis in vitro. Data demonstrated that alpha-chaconine inhibited proliferation of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of alpha-chaconine, cell migration, invasion and tube formation were markedly suppressed. Furthermore, alpha-chaconine reduced the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which is involved in angiogenesis. Our biochemical assays indicated that alpha-chaconine potently suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt, while it did not affect phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and p38. In addition, alpha-chaconine significantly increased the cytoplasmic level of inhibitors of kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) and decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), suggesting that alpha-chaconine could inhibit NF-kappaB activity. Furthermore, the treatment of inhibitors specific for JNK (SP600125), PI3K (LY294002) or NF-kappaB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) to BAECs reduced tube formation. Taken together, the results suggested that alpha-chaconine inhibited migration, invasion and tube formation of BAECs by reducing MMP-2 activities, as well as JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. These findings reveal a new therapeutic potential for alpha-chaconine on anti-angiogenic therapy.

  17. Experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation inside double pipe heat exchanger equipped with reduced width twisted tapes inserts using polymeric nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbehian, Mohammad; Maddah, Heydar; Mohammadiun, Hamid; Alizadeh, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we report a further enhancement in heat transfer coefficients of base fluid in combination with structural modifications of tape inserts. Polyvinyl Alcohol and TiO2 with mean diameter of 15 nm were chosen as base fluid and nano-particles, respectively. The experiments are carried out in plain tube with four longitudinal internal fins and reduced width twisted tape (RWTT) inserts of twist ratio varying form 2-5 and width of 12-16. Experiments are undertaken to determine heat transfer coefficients and friction factor of TiO2/PVA nanofluid up to 2.0 % volume concentration at an average temperature of 30 °C. The investigations are undertaken in the Reynolds number range of 800-30,000 for flow in tubes and with tapes of different width length ratios. The experiments was verified with well-known correlations. The average Nusselt number and friction factor in the tube fitted with the full-length twisted tapes at y/w = 3.0, and 5.0, are respectively 50-130, and 30-95 % higher than those in the plain tube; 90-220 and 100-270 % when the working fluid is nanofluid, respectively. For the reduced width twisted tapes, the heat transfer rate is decreased with decreasing tapes width. The average Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with the RWTT of 16, 14 and 12 are respectively, 210-390, 190-320 and 170-290 % of that in the plain tube. With the similar trend mentioned above, RWTT with higher width length yield higher thermal enhancement factor in comparison with smaller width. The use of RWTT led to the highest thermal performance factor up to 1.75. Maximum thermal performance factor which was obtained belonged to twists with twist ratio of 2 and width of 16 with φ = 0.5 % and Reynolds number range of 800-30,000.

  18. Experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation inside double pipe heat exchanger equipped with reduced width twisted tapes inserts using polymeric nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbehian, Mohammad; Maddah, Heydar; Mohammadiun, Hamid; Alizadeh, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a further enhancement in heat transfer coefficients of base fluid in combination with structural modifications of tape inserts. Polyvinyl Alcohol and TiO2 with mean diameter of 15 nm were chosen as base fluid and nano-particles, respectively. The experiments are carried out in plain tube with four longitudinal internal fins and reduced width twisted tape (RWTT) inserts of twist ratio varying form 2-5 and width of 12-16. Experiments are undertaken to determine heat transfer coefficients and friction factor of TiO2/PVA nanofluid up to 2.0 % volume concentration at an average temperature of 30 °C. The investigations are undertaken in the Reynolds number range of 800-30,000 for flow in tubes and with tapes of different width length ratios. The experiments was verified with well-known correlations. The average Nusselt number and friction factor in the tube fitted with the full-length twisted tapes at y/w = 3.0, and 5.0, are respectively 50-130, and 30-95 % higher than those in the plain tube; 90-220 and 100-270 % when the working fluid is nanofluid, respectively. For the reduced width twisted tapes, the heat transfer rate is decreased with decreasing tapes width. The average Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with the RWTT of 16, 14 and 12 are respectively, 210-390, 190-320 and 170-290 % of that in the plain tube. With the similar trend mentioned above, RWTT with higher width length yield higher thermal enhancement factor in comparison with smaller width. The use of RWTT led to the highest thermal performance factor up to 1.75. Maximum thermal performance factor which was obtained belonged to twists with twist ratio of 2 and width of 16 with φ = 0.5 % and Reynolds number range of 800-30,000.

  19. 5Alpha-Reduced Steroids Are Major Metabolites in the Early Equine Embryo Proper and Its Membranes.

    PubMed

    Raeside, James I; Christie, Heather L; Betteridge, Keith J

    2015-09-01

    Steroid production and metabolism by early conceptuses are very important for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in horses. Our earlier work suggested the possible formation of 5alpha-reduced steroids in equine conceptuses. We have now demonstrated the formation of 5alpha-reduced metabolites of androstenedione, testosterone, and progesterone by the embryo and its membranes. A total of 44 conceptuses were collected from 26 mares between 20 and 31 days of pregnancy. Tissues from the embryo proper and from the separated components of the conceptus (bilaminar and trilaminar trophoblast, allantois) were incubated with tritium-labeled substrates. 5Alpha-reduced metabolites (5alpha-dihydro- and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydro- steroids) as radiolabeled products were identified from a series of chromatographic steps using four solvent systems for high-performance liquid chromatography. Use of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor confirmed the metabolites were indeed 5alpha-reduced steroids. For the embryo, the only products from androstenedione were 5alpha-dihydroandrostenedione and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroandrostenedione, with no evidence of more polar metabolites; there was some 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydrotestosterone but no 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone from testosterone, and formation of androstenedione was followed by the production of 5alpha-dihydroandrostenedione and 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroandrostenedione. The major 5alpha-reduced product from progesterone was 3beta,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone, with lesser amounts of 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone. For the membranes, reductions to tetrahydro, 5alpha-reduced steroids were prominent in most instances, but also present were considerable amounts of products more polar than the substrates. The well-recognized activity of some 5alpha-reduced steroids--for example, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in male sexual differentiation--provokes interest in their even earlier appearance, as seen in this study, and suggests a possible role for them in

  20. Alpha and gamma band oscillations index differential processing of acoustically reduced and full forms.

    PubMed

    Drijvers, Linda; Mulder, Kimberley; Ernestus, Mirjam

    2016-02-01

    Reduced forms like yeshay for yesterday often occur in conversations. Previous behavioral research reported a processing advantage for full over reduced forms. The present study investigated whether this processing advantage is reflected in a modulation of alpha (8-12Hz) and gamma (30+Hz) band activity. In three electrophysiological experiments, participants listened to full and reduced forms in isolation (Experiment 1), sentence-final position (Experiment 2), or mid-sentence position (Experiment 3). Alpha power was larger in response to reduced forms than to full forms, but only in Experiments 1 and 2. We interpret these increases in alpha power as reflections of higher auditory cognitive load. In all experiments, gamma power only increased in response to full forms, which we interpret as showing that lexical activation spreads more quickly through the semantic network for full than for reduced forms. These results confirm a processing advantage for full forms, especially in non-medial sentence position. PMID:26878718

  1. Alpha interferon-induced antiviral response noncytolytically reduces replication defective adenovirus DNA in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Tianlun; Guo, Haitao; Block, Timothy M

    2007-12-01

    Although alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) is of benefit in the treatment of viral hepatitis B, HBV replication has been refractory to the cytokine in commonly used hepatocyte-derived cell lines. In search for a cell culture system to study the mechanism by which IFN-alpha inhibits HBV replication, we infected a variety of cell lines with an adenoviral vector containing a replication competent 1.3-fold genome length HBV DNA (AdHBV) and followed by incubation with IFN-alpha. We found that IFN-alpha efficiently decreased the level of HBV DNA replicative intermediates in AdHBV infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Further analysis revealed, surprisingly, that IFN-alpha did not directly inhibit HBV replication, rather the amount of adenovirus DNA in the nuclei of MDBK cells was reduced. As a consequence, HBV RNA transcription and DNA replication were inhibited. Experiments with adenoviral vector expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) further supported the notion that IFN-alpha treatment noncytolytically eliminated adenovirus DNA, but did not kill the vector infected MDBK cells. Our data suggest that IFN-alpha-induced antiviral program is able to discriminate host cellular DNA from episomal viral DNA and might represent a novel pathway of interferon mediate innate defense against DNA virus infections.

  2. Reduced serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klein, G L; Horst, R L; Norman, A W; Ament, M E; Slatopolsky, E; Coburn, J W

    1981-05-01

    Painful bone disease, characterized by patchy osteomalacia and inactive bone, can develop in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition for more than 3 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in seven adults and five children treated with parenteral nutrition for 9 to 60 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D were markedly reduced, while levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were normal. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal or slightly increased, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels were normal or low. Renal function was normal or minimally reduced. Skeletal symptoms disappeared and serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D levels rose to normal in one patient when nutrient infusions were discontinued for 6 weeks. Removal of calcium from the nutrient solution for 2 to 4 days was associated with no change in serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D in two patients. The cause of the reduction in serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D and its role in the pathogenesis of bone disease in these patients remain uncertain. PMID:6786151

  3. alpha-Melanocortin and endothelin-1 activate antiapoptotic pathways and reduce DNA damage in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Kavanagh, Renny; Kanto, Hiromi; Terzieva, Silva; Hauser, Jennifer; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Schwemberger, Sandy; Cornelius, James; Babcock, George; Shertzer, Howard G; Scott, Glynis; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A

    2005-05-15

    UV radiation is an important etiologic factor for skin cancer, including melanoma. Constitutive pigmentation and the ability to tan are considered the main photoprotective mechanism against sun-induced carcinogenesis. Pigmentation in the skin is conferred by epidermal melanocytes that synthesize and transfer melanin to keratinocytes. Therefore, insuring the survival and genomic stability of epidermal melanocytes is critical for inhibiting photocarcinogenesis, particularly melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. The paracrine factors alpha-melanocortin and endothelin-1 are critical for the melanogenic response of cultured human melanocytes to UV radiation. We report that alpha-melanocortin and endothelin-1 rescued human melanocytes from UV radiation-induced apoptosis and reduced DNA photoproducts and oxidative stress. The survival effects of alpha-melanocortin and endothelin-1 were mediated by activation of the melanocortin 1 and endothelin receptors, respectively. Treatment of melanocytes with alpha-melanocortin and/or endothelin-1 before exposure to UV radiation activated the inositol triphosphate kinase-Akt pathway and increased the phosphorylation and expression of the microphthalmia-related transcription factor. Treatment with alpha-melanocortin and/or endothelin-1 enhanced the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and reduced the levels of hydrogen peroxide induced by UV radiation. These effects are expected to reduce genomic instability and mutagenesis.

  4. Manual cervical traction reduces alpha-motoneuron excitability in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Bradnam, L; Rochester, L; Vujnovich, A

    2000-01-01

    The excitability of the Flexor Carpi Radialis alpha-motoneuron pool following manual cervical traction was assessed in twenty asymptomatic subjects, and compared to a hands only intervention. The excitability of the alpha-motoneuron pool was measured indirectly using the Hoffmann (H) reflex. H-reflex recruitment curves were taken to assess the number of alpha-motoneurons (alpha-motoneurons) firing in response to a given incremental increase in stimulation intensity. The rate of rise of the slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve (Hslp) was assessed using linear regression. Following manual cervical traction Hslp was significantly lower than pre-intervention trials. Manual cervical traction, therefore, reduced the excitability of the Flexor Carpi Radialis alpha-motoneuron pool. This effect was mediated by the central nervous system. There was no significant decrease in alpha-motoneuron excitability following the hands only intervention. Hslp was shown to be a more sensitive measure of changes in the H-reflex than the more traditional parameter of Hmax/Mmax ratio and should be used in future studies of this nature.

  5. A Ly{alpha} EMITTER WITH AN EXTREMELY LARGE REST-FRAME EQUIVALENT WIDTH OF {approx}900 A AT z = 6.5: A CANDIDATE POPULATION III-DOMINATED GALAXY?

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Hayashi, Masao; Iye, Masanori; Nagao, Tohru; Ota, Kazuaki; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Egami, Eiichi; Jiang, Linhua; Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Shioya, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-20

    We have identified a very interesting Ly{alpha} emitter (LAE), whose Ly{alpha} emission line has an extremely large observed equivalent width of EW{sub 0} = 436{sup +422}{sub -{sub 149}} A, which corresponds to an extraordinarily large intrinsic rest-frame equivalent width of EW{sup int}{sub 0} = 872{sup +844}{sub -{sub 298}} A after the average intergalactic absorption correction. The object was spectroscopically confirmed to be a real LAE by its apparent asymmetric Ly{alpha} line profile detected at z = 6.538. The continuum emission of the object was definitely detected in our deep z'-band image; thus, its EW{sub 0} was reliably determined. Follow-up deep near-infrared spectroscopy revealed emission lines of neither He II {lambda}1640 as an apparent signature of Population III (Pop III) nor C IV {lambda}1549 as proof of an active nucleus. No detection of the short-lived He II {lambda}1640 line is not necessarily inconsistent with the interpretation that the underlying stellar population of the object is dominated by Pop III. We found that the observed extremely large EW{sub 0} of the Ly{alpha} emission and the upper limit on the EW{sub 0} of the He II {lambda}1640 emission can be explained by population synthesis models favoring a very young age less than 2-4 Myr and massive metal-poor (Z < 10{sup -5}) or even metal-free stars. The observed large EW{sub 0} of Ly{alpha} is insufficiently explained by Population I/II synthesis models with Z {>=} 10{sup -3}. However, we cannot conclusively rule out the possibility that this object is composed of a normal stellar population with a clumpy dust distribution, which could enhance the Ly{alpha} EW{sub 0}, though its significance is still unclear.

  6. Mechanisms of reduced luteal sensitivity to prostaglandin F2alpha during maternal recognition of pregnancy in ewes.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Inskeep, E Keith; Blemings, Kenneth P; Flores, Jorge A; Wilson, Matthew E

    2007-02-01

    During maternal recognition of pregnancy, the conceptus stimulates endometrial secretion of PGF2alpha and PGE2. However, PGF2alpha is less effective in causing luteal regression in pregnant than in non-pregnant ewes. Experiments were conducted to elucidate mechanisms for reduced luteal sensitivity to PGF2alpha during maternal recognition of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected from pregnant and non-pregnant ewes 0, 4, or 12h following treatment with PGF2alpha on day 12 after estrus. Luteal PTGHS2 mRNA did not differ due to PGF2alpha or pregnancy status. Luteal PTGES mRNA was reduced in both pregnant and non-pregnant ewes after PGF2alpha treatment; while, luteal PTGFS mRNA was reduced 4h after PGF2alpha in pregnant, but not non-pregnant ewes. The result was a greater ratio of PTGES to PTGFS mRNA in pregnant ewes. Luteal mRNA for HPGD did not differ between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes on day 12. Luteal END1 mRNA was reduced in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant ewes prior to PGF2alpha challenge. Luteal END1 mRNA was increased after PGF2alpha in pregnant and non-pregnant ewes; however, ECE1 mRNA was reduced 4h after PGF2alpha in pregnant, but not non-pregnant ewes. The in vitro conversion of PGF2alpha to PGFM was greater in CL of pregnant than non-pregnant ewes at day 14. Luteal conversion of PGF2alpha to PGFM appears to be regulated post-transcriptionally. During maternal recognition of pregnancy, mechanisms of reduced luteal sensitivity to PGF2alpha may include a shift in prostaglandin production to the luteotropin PGE2, a reduction of ECE1 mRNA, and increased catabolism of PGF2alpha. PMID:16524686

  7. 5alpha-Reduced androgens block estradiol-BSA-stimulated release of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jack D; Song, Yan; Englöf, Ila; Höfle, Simone; Key, Mary; Morris, Mariana

    2003-06-27

    In this study we test the postulate that estradiol conjugated to bovine serum albumin (E-BSA) acts via receptors for the steroid-binding protein sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by attempting to block E-BSA-stimulated release of oxytocin with two antagonists of SHBG receptor actions: the 5alpha-reduced androgens dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 3alpha-diol. Simultaneous superfusion with either DHT or 3alpha-diol significantly blocked E-BSA-stimulated release of oxytocin. We also found that a wide range of free 17beta-estradiol was unable to stimulate oxytocin release, suggesting that E-BSA stimulates receptors other than those for free estradiol to release oxytocin, perhaps SHBG receptors.

  8. Alpha-defensins 1-3 release by dendritic cells is reduced by estrogen

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During pregnancy the immune system of the mother must protect any activation that may negatively affect the fetus. Changes in susceptibility to infection as well as resolution of some autoimmune disorders represent empirical evidence for pregnancy related alterations in immunity. Sex hormones reach extremely high levels during pregnancy and have been shown to have direct effects on many immune functions including the antiviral response of dendritic cells. Among the immunologically active proteins secreted by monocyte derived DCs (MDDC) are the alpha-defensins 1-3. This family of cationic antimicrobial peptides has a broad spectrum of microbicidal activity and has also been shown to link innate to adaptive immunity by attracting T cells and immature DCs, which are essential for initiating and polarizing the immune response. Methods We compare culture-generated monocyte derived DCs (MDDCs) with directly isolated myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and measure their alpha-defensins 1-3 secretion by ELISA both, in basal situations and after hormone (E2 or PG) treatments. Moreover, using a cohort of pregnant women we isolated mDCs from blood and also measure the levels of these anti-microbial peptides along pregnancy. Results We show that mDCs and pDCs constitutively produce alpha-defensins 1-3 and at much higher levels than MDDCs. Alpha-defensins 1-3 production from mDCs and MDDCs but not pDCs is inhibited by E2. PG does not affect alpha-defensins 1-3 in any of the populations. Moreover, alpha-defensins 1-3 production by mDCs was reduced in the later stages of pregnancy in 40% of the patients. Conclusions Here, we demonstrate that mDCs and pDCs secrete alpha-defensins 1-3 and present a novel effect of E2 on the secretion of alpha-defensins 1-3 by dendritic cells. PMID:21861873

  9. The REDUCE trial: chemoprevention in prostate cancer using a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride.

    PubMed

    Musquera, Mireia; Fleshner, Neil E; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R

    2008-07-01

    Dutasteride, a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, is used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It reduces serum prostate-specific antigen levels by approximately 50% at 6 months and total prostate volume by 25% after 2 years. Randomized placebo-controlled trials in BPH patients have shown the efficacy of dutasteride in symptomatic relief, improvements in quality of life and peak urinary flow rate. Side effects occurring with dutasteride are decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorders and gynecomastia. Preliminary data from placebo-controlled BPH trials have shown a decrease in the detection of prostate cancer in patients treated with dutasteride, although these studies were not designed to look at this issue. Dutasteride differs from finasteride in that it inhibits both isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase, type I and type II. The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial at the end of the 7-year study demonstrated a 24.8% reduction in the incidence of prostate cancer in the finasteride group compared with placebo. However, a 25.5% increase in the prevalence of high-grade Gleason tumors has been observed, the clinical significance of which has been debated. Preliminary data suggest a decrease in prostate cancer incidence in dutasteride-treated patients and demonstrate type I alphareductase enzyme expression in prostate cancer. As a result, dutasteride is being investigated for prostate cancer prevention in the ongoing Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, which is discussed here. PMID:18588452

  10. Phase width reduction project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.; Xie, Z.Q.; McMahan, M. A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the phase width reduction project, 1993--96, was to reduce the phase width of the 88-Inch Cyclotron beam on target from 5--10 ns to 1--2 ns for certain experiments, such as Gammasphere, which use time-of-flight identification. Since reducing the phase width also reduces beam intensity, tuning should be done to also optimize the transmission. The Multi-turn Collimator slits in the cyclotron center region were used to collimate the early turns radially, thus reducing the phase width from about 5 ns to 1--2 ns FWHM for a Gammasphere beam. The effect of the slits on phase width was verified with a Fast Faraday Cup and with particle and gamma-ray detectors in the external beamline.

  11. Transgenic Over Expression of Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 5, Alpha 3, and Beta 4 Subunit Genes Reduces Ethanol Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C.; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol’s as well as nicotine’s effects. PMID:22459873

  12. Transgenic over expression of nicotinic receptor alpha 5, alpha 3, and beta 4 subunit genes reduces ethanol intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-05-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol's as well as nicotine's effects.

  13. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM (3H)testosterone (({sup 3}H)T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. ({sup 3}H)5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (({sup 3}H)DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, ({sup 3}H)DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT.

  14. Radiation brain injury is reduced by the polyamine inhibitor [alpha]-difluoromethylornithine

    SciTech Connect

    Fike, J.R.; Seilhan, T.M.; Gobbel, G.T. ); Marton, L.J. )

    1994-04-01

    [alpha]-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) was used to reduce [sup 125]I-induced brain injury in normal beagle dogs. Different DFMO doses and administration schedules were used to determine if the reduction in brain injury was dependent on dose and/or dependent upon when the drug was administered relative to the radiation treatment. Doses of DMFO of 75 mg/kg/day and 37.5 mg/kg/day given 2 days before, during and for 14 days after irradiation reduced levels of putrescine (PU) in the cerebrospinal fluid relative to controls. Volume of edema was significantly reduced by 75 mg/kg/day of DFMO before, during and after irradiation and by the same dose when the drug was started immediately after irradiation. A reduction in edema volume after 37.5 mg/kg/day of DFMO before, during and after irradiation was very near significance. Ultrafast CT studies performed on dogs that received a DFMO dose of 75 mg/kg/day before, during and after irradiation suggested that the reduce edema volume was associated with reduced vascular permeability. Volume of necrosis and volume of contrast enhancement (breakdown of the blood-brain barrier) were significantly lower than controls only after a DFMO dose of 75 mg/kg/day before, during and after irradiation. These latter data, coupled with the findings relative to edema, suggest that different mechanisms may be involved with respect to the effects of DFMO on brain injury, or that the extents of edema, necrosis and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier may depend upon different levels of polyamine depletion. The precise mechanisms by which DFMO exerts the effects observed here need to be determined. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Reduced alpha-gamma phase amplitude coupling over right parietal cortex is associated with implicit visuomotor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Tzvi, Elinor; Verleger, Rolf; Münte, Thomas F; Krämer, Ulrike M

    2016-11-01

    Implicit visuomotor sequence learning is important for our daily life, e.g., when writing or playing an instrument. Previous research identified a network of cortical regions that is relevant for motor sequence learning, namely primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, superior parietal cortex, and subcortical regions, including basal ganglia and cerebellum. Here, we investigated learning-related changes in oscillatory activity (theta, alpha and gamma power) and cross-frequency interactions (theta- and alpha-gamma phase-amplitude coupling) within cortical regions during sensorimotor memory formation. EEG was recorded from a large group of participants (n=73) performing the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Posterior parietal alpha power was larger early-on during sequence learning and smaller in later sessions. Alpha/low-gamma (8-13Hz and 30-48Hz) phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) was significantly smaller during sequence learning over right superior parietal cortex and frontal cortex. During the transition from sequential stimuli to random stimuli, participants made more errors, indicating that they still implicitly attempted to implement the learned motor sequence. At the same time, alpha/low-gamma phase-amplitude coupling was found to be smaller during the transition relative to later random trials. Our results show that learning and implementing a learned motor sequence reduces alpha/low-gamma PAC over parietal and frontal cortex. Fronto-parietal alpha/low-gamma PAC might be relevant for visuomotor mapping which becomes less relevant once the motor sequence has been encoded. PMID:27403869

  16. 17alpha-ethinylestradiol reduces the competitive reproductive fitness of the male guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Thomas; Baatrup, Erik; Bayley, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Whether endocrine disruption in an individual male is actually translated into reduced reproductive success in a natural competitive environment is extremely difficult to predict. Here, we have used paternity analysis to provide new information on the ability of an endocrine disruptor to deleteriously affect male guppy reproductive fitness by including the effect of intermale competition. Groups of male guppies were exposed to 10.5, 44.4, or 112 ng/L of the synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) from birth to adulthood. Subsequently, an exposed male competed against an unexposed male for the opportunity to fertilize a receptive female. The successful males siring the majority of the offspring in each brood were then identified using microsatellites in genetic paternity analysis. Only the highest dose of EE2 produced harmful effects with a significantly female-biased sex ratio, significant reductions in male sperm count, testis weight, body coloration and courtship behavior, and a significant increase in body size. These feminizing effects were translated into a highly significant reduction in fertility, where only 1 of the 17 exposed males sired offspring in competition with unexposed males. The evidence suggests that EE2-treated males have reduced reproductive fitness compared with untreated males, possibly the result of EE2 effects on multiple fitness traits. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing evidence of endocrine disruption at the population level that has included the ecologically highly relevant effect of sexual competition on male reproductive fitness.

  17. beta-Naphthoflavone protects from peritonitis by reducing TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Yao; Liou, Je-Wen; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Peng, Shih-Yi; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chu, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Zheng-Kai; Jiang, Shinn-Jong

    2015-12-01

    β-Naphthoflavone (β-NF), a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, has been shown to possess anti-oxidative properties. We investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of β-NF in human microvascular endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Pretreatment with β-NF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species, translocation of p67(phox), and TNF-α-induced monocyte binding and transmigration. In addition, β-NF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. The mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were reduced by β-NF, as was the infiltration of white blood cells, in a peritonitis model. The inhibition of adhesion molecules was associated with suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and Akt, and suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38. The translocation of Egr-1, a downstream transcription factor involved in the MEK-ERK signaling pathway, was suppressed by β-NF treatment. Our findings show that β-NF inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-kB and ERK1/2 activation and ROS generation, thereby suppressing the expression of adhesion molecules. This results in reduced adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes in vitro and prevents the infiltration of leukocytes in a peritonitis model. Our findings also suggest that β-NF might prevent TNF-α-induced inflammation.

  18. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone reduces endotoxin-induced liver inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chiao, H; Foster, S; Thomas, R; Lipton, J; Star, R A

    1996-05-01

    Alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent in many models of inflammation, suggesting that it inhibits a critical step common to different forms of inflammation. We showed previously that alpha-MSH inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production in cultured macro-phages. To determine how alpha-MSH acts in vivo, we induced acute hepatic inflammation by administering endotoxin (LPS) to mice pretreated with Corynebacterium parvum, alpha-MSH prevented liver inflammation even when given 30 min after LPS administration. To determine the mechanisms of action of alpha-MSH, we tested its influence on NO, infiltrating inflammatory cells, cytokines, and chemokines. Alpha-MSH inhibited systemic NO production, hepatic neutrophil infiltration, and increased hepatic mRNA abundance for TNF alpha, and the neutrophil and monocyte chemokines (KC/IL-8 and MCP-1). We conclude that alpha-MSH prevents LPS-induced hepatic inflammation by inhibiting production of chemoattractant chemokines which then modulate infiltration of inflammatory cells. Thus, alpha-MSH has an effect very early in the inflammatory cascade. PMID:8621792

  19. Accumulation of 5 alpha-reduced androgen glucosiduronates associated with impaired removal in young male hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Boudou, P; Naret, C; Fiet, J; Bonete, R; Tritto, G; Le Duc, A; Poignet, J L; Man, N K

    1995-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal function is commonly altered in dialysis patients. Even though an improvement in general status and well-being has been noted after recombinant human erythropoietin supplementation, no significant changes were observed in the sex hormone profile. Pituitary gonadal axis as well as 5 alpha-reduced androgen glucosiduronates (i.e. 5 alpha-androstane,3 alpha,17 beta-diol and androsterone) profiles were studied in 23 young male stable dialyzed patients and compared to an age-matched group of healthy subjects. 5 alpha-Reduced androgen glucosiduronates are products of peripheral testosterone (T) metabolism and seem to be a useful tool in assessment of the male androgen status. Their polarity facilitates their urinary excretion, and their clearance is similar to the glomerular filtration rate in healthy men. We observed 1) a pituitary-Leydig cell dysfunction supported by normal serum estradiol and T levels, low free T, and increased LH levels; 2) an alteration of the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate-DHEA interconversion, reflected by a dramatic decrease in DHEA while DHEA sulfate levels remained in the normal range; 3) an accumulation of 5 alpha-reduced androgen glucosiduronates, whose removal was impaired as shown by their very low sieving coefficients (< 0.012). Taken together, the above observations are consistent with alteration of spermatogenesis with respect to dialysis duration in which earlier elevated baseline serum LH levels indicate a primary defect in Leydig cell function.

  20. Hypoxia reduces constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human proximal renal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuan; Kimura, Hideki . E-mail: hkimura@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Hirota, Kiichi; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Yoshida, Haruyoshi

    2005-10-07

    Chronic hypoxia has been reported to be associated with macrophage infiltration in progressive forms of kidney disease. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of hypoxia on constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal renal tubular cells (HPTECs). Hypoxia reduced constitutive MCP-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent fashion for up to 48 h. Hypoxia also inhibited MCP-1 up-regulation by TNF-{alpha}. Treatment with actinomycin D showed that hypoxic down-regulation of MCP-1 expression resulted mainly from a decrease in the transcription but not the mRNA stability. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that treatment with hypoxia or an iron chelator, desferrioxamine, induced nuclear accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in HPTECs. Desferrioxamine mimicked hypoxia in the reduction of MCP-1 expression. However, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HIF-1{alpha} did not abolish the hypoxia-induced reduction of MCP-1 expression in HPTECs. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important negative regulator of monocyte chemotaxis to the renal inflamed interstitium, by reducing MCP-1 expression partly via hypoxia-activated signals other than the HIF-1 pathway.

  1. alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

    2009-10-01

    One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention. PMID:19558415

  2. alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

    2009-10-01

    One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention.

  3. Long-lived alphaMUPA transgenic mice show reduced SOD2 expression, enhanced apoptosis and reduced susceptibility to the carcinogen dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Oren; Pardo, Michal; Schwartz, Betty; Miskin, Ruth

    2005-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends the life span of various species through mechanisms that are as yet unclear. Recently, we have reported that mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis was enhanced in alphaMUPA transgenic mice that spontaneously eat less and live longer compared with their wild-type (WT) control mice. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased apoptosis, we compared alphaMUPA and WT mice for parameters associated with SOD2 (MnSOD), a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide radicals into H(2)O(2) and is also known to inhibit apoptosis. The SOD2-related parameters included the levels of SOD2 mRNA, immunoreactivity and enzymatic activity in the liver, lipid oxidation and aconitase activity in isolated liver mitochondria, and the sensitivity of the mice to paraquat, an agent that elicits oxidative stress. In addition, we compared the mice for the levels of SOD2 mRNA after treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and for the DNA binding activity of NFkappaB as a marker for the inflammatory state. We extended SOD2 determination to the colon, where we also examined the formation of pre-neoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) following treatment with dimethylhydrazine (DMH), a colonic organotypic carcinogen. Overall, alphaMUPA mice showed reduced basal levels of SOD2 gene expression and activity concomitantly with reduced lipid oxidation, increased aconitase activity and enhanced paraquat sensitivity, while maintaining the capacity to produce high levels of SOD2 in response to the inflammatory stimulus. alphaMUPA mice also showed increased resistance to DMH-induced pre-neoplasia. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model, in which an optimal fine-tuning of SOD2 throughout a long-term regimen of reduced eating could contribute to longevity, at least in the alphaMUPA mice. PMID:16139868

  4. The natural xanthone alpha-mangostin reduces oxidative damage in rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Lugo-Huitrón, Rafael; Valdivia-Cerda, Verónica; Miranda-Ramírez, Luis Rubén; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; González-Cuahutencos, Octavio; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Mata, Rachel; Santamaría, Abel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2009-02-01

    The antiperoxidative properties of alpha-mangostin, a xanthone isolated from mangosteen fruit, were tested for the first time in nerve tissue exposed to different toxic insults. Two reliable biological preparations (rat brain homogenates and synaptosomal P2 fractions) were exposed to the toxic actions of a free radical generator (ferrous sulfate), an excitotoxic agent (quinolinate), and a mitochondrial toxin (3-nitropropionate). alpha-Mangostin decreased the lipoperoxidative action of FeSO(4) in both preparations in a concentration-dependent manner, and completely abolished the peroxidative effects of quinolinate, 3-nitropropionate and FeSO(4) + quinolinate at all concentrations tested. Interestingly, when tested alone in brain homogenates, alpha-mangostin significantly decreased the lipoperoxidation even below basal levels. alpha-Mangostin also prevented the decreased reductant capacity of mitochondria in synaptosomal fractions. Our results suggest that alpha-mangostin exerts a robust antiperoxidative effect in brain tissue preparations probably through its properties as a free radical scavenger. In light of these findings, this antioxidant should be tested in other neurotoxic models involving oxidative stress.

  5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin reduces ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-1antitrypsin (AAT) is a multifunctional protein with proteinase inhibitor and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies showed that AAT has therapeutic effect for diseases associated with inflammation, such as type 1 diabetes and arthritis. Proinflammatory cytokines are primary mediators of...

  6. alpha1-Adrenoceptors stimulate a Galphas protein and reduce the transient outward K+ current via a cAMP/PKA-mediated pathway in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Mónica; Setién, Raúl; Puebla, Lilian; Boyano-Adánez, María Del Carmen; Arilla, Eduardo; Casis, Oscar

    2005-03-01

    alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor stimulation prolongs the duration of the cardiac action potentials and leads to positive inotropic effects by inhibiting the transient outward K(+) current (I(to)). In the present study, we have examined the role of several protein kinases and the G protein involved in I(to) inhibition in response to alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes. Our findings exclude the classic alpha(1)-adrenergic pathway: activation of the G protein G(alphaq), phospholipase C (PLC), and protein kinase C (PKC), because neither PLC, nor PKC, nor G(alphaq) blockade prevents the alpha(1)-induced I(to) reduction. To the contrary, the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor does not inhibit I(to) in the presence of protein kinase A (PKA), adenylyl cyclase, or G(alphas) inhibitors. In addition, PKA and adenylyl cyclase activation inhibit I(to) to the same extent as phenylephrine. Finally, we have shown a functional coupling between the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor and G(alphas) in a physiological system. Moreover, this coupling seems to be compartmentalized, because the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor increases cAMP levels only in intact cells, but not in isolated membranes, and the effect on I(to) disappears when the cytoskeleton is disrupted. We conclude that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation reduces the amplitude of the I(to) by activating a G(alphas) protein and the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade, which in turn leads to I(to) channel phosphorylation.

  7. Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor-alpha-deficient mice have reduced food intake, increased body weight, and improved glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne; Han, Guang; Cai, Yan; Dai, Tiane; Konishi, Tamiko; Leng, Ai-She

    2003-02-01

    Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha-deficient mice and wild-type mice were fed either a regular or a high-saturated-fat diet for 12 wk to study the functional role of hepatocyte RXRalpha in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Food intake was significantly reduced in hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice when either diet was used. The amount of food intake was negatively associated with serum leptin level. Although mutant mice ate less, body weight and fat content were significantly higher in mutant than wild-type mice. Examination of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha target genes indicated that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-mediated pathway was compromised in the mutant mice, which, in turn, might affect fatty-acid metabolism and result in increased body weight and fat content. Although mutant mice were obese, they demonstrated the same degree of insulin sensitivity and the same level of serum insulin as the wild-type mice. However, these mutant mice have improved glucose tolerance. To explore a mechanism that may be responsible for the improved glucose tolerance, serum IGF-I level was examined. Serum IGF-1 level was significantly increased in mutant mice compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, hepatocyte RXRalpha deficiency increases leptin level and reduces food intake. Those mice also develop obesity, with an unexpected improvement of glucose tolerance. The result also suggests that an increase in serum IGF-I level might be one of the mechanisms leading to improved glucose tolerance in hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice.

  8. Reduced transcript stabilization restricts TNF-alpha expression in RAW264.7 macrophages infected with pathogenic mycobacteria: evidence for an involvement of lipomannan.

    PubMed

    Basler, Tina; Holtmann, Helmut; Abel, Jens; Eckstein, Torsten; Baumer, Wolfgang; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Despite the critical role that TNF-alpha plays in the containment of mycobacterial infection, the mechanisms involved in regulation of its expression by mycobacteria are poorly defined. We addressed this question by studying MAP, which causes a chronic enteritis in ruminants and is linked to human Crohn's disease. We found that in MAP infected macrophages, TNF-alpha gene expression was substantially lower than in macrophages infected with nonpathogenic MS or stimulated with LPS. TNF-alpha transcriptional one could not fully explain the differential TNF-alpha mRNA expression, suggesting that there must be a substantial contribution by post-transcriptional mechanisms.Accordingly, we found reduced TNF-alpha mRNA stability in MAP-infected macrophages. Further comparison of MAP- and MS-infected macrophages revealed that lower TNF-alpha mRNA stability combined with lower mRNA and protein expression in MAP-infected macrophages correlated with lower p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings were independent of viability of MAP and MS. We demonstrate that the major mycobacterial cell-wall lipoglycan LM of MAP and MS induced TNF-alpha mRNA transcription,but only the MS-LM induced p38 MAPK-dependent transcript stabilization. Overall, our data suggest that pathogenic mycobacteria cause weak p38 and TNF-alpha mRNA stabilization as a result of their structural cell-wall components such as LM and thereby, restrict TNF-alpha expression in macrophages.

  9. Propanil inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by reducing nuclear levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappab in the macrophage cell line ic-21.

    PubMed

    Frost, L L; Neeley, Y X; Schafer, R; Gibson, L F; Barnett, J B

    2001-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an essential proinflammatory cytokine whose production is normally stimulated by bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during an infection. Macrophages stimulated with LPS in vitro produce several cytokines, including TNF-alpha. LPS-stimulated primary mouse macrophages produced less TNF-alpha protein and message after treatment with the herbicide propanil (Xie et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 145, 184-191, 1997). Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) tightly regulates TNF-alpha transcription. Therefore, as a step toward understanding the mechanism of the effect of propanil on TNF-alpha transcription, IC-21 cells were transfected with a TNF-alpha promoter-luciferase construct, and the effect of propanil on luciferase activity was measured. Cells transfected with promoter constructs containing a kappaB site showed decreased luciferase activity relative to controls after propanil treatment. These observations implicated NF-kappaB binding as an intracellular target of propanil. Further studies demonstrated a marked reduction in the nuclear levels of the stimulatory p65 subunit of NF-kappaB after propanil treatment, as measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. The p50 subunit of NF-kappaB was not found to be reduced after propanil exposure by Western blot. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays showed decreased DNA binding of both p65/p50 heterodimers and p50/p50 homodimers to the kappaB3 site of the TNF-alpha promoter of propanil-treated cells. The marked reduction in nuclear p65/p50 NF-kappaB levels and diminished binding to the TNF-alpha promoter in propanil-treated cells are consistent with reduced TNF-alpha levels induced by LPS. PMID:11312646

  10. Fluphenazine Reduces Proteotoxicity in C. elegans and Mammalian Models of Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Pak, Stephen C.; O’Reilly, Linda P.; Benson, Joshua A.; Wang, Yan; Hidvegi, Tunda; Hale, Pamela; Dippold, Christine; Ewing, Michael; Silverman, Gary A.; Perlmutter, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is associated with hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is caused by the proteotoxic effect of a mutant secretory protein that aberrantly accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells. Recently we developed a model of this deficiency in C. Elegans and adapted it for high-content drug screening using an automated, image-based array scanning. Screening of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds identified fluphenazine (Flu) among several other compounds as a drug which reduced intracellular accumulation of mutant α1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ). Because it is representative of the phenothiazine drug class that appears to have autophagy enhancer properties in addition to mood stabilizing activity, and can be relatively easily re-purposed, we further investigated its effects on mutant ATZ. The results indicate that Flu reverses the phenotypic effects of ATZ accumulation in the C. elegans model of ATD at doses which increase the number of autophagosomes in vivo. Furthermore, in nanomolar concentrations, Flu enhances the rate of intracellular degradation of ATZ and reduces the cellular ATZ load in mammalian cell line models. In the PiZ mouse model Flu reduces the accumulation of ATZ in the liver and mediates a decrease in hepatic fibrosis. These results show that Flu can reduce the proteotoxicity of ATZ accumulation in vivo and, because it has been used safely in humans, this drug can be moved rapidly into trials for liver disease due to ATD. The results also provide further validation for drug discovery using C. elegans models that can be adapted to high-content drug screening platforms and used together with mammalian cell line and animal models. PMID:24498058

  11. Ataxia-telangiectasia: chronic activation of damage-responsive functions is reduced by alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Gatei, M; Shkedy, D; Khanna, K K; Uziel, T; Shiloh, Y; Pandita, T K; Lavin, M F; Rotman, G

    2001-01-18

    Cells from patients with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic agents, both of which generate reactive oxygen species capable of causing oxidative damage to DNA and other macromolecules. We describe in A-T cells constitutive activation of pathways that normally respond to genotoxic stress. Basal levels of p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1), phosphorylation on serine 15 of p53, and the Tyr15-phosphorylated form of cdc2 are chronically elevated in these cells. Treatment of A-T cells with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid significantly reduced the levels of these proteins, pointing to the involvement of reactive oxygen species in their chronic activation. These findings suggest that the absence of functional ATM results in a mild but continuous state of oxidative stress, which could account for several features of the pleiotropic phenotype of A-T.

  12. Brain plasmin enhances APP alpha-cleavage and Abeta degradation and is reduced in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, M D; Da Silva, J S; Crassaerts, K; Delacourte, A; De Strooper, B; Dotti, C G

    2000-12-01

    The proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been linked to sphingolipid-cholesterol microdomains (rafts). However, the raft proteases that may be involved in APP cleavage have not yet been identified. In this work we present evidence that the protease plasmin is restricted to rafts of cultured hippocampal neurons. We also show that plasmin increases the processing of human APP preferentially at the alpha-cleavage site, and efficiently degrades secreted amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic APP fragments. These results suggest that brain plasmin plays a preventive role in APP amyloidogenesis. Consistently, we show that brain tissue from Alzheimer's disease patients contains reduced levels of plasmin, implying that plasmin downregulation may cause amyloid plaque deposition accompanying sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Topical alpha-selective p38 MAP kinase inhibition reduces acute skin inflammation in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Medicherla, Satyanarayana; Ma, Jing Ying; Reddy, Mamtha; Esikova, Irina; Kerr, Irene; Movius, Fabiola; Higgins, Linda S; Protter, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Certain skin pathologies, including psoriasis, are thought to be immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Available literature clearly indicates the involvement of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, T cells, and macrophages), their cytokines, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Neutrophils play an important role in the formation of acute inflammatory changes in psoriasis. Acute inflammation or acute flares in psoriasis remain poorly addressed in clinical medicine. In this communication, we first establish a simple and reproducible model for studying neutrophil-mediated acute skin inflammation. Using the hairless guinea pig, due to the similarity of skin architecture to that of human, acute inflammation was induced with an intradermal injection of 50 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 50 μL solution. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured by MPO-positive neutrophils and shown to increase for 24-hours post-injection. Simultaneously, the level of phosphorylated p38 MAPK was documented for 48-hours post-LPS injection in the skin. Next, we used this model to examine the therapeutic potential of an α-selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469. A comparison of topical application of SCIO-469 at 5 mg/mL or 15 mg/mL to vehicle revealed that SCIO-469 dose-dependently reduces acute skin inflammation and that this effect is statistically significant at the higher dose. Further examination of tissues that received this dose also revealed statistically significant reduction of MPO activity, phosphorylated p38 MAPK, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase-2. These data suggest that the α-selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469, acts as a topical anti-inflammatory agent via the p38 MAPK pathway to reduce neutrophil induced acute inflammation in the skin. These observations suggest that α-selective p38 MAPK inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy to manage acute skin inflammation PMID:22096353

  14. Increased Expression of Alpha-Synuclein Reduces Neurotransmitter Release by Inhibiting Synaptic Vesicle Reclustering After Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Venu M.; Lu, Wei; Berge, Victoria; Nakamura, Ken; Onoa, Bibiana; Lee, Michael K.; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.; Nicoll, Roger A.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The protein α-synuclein accumulates in the brain of patients with sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), and increased gene dosage causes a severe, dominantly inherited form of PD, but we know little about the effects of synuclein that precede degeneration. α-Synuclein localizes to the nerve terminal, but the knockout has little if any effect on synaptic transmission. In contrast, we now find that the modest over-expression of α-synuclein, in the range predicted for gene multiplication and in the absence of overt toxicity, markedly inhibits neurotransmitter release. The mechanism, elucidated by direct imaging of the synaptic vesicle cycle, involves a specific reduction in size of the synaptic vesicle recycling pool. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates reduced synaptic vesicle density at the active zone, and imaging further reveals a defect in the reclustering of synaptic vesicles after endocytosis. Increased levels of α-synuclein thus produce a specific, physiological defect in synaptic vesicle recycling that precedes detectable neuropathology. PMID:20152114

  15. Targeting of Alpha-V Integrins Reduces Malignancy of Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    van der Horst, Geertje; Bos, Lieke; van der Mark, Maaike; Cheung, Henry; Heckmann, Bertrand; Clément-Lacroix, Philippe; Lorenzon, Giocondo; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Bevers, Rob F. M.; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2014-01-01

    Low survival rates of metastatic cancers emphasize the need for a drug that can prevent and/or treat metastatic cancer. αv integrins are involved in essential processes for tumor growth and metastasis and targeting of αv integrins has been shown to decrease angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, the role of αv integrin and its potential as a drug target in bladder cancer was investigated. Treatment with an αv integrin antagonist as well as knockdown of αv integrin in the bladder carcinoma cell lines, resulted in reduced malignancy invitro, as illustrated by decreased proliferative, migratory and clonogenic capacity. The CDH1/CDH2 ratio increased, indicating a shift towards a more epithelial phenotype. This shift appeared to be associated with downregulation of EMT-inducing transcription factors including SNAI2. The expression levels of the self-renewal genes NANOG and BMI1 decreased as well as the number of cells with high Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity. In addition, self-renewal ability decreased as measured with the urosphere assay. In line with these observations, knockdown or treatment of αv integrins resulted in decreased metastatic growth in preclinical invivo models as assessed by bioluminescence imaging. In conclusion, we show that αv integrins are involved in migration, EMT and maintenance of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity in bladder cancer cells. Targeting of αv integrins might be a promising approach for treatment and/or prevention of metastatic bladder cancer. PMID:25247809

  16. Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-hα-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of α-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of α-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-hα-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1β. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1β protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-hα-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit α-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and α-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

  17. A retinoic acid receptor alpha antagonist counteracts retinoid teratogenicity in vitro and reduced incidence and/or severity of malformations in vivo.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, K; Schmitt, G

    1994-02-15

    The role of retinoic acid receptors (RAR) in retinoid-induced teratogenesis is mainly unknown. The aim of the present studies was to demonstrate the effect of a RAR alpha antagonist on retinoid-induced teratogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. In micromass cultures of rat limb bud cells a RAR alpha antagonist was able to counteract differentiation inhibiting effects of a RAR alpha agonist. In mouse studies, the selective RAR alpha antagonist reduced frequency and/or severity of major malformations. Our observations indicate the potentiality of selective RAR agonists and antagonists in dissecting the function of nuclear receptors and in particular cases of retinoid teratogenesis, to assign to the different receptors a primary role in determining one or another of the multiple malformations.

  18. Resonances and resonance widths

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1986-05-01

    Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances.

  19. Osteoclast formation is strongly reduced both in vivo and in vitro in the absence of CD47/SIRP{alpha}-interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, Pernilla . E-mail: pernilla.lundberg@odont.umu.se; Koskinen, Cecilia; Baldock, Paul A.; Loethgren, Hanna; Stenberg, Asa; Lerner, Ulf H.; Oldenborg, Per-Arne

    2007-01-12

    Physical interaction between the cell surface receptors CD47 and signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP{alpha}) was reported to regulate cell migration, phagocytosis, cytokine production, and macrophage fusion. However, it is unclear if the CD47/SIRP{alpha}-interaction can also regulate macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-stimulated formation of osteoclasts. Here, we show that functional blocking antibodies to either CD47 or SIRP{alpha} strongly reduced formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP){sup +} osteoclasts in cultures of murine hematopoietic cells, stimulated in vitro by M-CSF and RANKL. In addition, the numbers of osteoclasts formed in M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophage cultures from CD47 {sup -/-} mice were strongly reduced, and bones of CD47 {sup -/-} mice exhibited significantly reduced osteoclast numbers, as compared with wild-type controls. We conclude that the CD47/SIRP{alpha} interaction is important for M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated osteoclast formation both in vivo and in vitro, and that absence of CD47 results in decreased numbers of osteoclasts in CD47 {sup -/-} mice.

  20. Vitamin E analog, alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid analog, alone and in combination with celecoxib, reduces multiplicity of ultraviolet-induced skin cancers in mice.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Shelley B; Fischer, Susan M; Sanders, Bob G; Kline, Kimberly

    2008-02-01

    The goals of this study were to determine whether alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid analog (alpha-TEA), a novel vitamin E analog, and celecoxib, alone or in combination, when administered as a late intervention can reduce the ultraviolet-induced nonmelanoma skin-tumor burden of established tumors, prevent additional tumors from developing, and prevent tumor recurrence once treatments are stopped. Hairless SKH-1 female mice were ultraviolet-irradiated for 24 weeks, divided into treatment groups so that each group had approximately 5.8 tumors/mouse, and then treated with 72 mug of liposome-formulated alpha-TEA by aerosol inhalation, 500 p.p.m. celecoxib in AIN-76 A diet, or a combination of alpha-TEA and celecoxib for 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks of treatment, each treatment group was subdivided, with one subgroup continuing to receive treatment and with treatment being stopped in the other. Skin-tumor development was monitored visually throughout the study and by histologic evaluation at the end. After 4 weeks of treatment, all treatments showed statistically significant reductions in tumor number when compared with controls. After termination of treatment, only alpha-TEA prevented a significant increase in tumor recurrence; however, continuous combination treatment resulted in the lowest total number of tumors. In conclusion alpha-TEA is an effective late-stage chemopreventive agent for nonmelanoma skin cancer that exhibits lasting benefits.

  1. Genistein reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 transcription but not urokinase expression in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergh, V W; Vermeer, M; Koolwijk, P; Grimbergen, J; Kooistra, T

    1994-11-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor PAI-1 is markedly elevated in vivo and in vitro upon exposure to the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Here we report that the isoflavone compound genistein prevents the increase in synthesis of PAI-1 induced by these inflammatory mediators in human endothelial cells in vitro, and partially reduces the basal PAI-1 production by these cells. These effects of genistein were accompanied by a decrease in PAI-1 mRNA and in a suppression of the PAI-1 transcription rate as shown by run-on assay. A specific action of genistein, probably by inhibiting a tyrosine protein kinase, is likely, because the structural genistein analogue daidzein, which has a low tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor activity, did not inhibit PAI-1 synthesis. Vanadate, a tyrosine protein phosphatase inhibitor, increased PAI-1 production. The effect of genistein on PAI-1 synthesis was rather selective. Herbimycin A also reduced PAI-1 synthesis, but several other tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors, namely tyrphostin A47, methyl-2,5-dihydroxy-cinnamate, and compound 5, were unable to do so. All these tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors reduced basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF)-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in endothelial cells. This indicates that the effect of genistein on PAI-1 transcription proceeds independently of its effect on mitogenesis. In contrast to TNF-alpha-induced PAI-1 production, the transcription and synthesis of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) was not inhibited by genistein. A TNF-alpha-mutant (Trp32Thr86TNF alpha) that specifically recognizes the 55-kD TNF-receptor, mimicked the effects of TNF alpha on both PAI-1 and u-PA. Because genistein affected PAI-1, but not u-PA induced by this mutant, involvement of different TNF-receptors cannot underlie the difference in the effects of genistein on PAI-1 and u-PA synthesis. Because genistein also

  2. Diatomic predissociation line widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Predissociation by rotation and curve crossing in diatomic molecules is discussed. The pattern of predissociation line widths is seen as providing a highly sensitive yardstick for the determination of unknown potential curves. In addition, the computation of such a pattern for given potential curves is considered a matter of routine, unless the predissociation happens to occur from an adiabatic potential curve. Analytic formulas are used to provide physical insight into the details of the predissociation pattern, to the extent that a direct inversion procedure is developed for determination of the repulsive potential curves for Type 1 predissociations.

  3. Eugenol reduces acute pain in mice by modulating the glutamatergic and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathways.

    PubMed

    Dal Bó, Wladmir; Luiz, Ana Paula; Martins, Daniel F; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol is utilized together with zinc oxide in odontological clinical for the cementation of temporary prostheses and the temporary restoration of teeth and cavities. This work explored the antinociceptive effects of the eugenol in different models of acute pain in mice and investigated its possible modulation of the inhibitory (opioid) and excitatory (glutamatergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines) pathways of nociceptive signaling. The administration of eugenol (3-300 mg/kg, p.o., 60 min or i.p., 30 min) inhibited 82 ± 10% and 90 ± 6% of the acetic acid-induced nociception, with ID₅₀ values of 51.3 and 50.2 mg/kg, respectively. In the glutamate test, eugenol (0.3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the response behavior by 62 ± 5% with an ID₅₀ of 5.6 mg/kg. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the glutamate test was prevented by the i.p. treatment for mice with naloxone. The pretreatment of mice with eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to inhibit the nociception induced by the intrathecal (i.t.) injection of glutamate (37 ± 9%), kainic (acid kainite) (41 ± 12%), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (55 ± 5%), and substance P (SP) (39 ± 8%). Furthermore, eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited biting induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 65 ± 8%). These results extend our current knowledge of eugenol and confirm that it promotes significant antinociception against different mouse models of acute pain. The mechanism of action appears to involve the modulation of the opioid system and glutamatergic receptors (i.e., kainate and AMPA), and the inhibition of TNF-α. Thus, eugenol could represent an important compound in the treatment for acute pain.

  4. Corticosteroid-binding globulin cleavage is paradoxically reduced in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: Implications for cortisol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nenke, Marni A; Holmes, Mark; Rankin, Wayne; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J

    2016-01-15

    High-affinity corticosteroid-binding globulin (haCBG) is cleaved by neutrophil elastase (NE) resulting in permanent transition to the low cortisol-binding affinity form (laCBG), thereby increasing cortisol availability at inflammatory sites. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is the major inhibitor of NE. AAT deficiency (AATD) predisposes patients to early-onset emphysema due to increased proteolytic destruction from the inherent proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance. We hypothesized that AATD may result in increased CBG cleavage in vivo. We collected demographic data and blood samples from 10 patients with AATD and 28 healthy controls measuring total CBG and haCBG levels by parallel in-house ELISAs, as well as AAT, total and free cortisol levels. haCBG was higher (median [range]); 329 [210-551] vs. 250 [175-365] nmol/L; P<0.005, and laCBG lower; 174 [68-229] vs. 220 [119-348] nmol/L; P=0.016 in the AATD group, compared with controls. The ratio of haCBG:total CBG was also higher in AATD; 72 [53-83] vs. 54 [41-72] %; P=0.0001). There was a negative correlation between haCBG:total CBG and AAT levels (P<0.05, R=-0.64). Paradoxically, proteolytic cleavage of CBG was reduced in AATD, despite the recognized increase in NE activity. This implies that NE activity is not the mechanism for systemic CBG cleavage in basal, low inflammatory conditions. Relatively low levels of laCBG may have implications for cortisol action in AATD.

  5. Reducing renal uptake of 90Y- and 177Lu-labeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yubin; Fisher, Darrell R.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to improve the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 90Y- and 177Lu-[1,2,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Re-Cys,D-Phe,Arg]alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (DOTA-RE(Arg)CCMSH), through coupling a negatively charged glutamic acid (Glu) to the peptide sequence. A new peptide of DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH was designed, synthesized and labeled with 90Y and 177Lu. Pharmacokinetics of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-RE(Glu,Arg)CCNSH were determined in B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Both exhibited significantly less renal uptake than 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg)CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 3, and 24 h after dose administration. The renal uptake values of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH were 28.16% and 28.81% of those of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-RE(Arg)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 hr post-injection. We also showed higher tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios 2.28 and 1.69 times that of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h post-injection. The90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH activity accumulation was low in normal organs except for kidneys. Coupling a negatively charged amino acid (Glu) to the CCMSH peptide sequence dramatically reduced the renal uptake values and increased the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH, facilitating their potential applications as radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  6. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event-related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek N; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2015-10-01

    Low voltage EEG (LVEEG) is a heritable phenotype that differs depending on ancestral heritage, yet its impact on brain networks and cognition remain relatively unexplored. In this study we assessed energy and task related phase locking of event-related oscillation (EROs), behavioral responses, measures of IQ and personality, and expected responses to alcohol in a large sample of individuals with LVEEG compared to those with higher voltage variants. Participants (n=762) were recruited from a Native American community and completed a diagnostic interview, the Quick Test, the Subjective High Assessment Scale Expectation Version (SHAS-E) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Clinical and spectral analyzed EEGs were collected for determination of the presence of a LVEEG variant. EROs were generated using a facial expression recognition task. Participants with LVEEG (n=451) were significantly more likely to be older, married and have higher degrees of Native American heritage but did not differ in gender, income or education. Individuals with LVEEG were also found to have decreased energy in their alpha EROs, increased phase locking between stimulus trials, and increased phase-locking between cortical brain areas. No significant differences in the cognitive tests, personality variables or alcohol dependence or anxiety diagnoses were found, however, individuals with LVEEG did report a larger number of drinks ever consumed in a 24-h period and a less intense expected response to alcohol. These data suggest that alpha power in the resting EEG is highly associated with energy and cortical connectivity measures generated by event-related stimuli, as well as potentially increased risk for alcohol use. PMID:26151497

  7. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event-related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek N; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2015-10-01

    Low voltage EEG (LVEEG) is a heritable phenotype that differs depending on ancestral heritage, yet its impact on brain networks and cognition remain relatively unexplored. In this study we assessed energy and task related phase locking of event-related oscillation (EROs), behavioral responses, measures of IQ and personality, and expected responses to alcohol in a large sample of individuals with LVEEG compared to those with higher voltage variants. Participants (n=762) were recruited from a Native American community and completed a diagnostic interview, the Quick Test, the Subjective High Assessment Scale Expectation Version (SHAS-E) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Clinical and spectral analyzed EEGs were collected for determination of the presence of a LVEEG variant. EROs were generated using a facial expression recognition task. Participants with LVEEG (n=451) were significantly more likely to be older, married and have higher degrees of Native American heritage but did not differ in gender, income or education. Individuals with LVEEG were also found to have decreased energy in their alpha EROs, increased phase locking between stimulus trials, and increased phase-locking between cortical brain areas. No significant differences in the cognitive tests, personality variables or alcohol dependence or anxiety diagnoses were found, however, individuals with LVEEG did report a larger number of drinks ever consumed in a 24-h period and a less intense expected response to alcohol. These data suggest that alpha power in the resting EEG is highly associated with energy and cortical connectivity measures generated by event-related stimuli, as well as potentially increased risk for alcohol use.

  8. Hyperproduction of alpha-toxin by Staphylococcus aureus results in paradoxically reduced virulence in experimental endocarditis: a host defense role for platelet microbicidal proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, A S; Ramos, M D; Menzies, B E; Yeaman, M R; Shen, A J; Cheung, A L

    1997-01-01

    densities). Paradoxically, the two variant staphylococcal strains producing alpha-toxin at supraparental levels in vitro [strains DU1090(p1212) and DU1090(pCL84::hla)] also exhibited significantly decreased induction rates and intravegetation staphylococcal densities in experimental endocarditis versus the parental strain. The reduced in vivo virulence of the latter variant staphylococcal strains could not be explained by differences in bacteremic clearance or initial adherence to sterile vegetations (compared to the parental strain). These findings suggest that the reduced virulence exhibited by the variant staphylococcal strains in this model was related to pathogenetic events subsequent to bacterial adherence to the damaged endocardium. Excess intravegetation secretion of alpha-toxin, leading to increased PMP release (secondary to either increased platelet secretion or lysis), may well explain the reduced virulence observed in experimental endocarditis. PMID:9353046

  9. Radial widths, optical depths, and eccentricities of the Uranian rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. D.; Matthews, K.; Goldreich, P.

    1982-02-01

    Observations of the stellar occultation by the Uranian rings of 15/16 August 1980 are used to estimate radial widths and normal optical depths for segments of rings 6, 5, 4, alpha, beta, eta, gamma, and delta. Synthetic occultation profiles are generated to match the observed light curves. A review of published data confirms the existence of width-radius relations for rings alpha and beta, and indicates that the optical depths of these two rings vary inversely with their radial widths. Masses are obtained for rings alpha and beta, on the assumption that differential precession is prevented by their self-gravity. A quantitative comparison of seven epsilon-ring occultation profiles obtained over a period of 3.4 yr reveals a consistent structure, which may reflect the presence of unresolved gaps and subrings.

  10. Width of nonlinear resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, S.

    1984-03-01

    Two approximations are made, one essential and the other not so essential but convenient to keep the analytical treatment manageable: (1) Only one nonlinear resonance is considered at a time so that the treatment is best suited when the tune is close to one resonance only. To improve this approximation, one must go to the next order which involves a canonical transformation of dynamical variables. Analytical treatment of more than one resonance is not possible for general cases. (2) In the formalism using the action-angle variables, the Hamiltonian can have terms which are independent of the angle variables. These terms are called phase-independent terms or shear terms. The tune is then a function of the oscillation amplitudes. In the lowest-order treatment, the (4N)-pole components but not the (4N + 2)-pole components contribute to this dependence. In deriving the resonance width analytically, one ignores these terms in the Hamiltonian for the sake of simplicity. If these are retained, one needs at least three extra parameters and the analytical treatment becomes rather unwieldy.

  11. Simulated Microgravity Reduces TNF-Alpha Activity, Suppresses Glucose Uptake and Enhances Arginine Flux in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.; Hashemi, Brian B.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The present studies were designed to determine effects of microgravity upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF - alpha) activity and indices of insulin and fuel homeostasis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Islets (1726+/-117,150 u IEU) from Wistar Furth rats were treated as: 1) HARV (High Aspect Ratio Vessel cell culture) , 2) HARV plus LPS 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (p<0.05). A decrease in insulin concentration was demonstrated in the LPS stimulated HARV culture (p<0.05). We observed a greater glucose concentration and increased disappearance of arginine in islets cultured in HARVs. While nitrogenous compound analysis indicated a ubiquitous reliance upon glutamine in all experimental groups, arginine was converted to ornithine at a two-fold greater rate in the islets cultured in the HARV microgravity paradigm (p<0.05). These studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF activity in the HARV paradigm. These alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by gravity averaged cell culture methods or by three dimensional cell assembly.

  12. A mutant of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 deficient in binding alpha-helix partners displays reduced oncogenic potential in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Marie; Song, Shiyu; Liem, Amy; Androphy, Elliot; Liu, Yun; Lambert, Paul F

    2002-12-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA tumor viruses that are the causative agent of warts and are associated with many anogenital cancers. The viral gene encoding the E6 protein has been found to be involved in HPV oncogenesis. E6 is known to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressor, p53. In addition, E6 has been shown to bind to a variety of other cellular proteins. The focus of this study was to determine what role the interactions of E6 with a subset of cellular proteins which contain a common alpha-helical domain in their E6 binding region (alpha-helix partners) play in E6-mediated phenotypes. We generated transgenic mice expressing a mutant of E6, E6(I128T), which is defective for binding at least a subset of the alpha-helix partners, including E6AP, the ubiquitin ligase that mediates E6-dependent degradation of the p53 protein, to determine whether binding of alpha-helix partners plays a role in E6-mediated activities in vivo. Unlike mice expressing the wild-type E6 (strain K14E6(WT)), the mice expressing E6(I128T) lacked the ability to alter the radiation-induced block to DNA synthesis and promote the formation of benign skin tumors in conjunction with chemical carcinogens. Additionally, they displayed reduced levels of skin hyperplasia, spontaneous skin tumors, and tumor progression activity compared to those of the K14E6(WT) mice. From these results, we conclude that a domain in E6 that mediates alpha-helix partner binding is critical for E6-induced phenotypes in transgenic mice.

  13. Parathyroidectomy reduces 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the hypocalcemic vitamin D-deficient chick.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, B E; Tsai, H C; Morris, R C

    1977-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that in the vitamin D-deficient state the activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase (25-OHD3-1 alpha-hydroxylase) is modulated by parathyroid hormone and the plasma concentration of phosphate only in the presence of small amounts of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (or some other metabolite of vitamin D), we measured the activity of this enzyme 24 h after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in frankly hypocalcemic, vitamin D-deficient chicks that were not supplemented with vitamin D or one of its metabolites. The otherwise predictable complications of PTX in this metabolic setting (hypocalcemia of increasing severity, tetany, moribundity, and death) were prevented by continuous intravenous administration of calcium (as a solution of calcium chloride/calcium gluconate 1:1) through a catheter in the external jugular vein placed at the time of PTX. The findings were as follows: (a) The activity of 25-OHD3-1 alpha-hydroxylase was significantly less in the parathyroidectomized group than in the sham-operated control chicks (P less than 0.001). (b) The reductive effect of PTX on the activity of this enzyme was significantly attenuated when hypophosphatemia was increased in severity by administration of glucose. (c) In the post-PTX state the activity of 25-OHD3-1 alpha-hydroxylase and plasma concentration of phosphate were significantly, inversely related (P less than 0.001). (d) In the sham-operated control group the activity of this enzyme and the plasma concentration of phosphate were not significantly correlated. These findings indicate that in the vitamin D-deficient state, both circulating parathyroid hormone and the plasma concentration of phosphate can significantly modulate the activity of 25-OHD3-1 alpha-hydroxylase in the absence of vitamin D or its metabolites. The findings also suggest that in the vitamin D-deficient state the plasma concentration of phosphate modulates the activity of this enzyme only when the concentration of circulating

  14. Cilostazol reduces atherosclerosis by inhibition of superoxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice fed high cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Oh, Goo Taeg; Park, So Youn; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Gil; Kim, Chi Dae; Lee, Won Suk; Rhim, Byung Yong; Shin, Yung Woo; Hong, Ki Whan

    2005-05-01

    This study shows that 6-[4-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl) butoxy]-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (cilostazol) suppresses the atherosclerotic lesion formation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr)-null mice. Ldlr-null mice fed a high cholesterol diet showed multiple plaque lesions in the proximal ascending aorta including aortic sinus, accompanied by increased macrophage accumulation with increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Supplementation of cilostazol (0.2% w/w) in diet significantly decreased the plaque lesions with reduced macrophage accumulation and suppression of VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in situ. Increased superoxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production were significantly lowered by cilostazol in situ as well as in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TNF-alpha-induced increased inhibitory kappaBalpha degradation in the cytoplasm and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 activation in the nuclei of HUVECs were reversed by cilostazol (1 approximately 100 microM) as well as by (E)-3[(4-t-butylphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-propenenitrile (BAY 11-7085) (10 microM), suggesting that cilostazol strongly inhibits NF-kappaB activation and p65 translocation into the nuclei. Furthermore, in gel shift and DNA-binding assay, cilostazol inhibited NF-kappaB/DNA complex and nuclear DNA-binding activity of the NF-kappaB in the nuclear extracts of the RAW 264.7 cells. Taken together, it is suggested that the anti-atherogenic effect of cilostazol in cholesterol-fed Ldlr-null mice is ascribed to its property to suppress superoxide and TNF-alpha formation, and thereby reducing NF-kappaB activation/transcription, VCAM-1/MCP-1 expressions, and monocyte recruitments.

  15. The Width of a Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gila

    2014-01-01

    This paper's aim is to discuss the concept of width of a proof put forward by Timothy Gowers. It explains what this concept means and attempts to show how it relates to other concepts discussed in the existing literature on proof and proving. It also explores how the concept of width of a proof might be used productively in the mathematics…

  16. [Measurement of polymerization heat of the tissue adhesive Fimomed (alpha-n-butylcyanoacrylate) reduced in the GDR].

    PubMed

    Willenberg, E; Reps, K H; Strauchmann, G; Krumbholz, S

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe a method for measurement of temperature that originates from the polymerisation of the adhesive Fimomed (alpha-n-butylcyanoacrylate). The intravascular application of the adhesive is taken as a basis of the measurement. This kind of application is applied by the authors for the closure of arterio venous fistulae. The measurement of the temperature with this method did not show both in the centre of polymerisation and in the surroundings any doubtful value if not more than 3 ml adhesive was applied. However the measurement of the temperature which originates from the polymerisation is recommended in all cases before any plane sticking is applied.

  17. Reductive dechlorination of alpha-, beta-, delta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by hydroxocobalamin in the presence of either dithiothreitol or titanium(III) citrate as reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garrido, B; Arbestain, M Camps; Monterroso, M C; Macías, F

    2004-10-01

    The effect of the reducing potential on the reductive dehalogenation of the different HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers has not yet been studied. In the present study, the potential for dehalogenation of (alpha-, beta-, delta-, and gamma-HCH isomers by the dithiothreitol (DTT) and titanium(III) citrate (reducing potential at pH 7, -0.33 and -0.48 V, respectively), with and without the addition of hydroxocobalamin was investigated. In the presence of DTT without catalyst, there was no disappearance of any of the HCH isomers studied after 1 h of treatment. However, disappearance of the gamma- and alpha-HCH isomers was observed during the same time period when titanium(III) citrate was used as the reductant in the absence of catalyst (62.9 and 16.6% disappearance, respectively). Addition of the hydroxocobalamin to the DTT system favored mainly the disappearance of gamma- and alpha-HCH (92.9 and 30.8% disappearance after 1 h, respectively); disappearance of delta-HCH and beta-HCH was small (11.9%) or negligible, respectively. Addition of the hydroxocobalamin to the titanium(III) citrate system favored the degradation of all HCH isomers under study: beta- and alpha-HCH completely disappeared to undetectable levels (<0.1%) after 1 and 2 min, respectively; degradation of delta-HCH and beta-HCH was slower than that of the other two isomers, although they had almost completely disappeared (99.9 and 99.6% disappearance, respectively) after 10 and 60 min, respectively. The order of disappearance, gamma-HCH > alpha-HCH > delta-HCH > beta-HCH, coincided with a decreasing order of the axially positioned Cl atoms of these isomers (considering their thermodynamically most stable configuration). This study is the first description of the rapid degradation of delta- and beta-HCH under abiotic conditions, and the results demonstrate the effect of the reducing potential on the reductive dehalogenation of HCH isomers. PMID:15506197

  18. DO QUASAR BROAD-LINE VELOCITY WIDTHS ADD ANY INFORMATION TO VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES?

    SciTech Connect

    Croom, Scott M.

    2011-08-01

    We examine how much information measured broad-line widths add to virial black hole (BH) mass estimates for flux-limited samples of quasars. We do this by comparing the BH mass estimates to those derived by randomly reassigning the quasar broad-line widths to different objects and re-calculating the BH mass. For 9000 BH masses derived from the H{beta} line we find that the distributions of original and randomized BH masses in the M{sub BH}-redshift plane and the M{sub BH}-luminosity plane are formally identical. A two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test does not find a difference at >90% confidence. For the Mg II line (32,000 quasars) we do find very significant differences between the randomized and original BH masses, but the amplitude of the difference is still small. The difference for the C IV line (14,000 quasars) is 2{sigma}-3{sigma} and again the amplitude of the difference is small. Subdividing the data into redshift and luminosity bins we find that the median absolute difference in BH mass between the original and randomized data is 0.025, 0.01, and 0.04 dex for H{beta}, Mg II, and C IV, respectively. The maximum absolute difference is always {<=}0.1 dex. We investigate whether our results are sensitive to corrections to Mg II virial masses, such as those suggested by Onken and Kollmeier. These corrections do not influence our results, other than to reduce the significance of the difference between original and randomized BH masses to only 1{sigma}-2{sigma} for Mg II. Moreover, we demonstrate that the correlation between mass residuals and Eddington ratio discussed by Onken and Kollmeier is more directly attributable to the slope of the relation between H{beta} and Mg II line width. The implication is that the measured quasar broad-line velocity widths provide little extra information, after allowing for the mean velocity width. In this case virial estimates are equivalent to M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sup {alpha}}, with L/L{sub Edd

  19. MK-386, an inhibitor of 5alpha-reductase type 1, reduces dihydrotestosterone concentrations in serum and sebum without affecting dihydrotestosterone concentrations in semen.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J I; Tanaka, W K; Wang, D Z; Ebel, D L; Geissler, L A; Dallob, A; Hafkin, B; Gertz, B J

    1997-05-01

    Two isozymes (types 1 and 2) of 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR; EC 1.3.99.5), with differential tissue distribution, catalyze the reduction of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in humans. This study examined sequentially increasing oral doses of MK-386 (4,7beta-dimethyl-4-aza-5alpha-cholestan-3-one), an azasteroid that specifically inhibits the human 5alphaR1 isozyme in vitro. Finasteride, a selective inhibitor of 5alphaR2, was included for comparison. One hundred men were evaluated in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, sequential, increasing dose, parallel group trial. Ten to 20 subjects received MK-386, and 2 to 5 received placebo in each of 6 panels. In 1 panel, 10 subjects received finasteride (5 mg), and 5 received placebo. Treatments were given once daily for 14 days, except in 1 panel in which MK-386 was administered 10 mg twice daily for comparison to 20 mg daily. Serum, sebum, and semen DHT concentrations and serum and sebum T concentrations were measured before and after treatment. The mean changes from baseline on day 14 for serum DHT after placebo and 0.1, 0.5, 5, 20, and 50 mg MK-386 were 6.9%, 4.6%, -2.7%, -1.2%, -14.1% (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), and -22.2% (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), respectively. No significant alterations in serum T were observed after any dose of MK-386. Serum DHT fell 65.8% from the baseline 14 days after finasteride treatment (P < 0.05 vs. placebo). The mean changes from baseline on day 14 in sebum DHT were 5.0%, 3.0%, -25.4% (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), -30.1% (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), and -49.1% (P < 0.05 vs. placebo) for the placebo and 0.5, 5, 20, and 50 mg MK-386 groups, respectively. Finasteride also reduced sebum DHT, but to a lesser extent (- 14.9%; P < 0.05 vs. placebo). Reciprocal increases in sebum T concentration were noted at doses of 5 mg or more of MK-386, but not with finasteride. The mean reduction in semen DHT with 5 mg finasteride was approximately 88% (P < 0.01 vs. placebo); no significant change in

  20. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce UVB- and TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 secretion in keratinocytes and UVB-induced IL-8 in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Storey, Amy; McArdle, Frank; Friedmann, Peter S; Jackson, Malcolm J; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2005-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced inflammation and other inflammatory states, in vivo. We examined whether this may be mediated by modulation of interleukin (IL)-8, a chemokine pivotal to skin inflammation induced by UVB, in epidermal and dermal cells. We also explored the ability of n-3 PUFA to protect against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induction of IL-8, and assessed relative potencies of the principal dietary n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Pre-supplementation, both HaCaT keratinocyte and CCD922SK fibroblast cell lines showed dose-responses for UVB-induced IL-8 release (p<0.001), assessed 48 h post-irradiation. Cells were supplemented with > or =90% purified EPA, DHA, oleic acid (OA) or vehicle control, for 4.5 d. EPA and DHA supplements were bioavailable to keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In keratinocytes, EPA and DHA were shown to reduce basal secretion of IL-8 by 66% and 63%, respectively (p<0.05), and UVB-induced levels by 66% and 65% at 48 h after 100 mJ per cm2, respectively, (p<0.01). A similar pattern occurred in fibroblasts, whereas OA had no influence on IL-8 release in either cell line. In addition, TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 secretion by keratinocytes was reduced by 54% and 42%, respectively, by EPA and DHA (p<0.001). Hence both n-3 PUFA inhibit production of UVB- and TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 in skin cells; this may be important in the photoprotective and other anti-inflammatory effects conferred by these agents.

  1. Cytoprotection against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage by alpha-lipoic acid: implications in reducing occupational cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Budhwar, Roli; Nigam, Akanksha; Priya, Shivam

    2009-11-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), the metabolic antioxidant, was evaluated for its potential to protect against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage. Potassium dichromate was administered to Swiss albino mice orally ad libitum at the doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg body weight in drinking water to set DNA damage in cells, which was characterized in mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bone marrow cells using single-cell gel electrophoresis and analyses of generated comets for Tail moment, Tail DNA and Tail length. DNA damage was dose dependent. Cytoprotection by LA was remarkable. LA (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally) in pre-, co- and post-toxicant administration schedule abrogated DNA damage substantially in both cell types. Protection by LA was also dose dependent. LA annulled DNA damage by Cr(6+) in plasmid relaxation assay. A negligible DNA damage resulted during interaction of Cr(6+) and LA. Compared to ascorbate, LA emerged as a better antioxidant and least DNA damaging. In conclusion, our study advocated an experimental therapeutic research potential in LA against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage for reduction of occupational cancer risk in humans. PMID:19710206

  2. Phloretin derived from apple can reduce alpha-hemolysin expression in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Shui; Li, Wenhua; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bowen; Liu, Yan; Deng, Xuming; Peng, Liping

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become increasingly important because it is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infections, which have become globally epidemic. Our study specifically focused on the MRSA strain USA300, which was shown in 2014 to be responsible for the most current pandemic of highly virulent MRSA in the United States. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of phloretin on USA300. Susceptibility testing, western blotting assays, hemolysis assays and real-time RT-PCR were employed to examine the in vitro effects of phloretin on alpha-hemolysin (Hla) production when the bacterium was co-cultured with phloretin. The protective effect of phloretin against the USA300-mediated injury of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) was tested using the live/dead analysis and cytotoxicity assays. We showed that sub-inhibitory concentrations of phloretin have no effect on bacterial viability; however, they can markedly inhibit the production of Hla in culture supernatants and the transcriptional levels of hla (the gene encoding Hla) and agrA (the accessory gene regulator). Phloretin, at a final concentration of 16 µg/ml, could protect A549 cells from injury caused by USA300 in the co-culture system. Our study suggests that phloretin might have a potential application in the development of treatment for MRSA infections. PMID:26026280

  3. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  4. An alpha-lipoic acid-vitamin E mixture reduces post-embolism lipid peroxidation, cerebral infarction, and neurological deficit in rats.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Estrada, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Gonzalez-Castaneda, Rocio Elizabeth; Martinez-Contreras, Alicia; Luquin, Sonia; de la Mora, Pedro Garzon; Navarro-Ruiz, Alicia

    2003-10-01

    Oxidative stress increases delayed neuronal death in the brain following ischemia. As a consequence, many attempts to reduce the damage resulting from cerebral ischemia under more highly oxidized conditions have focused on treatments aimed at maintaining the redox equilibrium of the local environment. This study demonstrates the synergistic effects of combining treatments with alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and vitamin E (VE) as an efficient measure to reduce the damage caused by cerebral ischemia. Two oral therapeutic protocols were examined: intensive treatment (100 mg/kg LA and 140 mg/kg VE for 7 days after ischemia) and prophylactic treatment (20 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg VE from 30 days before infarction up to the day of sacrifice). The prophylactic treatment reduced serum lipid peroxidation, and diminished brain infarct volume by approximately 50%. Furthermore, prophylactically treated rats showed a reduction in post-ischemia neurological scores. No significant differences were found in the intensively treated group. Our data indicate that pre-ischemia administration of the LA-VE antioxidant mixture reduced the volume of brain damaged and the functional consequences of embolic infarction. These findings suggest that prophylaxis with an LA-VE mixture may be valuable in reducing cerebral damage levels in patients with a high risk of stroke.

  5. Mice expressing the A53T mutant form of human alpha-synuclein exhibit hyperactivity and reduced anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dianca R; Sidhu, Anita

    2010-06-01

    Genetic mutations associated with alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is primarily a movement disorder, but patients are known to experience anxiety and other mood disorders. In this study, we examined the effect of the hA53T mutation during development by analyzing the protein expression of norepinephrine (NET), serotonin (SERT), and dopamine (DAT) transporters in addition to assessing locomotor and anxiety-like behavior. We observed significant decreases in DAT expression at 8 months in transgenic animals compared with normal and younger mice. We used the elevated plus maze, open-field test, and rotarod apparatus to evaluate wild-type and hA53T hemizygous mice at 2, 8, and 12 months of age. Our results showed that 12-month-old transgenic mice spend more time in the open arms and display a greater number of open entries of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type controls and younger mice. Open-field test results showed that 12-month-old mice travel a greater distance overall and travel more in the inner zone than either wild-type or younger mice. Rotarod testing showed that 8- and 12-month-old transgenic mice perform better than either wild-type controls or younger mice. Overall, 8-12-month-old transgenic mice showed a trend toward reduced anxiety-like behavior and increased hyperactivity. These results indicate a possible role of the A53T alpha-Syn mutation in anxiety-like and hyperactive behaviors in a PD mouse model, suggesting that these behaviors might be comorbid with this disease. PMID:20077428

  6. Brief Report: Reduced Temporal-Central EEG Alpha Coherence during Joint Attention Perception in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaime, Mark; McMahon, Camilla M.; Davidson, Bridget C.; Newell, Lisa C.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Although prior studies have demonstrated reduced resting state EEG coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no studies have explored the nature of EEG coherence during joint attention. We examined the EEG coherence of the joint attention network in adolescents with and without ASD during congruent and incongruent joint attention…

  7. Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1488%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THDOC, +205%, p<0.01), (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5alpha-A, +216%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5alpha-A-diol, +190%, p<0.01). (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THP) and (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5beta-A) were not altered, while (3alpha,5beta)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THDOC) and (3alpha,5beta,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5beta-A-diol) were increased from undetectable levels to 271+/-100 and 2.4+/-0.9 pg+/-SEM, respectively (5/8 rats). Progesterone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1806%, p<0.0001), 3alpha,5beta-THP (+575%, p<0.001), 3alpha,5alpha

  8. Oxidative titrations of reduced cytochrome aa3: anisotropic extinction behavior observed in the heme alpha-band region.

    PubMed

    Schroedl, N A; Hartzell, C R

    1977-04-01

    Direct chemical titrations of reduced, purified cytochrome aa3 were monitored at 604 nm. Anaerobic oxidation by potassium ferricyanide or 1,1'-bis(hydroxymethyl)-ferricinium ion was compared with the natural substrate, molecular oxygen. The four electrons from reduced cytochrome aa3 were donated to one oxygen molecule, resulting in a linear titration with only fully oxidized or fully reduced enzyme molecules present. Unlike the linear or sigmoidal titrations which resulted from various reductive titrations reported previously, pronounced hyperbolic curves were obtained with the chemical oxidants. The midpoint potential values exhibited by the four metal centers of cytochrome aa3 were determined by computer simulation of the titration curves. A high potential pair of components (heme a = 340 mV, Cu = 340 mV) and a low potential pair (heme a = 220 mV, Cu = 240 mV) were observed, consistent with literature values. Unique to these equilibrium studies was a split in the heme a extinction coefficients at 604 nm. The low potential heme a component contributed 80-85% to the total absorbance change. A polarographic assay was used to verify that the integrity of cytochrome aa3 remained intact during equilibrium titrations spanning several hours. These experimental results indicate that simple chemical reversibility does not exist for cytochrome aa3 under anaerobic conditions.

  9. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  10. Alpha-tubulin enhanced renal tubular cell proliferation and tissue repair but reduced cell death and cell-crystal adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Manissorn, Juthatip; Khamchun, Supaporn; Vinaiphat, Arada; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals on renal tubular epithelial cells is a critical event for kidney stone disease that triggers many cascades of cellular response. Our previous expression proteomics study identified several altered proteins in MDCK renal tubular cells induced by CaOx crystals. However, functional significance of those changes had not been investigated. The present study thus aimed to define functional roles of such proteome data. Global protein network analysis using STRING software revealed α-tubulin, which was decreased, as one of central nodes of protein-protein interactions. Overexpression of α-tubulin (pcDNA6.2-TUBA1A) was then performed and its efficacy was confirmed. pcDNA6.2-TUBA1A could maintain levels of α-tubulin and its direct interacting partner, vimentin, after crystal exposure. Also, pcDNA6.2-TUBA1A successfully reduced cell death to almost the basal level and increased cell proliferation after crystal exposure. Additionally, tissue repair capacity was improved in pcDNA6.2-TUBA1A cells. Moreover, cell-crystal adhesion was reduced by pcDNA6.2-TUBA1A. Finally, levels of potential crystal receptors (HSP90, HSP70, and α-enolase) on apical membrane were dramatically reduced to basal levels by pcDNA6.2-TUBA1A. These findings implicate that α-tubulin has protective roles in kidney stone disease by preventing cell death and cell-crystal adhesion, but on the other hand, enhancing cell proliferation and tissue repair function. PMID:27363348

  11. Multimode fiber with z-dependent alpha-value.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1979-07-01

    The width of the impulse response of multimode fibers with power law index profiles depends on the alpha-value of the power law exponent. For constant alpha, optimum pulse width is achievable only in a very narrow range of values centered around alpha = 2 - (12/5)Delta. We show in this paper that the optimum width of the impulse response is achievable for fibers with nonoptimum alpha-values provided alpha varies slowly along the fiber and deviates on average by equal amounts to either side of its (constant) optimum value.

  12. Activation of Alpha 7 Cholinergic Nicotinic Receptors Reduce Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Kobori, Nobuhide; Redell, John B.; Hylin, Michael J.; Hood, Kimberly N.; Moore, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major human health concern that has the greatest impact on young men and women. The breakdown of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an important pathological consequence of TBI that initiates secondary processes, including infiltration of inflammatory cells, which can exacerbate brain inflammation and contribute to poor outcome. While the role of inflammation within the injured brain has been examined in some detail, the contribution of peripheral/systemic inflammation to TBI pathophysiology is largely unknown. Recent studies have implicated vagus nerve regulation of splenic cholinergic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (nAChRa7) signaling in the regulation of systemic inflammation. However, it is not known whether this mechanism plays a role in TBI-triggered inflammation and BBB breakdown. Following TBI, we observed that plasma TNF-α and IL-1β levels, as well as BBB permeability, were significantly increased in nAChRa7 null mice (Chrna7−/−) relative to wild-type mice. The administration of exogenous IL-1β and TNF-α to brain-injured animals worsened Evans Blue dye extravasation, suggesting that systemic inflammation contributes to TBI-triggered BBB permeability. Systemic administration of the nAChRa7 agonist PNU-282987 or the positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 significantly attenuated TBI-triggered BBB compromise. Supporting a role for splenic nAChRa7 receptors, we demonstrate that splenic injection of the nicotinic receptor blocker α-bungarotoxin increased BBB permeability in brain-injured rats, while PNU-282987 injection decreased such permeability. These effects were not seen when α-bungarotoxin or PNU-282987 were administered to splenectomized, brain-injured rats. Together, these findings support the short-term use of nAChRa7-activating agents as a strategy to reduce TBI-triggered BBB permeability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Breakdown of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI

  13. Anacardic acid inhibits estrogen receptor alpha-DNA binding and reduces target gene transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, David J.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinie S.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Isaacs, Susan M.; Dougherty, Susan M.; Imbert-Fernandez, Yoannis; Cunningham, Albert R.; Chen, Chunyuan; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2010-01-01

    Anacardic acid (2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid) is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical with established anticancer activity in cell and animal models. The mechanisms by which anacardic acid inhibits cancer cell proliferation remain undefined. Anacardic acid 24:1ω5 (AnAc 24:1ω5) was purified from geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) and shown to inhibit the proliferation of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive MCF-7 and endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 breast cancer cells with greater efficacy than ERα-negative primary human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, and MDA-MB-231 basal-like breast cancer cells. AnAc 24:1ω5 inhibited cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in a cell-specific manner. AnAc 24:1ω5 inhibited estradiol (E2)-induced estrogen response element (ERE) reporter activity and transcription of the endogenous E2-target genes: pS2, cyclin D1, and cathepsin D in MCF-7 cells. AnAc 24:1ω5 did not compete with E2 for ERα or ERβ binding, nor did AnAc 24:1ω5 reduce ERα or ERβ steady state protein levels in MCF-7 cells; rather, AnAc 24:1ω5 inhibited ER-ERE binding in vitro. Virtual Screening with the molecular docking software Surflex evaluated AnAc 24:1ω5 interaction with ERα ligand binding and DNA binding domains (LBD and DBD) in conjunction with experimental validation. Molecular modeling revealed AnAc 24:1ω5 interaction with the ERα DBD but not the LBD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that AnAc 24:1ω5 inhibited E2-ERα interaction with the endogenous pS2 gene promoter region containing an ERE. These data indicate that AnAc 24:1ω5 inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in an ER-dependent manner by reducing ER-DNA interaction and inhibiting ER-mediated transcriptional responses. PMID:20197399

  14. On the maximal diphoton width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvio, Alberto; Staub, Florian; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into γγ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  15. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation by reducing the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}/retinoid X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, Adam J.; Luo Zhengyu; Vincent, Karen A.; Akita, Geoffrey Y.; Cheng, Seng H.; Gregory, Richard J.; Jiang Canwen

    2007-12-21

    In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in the suppression of mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. We showed that either hypoxia or adenovirus-mediated expression of a constitutively stable hybrid form (HIF-1{alpha}/VP16) suppressed mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by an accumulation of intracellular neutral lipid. Both treatments also reduced the mRNA levels of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mitochondrial import of fatty acids for {beta}-oxidation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1{alpha}/VP16 in cardiomyocytes under normoxic conditions also mimicked the reduction in the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})/retinoid X receptor (RXR), in the presence or absence of a PPAR{alpha} ligand. These results suggest that HIF-1 may be involved in hypoxia-induced suppression of fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by reducing the DNA binding activity of PPAR{alpha}/RXR.

  16. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  17. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  18. ASB16165, a phosphodiesterase 7A inhibitor, reduces cutaneous TNF-alpha level and ameliorates skin edema in phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skin inflammation model in mice.

    PubMed

    Kadoshima-Yamaoka, Kumiko; Goto, Megumi; Murakawa, Masao; Yoshioka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Hidekazu; Murafuji, Hidenobu; Kanki, Satomi; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Nagahira, Kazuhiro; Ogata, Atsuto; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Fukuda, Yoshiaki

    2009-06-24

    Possible role of phosphodiesterase 7A (PDE7A) in skin inflammation was examined using ASB16165, a specific inhibitor for PDE7A. Epicutaneous application of phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to mouse ear resulted in induction of skin edema, and topical treatment with ASB16165 inhibited the induction of skin edema in a dose-dependent manner. The TPA challenge also increased the level of TNF-alpha at the application site, and the ASB16165 treatment reduced the TNF-alpha level in the skin. In addition, ASB16165 suppressed the production of TNF-alpha by human keratinocytes stimulated in vitro with TPA and calcium ionophore. Forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, as well as dibutyryl cAMP also showed inhibitory effect on the TNF-alpha production in the cells, suggesting involvement of cAMP in TNF-alpha generation. These results demonstrate that PDE7A might regulate TNF-alpha production in keratinocytes in a cAMP-dependent fashion. As immunostaining analysis revealed that PDE7A is expressed in the epidermis and TNF-alpha is known to contribute to the TPA-induced edema, it is possible that the inhibitory effect of ASB16165 on skin edema in mouse TPA-induced dermatitis model is mediated by suppression of TNF-alpha production. This is the first report suggesting the association of PDE7A with the function of keratinocytes. ASB16165 will be useful as an agent for skin inflammation in which TNF-alpha plays a pathogenic role (e.g. psoriasis).

  19. Alpha-chaconine-reduced metastasis involves a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway with downregulation of NF-kappaB in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chen, Pin-Shern; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Jeng, Ya-Fang; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2007-12-26

    Alpha-chaconine, isolated from Solanum tuberosum Linn., is a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts. Some reports demonstrated that alpha-chaconine had various anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of alpha-chaconine on lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis in vitro. We chose the highly metastatic A549 cells, which were treated with various concentrations of alpha-chaconine to clarify the potential of inhibiting A549 cells invasion and migration. Data showed that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell invasion/migration according to wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. Our results also showed that alpha-chaconine could inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt, whereas it did not affected phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and p38. In addition, alpha-chaconine significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and the binding ability of NF-kappaB. These results suggested that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell metastasis by a reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activities involving suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/NF-kappaB (PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Inhibiting metastasis by alpha-chaconine might offer a pivotal mechanism for its effective chemotherapeutic action.

  20. Combined Intraperitoneal and Intrathecal Etanercept Reduce Increased Brain Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels and Rescues Spatial Deficits in Young Rats after Bile Duct Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rats subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) exhibit increased systemic oxidative stress and brain dysfunction characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), including fatigue, neurotransmitter alterations, cognitive and motor impairment, and brain inflammation. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are both increased in plasma and brain in encephalopathy induced by chronic liver failure. This study first determined the temporal profiles of TNF-α and ADMA in the plasma, brain cortex, and hippocampus in young BDL rats. Next, we examined whether etanercept was beneficial in preventing brain damage. Methods: Young rats underwent sham ligation or BDL at day 17 ± 1 for 4 weeks. Treatment group rats were administered etanercept (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) three times per week with or without etanercept (100 μg) intrathecally (IT) three times in total. Results: We found increased plasma TNF-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), and ADMA levels, increased cortical TNF-α mRNA and protein and ADMA, and hippocampal TNF-α mRNA and protein, and spatial defects in young BDL rats. The increase in cortex TNF-α mRNA and ADMA were reduced by IP etanercept or combined IP and IT etanercept. Dually IP/IT etanercept administration reduced the increased cortical and hippocampal TNF-α mRNA and protein level as well as spatial deficits. Conclusions: We conclude that combined intraperitoneal and intrathecal etanercept reduce increased brain TNF-α and ADMA levels and rescues spatial deficits in young rats after BDL. PMID:27445694

  1. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors sensitize reduced glucocorticoid response mediated by TNF{alpha} in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT)

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Kenji . E-mail: knjond@ps.toyaku.ac.jp; Nagashima, Masahiro; Kawakubo, Yo; Inoue, Shota; Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro

    2006-12-08

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential drugs administered topically or systematically for the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as pemphigus. However, a certain proportion of patients does not respond well to GCs. Although studies on the relationship between cytokines and GC insensitivity in local tissues have attracted attention recently, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) for GC insensitivity in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we report that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) {alpha} reduces GC-induced transactivation of endogenous genes as well as a reporter plasmid which contains GC responsive element (GRE) in human epidermal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The GC insensitivity by TNF{alpha} was not accompanied by changes in mRNA expressions of GR isoforms ({alpha} or {beta}). However, we observed that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) significantly sensitized the GC-induced transactivation of anti-inflammatory genes (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 gene in the presence of TNF{alpha}. Additionally, we observed that TNF{alpha} reduced prednisolone (PSL)-dependent nuclear translocation of GR, which was restored by pre-treatment of MEK-1 inhibitors. This is the first study demonstrating a role of the MEK-1/ERK cascade in TNF{alpha}-mediated GC insensitivity. Our data suggest that overexpression of TNF{alpha} leads to topical GC insensitivity by reducing GR nuclear translocation in keratinocytes, and our findings also suggest that inhibiting the MEK-1/ERK cascade may offer a therapeutic potential for increasing GC efficacy in epidermis where sufficient inflammatory suppression is required.

  2. Ru(bpy)32+/nanoporous silver-based electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for alpha fetoprotein enhanced by gold nanoparticles decorated black carbon intercalated reduced graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Lv, Xiaohui; Wang, Qi; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Yan, Tao; Hu, Lihua; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was proposed for the quantitative determination of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) using gold nanoparticles decorated black carbon intercalated reduced graphene oxide (Au-rGO@CB) as sensing platform and nanoporous silver (NPS) loaded Ru(bpy)32+ as labels. In this work, intercalation of CB inhibited the accumulation of rGO and Au-rGO@CB was firstly used to immobilize primary antibody (Ab1) in ECL system. NPS prepared by the dealloying of binary alloy has high pore volume and surface areas, which was used to load amount of secondary antibodies (Ab2) and Ru(bpy)32+, which could greatly enhance the ECL intensity. Under optimal conditions, the designed immunosensor exhibited wider linear range from 0.0001 to 30 ng/mL with a relative lower detection limit of 33 fg/mL for AFP detection. Overall, the designed immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity, good repeatability and stability. This proposed method provided a potential application for clinical monitoring of AFP. PMID:26829062

  3. Zyflamend reduces LTB4 formation and prevents oral carcinogenesis in a 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peiying; Sun, Zheng; Chan, Diana; Cartwright, Carrie A; Vijjeswarapu, Mary; Ding, Jibin; Chen, Xiaoxin; Newman, Robert A

    2008-11-01

    Aberrant arachidonic acid metabolism, especially altered cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, has been associated with chronic inflammation as well as carcinogenesis in human oral cavity tissues. Here, we examined the effect of Zyflamend, a product containing 10 concentrated herbal extracts, on development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA)-induced inflammation and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A hamster cheek pouch model was used in which 0.5% DMBA was applied topically onto the left cheek pouch of male Syrian golden hamsters either three times per week for 3 weeks (short term) or 6 weeks (long term). Zyflamend was then applied topically at one of three different doses (25, 50 and 100 microl) onto the left cheek pouch three times for 1 week (short-term study) or chronically for 18 weeks. Zyflamend significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, incidence of hyperplasia and dysplastic lesions, bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index as well as number of SCC in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of Zyflamend (100 microl) reduced formation of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 50% compared with DMBA-treated tissues. The reduction of LTB(4) was concentration dependent. The effect of Zyflamend on inhibition of LTB(4) formation was further confirmed with in vitro cell-based assay. Adding LTB(4) to RBL-1 cells, a rat leukemia cell line expressing high levels of 5-LOX and LTA(4) hydrolase, partially blocked antiproliferative effect of Zyflamend. This study demonstrates that Zyflamend inhibited LTB(4) formation and modulated adverse histopathological changes in the DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model. The study suggests that Zyflamend might prevent oral carcinogenesis at the post-initiation stage. PMID:18687669

  4. Pathogenesis of 1918 Pandemic and H5N1 Influenza Virus Infections in a Guinea Pig Model: Antiviral Potential of Exogenous Alpha Interferon To Reduce Virus Shedding▿

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoeven, Neal; Belser, Jessica A.; Szretter, Kristy J.; Zeng, Hui; Staeheli, Peter; Swayne, David E.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Although highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses have yet to acquire the ability to transmit efficiently among humans, the increasing genetic diversity among these viruses and continued outbreaks in avian species underscore the need for more effective measures for the control and prevention of human H5N1 virus infection. Additional small animal models with which therapeutic approaches against virulent influenza viruses can be evaluated are needed. In this study, we used the guinea pig model to evaluate the relative virulence of selected avian and human influenza A viruses. We demonstrate that guinea pigs can be infected with avian and human influenza viruses, resulting in high titers of virus shedding in nasal washes for up to 5 days postinoculation (p.i.) and in lung tissue of inoculated animals. However, other physiologic indicators typically associated with virulent influenza virus strains were absent in this species. We evaluated the ability of intranasal treatment with human alpha interferon (α-IFN) to reduce lung and nasal wash titers in guinea pigs challenged with the reconstructed 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus or a contemporary H5N1 virus. IFN treatment initiated 1 day prior to challenge significantly reduced or prevented infection of guinea pigs by both viruses, as measured by virus titer determination and seroconversion. The expression of the antiviral Mx protein in lung tissue correlated with the reduction of virus titers. We propose that the guinea pig may serve as a useful small animal model for testing the efficacy of antiviral compounds and that α-IFN treatment may be a useful antiviral strategy against highly virulent strains with pandemic potential. PMID:19144714

  5. Concurrent subspace width optimization method for RBF neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqian; Zhao, Yong; van Tooren, Michel

    2012-02-01

    Radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) are widely used in nonlinear function approximation. One of the challenges in RBFNN modeling is determining how to effectively optimize width parameters to improve approximation accuracy. To solve this problem, a width optimization method, concurrent subspace width optimization (CSWO), is proposed based on a decomposition and coordination strategy. This method decomposes the large-scale width optimization problem into several subspace optimization (SSO) problems, each of which has a single optimization variable and smaller training and validation data sets so as to greatly simplify optimization complexity. These SSOs can be solved concurrently, thus computational time can be effectively reduced. With top-level system coordination, the optimization of SSOs can converge to a consistent optimum, which is equivalent to the optimum of the original width optimization problem. The proposed method is tested with four mathematical examples and one practical engineering approximation problem. The results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of CSWO in optimizing width parameters over the traditional width optimization methods.

  6. THE LYMAN ALPHA MORPHOLOGY OF LOCAL STARBURST GALAXIES: RELEASE OF CALIBRATED IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlin, Goeran; Hayes, Matthew; Kunth, Daniel; Atek, Hakim; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Petrosian, Artashes E-mail: matthew.hayes@unige.ch

    2009-09-15

    We present reduced and calibrated high resolution Lyman-alpha (Ly{alpha}) images for a sample of six local star-forming galaxies. Targets were selected to represent a range in luminosity and metallicity and to include both known Ly{alpha} emitters and nonemitters. Far ultraviolet imaging was carried out with the Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the F122M (Ly{alpha} online) and F140LP (continuum) filters. The resulting Ly{alpha} images are the product of careful modeling of both the stellar and nebular continua, facilitated by supporting HST imaging at {lambda} {approx} 2200, 3300, 4400, 5500, H{alpha}, and 8000 A, combined with Starburst 99 evolutionary synthesis models, and prescriptions for dust extinction on the continuum. In all, the resulting morphologies in Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and UV continuum are qualitatively very different and we show that the bulk of Ly{alpha} emerges in a diffuse component resulting from resonant scattering events. Ly{alpha} escape fractions, computed from integrated H{alpha} luminosities and recombination theory, are found never to exceed 14%. Internal dust extinction is estimated in each pixel and used to correct Ly{alpha} fluxes. However, the extinction corrections are far too small (by factors from 2.6 to infinity) to reconcile the emerging global Ly{alpha} luminosities with standard recombination predictions. Surprisingly, when comparing the global equivalent widths of Ly{alpha} and H{alpha}, the two quantities appear to be anticorrelated, which may be due to the evolution of mechanical feedback from the starburst. This calls for caution in the interpretation of Ly{alpha} observations in terms of star formation rates. The images presented have a physical resolution 3 orders of magnitude better than attainable at high redshifts from the ground with current instrumentation and our images may therefore serve as useful templates for comparing with observations and modeling of

  7. 23 CFR 658.15 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.15 Width. (a) No State shall impose a width limitation of more or less than 102 inches, or its approximate metric equivalent, 2.6 meters (102.36 inches)...

  8. The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Ferragud, Antonio; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Nácher, Amparo; Merino, Virginia; Cardá, Miguel; Murga, Juan; Canales, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    Benztropine (BZT) analogs, a family of high-affinity dopamine transporter ligands, are molecules that exhibit pharmacological and behavioral characteristics predictive of significant therapeutic potential in cocaine addiction. Here, we examined in mice the effects of 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane (AHN-1055) on motor activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and c-Fos expression in the striatum. AHN-1055 produced mild attenuation of spontaneous locomotor activity at a low dose (1 mg/kg) and weak stimulation at a higher dose (10 mg/kg). In parallel, the BZT analog significantly increased c-Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudoputamen at the high dose, whereas producing marginal decreases at low and moderate doses (1, 3 mg/kg) in both dorsal and ventral striatum. Interaction assays showed that cocaine's ability to stimulate locomotor activity was decreased by AHN-1055 treatment, but not by treatment with D-amphetamine. Such reduced ability did not result from an increase in stereotyped behavior. Another dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, decreased cocaine-induced locomotor activity but evoked by itself intense motor stereotypies. Remarkably, the BZT analog dose-dependently blocked cocaine-induced CPP without producing CPP when given alone, and blocked in conditioned mice cocaine-stimulated early-gene activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsomedial striatum. These observations provide evidence that AHN-1055 does not behave as a classical psychomotor stimulant and that some of its properties, including attenuation of cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression, locomotor stimulation, and CPP, support its candidacy, and that of structurally related molecules, as possible pharmacotherapies in cocaine addiction.

  9. The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Ferragud, Antonio; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Nácher, Amparo; Merino, Virginia; Cardá, Miguel; Murga, Juan; Canales, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    Benztropine (BZT) analogs, a family of high-affinity dopamine transporter ligands, are molecules that exhibit pharmacological and behavioral characteristics predictive of significant therapeutic potential in cocaine addiction. Here, we examined in mice the effects of 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane (AHN-1055) on motor activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and c-Fos expression in the striatum. AHN-1055 produced mild attenuation of spontaneous locomotor activity at a low dose (1 mg/kg) and weak stimulation at a higher dose (10 mg/kg). In parallel, the BZT analog significantly increased c-Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudoputamen at the high dose, whereas producing marginal decreases at low and moderate doses (1, 3 mg/kg) in both dorsal and ventral striatum. Interaction assays showed that cocaine's ability to stimulate locomotor activity was decreased by AHN-1055 treatment, but not by treatment with D-amphetamine. Such reduced ability did not result from an increase in stereotyped behavior. Another dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, decreased cocaine-induced locomotor activity but evoked by itself intense motor stereotypies. Remarkably, the BZT analog dose-dependently blocked cocaine-induced CPP without producing CPP when given alone, and blocked in conditioned mice cocaine-stimulated early-gene activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsomedial striatum. These observations provide evidence that AHN-1055 does not behave as a classical psychomotor stimulant and that some of its properties, including attenuation of cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression, locomotor stimulation, and CPP, support its candidacy, and that of structurally related molecules, as possible pharmacotherapies in cocaine addiction. PMID:19606084

  10. Alpha Interferon Inhibits Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) Reactivation in Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cells and Reduces HHV-8 Load in Cultured Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monini, Paolo; Carlini, Francesca; Stürzl, Michael; Rimessi, Paola; Superti, Fabiana; Franco, Marina; Melucci-Vigo, Gianna; Cafaro, Aurelio; Goletti, Delia; Sgadari, Cecilia; Butto’, Stefano; Leone, Patrizia; Leone, Pasqualina; Chiozzini, Chiara; Barresi, Caterina; Tinari, Antonella; Bonaccorsi, Angela; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Giuliani, Massimo; di Carlo, Aldo; Andreoni, Massimo; Rezza, Giovanni; Ensoli, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Infection by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). Since regression of KS can be achieved by treatment of the patients with alpha interferon (IFN-α), we analyzed the effects of IFN-α or anti-IFN-α antibodies (Ab) on HHV-8 latently infected primary effusion lymphoma-derived cell lines (BCBL-1 and BC-1) and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with all forms of KS and from at-risk subjects. IFN-α inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the amplification of HHV-8 DNA in BCBL-1 cells induced to lytic infection with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). This effect was associated with the inhibition of the expression of HHV-8 nut-1 and kaposin genes that are induced early and several hours, respectively, after TPA treatment. In addition, IFN-α inhibited virus production and/or release from BCBL-1 cells. Inhibition of nut-1 and kaposin genes by IFN-α was also observed in BC-1 cells induced with n-butyrate. Conversely, the addition of anti-IFN-α Ab to TPA-induced BCBL-1 cells resulted in a larger number of mature enveloped particles and in a more extensive cytopathic effect due to the neutralization of the endogenous IFN produced by these cells. IFN was also produced by cultured PBMC from HHV-8-infected individuals, and this was associated with a loss of viral DNA during culture. However, the addition of anti-IFN-α Ab or anti-type I IFN receptor Ab promoted the maintenance of HHV-8 DNA in these cells that was associated with the detection of the latency-associated kaposin RNA. Finally, the addition of IFN-α reduced the HHV-8 load in PBMC. Thus, IFN-α appears to have inhibitory effects on HHV-8 persistent infection of PBMC. These results suggest that, in addition to inhibiting the expression of angiogenic factors that are key to KS development, IFN-α may induce KS regression by reducing the HHV-8 load and/or inhibiting virus reactivation. PMID:10196299

  11. Expansion-cooled Lyman-alpha clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Robert C.; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1991-02-01

    It is shown that recent observations by Pettini et al. (1990) which indicate that low-N H I Ly-alpha forest lines have small velocity widths and that the velocity widths are positively correlated with N (H I) can be understood as the result of adiabatic cooling of expanding clouds. It is argued that expansion cooling can efficiently lower temperatures and velocity widths of diffuse ionized clouds, and that this trend of diminishing temperature and velocity width in a wide range of plausible cloud models is consistent with double-quasar data. Expansion can provide a natural explanation for the steep z-evolution of the cloud numbers.

  12. Limit Cycles Can Reduce the Width of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Batalha, Natasha E.; Harman, Chester E.; Kasting, James F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid water habitable zone (HZ) describes the orbital distance at which a terrestrial planet can maintain above-freezing conditions through regulation by the carbonate-silicate cycle. Recent calculations have suggested that planets in the outer regions of the HZ cannot maintain stable, warm climates, but rather should oscillate between long, globally glaciated states and shorter periods of climatic warmth. Such conditions, similar to “Snowball Earth” episodes experienced on Earth, would be inimical to the development of complex land life, including intelligent life. Here, we build on previous studies with an updated energy balance climate model to calculate this “limit cycle” region of the HZ where such cycling would occur. We argue that an abiotic Earth would have a greater CO2 partial pressure than today because plants and other biota help to enhance the storage of CO2 in soil. When we tune our abiotic model accordingly, we find that limit cycles can occur but that previous calculations have overestimated their importance. For G stars like the Sun, limit cycles occur only for planets with CO2 outgassing rates less than that on modern Earth. For K- and M-star planets, limit cycles should not occur; however, M-star planets may be inhospitable to life for other reasons. Planets orbiting late G-type and early K-type stars retain the greatest potential for maintaining warm, stable conditions. Our results suggest that host star type, planetary volcanic activity, and seafloor weathering are all important factors in determining whether planets will be prone to limit cycling.

  13. Optically thick line widths in pyrotechnic flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douda, B. E.; Exton, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Experimentally determined sodium line widths for pyrotechnic flares are compared with simple analytical, optically-thick-line-shape calculations. Three ambient pressure levels are considered (760, 150 and 30 torr) for three different flare compositions. The measured line widths range from 1.3 to 481 A. The analytic procedure emphasizes the Lorentz line shape as observed under optically-thick conditions. Calculated widths are in good agreement with the measured values over the entire range.

  14. Interferon-alpha reduces insulin resistance and beta-cell secretion in responders among patients with chronic hepatitis B and C.

    PubMed

    Tai, T-Y; Lu, J-Y; Chen, C-L; Lai, M-Y; Chen, P-J; Kao, J-H; Lee, C-Z; Lee, H-S; Chuang, L-M; Jeng, Y-M

    2003-09-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the effects of interferon (IFN)-alpha on glucose metabolism in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infections. Twenty-eight biopsy-proven patients with chronic hepatitis B (ten cases) and hepatitis C (18 cases) were given IFN-alpha for a total of 24 weeks. The patients received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucagon stimulation test, tests for type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies and an insulin suppression test before and after IFN-alpha therapy. Ten of the 28 patients responded to IFN-alpha therapy. Steady-state plasma glucose of the insulin suppression test decreased significantly in responders (13.32+/-1.48 (S.E.M.) vs 11.33+/-1.19 mmol/l, P=0.0501) but not in non-responders (12.29+/-1.24 vs 11.11+/-0.99 mmol/l, P=0.2110) immediately after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. In the oral glucose tolerance test, no significant difference was observed in plasma glucose in either responders (10.17+/-0.23 vs 10.03+/-0.22 mmol/l) or non-responders (10.11+/-0.22 vs 9.97+/-0.21 mmol/l) 3 Months after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. However, significant differences were noted in C-peptide in both responders (2.90+/-0.13 vs 2.20+/-0.09 nmol/l, P=0.0040) and non-responders (2.45+/-0.11 vs 2.22+/-0.08 nmol/l, P=0.0287) before vs after treatment. The changes of C-peptide in an OGTT between responders and non-responders were also significantly different (P=0.0028), with responders reporting a greater reduction in C-peptide. No case developed autoantibodies during the treatment. In patients who were successfully treated with IFN-alpha, insulin sensitivity improved and their plasma glucose stayed at the same level without secreting as much insulin from islet beta-cells.

  15. Elevated red blood cell distribution width and inflammation in printing workers

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Ahmet; Aydin, Neriman; Ozcirpici, Birgul; Saricicek, Edibe; Sezen, Hatice; Okumus, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Selim; Kilinc, Metin

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to chemical compounds on systemic biochemical inflammatory markers in printing industry workers. Material/Methods Fifty-eight printing workers from 19 different small- and medium-sized enterprises in the printing sector were investigated. For comparison, 80 healthy workers not subjected to workplace chemicals served as control subjects. Results No significant differences were observed between the printing workers and control subjects with respect to age, BMI, waist circumference/hip circumference ratio, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Printing workers had significantly higher serum TNF-alpha levels (11.02±5.34 vs. 9.26±3.87 pg/ml, p=0.039), plasma fibrinogen levels (1.74±0.49 vs. 1.38±0.5 mg/dl, p=0.012), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD) (49.77±3.09 vs. 47.3±2.88 p<0.01) compared to control subjects. Conclusions Elevation of RDW, serum TNF-alpha, and plasma fibrinogen levels in printing workers may be due to systemic toxic effects of chemical compounds used in this sector. TNF-alpha is an inflammatory cytokine that has a wide spectrum of biological activities, and fibrinogen plays an important role in pathological processes. Some compounds may be carcinogenic or mutagenic. Better designed workplaces and working conditions will help to reduce the hazardous effects of chemical compounds. PMID:24231719

  16. Channel-Coupling Contribution to the Widths of Decay Nuclear States and to Their Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S.G.

    2004-12-01

    By using the formalism of the quantum theory of fission, the amplitudes of partial decay widths and the asymptotic behavior of the wave function for a decaying nucleus are found with allowance for open-decay-channel coupling not only for fission, but also for the binary decays of nuclei through protonic, alpha-particle, cluster, and other channels.

  17. Di-electron and two-photon widths in charmonium

    SciTech Connect

    Badalian, A. M.; Danilkin, I. V.

    2009-07-15

    The vector and pseudoscalar decay constants are calculated in the framework of the Field Correlator Method. Di-electron widths: {Gamma}{sub ee}(J/{psi}) = 5.41 keV, {Gamma}{sub ee}({psi}'(3686)) = 2.47 keV, {Gamma}{sub ee}({psi}''(3770)) = 0.248 keV, in good agreement with experiment, are obtained with the same coupling, {alpha}{sub s} = 0.165, in the QCD radiative corrections. We show that the larger {alpha}{sub s} = 0.191 {+-} 0.004 is needed to reach agreement with experiment for {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}({chi}c) = 7.22 keV, {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}({chi}c({sup 3}P0)) = 3.3 keV, {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}{chi}c({sup 3}P{sub 2}) = 0.54 keV, and also for {Gamma}(J/{psi} {yields} 3g) = 59.5 keV, {Gamma}(J/{psi} {yields} {gamma}2g) = 5.7 keV. Meanwhile, even larger {alpha}{sub s} = 0.238 gives rise to good description of {Gamma}({psi}' {yields} 3g) = 52.7 keV, {Gamma}({psi}' {yields} {gamma} 2g) = 3.5 keV, and provides correct ratio of the branching fractions: {Beta} (J/{psi} {yields} light hadrons)/{Beta} ({psi}' {yields} light hadrons) = 0.24.

  18. Development of crash modification factors for changing lane width on roadway segments using generalized nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chris; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Park, Juneyoung; Wang, Jung-Han

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of changing lane width in reducing crashes on roadway segments. To consider nonlinear relationships between crash rate and lane width, the study develops generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) using 3-years crash records and road geometry data collected for all roadway segments in Florida. The study also estimates various crash modification factors (CMFs) for different ranges of lane width based on the results of the GNMs. It was found that the crash rate was highest for 12-ft lane and lower for the lane width less than or greater than 12ft. GNMs can extrapolate this nonlinear continuous effect of lane width and estimate the CMFs for any lane width, not only selected lane widths, unlike generalized linear models (GLMs) with categorical variables. The CMFs estimated using GNMs reflect that crashes are less likely to occur for narrower lanes if the lane width is less than 12ft whereas crashes are less likely to occur for wider lanes if the lane width is greater than 12ft. However, these effects varied with the posted speed limits as the effect of interaction between lane width and speed limit was significant. The estimated CMFs show that crashes are less likely to occur for lane widths less than 12ft than the lane widths greater than 12ft if the speed limit is higher than or equal to 40mph. It was also found from the CMFs that crashes at higher severity levels (KABC and KAB) are less likely to occur for lane widths greater or less than 12ft compared to 12-ft lane. The study demonstrates that the CMFs estimated using GNMs clearly reflect variations in crashes with lane width, which cannot be captured by the CMFs estimated using GLMs. Thus, it is recommended that if the relationship between crash rate and lane width is nonlinear, the CMFs are estimated using GNMs.

  19. Critical comparison of Kramers' fission width with the stationary width from the Langevin equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Pal, Santanu

    2009-06-15

    It is shown that Kramers' fission width, originally derived for a system with constant inertia, can be extended to systems with a deformation-dependent collective inertia, which is the case for nuclear fission. The predictions of Kramers' width for systems with variable inertia are found to be in very good agreement with the stationary fission widths obtained by solving the corresponding Langevin equations.

  20. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  1. Perch width preferences of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Odberg, F; Sonck, B; Duchateau, L

    2009-07-01

    1. In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 and 10.5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate short perches differing in width were placed in the test cages. In each experiment 12 groups of 4 hens were filmed during day and night. The behaviour and location of the hens were recorded and whether the nest box affected hen distribution over the perches was investigated. 2. During daytime, in EXP-2P, there was an increase in perch use with increasing perch width. Hens spent less time on perches of 1.5 cm wide compared to perches of 9.0 and 10.5 cm wide. In EXP-7P, the 1.5-cm wide perch was also used the least (but only the difference with 4.5-cm wide perches was statistically significant) but perch use did not increase linearly with perch width. During the night, there were no significant perch width preferences in either experiment. 3. The percentage of active behaviours (preening, walking, drinking, pecking at hen) versus passive behaviours (standing, sitting, sleeping) did not differ significantly according to perch width. 4. In EXP-7P, there was a trend for perch use to decrease with greater distances to the nest box in the morning. 5. A perch width of 1.5 cm is not recommended for laying hens. For wider perch widths, results were equivocal: they tend to support rather than challenge the widespread use of 4.5-cm wide perches in commercial units.

  2. On the holographic width of flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giataganas, Dimitrios; Irges, Nikos

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the width of the flux tube between heavy static quark charges. Using the gauge/gravity duality, we find the properties of the minimal connected surface related to the width of the bound state. We show that in the confining phase, the logarithmic broadening predicted by the effective string description and observed in lattice simulations is a generic property of all confining backgrounds. We also study the transverse fluctuations of the string connecting two static quarks in curved backgrounds. Our formalism is applied to AdS space where we compute the expectation value of the square of transverse deviations of the string, a quantity related to the width.

  3. Discovery of {sup 109}Xe and {sup 105}Te: Superallowed {alpha} Decay near Doubly Magic {sup 100}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Liddick, S. N.; Batchelder, J. C.; Grzywacz, R.; Bingham, C. R.; Mazzocchi, C.; Drafta, G.; Tantawy, M. N.; Page, R. D.; Darby, I. G.; Joss, D. T.; Thomson, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Gross, C. J.; Goodin, C.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.; Li, K.; Hecht, A. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Korgul, A.

    2006-08-25

    Two new {alpha} emitters {sup 109}Xe and {sup 105}Te were identified through the observation of the {sup 109}Xe{yields}{sup 105}Te{yields}{sup 101}Sn {alpha}-decay chain. The {sup 109}Xe nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 54}Fe({sup 58}Ni,3n){sup 109}Xe and studied using the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Two transitions at E{sub {alpha}}=4062{+-}7 keV and E{sub {alpha}}=3918{+-}9 keV were interpreted as the l=2 and l=0 transitions from the 7/2{sup +} ground state in {sup 109}Xe (T{sub 1/2}=13{+-}2 ms) to the 5/2{sup +} ground state and a 7/2{sup +} excited state, located at 150{+-}13 keV in {sup 105}Te. The observation of the subsequent decay of {sup 105}Te marks the discovery of the lightest known {alpha}-decaying nucleus. The measured transition energy E{sub {alpha}}=4703{+-}5 keV and half-life T{sub 1/2}=620{+-}70 ns were used to determine the reduced {alpha}-decay width {delta}{sup 2}. The ratio {delta}{sub {sup 105}Te}{sup 2}/{delta}{sub {sup 213}Po}{sup 2} of {approx}3 indicates a superallowed character of the {alpha} emission from {sup 105}Te.

  4. 7 CFR 29.6054 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6054 Width. The relative breadth of a tobacco leaf expressed in relation to its length. (See chart.) Elements of Quality...

  5. Prolonged waking reduces human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein 120- or tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis in the cerebral cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Montes-Rodríguez, Corinne J; Alavez, Silvestre; Elder, John H; Haro, Reyes; Morán, Julio; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2004-04-29

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces neuronal death, presumably by apoptosis. This effect may be triggered by the glycoprotein 120 (HIVgp120) released by HIV when infecting a cell, and mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Both molecules, HIVgp120 and TNFalpha, increase sleep when administered acutely in the brain. On the other hand, sleep deprivation increases the levels of several growth factors. In this context, we challenged rats with HIVgp120 or TNFalpha simultaneously with sleep deprivation. Our results indicate that both HIVgp120 and TNFalpha increase neuronal death in the rat cerebral cortex, but not hippocampus, and that this effect is completely prevented by total deprivation of sleep. These results suggest that acute total deprivation of sleep protects against the HIVgp120 and TNFalpha deleterious effects.

  6. Finite banana width effect on magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.P.; Tsai, S.T.

    1995-08-01

    The finite banana width (FBW) effect on the coupling between magnetoacoustic waves and the near harmonic gyro-oscillations of the energetic ions/{alpha} particles in tokamaks are studied. The gyrokinetic equation with FBW effect is rederived for the energetic trapped ions. The dispersion relation and growth rate of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MACI) are obtained. It is found that the coherence interaction between the energetic ion trajectory and mode field has a significant effect when the Larmor radius of energetic ions is larger than the wavelength of MACI. Near the low field side the FBW effect destabilizes the mode, while away from it the FBW gives a stabilizing effect. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. Reduced affinity of the androgen receptor for 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone but not methyltrienolone in a form of partial androgen resistance. Studies on cultured genital skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, L; Kaufman, M; Chudley, A E

    1985-01-01

    We have studied a child with posterior labial fusion, clitoral phallus, female urethra, and a short, blind vagina born to a mother with decreased axillary and pubic hair. Her karyotype is 46,XY. At 2 yr of age, the child's basal level of plasma testosterone was less than 0.35 nM and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation, it rose to 2.6. Testis and epididymis histology were normal. Her cultured genital (labial) skin fibroblasts have normal testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity, and metabolize 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) normally, but they do not augment (up-regulate) their basal androgen-receptor binding activity during prolonged incubation with DHT. With DHT, the androgen receptor in her genital skin fibroblasts has a normal binding capacity (maximum binding capacity = 25 fmol/mg protein), but an increased rate constant of dissociation (k = 11.6 X 10(-3) min-1; normal, 6 +/- 1.2 (+/- SD)), and a decreased apparent equilibrium binding affinity (Kd = 0.6 nM; normal, 0.22 +/- 0.09) that is evident in the results of 2-h assays but not of those lasting 0.5 h. With the synthetic androgen, methyltrienolone, all three binding properties of the receptor are normal, and her receptor activity up-regulates normally. We interpret these results to mean that the subject has a ligand-selective defect in the time-dependent transformation of initial, low-affinity androgen-receptor complexes to serial states of higher affinity, presumably as the result of a structural mutation at the X-linked locus that encodes the androgen receptor protein. PMID:3872888

  8. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  9. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  10. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  11. Bayesian Identification of Emission-Line Galaxies with Photometric Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Andrew S.; Gawiser, Eric J.; Acquaviva, Viviana; HETDEX Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to the classification of emission-line galaxies as an alternative to the traditional limit of requiring Lyman-alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies to have rest-frame equivalent width (EW) > 20Å. The Bayesian method relies on known distributions of line luminosities and equivalent widths as prior probabilities and returns the probability that an object is an LAE given the observed characteristics. This will be directly relevant for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which seeks to classify more than a million emission-line galaxies into LAEs and low-redshift [O II] emitters. For a simulated HETDEX catalog with realistic measurement noise, the Bayesian method recovers a majority of the LAEs missed by the EW > 20 Angstroms cutoff over 2 < z < 3. The method is robust, performing at least as well as the EW > 20Å cut in contamination (false positives) and incompleteness (false negatives). Trade-off between contamination and incompleteness can be achieved by adjusting the stringency of the probability requirement for classifying an observed object as an LAE. A basic implementation of the Bayesian reduces errors in cosmological parameters by ~22%, which is equivalent to obtaining ~40% more data. The inclusion of the color of the galaxies, contingent on the availability of this information, increases the discriminating power of Bayesian separation and results in further reductions in errors. The Bayesian method is also being used to determine which single broadband filter produces the best performance. This method would enable large-scale structure analyses to be performed directly on emission-line objects labeled with probabilities of being LAEs rather than splitting the sample into LAEs and [O II] emitters.We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF through grant AST-1055919.

  12. Alpha-tocopherol quinine ameliorates spatial memory deficits by reducing beta-amyloid oligomers, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Wei; Yang, Shi-Gao; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yang-Xin; Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Teng; Ling, Tie-Jun; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    The pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with soluble beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Decreasing the levels of Aβ oligomer, glial activation and oxidative stress are potential therapeutic approaches for AD treatment. We previously found alpha-tocopherol quinine (α-TQ) inhibited Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity, decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. However, whether α-TQ ameliorates memory deficits and other neuropathologies in mice or patients with AD remains unknown. In this study, we reported that orally administered α-TQ ameliorated memory impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice, decreased oxidative stress and the levels of Aβ oligomer in the brains of mice, prevented the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, and inhibited microglial activation by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings suggest that α-TQ has potential therapeutic value for AD treatment.

  13. You can't stop the music: reduced auditory alpha power and coupling between auditory and memory regions facilitate the illusory perception of music during noise.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nadia; Keil, Julian; Obleser, Jonas; Schulz, Hannah; Grunwald, Thomas; Bernays, René-Ludwig; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-10-01

    Our brain has the capacity of providing an experience of hearing even in the absence of auditory stimulation. This can be seen as illusory conscious perception. While increasing evidence postulates that conscious perception requires specific brain states that systematically relate to specific patterns of oscillatory activity, the relationship between auditory illusions and oscillatory activity remains mostly unexplained. To investigate this we recorded brain activity with magnetoencephalography and collected intracranial data from epilepsy patients while participants listened to familiar as well as unknown music that was partly replaced by sections of pink noise. We hypothesized that participants have a stronger experience of hearing music throughout noise when the noise sections are embedded in familiar compared to unfamiliar music. This was supported by the behavioral results showing that participants rated the perception of music during noise as stronger when noise was presented in a familiar context. Time-frequency data show that the illusory perception of music is associated with a decrease in auditory alpha power pointing to increased auditory cortex excitability. Furthermore, the right auditory cortex is concurrently synchronized with the medial temporal lobe, putatively mediating memory aspects associated with the music illusion. We thus assume that neuronal activity in the highly excitable auditory cortex is shaped through extensive communication between the auditory cortex and the medial temporal lobe, thereby generating the illusion of hearing music during noise.

  14. The Stokes line width and uncertainty relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishov, A. I.; Ritus, V. I.

    1994-01-01

    For a function given by contour integral the two types (conventions) of asymptotic representations are considered: the usual representation by asymptotic series in inverse powers of large parameters and the special division of contour integral in contributions of high and low saddle points. It is shown that the width of the recessive term formation zone (Stokes strip) in the second convention is determined by uncertainty relation and is much less than the zone width in the first convention. The reasons of such a difference is clarified. The results of the work are useful for understanding of formation region of the exponentially small process arising on the background of the strong one.

  15. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  16. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Reduces LDL-Particle Number and PCSK9 Concentrations in High-Fat Fed Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Bradley; Wen, Shin; Zigouras, Sophia; Browne, Richard W.; Li, Zhuyun; Patel, Mulchand S.; Williamson, David L.; Rideout, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the hypolipidemic effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA, R-form) and examined the associated molecular mechanisms in a high fat fed Zucker rat model. Rats (n = 8) were assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet with 0.25% LA (HF-LA) for 30 days and pair fed to remove confounding effects associated with the anorectic properties of LA. Compared with the HF controls, the HF-LA group was protected against diet-induced obesity (102.5±3.1 vs. 121.5±3.6,% change BW) and hypercholesterolemia with a reduction in total-C (−21%), non-HDL-C (−25%), LDL-C (−16%), and total LDL particle number (−46%) and an increase in total HDL particles (∼22%). This cholesterol-lowering response was associated with a reduction in plasma PCSK9 concentration (−70%) and an increase in hepatic LDLr receptor protein abundance (2 fold of HF). Compared with the HF-fed animals, livers of LA-supplemented animals were protected against TG accumulation (−46%), likely through multiple mechanisms including: a suppressed lipogenic response (down-regulation of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase expression); enhanced hepatic fat oxidation (increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase Iα expression); and enhanced VLDL export (increased hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and elevated plasma VLDL particle number). Study results also support an enhanced fatty acid uptake (2.8 fold increase in total lipase activity) and oxidation (increased CPT1β protein abundance) in muscle tissue in LA-supplemented animals compared with the HF group. In summary, in the absence of a change in caloric intake, LA was effective in protecting against hypercholesterolemia and hepatic fat accumulation under conditions of strong genetic and dietary predisposition toward obesity and dyslipidemia. PMID:24595397

  17. Evolution of the alpha particle driven toroidicity induced Alfven mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; White, R.B.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1994-04-01

    The interaction of alpha particles with a toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmode is investigated self-consistently by using a kinetic dispersion relation. All important poloidal harmonics and their radial mode profiles are included. A Hamiltonian guiding center code is used to simulate the alpha particle motion. The simulations include particle orbit width, nonlinear particle dynamics and the effects of the modes on the particles. Modification of the particle distribution leading to mode saturation is observed. There is no significant alpha particle loss.

  18. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Width. 29.1085 Section 29.1085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ) (2 ) Waste tolerance (2 ) (2 ) (2 ) 1 Expressed in inches. 2 Expressed in percentage. elements...

  19. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... clearance. (2) Minimum en route altitudes. (3) Ground and airborne navigation aids. (4) Air traffic density... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Route width. 121.115 Section 121.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  20. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... altitudes. (3) Ground and airborne navigation aids. (4) Air traffic density. (5) ATC procedures. (b) Any... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Route width. 121.95 Section 121.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Width. 29.1085 Section 29.1085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep....

  2. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... clearance. (2) Minimum en route altitudes. (3) Ground and airborne navigation aids. (4) Air traffic density... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.115 Section 121.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR...

  3. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.95 Section 121.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.95 Route...

  4. Evolution of niche width and adaptive diversification.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Martin; Doebeli, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Theoretical models suggest that resource competition can lead to the adaptive splitting of consumer populations into diverging lineages, that is, to adaptive diversification. In general, diversification is likely if consumers use only a narrow range of resources and thus have a small niche width. Here we use analytical and numerical methods to study the consequences for diversification if the niche width itself evolves. We found that the evolutionary outcome depends on the inherent costs or benefits of widening the niche. If widening the niche did not have costs in terms of overall resource uptake, then the consumer evolved a niche that was wide enough for disruptive selection on the niche position to vanish; adaptive diversification was no longer observed. However, if widening the niche was costly, then the niche widths remained relatively narrow, allowing for adaptive diversification in niche position. Adaptive diversification and speciation resulting from competition for a broadly distributed resource is thus likely if the niche width is fixed and relatively narrow or free to evolve but subject to costs. These results refine the conditions for adaptive diversification due to competition and formulate them in a way that might be more amenable for experimental investigations. PMID:15696740

  5. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1085 Width. The relative breadth of a tobacco leaf expressed in relation to its length... Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep....

  6. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1085 Width. The relative breadth of a tobacco leaf expressed in relation to its length... Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep....

  7. Definition of the {delta} mass and width

    SciTech Connect

    Djukanovic, D.; Scherer, S.; Gegelia, J.

    2007-08-01

    In the framework of effective field theory we show that, at two-loop order, the mass and width of the {delta} resonance defined via the (relativistic) Breit-Wigner parametrization both depend on the choice of field variables. In contrast, the complex-valued position of the pole of the propagator is independent of this choice.

  8. GA-based PID control of the plate width in hot-plate mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byungman; Lee, Dae Y.; Cho, Hyungsuck

    1999-11-01

    In hot plate mills the slabs from incoming reheat furnace are reduced to the desired width and thickness, being rolled out with considerable accuracy. The process of changing the plate width is controlled by a pair of edge rolls, which is called edger. The objectives of this edging process are to meet tight width tolerances of plates and to reduce the yield loss caused by trimming when irregular width is formed at the plate edge. There are several factors that result in complexity and uncertainty in width control. These include inaccurate edger set-up model, degradation of various mill equipment, variation of operation conditions, environments and variation of the dimension of incoming cast slabs. In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based PID control is proposed to ensure the control of the desired width at the exit of the mill. The approach adopted here is essentially optimization of the PID controller gains in order to minimize the error between the desired and actual slab width. Since the design parameters associated with genetic algorithm affect convergence performance, the effects of these parameters are investigated in detail. In addition, the control performance is also evaluated for various process parameters such as initial width of the incoming slab and temperature of the slab. Based on the result obtained from a series of simulations, the proposed control method is found to yield satisfactory performance for various process conditions.

  9. Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist treatment reduces neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and brain injury in mice with ischemic stroke and bone fracture

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhenying; Li, Li; Wang, Liang; Degos, Vincent; Maze, Mervyn; Su, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture at the acute stage of stroke exacerbates stroke injury by increasing neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α-7 nAchR) agonist attenuates neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and reduces brain injury in mice with bone fracture and stroke. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed in C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0.8 mg/kg PHA568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR-specific agonist), 6 mg/kg Methyllycaconitine (MLA, α-7 nAchR antagonist), or saline 1 and 2 days after pMCAO. Behavior was tested 3 days after pMCAO. Neuronal injury, CD68+, M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) microglia/macrophages, phosphorylated p65 component of NF-kb in microglia/macrophages, oxidative and anti-oxidant gene expression were quantified. Compared to saline-treated mice, PHA-treated mice performed better in behavioral tests, had fewer apoptotic neurons (NeuN+TUNEL+), fewer CD68+ and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages. PHA increased anti-oxidant gene expression and decreased oxidative stress and phosphorylation of NF-κb p65. MLA had the opposite effects. Our data indicate that α-7 nAchR agonist treatment reduces neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, which are associated with reduced brain injury in mice with ischemic stroke plus tibia fracture. PMID:25040630

  10. Methods to reduce or eliminate detection of estrus in a melengestrol acetate-PGF2alpha protocol for synchronization of estrus in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S K; Day, M L

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate methods to decrease or eliminate the detection of estrus inherent to a melengestrol acetate (MGA)-PGF2alpha (PGF) protocol for synchronization of estrus in heifers. In each experiment, all heifers received 0.5 mg of MGA x animal(-1) x d(-1) for 14 d (d -32 to -19) and PGF (25 mg, i.m.; d 0, 0 h) 19 d after the last feeding of MGA (MGA-PGF protocol). In Exp. 1, heifers (n = 709) were assigned to each of the following protocols: 1) the MGA-PGF protocol with AI 6 to 12 h after detection of estrus (estrus AI; MGA-PGF); 2) MGA-PGF plus 100 microg, i.m. of GnRH on d -7 (1x GnRH) and estrus AI; or 3) MGA-PGF, GnRH on d -7, and GnRH (100 microg, i.m.) at 48 h after PGF, coincident with insemination (2x GnRH-TB48). In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 559) received the MGA-PGF protocol and were inseminated by either estrus AI or fixed-time AI (TAI) at 60 h, coincident with an injection of GnRH (GnRH-TB60). In Exp. 3, all heifers (n = 460) received the MGA-PGF protocol and were inseminated by estrus AI when detected up to 73 h. Heifers not observed in estrus by 73 h received TAI between 76 and 80 h. Half the heifers inseminated by TAI received no further treatment (TB80), and the remaining half was injected with GnRH at insemination (GnRH-TB80). Variance associated with the interval to estrus and the proportion in estrus from d 0 to 5 was similar for 1x GnRH and MGA-PGF treatments in Exp. 1. Pregnancy rate (d 0 to 5) did not differ for the MGA-PGF and 1x GnRH treatments (62.5 and 60.4%, respectively), and both were greater (P < 0.05) than TAI pregnancy rate in the 2x GnRH-TB48 treatment (42.3%). In Exp. 2, the peak estrous response occurred 60 h after PGF. Pregnancy rate during the synchrony period was greater (P < 0.05) for the MGA-PGF (255/401; 63.6%) than the GnRH-TB60 (74/158; 46.6%) treatment. In Exp. 3, 75.7% of heifers (348/460) were detected in estrus by 73 h and were inseminated, with a conception rate of 74.4%. Pregnancy rates after

  11. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wei-Xu, Hu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Hui-Ping, Wei; Wen-Ding, Wang; Dan, He; Qin, Xiang; Guo-Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR) guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright's staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0.05), and eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte infiltration and edema were significantly reduced or absent in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues (P < 0.05) in the combined 0.1% anti-IL-1β- and TNF-α IgY-treated guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs.

  12. Effects of pacing magnitudes and forms on bistability width in a modeled ventricular tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xuemei; Zheng, Lixian; Mi, Yuanyuan; Qian, Yu

    2013-07-01

    Bistability in periodically paced cardiac tissue is relevant to cardiac arrhythmias and its control. In the present paper, one-dimensional tissue of the phase I Luo-Rudy model is numerically investigated. The effects of various parameters of pacing signals on bistability width are studied. The following conclusions are obtained: (i) Pacing can be classified into two types: pulsatile and sinusoidal types. Pulsatile pacing reduces bistability width as its magnitude is increased. Sinusoidal pacing increases the width as its amplitude is increased. (ii) In a pacing period the hyperpolarizing part plays a more important role than the depolarizing part. Variations of the hyperpolarizing ratio in a period evidently change the width of bistability and its variation tendency. (iii) A dynamical mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain the phenomena, which reveals the reason for the different effects of pulsatile and sinusoidal pacing on bistability. The methods for changing bistability width by external pacing may help control arrhythmias in cardiology.

  13. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  14. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes. PMID:27754447

  15. Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kim H.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Nagler, James J.

    2007-11-01

    Exposure of fishes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, fish were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, fish have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Significant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was significantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a significant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these fish exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

  16. Dietary intakes of arachidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are associated with reduced risk of hip fracture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Farina, Emily K; Kiel, Douglas P; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schaefer, Ernst J; Cupples, L Adrienne; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-06-01

    PUFA are hypothesized to influence bone health, but longitudinal studies on hip fracture risk are lacking. We examined associations between intakes of PUFA and fish, and hip fracture risk among older adults (n = 904) in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Participants (mean age ~75 y at baseline) were followed for incident hip fracture from the time they completed the baseline exam (1988-1989) until December 31, 2005. HR and 95% CI were estimated for energy-adjusted dietary fatty acid exposure variables [(n-3) fatty acids: α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, DHA, EPA+DHA; (n-6) fatty acids: linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA); and the (n-6):(n-3) ratio] and fish intake categories, adjusting for potential confounders and covariates. Protective associations were observed between intakes of ALA (P-trend = 0.02) and hip fracture risk in a combined sample of women and men and between intakes of AA (P-trend = 0.05) and hip fracture risk in men only. Participants in the highest quartile of ALA intake had a 54% lower risk of hip fracture than those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.26-0.83). Men in the highest quartile of AA intake had an 80% lower risk of hip fracture than those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.04-0.96). No significant associations were observed among intakes of EPA, DHA, EPA+DHA, or fish. These findings suggest dietary ALA may reduce hip fracture risk in women and men and dietary AA may reduce hip fracture risk in men.

  17. Stability of {sup 248–254}Cf isotopes against alpha and cluster radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Santhosh, K.P. Biju, R.K.

    2013-07-15

    Stability of {sup 248–254}Cf nuclei against alpha and cluster emissions is studied within our Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). It is found that these nuclei are stable against light clusters (except alpha particles) and unstable against heavy cluster (A{sub 2}≥40) emissions. For heavy cluster emissions the daughter nuclei lead to doubly magic {sup 208}Pb or the neighbouring one. The effects of quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of parent nuclei, daughter nuclei and emitted cluster on half lives are also studied. The computed alpha decay half life values (including quadrupole deformation β{sub 2}) are in close agreement with experimental data. Inclusion of quadrupole deformation reduces the height and width of the barrier (increases the barrier penetrability) and hence half life decreases. -- Highlights: •{sup 248–254}Cf parents are stable against light clusters (except alpha particles) and are unstable against heavy clusters ({sup 46}Ar, {sup 48,50}Ca etc.). •For the case of heavy cluster emissions the daughter nuclei are doubly magic {sup 208}Pb or neighbouring one. •The alpha decay half lives are in agreement with experimental data. •The cluster decay half lives decrease with the inclusion of quadrupole deformation.

  18. Discovery of 109Xe and 105Te: superallowed alpha decay near doubly magic 100Sn.

    PubMed

    Liddick, S N; Grzywacz, R; Mazzocchi, C; Page, R D; Rykaczewski, K P; Batchelder, J C; Bingham, C R; Darby, I G; Drafta, G; Goodin, C; Gross, C J; Hamilton, J H; Hecht, A A; Hwang, J K; Ilyushkin, S; Joss, D T; Korgul, A; Królas, W; Lagergren, K; Li, K; Tantawy, M N; Thomson, J; Winger, J A

    2006-08-25

    Two new alpha emitters 109Xe and 105Te were identified through the observation of the 109Xe --> 105Te --> 101Sn alpha-decay chain. The 109Xe nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction 54Fe(58Ni,3n)109Xe and studied using the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Two transitions at Ealpha = 4062 +/- 7 keV and Ealpha = 3918 +/- 9 keV were interpreted as the l = 2 and l = 0 transitions from the 7/2+ ground state in 109Xe (T1/2 = 13 +/- 2 ms) to the 5/2+ ground state and a 7/2+ excited state, located at 150 +/- 13 keV in 105Te. The observation of the subsequent decay of 105Te marks the discovery of the lightest known alpha-decaying nucleus. The measured transition energy Ealpha = 4703 +/- 5 keV and half-life T1/2 = 620 +/- 70 ns were used to determine the reduced alpha-decay width delta2. The ratio delta105Te(2)/delta213Po(2) of approximately 3 indicates a superallowed character of the alpha emission from 105Te.

  19. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Schmicke, Marion; Höltershinken, Martin; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL) pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7) or 16 weeks (PL-16). Controls (C) underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit) were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg) at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4). Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients. PMID:27690005

  20. Mice Expressing the A53T Mutant Form of Human Alpha-Synuclein Exhibit Hyperactivity and Reduced Anxiety-Like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dianca R.; Sidhu, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Genetic mutations associated with α-synuclein (α-Syn) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is primarily a movement disorder, but patients are known to experience anxiety and other mood disorders. In this study, we examined the effect of the hA53T mutation during development by analyzing the protein expression of norepinephrine (NET), serotonin (SERT), and dopamine (DAT) transporters in addition to assessing locomotor and anxiety-like behavior. We observed significant decreases in DAT expression at 8 months in transgenic animals compared with normal and younger mice. We used the elevated plus maze, open-field test, and rotarod apparatus to evaluate wild-type and hA53T hemizygous mice at 2, 8, and 12 months of age. Our results showed that 12-month-old transgenic mice spend more time in the open arms and display a greater number of open entries of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type controls and younger mice. Open-field test results showed that 12-month-old mice travel a greater distance overall and travel more in the inner zone than either wild-type or younger mice. Rotarod testing showed that 8- and 12-month-old transgenic mice perform better than either wild-type controls or younger mice. Overall, 8–12-month-old transgenic mice showed a trend toward reduced anxiety-like behavior and increased hyperactivity. These results indicate a possible role of the A53T α-Syn mutation in anxiety-like and hyperactive behaviors in a PD mouse model, suggesting that these behaviors might be comorbid with this disease. PMID:20077428

  1. A phase II, randomized, controlled trial of S-adenosylmethionine in reducing serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis and elevated AFP

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Timothy R.; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C.; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D.; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M.; Meyskens, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC while administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum AFP level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 grams/day, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. 110 subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury, or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential. PMID:26130251

  2. Artifacts for Calibration of Submicron Width Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, Frank; Grunthaner, Paula; Bryson, Charles, III

    2003-01-01

    Artifacts that are fabricated with the help of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are undergoing development for use as dimensional calibration standards with submicron widths. Such standards are needed for calibrating instruments (principally, scanning electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes) for measuring the widths of features in advanced integrated circuits. Dimensional calibration standards fabricated by an older process that involves lithography and etching of trenches in (110) surfaces of single-crystal silicon are generally reproducible to within dimensional tolerances of about 15 nm. It is anticipated that when the artifacts of the present type are fully developed, their critical dimensions will be reproducible to within 1 nm. These artifacts are expected to find increasing use in the semiconductor-device and integrated- circuit industries as the width tolerances on semiconductor devices shrink to a few nanometers during the next few years. Unlike in the older process, one does not rely on lithography and etching to define the critical dimensions. Instead, one relies on the inherent smoothness and flatness of MBE layers deposited under controlled conditions and defines the critical dimensions as the thicknesses of such layers. An artifact of the present type is fabricated in two stages (see figure): In the first stage, a multilayer epitaxial wafer is grown on a very flat substrate. In the second stage, the wafer is cleaved to expose the layers, then the exposed layers are differentially etched (taking advantage of large differences between the etch rates of the different epitaxial layer materials). The resulting structure includes narrow and well-defined trenches and a shelf with thicknesses determined by the thicknesses of the epitaxial layers from which they were etched. Eventually, it should be possible to add a third fabrication stage in which durable, electronically inert artifacts could be replicated in diamondlike carbon from a master made by

  3. Poly(I:C) reduces expression of JAM-A and induces secretion of IL-8 and TNF-{alpha} via distinct NF-{kappa}B pathways in human nasal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkuni, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Fuchimoto, Jun; Kamekura, Ryuta; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Ichimiya, Shingo; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2011-01-01

    Human nasal epithelium is an important physical barrier and innate immune defense protecting against inhaled substances and pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, which plays a key role in the innate immune response, has not been well characterized in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), including the epithelial tight junctional barrier. In the present study, mRNAs of TLR1-10 were detected in hTERT-transfected HNECs, which can be used as an indispensable and stable model of normal HNECs, similar to primary cultured HNECs. To investigate the changes of tight junction proteins and the signal transduction pathways via TLRs in HNECs in vitro, hTERT-transfected HNECs were treated with TLR2 ligand P{sub 3}CSK{sub 4}, TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), TLR4 ligand LPS, TLR7/8 ligand CL097, TLR8 ligand ssRNA40/LyoVec, and TLR9 ligand ODN2006. In hTERT-transfected HNECs, treatment with poly(I:C) significantly reduced expression of the tight junction protein JAM-A and induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-{alpha}. Both the reduction of JAM-A expression and the induction of secretion of IL-8 and TNF-{alpha} after treatment with poly(I:C) were modulated by distinct signal transduction pathways via EGFR, PI3K, and p38 MAPK and finally regulated by a TLR3-mediated NF-{kappa}B pathway. The control of TLR3-mediated signaling pathways in HNECs may be important not only in infection by viral dsRNA but also in autoimmune diseases caused by endogenous dsRNA released from necrotic cells.

  4. Optical antennas with sinusoidal modulation in width.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Dirk Jan; Segerink, Frans B; Korterik, Jeroen P; Pfaff, Stefan S; Prangsma, Jord C; Herek, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    Small metal structures sustaining plasmon resonances in the optical regime are of great interest due to their large scattering cross sections and ability to concentrate light to subwavelength volumes. In this paper, we study the dipolar plasmon resonances of optical antennas with a constant volume and a sinusoidal modulation in width. We experimentally show that by changing the phase of the width-modulation, with a small 10 nm modulation amplitude, the resonance shifts over 160 nm. Using simulations we show how this simple design can create resonance shifts greater than 600 nm. The versatility of this design is further shown by creating asymmetric structures with two different modulation amplitudes, which we experimentally and numerically show to give rise to two resonances. Our results on both the symmetric and asymmetric antennas show the capability to control the localization of the fields outside the antenna, while still maintaining the freedom to change the antenna resonance wavelength. The antenna design we tested combines a large spectral tunability with a small footprint: all the antenna dimensions are factor 7 to 13 smaller than the wavelength, and hold potential as a design element in meta-surfaces for beam shaping. PMID:27505755

  5. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  6. Optical antennas with sinusoidal modulation in width.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Dirk Jan; Segerink, Frans B; Korterik, Jeroen P; Pfaff, Stefan S; Prangsma, Jord C; Herek, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    Small metal structures sustaining plasmon resonances in the optical regime are of great interest due to their large scattering cross sections and ability to concentrate light to subwavelength volumes. In this paper, we study the dipolar plasmon resonances of optical antennas with a constant volume and a sinusoidal modulation in width. We experimentally show that by changing the phase of the width-modulation, with a small 10 nm modulation amplitude, the resonance shifts over 160 nm. Using simulations we show how this simple design can create resonance shifts greater than 600 nm. The versatility of this design is further shown by creating asymmetric structures with two different modulation amplitudes, which we experimentally and numerically show to give rise to two resonances. Our results on both the symmetric and asymmetric antennas show the capability to control the localization of the fields outside the antenna, while still maintaining the freedom to change the antenna resonance wavelength. The antenna design we tested combines a large spectral tunability with a small footprint: all the antenna dimensions are factor 7 to 13 smaller than the wavelength, and hold potential as a design element in meta-surfaces for beam shaping.

  7. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  8. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  9. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  10. Solar-Cycle Changes in GONG P-Mode Widths and Amplitudes 1995-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm R. W.; Howe, R.; Hill, F.

    1999-01-01

    We search for a solar cycle variation in mode widths and amplitudes derived from 3-month GONG time series. The variation of mode width and amplitude observed in GONG data are the combined effects of fill factor, temporal variation, and measurement uncertainties. The largest variation is caused by the fill factor resulting in modes with increased width and reduced amplitude when fill is lower. We assume that the solar cycle variation is the only other systematic variation beside the temporal window function effect. We correct all currently available data sets for the fill factor and simultaneously derive the solar cycle variation. We find an increase of about 3% on average in mode width from the previous minimum to Oct. 1998 and a decrease of about 7% and 6% in mode amplitude and mode area (width x amplitude). We find no l dependence of the solar-cycle changes. As a function of frequency, these changes show a maximum between 2.7 and 3.3 mHz with about 47% higher than average values for mode width and about 29% and 36% higher ones for mode amplitude and area. We estimate the significance of these rather small changes by a pre-whitening method and find that the results are significant at or above the 99.9% level with mode area showing the highest level of significance and mode width the lowest. The variation in background amplitude is most likely not significant and is consistent with a zero change.

  11. Direct measurement of the W boson width.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-12-01

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W --> enu candidate events. Data from approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity recorded at square root of s = 1.96 TeV by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider are analyzed. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 +/- 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model. PMID:20366142

  12. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-09-01

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  13. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee; Okamura, Sadanori

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including H{alpha} on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Ly{alpha} line, {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}}, and LIS absorption lines, {Delta}v {sub abs}, with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z {approx} 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} = 175 {+-} 35 km s{sup -1}, which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}. The stacked FUV spectrum gives {Delta}v {sub abs} = -179 {+-} 73 km s{sup -1}, comparable to that of LBGs. These positive {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} and negative {Delta}v {sub abs} suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} is as small as |{Delta}v {sub abs}|, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Ly{alpha} emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) and {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Ly{alpha} transmissivity may need to be revised.

  14. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  15. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  16. The effect of seal width on regenerator effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The effect of axial conduction on regenerator effectiveness has been studied in the past under the assumption of zero seal width. The effect of axial conduction coupled with finite seal width is presented in this paper. A method for calculating effectiveness assuming axial conduction and finite seal width is presented. Results of sample calculations are presented to give the designer a feel for the dependence of seal width effects on system-parameter values. It is shown that for typical regenerator designs, reductions in effectiveness due to axial conduction coupled with finite seal width can be twice as great as those due to axial conduction under the assumption of zero seal width. Also, it is shown that the required regenerator size to achieve a given effectiveness can increase dramatically when finite seal width is considered in design procedures. It is concluded that consideration of axial conduction should include finite seal width.

  17. Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2 < z < 3: Towards a Calibrated Probe of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Caryl Gronwall

    2012-12-03

    The goal of this project was to establish the physical properties of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies from redshifts of 2 to 3 in order to better calibrate the use of LAEs as probes of the large scale structure of the universe for upcoming dark energy experiments, such as the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We have obtained narrow-band imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) in two different narrow-band filters centered at Ly{alpha} at z=2.1 and 3.1. The resulting of samples of LAEs were used to determine the LAE luminosity function, equivalent width distribution and clustering properties (bias) of LAEs at these redshifts. While the results from the ECDF-S appear robust, they are based on a single field. To explore the effects of cosmic variance and galaxy environment on the physical properties of LAEs, we have also obtained narrow-band data at both redshifts (z = 2:1 and 3:1) in three additional fields (SDSS 1030+-05, the Extended Hubble Deep Field South, and CW 1255+01). The narrow-band imaging data has been reduced and LAE catalogs are being generated. We have calculated preliminary luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and clustering properties. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy in the optical (using VLT/FORS) and in the near-infrared (using Magellan/MMIRS). Since individual LAEs have too little S/N to enable meaningful fits for stellar population parameters, our previous work has analyzed stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). SED fitting was performed on several subsets of LAEs selected by their rest-UV luminosity, UV spectral slope, Ly alpha luminosity, Equivalent Width, or rest-optical (IRAC) luminosity.

  18. Neutron decay widths of excited states of Be11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, P. J.; Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Bloxham, T.; Curtis, N.; McEwan, P.; Bohlen, H. G.; Dorsch, T.; Kokalova, Tz.; Schulz, Ch.; Wheldon, C.

    2009-01-01

    The two-neutron transfer reaction Be9(O16, O14)Be11[Be10 +n] has been used to measure the branching ratios for the neutron decay of excited states of Be11. The O14 ejectile was detected by a Q3D spectrometer at forward angles. The energies and angles of the Be10 fragments of the decaying Be11* recoil were measured in coincidence with the O14 ejectile using a double-sided silicon strip detector array at backward angles. This enabled a kinematic reconstruction of the reaction to be performed. Theoretical decay branch ratios were calculated using barrier penetrability factors and were compared to the measured ratios to provide information on the relative reduced widths of the states. The decay widths have been used to link states in Be11 with a common structure and structurally to states in the daughter nucleus Be10. The 3/2-8.82-MeV state was identified as a candidate for a molecular band head.

  19. Antibody-mediated reduction of {alpha}-ketoamides

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, P.G.; Gallop, M.A.

    1998-06-09

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an {alpha}-ketoamide to the corresponding {alpha}-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

  20. Antibody-mediated reduction of .alpha.-ketoamides

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Gallop, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an .alpha.-ketoamide to the corresponding .alpha.-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

  1. Effect of Expansion of Fertilization Width on Nitrogen Recovery Rate in Tea Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Kunihiko; Hirono, Yuhei; Watanabe, Iriki

    In cultivation of tea plants, large amounts of nitrogen, compared to amounts used for other crops, have been used for fertilization, resulting in degradation of the soil environment between hedges and an increase in concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in surrounding water systems. To reduce the environmental load, new methods of fertilizer application are needed. This report deals with the effect of expansion of fertilization width on nitrogen recovery rate in tea plants. In the test field, 15 N-labeled ammonium sulfate had been applied over custom fertilization by between-hedges fertilization (fertilization width of 15cm) and wide fertilization (fertilization width of 40cm), nitrogen recovery rates were compared. Expansion of fertilization width resulted in an approximately 30% increase in nitrogen recovery rate compared to that in the case of fertilization between hedges. Increases in nitrogen recovery rates were observed with fallapplied fertilization, spring-applied fertilization, pop-up fertilizer application, and summerapplied fertilization.

  2. Adalimumab (tumor necrosis factor-blocker) reduces the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity increased by exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.T.; Srivastava, G.K.; Gayoso, M.J.; Gonzalo-Orden, J.M.; Pastor, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if exogenous addition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) exacerbates retinal reactive gliosis in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina and to evaluate if concomitant adalimumab, a TNF-blocker, diminishes it. Methods Porcine retinal explants from 20 eyeballs were cultured. Cultures with 100 pg/ml TNFα, 10 µg/ml adalimumab, 100 pg/ml TNFα plus 10 µg/ml adalimumab, or controls without additives were maintained for 9 days. Freshly detached retinas were processed in parallel. TNFα levels in control culture supernatants were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cryostat sections were doubly immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for reactive gliosis, and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), a marker for Müller cells. Sections were also labeled with the isolectin IB4, a label for microglia/macrophages. Results TNFα in control culture supernatants was detected only at day 1. Compared to the fresh neuroretinal samples, upregulation of GFAP and downregulation of CRALBP occurred during the 9 days of culture. Exogenous TNFα stimulated glial cells to upregulate GFAP and downregulate CRALBP immunoreactivity. TNFα-treated cultures also initiated the growth of gliotic membranes and underwent retinal disorganization. Adalimumab inhibited the spontaneous increases in GFAP and maintained CRALBP. In combination with TNFα, adalimumab reduced GFAP expression and conserved CRALBP, with only slight retinal disorganization. No appreciable changes in IB4 labeling were observed under the different culture conditions. Conclusions In cultured porcine neuroretina, spontaneous reactive gliosis and retinal disorganization were exacerbated by exogenous TNFα. Adalimumab reduced spontaneous changes and those induced by TNFα. Therefore, inhibiting TNFα may represent a novel approach to controlling retinal fibrosis observed in some human diseases. PMID:23687426

  3. Pulse-width-independent low power programmable low temperature poly-Si thin-film transistor shift register

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Eunji; Song, Seok-Jeong; Nam, Hyoungsik

    2015-05-01

    This paper demonstrates a low power programmable pulse width LTPS TFT shift register which achieves the constant power consumption over various pulse widths with the smaller number of TFTs compared to the previous programmable shift register. The proposed shift register consists of nine n-channel LTPS TFTs and one coupling capacitor. By eliminating the shoot-through current path in a NOT-AND logic, the simulation ensures that the proposed structure reduces the power consumption significantly by 60.5% for two line pulse width and by 88.6% for ten line pulse width from the previous programmable pulse width shift register. The power consumption of 12 shift registers is measured at 0.235 mW, independently of programmed pulse widths.

  4. Real time pulse width monitor for Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) electro-optic shutters

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    A method is described or controlling and measuring the pulse width of electrical gate pulses used for optical shuttering of image intensifier. The intensifiers are coupled to high frame rate Charge-Coupled-Devices (CCD) or Focus-Projection Scan (FPS) vidicon TV cameras for readout and telemetry of time resolved image sequences. The shutter duration or gate width of individual shutters is measured in real time and encoded in the video frame corresponding to a given shutter interval. The shutter information is updated once catch video frame by strobing new data with each TV camera vertical sync pulse. This circuitry is used in conjunction with commercial video insertion/annotation equipment to provide die shutter width information in alpha numeric text form along with the time resolved video image on a frame-by-frame basis. The measurement technique and circuitry involving a combination of high speed digital counters and analog integrators for measurements in the Ins to 1024 ns range are described. The accuracy obtained is compared with measurements obtained using batch speed DSOs. The measured data are provided in 10-bit Binary (Bi) and four decades of Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) and also displayed on four digit seven segment displays. The control circuitry including digital and analog input means for gate width selection are described. The implementation of both measurement and control circuitry into an Intensified Shuttered CCD (ISCCD) radiometric system for recording fast shuttered images at RS-170 to 4 KHz frame rates is presented.

  5. Strong Lyman-alpha emission in three distant radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinrad, H.; Filippenko, A. V.; Wyckoff, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Stocke, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    Very strong, narrow Lyman alpha emission (equivalent width approximately 1000 angstroms) has been discovered in the redshifted ultraviolet spectra of three radio galaxies having z between 1.62 and 1.82. The three are 3C 256, 3C 239, and 3C 241. It is noted that Lyman alpha will probably be a very useful redshift and classification determinant in future spectroscopic surveys of active galaxies at still greater distances.

  6. SOL Width Scaling in the MAST Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joon-Wook; Counsell, Glenn; Connor, Jack; Kirk, Andrew

    2002-11-01

    Target heat loads are determined in large part by the upstream SOL heat flux width, Δ_h. Considerable effort has been made in the past to develop analytical and empirical scalings for Δh to allow reliable estimates to be made for the next-step device. The development of scalings for a large spherical tokamak (ST) such as MAST is particularly important both for development of the ST concept and for improving the robustness of scalings derived for conventional tokamaks. A first such scaling has been developed in MAST DND plasmas. The scaling was developed by flux-mapping data from the target Langmuir probe arrays to the mid-plane and fitting to key upstream parameters such as P_SOL, bar ne and q_95. In order to minimise the effects of co-linearity, dedicated campaigns were undertaken to explore the widest possible range of each parameter while keeping the remainder as fixed as possible. Initial results indicate a weak inverse dependence on P_SOL and approximately linear dependence on bar n_e. Scalings derived from consideration of theoretical edge transport models and integration with data from conventional devices is under way. The established scaling laws could be used for the extrapolations to the future machine such as Spherical Tokamak Power Plant (STPP). This work is jointly funded by Euratom and UK Department of Trade and Industry. J-W. Ahn would like to recognise the support of a grant from the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office.

  7. Alpha-decay properties of /sup 205-208/Fr: Identification of /sup 206/Fr/sup m/

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, B.G.; Toth, K.S.; Carter, H.K.; Mlekodaj, R.L.; Spejewski, E.H.

    1981-05-01

    Alpha-particle and ..gamma..-ray spectral measurements were made for /sup 205-208/Fr. A new a emitter (T/sub 1/2/ = 0.7 +- 0.1 sec and E/sub a/ = 6.930 +- 0.005 MeV) was observed and identified with the decay of a previously unknown isomer in /sup 206/Fr. From the a particle and g ray intensities, a decay branching ratios were deduced for /sup 205-208/Fr utilizing available information concerning the nuclides' (electron capture+positron) decay properties. Reduced widths were calculated and compared with those of neighboring nuclei.

  8. Measuring hydraulic fracture width behind casing using radioactive proppant

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.S.; Fisher, K.; Holcomb, D.

    1996-09-01

    Knowing the width of hydraulic fracture behind casing can be useful in evaluating both reservoir performance and fracture design methods. This paper presents a method to obtain the widths of hydraulic fractures behind casing using radioactive, isotope-traced proppants. A tool-specific relationship between the gamma ray flux detected in a wellbore and the fracture width was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of gamma ray transport around a wellbore. This method provides fracture width estimates with a vertical resolution of about one foot. The method has been successfully used in the field and compares favorably with other methods for evaluating fracture widths.

  9. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  10. ENERGY-DEPENDENT GAMMA-RAY BURST PULSE WIDTH DUE TO THE CURVATURE EFFECT AND INTRINSIC BAND SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Z. Y.; Ma, L.; Zhao, X. H.; Yin, Y.; Bao, Y. Y.

    2012-06-20

    Previous studies have found that the width of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulse is energy dependent and that it decreases as a power-law function with increasing photon energy. In this work we have investigated the relation between the energy dependence of the pulse and the so-called Band spectrum by using a sample including 51 well-separated fast rise and exponential decay long-duration GRB pulses observed by BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory). We first decompose these pulses into rise and decay phases and find that the rise widths and the decay widths also behave as a power-law function with photon energy. Then we investigate statistically the relations between the three power-law indices of the rise, decay, and total width of the pulse (denoted as {delta}{sub r}, {delta}{sub d}, and {delta}{sub w}, respectively) and the three Band spectral parameters, high-energy index ({alpha}), low-energy index ({beta}), and peak energy (E{sub p} ). It is found that (1) {alpha} is strongly correlated with {delta}{sub w} and {delta}{sub d} but seems uncorrelated with {delta}{sub r}; (2) {beta} is weakly correlated with the three power-law indices, and (3) E{sub p} does not show evident correlations with the three power-law indices. We further investigate the origin of {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} and {delta}{sub w}-{alpha}. We show that the curvature effect and the intrinsic Band spectrum could naturally lead to the energy dependence of the GRB pulse width and also the {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} and {delta}{sub w}-{alpha} correlations. Our results hold so long as the shell emitting gamma rays has a curved surface and the intrinsic spectrum is a Band spectrum or broken power law. The strong {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} correlation and inapparent correlations between {delta}{sub r} and the three Band spectral parameters also suggest that the rise and decay phases of the GRB pulses have different origins.

  11. 5 alpha-reductase deficiency without hypospadias.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, W K; Taylor, N F; Hughes, I A; Taylor, J; Ransley, P G; Grant, D B

    1990-01-01

    A boy aged 4 with penoscrotal hypospadias and his brother aged 12 with micropenis had typical changes of homozygous 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. After three injections of chorionic gonadotrophin there was a trivial rise in plasma dihydrotestosterone with a normal increase in plasma testosterone. Urine steroid chromatography showed abnormally high 5 beta: 5 alpha ratios and 5 alpha-reductase activity was appreciably reduced in genital skin fibroblasts. The results indicate that 5 alpha-reductase deficiency is not invariably associated with genital ambiguity. PMID:2248513

  12. Equivalent width evaluation methods for Doppler, Lorentz, and Voigt profiles.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdel Aziz M; Rammah, Yasser S

    2014-01-01

    An accurate technique has been developed to calculate the equivalent width of absorption lines. The calculations have been carried out for the pure Doppler and pure Lorentz limiting forms of the equivalent width. A novel expression for the equivalent width for Lorentz profile is given from direct integration of the line profile. The more general case of a Voigt profile leads to an analytical formula that permits a rapid estimate of the equivalent width for a wide range of maximum optical depths. The reliability of the approach is verified using a numerical application calculating the equivalent width for nickel resonance lines at 232.0 and 352.3 nm from atomic absorption (AA) measurements. The dependence of equivalent width on the number density of absorbing atoms is also provided. The results obtained for the equivalent width for the Voigt profile were compared with the data in the available literature obtained by different approaches. PMID:24480275

  13. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  14. Ag contact properties according to the front grid width and firing temperature for silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongtak; Park, Sungeun; Kim, Young Do; Bae, Soohyun; Boo, Hyunpil; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Kyung Dong; Tark, Sung Ju; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-10-01

    The effect of peak firing temperature and grid width on the contact properties between Ag metal and silicon (n+ emitter) was investigated for screen-printed silicon solar cells. We confirmed the factors that control the specific contact resistance as follows: (1) the Ag coverage fraction on the silicon surface, d(2) the thickness of the glass layer and (3) the etching depth on the n+ emitter region. The lowest specific contact resistance (8.27 mΩ x cm2) was obtained at the optimum firing temperature (720 degrees C). We also found that the grid width affected the contact quality of Ag paste because the contact width related to the absorbed heat of samples in RTP system. For this reason, when the grid width was further reduced, meaning more heat absorption, more Ag crystallites grew and the glass layer thickened. Light I-V results of a 6-inch silicon solar cell with minimum busbar width were similar to the PC1D simulation results. The efficiency was improved by 0.2% with the reduction of the busbar width.

  15. Radiographic reference limits for cardiac width of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Velayati, Mozhgan; Mirshahi, Ali; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Primary and secondary cardiovascular diseases are not uncommon in birds. Although radiologic standards for heart width have been developed for mammals, they are still not available for many avian species. The purpose of this study was to establish normal reference values for cardiac size in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), one of the most popular pet bird species all over the world. After clinical and radiographic (lateral and ventrodorsal views) evaluations, 27 adult, clinically healthy budgerigars (10 females and 17 males) were included in this study. High-quality ventrodorsal and lateral radiographic projections were obtained. The cardiac and thoracic width, distance between third and fourth ribs, synsacrum width, coracoid width, and the distance between clavicle bones were measured on ventrodorsal radiographs. The ratio between cardiac width and other mentioned indices was calculated. Correlation of each anatomical index with the cardiac width was evaluated by linear regression model. Sex and weight were included in all models. Mean + SD of cardiac width was 10.8 +/- 0.6 mm, with lower and upper limits of 9.5 and 12.0 mm. The results showed a significant correlation between the cardiac width and the thoracic width (R2 = 0.28; P = 0.005). There were no significant associations between weight, sex, and the heart width. The values and ratios obtained in this study can be used as a reference of normal cardiac size of budgerigar in radiology for detection of cardiomegaly in this bird. PMID:25831574

  16. Scanning laser tomography Z profile signal width as an objective index of macular retinal thickening

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, C.; Flanagan, J.; Turner, G.; McLeod, D.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—(i) To evaluate the relation between retinal thickness and the Z profile signal width of a scanning laser tomographer in selected patients exhibiting clinically manifest and circumscribed macular retinal thickening; (ii) to compare the Z profile signal width values of a group of age similar normal subjects with those of the patients with macular retinal thickening; and (iii) to present the methodology underlying the Z profile signal width derivation.
METHODS—Three patients with the following conditions were selected: widespread diabetic macular oedema; localised diabetic macular oedema; and macular hole. The patients were selected because they exhibited clinically manifest and circumscribed macular retinal thickening. Patients underwent fundus photography and a clinical examination which included fundus biomicroscopy. Fourteen age similar normal subjects were also assessed. The Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) was utilised to acquire seven topographic images of each macula. Z profile signal width data were analysed using custom software. Signal width was measured at 50% of the maximum intensity.
RESULTS—For each patient with macular retinal thickening, Z profile signal width analysis (after normalisation to reduce the influence of variation in reflectance intensity between successive images) revealed a significant (p<0.0001) localised increase of signal width which agreed with the HRT topographic analysis of retinal height, and also the clinical assessment of retinal thickness. The mean normalised Z profile signal width for the normal subjects (assessed over the whole image) ranged from 0.278 (SD 0.039) to 0.444 (0.063); these values compared with those obtained from patients in areas of macular retinal thickening of 0.761 (0.224) to 0.953 (0.194). Z profile signal width test-retest data for the patient with localised diabetic macular oedema were plus or minus 0.159 which compared with a mean signal width value of 0.761.

  17. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  18. A study of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors in alpha2A/D-, alpha2B- and alpha2C-adrenoceptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, A U; Klebroff, W; Hein, L; Starke, K

    2001-08-01

    The function of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors was studied in the hippocampus, occipito-parietal cortex, atria and vas deferens of NMRI mice, mice in which the alpha2A/D-, the alpha2B- or alpha2c-adrenoceptor gene had been disrupted (alpha2A/DKO, alpha2BKO and alpha2CKO, respectively), and the wildtype mice from which the knockout animals had been generated. Tissue pieces were preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline and then superfused and stimulated electrically. The alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine reduced the electrically evoked overflow of tritium in all tissues from all mouse strains (stimulation with single pulses or single high-frequency pulse trains, called POPs, i.e. pulse patterns leading to minimal autoinhibition). The effects of medetomidine did not differ in NMRI, wildtype, alpha2BKO and alpha2CKO mice but were greatly reduced in alpha2A/DKO brain preparations and to a lesser extent in alpha2A/DKO atria and vasa deferentia. Six drugs were tested as antagonists against medetomidine. Their pKd values indicated that the hippocampal and occipito-parietal alpha2-autoreceptors in NMRI and wildtype mice were alpha2D (the rodent variant of the alpha2A/D-adrenoceptor) whereas the atrial and vas deferens alpha2-autoreceptors in NMRI and wildtype mice could not be identified with a single alpha2 subtype. Deletion of the alpha2A/D gene changed the pKd values in all tissues so that they now reflected alpha2C properties, whereas deletion of the alpha2C gene changed the pKd values in atria and vasa deferentia so that they now had alpha2D properties (as they had in NMRI and wildtype brain preparations). Autoinhibition by released noradrenaline was created using trains of up to 64 pulses or up to 4 POPs, and the overflow-enhancing effect of the alpha2 antagonist rauwolscine was determined. Results did not differ, irrespective of whether preparations were obtained from NMRI, wildtype, alpha2BKO or alpha2CKO mice: the overflow of tritium elicited by p pulses or POPs

  19. An investigation of bridge width measurement and processing capabilities (1985)

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-05-15

    An investigation of Mound`s ability to measure and process bridges was conducted in 1985. Prior to improvements in the measuring system and technique, bridge width was found to have a sigma of 0.00019 in. After improvements were made, a sigma of 0.000047 was realized. Bridge length was found to be more erratic than width, although most of the inaccuracy was caused by measurement uncertainty. Length and width were found to have little or no correlation.

  20. Recent Advances in Global Measurement and Application of River Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Among variables relevant to river form and discharge that can be observed from space, river width is perhaps the simplest to measure. Width can be extracted directly from optical or radar imagery, and application of remotely sensed widths to problems in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and ecology dates back more than two decades. Despite this long heritage, until very recently remotely sensed width measurements have largely been made on an ad-hoc basis for individual studies over relatively small regions. Global studies that required river widths have largely relied on estimates from downstream hydraulic geometry relationships with basin area, which inevitably simplify width variability and may, in practice, underestimate the fraction of wide rivers and the total river surface area in many basins. Over the last two years, multiple new regional- and global-scale, satellite-derived river width datasets have been developed that have substantially improved our global understanding of river form. These datasets include the Global Width Database for Large Rivers (GWD-LR), which provides width measurements for rivers wider than ~180 m, and all rivers wider than ~300 m, based on the SRTM water mask and the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL), which provides measurements for rivers as narrow as 30 m and all rivers wider than ~100 m. Several regional-scale datasets have also been developed. These datasets will facilitate improvements to regional and global scale hydrodynamic models, will provide more robust information on global river surface area for gas flux studies, and constitute novel information on global patterns of fluvial geomorphology. These datasets represent the beginning, not the end, of global river width measurements, however, as in the future multitemporal width measurements can be combined with recently developed algorithms to estimate river discharge for many rivers, globally.

  1. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures the level of the protein AAT in blood. Alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype testing evaluates the amount and type of AAT being produced and compares it to normal patterns. Alpha-1 antitrypsin genotype testing ( DNA testing) can ...

  2. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003715.htm Alpha-1 antitrypsin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure the ...

  3. Biologic width and its importance in periodontal and restorative dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Nugala, Babitha; Kumar, BB Santosh; Sahitya, S; Krishna, P Mohana

    2012-01-01

    An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function, esthetics and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width, its maintenance and applications of crown lengthening in cases of biologic width violation. Relevant publications regarding biologic width, its violation and management were identified up to August 2011 using manual and electronic database search in Medline, Embase, Directory of Open Access Journals and Google Scholar. This review discusses the concept of biologic width around tooth and its relationship to periodontal health and restorative dentistry. PMID:22368328

  4. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  5. Solar wind suprathermal electron Stahl widths across high-speed stream structures

    SciTech Connect

    Skoug, Ruth M; Steinberg, John T; Goodrich, Katherine A; Anderson, Brett R

    2011-01-03

    Suprathermal electrons (100-1500 eV) observed in the solar wind typically show a strahl distribution, that is, a beam directed away from the Sun along the magnetic field direction. The strahl width observed at 1 AU is highly variable, ranging from 10-70 degrees. The obsenred finite width of the strahl results from the competition between beam focusing as the interplanetary magnetic field strength drops with distance from the Sun, and pitch-angle scattering as the beam interacts with the solar wind plasma in transit from the sun. Here we examine strahl width, observed with ACE SWEPAM across high-speed stream structures to investigate variations in electron scattering as a function of local plasma characteristics. We find that narrow strahls (less than 20 degrees wide), indicating reduced scattering, are observed within high-speed streams. Narrow strahls are also observed in both very low temperature solar wind, in association with ICMEs. Case studies of high-speed streams typically show the strahl narrowing at the leading edge of the stream. In some cases, the strahl narrows at the reverse shock or pressure wave, in other cases at the stream interface. The narrowing can either occur discontinuously or gradually over a period of hours. Within the high-speed wind, the strahl remains narrow for a period of hours to days, and then gradually broadens. The strahl width is roughly constant at all energies across these structures. For some fraction of high-speed streams, counterstreaming is associated with passage of the corotating interaction region. In these cases, we find the widths of the two counterstreaming beams frequently differ by more than 40 degrees. This dramatic difference in strahl width contrasts with observations in the solar wind as a whole, in which counterstreaming strahls typically differ in width by less than 20 degrees.

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Electron Density Distribution of Alpha,Alpha-Trehalose Dihydrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha,alpha-rehalose is of interest because of its cryoprotective and antidessicant properties, and because it possesses various technical anomalies such as 13C NMR spectra that give misleading indications of intramolecular structural symmetry. It is a non-reducing disaccharide, with the glycosidic...

  7. Correcting Coefficient Alpha for Correlated Errors: Is [alpha][K]a Lower Bound to Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    When errors of measurement are positively correlated, coefficient alpha may overestimate the "true" reliability of a composite. To reduce this inflation bias, Komaroff (1997) has proposed an adjusted alpha coefficient, ak. This article shows that ak is only guaranteed to be a lower bound to reliability if the latter does not include correlated…

  8. Implications of Satellite Swath Width on Global Aerosol Optical Thickness Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter; Kahn, Ralph; Remer, Lorraine; Levy, Robert; Welton, Ellsworth

    2012-01-01

    We assess the impact of swath width on the statistics of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieved by satellite as inferred from observations made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We sub-sample the year 2009 MODIS data from both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft along several candidate swaths of various widths. We find that due to spatial sampling there is an uncertainty of approximately 0.01 in the global, annual mean AOT. The sub-sampled monthly mean gridded AOT are within +/- 0.01 of the full swath AOT about 20% of the time for the narrow swath sub-samples, about 30% of the time for the moderate width sub-samples, and about 45% of the time for the widest swath considered. These results suggest that future aerosol satellite missions with only a narrow swath view may not sample the true AOT distribution sufficiently to reduce significantly the uncertainty in aerosol direct forcing of climate.

  9. Finite-width currents, magnetic shear, and the current-driven ion-cyclotron instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakshi, P.; Ganguli, G.; Palmadesso, P.

    1983-01-01

    Our earlier results that non-local effects due to even a small magnetic shear produce a significant reduction of the growth rate of the ion cyclotron instability driven by a uniform current are now generalized to finite width currents. Externally prescribed as well as self-consistent shears are considered. If the current width Lc exceeds the shear length Ls, the previous results are recovered. Shear becomes less effective with reduction of Lc, and for typical parameters, the growth rate attains its (shearless) local value for Lc/Ls approximately less than 10 to the minus 2. Non-local effects of the finite current width itself come into play if Lc is further reduced to a few ion Larmor radii and can quench the instability. Previously announced in STAR as N83-28996

  10. Magnetic force microscopy study of submicron track width recording in thin-film media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yansheng; Lam, Terence T.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Tong, Hua-Ching; Rottmayer, Robert

    1996-04-01

    The magnetic force microscopy (MFM) technique is used to investigate the writing properties of a set of thin-film heads with track widths ranging from 2 to 0.5 μm. MFM images show that track edge percolation occurs at lower densities than on-track intertransition percolation. Track edge percolation results in track edge fluctuations and effective track width reduction. As the head track width is reduced to the near-micron or submicron ranges, the track edges become dominant portions of the track and consequently cause severe degradation of the recording tracks. Track edge percolation is caused by a poor edge field gradient and is possibly enhanced by pole tip corner saturation. In order to achieve high-density narrow track recording, high moment writing heads become necessary.

  11. Widths of Sobolev weight classes on a domain with cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Order estimates for the Kolmogorov, Gelfand and linear widths of the unit ball in weighted Sobolev space on a domain with cusp in a weighted Lebesgue space are obtained. Certain limit conditions on the parameters are considered for which the estimates for widths may differ from those in the case of weight one and a domain with Lipschitz boundary. Bibliography: 52 titles.

  12. Measuring Slit Width and Separation in a Diffraction Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, K. K.; Law, A. T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a procedure for measuring slit width and separation in single- and double-slit diffraction experiments. Intensity spectra of diffracted laser light are measured with an optical sensor (PIN diode). Slit widths and separations are extracted by fitting to the measured spectra. We present a simple fitting procedure to account for the…

  13. Manipulation of two alpha-endo-beta-1,4-glucanase genes, AtCel6 and GmCel7, reduces susceptibility to Heterodera glycines in soybean roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (EGases) include cell-wall-modifying enzymes that are involved in nematode-induced growth of syncytia (feeding structures) in nematode-infected roots. EGases in the alpha and beta subfamilies contain signal peptides and are secreted, while those in the gamma subfamily ...

  14. Protein-energy malnutrition decreases the expression of TLR-4/MD-2 and CD14 receptors in peritoneal macrophages and reduces the synthesis of TNF-alpha in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice.

    PubMed

    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; de Moura Sá Rocha, Vanessa; de Sá Rocha, Luiz Carlos; Borelli, Primavera

    2007-11-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) modifies resistance to infection, impairing a number of physiological processes, including hematopoiesis. In this study, we examined a few aspects of the inflammatory response to LPS in a model of PEM. We evaluated the cellularity of the blood, bone marrow and spleen, as well as phagocytic, fungicidal and spreading activity, the production in vivo and in vitro of TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha and IL-6, and the expression of CD14 and TLR-4/MD-2 receptors in macrophages. Two-month-old male Swiss mice were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet containing 4% protein as compared to 20% protein in the control diet. When the experimental group had attained about 20% loss of their original body weight, they were used in the experiments. Malnourished animals presented anemia, leucopenia and severe reduction in bone marrow, spleen and peritoneal cavity cellularity. The production of TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha and IL-6 stimulated in vivo with LPS and the production of IL-6 in bone marrow cells cultured with LPS and the production of TNF-alpha in bone marrow, spleen and peritoneal cells cultured with LPS were significantly lower in malnourished animals. The expression of CD14 and TLR-4/MD-2 receptors was found to be significantly lower in macrophages of malnourished animals. These findings suggest that malnourished animals present a deficient response to LPS. The lower expression of the CD14 and TLR-4/MD-2 receptors may be partly responsible for the immunodeficiency observed in the malnourished mice. These data lead us to infer that the nutritional state interferes with the activation of macrophages and with the capacity to mount an immune response.

  15. Quantification of functional and inactivated alpha 2-macroglobulin in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Abbink, J J; Nuijens, J H; Eerenberg, A J; Huijbregts, C C; Strack van Schijndel, R J; Thijs, L G; Hack, C E

    1991-01-23

    Alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2 M) in vitro inhibits numerous proteinases that are generated during inflammatory reactions and therefore, probably plays an important role in diseases such as sepsis. To monitor the state of alpha 2 M in sepsis, we developed novel assays for functional and inactive alpha 2M. Functional alpha 2M in plasma was measured by quantitating the binding of alpha 2M to solid-phase trypsin. Inactive alpha 2M (i alpha 2M) was assessed with a monoclonal antibody, mcAb M1, that specifically reacts with a neodeterminant exposed on i alpha 2M. This mcAb in combination with chromogenic substrates was used to detect alpha 2M-proteinase complexes. Functional alpha 2M was reduced in plasma from 48 patients with clinical sepsis compared to healthy controls (p less than 0.0001). Levels of functional alpha 2M on admission and the lowest levels encountered in 23 patients with shock were lower than in 25 normotensive patients (p = 0.023 and p = 0.009, respectively). Increased levels of i alpha 2M (greater than 30 nM) at least on one occasion were found in only 4 of the 48 patients, being not different in hypotensive compared with normotensive patients, and not in patients who died compared with those who survived. Levels of functional alpha 2M correlated significantly with levels of factor XII and prekallikrein suggesting that decreases in alpha 2M at least in part were due to contact activation. Indeed, in two patients with increased i alpha 2M, complexes between alpha 2M and kallikrein were demonstrated in addition to plasmin- and thrombin-alpha 2M complexes.

  16. Step width alters iliotibial band strain during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Campbell, Samuel; Derrick, Timothy R

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the effect of step width during running on factors related to iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 15 healthy recreational runners during overground running under various step width conditions (preferred and at least +/- 5% of their leg length). Strain and strain rate were estimated from a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. Greater ITB strain and strain rate were found in the narrower step width condition (p < 0.001, p = 0.040). ITB strain was significantly (p < 0.001) greater in the narrow condition than the preferred and wide conditions and it was greater in the preferred condition than the wide condition. ITB strain rate was significantly greater in the narrow condition than the wide condition (p = 0.020). Polynomial contrasts revealed a linear increase in both ITB strain and strain rate with decreasing step width. We conclude that relatively small decreases in step width can substantially increase ITB strain as well as strain rates. Increasing step width during running, especially in persons whose running style is characterized by a narrow step width, may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of running-related ITB syndrome.

  17. Biologic width and crown lengthening: case reports and review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Lim

    2010-01-01

    The biologic width includes both the connective tissue attachment and the junctional epithelium and has a mean dimension of approximately 2 mm. Invading the biologic width with a restoration can result in localized crestal bone loss, gingival recession, localized gingival hyperplasia, or a combination of these three. When restoring teeth that have subgingival caries or fractures below the gingival attachment, a clinical crown-lengthening procedure is needed to establish the biologic width. This article presents three case reports that utilized crown-lengthening procedures.

  18. Influence of pulse width and detuning on coherent phonon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Shikano, Yutaka; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the coherent phonon generation mechanism by irradiation of an ultrashort pulse with a simple two-level model. Our derived formulation shows that both impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) and impulsive absorption (IA) simultaneously occur, and phonon wave packets are generated in the electronic ground and excited states by ISRS and IA, respectively. We identify the dominant process from the amplitude of the phonon oscillation. For short pulse widths, ISRS is very small and becomes larger as the pulse width increases. We also show that the initial phase is dependent on the pulse width and the detuning.

  19. Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

  20. Sauchinone, a lignan from Saururus chinensis, reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production through the inhibition of c-raf/MEK1/2/ERK 1/2 pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hong-Beom; Li, Mei; Son, Jong-Keun; Seo, Chang-Seob; Chung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Seok-Jai; Jeong, Cheol-Won; Lee, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Woongmo; Park, Hwan-Chul; Kwak, Sang-Hyun

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sauchinone, a lignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, and the underlying mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To assess the effects of sauchinone on LPS-induced macrophages activation, we measured the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun amino terminal kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappaB activation in RAW264.7 cells. Sauchinone decreased the production of TNF-alpha, but not MIP-2 production in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Sauchinone also decreased c-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Our results show that sauchinone inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression in macrophages by suppression of NF-kappaB activation via ERK1/2 pathway, which may constitute anti-inflammatory effects of sauchinone.

  1. Removal of alpha-Gal epitopes from porcine aortic valve and pericardium using recombinant human alpha galactosidase A.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongsik; Kim, Woong-Han; Choi, Sun-Young; Kim, Yong-Jin

    2009-12-01

    It has been reported that the immune response due to alpha-Gal epitopes is an important factor in tissue valve failure. The elimination of the interaction between the natural anti-Gal antibodies and alpha-gal epitopes on the xenografts is a prerequisite to the success of xenografts in humans. Previously, we reported that the green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase could remove all alpha-Gal epitopes from cell surface of porcine aortic valve and pericardial tissue, but it has limitations on cost effectiveness. In this study we wanted to know whether the recently produced recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A has the same effective enzymatic activity as green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase in removing alpha-Gal epitopes from the same tissues. After treating fresh porcine aortic valve and pericardial tissue with recombinant alpha-galactosidase A, each sample was stained with Griffonia simplicifolia type I isolectin B4 indirect immunoperoxidase avidin-biotin technique. We then examined whether the alpha-Gal epitopes were reduced or abolished in each consecutive concentration of recombinant alpha-galactosidase A by comparing the degree of the Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 staining. As a result, the recombinant alpha-galactosidase A could remove cell surface alpha-Gals on porcine aortic valve and pericardial tissue as effectively as green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase.

  2. Variations in solar Lyman alpha irradiance on short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Variations in solar UV irradiance at Lyman alpha are studied on short time scales (from days to months) after removing the long-term changes over the solar cycle. The SME/Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analysis. In order to study the nonlinear effects, Lyman alpha irradiance is modeled with a 5th-degree polynomial as well. It is shown that the full-disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm, which is used as a proxy for the plages and active network, can best reproduce the changes observed in Lyman alpha. Approximately 72 percent of the solar-activity-related changes in Lyman alpha irradiance arise from plages and the network. The network contribution is estimated by the correlation analysis to be about 19 percent. It is shown that significant variability remains in Lyman alpha irradiance, with periods around 300, 27, and 13.5d, which is not explained by the solar activity indices. It is shown that the nonlinear effects cannot account for a significant part of the unexplained variation in Lyman alpha irradiance. Therefore, additional events (e.g., large-scale motions and/or a systematic difference in the area and intensity of the plages and network observed in the lines of Ca-K, He 1083, and Lyman alpha) may explain the discrepancies found between the observed and estimated irradiance values.

  3. H. cap alpha. in RS CVn binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, B.W.; Talcott, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The 1976--78 results of a spectroscopic program to monitor H..cap alpha.. in several RS CVn-type binaries are reported. For six objects well observed over orbital phase, four (HR 4665, HR 5110, sigma Gem, Z Her) show H..cap alpha.. as an absorption feature having a constant ( +- 15%) equivalent width (EW). AR Lac exhibits an absorption profile also, but the EW varies by a factor of three due to partial filling by emission. This variation is sporadic and not phase dependent. The H..cap alpha.. feature in HK Lac shows the most extreme variation: normally seen as an absorption feature with variable EW, it has been observed as a pure emission feature on three spectrograms, showing a blueshift with respect to the photosphere of approx.50--100 km sec/sup -1/. On a single occasion HK Lac showed double H..cap alpha.. emission with a separation of the peaks of approx.300 km sec/sup -1/. These high velocity features are interpreted in terms of prominence-like structure in the atmosphere of the active star.

  4. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    DOEpatents

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  5. Rotating compensator spectroscopic ellipsometry for line-width control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ha-Young; Bang, Kyoung-Yoon; Lee, Jaeho; Bak, Heungin; Sohn, Young-Soo; An, Ilsin

    2002-07-01

    Rotating compensator spectroscopic ellipsometry (RCSE) was applied to the characterization of line-width in deep UV photoresist films. Variation of line-width in few nm was distinguishable by comparing the features in conventional ellipsometry parameters or the degree of polarization spectra obtainable form RCSE. The variations in the former spectra were caused by the density change in patterned PR films. Meanwhile, the variations in latter spectra wee caused by the surface profile of the film. Once the spectral positions of the features were related to the result of CD- SEM, both spectra could be used to estimate the line-width of patterned PR without in-depth analysis. Further, when uniaxial anisotropy was assumed for the film, the line-width could be roughly deduced in the process of extracting the optical properties of film via an effective medium approximation.

  6. 223. FREQUENTLY REPRODUCED VIEW OF GWMP SHOWING VARIABLE WIDTH MEDIANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    223. FREQUENTLY REPRODUCED VIEW OF GWMP SHOWING VARIABLE WIDTH MEDIANS WITH INDEPENDENT ALIGNMENTS FROM KEY BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST, 1953. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  7. Patterns of river width and surface area newly revealed by the satellite-derived North American River Width (NARWidth) dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.

    2014-12-01

    The total surface area of rivers and streams is a key quantity for estimating gaseous emissions from fluvial networks to the atmosphere. Presently, the most sophisticated evaluations of continental-scale river surface area rely on: 1) calculating river width from digital elevation models (DEMs) by scaling width to upstream drainage area via downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) relationships; 2) extrapolating river width and length from large to small river basins using Horton ratios; and 3) extrapolating empirical relationships between climate and percentage water cover to from low- to high-latitude basins where hydrologically conditioned topographic data does not exist. Here we use the recently developed North American River Width (NARWidth) dataset to estimate the total surface area of North American rivers and streams. NARWidth is the first fine-resolution, continental-scale river centerline and width database. The database is derived from Landsat satellite imagery and contains measurements of >2.4×105 km of rivers wider than 30 m at mean annual discharge. We find that datasets that estimate river width by applying DHG relationships to DEMs underestimate the abundance of wide rivers and do not capture the widest rivers observed by NARWidth. We attribute these differences to: 1) the tendency of stream gauges to be located at stable, single channel sites, leading to a potential bias of measured river width relative to the representative river width throughout a river's entire length; and 2) physiographic conditions that are not captured by DHG and can cause substantial deviation from strict width-discharge relationships. We then calculate the total surface area of North American rivers by extrapolating the strong observed relationship between total river surface area and width at different widths (r2>0.996 for 100-2000 m widths) to narrow rivers and streams. We find that the total surface area of North American rivers is ~1.38×105 km2 for all rivers wider than 1

  8. Enzymic conversion of alpha-oxyprotohaem IX into biliverdin IX alpha by haem oxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, T; Sudo, Y; Sano, S

    1990-01-01

    Conversion of four isomers of meso-oxyprotohaem IX into the corresponding biliverdin IX was attempted with a reconstituted haem oxygenase system in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH. Only the alpha-isomer of meso-oxyprotohaem IX was converted effectively into biliverdin IX alpha, which was further reduced to bilirubin IX alpha by biliverdin reductase. Only trace amounts of biliverdins IX beta, IX gamma and IX delta were respectively formed from the incubation mixture of the corresponding oxyprotohaemin IX isomers with the complete haem oxygenase system under the same conditions. In a kinetic study, the Km for alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX was 3.6 microM, which was 2-fold higher than that for protohaem IX. The maximum velocity (Vmax.) of the conversion of alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX into biliverdin IX alpha was twice as fast as that of protohaem IX. These results demonstrate that alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX is an intermediate of haem degradation and it was converted stereospecifically into biliverdin IX alpha via verdohaem IX alpha. PMID:2122884

  9. Quantifying River Widths of North America from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Miller, Z.

    2013-12-01

    River width is a fundamental predictor variable in many hydrologic, geomorphic, and biogeochemical models, yet current large-scale models rely on theoretical hydraulic geometry relationships that do not fully capture natural variability in river form. Here we present the first high-resolution dataset of long-term mean width of North American rivers wider than 30 m. The dataset contains 7.93 million georeferenced width measurements derived from Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery that were acquired when rivers were most likely to be at mean discharge. We built the dataset by developing an automated procedure that selects and downloads raw imagery, creates cloud-free normalized difference water index images, histogram balances and mosaics them together, and produces a water mask using a dynamic water-land threshold technique. We then visually inspected and corrected the mask for errors and used RivWidth software to calculate river width at each river centerline pixel. We validated our dataset using >1000 United States Geological Survey and Water Survey of Canada in situ gauge station measurements. Error analysis shows a robust relationship between the remotely sensed widths and in situ gauge measurements with an r 2 = 0.86 (Spearman's = 0.81) and a mean absolute error of 27.5 m. We find that North American river widths lie on logarithmic frequency curve with some notable exceptions at widths <100 m. This dataset can be used to improve our understanding of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles, as well as large-scale landscape evolution models. Our results also allow for the characterization of the extent of rivers likely to be observable by the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  10. Comprehensive intermaxillary tooth width proportion of Bangkok residents.

    PubMed

    Manopatanakul, Somchai; Watanawirun, Narumon

    2011-01-01

    Proper occlusion depends on the correct width ratio between upper and lower teeth, known as Bolton's ratio. In fact, this ratio can be calculated for each pair of teeth from the central incisor to the first permanent molar. This set of ratios, known as comprehensive cumulative percentage ratios (CPRs), can be used not only to determine which tooth or teeth have a tooth width discrepancy, but can also enable the partial graphical analysis of tooth width discrepancy when there is agenesis of certain permanent teeth. Although CPRs have been calculated for Caucasians, tooth width is known to vary depending on racial origin. Therefore, a test of differences between racial groups should be carried out. If these ratios of the Caucasians and Bangkokians are significantly different, the ratio of the Bangkokians is recommended. The objective of this study was to measure tooth size disproportion for Thai patients and to calculate a corresponding set of CPRs. Thirty-seven pairs of dental models were made from a group of Bangkok residents with normal occlusion. Mesiodistal tooth width was measured for each model. The intra- and inter-examiner measurement errors were ascertained as insignificant (p > 0.05). CPRs were then calculated and compared to those derived from other studies. Ten of thirteen CPRs were significantly different from corresponding values derived from Caucasians. We conclude that tooth width ratios vary between different racial groups, and therefore that these should be calculated specifically for each patient racial group.

  11. Peak width issues with generalised 2D correlation NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, Gemma M.; Adams, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional spectral correlation analysis is shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in spectral peak width as a function of perturbation variable. This is particularly significant where peak width fluctuations are of similar order of magnitude as the peak width values themselves and where changes in peak width are not random but are, for example, proportional to intensity. In such cases these trends appear in the asynchronous matrix as false peaks that serve to interfere with interpretation of the data. Complex, narrow band spectra such as provided by 1H NMR spectroscopy are demonstrated to be prone to such interference. 2D correlation analysis was applied to a series of NMR spectra corresponding to a commercial wine fermentation, in which the samples collected over a period of several days exhibit dramatic changes in concentration of minor and major components. The interference due to changing peak width effects is eliminated by synthesizing the recorded spectra using a constant peak width value prior to performing 2D correlation analysis.

  12. Complex effects of IL1A polymorphism and calpain inhibitors on interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) mRNA levels and secretion of IL-1 alpha protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Temple, S; Roberts, S; Price, P

    2008-07-01

    Alleles of IL1A-889(C>T) and IL1A+4845(G>T) are in linkage disequilibrium. Interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) is produced as a precursor protein and cleaved at positions 117-118 by calpain, generating a mature protein for export. IL1A+4845 affects amino acids expressed at position 114 and hence may modulate calpain-mediated cleavage. We sought evidence for this mechanism in intact cells. Blood leukocytes from heterozygous donors released more IL-1alpha protein than cells from IL1A(1,1) donors, while release from IL1A(2,2) cells was variable. Genotype did not affect levels of IL-1alpha mRNA, so differential cleavage of the precursor is a feasible mechanism. However, genotype also had no effect on inhibition of IL-1alpha release by pretreatment with calpain inhibitors, and calpain inhibitors reduced IL-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA levels. Hence, calpain inhibitors probably affect inhibition of signal transduction pathway rather than cleavage of IL-1alpha protein. As ratios of mu-calpain/calpastatin were lowest in heterozygous donors, genetically determined IL-1alpha levels may modulate transcription of calpain and calpastatin. This could reduce the impact of IL1A genotype on IL-1alpha secretion and amplify individual variation in levels generated in culture.

  13. Determination of Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmeissani, Mokhtar Abdallah

    The determination of the strong coupling constant alpha_ s, using Energy-Energy Correlation Asymmetry and jet mass difference with Mark II data at SLC (91 GeV) is presented. In Energy-Energy Correlation Asymmetry (EECA), we used the same systematic procedure used to determine alpha_ s with MARK II data at PEP (29 GeV). The chi^2 fit suggests that alpha_ s = 0.119 +/- 0.007(stat.) +/- 0.007(syst.). In addition, we used the EECA method to determine the QCD scale parameter Lambda_{LLA}. The chi^2 fit suggests that Lambda _{LLA} = 420 +/- 90(stat.) MeV. In the jet mass difference method, the determination of alpha_ s is based on QCD calculations up to 2nd order. We showed that in this method we are able to reproduce the value of alpha _ s from a Monte Carlo sample to a very high accuracy. The result with this method is alpha _ s = 0.134 +/- 0.085(stat.) +/- 0.004(syst.). The two values of alpha_ s presented in this work are in agreement within the error bars and in a good agreement with recent results of alpha_ s published from other e^+e^- experiments.

  14. On the Assimilation of Tree-Ring-Width Chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Walter; Reich, Sebastian; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Data assimilation (DA) of climate proxy records is currently acknowledged as a promising approach to the paleoclimate reconstruction problem, with the potential to bring physical consistency to reconstructed fields. Previous paleo-DA studies have typically assumed a linear relationship between climate forcing and the resulting proxy data, whereas there exist growing evidence of complex, potentially non-linear, proxy formation processes. Accordingly, it appears natural to simulate the proxy response to climate in a more realistic fashion, by way of proxy-specific forward models. Following this train of thought, we investigate the assimilation of the most traditional climate proxy type, Tree-Ring-Width (TRW) chronologies, using the process-based tree-ring growth forward model Vaganov-Shashkin-Lite (VSL) and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) techniques. Used as observation operator, VSL's formulation implies three compounding, challenging features: (i) time averaging, (ii) "switching recording" of 2 variables and (iii) bounded response windows leading to "thresholded response". DA experiments involving VSL-based pseudo-TRW observations are performed first for a chaotic 2-scale dynamical system, used as a cartoon of the atmosphere-land system, and then for an atmospheric general circulation model of intermediate complexity. Our results reveal that VSL's nonlinearities may considerable deteriorate the performance of EnKF for Time-Averaged (TA) estimation, as compared to the utilization of a TA linear observation operator. Moreover, we show that this assimilation skill loss can be considerably reduced by embedding VSL's formulation into fuzzy logic theory, which fosters new interpretations of tree-ring growth limitation processes.

  15. Sodium pump alpha2 subunits control myogenic tone and blood pressure in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Lee, Moo Yeol; Cavalli, Maurizio; Chen, Ling; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Balke, C William; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Patrizia; Hamlyn, John M; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Lingrel, Jerry B; Matteson, Donald R; Wier, W Gil; Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2005-11-15

    A key question in hypertension is: How is long-term blood pressure controlled? A clue is that chronic salt retention elevates an endogenous ouabain-like compound (EOLC) and induces salt-dependent hypertension mediated by Na(+)/Ca(2)(+) exchange (NCX). The precise mechanism, however, is unresolved. Here we study blood pressure and isolated small arteries of mice with reduced expression of Na(+) pump alpha1 (alpha1(+/-)) or alpha2 (alpha2(+/-)) catalytic subunits. Both low-dose ouabain (1-100 nm; inhibits only alpha2) and high-dose ouabain (> or =1 microm; inhibits alpha1) elevate myocyte Ca(2)(+) and constrict arteries from alpha1(+/-), as well as alpha2(+/-) and wild-type mice. Nevertheless, only mice with reduced alpha2 Na(+) pump activity (alpha2(+/-)), and not alpha1 (alpha1(+/-)), have elevated blood pressure. Also, isolated, pressurized arteries from alpha2(+/-), but not alpha1(+/-), have increased myogenic tone. Ouabain antagonists (PST 2238 and canrenone) and NCX blockers (SEA0400 and KB-R7943) normalize myogenic tone in ouabain-treated arteries. Only the NCX blockers normalize the elevated myogenic tone in alpha2(+/-) arteries because this tone is ouabain independent. All four agents are known to lower blood pressure in salt-dependent and ouabain-induced hypertension. Thus, chronically reduced alpha2 activity (alpha2(+/-) or chronic ouabain) apparently regulates myogenic tone and long-term blood pressure whereas reduced alpha1 activity (alpha1(+/-)) plays no persistent role: the in vivo changes in blood pressure reflect the in vitro changes in myogenic tone. Accordingly, in salt-dependent hypertension, EOLC probably increases vascular resistance and blood pressure by reducing alpha2 Na(+) pump activity and promoting Ca(2)(+) entry via NCX in myocytes. PMID:16166162

  16. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  17. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  18. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  19. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  20. Precision Measurement of {eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} Decay Width via the Primakoff Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Liping Gin

    2013-08-01

    A precision measurement of the {eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} decay width via the Primakoff effect is underway in Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The decay width will be extracted from measured differential cross sections at forward angles on two light targets, liquid hydrogen and 4He, using a 11.5 GeV tagged photon beam. Results of this experiment will not only potentially resolve a long standing discrepancy between the Primakoff and the collider measurements, but will also reduce the experimental uncertainty by a factor of two on the average value of previous experimental results listed by the Particle Data Group(PDG). It will directly improve all other eta partial decay widths which rely on the accuracy of the eta radiative decay width. The projected 3% precision on the {Gamma}({eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} ) measurement will have a significant impact on the experimental determination of the fundamental parameters in QCD, such as the ratio of light quark masses (m{sub u},m{sub d},m{sub s}) and the {eta} - {eta}' mixing angle. It will be a sensitive probe for understanding QCD symmetries and the origin and the dynamics of QCD symmetry breaking.

  1. CT radiation profile width measurement using CR imaging plate raw data.

    PubMed

    Bjarnason, Thorarin Albert; Yang, Chang-Ying Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This technical note demonstrates computed tomography (CT) radiation profile measurement using computed radiography (CR) imaging plate raw data showing it is possible to perform the CT collimation width measurement using a single scan without saturating the imaging plate. Previously described methods require careful adjustments to the CR reader settings in order to avoid signal clipping in the CR processed image. CT radiation profile measurements were taken as part of routine quality control on 14 CT scanners from four vendors. CR cassettes were placed on the CT scanner bed, raised to isocenter, and leveled. Axial scans were taken at all available collimations, advancing the cassette for each scan. The CR plates were processed and raw CR data were analyzed using MATLAB scripts to measure collimation widths. The raw data approach was compared with previously established methodology. The quality control analysis scripts are released as open source using creative commons licensing. A log-linear relationship was found between raw pixel value and air kerma, and raw data collimation width measurements were in agreement with CR-processed, bit-reduced data, using previously described methodology. The raw data approach, with intrinsically wider dynamic range, allows improved measurement flexibility and precision. As a result, we demonstrate a methodology for CT collimation width measurements using a single CT scan and without the need for CR scanning parameter adjustments which is more convenient for routine quality control work. PMID:26699559

  2. Giant dipole resonance width in nuclei near Sn at low temperature and high angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Srijit; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, Deepak; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Dey, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Ghosh, T.; Gupta, D.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2008-02-15

    High energy {gamma} rays in coincidence with low energy yrast {gamma} rays have been measured from {sup 113}Sb, at excitation energies of 109 and 122 MeV, formed by bombarding {sup 20}Ne on {sup 93}Nb at projectile energies of 145 and 160 MeV, respectively, to study the role of angular momentum (J) and temperature (T) over giant dipole resonance (GDR) width ({gamma}). The maximum populated angular momenta for fusion were 67({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and 73({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), respectively, for the above-mentioned beam energies. The high energy photons were detected using a Large Area Modular BaF{sub 2} Detector Array (LAMBDA) along with a 24-element multiplicity filter. After pre-equilibrium corrections, the excitation energy E* was averaged over the decay steps of the compound nucleus (CN). The average values of temperature, angular momentum, CN mass, etc., have been calculated using the statistical model code CASCADE. Using those average values, results show the systematic increase of GDR width with T, which is consistent with Kusnezov parametrization and the thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM). The rise of GDR width with temperature also supports the assumptions of adiabatic coupling in the TSFM. But the GDR widths and corresponding reduced plots with J are not consistent with those of the theoretical model at high spins.

  3. Alpha-Decay Half-Lives of Superheavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Budaca, A. I.; Silisteanu, I.; Silisteanu, A. O.; Anghel, C. I.

    2010-11-24

    Half-lives given by self-consistent models for the {alpha}-clustering and resonance scattering are calculated and compared with data and empirical estimates. The major influence of the pairing, deformed shell closures and screening corrections is evidenced in the systematics of half-lives and provides a convenient basis for the interpretation of observed trends of the data and for prediction of new results. The very small widths of {alpha}-resonances observed experimentally in fusion-evaporation reactions, are interpreted as resonance levels of radioactive products, and such a correlation contributes directly to the study of the nuclear structure on the basis of decay data.

  4. The H-alpha/H-beta ratio in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.; Liggett, M.; Patterson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation involves the study of an extensive body of data accumulated of simultaneous H-alpha and H-beta cinematography of flares. The data were obtained with two telescopes simultaneously photographing flares in H-alpha and H-beta. The results of measurements in a number of flares are presented in a table. The flares were selected purely by optical quality of the data. That the measured ratios are not too different from those in stellar flares is suggested by the last two columns of the table. These columns show that a variety of possible line width ratios could give an integrated intensity ratio of less than unity.

  5. Effects of roadside transect width on waterfowl and wetland estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Sklebar, H. Thomas; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Buhl, Thomas K.

    2000-01-01

    Strip transects located along roads are commonly used to estimate waterfowl populations and characterize associated wetland habitat. We used data collected in May and early June, 1995, on forty-five 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to evaluate bias of 800-m and 400-m wide roadside transects for sampling wetlands relative to a larger (40-km2) scale and to compare duck abundance at the two widths. Densities of all basins combined and of seasonal basins considered alone were biased high for both transect widths, but mean bias did not differ from zero for temporary or semipermanent basins. Biases did not occur when excavated seasonal and temporary basins (i.e., road ditches) were excluded from the sample. Mean basin density was higher for the inner (400-m) transect width than for the outer transect width (area remaining of the 800-m transect, outside of center 400-m width) for all basins combined and for seasonal and temporary basins. We detected an area-related bias in the occurrence of basins in transects: smaller basins (0.08–1.6 ha) were over-represented in transect samples by 2.9–6.5%, and larger basins (≥11 ha) were under-represented in 800-m transects by 7.3% and in 400-m transects by 16.3%. We compared the distribution of ducks relative to water conditions in the inner and outer transect widths to evaluate whether they were affected by proximity to the road. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), northern pintails (A. acuta L.), and gadwall (A. strepera L.) responded to water conditions equally in the inner and outer transect widths, but northern shovelers (A. clypeata L.) and blue-winged teal (A. discors L.) responded more strongly to wetlands on the inner than the outer transect width, indicating that estimates of these species would be higher from a 400-m wide transect than from an 800-m wide transect. Differences in an adjustment index, used to account for the portion of basin obscured from view, were highly variable between inner and outer transect widths but

  6. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalka, A. M.

    1986-04-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the dc input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  7. Effective Widths of Compression-Loaded Plates With a Cutout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A study of the effects of cutouts and laminate construction on the prebuckling and initial postbuckling stiffnesses, and the effective widths of compression-loaded, laminated-composite and aluminum square plates is presented. The effective-width concept is extended to plates with cutouts, and experimental and nonlinear finite-element analysis results are presented. Behavioral trends are compared for seven plate families and for cutout-diameter-to-plate-width ratios up to 0.66. A general compact design curve that can be used to present and compare the effective widths for a wide range of laminate constructions is also presented. A discussion of how the results can be used and extended to include certain types of damage, cracks, and other structural discontinuities or details is given. Several behavioral trends are described that initially appear to be nonintuitive. The results demonstrate a complex interaction between cutout size and plate orthotropy that affects the axial stiffness and effective width of a plate subjected to compression loads.

  8. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  9. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  10. Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas

    2015-12-14

    We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.

  11. Morphodynamics structures induced by variations of the channel width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, Gonzalo; Crosato, Alessandra; Tassi, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    In alluvial channels, forcing effects, such as a longitudinally varying width, can induce the formation of steady bars (Olesen, 1984). The type of bars that form, such as alternate, central or multiple, will mainly depend on the local flow width-to-depth ratio and on upstream conditions (Struiksma et al., 1985). The effects on bar formation of varying the channel width received attention only recently and investigations, based on flume experiments and mathematical modelling, are mostly restricted to small longitudinal sinusoidal variations of the channel width (e.g. Repetto et al., 2002; Wu and Yeh, 2005, Zolezzi et al., 2012; Frascati and Lanzoni, 2013). In this work, we analyze the variations in equilibrium bed topography in a longitudinal width-varying channel with characteristic scales of the Waal River (The Netherlands) using two different 2D depth-averaged morphodynamic models, one based on the Delft3D code and one on Telemac-Mascaret system. In particular, we explore the effects of changing the wavelength of sinusoidal width variations in a straight channel, focusing on the effects of the spatial lag between bar formation and forcing that is observed in numerical models and laboratory experiments (e.g. Crosato et al, 2011). We extend the investigations to finite width variations in which longitudinal changes of the width-to-depth ratio are such that they may affect the type of bars that become unstable (alternate, central or multiple bars). Numerical results are qualitatively validated with field observations and the resulting morphodynamic pattern is compared with the physics-based predictor of river bar modes by Crosato and Mosselman (2009). The numerical models are finally used to analyse the experimental conditions of Wu and Yeh (2005). The study should be seen as merely exploratory. The aim is to investigate possible approaches for future research aiming at assessing the effects of artificial river widening and narrowing to control bar formation in

  12. Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas

    2015-12-14

    We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green's function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.

  13. Bilocal expansion of the Borel amplitude and the hadronic tau decay width

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Lee, Taekoon

    2001-07-01

    The singular part of the Borel transform of a QCD amplitude near the infrared renormalon can be expanded in terms of higher order Wilson coefficients of the operators associated with the renormalon. In this paper we observe that this expansion gives nontrivial constraints on the Borel amplitude that can be used to improve the accuracy of the ordinary perturbative expansion of the Borel amplitude. In particular, we consider the Borel transform of the Adler function and its expansion around the first infrared renormalon due to the gluon condensate. Using the next-to-leading order (NLO) Wilson coefficient of the gluon condensate operator, we obtain an exact constraint on the Borel amplitude at the first IR renormalon. We then extrapolate, using judiciously chosen conformal transformations and Pade{prime} approximants, the ordinary perturbative expansion of the Borel amplitude in such a way that this constraint is satisfied. This procedure allows us to predict the O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}) coefficient of the Adler function, which gives a result consistent with the estimate by Kataev and Starshenko using a completely different method. We then apply this improved Borel amplitude to the tau decay width and obtain the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}{sup 2})=0.1193{+-}0.0007{sub exp.}{+-}0.0010{sub EW+CKM}{+-}0.0009{sub meth.}{+-}0.0003{sub evol.}. We then compare this result with those of other resummation methods.

  14. Width effects in transonic flow over a rectangular cavity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin L.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-07-24

    A previous experiment by the present authors studied the flow over a finite-width rectangular cavity at freestream Mach numbers 1.5–2.5. In addition, this investigation considered the influence of three-dimensional geometry that is not replicated by simplified cavities that extend across the entire wind-tunnel test section. The latter configurations have the attraction of easy optical access into the depths of the cavity, but they do not reproduce effects upon the turbulent structures and acoustic modes due to the length-to-width ratio, which is becoming recognized as an important parameter describing the nature of the flow within narrower cavities.

  15. Automated width measurements of Martian dust devil tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statella, Thiago; Pina, Pedro; da Silva, Erivaldo Antônio

    2016-03-01

    Studying dust devils is important to better understand Mars climate and resurfacing phenomena. This paper presents an automated approach to calculate the width of tracks in orbital images. The method is based on Mathematical Morphology and was applied to a set of 200 HiRISE and MOC images of five Mars quadrangles, which were Aeolis, Argyre, Noachis, Hellas and Eridania. Information obtained by our method was compared with results of manual analysis performed by other authors. In addition, we show that track widths do not follow a normal distribution.

  16. Experimental Stark widths and shifts of Ti II spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, J.; Aguilera, J. A.; Aragón, C.

    2016-10-01

    Stark widths and shifts of Ti II lines with wavelengths in the range 2500-4600 Å have been determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The temperature and electron density of the plasma vary in the ranges 11 970-15 520 K and (2.0-7.2) × 1017 cm-3, respectively, for the different measurement instants from 0.6 to 1.8 μs. The samples used are fused glass discs with different titanium concentrations, selected to control the self-absorption of the lines. The Stark widths and shifts are compared with the experimental and theoretical data available in the literature.

  17. Fjords in viscous fingering: selection of width and opening scale

    SciTech Connect

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark; Ristroph, Leif; Thrasher, Matthew; Swinney, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Our experiments on viscous fingering of air into oil contained between closely spaced plates reveal two selection rules for the fjords of oil that separate fingers of air. (Fjords are the building blocks of solutions of the zero-surface-tension Laplacian growth equation.) Experiments in rectangular and circular geometries yield fjords with base widths {lambda}{sub c}/2, where {lambda}{sub c} is the most unstable wavelength from a linear stability analysis. Further, fjords open at an angle of 8.0{sup o}{+-}1.0{sup o}. These selection rules hold for a wide range of pumping rates and fjord lengths, widths, and directions.

  18. Alpha One Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... related programs More News Our Number One Goal: Find a cure for Alpha-1. Website Sponsors Helpful Links 3300 Ponce de Leon Blvd. Coral Gables, FL 33134 Phone: (877) 228-7321 Email: info@alphaone.org Copyright ...

  19. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  20. Some remarks on the Gromov width of homogeneous Hodge manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loi, Andrea; Mossa, Roberto; Zuddas, Fabio

    2014-09-01

    We provide an upper bound for the Gromov width of compact homogeneous Hodge manifolds (M, ω) with b2(M) = 1. As an application we obtain an upper bound on the Seshadri constant ɛ(L) where L is the ample line bundle on M such that c1(L) = [(ω )/(π )].

  1. The width of the gamma-ray burst luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Andrew; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the width of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) luminosity function through the distribution of GRB peak count rates, C(sub peak), as detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) (1993). In the context of Galactic corona spatial distribution models, we attempt to place constaints on the characteristic width of the luminosity function by comparing the observed intensity distribution with those produced by a range of density and luminosity functions. We find that the intrinsic width of the luminosity function cannot be very well restricted. However, the distribution of intrinsic luminosities of detected bursts can be limited: we find that most observed bursts have luminosities that are in a range of one to two decades, but a significant population of undetected less luminous bursts cannot be excluded. These findings demonstrate that the assumption that GRB are standard candles is sufficient but not necessary to explain the observed intensity distribution. We show that the main reason for the relatively poor constraints is the fact that the bright-end part of the GRB flux distribution is not yet sampled by BATSE, and better sampling in the future may lead to significantly stronger constraints on the width of the luminosity function.

  2. Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatia S.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; de Jong S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Graf C. P.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; La Cruz I. Heredia-De; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li H.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; Melnitchouk A.; Menezes D.; Mercadante P. G.; Merkin M.; et al.

    2012-05-04

    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Gamma}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Gamma}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top-quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Gamma}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb}| < 0.59 for a high-mass fourth-generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth-generation quark-mixing matrix.

  3. An Empirical Expression for the Line Widths of Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Linda R.; Peterson, Dean B.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrogen-broadened line widths of 116 (sup 14)NH(sub 3) ground state transitions have been measured at 0.006 cm(sup -1) resolution using a Bruker spectrometer in the 24 to 210 cm(sup -1) region. The rotational variation of the experimental widths with J(sup '),K(sup ') = 1,0 to 10,10 has been reproduced to 2.4 % using an heuristically derived expression of the form

    gamma = a(sub 0) + a(sub 1) J(sup ') + a (sub 2) K(sup ') + a(sub 3) J(sup ')(sup 2) + a(sub 4) J(sup ') K(sup ')

    where J(sup ') and K(sup ') are the lower state symmetric top quantum numbers. This function has also been applied to the measured widths of the 58 transitions of nu(sub 1) at 3 (micro)m, each broadened by N(sub 2), O(sub 2), Ar, H(sub 2), and He. The rms of the observed minus calculated widths are 5% or better for the five foreign broadeners. The values of the fitted constants suggest that for some broadeners the expression might also be written as

    gamma = a(sub 0) + b(sub 1) J(sup ') + b(sub 2)(J(sup ' )- K(sup ')) + b(sub 3) J(sup ')(J(sup ') - K(sup '))

    .

  4. An Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Aoki, Masato; Askew, Andrew Warren; /Florida State U. /Stockholm U.

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Lambda}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Lambda}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the CKM matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb'}| < 0.59 for a high mass fourth generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth generation quark mixing matrix.

  5. Effects of Riparian Buffer Vegetation and Width: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    King, S E; Osmond, D L; Smith, J; Burchell, M R; Dukes, M; Evans, R O; Knies, S; Kunickis, S

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural contributions of nitrogen are a serious concern for many water resources and have spurred the implementation of riparian buffer zones to reduce groundwater nitrate (NO). The optimum design for buffers is subject to debate, and there are few long-term studies. The objective of this project was to determine the effectiveness over time (12 yr) of buffer types (trees, switchgrass, fescue, native, and a control) and buffer widths (8 and 15 m) by measuring groundwater NO-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) trends. At the intermediate groundwater depth (1.5-2.1 m), NO-N reduction effectiveness was 2.5 times greater (46 vs. 16%) for the wider buffer, and, regardless of width, buffer effectiveness increased 0.62% yr. Buffer vegetative type was never statistically significant. In the deep-groundwater depth (2.1-3.5 m), there was no change in NO-N removal over time, although the statistical interaction of width and vegetative type indicated a wide range of removal rates (19-82%). The DOC concentrations were analyzed at the field/buffer and buffer/stream sampling locations. Depending on location position and groundwater sampling depth, DOC concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 2.8 mg L at Year 0 and increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.18 mg L yr but always remained low (≤5.0 mg L). Greater DOC concentrations in the intermediate-depth groundwater did not increase NO-N removal; redox measurements indicated intermittent reduced soil conditions may have been limiting. This study suggests that riparian buffer width, not vegetation, is more important for NO-N removal in the middle coastal plain of North Carolina for a newly established buffer. PMID:27380072

  6. Effects of Riparian Buffer Vegetation and Width: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    King, S E; Osmond, D L; Smith, J; Burchell, M R; Dukes, M; Evans, R O; Knies, S; Kunickis, S

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural contributions of nitrogen are a serious concern for many water resources and have spurred the implementation of riparian buffer zones to reduce groundwater nitrate (NO). The optimum design for buffers is subject to debate, and there are few long-term studies. The objective of this project was to determine the effectiveness over time (12 yr) of buffer types (trees, switchgrass, fescue, native, and a control) and buffer widths (8 and 15 m) by measuring groundwater NO-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) trends. At the intermediate groundwater depth (1.5-2.1 m), NO-N reduction effectiveness was 2.5 times greater (46 vs. 16%) for the wider buffer, and, regardless of width, buffer effectiveness increased 0.62% yr. Buffer vegetative type was never statistically significant. In the deep-groundwater depth (2.1-3.5 m), there was no change in NO-N removal over time, although the statistical interaction of width and vegetative type indicated a wide range of removal rates (19-82%). The DOC concentrations were analyzed at the field/buffer and buffer/stream sampling locations. Depending on location position and groundwater sampling depth, DOC concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 2.8 mg L at Year 0 and increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.18 mg L yr but always remained low (≤5.0 mg L). Greater DOC concentrations in the intermediate-depth groundwater did not increase NO-N removal; redox measurements indicated intermittent reduced soil conditions may have been limiting. This study suggests that riparian buffer width, not vegetation, is more important for NO-N removal in the middle coastal plain of North Carolina for a newly established buffer.

  7. Lithologic controls on valley width and strath terrace formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, Sarah A.; Montgomery, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Valley width and the degree of bedrock river terrace development vary with lithology in the Willapa and Nehalem river basins, Pacific Northwest, USA. Here, we present field-based evidence for the mechanisms by which lithology controls floodplain width and bedrock terrace formation in erosion-resistant and easily friable lithologies. We mapped valley surfaces in both basins, dated straths using radiocarbon, compared valley width versus drainage area for basalt and sedimentary bedrock valleys, and constructed slope-area plots. In the friable sedimentary bedrock, valleys are 2 to 3 times wider, host flights of strath terraces, and have concavity values near 1; whereas the erosion-resistant basalt bedrock forms narrow valleys with poorly developed, localized, or no bedrock terraces and a channel steepness index half that of the friable bedrock and an average channel concavity of about 0.5. The oldest dated strath terrace on the Willapa River, T2, was active for nearly 10,000 years, from 11,265 to 2862 calibrated years before present (cal YBP), whereas the youngest terrace, T1, is Anthropocene in age and recently abandoned. Incision rates derived from terrace ages average 0.32 mm y- 1 for T2 and 11.47 mm y- 1 for T1. Our results indicate bedrock weathering properties influence valley width through the creation of a dense fracture network in the friable bedrock that results in high rates of lateral erosion of exposed bedrock banks. Conversely, the erosion-resistant bedrock has concavity values more typical of detachment-limited streams, exhibits a sparse fracture network, and displays evidence for infrequent episodic block erosion and plucking. Lithology thereby plays a direct role on the rates of lateral erosion, influencing valley width and the potential for strath terrace planation and preservation.

  8. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF PULSE WIDTH FOR 150 RADIO NORMAL PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J. L.; Wang, H. G.

    2014-11-01

    The frequency dependence of the pulse width is studied for 150 normal pulsars, mostly selected from the European Pulsar Network, for which the 10% multifrequency pulse widths can be well fit with the Thorsett relationship W {sub 10} = Aν{sup μ} + W {sub 10,} {sub min}. The relative fraction of pulse width change between 0.4 GHz and 4.85 GHz, η = (W {sub 4.85} – W {sub 0.4})/W {sub 0.4}, is calculated in terms of the best-fit relationship for each pulsar. It is found that 81 pulsars (54%) have η < –10% (group A), showing considerable profile narrowing at high frequencies, 40 pulsars (27%) have –10% ≤η ≤ 10% (group B), meaning a marginal change in pulse width, and 29 pulsars (19%) have η > 10% (group C), showing a remarkable profile broadening at high frequencies. The fractions of the group-A and group-C pulsars suggest that the profile narrowing phenomenon at high frequencies is more common than the profile broadening phenomenon, but a large fraction of the group-B and group-C pulsars (a total of 46%) is also revealed. The group-C pulsars, together with a portion of group-B pulsars with slight pulse broadening, can hardly be explained using the conventional radius-to-frequency mapping, which only applies to the profile narrowing phenomenon. Based on a recent version of the fan beam model, a type of broadband emission model, we propose that the diverse frequency dependence of pulse width is a consequence of different types of distribution of emission spectra across the emission region. The geometrical effect predicting a link between the emission beam shrinkage and spectrum steepening is tested but disfavored.

  9. The astrophysical reaction rate for the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Paul, M.; Roberts, A.D.

    1996-03-01

    Proton and alpha widths for a 3/2{sup +} ({ell}{sub p} = 0) state in {sup 19}Ne at E{sub x} = 7.1 MeV have been extracted using the results of recent measurements of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction. This {ell}{sub p} = 0 resonance dominates the astrophysical reaction rates at temperatures T{sub 9} > 0.5.

  10. Design of multiplier-less sharp transition width non-uniform filter banks using gravitational search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindiya T., S.; Elias, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, multiplier-less near-perfect reconstruction tree-structured filter banks are proposed. Filters with sharp transition width are preferred in filter banks in order to reduce the aliasing between adjacent channels. When sharp transition width filters are designed as conventional finite impulse response filters, the order of the filters will become very high leading to increased complexity. The frequency response masking (FRM) method is known to result in linear-phase sharp transition width filters with low complexity. It is found that the proposed design method, which is based on FRM, gives better results compared to the earlier reported results, in terms of the number of multipliers when sharp transition width filter banks are needed. To further reduce the complexity and power consumption, the tree-structured filter bank is made totally multiplier-less by converting the continuous filter bank coefficients to finite precision coefficients in the signed power of two space. This may lead to performance degradation and calls for the use of a suitable optimisation technique. In this paper, gravitational search algorithm is proposed to be used in the design of the multiplier-less tree-structured uniform as well as non-uniform filter banks. This design method results in uniform and non-uniform filter banks which are simple, alias-free, linear phase and multiplier-less and have sharp transition width.

  11. Numerical simulation of rupture propagation with thermal pressurization based on measured hydraulic properties :Importance of deformation zone width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.

    2004-12-01

    Thermal expansion and pressurization of pore water may effectively reduce frictional resistance during slip at high strain rate for faults with impermeable clayey material in shallow depth (<5km). Width of deformation zone is an important parameter in this process because the distribution of excess pore pressure is roughly equal to the width of deformation zone for relatively impermeable faults and pore pressure at the center rises more rapidly for thinner cases. In this study, dynamic rupture propagation simulation with thermal pressurization based on measured hydraulic properties of active faults demonstrates the importance of width of deformation zone. In the case that hydraulic properties of Hanaore fault in Southwest Japan (relatively impermeable) is used, when 100m radius asperity is assumed in which initial shear stress is set as static frictional level (0.6) and dynamic frictional coefficient is assumed to be 0.4, rupture velocity is proved sensitive to the width of deformation zone when it is less than 20mm under condition of 3km depth. When deformation width is reduced to 5mm, rupture velocity in direction of mode 2 exceeds S-wave velocity. This study also shows the importance of hydraulic properties by comparing results of a relatively impermeable fault and a permeable fault at different depths.

  12. Curium-244 alpha-sources for space research

    PubMed

    Radchenko; Andreichikov; Wanke; Gavrilo; Korchuganov; Rieder; Ryabinin; Economou

    2000-10-01

    Special alpha-proton-X-ray spectrometric complexes (APXS) have been developed in order to perform chemical analyses of the Mars atmosphere and rock surface compounds by alpha back-scattering, alpha-proton measurements, and X-ray fluorescence. The sources were prepared by high temperature condensation of metal curium vapour onto silicon substrates. They are silicon disks with curium-244 fixed on their surfaces as a silicide. The sources have overall dimensions as follows: disk diameter 8 mm; thickness 0.3 mm; and 6 mm diameter active spot. The source activities are 5 +/- 1 mCi and the alpha-line half-widths are equal to (1.7-2.5) and (2.9-4.5)% of full width at 10% of Maximum (Maximum is equal to 5.8 MeV). Thermovacuum (from 196 to 1000 degrees C), mechanical, and resource tests were performed and demonstrated that the sources maintained their characteristics. The applicability of the sources for the above-mentioned analytical purposes was confirmed during NASA Mars Pathfinder mission. PMID:11003526

  13. The dosimetric impact of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on VMAT treatment planning in Pinnacle: comparing Pareto fronts.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, Z; Janssen, T M; Damen, E; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C

    2012-05-21

    To evaluate in an objective way the effect of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on volumetric modulated arc therapy plans in Pinnacle. Three multileaf collimators (MLCs) were modeled: two 10 mm leaf width MLCs, with and without interdigitating leafs, and a 5 mm leaf width MLC with interdigitating leafs. Three rectum patients and three prostate patients were used for the planning study. In order to compare treatment techniques in an objective way, a Pareto front comparison was carried out. 200 plans were generated in an automated way, per patient per MLC model, resulting in a total of 3600 plans. From these plans, Pareto-optimal plans were selected which were evaluated for various dosimetric variables. The capability of leaf interdigitation showed little dosimetric impact on the treatment plans, when comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with and without leaf interdigitation. When comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with the 5 mm leaf width MLC, both with interdigitating leafs, improvement in plan quality was observed. For both patient groups, the integral dose was reduced by 0.6 J for the thin MLC. For the prostate patients, the mean dose to the anal sphincter was reduced by 1.8 Gy and the conformity of the V(95%) was reduced by 0.02 using the thin MLC. The V(65%) of the rectum was reduced by 0.1% and the dose homogeneity with 1.5%. For rectum patients, the mean dose to the bowel was reduced by 1.4 Gy and the mean dose to the bladder with 0.8 Gy for the thin MLC. The conformity of the V(95%) was equivalent for the 10 and 5 mm leaf width MLCs for the rectum patients. We have objectively compared three types of MLCs in a planning study for prostate and rectum patients by analyzing Pareto-optimal plans which were generated in an automated way. Interdigitation of MLC leafs does not generate better plans using the SmartArc algorithm in Pinnacle. Changing the MLC leaf width from 10 to 5 mm generates better treatment plans although the clinical relevance remains

  14. Alpha Decay in the Complex-Energy Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Betan, R. Id

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alpha emission from a nucleus is a fundamental decay process in which the alpha particle formed inside the nucleus tunnels out through the potential barrier. Purpose: We describe alpha decay of 212Po and 104Te by means of the configuration interaction approach. Method: To compute the preformation factor and penetrability, we use the complex-energy shell model with a separable T = 1 interaction. The single-particle space is expanded in a Woods-Saxon basis that consists of bound and unbound resonant states. Special attention is paid to the treatment of the norm kernel appearing in the definition of the formation amplitude that guarantees the normalization of the channel function. Results: Without explicitly considering the alpha-cluster component in the wave function of the parent nucleus, we reproduce the experimental alpha-decay width of 212Po and predict an upper limit of T1/2 = 5.5 10 7 sec for the half-life of 104Te. Conclusions: The complex-energy shell model in a large valence configuration space is capable of providing a microscopic description of the alpha decay of heavy nuclei having two valence protons and two valence neutrons outside the doubly magic core. The inclusion of proton-neutron interaction between the valence nucleons is likely to shorten the predicted half-live of 104Te.

  15. Exotic {alpha} decays around the N=126 magic shell

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Dongdong; Ren Zhongzhou

    2009-07-15

    We investigate the {alpha}-decay half-lives of the exotic N=125,126,127 isotones by the generalized density-dependent cluster model (GDDCM) in combination with the microscopic two-level model. The decay widths are calculated using the overlap integral of the quasibound state wave function, the scattering state wave function, and the difference of potentials, instead of using the simple semiclassical WKB method along with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The {alpha}-preformation factors are evaluated by the Z-dependent formula based on the two-level model, where the closed-shell effect is included. The calculated half-lives of {alpha} transitions to both ground states and excited states are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. a Linear Model for Meandering Rivers with Arbitrarily Varying Width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frascati, A.; Lanzoni, S.

    2011-12-01

    Alluvial rivers usually exhibit quite complex planforms, characterized by a wide variety of alternating bends, that have attracted the interest of a large number of researchers. Much less attention has been paid to another striking feature observed in alluvial rivers, namely the relatively regular spatial variations attained by the channel width. Actively meandering channels, in fact, generally undergo spatial oscillations systematically correlated with channel curvature, with cross sections wider at bends than at crossings. Some other streams have been observed to exhibit irregular width variations. Conversely, rivers flowing in highly vegetated flood plains, i.e. canaliform rivers, may exhibit an opposite behavior, owing to the combined effects of bank erodibility and floodplain depositional processes which, in turn, are strictly linked to vegetation cover. Similarly to streamline curvatures induced by bends, the presence of along channel width variations may have remarkable effects on the flow field and sediment dynamics and, thereby, on the equilibrium river bed configuration. In particular, spatial distribution of channel curvature typically determines the formation of a rhythmic bar-pool pattern in the channel bed strictly associated with the development of river meanders. Channel width variations are on the contrary characterized by a sequence of narrowing, yielding a central scour, alternated to the downstream development of a widening associated with the formation of a central bar. Here we present a morphodynamic model that predict at a linear level the spatial distribution of the flow field and the equilibrium bed configuration of an alluvial river characterized by arbitrary along channel distributions of both the channel axis curvature and the channel width. The mathematical model is averaged over the depth and describes the steady, non-uniform flow and sediment transport in sinuous channels with a noncohesive bed. The governing two-dimensional equations

  17. Evolution of valleys width : A Mars-Earth comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochat, Stéphane; Loget, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The analyses of the valleys on Mars are used to reconstruct the climate on Early Mars (~ 3.5 Gy). Thus, many studies indicate a strong analogy between earth and mars networks (dendritic organization, drainage density Strahler ordering) which is compatible with a widespread rain (today Mars is arid, cold and the water can only be vapor/snow). But, many features are too different with the Earth classic valleys networks to conclude definitively on the Early climate of Mars. Here, we study the evolution of the width of valleys with drainage area. This method lies on the relationship between the evolution of the channel width (W) versus the discharge of the river or the upstream drainage area (A) such as Wc= bA0.5 (e.g Leopold and Maddock, 1953; Montgomery and Gran, 2001). On Mars, one of the difficulties is to plot the width of the channel but recent studies on Mars and on Earth indicate that the valley bottom width Wv strictly follows the same evolution than the channel width (e.g. Mattheus and Rodriguez 2011, Phillips, 2011). Thereby, we analyzed 366 basins on Earth from 4.10-02 to 6.1006 km2 and 355 basins on Mars from 7.10-02 to 2.8.1006 km2. For Earth Wv= bA0.46 with 0.005< b< 0.047. For Mars Wv= bA0.27 with 0.046< b< 0.19. Martian valleys are ten times wider for small tributaries (< 100 km2) but ten times smaller for large tributaries >100.000 km2). Our observations are compatible with an inefficient system with strong supply of water, on small systems, which is less and less transmitted at the outlet, on large systems. The origins of this inefficiency will be discussed. Leopold, L. B. and T. Maddock (1953). The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic implications. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper. Montgomery, D. R. and K. B. Gran (2001). "Downstream Variations in the Width of Bedrock Channels." Water Resour. Res. Jonathan D. Phillips (2011): Drainage area and incised valley fills in Texas rivers: A potential explanation

  18. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C.

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  19. Vespertilionid bats control the width of their biosonar sound beam dynamically during prey pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    Animals using sound for communication emit directional signals, focusing most acoustic energy in one direction. Echolocating bats are listening for soft echoes from insects. Therefore, a directional biosonar sound beam greatly increases detection probability in the forward direction and decreases off-axis echoes. However, high directionality has context-specific disadvantages: at close range the detection space will be vastly reduced, making a broad beam favorable. Hence, a flexible system would be very advantageous. We investigated whether bats can dynamically change directionality of their biosonar during aerial pursuit of insects. We trained five Myotis daubentonii and one Eptesicus serotinus to capture tethered mealworms and recorded their echolocation signals with a multimicrophone array. The results show that the bats broaden the echolocation beam drastically in the terminal phase of prey pursuit. M. daubentonii increased the half-amplitude angle from approximately 40° to approximately 90° horizontally and from approximately 45° to more than 90° vertically. The increase in beam width is achieved by lowering the frequency by roughly one octave from approximately 55 kHz to approximately 27.5 kHz. The E. serotinus showed beam broadening remarkably similar to that of M. daubentonii. Our results demonstrate dynamic control of beam width in both species. Hence, we propose directionality as an explanation for the frequency decrease observed in the buzz of aerial hawking vespertilionid bats. We predict that future studies will reveal dynamic control of beam width in a broad range of acoustically communicating animals. PMID:20643943

  20. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  1. Determination of the width of the top quark.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Ćwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2011-01-14

    We extract the total width of the top quark, Γ(t), from the partial decay width Γ(t → Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top-quark production and from the branching fraction B(t → Wb) measured in tt events using up to 2.3  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron pp Collider. The result is Γ(t) = 1.99(-0.55)(+0.69)  GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of τ(t) = (3.3(-0.9)(+1.3)) × 10(-25)   s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V(tb')| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  2. A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Troy

    2008-08-01

    A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb-1 is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 ± 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 ± 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.

  3. Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2004-07-01

    In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.

  4. FUNDPAR: A program for Deriving Fundamental Parameters from Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffe, C.

    2011-04-01

    We implemented a Fortran code that determines fundamental parameters of solar type stars from a list of Fe line equivalent widths. The solution should verify three conditions in the standard method: ionization equilibrium, excitation equilibrium and independence between metallicity and equivalent widths. Solar-scaled Kurucz model atmospheres with NEWODF opacities are calculated with an independent program. Parameter files control different details, such as the mixing-length parameter and the overshooting. FUNDPAR derives the uncertainties following two methods: the criterion of Gonzalez & Vanture (1998) and the dispersion using the χ2 function. The code uses the 2009 version of the MOOG program. The results derived with FUNDPAR are in agreement with previous determinations in the literature. The program is freely available from the web.

  5. Static vortices in long Josephson junctions of exponentially varying width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerdjieva, E. G.; Boyadjiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2004-06-01

    A numerical simulation is carried out for static vortices in a long Josephson junction with an exponentially varying width. At specified values of the parameters the corresponding boundary-value problem admits more than one solution. Each solution (distribution of the magnetic flux in the junction) is associated to a Sturm-Liouville problem, the smallest eigenvalue of which can be used, in a first approximation, to assess the stability of the vortex against relatively small spatiotemporal perturbations. The change in width of the junction leads to a renormalization of the magnetic flux in comparison with the case of a linear one-dimensional model. The influence of the model parameters on the stability of the states of the magnetic flux is investigated in detail, particularly that of the shape parameter. The critical curve of the junction is constructed from pieces of the critical curves for the different magnetic flux distributions having the highest critical currents for the given magnetic field.

  6. Has iprindole an alpha adrenergic activity?

    PubMed

    Ganry, H; Bourin, M

    1993-05-01

    1. Acute administration of iprindole potentiated the toxicity of 1-norepinephrine and increased the intensity of oxotremorine-induced tremors. 2. On the forced swimming test combination iprindole with imipramine reduced the duration of immobility. 3. The action of yohimbine on the locomotor activity was antagonized by a pre-injection of iprindole. 4. Iprindole increased and prolonged exophthalmia and loss of righting reflex induced by xylazine. 5 All these results seems indicate that iprindole has an indirect alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic activity.

  7. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  8. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  9. The interface width of separated two-component lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Góźdź, W T

    2006-11-01

    We study two-component vesicles with coherent domains of the components, where the domains are separated by an interface. The components are characterized by different spontaneous curvatures. No line tension term or interactions between components are included in the model. The influence of the interface width and interface location on the bending energy and shape of the vesicles is studied. How the spontaneous curvature of one component influences the concentration profile is examined. The vesicles of oblate and prolate geometries are investigated.

  10. Characterizing the width of amphibian movements during postbreeding migration.

    PubMed

    Coster, Stephanie S; Veysey Powell, Jessica S; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    Habitat linkages can help maintain connectivity of animal populations in developed landscapes. However, the lack of empirical data on the width of lateral movements (i.e., the zigzagging of individuals as they move from one point to point another) makes determining the width of such linkages challenging. We used radiotracking data from wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in a managed forest in Maine (U.S.A.) to characterize movement patterns of populations and thus inform planning for the width of wildlife corridors. For each individual, we calculated the polar coordinates of all locations, estimated the vector sum of the polar coordinates, and measured the distance from each location to the vector sum. By fitting a Gaussian distribution over a histogram of these distances, we created a population-level probability density function and estimated the 50th and 95th percentiles to determine the width of lateral movement as individuals progressed from the pond to upland habitat. For spotted salamanders 50% of lateral movements were ≤13 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤39 m wide. For wood frogs, 50% of lateral movements were ≤17 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤ 51 m wide. For both species, those individuals that traveled the farthest from the pond also displayed the greatest lateral movement. Our results serve as a foundation for spatially explicit conservation planning for pond-breeding amphibians in areas undergoing development. Our technique can also be applied to movement data from other taxa to aid in designing habitat linkages.

  11. Dependence of paranodal junctional gap width on transverse bands.

    PubMed

    Rosenbluth, Jack; Petzold, Chris; Peles, Elior

    2012-08-15

    Mouse mutants with paranodal junctional (PNJ) defects display variable degrees of neurological impairment. In this study we compare control paranodes with those from three mouse mutants that differ with respect to a conspicuous PNJ component, the transverse bands (TBs). We hypothesize that TBs link the apposed junctional membranes together at a fixed distance and thereby determine the width of the junctional gap, which may in turn determine the extent to which nodal action currents can be short-circuited underneath the myelin sheath. Electron micrographs of aldehyde-fixed control PNJs, in which TBs are abundant, show a consistent junctional gap of ∼3.5 nm. In Caspr-null PNJs, which lack TBs entirely, the gap is wider (∼6-7 nm) and more variable. In CST-null PNJs, which have only occasional TBs, the mean PNJ gap width is comparable to that in Caspr-null mice. In the shaking mutant, in contrast, which has approximately 60% of the normal complement of TBs, mean PNJ gap width is not significantly different from that in controls. Correspondingly, shaking mice are much less impaired neurologically than either Caspr-null or CST-null mice. We conclude that in the absence or gross diminution of TBs, mean PNJ gap width increases significantly and suggest that this difference could underlie some of the neurological impairment seen in those mutants. Surprisingly, even in the absence of TBs, paranodes are to some extent maintained in their usual form, implying that in addition to TBs, other factors govern the formation and maintenance of overall paranodal structure. PMID:22434587

  12. Beam Width Robustness of a 670 GHz Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. B.; Llombart, N.; Dengler, R. J.; Siegel, P. H.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of a replica bomb belt concealed on a mannequin at 4 m standoff range is achieved using a 670 GHz imaging radar. At a somewhat larger standoff range of 4.6 m, the radar's beam width increases substantially, but the through-shirt image quality remains good. This suggests that a relatively modest increase in aperture size over the current design will be sufficient to detect person-borne concealed weapons at ranges exceeding 25 meters.

  13. Portable alpha spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J

    2012-09-01

    Many portable devices have been designed to detect γ-rays or alpha and beta particles. Most of the α-particle detectors give the total count as a result, without identifying the radionuclides existing in the sample. The development of a device allowing rapid and straightforward α-particle spectrometry would be very useful for detecting the radioactive contents of unknown samples. This work describes the construction of a portable device using silicon semiconductor detectors designed to rapidly detect and possibly identify alpha-emitting radionuclides.

  14. Effects of trigger laser pulse width on the jitter time of GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Gui, Huaimeng; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Cheng; Li, Mengxia; Xu, Ming; Wang, Luyi

    2013-07-01

    The effects of trigger laser pulse width on the jitter time of a GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) is investigated in the experiment. The laser is split into two optical beams by a cross grating to excite two 3 mm gap GaAs PCSSs in parallel at the same time. This work reveals that the jitter time of the GaAs PCSS is reduced as the trigger laser pulse width decreases. Our results overcome a significant obstacle that hinders the testing and theory of GaAs PCSSs in high-time-precision synchronous control.

  15. The complete cDNA sequence of laminin alpha 4 and its relationship to the other human laminin alpha chains.

    PubMed

    Richards, A; Al-Imara, L; Pope, F M

    1996-06-15

    We previously localised the gene (LAMA4) encoding a novel laminin alpha 4 chain to chromosome 6q21. In this study, we describe the complete coding sequence and compare the protein with the other three known human laminin alpha chains. Although closely linked to LAMA2, the LAMA4 product most closely resembles laminin alpha 3, a constituent of laminin 5. Like laminin alpha 3A, the alpha 4 chain is a truncated version of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains, with a much reduced short arm. While the alpha 4 molecule is most similar to alpha 3, it shares some features of the C-terminal domains G4 and G5 in common with alpha 2. Unlike the LAMA3 gene, LAMA4 appears to encode only a single transcript, as determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA sequence encodes 1816 amino acids, which include a 24-residue signal peptide. The gene is expressed in skin, placenta, heart, lung, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. We have also shown that the mRNA can be readily reverse transcribed and amplified from cultured dermal fibroblasts. PMID:8706685

  16. A cis-proline in alpha-hemoglobin stabilizing protein directs the structural reorganization of alpha-hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Gell, David A; Feng, Liang; Zhou, Suiping; Jeffrey, Philip D; Bendak, Katerina; Gow, Andrew; Weiss, Mitchell J; Shi, Yigong; Mackay, Joel P

    2009-10-23

    alpha-Hemoglobin (alphaHb) stabilizing protein (AHSP) is expressed in erythropoietic tissues as an accessory factor in hemoglobin synthesis. AHSP forms a specific complex with alphaHb and suppresses the heme-catalyzed evolution of reactive oxygen species by converting alphaHb to a conformation in which the heme is coordinated at both axial positions by histidine side chains (bis-histidyl coordination). Currently, the detailed mechanism by which AHSP induces structural changes in alphaHb has not been determined. Here, we present x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and mutagenesis data that identify, for the first time, the importance of an evolutionarily conserved proline, Pro(30), in loop 1 of AHSP. Mutation of Pro(30) to a variety of residue types results in reduced ability to convert alphaHb. In complex with alphaHb, AHSP Pro(30) adopts a cis-peptidyl conformation and makes contact with the N terminus of helix G in alphaHb. Mutations that stabilize the cis-peptidyl conformation of free AHSP, also enhance the alphaHb conversion activity. These findings suggest that AHSP loop 1 can transmit structural changes to the heme pocket of alphaHb, and, more generally, highlight the importance of cis-peptidyl prolyl residues in defining the conformation of regulatory protein loops.

  17. Heat capacity of square-well fluids of variable width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo, J.; Solana, J. R.; Acedo, L.; Santos, A.

    We have obtained by Monte Carlo NVT simulations the constant-volume excess heat capacity of square-well fluids for several temperatures, densities and potential widths. Heat capacity is a thermodynamic property much more sensitive to the accuracy of a theory than other thermodynamic quantities, such as the compressibility factor. This is illustrated by comparing the reported simulation data for the heat capacity with the theoretical predictions given by the Barker-Henderson perturbation theory as well as with those given by a non-perturbative theoretical model based on Baxter's solution of the Percus-Yevick integral equation for sticky hard spheres. Both theories give accurate predictions for the equation of state. By contrast, it is found that the Barker-Henderson theory strongly underestimates the excess heat capacity for low to moderate temperatures, whereas a much better agreement between theory and simulation is achieved with the non-perturbative theoretical model, particularly for small well widths, although the accuracy of the latter worsens for high densities and low temperatures, as the well width increases.

  18. New Measurement of the π0 radiative decay width.

    PubMed

    Larin, I; McNulty, D; Clinton, E; Ambrozewicz, P; Lawrence, D; Nakagawa, I; Prok, Y; Teymurazyan, A; Ahmidouch, A; Asratyan, A; Baker, K; Benton, L; Bernstein, A M; Burkert, V; Cole, P; Collins, P; Dale, D; Danagoulian, S; Davidenko, G; Demirchyan, R; Deur, A; Dolgolenko, A; Dzyubenko, G; Ent, R; Evdokimov, A; Feng, J; Gabrielyan, M; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Gevorkyan, S; Glamazdin, A; Goryachev, V; Gyurjyan, V; Hardy, K; He, J; Ito, M; Jiang, L; Kashy, D; Khandaker, M; Kingsberry, P; Kolarkar, A; Konchatnyi, M; Korchin, A; Korsch, W; Kowalski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kubarovsky, V; Li, X; Martel, P; Matveev, V; Mecking, B; Milbrath, B; Minehart, R; Miskimen, R; Mochalov, V; Mtingwa, S; Overby, S; Pasyuk, E; Payen, M; Pedroni, R; Ritchie, B; Rodrigues, T E; Salgado, C; Shahinyan, A; Sitnikov, A; Sober, D; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W; Underwood, J; Vasiliev, A; Vishnyakov, V; Wood, M; Zhou, S

    2011-04-22

    High precision measurements of the differential cross sections for π0 photoproduction at forward angles for two nuclei, 12C and 208Pb, have been performed for incident photon energies of 4.9-5.5 GeV to extract the π0→γγ decay width. The experiment was done at Jefferson Lab using the Hall B photon tagger and a high-resolution multichannel calorimeter. The π0→γγ decay width was extracted by fitting the measured cross sections using recently updated theoretical models for the process. The resulting value for the decay width is Γ(π0→γγ)=7.82±0.14(stat)±0.17(syst)  eV. With the 2.8% total uncertainty, this result is a factor of 2.5 more precise than the current Particle Data Group average of this fundamental quantity, and it is consistent with current theoretical predictions. PMID:21599360

  19. A New Measurement of the Pi0 Radiative Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Larin, I; Clinton, E; Ambrozewicz, P; Lawrence, D; Nakagawa, I; Prok, Y; Teymurazyan, A; Ahmidouch, A; Baker, K; Benton, L; Bernstein, A M; Burkert, V; Cole, P; Collins, P; Dale, D; Danagoulian, S; Davidenko, G; Demirchyan, R; Deur, A; Dolgolenko, A; Dzyubenko, Georgiy; Ent, R; Evdokimov, A; Feng, J; Gabrielyan, M; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Gevorkyan, S; Glamazdin, A; Goryachev, V; Gyurjyan, V; Hardy, K; He, J; Ito, M; Jiang, L; Kashy, D; Khandaker, M; Kingsberry, P; Kolarkar, A; Konchatnyi, M; Korsch, W; Kowalski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kubarovsky, V; Li, X; Martel, P; Mecking, B; Milbrath, B; Minehart, R; Miskimen, R; Mochalov, V; Mtingwa, S; Overby, S; Pasyuk, E; Payen, M; Pedroni, R; Ritchie, B; Rodrigues, T E; Salgado, C; Shahinyan, A; Sitnikov, A; Sober, D; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W; Underwood, J; Vishnyakov, V; Wood, M

    2011-04-01

    High precision measurements of the differential cross sections for $\\pi^0$ photoproduction at forward angles for two nuclei, $^{12}$C and $^{208}$Pb, have been performed for incident photon energies of 4.9 - 5.5 GeV to extract the ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width. The experiment was done at Jefferson Lab using the Hall~B photon tagger and a high-resolution multichannel calorimeter. The ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width was extracted by fitting the measured cross sections using recently updated theoretical models for the process. The resulting value for the decay width is $\\Gamma{(\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma)} = 7.82 \\pm 0.14 ~({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.17 ~({\\rm syst.}) ~{\\rm eV}$. With the 2.8\\% total uncertainty, this result is a factor of 2.5 more precise than the current PDG average of this fundamental quantity and it is consistent with current theoretical predictions.

  20. Combining LEP and LHC to bound the Higgs width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph; McCullough, Matthew; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of on- and off-shell Higgs boson production at the LHC in gg →h* → ZZ has been used to bound the Higgs width. We propose an alternative complementary constraint which is only possible through the combination of LEP and LHC measurements. Precision electroweak measurements at LEP allow for the determination of indirect constraints on Higgs couplings to vector bosons by considering one-loop processes involving virtual Higgs exchange. As the indirect constraint is model dependent we will consider two specific models which modify the Higgs couplings and width, and our results will apply specifically to these models. By combining these LEP constraints with current LHC 8 TeV Higgs measurements a stronger limit on the Higgs width can be achieved than with LHC data alone. Looking to the future, a more robust constraint can be achieved by correlating LEP measurements with WBF Higgs production followed by Higgs decays to WW and ZZ. We will discuss the model dependence of this method in comparison to other proposed methods.

  1. Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Space maintainer effects on intercanine arch width and length.

    PubMed

    Dincer, M; Haydar, S; Unsal, B; Turk, T

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of space maintainers in intercanine arch width and length, twenty cases, characterized with the early loss of mandibular primary molars were selected and divided into two groups. The treatment group used removable space maintainers, while the other ten cases served as the control group. The first dental casts of the treatment and control groups were obtained when the primary canines were in the mouth. After the eruption of permanent canines second dental casts were obtained in both groups. Six measurements were made on the dental casts of each patient. No parameter was found to be statistically significant in the treatment group. In the control group the increase in intercanine arch width and perimeter were found to be statistically significant. Also the increase at the buccal and lingual bone measurements were found to be statistically significant. These results showed that space maintainers might cease the increase in intercanine arch width and length during the transition period between the primary and permanent canines.

  3. Optimization of Gaussian beam widths in acoustic propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, D. F.

    1989-10-01

    The use of Gaussian beams to compute wave propagation phenomena is a field of current interest and activity. Porter and Bucker (1987) supply an extensive list of references. More recent references can be found in Benites and Aki (1989). Gaussian beams can be traced as rays in range-dependent media providing not only propagation loss, but travel times, multipath structure, and frequency dependence. The well-known ray theory problems of caustics and shadow zones are treated automatically. A beam width minimization technique applied to a Gaussian beam model developed by Dr. H. P. Bucker, is outlined. Porter and Bucker (1987) gives the formulation upon which the techniques is built. A free parameter E is usually determined in a heuristic manner. Here, it is shown that the minimization of beam width assigns a precise value to E. Examples are given showing that the minimized beams give good propagation losses in some cases. A case also shown in the standard Gaussian beams give poor results and the minimized beams give even worse results. The problem appears to arise in beams that pass near boundaries. This problem will have to be corrected before a final judgment can be made on the validity of minimum-width beams.

  4. Maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width groups

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups. Materials and Methods: The calculated sample size was 128 subjects. The crown width/height, arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width of the maxilla and mandible were obtained via digital calliper (Mitutoyo, Japan). A total of 4325 variables were measured. The sex differences in the crown width and height were evaluated. Analysis of variance was applied to evaluate the differences between arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width groups. Results: Males had significantly larger mean values for crown width and height than females (P ≤ 0.05) for maxillary and mandibular arches, both. There were no significant differences observed for the crown width/height ratio in various arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups (P ≤ 0.05) in maxilla and mandible, both. Conclusions: Our results indicate sexual disparities in the crown width and height. Crown width and height has no significant relation to various arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width groups of maxilla and mandible. Thus, it may be helpful for orthodontic and prosthodontic case investigations and comprehensive management. PMID:26929686

  5. Sliding mode pulse-width modulation technique for direct torque controlled induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounadja, M.; Belarbi, A. W.; Belmadani, B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel pulse-width modulation technique based sliding mode approach for direct torque control of an induction machine drive. Methodology begins with a sliding mode control of machine's torque and stator flux to generate the reference voltage vector and to reduce parameters sensitivity. Then, the switching control of the three-phase inverter is developed using sliding mode concept to make the system tracking reference voltage inputs. The main features of the proposed methodologies are the high tracking accuracy and the much easier implementation compared to the space vector modulation. Simulations are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of proposed control algorithms.

  6. Microdosimetry for Targeted Alpha Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Guatelli, Susanna; Oborn, Bradley M.; Allen, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the advantage of delivering therapeutic doses to individual cancer cells while reducing the dose to normal tissues. TAT applications relate to hematologic malignancies and now extend to solid tumors. Results from several clinical trials have shown efficacy with limited toxicity. However, the dosimetry for the labeled alpha particle is challenging because of the heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells and the nature of short-range, high-LET alpha radiation. This paper demonstrates that it is inappropriate to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of TAT by macrodosimetry. The objective of this work is to review the microdosimetry of TAT as a function of the cell geometry, source-target configuration, cell sensitivity, and biological factors. A detailed knowledge of each of these parameters is required for accurate microdosimetric calculations. PMID:22988479

  7. Alpha Trianguli Australis (K2 II-III) - Hybrid or composite?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    The prototype hybrid-spectrum giant Alpha Trianguli Australis exhibits a far-ultraviolet continuum which is considerably bluer than would be expected of a star of its optical colors, suggesting the presence of a previously unrecognized companion. If the K-type primary is as luminous as indicated by the widths of its Ca II and H-alpha lines, the companion could be an early F-type dwarf that only recently has arrived on the main sequence. Indeed, the flux of C IV from Alpha TrA - an important measure of hybridness - would not be inconsistent with that expected from a very young chromospherically active F star.

  8. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  9. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  10. High-alpha space trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, L.M.; Ball, J.

    1997-01-01

    Vertically-landing Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) are the best hope of building a true {open_quotes}Space Truck{close_quotes} with current technology. Because they do not require a low angle-of-attack (AOA, or alpha) horizontal landing, they can be designed to operate exclusively at very high angles-of-attack. This offers savings in vehicle dry weight and complexity, which can be traded for significantly heavier payload, more ascent velocity, or extra design margin. The price for abandoning low angle-of-attack flight is reduced crossrange. To quantify the potential weight reduction, a trade study was performed to determine the relationship between a vehicle{close_quote}s maximum crossrange (angle-of-attack) and it{close_quote}s dry weight (payload margin). At the study conclusion, three vertically-landing (VL) vehicles provided multiple points on a payload weight vs. maximum crossrange curve, showing significant payload increases as crossrange is sacrificed. This is primarily the result of being able to simplify the structure, fly a cooler entry trajectory, and be aerodynamically stable through the entire flight. This reduces subsystem requirements and complexity, enhancing reliability. Further benefits are realized in reduced landing propellant requirements and simplifying or eliminating the {open_quotes}rotation{close_quotes} maneuver. This paper also suggests unique operability solutions that adapt high-alpha vehicles to traditional high-crossrange missions such as the polar {open_quotes}once-around{close_quotes} flight, and proposes a small scale drop-test program to prove the subsonic and landing portion of the flight envelope. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  12. From Alpha to Omega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Paul Clement

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, T A; Yang, C J

    2014-08-15

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2{sup 10}, requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC.

  14. Stark broadening for diagnostics of the electron density in non-equilibrium plasma utilizing isotope hydrogen alpha lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lin; Tan, Xiaohua; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Qian, Muyang; Li, Gongping

    2014-04-28

    Two Stark broadening parameters including FWHM (full width at half maximum) and FWHA (full width at half area) of isotope hydrogen alpha lines are simultaneously introduced to determine the electron density of a pulsed vacuum arc jet. To estimate the gas temperature, the rotational temperature of the C{sub 2} Swan system is fit to 2500 ± 100 K. A modified Boltzmann-plot method with b{sub i}-factor is introduced to determine the modified electron temperature. The comparison between results of atomic and ionic lines indicates the jet is in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electron temperature is close to 13 000 ± 400 K. Based on the computational results of Gig-Card calculation, a simple and precise interpolation algorithm for the discrete-points tables can be constructed to obtain the traditional n{sub e}-T{sub e} diagnostic maps of two Stark broadening parameters. The results from FWHA formula by the direct use of FWHM = FWHA and these from the diagnostic map are different. It can be attributed to the imprecise FWHA formula form and the deviation between FWHM and FWHA. The variation of the reduced mass pair due to the non-equilibrium effect contributes to the difference of the results derived from two hydrogen isotope alpha lines. Based on the Stark broadening analysis in this work, a corrected method is set up to determine n{sub e} of (1.10 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, the reference reduced mass μ{sub 0} pair of (3.30 ± 0.82 and 1.65 ± 0.41), and the ion kinetic temperature of 7900 ± 1800 K.

  15. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  16. Development and characterisation of a new line width reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Zhu, Fan; Heidelmann, Markus; Fritz, Georg; Bayer, Thomas; Kalt, Samuel; Fluegge, Jens

    2015-11-01

    A new critical dimension (CD, often synonymously used for line width) reference material with improved vertical parallel sidewalls (IVPSs) has been developed and characterised. The sample has a size of 6 mm  ×  6 mm, consisting of 4 groups of 5  ×  5 feature patterns. Each feature pattern has a group of five reference line features with a nominal CD of 50 nm, 70 nm, 90 nm, 110 nm and 130 nm, respectively. Each feature pattern includes a pair of triangular alignment marks, applicable for precisely identifying the target measurement position, e.g. for comparison or calibration between different tools. The geometry of line features has been investigated thoroughly using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and a CD atomic force microscope (CD-AFM). Their results indicate the high quality of the line features: the top corner radius of  <7 nm, vertical sidewall (slope mostly within 90°  ±  0.5°) and very small line width variation (LWR down to 0.36 nm). The application of the developed sample for calibrating the scaling factor and effective tip geometry of the CD-AFM are demonstrated. The scaling factor of the CD-AFM is calibrated to be 0.9988, coinciding well with the theoretical value 1 as the tool was calibrated to a traceable metrological atomic force microscope. The effective width of a CDR120-EBD tip is calibrated as 128.32 nm. Finally, a strategy for the non-destructive calibration of the developed sample is introduced, which enables the application of the reference material in practice.

  17. Radial Regge trajectories and leptonic widths of the isovector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalian, A. M.; Bakker, B. L. G.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that two physical phenomena are important for high excitations: (i) the screening of the universal gluon-exchange potential and (ii) the flattening of the confining potential owing to creation of quark loops, and both effects are determined quantitatively. Taking the first effect into account, we predict the masses of the ground states with l =0 , 1, 2 in agreement with experiment. The flattening effect ensures the observed linear behavior of the radial Regge trajectories M2(n )=m02+nrμ2 GeV2, where the slope μ2 is very sensitive to the parameter γ , which determines the weakening of the string tension σ (r ) at large distances. For the ρ trajectory the linear behavior starts with nr=1 and the values μ2=1.40 (2 ) GeV2 for γ =0.40 and μ2=1.34 (1 ) GeV2 for γ =0.45 are obtained. For the excited states the leptonic widths Γee(ρ (775 ))=7.0 (3 ) keV , Γee(ρ (1450 ))=1.7 (1 ) keV , Γee(ρ (1900 ))=1.0 (1 ) keV , Γee(ρ (2150 ))=0.7 (1 ) keV , and Γee(1 3D1)=0.26 (5 ) keV are calculated, if these states are considered as purely q q ¯ states. The width Γee(ρ (1700 )) increases if ρ (1700 ) is mixed with the 2 3S1 state, giving for a mixing angle θ =21 ° almost equal widths: Γee(ρ (1700 ))=0.75 (6 ) keV and Γee(1450 )=1.0 (1 ) keV .

  18. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Stefan Meinel

    2012-04-01

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light-quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV < m{sub {pi}} < 352 MeV, two lattice spacings, a = 0.085, 0.112 fm, and a volume of (2.7 fm){sup 3}. Our results for the axial couplings are g{sub 1} = 0.449(51), g{sub 2} = 0.84(20), and g{sub 3} = 0.71(13), where g{sub 1} governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g{sub 2,3} are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g{sub 3}, and constraining 1/m{sub Q} corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for {Sigma}{sub c}{sup (*)} decays, we obtain {Gamma}[{Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)} {yields} {Lambda}{sub b} {pi}{sup {+-}}] = 4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the {Sigma}{sub b}{sup +}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *+}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *-} initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the {Xi}{sub b}{sup prime(*)} baryons.

  19. Alpha-MSH and coat color changes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Thody, A J; Ridley, K; Carter, R J; Lucas, A M; Shuster, S

    1984-01-01

    The effect of alpha-MSH on coat color was examined in viable yellow mice (C3H/He-A*vy). These mice normally grow a coat of darkly pigmented hair at puberty. This darkening effect was also evident in hair that grew in a region that had been plucked at 13 days of age. Administration of alpha-MSH increased the darkness of this hair and the hair which grew naturally in an unplucked area. However, the natural coat darkening that occurred at puberty was not associated with an increase in plasma immunoreactive alpha-MSH levels. Moreover, although bromocryptine, a dopamine agonist that inhibits alpha-MSH release from the pituitary reduced the darkness of the coat that grew after plucking the reduction in coat darkening was unrelated to changes in plasma alpha-MSH. Nevertheless, this effect of bromocryptine was reversed when alpha-MSH was administered together with the drug. Apomorphine had no effect on coat darkening and produced only a slight decrease in plasma alpha-MSH. Melatonin reduced coat darkening slightly but, like apomorphine, had little effect on plasma alpha-MSH concentrations. Although alpha-MSH may have a physiological role in coat darkening in the C3H/He-A*vy mouse at puberty the response seems to be unrelated to an increase in circulating alpha-MSH. Thus, other factors, such as changes in melanocyte sensitivity to alpha-MSH or inhibitory mechanisms that prevent coat darkening during prepubertal and adult life may be involved in regulation of coat color in the viable yellow mouse. PMID:6531269

  20. Lyman-alpha observations of Comet Kohoutek 1973 XII with Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, J. F.; Jenkins, E. B.; Bertaux, J. L.; Festou, M.; Keller, H. U.

    1976-01-01

    Comet Kohoutek 1973 XII was observed with a telescope-spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite on six occasions over a 1-month period starting on January 29, 1974. Positive detection of the cometary Ly-alpha emission profile was obtained on January 29 and February 2. Earlier observations of the geocoronal Ly-alpha emission profile allowed an instrumental intensity calibration and confirmation of the computed instrumental profile for an extended source at the Ly-alpha wavelength. After allowing for broadening by the instrument, a hydrogen-outflow velocity of about 10.6 km/s is derived from the width of the Ly-alpha emission on January 29. The intensity calibration combined with an appropriate cometary model led to cometary water-production rates for January 29 and February 2. Only upper limits were obtained for Ly-alpha on and after February 14. Searches for OH and D led to negative results.

  1. {alpha}-Decay half-lives, {alpha}-capture, and {alpha}-nucleus potential

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu. Khudenko, A.A.

    2009-11-15

    {alpha}-Decay half-lives and {alpha}-capture cross sections are evaluated in the framework of a unified model for {alpha}-decay and {alpha}-capture. In this model {alpha}-decay and {alpha}-capture are considered as penetration of the {alpha}-particle through the potential barrier formed by the nuclear, Coulomb, and centrifugal interactions between the {alpha}-particle and nucleus. The spins and parities of the parent and daughter nuclei as well as the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of the daughter nuclei are taken into account for evaluation of the {alpha}-decay half-lives. The {alpha}-decay half-lives for 344 nuclei and the {alpha}-capture cross sections of {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 59}Co, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 209}Bi agree well with the experimental data. The evaluated {alpha}-decay half-lives within the range of 10{sup -9}{<=}T{sub 1/2}{<=}10{sup 38} s for 1246 {alpha}-emitters are tabulated.

  2. Excitation-energy dependence of the giant dipole resonance width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, G.; Berg, F. D.; Hagel, K.; Kühn, W.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schwalb, O.; Charity, R. J.; Gobbi, A.; Freifelder, R.; Henning, W.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Holzmann, R.; Mayer, R. S.; Simon, R. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A. A.

    1992-07-01

    High-energy γ rays have been measured in coincidence with heavy fragents in deeply inelastic reactions of 136Xe+48Ti at 18.5 MeV/nucleon. The giant dipole resonance (GDR) strength function is deduced from an analysis of the photon spectra within the statistical model. The GDR width Γ is studied as a function of the fragment excitation energy E*. A saturation at about Γ=10 MeV is observed for E*/A>=1.0 MeV/nucleon.

  3. On the width of Σ hypernuclei and Σ- atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, R.; Oset, E.

    1982-12-01

    The self-energy of a Σ particle in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated by using a boson exchange model for the ΣN interaction. The imaginary part of the self-energy is shown to be strongly density dependent and has saturation properties around ϱ ≌ 0.7 ϱo. This peculiar feature allows our results to be in good agreement with the Σ atom data while simultaneously providing a width of about 5 Mev or smaller for all nuclei and different states. Permanent address: Departamento de Física Atómica y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

  4. {lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma} Radiative-Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Vavilov, D.V.; Antipov, Yu.M.; Artamonov, A.V.; Batarin, V.A.; Victorov, V.A.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, Yu.P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Kozhevnikov, A.P.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kubarovsky, V.P.; Kurshetsov, V.F.; Landsberg, L.G.; Leontiev, V.M.; Molchanov, V.V.; Mukhin, V.A.; Patalakha, D.I.; Petrenko, S.V.; Petrukhin, A.I.; Kolganov, V.Z.

    2005-03-01

    The radiative decay {lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma} was recorded in the exclusive reaction p + N {yields} {lambda}(1520)K{sup +} + N at the SPHINX facility. The branching ratio for this decay and the corresponding partial width were found to be, respectively, Br[{lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma}] = (1.02 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -2} and {gamma}[{lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma}] = 159 {+-} 35 keV (the quoted errors are purely statistical, the systematic errors being within 15%)

  5. Stark Widths of Spectral Lines of Neutral Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Simić, Zoran; Kovačević, Andjelka; Valjarević, Aleksandar; Sahal-Bréchot, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    In order to complete Stark broadening data for Ne I spectral lines which are needed for analysis of stellar atmospheres, collisional widths and shifts (the so-called Stark broadening parameters) of 29 isolated spectral lines of neutral neon have been determined within the impact semiclassical perturbation method. Calculations have been performed for the broadening by collisions with electrons, protons and ionized helium for astrophysical applications, and for collisions with ionized neon and argon for laboratory plasma diagnostics. The shifts have been compared with existing experimental values. The obtained data will be included in the STARK-B database, which is a part of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center - VAMDC.

  6. Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J

    2010-06-11

    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  7. Narrowing of Terrace-width Distributions During Growth on Vicinals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Ajmi Bh.; Pimpinelli, A.; Einstein, T. L.

    2009-03-01

    Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for a generic minimal SOS model of vicinal surfaces, we compute the terrace-width distributions (TWDs) as a function of incident flux during homoepitaxial growth. We show that the distribution narrows markedly, U.B.P.-Clermont 2 as though there were a flux-dependent repulsion between steps, until the step picture fails at high flux. Using a Fokker-Planck approach, we analyze the evolution and saturation of this narrowing. We compare with a 1D model and with our simulations for narrowing due to an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier.

  8. Degravitation of the cosmological constant and graviton width

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Hofmann, Stefan; Khoury, Justin

    2007-10-15

    We study the possibility of decoupling gravity from the vacuum energy. This is effectively equivalent to promoting Newton's constant to a high-pass filter that degravitates sources of characteristic wavelength larger than a certain macroscopic (super) horizon scale L. We study the underlying physics and the consistency of this phenomenon. In particular, the absence of ghosts, already at the linear level, implies that in any such theory the graviton should either have a mass 1/L, or be a resonance of similar width. This has profound physical implications for the degravitation idea.

  9. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results.

  10. A high-precision pulse-width modulator source.

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.; Laird, R.

    1999-09-30

    A novel high-resolution pulse-width modulator (PWM) is being developed for a new digital regulator for the Advanced Photon Source power converters. The circuit features 82-ps setability over an 80-{micro}s range. Our application requires a 50-{micro}s fill-scale range; therefore the 82-ps setability is equivalent to better than 19 bits. The circuit is presently implemented as a VME module and is an integral part of the digital regulator prototype. The design concept and performance results will be presented.

  11. Effect of stance width on multidirectional postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, S. M.; Fung, J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of stance width on postural responses to 12 different directions of surface translations was examined. Postural responses were characterized by recording 11 lower limb and trunk muscles, body kinematics, and forces exerted under each foot of 7 healthy subjects while they were subjected to horizontal surface translations in 12 different, randomly presented directions. A quasi-static approach of force analysis was done, examining force integrals in three different epochs (background, passive, and active periods). The latency and amplitude of muscle responses were quantified for each direction, and muscle tuning curves were used to determine the spatial activation patterns for each muscle. The results demonstrate that the horizontal force constraint exerted at the ground was lessened in the wide, compared with narrow, stance for humans, a similar finding to that reported by Macpherson for cats. Despite more trunk displacement in narrow stance, there were no significant changes in body center of mass (CoM) displacement due to large changes in center of pressure (CoP), especially in response to lateral translations. Electromyographic (EMG) magnitude decreased for all directions in wide stance, particularly for the more proximal muscles, whereas latencies remained the same from narrow to wide stance. Equilibrium control in narrow stance was more of an active postural strategy that included regulating the loading/unloading of the limbs and the direction of horizontal force vectors. In wide stance, equilibrium control relied more on an increase in passive stiffness resulting from changes in limb geometry. The selective latency modulation of the proximal muscles with translation direction suggests that the trunk was being actively controlled in all directions. The similar EMG latencies for both narrow and wide stance, with modulation of only the muscle activation magnitude as stance width changed, suggest that the same postural synergy was only slightly modified

  12. Distribution of Narrow-Width Magnetic Anomalies in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, J C

    1964-05-22

    Data for aeromagnetic profiles obtained in Antarctica during the 1963-64 austral summer were used together with earlier results to construct a map showing the areal distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies. Numerous anomalies are associated with known volcanic mountains in western Antarctica. A large area of few anomalies is probably a result of an extension of the thick metasedimentary section observed in the Ellsworth Mountains. Portions of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains have associated anomalies which are probably caused by late Cenozoic volcanic rocks.

  13. Leptonic partial widths of the excited {psi} states

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, X. H.; Yuan, C. Z.; Wang, P.

    2010-10-01

    The resonance parameters of the excited {psi}-family resonances, namely, the {psi}(4040), {psi}(4160), and {psi}(4415), were determined by fitting the R values measured by experiments. It is found that the previously reported leptonic partial widths of these states were merely one possible solution among a four-fold ambiguity. By fitting the most precise experimental data on the R values measured by the BES collaboration, this work presents all four sets of solutions. These results may affect the interpretation of the charmonium and charmonium-like states above 4 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  14. Distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    1964-01-01

    Data for aeromagnetic profiles obtained in Antarctica during the 1963-64 austral summer were used together with earlier results to construct a map showing the areal distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies. Numerous anomalies are associated with known volcanic mountains in western Antarctica. A large area of few anomalies is probably a result of an extension of the thick metasedimentary section observed in the Ellsworth Mountains. Portions of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains have associated anomalies which are probably caused by late Cenozoic volcanic rocks.

  15. Distribution of Narrow-Width Magnetic Anomalies in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, J C

    1964-05-22

    Data for aeromagnetic profiles obtained in Antarctica during the 1963-64 austral summer were used together with earlier results to construct a map showing the areal distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies. Numerous anomalies are associated with known volcanic mountains in western Antarctica. A large area of few anomalies is probably a result of an extension of the thick metasedimentary section observed in the Ellsworth Mountains. Portions of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains have associated anomalies which are probably caused by late Cenozoic volcanic rocks. PMID:17811603

  16. Numerical investigation of edge plasma phenomena in an enhanced D-alpha discharge at Alcator C-Mod: Parallel heat flux and quasi-coherent edge oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D. A.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2012-08-15

    Reduced-model scrape-off layer turbulence (SOLT) simulations of an enhanced D-alpha (EDA) H-mode shot observed in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak were conducted to compare with observed variations in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) width of the parallel heat flux profile. In particular, the role of the competition between sheath- and conduction-limited parallel heat fluxes in determining that width was studied for the turbulent SOL plasma that emerged from the simulations. The SOL width decreases with increasing input power and with increasing separatrix temperature in both the experiment and the simulation, consistent with the strong temperature dependence of the parallel heat flux in balance with the perpendicular transport by turbulence and blobs. The particularly strong temperature dependence observed in the case analyzed is attributed to the fact that these simulations produce SOL plasmas which are in the conduction-limited regime for the parallel heat flux. A persistent quasi-coherent (QC) mode dominates the SOLT simulations and bears considerable resemblance to the QC mode observed in C-Mod EDA operation. The SOLT QC mode consists of nonlinearly saturated wave-fronts located just inside the separatrix that are convected poloidally by the mean flow, continuously transporting particles and energy and intermittently emitting blobs into the SOL.

  17. {beta}-delayed {alpha} decay of {sup 16}N

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmann, L.; Ruprecht, G.; Ruiz, C.

    2009-10-15

    The {beta}-delayed {alpha} decay of {sup 16}N has been used to restrict the E1 fraction of the ground state {gamma} transition in the astrophysically important {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction in several experiments. A review of the published measurements is given, and GEANT4 simulations and R-matrix calculations are presented to further clarify the observed {alpha} spectra. A clear response function, in the form of a low-energy tail from the scattering of {alpha} particles in the catcher foil, is observed in these simulations for any foil thickness. Contrary to claims in the literature, the simulations show that the TRIUMF measurement and those performed at Yale and Mainz originate from the same underlying spectrum. The simulations suggest that the discrepancies between the Yale and TRIUMF final results can be attributed to incorrect deconvolution methods applied in the former case. The simulations show in general that the form (width) of the spectrum is very sensitive to the catcher foil thickness. It is concluded that the TRIUMF measurement most likely represents the currently closest approximation to the true {beta}-delayed {alpha}-decay spectrum of {sup 16}N.

  18. Cooling in cat visual cortex: stability of orientation selectivity despite changes in responsiveness and spike width.

    PubMed

    Girardin, C C; Martin, K A C

    2009-12-01

    Cooling is one of several reversible methods used to inactivate local regions of the brain. Here the effect of cooling was studied in the primary visual cortex (area 17) of anaesthetized and paralyzed cats. When the cortical surface temperature was cooled to about 0 degrees C, the temperature 2 mm below the surface was 20 degrees C. The lateral spread of cold was uniform over a distance of at least approximately 700 microm from the cooling loop. When the cortex was cooled the visually evoked responses to drifting sine wave gratings were strongly reduced in proportion to the cooling temperature, but the mean spontaneous activity of cells decreased only slightly. During cooling the strongest effect on the orientation tuning curve was on the peak response and the orientation bandwidth did not change, suggesting a divisive mechanism. Our results show that the cortical circuit is robust in the face of cooling and retains its essential functionality, albeit with reduced responsiveness. The width of the extracellular spike waveform measured at half height increased by 50% on average during cooling in almost all cases and recovered after re-warming. The increase in spike width was inversely correlated with the change in response amplitude to the optimal stimulus. The extracellular spike shape can thus be used as a reliable and fast method to assess whether changes in the responses of a neuron are due to direct cooling or distant effects on a source of its afferents.

  19. HETDEX: The Physical Properties of Lyman-alpha Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronwall, Caryl; Blanc, G.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in Fall 2012, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will map out 300 square degrees via a blind integral-field spectroscopic survey which will detect 800,000 Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at 1.9 < z < 3.5. The goal of HETDEX is to explore the expansion history of the universe via the LAE power spectrum, but these emission-line sources are also important probes of galaxy evolution. LAEs are observed "in the act" of formation with low mass, little dust, very young ages, and a two-dimensional clustering scale-length that implies that they are the progenitors of today's Milky Way type galaxies. The unprecedented size of the HETDEX survey will allow us to explore the 3-D clustering of these objects and to measure their halo masses as a function of redshift. We will also be able to explore the physical properties of LAEs over a wide range of environments, and study how their luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and star formation rates change with galaxy density and redshift. In preparation for HETDEX, we undertook a 3 year pilot survey to test the feasibility of the experiment and design an optimal observing strategy. These observations were performed with a proto-type HETDEX spectrograph (VIRUS-P) on the McDonald 2.7-m telescope, and covered Ly-alpha in the redshift range 1.9 < z < 3.8. This survey discovered 104 Ly-alpha emitting galaxies in 169 sq. arcmin of sky, and reached objects with Ly-alpha line luminosities as faint as 3 x 1042 ergs/s. We will present the Ly-alpha luminosity function, equivalent width distributions, and star formation rates measured for this sample and discuss the implications of the pilot survey results for HETDEX.

  20. Vasodilating effect of norethisterone and its 5 alpha metabolites: a novel nongenomic action.

    PubMed

    Perusquía, Mercedes; Villalón, Carlos M; Navarrete, Erika; García, Gustavo A; Pérez-Palacios, Gregorio; Lemus, Ana E

    2003-08-15

    Estrogens are generally administered in hormone replacement therapy in combination with synthetic progestins. Studies of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women have shown a variety of responses according to the molecular structure of the progestin used in hormone replacement therapy schemes. The present study sets out to determine the vasoactive effects of norethisterone and its 5alpha-dihydro (5alpha-norethisterone) and -tetrahydro (3alpha,5alpha-norethisterone and 3beta,5alpha-norethisterone) metabolites in isolated precontracted rat thoracic aorta. The addition of norethisterone and 3alpha,5alpha-norethisterone in rat aorta exhibited a potent, concentration-response inhibition of noradrenaline-induced contraction, while 5alpha- and 3beta,5alpha-norethisterone had very little, if any, vasorelaxing effect. Relaxation to norethisterone and 3alpha,5alpha-norethisterone had very rapid time-courses and it was neither affected by the absence of endothelium nor by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The addition of specific anti-androgen, anti-progestin and anti-estrogen compounds and protein synthesis inhibitors did not preclude the vasorelaxing effect of norethisterone and its 3alpha,5alpha-reduced metabolite. The results strongly suggest that these effects are not mediated by nuclear sex steroid hormone receptors. The overall data document a novel nongenomic endothelium-independent vasorelaxing action of a 19-nor synthetic progestin and one of its A-ring-reduced derivatives.

  1. Molecular characterization of the new defective P(brescia) alpha1-antitrypsin allele.

    PubMed

    Medicina, Daniela; Montani, Nadia; Fra, Anna M; Tiberio, Laura; Corda, Luciano; Miranda, Elena; Pezzini, Alessandro; Bonetti, Fausta; Ingrassia, Rosaria; Scabini, Roberta; Facchetti, Fabio; Schiaffonati, Luisa

    2009-08-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha(1)AT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder associated with reduced alpha(1)AT serum level, predisposing adults to pulmonary emphysema. Among the known mutations of the alpha(1)AT gene (SERPINA1) causing alpha(1)AT deficiency, a few alleles, particularly the Z allele, may also predispose adults to liver disease. We have characterized a new defective alpha(1)AT allele (c.745G>C) coding for a mutant alpha(1)AT (Gly225Arg), named P(brescia). The P(brescia) alpha(1)AT allele was first identified in combination with the rare defective M(würzburg) allele in an 11-year-old boy showing significantly reduced serum alpha(1)AT level. Subsequently, the P(brescia) allele was found in the heterozygous state with the normal M or the defective Z allele in nine and three adults respectively. In cellular models of the disease, we show that the P(brescia) mutant is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as ordered polymers and is secreted more slowly than the normal M alpha(1)AT. This behaviour recapitulates the abnormal cellular handling and fate of the Z alpha(1)AT and suggests that the mutation present in the P(brescia) alpha(1)AT causes a conformational change of the protein which, by favouring polymer formation, is etiologic to both severe alpha(1)AT deficiency in the plasma and toxic protein-overload in the liver.

  2. Direct top-quark width measurement at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2010-12-01

    We present a measurement of the top-quark width in the lepton+jets decay channel of tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of the hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths (Γ(t)) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale (Δ(JES)) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where Δ(JES) is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γ(t) <7.6 GeV and a two-sided 68% CL interval of 0.3 GeV <Γ(t) <4.4  GeV for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c(2), which are consistent with the standard model prediction.

  3. Is biologic width of anterior and posterior teeth similar?

    PubMed

    Rasouli Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Khorsand, Afshin; Yaghobee, Siamak; Haghighati, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    The biologic width (BW) includes attached epithelial cells and connective tissue attachment complex being very important in the periodontal health during prosthetic treatments as invading this zone can cause bone resorption and gingival recession. The present study investigated biologic width values in the normal periodontium in anterior and posterior teeth. 30 patients that referred from restorative department to periodontics department of Tehran University of medical sciences who need crown lengthening procedure on their teeth with no history of orthodontic, prosthodontic and periodontal treatment were randomly enrolled in this cross-sectional trial. Sulcus depths (SD) as well as the distance between free gingival margin and the bone crest (FB) of anterior and posterior teeth were measured by UNC-15 probe and compared. periodontium thickness was also assessed. The data were subjected to Student t test. Mean BW in the 43 anterior and 47 posterior teeth was measured and not significantly different (1.4651±0.39 mm vs. 1.6312±0.49 mm) was observed; however, BW was significantly more in the teeth with thick periodontium compared to those with thin periodontium (1.703±0.5 vs. 1.408±0.35; P=0.002). BW not only is different in individuals but also could be dissimilar in different teeth and should be calculated independently prior to restorative treatments. PMID:25325207

  4. Longitudinal wave motion in width-constrained auxetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the longitudinal wave velocity in auxetic plates in comparison to conventional ones, in which the plate is constrained from motion in the width direction. By taking into account the thickness change of the plate and its corresponding change in density, the developed wave velocity is casted not only as a function of Young’s modulus and density, but also in terms of Poisson’s ratio and longitudinal strain. Results show that density and thickness variations compensate for one another when the Poisson’s ratio is positive, but add up when the Poisson’s ratio is negative. Results also reveal that the classical model of longitudinal wave velocity for the plate is accurate when the Poisson’s ratio is about 1/3; at this Poisson’s ratio the influence from density and thickness variations cancel each other. Comparison between the current corrected model and the density-corrected Rayleigh-Lamb model reveals a number of consistent trends, while the discrepancies are elucidated. If the plate material possesses a negative Poisson’s ratio, the deviation of the actual wave velocity from the classical model becomes significant; auxeticity suppresses and enhances the wave velocity in compressive and tensile impacts, respectively. Hence the use of the corrected model is proposed when predicting longitudinal waves in width-constrained auxetic plates, and auxetic materials can be harnessed for effectively controlling wave velocities in thin-walled structures.

  5. Determination of the width of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Abolins, Maris A.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Nijmegen U.

    2010-09-01

    We extract the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t {yields} Wb) measured in t{bar t} events using up to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The result is {Lambda}{sub t} = 1.99{sub -0.55}{sup +0.69} GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.3{sub -0.9}{sup +1.3}) x 10{sup -25} s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b{prime} quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V{sub tb{prime}}| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  6. Fractal Reference Signals in Pulse-Width Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris; Lurie, Helen

    2005-01-01

    A report proposes the use of waveforms having fractal shapes reminiscent of sawteeth (in contradistinction to conventional regular sawtooth waveforms) as reference signals for pulse-width modulation in control systems for thrusters of spacecraft flying in formation. Fractal reference signals may also be attractive in some terrestrial control systems - especially those in which pulse-width modulation is used for precise control of electric motors. The report asserts that the use of fractal reference signals would enable the synchronous control of several variables of a spacecraft formation, such that consumption of propellant would be minimized, intervals between thruster firings would be long (as preferred for performing scientific observations), and delays in controlling large-thrust maneuvers for retargeting would be minimized. The report further asserts that whereas different controllers would be needed for different modes of operation if conventional pulsewidth modulation were used, the use of fractal reference signals would enable the same controller to function nearly optimally in all regimes of operation, so that only this one controller would be needed.

  7. ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna; Aarnisalo, Piia

    2010-05-28

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

  8. DNA methyltransferase 1/3a overexpression in sporadic breast cancer is associated with reduced expression of estrogen receptor-alpha/breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaojin; Xiao, Qinghuan; Zhao, Lin; Ren, Jie; Bai, Xuefeng; Sun, Mingli; Wu, Huizhe; Liu, Xiaojian; Song, Zhiguo; Yan, Yuanyuan; Mi, Xiaoyi; Wang, Enhua; Jin, Feng; Wei, Minjie

    2015-09-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), including DNMT1, 3a, and 3b, play an important role in the progression of many malignant tumors. However, it remains unclear whether expression of DNMTs is associated with the development of breast cancer. This study aimed to explore the clinical significance of DNMT proteins in sporadic breast cancer. We investigated the expression of DNMT1, 3a, and 3b in 256 breast cancer and 36 breast fibroadenoma, using immunohistochemistry. The expression of DNMT1 and 3a was significantly higher in breast cancer than in fibroadenoma. In breast cancer, the expression of DNMT1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.020), and the expression of DNMT3a and 3b was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stages (P = 0.046 and 0.012, respectively). Overexpression of DNMT1/3a was correlated with promoter hypermethylation and reduced expression of ERα and BRCA1. The expression levels of DNMT1 or DNMT3a were associated with a significantly shorter DFS or OS in a subgroup of breast cancer patients (patients with the age ≤50 years old, ERα-negative status, or HER2-postive status). The expression of DNMT1 or a combined expression of DNMT1 and 3a was associated with poor prognosis in patients who received chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, but not in patients who received chemotherapy alone. These findings suggest that DNMT1 and 3a may be involved in the progression and prognosis of sporadic breast cancer.

  9. Performance of an in-situ alpha spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R

    2016-03-01

    Equipment was recently developed for detecting alpha particles from flat and smooth surfaces with good energy resolution at ambient air pressure. In this work, the detection efficiencies were determined using different extended-area sources emitting alpha and beta radiation and a mixed nuclide point source emitting alpha radiation. Beta particles are of importance because they can also be detected. Counts originating from alpha and beta particles are mainly at different energies, which make their separation possible. An efficiency of 0.14 was determined for an extended-area (>30cm(2)) homogeneous source emitting alpha radiation at the energy of 5-6MeV, whereas for the beta emitters the efficiencies were 0.07-0.19 depending on the beta-particle emission energies. The use of a collimator reduces the detection efficiencies by a factor of up to ten. PMID:26688356

  10. Improvement of deoxidization efficiency of nitric monoxide by shortening pulse width of semiconductor opening switch pulse power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuta, Takatoshi; Yagi, Ippei; Takaki, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The deoxidization efficiency of nitric monoxide (NO) was improved by shortening the pulse width of the voltage applied to a corona reactor. The deoxidization efficiency of NO was evaluated as the NO removal efficiency in nitrogen (N2) gas containing 200 ppm NO. The corona reactor had a coaxial geometry and consisted of center high-voltage wire and outer grounded cylinder electrodes. A nanosecond high-voltage pulse was generated using an inductive energy storage pulse power circuit with a semiconductor opening switch and was applied to the center wire electrode in the corona reactor. Fast recovery diodes were utilized as a semiconductor opening switch. The pulse width of the applied voltage was reduced from 21 to 14 ns with the arrester connected in parallel to the reactor. The energy efficiency for NO removal was improved from 8.2 to 35.7 g kW-1 h-1 with the arrester connected. The pulse width was also reduced to 8 ns by optimizing the circuit parameters. It was confirmed from observation with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera that the streamer corona discharge transited to a glowlike discharge after the streamer propagated from the center wire electrode to the outer cylinder electrode. The duration of the glowlike phase was reduced with the arrester connected. The energy consumed in the glowlike phase was also reduced from 15.7 to 4.6 mJ with the arrester connected.

  11. STELLAR LOCI. I. METALLICITY DEPENDENCE AND INTRINSIC WIDTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Haibo; Liu, Xiaowei; Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu E-mail: x.liu@pku.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    Stellar loci are widely used for selection of interesting outliers, reddening determinations, and calibrations. However, until now, the dependence of stellar loci on metallicity has not been fully explored, and their intrinsic widths are unclear. In this paper, by combining the spectroscopic and recalibrated imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, we have built a large, clean sample of dwarf stars with accurate colors and well-determined metallicities to investigate the metallicity dependence and intrinsic widths of the SDSS stellar loci. Typically, 1 dex decrease in metallicity causes 0.20 and 0.02 mag decrease in colors u – g and g – r and 0.02 and 0.02 mag increase in colors r – i and i – z, respectively. The variations are larger for metal-rich stars than for metal-poor ones, and larger for F/G/K stars than for A/M ones. Using the sample, we have performed two-dimensional polynomial fitting to the u – g, g – r, r – i, and i – z colors as a function of color g – i and metallicity [Fe/H]. The residuals, at the level of 0.029, 0.008, 0.008, and 0.011 mag for the u – g, g – r, r – i, and i – z colors, respectively, can be fully accounted for by the photometric errors and metallicity uncertainties, suggesting that the intrinsic widths of the loci are at maximum a few millimagnitudes. The residual distributions are asymmetric, revealing that a significant fraction of stars are binaries. In a companion paper, we will present an unbiased estimate of the binary fraction for field stars. Other potential applications of the metallicity-dependent stellar loci are briefly discussed.

  12. Invariantly propagating dissolution fingers in finite-width systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution fingers are formed in porous medium due to positive feedback between transport of reactant and chemical reactions [1-4]. We investigate two-dimensional semi-infinite systems, with constant width W in one direction. In numerical simulations we solve the Darcy flow problem combined with advection-dispersion-reaction equation for the solute transport to track the evolving shapes of the fingers and concentration of reactant in the system. We find the stationary, invariantly propagating finger shapes for different widths of the system, flow and reaction rates. Shape of the reaction front, turns out to be controlled by two dimensionless numbers - the (width-based) Péclet number PeW = vW/Dφ0 and Damköhler number DaW = ksW/v, where k is the reaction rate, s - specific reactive surface area, v - characteristic flow rate, D - diffusion coefficient of the solute, and φ0 - initial porosity of the rock matrix. Depending on PeW and DaW stationary shapes can be divided into seperate classes, e.g. parabolic-like and needle-like structures, which can be inferred from theoretical predictions. In addition we determine velocity of propagating fingers in time and concentration of reagent in the system. Our simulations are compared with natural forms (solution pipes). P. Ortoleva, J. Chadam, E. Merino, and A. Sen, Geochemical self-organization II: the reactive-infiltration instability, Am. J. Sci, 287, 1008-1040 (1987). M. L. Hoefner, and H. S. Fogler. Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal 34, 45-54 (1988). C. E. Cohen, D. Ding, M. Quintard, and B. Bazin, From pore scale to wellbore scale: impact of geometry on wormhole growth in carbonate acidization, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 3088-3099 (2008). P. Szymczak and A. J. C. Ladd, Reactive-infiltration nstabilities in rocks. Part II: Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech. 738, 591-630 (2014).

  13. Diagnostic values of red cell distribution width, platelet distribution width and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio for sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Bing; Chen, Juan; Lan, Qiao-Fen; Ma, Xiong-Jian; Zhang, Shi-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet distribution width (PDW), the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for the prediction of sepsis. A total of 120 consecutive patients who underwent blood culture testing were included. The PCT and CRP levels, and RDW, PDW and NLCR percentages were determined and compared between patients with positive blood cultures and those without. The PCT, CRP, RDW, PDW and NLCR values were significantly higher in patients with positive blood culture compared with those without. PCT and NLCR each had a high diagnostic performance for the prediction of sepsis, with an area under the curve (AUC) for sepsis of 0.829 and 0.718, respectively. A combination of RDW, PDW and NLCR also exhibited a good diagnostic performance for sepsis (AUC, 0.704). NLCR is easily obtained by automated hematological analysis. Moreover, NLCR was found to have a high diagnostic efficiency for the prediction of sepsis, with greater sensitivity and accuracy than CRP. In conclusion, PCT exhibited the optimal diagnostic performance among the tested markers. The combination of the three parameters of RDW, PDW and NLCR, demonstrated a high diagnostic performance similar to that of PCT.

  14. High resolution alpha particle spectrometry through collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seunghoon; Kwak, Sung-Woo; Kang, Han-Byeol

    2015-06-01

    Alpha particle spectrometry with collimation is a useful method for identifying nuclear materials among various nuclides. A mesh type collimator reduces the low energy tail and broadened energy distribution by cutting off particles with a low incidence angle. The relation between the resolution and the counting efficiency can be investigated by changing a ratio of the mesh hole diameter and the collimator thickness. Through collimation, a target particle can be distinguished by a PIPS® detector under a mixture of various nuclides.

  15. [The tongue as a factor in craniofacial growth. 2. The influence of the width dimension of the lower jaw].

    PubMed

    Becker, R; Hübner, A; Pommerenke, F; Schumacher, G H

    1988-01-01

    The role played by the tongue in orofacial growth is also indicated by the reduced width of the lower jaw. In miniature pigs MINI-LEWE that were partially glossectomized at an age of 12 weeks lateral growth of the whole lower jaw was reduced after eight months. In animals that had been glossectomized at an age of six weeks lateral growth of the lower jaw was reduced in the region of the 1st deciduous molars and the canines right months after glossectomy.

  16. PCF based high power narrow line width pulsed fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Yan, P.; Xiao, Q.; Wang, Y.; Gong, M.

    2012-09-01

    Based on semiconductor diode seeded multi-stage cascaded fiber amplifiers, we have obtained 88-W average power of a 1063-nm laser with high repetition rate of up to 1.5 MHz and a constant 2-ns pulse duration. No stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse or optical damage occurred although the maximum pulse peak power has exceeded 112 kW. The output laser exhibits excellent beam quality (M2x = 1.24 and M2y = 1.18), associated with a spectral line width as narrow as 0.065 nm (FWHM). Additionally, we demonstrate high polarization extinction ratio of 18.4 dB and good pulse stabilities superior to 1.6 % (RMS).

  17. Three-Level 48-Pulse STATCOM with Pulse Width Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Srinivas, Kadagala Venkata

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new control strategy of a three-level 48-pulse static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is proposed with a constant dc link voltage and pulse width modulation at fundamental frequency switching. The proposed STATCOM is realized using eight units of three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) to form a three-level 48-pulse STATCOM. The conduction angle of each three-level VSC is modulated to control the ac converter output voltage, which controls the reactive power of the STATCOM. A fuzzy logic controller is used to control the STATCOM. The dynamic performance of the STATCOM is studied for the control of the reference reactive power, the reference terminal voltage and under the switching of inductive and capacitive loads.

  18. Scaling and width distributions of parity-conserving interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlego, M.; Grynberg, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    We present an alternative finite-size approach to a set of parity-conserving interfaces involving attachment, dissociation, and detachment of extended objects in 1+1 dimensions. With the aid of a nonlocal construct introduced by Barma and Dhar in related systems [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.73.2135 73, 2135 (1994)], we circumvent the subdiffusive dynamics and examine close-to-equilibrium aspects of these interfaces by assembling states of much smaller, numerically accessible scales. As a result, roughening exponents, height correlations, and width distributions exhibiting universal scaling functions are evaluated for interfaces virtually grown out of dimers and trimers on large-scale substrates. Dynamic exponents are also studied by finite-size scaling of the spectrum gaps of evolution operators.

  19. Free-edge delamination: Laminate width and loading conditions effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    The width and loading conditions effects on free-edge stress fields in composite laminates are investigated using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. This analysis includes a special free-edge region refinement or superelement with progrssive substructuring (mesh refinement) and finite thickness interply layers. The different loading conditions include in-plane and out-of-plane bending, combined axial tension and in-plane shear, twisting, uniform temperature and uniform moisture. Results obtained indicate that: axial tension causes the smallest magnitude of interlaminar free edge stress compared to other loading conditions; free-edge delamination data obtained from laboratory specimens cannot be scaled to structural components; and composite structural components are not likely to delaminate.

  20. Free-edge delamination - Laminate width and loading conditions effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    The width and loading conditions effects on free-edge stress fields in composite laminates are investigated using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. This analysis includes a special free-edge region refinement or superelement with progressive substructuring (mesh refinement) and finite thickness interply layers. The different loading conditions include in-plane and out-of-plane bending, combined axial tension and in-plane shear, twisting, uniform temperature and uniform moisture. Results obtained indicate that: axial tension causes the smallest magnitude of interlaminar free edge stress compared to other loading conditions; free-edge delamination data obtained from laboratory specimens cannot be scaled to structural components; and composite structural components are not likely to delaminate.

  1. Systematics of S- and P-wave radiation widths

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.S.

    1980-09-22

    The question of calculating differences in s- and p-wave radiation widths as a valid evaluation tool is explored. A purely statistical approach such as that provided by the Brink-Axel formula depends upon two factors: 1) an adequate description of the giant dipole resonance shape at energies well below the resonance, and 2) an adequate description of the level densities between the ground state and the excitation of the compound nucleus near the neutron separation energy. Some success has been obtained in certain regions of the periodic table with this simple approach, e.g., in the actinides where all nuclei exhibit similar rigid permanent deformations. However, if the method is to be used as a general evaluation procedure throughout the periodic table and particularly in regions where the radiative transition probabilities are enhanced by direct processes, it appears that much more nuclear structure information needs to be incorporated into the calculations.

  2. Binding of receptor-recognized forms of alpha2-macroglobulin to the alpha2-macroglobulin signaling receptor activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Misra, U K; Pizzo, S V

    1998-05-29

    Ligation of the alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) signaling receptor by receptor-recognized forms of alpha2M (alpha2M*) initiates mitogenesis secondary to increased intracellular Ca2+. We report here that ligation of the alpha2M signaling receptor also causes a 1. 5-2.5-fold increase in wortmannin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity as measured by the quantitation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 formation was alpha2M* concentration-dependent with a maximal response at approximately 50 pM ligand concentration. The peak formation of PIP3 occurred at 10 min of incubation. The alpha2M receptor binding fragment mutant K1370R which binds to the alpha2M signaling receptor activating the signaling cascade, increased PIP3 formation by 2-fold. The mutant K1374A, which binds very poorly to the alpha2M signaling receptor, did not cause any increase in PIP3 formation. alpha2M*-induced DNA synthesis was inhibited by wortmannin. 1, 2Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acetoxymethylester a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, drastically reduced alpha2M*-induced increases in PIP3 formation. We conclude that PI3K is involved in alpha2M*-induced mitogenesis in macrophages and intracellular Ca2+ plays a role in PI3K activation. PMID:9593670

  3. Amplitude and Width Correlations in COBALT-57 and VANADIUM-49.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabha K.

    Angular distributions of the inelastically scattered protons and of the deexcitation (gamma)-rays in the ('56)Fe(p,p'(gamma)) reaction were measured for d-wave resonances in the proton energy range 3.10 to 4.01 MeV. The experiment was performed with an overall energy resolution of 350 to 400 eV (FWHM) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory KN Van de Graaff accelerator and associated high resolution system. Results were obtained for 141 resonances; 83 resonances were assigned J('(pi)) = 5/2('+), while 58 resonances were assigned J('(pi)) = 3/2('+). Mixing parameters for the inelastic decay amplitudes were uniquely determined for the 5/2('+) resonances. For the 3/2('+) resonances sufficient information is not available from this experiment to extract a unique solution for the mixing parameters. Magnitudes and relative signs of three inelastic decay amplitudes were determined for the 5/2('+) resonances in ('57)Co. The angular distributions for the deexcitation (gamma)-rays were measured in coincidence with the inelastically scattered protons for 30 3/2('+) resonances in ('49)V in the proton energy region 2.2 to 3.1 MeV. The singles measurements from a previous experiment were combined with these coincidence measurements to eliminate the ambiguity in the solutions for the mixing parameters. Amplitude and width measurements were determined for the three decay channels for 30 3/2('+) resonances. Statistical analyses were performed on the set of 83 5/2('+) resonances in ('57)Co and on the set of 30 3/2('+) resonances in ('49)V. In both cases, large amplitude and width correlations are observed. These results are interpreted as evidence for direct reactions between the inelastic channels.

  4. The optimum choice of gate width for neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S.; Henzlova, D.; Favalli, A.; Hauck, D. K.; Santi, P. A.

    2014-11-01

    In the measurement field of international nuclear safeguards, passive neutron coincidence counting is used to quantify the spontaneous fission rate of certain special nuclear materials. The shift register autocorrelation analysis method is the most commonly used approach. However, the Feynman-Y technique, which is more commonly applied in reactor noise analysis, provides an alternative means to extract the correlation information from a pulse train. In this work we consider how to select the optimum gate width for each of these two time-correlation analysis techniques. The optimum is considered to be that which gives the lowest fractional precision on the net doublets rate. Our theoretical approach is approximate but is instructional in terms of revealing the key functional dependence. We show that in both cases the same performance figure of merit applies so that common design criteria apply to the neutron detector head. Our prediction is that near optimal results, suitable for most practical applications, can be obtained from both techniques using a common gate width setting. The estimated precision is also comparable in the two cases. The theoretical expressions are tested experimentally using 252Cf spontaneous fission sources measured in two thermal well counters representative of the type in common use by international inspectorates. Fast accidental sampling was the favored method of acquiring the Feynman-Y data. Our experimental study confirmed the basic functional dependences predicted although experimental results when available are preferred. With an appropriate gate setting Feynman-Y analysis provides an alternative to shift register analysis for safeguards applications which is opening up new avenues of data collection and data reduction to explore.

  5. Optimal gate-width setting for passive neutrons multiplicity counting

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    When setting up a passive neutron coincidence counter it is natural to ask what coincidence gate settings should be used to optimize the counting precision. If the gate width is too short then signal is lost and the precision is compromised because in a given period only a few coincidence events will be observed. On the other hand if the gate is too large the signal will be maximized but it will also be compromised by the high level of random pile-up or Accidental coincidence events which must be subtracted. In the case of shift register electronics connected to an assay chamber with an exponential dieaway profile operating in the regime where the Accidentals rate dominates the Reals coincidence rate but where dead-time is not a concern, simple arguments allow one to show that the relative precision on the net Reals rate is minimized when the coincidence gate is set to about 1.2 times the lie dieaway time of the system. In this work we show that making the same assumptions it is easy to show that the relative precision on the Triples rates is also at a minimum when the relative precision of the Doubles (or Reals) is at a minimum. Although the analysis is straightforward to our knowledge such a discussion has not been documented in the literature before. Actual measurement systems do not always behave in the ideal we choose to model them. Fortunately however the variation in the relative precision as a function of gate width is rather flat for traditional safeguards counters and so the performance is somewhat forgiving of the exact choice. The derivation further serves to delineate the important parameters which determine the relative counting precision of the Doubles and Triples rates under the regime considered. To illustrate the similarities and differences we consider the relative standard deviation that might be anticipated for a passive correlation count of an axial section of a spent nuclear fuel assembly under practically achievable conditions.

  6. Geographical Variablity of the Width of the Tropical Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currey, B.

    2014-12-01

    A number of recent studies have found evidence for a widening of the earth's tropical belt (Seidel et al). Most studies focus on the annual mean zonal mean tropical belt width. The purpose of this research, however, is to determine the longitudinal variability of the width of the tropical belt. We study how well defined the boundaries of the tropical belt are in both hemispheres as a function of longitude as well as season. The sharpness of the tropical boundaries as a function of longitude can provide information, which is otherwise hidden in the more commonly studied zonal averages. Localized widening of the tropical belt is expected to have a bigger climatic impact for a very sharp tropical boundary encompassing a drastic distinction between the climates of the tropics versus the subtropics. An improved understanding of the morphology of the tropical belt can help us determine any changes regarding these regions surrounding the edges of the tropics. By locating the subtropical tropopause break, a region where the tropopauses' altitude drastically shifts, the boundaries of the tropical belt can be observed. By finding the gradient of the tropopause break, we can determine the sharpness of the tropical boundaries. It was found that during each hemisphere's respective summer season the tropical belt edge over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans can display a tendency to be very fickle and thus poorly defined. For all times of the year, however, it is shown that the tropopause break in each hemisphere's respective winter and over land has the tendency to create a well-defined and sharp tropical edge.

  7. Experimental and theoretical electron density distribution of alpha,alpha-trehalose dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Edwin D; Dowd, Michael K; Johnson, Glenn P; French, Alfred D

    2010-07-01

    alpha,alpha-Trehalose is of interest because of its cryoprotective and antidessicant properties, and because it possesses various technical anomalies such as (13)C NMR spectra that give misleading indications of intramolecular structural symmetry. It is a non-reducing disaccharide, with the glycosidic oxygen atom shared by the anomeric carbon atoms of the two glucose rings, and is therefore subject to a proposed 'overlapping'exo-anomeric effect. We report here a study of the electron density of trehalose with X-ray diffraction and quantum mechanics calculations, similar to a recent study of sucrose, also a non-reducing molecule. In particular we studied the electron density around the glycosidic linkage and the hydrogen bonding with both deformation density and Atoms in Molecules (AIM) analyses. A total of 129,952 single crystal X-ray intensity measurements were collected on alpha,alpha-trehalose dihydrate to a resolution of sintheta/lambda=1.18A(-1) at 100K and refined with an aspherical multipole model to a final agreement factor of R(1)=0.0160. Wavefunctions were calculated at three levels of theory. Redistribution of electron density due to anomeric effects was reduced in trehalose, compared to sucrose. Five new C-Hcdots, three dots, centeredO hydrogen bonds were confirmed with bond critical points and bond paths from AIM analyses, as were the previously proposed O-Hcdots, three dots, centeredO hydrogen bonds. PMID:20381017

  8. AN ATLAS OF z = 5.7 AND z = 6.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Trouille, L. E-mail: cowie@ifa.hawaii.ed E-mail: trouille@astro.wisc.ed E-mail: kakazu@astro.caltech.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present an atlas of 88 z {approx} 5.7 and 30 z {approx} 6.5 Ly{alpha} emitters obtained from a wide-field narrowband survey. We combined deep narrowband imaging in 120 A bandpass filters centered at 8150 A and 9140 A with deep BVRIz broadband imaging to select high-redshift galaxy candidates over an area of 4180 arcmin{sup 2}. The goal was to obtain a uniform selection of comparable depth over the seven targeted fields in the two filters. For the GOODS-North region of the Hubble Deep Field-North field, we also selected candidates using a 120 A filter centered at 9210 A. We made spectroscopic observations with Keck DEIMOS of nearly all the candidates to obtain the final sample of Ly{alpha} emitters. At the 3.3 A resolution of the DEIMOS observations the asymmetric profile for Ly{alpha} emission can be clearly seen in the spectra of nearly all the galaxies. We show that the spectral profiles are surprisingly similar for many of the galaxies and that the composite spectral profiles are nearly identical at z = 5.7 and z = 6.5. We analyze the distributions of line widths and Ly{alpha} equivalent widths and find that the lines are marginally narrower at the higher redshift, with median values of 0.77 A at z = 6.5 and 0.92 A at z = 5.7. The line widths have a dependence on the Ly{alpha} luminosity of the form {approx}L {sup 0.3}{sub {alpha}}. We compare the surface densities and the luminosity functions at the two redshifts and find that there is a multiplicative factor of two decrease in the number density of bright Ly{alpha} emitters from z = 5.7 to z = 6.5, while the characteristic luminosity is unchanged.

  9. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    SciTech Connect

    d'Enterria, David; Skands, Peter Z.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  10. Adaptive step-size algorithm for Fourier beam-propagation method with absorbing boundary layer of auto-determined width

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Learn, R.; Feigenbaum, E.

    2016-05-27

    Two algorithms that enhance the utility of the absorbing boundary layer are presented, mainly in the framework of the Fourier beam-propagation method. One is an automated boundary layer width selector that chooses a near-optimal boundary size based on the initial beam shape. Furthermore, the second algorithm adjusts the propagation step sizes based on the beam shape at the beginning of each step in order to reduce aliasing artifacts.

  11. Influence of the transition width on the magnetocaloric effect across the magnetostructural transition of Heusler alloys.

    PubMed

    Cugini, F; Porcari, G; Fabbrici, S; Albertini, F; Solzi, M

    2016-08-13

    We report a complete structural and magneto-thermodynamic characterization of four samples of the Heusler alloy Ni-Co-Mn-Ga-In, characterized by similar compositions, critical temperatures and high inverse magnetocaloric effect across their metamagnetic transformation, but different transition widths. The object of this study is precisely the sharpness of the martensitic transformation, which plays a key role in the effective use of materials and which has its origin in both intrinsic and extrinsic effects. The influence of the transition width on the magnetocaloric properties has been evaluated by exploiting a phenomenological model of the transformation built through geometrical considerations on the entropy versus temperature curves. A clear result is that a large temperature span of the transformation is unfavourable to the magnetocaloric performance of a material, reducing both isothermal entropy change and adiabatic temperature change obtainable in a given magnetic field and increasing the value of the maximum field needed to fully induce the transformation. The model, which is based on standard magnetometric and conventional calorimetric measurements, turns out to be a convenient tool for the determination of the optimum values of transformation temperature span in a trade-off between sheer performance and amplitude of the operating range of a material.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402934

  12. Influence of the transition width on the magnetocaloric effect across the magnetostructural transition of Heusler alloys.

    PubMed

    Cugini, F; Porcari, G; Fabbrici, S; Albertini, F; Solzi, M

    2016-08-13

    We report a complete structural and magneto-thermodynamic characterization of four samples of the Heusler alloy Ni-Co-Mn-Ga-In, characterized by similar compositions, critical temperatures and high inverse magnetocaloric effect across their metamagnetic transformation, but different transition widths. The object of this study is precisely the sharpness of the martensitic transformation, which plays a key role in the effective use of materials and which has its origin in both intrinsic and extrinsic effects. The influence of the transition width on the magnetocaloric properties has been evaluated by exploiting a phenomenological model of the transformation built through geometrical considerations on the entropy versus temperature curves. A clear result is that a large temperature span of the transformation is unfavourable to the magnetocaloric performance of a material, reducing both isothermal entropy change and adiabatic temperature change obtainable in a given magnetic field and increasing the value of the maximum field needed to fully induce the transformation. The model, which is based on standard magnetometric and conventional calorimetric measurements, turns out to be a convenient tool for the determination of the optimum values of transformation temperature span in a trade-off between sheer performance and amplitude of the operating range of a material.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  13. Distribution of total radiation widths for neutron resonances of Pt isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, P. E.; Bečvář, F.; Krtička, M.

    2015-05-01

    High quality neutron capture and transmission data were measured on isotopically enriched 192,194,195,196Pt and natural Pt samples at ORELA. R-matrix analysis of this data revealed resonance parameters for 159, 413, 423, 258, and 11 neutron resonances for neutron energies below 5.0, 16.0, 7.5, 16.0, and 5.0 keV for 192,194,195,196,198Pt+n, respectively. Earlier analysis of data on reduced neutron widths, Γ0n, showed that the distributions of Γ0n for 192,194Pt deviate significantly from the Porter-Thomas distribution (PTD) predicted by random matrix theory. In this contribution we report on preliminary results of the analysis of distribution of total radiation widths, Γγ, in 192,194,195,196Pt+n reactions. Comparison of experimental data with predictions made within the nuclear statistical model indicates that standard models of Photon Strength Functions (PSFs) and Nuclear Level Density predict Γγ distributions which are too narrow. We found that satisfactory agreement between experimental and simulated distributions can be obtained only by a strong suppression of the PSFs at low γ-ray energies and/or by violation of the usual assumption that primary transitions from neutron resonances follow the PTD. The shape of PSFs needed for reproduction of our Γγ data also nicely reproduces spectra from several (n,γ) experiments on the neighbor nuclide 198Au.

  14. How does floodplain width affect floodplain river ecology? A preliminary exploration using simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Mary E.; Parker, Gary; Dietrich, William E.; Sun, Adrian

    1995-09-01

    Hydraulic food chain models allow us to explore the linkages of river discharge regimes and river-floodplain morphology to the structure and dynamics of modeled food webs. Physical conditions (e.g. depth, width, velocity) that vary with river discharge affect the performance (birth, growth, feeding, movement, or death rates) of organisms or trophic groups. Their performances in turn affect their impacts on food webs and ecosystems in channel and floodplain habitats. Here we explore the impact of floodplain width (modeled as 1 ×, 10× and 40× the channel width) on a food web with two energy sources (detritus and vegetation), invertebrates that consume these, a size structured fish population which consumes invertebrates and in which larger fish cannibalize small fish, and birds which feed on large fish. Hydraulic linkages to trophic dynamics are assumed to be mediated in three ways: birds feed efficiently only in shallow water; plant carrying capacity varies non-linearly with water velocity, and mobile and drifting organisms are diluted and concentrated with spillover of river discharge to the floodplain, and its reconfinement to the channel. Aspects of this model are based on field observations of Junk and Bailey from the Amazon, of Sparks from the Mississippi, and on our observations of the Fly River in Papua New Guinea. The model produced several counter-intuitive results. Biomass of invertebrates and fish increased with floodplain width, but much more rapidly from 1 × to 10 × floodplains than from 10 × to 40 × floodplains. For birds, maximum biomass occurred on the 10× floodplain. Initially high bird biomass on the 40 × floodplain declined to extinction over time, because although favorable fishing conditions (shallow water) were most prolonged on the widest floodplain, this advantage was more than offset by the greater dilution of prey after spillover. Bird predation on large fish sometimes increased their biomass, by reducing cannibalism and thereby

  15. Device for uniform. cap alpha. irradiation of solid powders

    SciTech Connect

    Orlenev, P.O.; Mel'nikov, P.V.

    1988-08-01

    A device for uniform irradiation of solid powders by alpha particles is described. Uniformity of irradiation is achieved by regular stirring of the specimen on the surface of the alpha source. Polonium 210 serves as the alpha source. A method is described that reduces by a factor of approx. 3 the error in determination of the dose absorbed by a powdered specimen and eliminates irradiation nonuniformity. The effect of heterogeneity saturation on measurements of the radiation properties of the electron-hole centers was checked by study of the dose dependencies of Al/sup 3+/-O/sup -/ and D' centers in quartz.

  16. Repression of the murine interferon alpha 11 gene: identification of negatively acting sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Civas, A; Dion, M; Vodjdani, G; Doly, J

    1991-01-01

    The uninducible murine interferon alpha 11 gene (Mu IFN-alpha 11) shows strong homology with the highly inducible Mu IFN-alpha 4 gene in the promoter region. Negative regulatory sequences located between positions -470 and -145 were characterized in the Mu IFN-alpha 11 promoter. The removal of these sequences leads to virus-inducibility of Mu IFN-alpha 11 while their insertion in Mu IFN-alpha 4 corresponding region significantly reduced the inducibility of Mu IFN-alpha 4 promoter. On the other hand, the virus-responsive element (VRE) of the Mu IFN-alpha 11 differs by a single nucleotide substitution at position -78 from the VRE alpha 4. Constructions carrying either VRE alpha 11 or VRE alpha 4 upstream a heterologous promoter displayed different virus inducibilities. The -78 A/G substitution affects the inducibility by decreasing the affinity of VRE-binding trans-regulators. Our results suggest that the combined effect of the negative regulatory sequences and of the mutation in the VRE alpha 11, completely silences the Mu IFN-alpha 11 gene. PMID:1886773

  17. Expanding role of alpha adrenoceptor blockade in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R S

    1998-09-01

    This review analyses the expanding role of alpha adrenoceptor blockers in the treatment of BPH and examines the rationale for their use. The safety and efficacy of currently available alpha adrenoceptor blockers is reviewed, with emphasis on the most extensively studied agent, doxazosin. Like other alpha adrenoceptor blockers, doxazosin improves both symptoms of BPH and urinary flow rates by a statistically significant effect compared with placebo. Doxazosin also significantly reduces blood pressure in the 30% of BPH sufferers who also have hypertension; furthermore, there is a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism, which may translate into a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. It is concluded that existing alpha adrenoceptor blockers constitute a valuable adjunct to other BPH therapies, and further refinement of alpha adrenoceptor selectivity based on the alpha-1A subtype in the near future promises even better targeted alpha blockade.

  18. Role of intrinsic width in fragment momentum distributions in heavy ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Townsend, L W; Khan, F

    1994-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the intrinsic widths incorporating correlations in conjunction with dynamical contributions give better agreement with experiments for collisions in the energy range of 200A MeV to 2A GeV than using only intrinsic widths without correlations. The sensitivity of the intrinsic width decreases with increasing projectile mass. A simple recipe for calculating intrinsic width with correlations is presented.

  19. Proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, Peter K; Bønsager, Birgit C

    2004-02-12

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous alpha-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological approaches have been outlined for exploitation of the inhibitory function. PMID:14871655

  20. Cultured Ito cells of rat liver express the alpha 2-macroglobulin gene.

    PubMed

    Andus, T; Ramadori, G; Heinrich, P C; Knittel, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1987-11-01

    Ito cells were isolated from rat liver and kept in culture for up to 13 days. The capability of the Ito cells to synthesize alpha 2-macroglobulin was analyzed at different times after isolation and by pulse-chase experiments. Newly synthesized alpha 2-macroglobulin was determined by immunoprecipitation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. alpha 2-Macroglobulin synthesis was hardly detectable in Ito cells and their media 3 days after plating. However, 5-11 days after the isolation of the cells, increasing amounts of alpha 2-macroglobulin were synthesized. The results of pulse-chase experiments performed on day 7 showed that radioactively labeled alpha 2-macroglobulin decreased in the intracellular compartment and increased in the culture medium. alpha 2-Macroglobulin was identified by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions. Furthermore, when unlabeled alpha 2-macroglobulin was added during the immunoprecipitation, a competition was observed. Incubation of pancreatic elastase with culture medium of rat Ito cells or rat hepatocytes led to the same cleavage products as found with alpha 2-macroglobulin. alpha 2-Macroglobulin-specific mRNA could be demonstrated by Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from rat Ito cells. Under the conditions where alpha 2-macroglobulin was synthesized in Ito cells, no synthesis of alpha 1-macroglobulin, alpha 1-inhibitor 3, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-acute-phase globulin (T-kininogen) and albumin could be demonstrated. It is concluded that alpha 2-macroglobulin is a true secretory protein of rat Ito cells in culture. This could be of importance for collagen metabolism in liver diseases. PMID:2444437

  1. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  2. Lorentz violation and {alpha} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Relating the effective Lorentz violation coefficients for composite particles to the coefficients for their constituent fields is a challenging problem. We calculate the Lorentz violation coefficients relevant to the dynamics of an {alpha} particle in terms of proton and neutron coefficients. The {alpha}-particle coefficients would lead to anisotropies in the {alpha} decays of nuclei, and because the decay process involves quantum tunneling, the effects of any Lorentz violations could be exponentially enhanced.

  3. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  4. ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions...

  5. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  6. Pharmacology of alpha-adrenoceptors in male sexual function.

    PubMed

    Rampin, O

    1999-01-01

    Data issued from morphological and physiological experiments suggests that the noradrenergic system, through ascending pathways to the brain and descending pathways to the spinal cord, may regulate male sexual functions. Adrenoceptors have been shown to be present in the brain and spinal cord of animals and humans. The activity of spinal preganglionic neurons is modulated by noradrenaline. Pharmacological approaches aiming at selectively targeting alpha1- or alpha2-adrenoceptors have been conducted in patients with erectile dysfunction or in monkeys and rats in a variety of tests. Briefly, conclusions arising from these studies are: activation of alpha1-adrenoceptors facilitates copulation, where activation of alpha2-adrenoceptors inhibits copulation. alpha2-adrenoceptors antagonists like yohimbine facilitate sexual behavior, reducing ejaculation latency in male rats and increasing their sexual motivation. Furthermore, yohimbine induces copulation in rats either castrated or sexually naive. In contrast, activation of alpha1-adrenoceptors depresses sexual responses in another context, i.e. reflexive erections. Activation of alpha2-adrenoceptors activates reflexive erections in rats, and alpha2-adrenoceptors antagonists (yohimbine) inhibit them. Today's challenge is to separate the effects of any drug acting at the level of the alpha-adrenoceptors on the central vs. peripheral control of sexual functions, on the brain vs. spinal cord control of the same functions, and the search for any specialization of alpha-adrenoceptors subtypes in a given sexual function. Treatment of sexual dysfunctions in man (e.g. ejaculation) focusing on the spinal cord as a pharmacological target should also be expanded. Finally, considering the similarities between neural networks controlling male and female sexual functions, the treatment of female sexual dysfunction with comparable pharmacological approaches should be evaluated. PMID:10393482

  7. A 200 MHz-to-1.4 GHz fast-locking pulse width control loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrishamifar, Adib; Navidi, Mir Mohammad; Karimi, Yasha

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we propose a wide frequency range low lock time pulse width control loop (PWCL) circuit. The control stage of the PWCL with proposed frequency selection block can increase its output charge/discharge current at high frequency clocks. Therefore, narrow pulses can be generated at the output of this stage, which leads to the enhancement of the frequency range. Lock time of the circuit is also reduced, owing to the use of optimised second-order passive lead-lag loop filters instead of conventional loop filters. A 0.18-µm CMOS technology and 1.8-V supply voltage are used to verify the operation of the circuit. The simulation results show that the acceptable frequency range is from 200 MHz to 1.4 GHz, while maximum lock time of the circuit at this frequency range is about 580 ns. The proposed PWCL consumes 1 mW of power at 1.4 GHz.

  8. Pair decay width of the Hoyle state and its role for stellar carbon production.

    PubMed

    Chernykh, M; Feldmeier, H; Neff, T; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Richter, A

    2010-07-01

    The pair decay width of the first excited 0+ state in 12C (the Hoyle state) is deduced from a novel analysis of the world data on inelastic electron scattering covering a wide momentum transfer range, thereby resolving previous discrepancies. The extracted value Γπ=(62.3±2.0) μeV is independently confirmed by new data at low momentum transfers measured at the S-DALINAC and reduces the uncertainty of the literature values by more than a factor of 3. A precise knowledge of Γπ is mandatory for quantitative studies of some key issues in the modeling of supernovae and of asymptotic giant branch stars, the most likely site of the slow-neutron nucleosynthesis process. PMID:20867703

  9. Widths of K¯-nuclear deeply bound states in a dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2005-01-01

    The relativistic mean field (RMF) model is applied to a system of nucleons and a Kbar meson, interacting via scalar and vector boson fields. The model incorporates the standard RMF phenomenology for bound nucleons and, for the Kbar meson, it relates to low-energy Kbar N and K- atom phenomenology. Deeply bound Kbar nuclear states are generated dynamically across the periodic table and are exhibited for 12C and 16O over a wide range of binding energies. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for these light nuclei. Absorption modes are also included dynamically, considering explicitly both the resulting compressed nuclear density and the reduced phase space for Kbar absorption from deeply bound states. The behavior of the calculated width as function of the Kbar binding energy is studied in order to explore limits on the possible existence of narrow Kbar nuclear states.

  10. A Novel Transcranial Magnetic Stimulator Inducing Near Rectangular Pulses with Controllable Pulse Width (cTMS)

    PubMed Central

    Jalinous, Reza; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device with controllable pulse width (PW) and near rectangular pulse shape (cTMS) is described. The cTMS device uses an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with appropriate snubbers to switch coil currents up to 7 kA, enabling PW control from 5 μs to over 100 μs. The near-rectangular induced electric field pulses use 22–34% less energy and generate 67–72% less coil heating compared to matched conventional cosine pulses. CTMS is used to stimulate rhesus monkey motor cortex in vivo with PWs of 20 to 100 μs, demonstrating the expected decrease of threshold pulse amplitude with increasing PW. The technological solutions used in the cTMS prototype can expand functionality, and reduce power consumption and coil heating in TMS, enhancing its research and therapeutic applications. PMID:18232369

  11. Coupling Between Microstrip Lines With Finite Width Ground Plane Embedded in Thin Film Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Dalton, Edan; Tentzeris, Manos M.; Papapolymerou, John

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) interconnects built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing 3D circuits on CMOS (low resistivity) Si wafers, GaAs, and ceramic substrates. Thin film microstrip lines (TFMS) with finite width ground planes embedded in the polyimide are often used. However, the closely spaced TFMS lines a r e susceptible to high levels of coupling, which degrades circuit performance. In this paper, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis and experimental measurements a r e used to show that the ground planes must be connected by via holes to reduce coupling in both the forward and backward directions. Furthermore, it is shown that coupled microstrip lines establish a slotline type mode between the two ground planes and a dielectric waveguide type mode, and that the via holes recommended here eliminate these two modes.

  12. Segmentation and determination of joint space width in foot radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, O.; de Muinck Keizer, D. M.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Slump, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis is frequently assessed using radiographs of hands and feet. Evaluation includes measurements of the joint space width (JSW) and detection of erosions. Current visual scoring methods are timeconsuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Automated measurement methods avoid these limitations and have been fairly successful in hand radiographs. This contribution aims at foot radiographs. Starting from an earlier proposed automated segmentation method we have developed a novel model based image analysis algorithm for JSW measurements. This method uses active appearance and active shape models to identify individual bones. The model compiles ten submodels, each representing a specific bone of the foot (metatarsals 1-5, proximal phalanges 1-5). We have performed segmentation experiments using 24 foot radiographs, randomly selected from a large database from the rheumatology department of a local hospital: 10 for training and 14 for testing. Segmentation was considered successful if the joint locations are correctly determined. Segmentation was successful in only 14%. To improve results a step-by-step analysis will be performed. We performed JSW measurements on 14 randomly selected radiographs. JSW was successfully measured in 75%, mean and standard deviation are 2.30+/-0.36mm. This is a first step towards automated determination of progression of RA and therapy response in feet using radiographs.

  13. Study on the metastable zone width of ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying Hong; Ching, Chi Bun

    2006-05-01

    With increasing awareness for the need of pure enantiomer drugs, strong emphasis has been focused on the research of chiral drug separation. Compared with other separation methods, crystallization is a simple and economical method, and the metastable zone width (MSZW) is a very important factor for the entire crystallization process. In this paper, the effects of the metastable zones of (R,S)- and (S)-ketoprofen and a 0.94 mole fraction of (S)-ketoprofen in order to enhance the MSZW were studied. Four main factors were studied, namely, temperature, cooling rate, stirring rate, and volume ratio of mixed solvent (water/ethanol). Through the L9 fractional experiment design, it was observed that all samples' MSZWs would increase with an increase in cooling rate and decrease with an increase in the ethanol volume ratio and temperature. The ethanol ratio may have the strongest effect on the process and can greatly enhance the metastable zone, and the other three factors influence the MSZW only slightly. In conclusion, the these four factors for enhancing MSZW have been optimized: water-to-ethanol volume ratio, 1:0.6; temperature, 20 degrees C; stirring rate, 700 rpm; and cooling rate, 12.0 degrees C/h. All of these results will be helpful for the following chiral separation of ketoprofen by crystallization. PMID:16521089

  14. Exotic vector charmonium and its leptonic decay width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Chiu, Wei-Feng; Gong, Ming; Gui, Long-Cheng; Liu, Zhao-Feng

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel type of interpolating field operator, which manifests the hybrid-like configuration that the charm quark-antiquark pair recoils against gluonic degrees of freedom. A heavy vector charmonium-like state with a mass of 4.33(2),GeV is disentangled from the conventional charmonium states in the quenched approximation. This state has affinity for the hybrid-like operators but couples less to the relevant quark bilinear operator. We also try to extract its leptonic decay constant and give a tentative upper limit that it is less than one tenth of that of J/ψ, which corresponds to a leptonic decay width about dozens of eV. The connection of this state with X(4260) is also discussed. The numerical calculations were carried out on Tianhe-1A at the National Supercomputer Center (NSCC) in Tianjin and the GPU cluster at Hunan Normal University. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11575196, 11575197, 11335001, 11405053), Y.C. and Z.L. also acknowledge the support of NSFC (11261130311) (CRC 110 by DFG and NSFC)

  15. Stance width influences frontal plane balance responses to centripetal accelerations.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Adam; Chandan, Aditi; Chase, Hannah; Foster, Elizabeth; Francoeur, Heather; Michaud, Jenna; Terry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Whenever the body is moving in a curvilinear path, inertial torques resulting from centripetal accelerations act on the body and must be counteracted to maintain stability. We tested the hypothesis that healthy subjects orient their center of mass in the position where gravitational torques offset the inertial torques due to centripetal accelerations. Ten healthy subjects stood on a platform that rotated in a circle at either a slow or fast speed, eyes open or closed, and in narrow or wide stance. Upper body, lower body, and center of mass (CoM) tilt with respect to vertical were measured and averaged across a 40 second time period of constant velocity. Body tilt was compared to the gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) angle with respect to vertical. In all moving conditions, the upper body, lower body, and CoM tilted inward. However, this inward tilt did not reach the predicted GIA angle (CoM tilt was ~78% and 39% toward the predicted GIA angle in narrow and wide stance, respectively). Ratios of body tilt to GIA angle were minimally influenced by visual availability and magnitude of centripetal acceleration; but were largely influenced by stance width whereby narrow stance inward tilt was greater than wide stance. These results further highlight the important influence of the base of support on balance control strategies and enhance our understanding of how the balance control system compensates for inertial torques generated from centripetal accelerations.

  16. Measurement of effective sheath width around cutoff probe in low-pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y.; You, S. J. Kim, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.

    2014-05-15

    Previous studies indicated that the measurement results of microwave probes can be improved by applying the adequate sheath width to their measurement models, and consequently the sheath width around the microwave probe tips has become very important information for microwave probe diagnostics. In this paper, we propose a method for measuring the argon plasma sheath width around the cutoff probe tips by applying the circuit model to the cutoff probe phase spectrum. The measured sheath width of the cutoff probe was found to be in good agreement with the floated sheath width calculated from the Child-Langmuir sheath law. The physical reasons for a discrepancy between the two measurements are also discussed.

  17. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Feng; Nan, Wenya; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the brain activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity can predict the learning ability in alpha neurofeedback. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback and the learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback. PMID:25071528

  18. Calculations of {alpha}-decay half-lives for heavy and superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Yibin; Ni Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2011-04-15

    Systematic calculations on the {alpha}-decay half-lives of heavy and superheavy nuclei are performed within a deformed version of the cluster model, using the modified two-potential approach. The deformed Woods-Saxon potential is employed to calculate the {alpha}-decay width through a deformed barrier. For comparison the calculated {alpha}-decay half-lives in the empirical relations are also presented. The present study is initially restricted to even-even nuclei in the heavy mass region with N>126. Then the study is extended to the recently observed heaviest nuclei, including synthesized superheavy elements and isotopes. The {alpha}-decay half-lives obtained are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Resolution limitations from detector pulse width and jitter in a linear orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Coles, J N; Guilhaus, M

    1994-08-01

    Recent and ongoing advances in timing electronics together with the development of ionization techniques suited to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) have contributed to renewed interest in this method of mass analysis. Whereas low resolving powers (m/†m < 500) were once an almost unavoidable drawback in TOF-MS, recent developments in instrument geometries have produced much higher resolving powers for many ion sources. The temporal width of detector pulses and jitter in timing electronics, however, lead to contributions to peak widths that are essentially independent of the mass-analyzer ion optics. The effective detector pulse width (†t d ≈ 1-10 ns typically) can be a limiting factor in the development of high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) instruments with modest drift lengths (∼1 m), It also reduces the mass resolution more seriously for light ions. This article presents a method for distinguishing the instrumental "ion arrival-time" resolution (R o) of a linear TOF mass analyzer from that which is locally measured at a particular mass, limited by the broadening of the detector pulse width and electronics. The method also provides an estimate of †t d, that is useful in determining the temporal performance of the detection system. The model developed here is tested with data from a recently constructed orthogonal-acceleration TOF mass spectrometer equipped with a commercially available transient recorder (a LeCroy 400-Msamplejs digital oscilloscope) from which we obtained R o = 4240 ± 100 [full width at half maximum (FWHM)) and †t d = 3.0 ± 0.1 ns (FWHM).

  20. Estimating the safety effects of lane widths on urban streets in Nebraska using the propensity scores-potential outcomes framework.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jonathan S; Gooch, Jeffrey P; Donnell, Eric T

    2015-09-01

    A sufficient understanding of the safety impact of lane widths in urban areas is necessary to produce geometric designs that optimize safety performance for all users. The overarching trend found in the research literature is that as lane widths narrow, crash frequency increases. However, this trend is inconsistent and is the result of multiple cross-sectional studies that have issues related to lack of control for potential confounding variables, unobserved heterogeneity or omitted variable bias, or endogeneity among independent variables, among others. Using ten years of mid-block crash data on urban arterials and collectors from four cities in Nebraska, crash modification factors (CMFs) were estimated for various lane widths and crash types. These CMFs were developed using the propensity scores-potential outcomes methodology. This method reduces many of the issues associated with cross-sectional regression models when estimating the safety effects of infrastructure-related design features. Generalized boosting, a non-parametric modeling technique, was used to estimate the propensity scores. Matching was performed using both Nearest Neighbor and Mahalanobis matching techniques. CMF estimation was done using mixed-effects negative binomial or Poisson regression with the matched data. Lane widths included in the analysis included 9ft, 10ft, 11ft, and 12ft. Some of the estimated CMFs were point estimates while others were functions of traffic volume (i.e., the CMF changed depending on the traffic volume). Roadways with 10ft travel lanes were found to experience the highest crash frequency relative to other lane widths. Meanwhile, roads with 9ft travel lanes were found to experience the lowest relative crash frequency. While this may be due to increased driver caution when traveling on narrow lanes, it is possible that unobserved factors influenced this result. CMFs for target crash types (sideswipe same-direction and sideswipe opposite-direction) were consistent

  1. Estimating the safety effects of lane widths on urban streets in Nebraska using the propensity scores-potential outcomes framework.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jonathan S; Gooch, Jeffrey P; Donnell, Eric T

    2015-09-01

    A sufficient understanding of the safety impact of lane widths in urban areas is necessary to produce geometric designs that optimize safety performance for all users. The overarching trend found in the research literature is that as lane widths narrow, crash frequency increases. However, this trend is inconsistent and is the result of multiple cross-sectional studies that have issues related to lack of control for potential confounding variables, unobserved heterogeneity or omitted variable bias, or endogeneity among independent variables, among others. Using ten years of mid-block crash data on urban arterials and collectors from four cities in Nebraska, crash modification factors (CMFs) were estimated for various lane widths and crash types. These CMFs were developed using the propensity scores-potential outcomes methodology. This method reduces many of the issues associated with cross-sectional regression models when estimating the safety effects of infrastructure-related design features. Generalized boosting, a non-parametric modeling technique, was used to estimate the propensity scores. Matching was performed using both Nearest Neighbor and Mahalanobis matching techniques. CMF estimation was done using mixed-effects negative binomial or Poisson regression with the matched data. Lane widths included in the analysis included 9ft, 10ft, 11ft, and 12ft. Some of the estimated CMFs were point estimates while others were functions of traffic volume (i.e., the CMF changed depending on the traffic volume). Roadways with 10ft travel lanes were found to experience the highest crash frequency relative to other lane widths. Meanwhile, roads with 9ft travel lanes were found to experience the lowest relative crash frequency. While this may be due to increased driver caution when traveling on narrow lanes, it is possible that unobserved factors influenced this result. CMFs for target crash types (sideswipe same-direction and sideswipe opposite-direction) were consistent

  2. Tidal stress in Enceladus' ice shell: dependence on the internal ocean width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behounkova, M.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.

    2013-12-01

    The eruptions of water vapor and ice particles on Enceladus' south pole together with huge heat production suggest the presence of a strong source of energy within Enceladus' interior. The abnormal endogenic power is most likely the consequence of strong tidal dissipation along the ridges and within the ice shell. Here, we study tidal stress associated to tidal flexing in Enceladus' ice shell for simulations described in Behounkova et al. (2013). In these simulations, we have investigated the conditions for the initiation of convection by systematically varying the orbital parameters (eccentricity), ice grain size and width of an internal ocean (D). For the current eccentricity and global ocean (D=360deg), our results show maximum tidal stress is approximately equal to 0.1MPa. For regional oceans of 120deg and 180deg, the maximum tidal stress is reduced by a factor of ~2.2 and ~1.3, respectively. Maximum tidal stresses differ less than 5% for internal oceans covering more than the southern hemisphere (D>180deg). Moreover, tidal stress patterns vary significantly with the ocean width. Whereas the tidal stresses above the rock interface are high even for areas without internal ocean, a considerable stress decrease is observed toward the surface above areas with no internal ocean. This effect is especially pronounced for cases with small internal ocean (D=<120 deg). The maximum tidal stress scales with eccentricity as expected and the tidal stress changes during onset of convection are rather low. Additionally, we will discuss the effect of rheological model (Maxwell vs. Andrade) on the tidal stress pattern and the heating distribution, as well as the possible effect of reduced viscosity in the active south polar terrain.

  3. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics magnetic spectrometer designed to measure electrons, positrons, gamma rays and various nuclei and anti-nuclei from the cosmos up to TeV energy ranges. AMS weighs 7.5 tons and measures 5 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters. It contains 300,000 channels of electronics and 650 onboard microprocessors. It was delivered to the International Space Station onboard space shuttle Endeavour and installed on May 19, 2011. Since that time, more than 14 billion cosmic ray events have been collected. All the detectors function properly. At this moment, we are actively engaged in data analysis. AMS is an international collaboration involving 16 countries and 60 institutes. It took 16 years to construct and test. AMS is the only major physical science experiment on the International Space Station and will continue to collect data over the entire lifetime of the Space Station (10-20 years).

  4. Microscopic cluster model of {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, {alpha}+ {sup 3}He, and {alpha}+{alpha} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.

    2011-07-15

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {alpha}+{alpha} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.

  5. A theoretical analysis of river bars stability under changing channel width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, S.; Zolezzi, G.; Tubino, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new theoretical model to investigate the influence of temporal changes in channel width on river bar stability. This is achieved by performing a nonlinear stability analysis, which includes temporal width variations as a small-amplitude perturbation of the basic flow. In order to quantify width variability, channel width is related with the instantaneous discharge using existing empirical formulae proposed for channels with cohesionless banks. Therefore, width can vary (increase and/or decrease) either because it adapts to the temporally varying discharge or, if discharge is constant, through a relaxation relation describing widening of an initially overnarrow channel towards the equilibrium width. Unsteadiness related with changes in channel width is found to directly affect the instantaneous bar growth rate, depending on the conditions under which the widening process occurs. The governing mathematical system is solved by means of a two-parameters (ɛ, δ) perturbation expansion, where ɛ is related to bar amplitude and δ to the temporal width variability. In general width unsteadiness is predicted to play a destabilizing role on free bar stability, namely during the peak stage of a flood event in a laterally unconfined channel and invariably for overnarrow channels fed with steady discharge. In this latter case, width unsteadiness tends to shorten the most unstable bar wavelength compared to the case with constant width, in qualitative agreement with existing experimental observations.

  6. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES WITH VERY SMALL BROADLINE WIDTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Y. L.; Zhou, H. Y.; Wang, T. G.; Zhang, S. H. E-mail: wmy@nao.cas.cn

    2011-01-20

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) with very small broadline widths (say, FWHM(H{beta}) {approx}<1200 km s{sup -1}) represent the extreme type of Seyfert 1 galaxies that have small black hole masses (M{sub BH}) and/or high Eddington ratios (L/L{sub Edd}). Here, we study the X-ray properties of a homogeneously and optically selected sample of 13 such objects, termed as very narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies, using archival XMM-Newton data. It is found that the Fe K{alpha} emission line is at most weak in these objects. A soft X-ray excess is ubiquitous, with the thermal temperatures falling within a strict range of 0.1-0.2 keV. Our result highlights the puzzling independence of the thermal temperature by extending the relations to even smaller FWHM(H{beta}), i.e., smaller M{sub BH} ({approx}10{sup 6} M{sub sun}) and/or higher L/L{sub Edd}. The excess emission can be modeled by a range of viable models, though the disk reflection and Comptonization models generally give somewhat better fits over the smeared absorption and the p-free models. At the Eddington ratios around unity and above, the X-ray spectral slopes in the 2-10 keV band are systematically flatter than the predictions of the relationship with L/L{sub Edd} suggested previously. Short timescale (1-2 hr) X-ray variability is common, which, together with the variability amplitude computed for some of the objects, is supportive of the scenario that NLS1s are indeed active galactic nuclei with relatively small M{sub BH}.

  7. Measurement of effective sheath width around the cutoff probe based on electromagnetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. W.; You, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.; Yoon, J.-S.; Oh, W. Y.

    2016-05-01

    We inferred the effective sheath width using the cutoff probe and incorporating a full-wave three-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) simulation. The EM simulation reproduced the experimentally obtained plasma-sheath resonance (PSR) on the microwave transmission (S21) spectrum well. The PSR frequency has a one-to-one correspondence with the width of the vacuum layer assumed to be the effective sheath in the EM simulation model. The sheath width was estimated by matching the S21 spectra of the experiment and the EM simulation for different widths of the sheath. We found that the inferred sheath widths quantitatively and qualitatively agree with the sheath width measured by incorporating an equivalent circuit model. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of the cutoff probe for inferring the effective sheath width from its experimental spectrum data.

  8. Isocholic acid formation from 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid with human liver enzyme.

    PubMed

    Amuro, Y; Yamade, W; Yamamoto, T; Kudo, K; Fujikura, M; Maebo, A; Hada, T; Higashino, K

    1986-12-01

    The formation of isocholic acid from 7 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid by human liver preparations was examined in vitro. Liver preparations were incubated with 7 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid at pH 7.4 in a phosphate buffer containing NADPH or NADH. The products formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid was reduced mainly to isocholic acid and to cholic acid in a smaller amount in the presence of NADPH, while it was reduced only to cholic acid in the presence of NADH. The reducing enzyme participating in the formation of isocholic acid was localized largely in the cytosol and had more specificity to the unconjugated form as substrate than to the conjugated forms. 3-Keto bile acid analogues, 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic and 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acids were not reduced to the corresponding iso-bile acids by the cytosol in the same conditions used in the isocholic acid formation and the activity of the enzyme catalyzing the reduction of 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid to isocholic acid was not inhibited by the addition of 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid or 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid to the reaction mixture. Furthermore, on column chromatography of Affi-Gel Blue, the peak of the enzyme catalyzing the reduction of 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid to isocholic acid was clearly distinguished from that of the enzyme catalyzing the reduction of 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid to isolithocholic acid and that of alcohol dehydrogenase. These results indicate that this enzyme catalyzing the reduction of 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid to isocholic acid is different from the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reduction 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic and 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acids to the corresponding iso-bile acids

  9. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Membrane remodeling, an early event in benzo[alpha]pyrene-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tekpli, Xavier; Rissel, Mary; Huc, Laurence; Catheline, Daniel; Sergent, Odile; Rioux, Vincent; Legrand, Philippe; Holme, Jorn A.; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Therese; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2010-02-15

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) often serves as a model for mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our previous work suggested a role of membrane fluidity in B[alpha]P-induced apoptotic process. In this study, we report that B[alpha]P modifies the composition of cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts) in rat liver F258 epithelial cells. The cellular distribution of the ganglioside-GM1 was markedly changed following B[alpha]P exposure. B[alpha]P also modified fatty acid composition and decreased the cholesterol content of cholesterol-rich microdomains. B[alpha]P-induced depletion of cholesterol in lipid rafts was linked to a reduced expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and B[alpha]P-related H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation were involved in the reduced expression of HMG-CoA reductase and in the remodeling of membrane microdomains. The B[alpha]P-induced membrane remodeling resulted in an intracellular alkalinization observed during the early phase of apoptosis. In conclusion, B[alpha]P altered the composition of plasma membrane microstructures through AhR and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dependent-regulation of lipid biosynthesis. In F258 cells, the B[alpha]P-induced membrane remodeling was identified as an early apoptotic event leading to an intracellular alkalinization.

  11. THE FORMATION OF THE H{alpha} LINE IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2012-04-20

    We use state-of-the-art radiation-MHD simulations and three-dimensional (3D) non-LTE radiative transfer computations to investigate H{alpha} line formation in the solar chromosphere and apply the results of this investigation to develop the potential of H{alpha} as a diagnostic of the chromosphere. We show that one can accurately model H{alpha} line formation assuming statistical equilibrium and complete frequency redistribution provided the computation of the model atmosphere included non-equilibrium ionization of hydrogen and the Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} line profiles are described by Doppler profiles. We find that 3D radiative transfer is essential in modeling hydrogen lines due to the low photon destruction probability in H{alpha}. The H{alpha} opacity in the upper chromosphere is mainly sensitive to the mass density and only weakly sensitive to the temperature. We find that the H{alpha} line-core intensity is correlated with the average formation height: The larger the average formation height is, the lower the intensity will be. The line-core width is a measure of the gas temperature in the line-forming region. The fibril-like dark structures seen in H{alpha} line-core images computed from our model atmosphere are tracing magnetic field lines. These structures are caused by field-aligned ridges of enhanced chromospheric mass density that raise their average formation height, and therefore make them appear dark against their deeper-formed surroundings. We compare with observations, and find that the simulated line-core widths are very similar to the observed ones, without the need for additional microturbulence.

  12. Voigt equivalent widths and spectral-bin single-line transmittances: Exact expansions and the MODTRAN®5 implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Exact expansions for Voigt line-shape total, line-tail and spectral bin equivalent widths and for Voigt finite spectral bin single-line transmittances have been derived in terms of optical depth dependent exponentially-scaled modified Bessel functions of integer order and optical depth independent Fourier integral coefficients. The series are convergent for the full range of Voigt line-shapes, from pure Doppler to pure Lorentzian. In the Lorentz limit, the expansion reduces to the Ladenburg and Reiche function for the total equivalent width. Analytic expressions are derived for the first 8 Fourier coefficients for pure Lorentzian lines, for pure Doppler lines and for Voigt lines with at most moderate Doppler dependence. A strong-line limit sum rule on the Fourier coefficients is enforced to define an additional Fourier coefficient and to optimize convergence of the truncated expansion. The moderate Doppler dependence scenario is applicable to and has been implemented in the MODTRAN5 atmospheric band model radiative transfer software. Finite-bin transmittances computed with the truncated expansions reduce transmittance residuals compared to the former Rodgers-Williams equivalent width based approach by ∼2 orders of magnitude.

  13. Bundling of actin filaments by elongation factor 1 alpha inhibits polymerization at filament ends

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1 alpha) is an abundant protein that binds aminoacyl-tRNA and ribosomes in a GTP-dependent manner. EF1 alpha also interacts with the cytoskeleton by binding and bundling actin filaments and microtubules. In this report, the effect of purified EF1 alpha on actin polymerization and depolymerization is examined. At molar ratios present in the cytosol, EF1 alpha significantly blocks both polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments and increases the final extent of actin polymer, while at high molar ratios to actin, EF1 alpha nucleates actin polymerization. Although EF1 alpha binds actin monomer, this monomer-binding activity does not explain the effects of EF1 alpha on actin polymerization at physiological molar ratios. The mechanism for the inhibition of polymerization is related to the actin-bundling activity of EF1 alpha. Both ends of the actin filament are inhibited for polymerization and both bundling and the inhibition of actin polymerization are affected by pH within the same physiological range; at high pH both bundling and the inhibition of actin polymerization are reduced. Additionally, it is seen that the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to EF1 alpha releases EF1 alpha's inhibiting effect on actin polymerization. These data demonstrate that EF1 alpha can alter the assembly of F-actin, a filamentous scaffold on which non- membrane-associated protein translation may be occurring in vivo. PMID:8947553

  14. Retinoic acid receptor alpha is associated with tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Henrik J.; Sanchez, Betzabe C.; Mundt, Filip; Forshed, Jenny; Kovacs, Aniko; Panizza, Elena; Hultin-Rosenberg, Lina; Lundgren, Bo; Martens, Ulf; Máthé, Gyöngyvér; Yakhini, Zohar; Helou, Khalil; Krawiec, Kamilla; Kanter, Lena; Hjerpe, Anders; Stål, Olle; Linderholm, Barbro K.; Lehtiö, Janne

    2013-01-01

    About one-third of oestrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen relapse. Here we identify the nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor alpha as a marker of tamoxifen resistance. Using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we show that retinoic acid receptor alpha protein networks and levels differ in a tamoxifen-sensitive (MCF7) and a tamoxifen-resistant (LCC2) cell line. High intratumoural retinoic acid receptor alpha protein levels also correlate with reduced relapse-free survival in oestrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen solely. A similar retinoic acid receptor alpha expression pattern is seen in a comparable independent patient cohort. An oestrogen receptor alpha and retinoic acid receptor alpha ligand screening reveals that tamoxifen-resistant LCC2 cells have increased sensitivity to retinoic acid receptor alpha ligands and are less sensitive to oestrogen receptor alpha ligands compared with MCF7 cells. Our data indicate that retinoic acid receptor alpha may be a novel therapeutic target and a predictive factor for oestrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. PMID:23868472

  15. alpha-Tocopherol modulates liver toxicity of the pyrethroid cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Aldana, L; Tsutsumi, V; Craigmill, A; Silveira, M I; Gonzalez de Mejia, E

    2001-12-15

    The objective of the current study was to analyze the hepatotoxic effect caused by cypermethrin (CYP) in rats, and to evaluate the possible protective effect of the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Fifty male Wistar rats were given daily i.p. doses of 300 mg/kg per day of CYP during 7 days. Half of them were administered three previous doses of 100 mg/kg per day of alpha-T, followed by seven subsequent oral doses of 40 mg/kg per day of alpha-T. The levels of biochemical indicators and histological liver damage were determined, as well as DCVA in urine. CYP altered the lipid metabolism. Such alterations were inhibited 32% by alpha-T, except for LDL. Alterations in AST were modulated in 29%. In the histology, alpha-T reduced mitochondria damage, and swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cells. The results suggest that alpha-T can modify CYP metabolism, changing the lipidic profile and the histological analysis.

  16. Influence of sound source width on human sound localization.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nathaniel T; Paige, Gary D

    2012-01-01

    Free-field sound localization experiments generally assume that a loudspeaker can be approximated by a point-source; however, a large loudspeaker may extend beyond the width that two sources can be discriminated. Humans can accurately discriminate sound source locations within a few degrees, thus one might expect localization precision to decrease as a function of sound source diameter, much as precision is lower for localizing the center of a wide, blurry light source. In order to test the degree to which humans differentially localize small and large sound sources, auditory targets were presented using a single 25.4 cm by 10.2 cm elliptical loudspeaker with the primary axis oriented both horizontally and vertically in different sessions. Subjects were seated with their heads fixed by a bite bar in a darkened, echo-attenuating room facing a cylindrical, acoustically transparent screen at a distance of 2 meters. Auditory targets consisted of repeating bursts (5 Hz) of low frequency band-pass noise (0.2 - 1 kHz, 75 dB SPL). Subjects were instructed to quickly and accurately guide a laser pointer mounted on a cylindrical joystick towards targets, presented randomly within a field ± 40° in azimuth by ± 10° in elevation, with oversampled points located every ten degrees along the primary meridians. Localization accuracy and precision (mean and standard deviation of localization error at oversampled locations) were not significantly different between speaker orientations, and were comparable to baseline measurements recorded using a 7.6 cm circular speaker. We conclude that low frequency sound localization performance is not dependent upon the size of the sound source as predicted theoretically, and is well approximated by a point source.

  17. Pulse Width Modulation Applied to Olfactory Stimulation for Intensity Tuning.

    PubMed

    Andrieu, Patrice; Billot, Pierre-Édouard; Millot, Jean-Louis; Gharbi, Tijani

    2015-01-01

    For most olfactometers described in the literature, adjusting olfactory stimulation intensity involves modifying the dilution of the odorant in a neutral solution (water, mineral, oil, etc.), the dilution of the odorant air in neutral airflow, or the surface of the odorant in contact with airflow. But, for most of these above-mentioned devices, manual intervention is necessary for adjusting concentration. We present in this article a method of controlling odorant concentration via a computer which can be implemented on even the most dynamic olfactometers. We used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), a technique commonly used in electronic or electrical engineering, and we have applied it to odor delivery. PWM, when applied to odor delivery, comprises an alternative presentation of odorant air and clean air at a high frequency. The cycle period (odor presentation and rest) is 200 ms. In order to modify odorant concentration, the ratio between the odorant period and clean air presentation during a cycle is modified. This ratio is named duty cycle. Gas chromatography measurements show that this method offers a range of mixing factors from 33% to 100% (continuous presentation of odor). Proof of principle is provided via a psychophysical experiment. Three odors (isoamyl acetate, butanol and pyridine) were presented to twenty subjects. Each odor was delivered three times with five values of duty cycles. After each stimulation, the subjects were asked to estimate the intensity of the stimulus on a 10 point scale, ranging from 0 (undetectable) to 9 (very strong). Results show a main effect of the duty cycles on the intensity ratings for all tested odors. PMID:26710120

  18. Stark widths and shifts for spectral lines of Sn IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrés-García, I.; Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated corresponding to 66 spectral lines of Sn IV. We use the Griem semi-empirical approach and the COWAN computer code. For the intermediate coupling calculations, the standard method of least-squares fitting from experimental energy levels was used. Data are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 1.1-5.0 (104 K). The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 34 configurations of Sn IV: 4d10ns(n = 5-10), 4d10nd(n = 5-8), 4d95s2, 4d95p2, 4d95s5d, 4d85s5p2 and 4d105g for even parity and 4d10np(n = 5-8), 4d10nf (n = 4-6), 4d95snp(n = 5-8), 4d85s25p and 4d95snf (n = 4-10) for odd parity. Also, in order to test the matrix elements used in our calculations, we present calculated values of radiative lifetimes of 14 levels of Sn IV. There is good agreement between our calculations and the experimental radiative lifetimes obtained from the bibliography. The spectral lines of Sn IV are observed in UV spectra of HD 149499 B obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Theoretical trends of the Stark broadening parameter versus the temperature for relevant lines are presented. Also our values of Stark broadening parameters have been compared with the data available in the bibliography.

  19. Pulse Width Modulation Applied to Olfactory Stimulation for Intensity Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Jean-Louis; Gharbi, Tijani

    2015-01-01

    For most olfactometers described in the literature, adjusting olfactory stimulation intensity involves modifying the dilution of the odorant in a neutral solution (water, mineral, oil, etc.), the dilution of the odorant air in neutral airflow, or the surface of the odorant in contact with airflow. But, for most of these above-mentioned devices, manual intervention is necessary for adjusting concentration. We present in this article a method of controlling odorant concentration via a computer which can be implemented on even the most dynamic olfactometers. We used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), a technique commonly used in electronic or electrical engineering, and we have applied it to odor delivery. PWM, when applied to odor delivery, comprises an alternative presentation of odorant air and clean air at a high frequency. The cycle period (odor presentation and rest) is 200 ms. In order to modify odorant concentration, the ratio between the odorant period and clean air presentation during a cycle is modified. This ratio is named duty cycle. Gas chromatography measurements show that this method offers a range of mixing factors from 33% to 100% (continuous presentation of odor). Proof of principle is provided via a psychophysical experiment. Three odors (isoamyl acetate, butanol and pyridine) were presented to twenty subjects. Each odor was delivered three times with five values of duty cycles. After each stimulation, the subjects were asked to estimate the intensity of the stimulus on a 10 point scale, ranging from 0 (undetectable) to 9 (very strong). Results show a main effect of the duty cycles on the intensity ratings for all tested odors. PMID:26710120

  20. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha regulates p21 protein and hepatocyte proliferation in newborn mice.

    PubMed Central

    Timchenko, N A; Harris, T E; Wilde, M; Bilyeu, T A; Burgess-Beusse, B L; Finegold, M J; Darlington, G J

    1997-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) is expressed at high levels in quiescent hepatocytes and in differentiated adipocytes. In cultured cells, C/EBP alpha inhibits cell proliferation in part via stabilization of the p21 protein. The role of C/EBP alpha in regulating hepatocyte proliferation in vivo is presented herein. In C/EBP alpha knockout newborn mice, p21 protein levels are reduced in the liver, and the fraction of hepatocytes synthesizing DNA is increased. Greater than 30% of the hepatocytes in C/EBP alpha knockout animals continue to proliferate at day 17 of postnatal life when cell division in wild-type littermates is low (3%). p21 protein levels are relatively high in wild-type neonates but undetectable in C/EBP alpha knockout mice. The reduction of p21 protein in the highly proliferating livers that lack C/EBP alpha suggests that p21 is responsible for C/EBP alpha-mediated control of liver proliferation in newborn mice. During rat liver regeneration, the amounts of both C/EBP alpha and p21 proteins are decreased before DNA synthesis (6 to 12 h) and then return to presurgery levels at 48 h. Although C/EBP alpha controls p21 protein levels, p21 mRNA is not influenced by C/EBP alpha in liver. Using coimmunoprecipitation and a mammalian two-hybrid assay system, we have shown the interaction of C/EBP alpha and p21 proteins. Study of p21 stability in liver nuclear extracts showed that C/EBP alpha blocks proteolytic degradation of p21. Our data demonstrate that C/EBP alpha regulates hepatocyte proliferation in newborn mice and that in liver, the level of p21 protein is under posttranscriptional control, consistent with the hypothesis that protein-protein interaction with C/EBP alpha determines p21 levels. PMID:9372966

  1. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  2. Three-dimensional knee joint moments during performance of the bodyweight squat: effects of stance width and foot rotation.

    PubMed

    Almosnino, Sivan; Kingston, David; Graham, Ryan B

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of stance width and foot rotation angle on three-dimensional knee joint moments during bodyweight squat performance. Twenty-eight participants performed 8 repetitions in 4 conditions differing in stance or foot rotation positions. Knee joint moment waveforms were subjected to principal component analysis. Results indicated that increasing stance width resulted in a larger knee flexion moment magnitude, as well as larger and phase-shifted adduction moment waveforms. The knee's internal rotation moment magnitude was significantly reduced with external foot rotation only under the wide stance condition. Moreover, squat performance with a wide stance and externally rotated feet resulted in a flattening of the internal rotation moment waveform during the middle portion of the movement. However, it is speculated that the differences observed across conditions are not of clinical relevance for young, healthy participants.

  3. Induction of mammary gland development in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bocchinfuso, W P; Lindzey, J K; Hewitt, S C; Clark, J A; Myers, P H; Cooper, R; Korach, K S

    2000-08-01

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor-a knockout (alphaERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted ERalpha signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute to the alphaERKO mammary phenotype. We report that circulating PRL is reduced in the female alphaERKO mouse. Implantation of an age-matched, heterozygous ERalpha pituitary isograft under the renal capsule of 25-day-old or 12-week-old alphaERKO mice increased circulating PRL and progesterone levels, and induced mammary gland development. Grafted alphaERKO mice also possessed hypertrophied corpora lutea demonstrating that PRL is luteotropic in the alphaERKO ovary. By contrast, ovariectomy at the time of pituitary grafting prevented mammary gland development in alphaERKO mice despite elevated PRL levels. Hormone replacement using pellet implants demonstrated that pharmacological doses of estradiol induced limited mammary ductal elongation, and estradiol in combination with progesterone stimulated lobuloalveolar development. PRL alone or in combination with progesterone or estradiol did not induce alphaERKO mammary growth. Estradiol and progesterone are required for the structural development of the alphaERKO mammary gland, and PRL contributes to this development by inducing ovarian progesterone levels. Therefore, the manifestation of the alphaERKO mammary phenotype appears due to the lack of direct estrogen action at the mammary gland and an indirect contributory role of estrogen signaling at the hypothalamic/pituitary axis.

  4. Simulation studies on alpha-particle-driven current in tokamak reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, K.; Azumi, M.

    2008-08-01

    An asymmetry particle trapping caused by the finite banana width of alpha particles and a current produced by the resulting imbalance between transit particles with positive and negative velocities parallel to the magnetic field line (simply referred to as transit current) are numerically demonstrated by using an orbit-following Monte-Carlo code. The transit current is considerably enhanced by a collaborative effect of the finite-banana-width and a non-uniformity of the alpha particle source. The pitch-angle scattering is also very important for it. Banana-trapped particles drive a substantially negative current in the central region. Consequently, the positive transit current is degraded by the negative banana current and the net alpha current is almost flat near the plasma centre. The net alpha-driven total currents in an ITER-like normal aspect-ratio system (aspect ratio = 3.17) and in a low aspect-ratio system VECTOR (aspect ratio = 1.98) estimated with a conventional electron screening effect are about 0.4 MA and 1 MA, respectively. A low-aspect-ratio tokamak has an advantage over a normal or a large-aspect-ratio system in driving current by fusion-produced alpha particles.

  5. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  6. An overview on 5alpha-reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Thareja, Suresh; Verma, Abhilasha; Bhardwaj, Tilak Raj; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-02-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the noncancerous proliferation of the prostate gland associated with benign prostatic obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as frequency, hesitancy, urgency, etc. Its prevalence increases with age affecting around 70% by the age of 70 years. High activity of 5alpha-reductase enzyme in humans results in excessive dihydrotestosterone levels in peripheral tissues and hence suppression of androgen action by 5alpha-reductase inhibitors is a logical treatment for BPH as they inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Finasteride (13) was the first steroidal 5alpha-reductase inhibitor approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). In human it decreases the prostatic DHT level by 70-90% and reduces the prostatic size. Dutasteride (27) another related analogue has been approved in 2002. Unlike Finasteride, Dutasteride is a competitive inhibitor of both 5alpha-reductase type I and type II isozymes, reduced DHT levels >90% following 1 year of oral administration. A number of classes of non-steroidal inhibitors of 5alpha-reductase have also been synthesized generally by removing one or more rings from the azasteroidal structure or by an early non-steroidal lead (ONO-3805) (261). In this review all categories of inhibitors of 5alpha-reductase have been covered. PMID:19879888

  7. Self-consistent study of the alpha particle driven TAE mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; White, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    The interaction of high energy particles with an Alfven eigenmode is investigated self-consistently by using a realistic kinetic dispersion relation. All important poloidal mode numbers and their radial mode profiles as calculated with the NOVA-K code are included. A Hamiltonian guiding center code is used to simulate the alpha particle motion. The numerical simulations include particle orbit width, nonlinear particle dynamics and the effects of the modes on the particles. Modification of the particle distribution leading to mode saturation is observed. Particle loss is limited to devices in which the alpha particle gyro radius is a significant fraction of the minor radius.

  8. TH-C-18A-04: Validation of Dosimetric Measurement of CT Radiation Profile Width

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, D; Al-Senan, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The ACR now requires that the CT radiation profile width be measured at all clinically used collimations. We developed a method for measuring the profile width using dosimetry alone to allow a faster and simpler measurement of beam widths. Methods: A pencil ionization chamber is used to take two dose-length product measurements in air for a wide collimation. One of these is taken with a 1cm tungsten mask on the pencil chamber. The difference between these measurements is the calibration factor, or the DLP in air per unit length. By dividing the doselength product for any given collimation by this factor, we can rapidly determine the beam profile width.We measured the beam width for all available detector configurations and focal spot sizes on three different CT scanners from two different manufacturers. The measurements were done using film, CR cassette, and the present dosimetric method. Results: The beam widths measured dosimetrically are approximately 2% wider than those measured using film or computed radiography; this difference is believed due to off-focus or scattered radiation. After correcting for this, the dosimetric beam widths match the film and CR widths with an RMS difference of approximately 0.2mm. The measured beam widths are largely insensitive to errors in positioning of the mask, or to tilt errors in the pencil chamber. Conclusion: Using the present method, radiation profile widths can be measured quickly, with an accuracy better than 1mm.

  9. Stellar Lyman-alpha emission and the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne; Simon, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    The UV spectra now available in the IUE archives have been systematically searched for the presence of Lyman-alpha emission in late-type stars. The results provide the first survey of the behavior of the Ly-alpha emission line across most of the cool half of the H-R diagram. The normalized Ly-alpha emission flux is strongest in the chromospherically active RS CVn stars and in the dMe stars. The range of normalized flux values is much smaller among F-type stars than in stars of later spectral type. A dropoff appears in the flux levels of stars at B-V less than 0.30 mag. The measurements are used to search for evidence of possible high column density clouds in the local ISM. The cloud previously identified toward Alpha Oph may be seen in the reduced flux observed toward Beta Oph.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions alpha-mannosidosis alpha-mannosidosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited disorder that causes ...

  11. The G protein alpha o subunit alters morphology, growth kinetics, and phospholipid metabolism of somatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, D B; Bonventre, J V; Neer, E J; Seidman, J G

    1989-01-01

    The physiological role of the alpha o subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein was investigated with a murine adrenal cell line (Y1) transfected with a rat alpha o cDNA cloned in a retroviral expression vector. The parental cell line lacked detectable alpha o subunit. Expression of the alpha o cDNA in transfected cell lines was confirmed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The rat alpha o subunit interacted with murine beta and gamma subunits and associated with cell membranes. Y1 cells containing large amounts of alpha o subunit had altered cellular morphology and reduced rate of cell division. In addition, GTP-gamma S-stimulated release of arachidonic acid from these cells was significantly increased compared with that in control cells. The alpha o subunit appears directly or indirectly to regulate cellular proliferation, morphology, and phospholipid metabolism. Images PMID:2511433

  12. 7alpha- and 12alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus lwoffii: a new integrated chemo-enzymatic route to ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Grandini, Alessandro; Perrone, Daniela; Pedrini, Paola; Fantin, Giancarlo; Fogagnolo, Marco

    2008-12-22

    We report the very efficient biotransformation of cholic acid to 7-keto- and 7,12-diketocholic acids with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus lwoffii. The enzymes responsible of the biotransformation (i.e. 7alpha- and 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases) are partially purified and employed in a new chemo-enzymatic synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid starting from cholic acid. The first step is the 12alpha-HSDH-mediated total oxidation of sodium cholate followed by the Wolf-Kishner reduction of the carbonyl group to chenodeoxycholic acid. This acid is then quantitatively oxidized with 7alpha-HSDH to 7-ketochenodeoxycholic acid, that was chemically reduced to ursodeoxycholic acid (70% overall yield).

  13. The distribution of equivalent widths in long GRB afterglow spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Thöne, C. C.; Christensen, L.; Gorosabel, J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Schulze, S.; Jakobsson, P.; Wiersema, K.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Leloudas, G.; Zafar, T.; Malesani, D.; Hjorth, J.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The extreme brightness of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and their simple spectral shape make them ideal beacons to study the interstellar medium of their host galaxies through absorption line spectroscopy at almost any redshift. Aims: We describe the distribution of rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of the most prominent absorption features in GRB afterglow spectra, providing the means to compare individual spectra to the sample and identify its peculiarities. Methods: Using 69 low-resolution GRB afterglow spectra, we conduct a study of the rest-frame EWs distribution of features with an average rest-frame EW larger than 0.5 Å. To compare an individual GRB with the sample, we develop EW diagrams as a graphical tool, and we give a catalogue with diagrams for the 69 spectra. We introduce a line strength parameter (LSP) that allows us to quantify the strength of the absorption features in a GRB spectrum as compared to the sample by a single number. Using the distributions of EWs of single-species features, we derive the distribution of their column densities by a curve of growth (CoG) fit. Results: We find correlations between the LSP and the extinction of the GRB, the UV brightness of the host galaxies and the neutral hydrogen column density. However, we see no significant evolution of the LSP with the redshift. There is a weak correlation between the ionisation of the absorbers and the energy of the GRB, indicating that, either the GRB event is responsible for part of the ionisation, or that galaxies with high-ionisation media produce more energetic GRBs. Spectral features in GRB spectra are, on average, 2.5 times stronger than those seen in QSO intervening damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems and slightly more ionised. In particular we find a larger excess in the EW of C ivλλ1549 relative to QSO DLAs, which could be related to an excess of Wolf-Rayet stars in the environments of GRBs. From the CoG fitting we obtain an average number of components in the

  14. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy of gallium oxide alpha-GaO(OH) nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing Jeanne; Zhao, Yanyan; Frost, Ray L

    2009-10-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to study nano- to micro-sized gallium oxyhydroxide alpha-GaO(OH), prepared using a low temperature hydrothermal route. Rod-like alpha-GaO(OH) crystals with average length of approximately 2.5 microm and width of 1.5 microm were prepared when the initial molar ratio of Ga to OH was 1:3. beta-Ga(2)O(3) nano and micro-rods were prepared through the calcination of alpha-GaO(OH). The initial morphology of alpha-GaO(OH) is retained in the beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanorods. The combination of infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy complimented with dynamic thermal analysis were used to characterise the alpha-GaO(OH) nanotubes and the formation of beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanorods. Bands at around 2903 and 2836 cm(-1) are assigned to the -OH stretching vibration of alpha-GaO(OH) nanorods. Infrared bands at around 952 and 1026 cm(-1) are assigned to the Ga-OH deformation modes of alpha-GaO(OH). A significant number of bands are observed in the 620-725 cm(-1) region and are assigned to GaO stretching vibrations.

  15. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy of gallium oxide alpha-GaO(OH) nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing Jeanne; Zhao, Yanyan; Frost, Ray L

    2009-10-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to study nano- to micro-sized gallium oxyhydroxide alpha-GaO(OH), prepared using a low temperature hydrothermal route. Rod-like alpha-GaO(OH) crystals with average length of approximately 2.5 microm and width of 1.5 microm were prepared when the initial molar ratio of Ga to OH was 1:3. beta-Ga(2)O(3) nano and micro-rods were prepared through the calcination of alpha-GaO(OH). The initial morphology of alpha-GaO(OH) is retained in the beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanorods. The combination of infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy complimented with dynamic thermal analysis were used to characterise the alpha-GaO(OH) nanotubes and the formation of beta-Ga(2)O(3) nanorods. Bands at around 2903 and 2836 cm(-1) are assigned to the -OH stretching vibration of alpha-GaO(OH) nanorods. Infrared bands at around 952 and 1026 cm(-1) are assigned to the Ga-OH deformation modes of alpha-GaO(OH). A significant number of bands are observed in the 620-725 cm(-1) region and are assigned to GaO stretching vibrations. PMID:19577510

  16. Red cell distribution width in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hellhammer, Katharina; Zeus, Tobias; Verde, Pablo E; Veulemanns, Verena; Kahlstadt, Lisa; Wolff, Georg; Erkens, Ralf; Westenfeld, Ralf; Navarese, Eliano P; Merx, Marc W; Rassaf, Tienush; Kelm, Malte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of red blood cell distribution width on outcome in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: In a retrospective single center cohort study we determined the impact of baseline red cell distribution width (RDW) and anemia on outcome in 376 patients with aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI. All patients were discussed in the institutional heart team and declined for surgical aortic valve replacement due to high operative risk. Collected data included patient characteristics, imaging findings, periprocedural in hospital data, laboratory results and follow up data. Blood samples for hematology and biochemistry analysis were taken from every patient before and at fixed intervals up to 72 h after TAVI including blood count and creatinine. Descriptive statistics were used for patient’s characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for time to event outcomes. A recursive partitioning regression and classification was used to investigate the association between potential risk factors and outcome variables. RESULTS: Mean age in our study population was 81 ± 6.1 years. Anemia was prevalent in 63.6% (n = 239) of our patients. Age and creatinine were identified as risk factors for anemia. In our study population, anemia per se did influence 30-d mortality but did not predict longterm mortality. In contrast, a RDW > 14% showed to be highly predictable for a reduced short- and longterm survival in patients with aortic valve disease after TAVI procedure. CONCLUSION: Age and kidney function determine the degree of anemia. The anisocytosis of red blood cells in anemic patients supplements prognostic information in addition to that derived from the WHO-based definition of anemia. PMID:26981217

  17. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  18. Arachidonic acid mediates the formation of abundant alpha-helical multimers of alpha-synuclein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iljina, Marija; Tosatto, Laura; Choi, Minee L.; Sang, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Hughes, Craig D.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gandhi, Sonia; Klenerman, David

    2016-09-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein (αS) self-assembles into toxic beta-sheet aggregates in Parkinson’s disease, while it is proposed that αS forms soluble alpha-helical multimers in healthy neurons. Here, we have made αS multimers in vitro using arachidonic acid (ARA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and characterized them by a combination of bulk experiments and single-molecule Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements. The data suggest that ARA-induced oligomers are alpha-helical, resistant to fibril formation, more prone to disaggregation, enzymatic digestion and degradation by the 26S proteasome, and lead to lower neuronal damage and reduced activation of microglia compared to the oligomers formed in the absence of ARA. These multimers can be formed at physiologically-relevant concentrations, and pathological mutants of αS form less multimers than wild-type αS. Our work provides strong biophysical evidence for the formation of alpha-helical multimers of αS in the presence of a biologically relevant fatty acid, which may have a protective role with respect to the generation of beta-sheet toxic structures during αS fibrillation.

  19. Arachidonic acid mediates the formation of abundant alpha-helical multimers of alpha-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Iljina, Marija; Tosatto, Laura; Choi, Minee L.; Sang, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Hughes, Craig D.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gandhi, Sonia; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein (αS) self-assembles into toxic beta-sheet aggregates in Parkinson’s disease, while it is proposed that αS forms soluble alpha-helical multimers in healthy neurons. Here, we have made αS multimers in vitro using arachidonic acid (ARA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and characterized them by a combination of bulk experiments and single-molecule Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements. The data suggest that ARA-induced oligomers are alpha-helical, resistant to fibril formation, more prone to disaggregation, enzymatic digestion and degradation by the 26S proteasome, and lead to lower neuronal damage and reduced activation of microglia compared to the oligomers formed in the absence of ARA. These multimers can be formed at physiologically-relevant concentrations, and pathological mutants of αS form less multimers than wild-type αS. Our work provides strong biophysical evidence for the formation of alpha-helical multimers of αS in the presence of a biologically relevant fatty acid, which may have a protective role with respect to the generation of beta-sheet toxic structures during αS fibrillation. PMID:27671749

  20. The impact on floats or hulls during landing as affected by bottom width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, E

    1936-01-01

    For floats and hulls having V bottoms the impact force does not necessarily increase with increasing width. Therefore, the weight of the float landing gear, side walls, and other parts, and of the fuselage construction need not be increased with increasing bottom width, but the weight of the bottom construction itself, on the other hand, does not increase with increase in bottom width and is largely determined by the type of construction.

  1. Single event transient pulse width measurement of 65-nm bulk CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suge, Yue; Xiaolin, Zhang; Xinyuan, Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Heavy ion results of a 65-nm CMOS SET pulse width testchip are given. The influences of device threshold voltage, temperature and well separation on pulse width are discussed. Experimental data implied that the low device threshold, high temperature and well speraration would contribute to wider SET. The multi-peak phenomenon in the distribution of SET pulse width was first observed and its dependence on various factors is also discussed.

  2. Integrin {alpha}6 cleavage: A novel modification to modulate cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, Sangita C.; Demetriou, Manolis C.; Nagle, Raymond B.; Bowden, G. Tim; Cress, Anne E. . E-mail: acress@azcc.arizona.edu

    2007-04-01

    Integrins play a major role in cell adhesion and migration. Previous work reported that a cleaved form of integrin {alpha}6 ({alpha}6p) was detected in invasive human prostate cancer tissue, absent in normal prostate tissue and was produced by urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) in a plasmin-independent manner. Using site-directed mutagenesis we identified amino acid residues R594 and R595, located in the 'stalk' region of integrin {alpha}6, as essential for cleavage. The cleavage site is located on the extracellular region of the protein between the {beta}-barrel domain and the thigh domain. Prostate cancer cells (PC3N) were stably transfected to overexpress the cleavable, wild-type (PC3N-{alpha}6-WT) or the non-cleavable form of integrin {alpha}6 (PC3N-{alpha}6-RR). The number of cells invading laminin 111- and laminin 332-coated filters by PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells increased by threefold as compared to PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) reduced the invasion of PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells by approximately 42% through laminin 332-coated filters and plasmin inhibitor aprotinin had no significant effect. Linear cell migration increased production of integrin {alpha}6p in the PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells and not in the PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells and 32% of the PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells migrated on laminin 111 in the linear migration assay as compared to the 5% PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells. These data taken together suggest that the uPA-mediated cell surface cleavage of the {alpha}6 integrin extracellular domain is involved in tumor cell invasion and migration on laminin.

  3. Spectrometer for rare alpha-decay events

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A.N.; Kushniruk, V.F.; Nefed'ev, O.K.; Rykhlyuk, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G.; Tomin, V.I.; Kharitonov, Yu.P.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    1987-07-01

    A low-background alpha spectrometer with 4..pi.. registration geometry is described. Use of time measurements reduces the background level in the region of 6-7 MeV to 0.02-0.03 counts/day. For two detectors 20 mm in diameter located at a distance of 1 mm from one another in registration of decay of /sup 223/Ra applied to the surface of one of the detectors, the decay efficiency is 0.82 +/- 0.04. The resolution for the 3.18-MeV line is 60 keV.

  4. Advances in high-power harmonic generation: Q-switched lasers with electronically adjustable pulse width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyres, Loren A.; Morehead, James J.; Gregg, Jeffrey; Richard, Derek J.; Grossman, William

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrate a variable pulse width, internally-frequency-converted, near-diffraction-limited Nd:YAG laser with output power up to 40 Watts at 532 nm and pulse widths electronically adjustable over a 40-300 ns range. The variable pulse width is achieved by clipping the pulse decaying edge with the Q-switch in a laser cavity optimized for post-pulse gain insensitivity. This approach makes possible frequency converted lasers with pulse width and output power substantially independent of repetition rate.

  5. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Tsukui, Tohru; Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  6. Alpha--College for Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, William; Koenig, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Describes Alpha, the experimental college of individualized instruction at the College of DuPage (Illinois). At this college, students design their own curricula and work in an open classroom situation, and teachers start with students instead of subjects. (DC)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each cell. Each copy is called an allele. For each gene, one allele is inherited from a person's father, and the ... person's mother. As a result, there are four alleles that produce alpha-globin. The different types of ...

  8. Detecting Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a widely underrecognized condition, with evidence of persisting long diagnostic delays and patients' frequent need to see multiple physicians before initial diagnosis. Reasons for underrecognition include inadequate understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency by physicians and allied health care providers; failure to implement available, guideline-based practice recommendations; and the belief that effective therapy is unavailable. Multiple studies have described both the results of screening and targeted detection of individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, with both varying strategies employed to identify at-risk individuals and varying results of testing. Also, various strategies to enhance detection of affected individuals have been examined, including use of the electronic medical record to prompt testing and empowerment of allied health providers, especially respiratory therapists, to promote testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Such efforts are likely to enhance detection with the expected result that the harmful effects of delayed diagnosis can be mitigated. PMID:27564667

  9. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  10. On the width and shape of the corotation region for low-mass planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2009-04-01

    We study the coorbital flow for embedded, low-mass planets. We provide a simple semi-analytic model for the corotation region, which is subsequently compared to high-resolution numerical simulations. The model is used to derive an expression for the half-width of the horseshoe region, xs, which in the limit of zero softening is given by xs/rp = 1.68(q/h)1/2, where q is the planet to central star mass ratio, h is the disc aspect ratio and rp is the orbital radius. This is in very good agreement with the same quantity measured from simulations. This result is used to show that horseshoe drag is about an order of magnitude larger than the linear corotation torque in the zero-softening limit. Thus, the horseshoe drag, the sign of which depends on the gradient of specific vorticity, is important for estimates of the total torque acting on the planet. We further show that phenomena, such as the Lindblad wakes, with a radial separation from corotation of approximately a pressure scaleheight H can affect xs, even though for low-mass planets xs << H. The effect is to distort streamlines and reduce xs through the action of a back pressure. This effect is reduced for smaller gravitational softening parameters and planets of higher mass, for which xs becomes comparable to H.

  11. Linear mixed-effects models to describe individual tree crown width for China-fir in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xu; Yujun, Sun; Xinjie, Wang; Jin, Wang; Yao, Fu

    2015-01-01

    A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME) models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike's information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)], and the compound symmetry structure (CS). Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2). For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models.

  12. Both alpha2 and alpha3 GABAA receptor subtypes mediate the anxiolytic properties of benzodiazepine site ligands in the conditioned emotional response paradigm.

    PubMed

    Morris, H V; Dawson, G R; Reynolds, D S; Atack, J R; Stephens, D N

    2006-05-01

    Mice with point-mutated alpha2 GABAA receptor subunits (rendering them diazepam insensitive) are resistant to the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) in unconditioned models of anxiety. We investigated the role of the alpha2 GABAA subtype in a model of conditioned anxiety. alpha2(H101R) and wildtype mice were trained in a conditioned emotional response (CER) task, in which lever-pressing for food on a variable interval (VI) schedule was suppressed during the presentation of a conditioned stimulus (CS+) that predicted footshock. The ability of diazepam, ethanol and pentobarbital to reduce suppression during the CS+ was interpreted as an anxiolytic response. Diazepam (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) induced a dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effect in wildtype mice. At high doses, diazepam (2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) was sedative in alpha2(H101R) mice. Analysis of the anxiolytic properties of nonsedative diazepam doses (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), showed that alpha2(H101R) mice were resistant to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam. Equivalent anxiolytic properties of pentobarbital (20 mg/kg) and ethanol (1 and 2 g/kg) were seen in both genotypes. These findings confirm the critical importance of the alpha2 GABAA subtype in mediating BZ anxiolysis. However, as a compound, L-838417, with agonist properties at alpha2, alpha3 and alpha5-containing receptors, gave rise to anxiolytic-like activity in alpha2(H101R) mice in the CER test, alpha3-containing GABA receptors are also likely to contribute to anxiolysis. Observations that alpha2(H101R) mice were more active, and displayed a greater suppression of lever pressing in response to fear-conditioned stimuli than wildtype mice, suggests that the alpha2(H101R) mutation may not be behaviourally silent.

  13. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of novel alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl pyridazinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Zou, Xiao-Mao; Zhu, You-Quan; Liu, Bin; Tao, Han-Lin; Hu, Xu-Hong; Song, Hai-Bin; Hu, Fang-Zhong; Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua-Zheng

    2006-06-01

    A series of novel alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl pyridazinone derivatives was synthesised. Herbicidal activities of the two intermediate compounds and 15 pyridazinone derivatives were evaluated through barnyardgrass and rape cup tests and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden tests. Selected compounds were also evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Bleaching activities were observed at 10 microg ml(-1) and some compounds exhibited herbicidal activities at a rate of 300 g ha(-1). The relationship between crystal structures and herbicidal activities is discussed through a comparison of two compounds (5a and 5f). PMID:16602079

  14. Alpha decay in electron surrounding

    SciTech Connect

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of atomic electron shells on the constant of alpha decay of heavy and mediummass nuclei was considered in detail. A method for simultaneously taking into account the change in the potential-barrier shape and the effect of reflection of a diverging Coulomb wave in the classically allowed region was developed. The ratios of decay probabilities per unit time for a bare nucleus and the respective neutral atom were found for some alpha-decaying isotopes.

  15. Alpha-blockade therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: from a nonselective to a more selective alpha1A-adrenergic antagonist.

    PubMed

    Beduschi, M C; Beduschi, R; Oesterling, J E

    1998-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is very common in older men, causing symptoms that can markedly impair quality of life. Surgical treatment, typically transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), is highly effective but can be costly and is associated with the risk for significant morbidity. Medical treatments for BPH are targeted toward reducing bladder outlet obstruction either by androgen blockade to reduce prostatic volume or alpha-adrenergic blockade to relax the smooth muscle tone of the prostate. In recent years, understanding of the sympathetic innervation of the prostate has improved. This has been paralleled by the development of alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, from nonselective alpha-antagonists, to selective alpha1-antagonists, to the more selective alpha1A-antagonists. It is anticipated that more specific agents will optimize the therapeutic effectiveness of alpha-adrenergic blockade in the prostate while reducing the side effects associated with alpha-adrenergic blockade in other areas of the body, such as the vascular system. This article reviews the evolution of alpha-blockade therapy in management of BPH, focusing on tamsulosin, an agent targeted toward the alpha1A-adrenoceptor that predominates in the prostate. Clinical trials in Europe and the United States have provided evidence that tamsulosin is effective at doses of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/day. At both doses, tamsulosin is associated with significant improvements in the American Urological Association symptom score and the mean and peak urinary flow rates as compared with placebo. This once-daily alpha1A-adrenergic antagonist is well-tolerated, with a minimal potential for the side effects associated with alphas-blocker therapy.

  16. A Hybrid Fiber/Solid-State Regenerative Amplifier with Tunable Pulse Widths for Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Barry; Poulios, Demetrios

    2013-01-01

    A fiber/solid-state hybrid seeded regenerative amplifier, capable of achieving high output energy with tunable pulse widths, has been developed for satellite laser ranging applications. The regenerative amplifier cavity uses a pair of Nd:YAG zigzag slabs oriented orthogonally to one another in order to make thermal lensing effects symmetrical and simplify optical correction schemes. The seed laser used is a fiber-coupled 1,064-nm narrowband (<0.02 nm) diode laser that is discretely driven in a new short-pulsed mode, enabling continuously tunable seed pulse widths in the 0.2-to-0.4-ns range. The amplifier gain unit consists of a pair of Brewster-cut 6-bounce zigzag Nd:YAG laser slabs, oriented 90deg relative to each other in the amplifier head. This arrangement creates a net-symmetrical thermal lens effect (an opposing singleaxis effect in each slab), and makes thermo-optical corrections simple by optimizing the curvature of the nearest cavity mirror. Each slab is pumped by a single 120-W, pulsed 808-nm laser diode array. In this configuration, the average pump beam distribution in the slabs had a 1-D Gaussian shape, which matches the estimated cavity mode size. A half-wave plate between the slabs reduces losses from Fresnel reflections due to the orthogonal slabs Brewster-cut end faces. Successful "temporal" seeding of the regenerative amplifier cavity results in a cavity Q-switch pulse envelope segmenting into shorter pulses, each having the width of the input seed, and having a uniform temporal separation corresponding to the cavity round-trip time of approx. =10 ns. The pulse energy is allowed to build on successive passes in the regenerative amplifier cavity until a maximum is reached, (when cavity gains and losses are equal), after which the pulse is electro- optically switched out on the next round trip The overall gain of the amplifier is approx. =82 dB (or a factor of 1.26 million). After directing the amplified output through a LBO frequency doubling

  17. Impact of Spectral Notch Width on Neurophysiological Plasticity and Clinical Effectiveness of the Tailor-Made Notched Music Training.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Robert; Lau, Pia; Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Wollbrink, Andreas; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus, the ringing in the ears that is unrelated to any external source, causes a significant loss in quality of life, involving sleep disturbance and depression for 1 to 3% of the general population. While in the first place tinnitus may be triggered by damage to the inner ear cells, the neural generators of subjective tinnitus are located in central regions of the nervous system. A loss of lateral inhibition, tonotopical reorganization and a gain-increase in response to the sensory deprivation result in hypersensitivity and hyperactivity in certain regions of the auditory cortex. In the tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) patients listen to music from which the frequency spectrum of the tinnitus has been removed. This evokes strong lateral inhibition from neurons tuned to adjacent frequencies onto the neurons involved in the tinnitus percept. A reduction of tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related neural activity was achieved with TMNMT in previous studies. As the effect of lateral inhibition depends on the bandwidth of the notch, in the current study we altered the notch width to find the most effective notch width for TMNMT. We compared 1-octave notch width with ½-octave and ¼-octave. Participants chose their favorite music for the training that included three month of two hours daily listening. The outcome was measured by means of standardized questionnaires and magnetoencephalography. We found a general reduction of tinnitus distress in all administered tinnitus questionnaires after the training. Additionally, tinnitus-related neural activity was reduced after the training. Nevertheless, notch width did not have an influence on the behavioral or neural effects of TMNMT. This could be due to a non-linear resolution of lateral inhibition in high frequencies. PMID:26406446

  18. Impact of Spectral Notch Width on Neurophysiological Plasticity and Clinical Effectiveness of the Tailor-Made Notched Music Training

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Robert; Lau, Pia; Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Wollbrink, Andreas; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus, the ringing in the ears that is unrelated to any external source, causes a significant loss in quality of life, involving sleep disturbance and depression for 1 to 3% of the general population. While in the first place tinnitus may be triggered by damage to the inner ear cells, the neural generators of subjective tinnitus are located in central regions of the nervous system. A loss of lateral inhibition, tonotopical reorganization and a gain-increase in response to the sensory deprivation result in hypersensitivity and hyperactivity in certain regions of the auditory cortex. In the tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) patients listen to music from which the frequency spectrum of the tinnitus has been removed. This evokes strong lateral inhibition from neurons tuned to adjacent frequencies onto the neurons involved in the tinnitus percept. A reduction of tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related neural activity was achieved with TMNMT in previous studies. As the effect of lateral inhibition depends on the bandwidth of the notch, in the current study we altered the notch width to find the most effective notch width for TMNMT. We compared 1-octave notch width with ½-octave and ¼-octave. Participants chose their favorite music for the training that included three month of two hours daily listening. The outcome was measured by means of standardized questionnaires and magnetoencephalography. We found a general reduction of tinnitus distress in all administered tinnitus questionnaires after the training. Additionally, tinnitus-related neural activity was reduced after the training. Nevertheless, notch width did not have an influence on the behavioral or neural effects of TMNMT. This could be due to a non-linear resolution of lateral inhibition in high frequencies. PMID:26406446

  19. Impact of Spectral Notch Width on Neurophysiological Plasticity and Clinical Effectiveness of the Tailor-Made Notched Music Training.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Robert; Lau, Pia; Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Wollbrink, Andreas; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus, the ringing in the ears that is unrelated to any external source, causes a significant loss in quality of life, involving sleep disturbance and depression for 1 to 3% of the general population. While in the first place tinnitus may be triggered by damage to the inner ear cells, the neural generators of subjective tinnitus are located in central regions of the nervous system. A loss of lateral inhibition, tonotopical reorganization and a gain-increase in response to the sensory deprivation result in hypersensitivity and hyperactivity in certain regions of the auditory cortex. In the tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) patients listen to music from which the frequency spectrum of the tinnitus has been removed. This evokes strong lateral inhibition from neurons tuned to adjacent frequencies onto the neurons involved in the tinnitus percept. A reduction of tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related neural activity was achieved with TMNMT in previous studies. As the effect of lateral inhibition depends on the bandwidth of the notch, in the current study we altered the notch width to find the most effective notch width for TMNMT. We compared 1-octave notch width with ½-octave and ¼-octave. Participants chose their favorite music for the training that included three month of two hours daily listening. The outcome was measured by means of standardized questionnaires and magnetoencephalography. We found a general reduction of tinnitus distress in all administered tinnitus questionnaires after the training. Additionally, tinnitus-related neural activity was reduced after the training. Nevertheless, notch width did not have an influence on the behavioral or neural effects of TMNMT. This could be due to a non-linear resolution of lateral inhibition in high frequencies.

  20. Simulation of the alpha particle heating and the helium ash source in an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like tokamak with an internal transport barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Lei Guo, Wenfeng; Xiao, Xiaotao; Dai, Zongliang; Wang, Shaojie

    2014-12-15

    A guiding center orbit following code, which incorporates a set of non-singular coordinates for orbit integration, was developed and applied to investigate the alpha particle heating in an ITER-like tokamak with an internal transport barrier. It is found that a relatively large q (safety factor) value can significantly broaden the alpha heating profile in comparison with the local heating approximation; this broadening is due to the finite orbit width effects; when the orbit width is much smaller than the scale length of the alpha particle source profile, the heating profile agrees with the source profile, otherwise, the heating profile can be significantly broadened. It is also found that the stagnation particles move to the magnetic axis during the slowing-down process, thus the effect of stagnation orbits is not beneficial to the helium ash removal. The source profile of helium ash is broadened in comparison with the alpha source profile, which is similar to the heating profile.

  1. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  2. Alpha oscillatory correlates of motor inhibition in the aged brain

    PubMed Central

    Bönstrup, Marlene; Hagemann, Julian; Gerloff, Christian; Sauseng, Paul; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2015-01-01

    Exerting inhibitory control is a cognitive ability mediated by functions known to decline with age. The goal of this study is to add to the mechanistic understanding of cortical inhibition during motor control in aged brains. Based on behavioral findings of impaired inhibitory control with age we hypothesized that elderly will show a reduced or a lack of EEG alpha-power increase during tasks that require motor inhibition. Since inhibitory control over movements has been shown to rely on prior motor memory formation, we investigated cortical inhibitory processes at two points in time—early after learning and after an overnight consolidation phase and hypothesized an overnight increase of inhibitory capacities. Young and elderly participants acquired a complex finger movement sequence and in each experimental session brain activity during execution and inhibition of the sequence was recorded with multi-channel EEG. We assessed cortical processes of sustained inhibition by means of task-induced changes of alpha oscillatory power. During inhibition of the learned movement, young participants showed a significant alpha power increase at the sensorimotor cortices whereas elderly did not. Interestingly, for both groups, the overnight consolidation phase improved up-regulation of alpha power during sustained inhibition. This points to deficits in the generation and enhancement of local inhibitory mechanisms at the sensorimotor cortices in aged brains. However, the alpha power increase in both groups implies neuroplastic changes that strengthen the network of alpha power generation over time in young as well as elderly brains. PMID:26528179

  3. The Role of Neutrophils in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cormac; Reeves, Emer P; McElvaney, Noel G

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is characterized by low levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin and an increased risk for emphysema, liver disease, and panniculitis. The reduced levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin in AATD predispose the lung to unopposed proteolytic activity, predominantly from neutrophil-derived proteases, chiefly neutrophil elastase. This leads to emphysema. The mechanisms subtending the liver disease are less well understood, but are probably due to a "gain-of function" inflammatory process in the liver, stoked by intracellular retention of aberrantly folded alpha-1 antitrypsin. The panniculitis associated with AATD is most likely due to unopposed proteolytic activity in the skin. Although AATD has been traditionally viewed as a condition arising from a protease-antiprotease imbalance in the lung, it is increasingly recognized that AATD is an inflammatory disorder, both in the lung and in the extrapulmonary manifestations associated with the condition. This inflammation is predominantly neutrophil driven, and there are several alpha-1 antitrypsin-related mechanisms involved in potentiating this neutrophilic response. The rationale for AAT augmentation therapy in AATD is classically based on restoring the antiprotease balance in the lung, but its beneficial effects may also be exerted systemically, further exposing the pathogenesis of AATD-related disease and indicating a potential usage for alpha-1 antitrypsin in other inflammatory conditions. PMID:27564664

  4. New prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary mandibular canine and premolar widths from mandibular incisors and mandibular first permanent molar widths: A digital model study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the study was to generate new prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths based on mandibular incisors and first permanent molar widths. Methods A total of 2,340 calculations (768 based on the sum of mandibular incisor and first permanent molar widths, and 1,572 based on the maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths) were performed, and a digital stereomicroscope was used to derive the the digital models and measurements. Mesiodistal widths of maxillary and mandibular teeth were measured via scanned digital models. Results There was a strong positive correlation between the estimation of maxillary (r = 0.85994, r2 = 0.7395) and mandibular (r = 0.8708, r2 = 0.7582) canine and premolar widths. The intraclass correlation coefficients were statistically significant, and the coefficients were in the strong correlation range, with an average of 0.9. Linear regression analysis was used to establish prediction equations. Prediction equations were developed to estimate maxillary arches based on Y = 15.746 + 0.602 × sum of mandibular incisors and mandibular first permanent molar widths (sum of mandibular incisors [SMI] + molars), Y = 18.224 + 0.540 × (SMI + molars), and Y = 16.186 + 0.586 × (SMI + molars) for both genders, and to estimate mandibular arches the parameters used were Y = 16.391 + 0.564 × (SMI + molars), Y = 14.444 + 0.609 × (SMI + molars), and Y = 19.915 + 0.481 × (SMI + molars). Conclusions These formulas will be helpful for orthodontic diagnosis and clinical treatment planning during the mixed dentition stage. PMID:27226963

  5. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene transcription is downregulated by activator protein 2alpha. Doxazosin inhibits activator protein 2alpha and increases high-density lipoprotein biogenesis independent of alpha1-adrenoceptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Ayaori, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobukiyo; Kusuhara, Masatoshi; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2007-07-20

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a rate-limiting factor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis. The ABCA1 gene expression is known to be upregulated by various transcriptional factors. However, negative regulation factors would be better targets for pharmacological modulation of HDL biogenesis. Doxazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor blocker, increased ABCA1 mRNA, its protein, and apolipoprotein A-I-mediated HDL biogenesis in THP-1 macrophages and CHO-K1 cells, independent of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor blockade. Analysis of the human ABCA1 promoter indicated that the region between the positions -368 and -147 that contains an activator protein (AP)2-binding site responsible for the effects of doxazosin. Overexpression of AP2alpha inhibited ABCA1 transcription in a dose-dependent fashion. Mutation in the AP2-binding site caused increase of the basal promoter activity and cancelling both the transactivation by doxazosin and the trans-repression by AP2alpha. Doxazosin had no effect on ABCA1 mRNA level in HepG2 cells, which lack endogenous AP2alpha, and it reversed the inhibitory effect of AP2alpha expression in this type of cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shift assays revealed that doxazosin reduced specific binding of AP2alpha to the ABCA1 promoter, as it suppressed phosphorylation of AP2alpha. Finally, doxazosin increased ABCA1 expression and plasma HDL in mice. We thus concluded that AP2alpha negatively regulates the ABCA1 gene transcription. Doxazosin inhibits AP2alpha activity independent of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor blockade and increases the ABCA1 expression and HDL biogenesis. AP2alpha is a potent pharmacological target for the increase of HDL.

  6. The Lyman alpha reference sample. VII. Spatially resolved Hα kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Gruyters, Pieter; Orlitova, Ivana; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Cannon, John M.; Roth, Martin M.; Bik, Arjan; Pardy, Stephen; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Melinder, Jens; Puschnig, Johannes; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne

    2016-03-01

    We present integral field spectroscopic observations with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer of all 14 galaxies in the z ~ 0.1 Lyman Alpha Reference Sample (LARS). We produce 2D line-of-sight velocity maps and velocity dispersion maps from the Balmer α (Hα) emission in our data cubes. These maps trace the spectral and spatial properties of the LARS galaxies' intrinsic Lyα radiation field. We show our kinematic maps that are spatially registered onto the Hubble Space Telescope Hα and Lyman α (Lyα) images. We can conjecture a causal connection between spatially resolved Hα kinematics and Lyα photometry for individual galaxies, however, no general trend can be established for the whole sample. Furthermore, we compute the intrinsic velocity dispersion σ0, the shearing velocity vshear, and the vshear/σ0 ratio from our kinematic maps. In general LARS galaxies are characterised by high intrinsic velocity dispersions (54 km s-1 median) and low shearing velocities (65 km s-1 median). The vshear/σ0 values range from 0.5 to 3.2 with an average of 1.5. It is noteworthy that five galaxies of the sample are dispersion-dominated systems with vshear/σ0< 1, and are thus kinematically similar to turbulent star-forming galaxies seen at high redshift. When linking our kinematical statistics to the global LARS Lyα properties, we find that dispersion-dominated systems show higher Lyα equivalent widths and higher Lyα escape fractions than systems with vshear/σ0> 1. Our result indicates that turbulence in actively star-forming systems is causally connected to interstellar medium conditions that favour an escape of Lyα radiation. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The reduced data cubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130

  7. Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    The Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα) of neutral hydrogen (Hi) is intrinsically the brightest emission feature in the spectrum of astrophysical nebulae, making it a very attractive observational feature with which to survey galaxies. Moreover as an ultraviolet resonance line, Lyα possesses several unique characteristics that make it useful to study the properties of the interstellar medium and ionising stellar population at all cosmic epochs. In this review, I present a summary of Lyα observations of galaxies in the nearby universe. By ultraviolet continuum selection, at the magnitudes reachable with current facilities, only ≈ 5% of the local galaxy population shows a Lyα equivalent width (W Lyα) that exceeds 20 Å. This fraction increases dramatically at higher redshifts, but only in the local universe can we study galaxies in detail and assemble unprecedented multi-wavelength datasets. I discuss many local Lyα observations, showing that when galaxies show net Lyα emission, they ubiquitously also produce large-scale halos of scattered Lyα, that dominate the integrated luminosity. Concerning global measurements, we discuss how W Lyα and the Lyα escape fraction (f Lyα esc) are higher (W Lyα ≳ 20 Å and f Lyα esc ≳ 10%) in galaxies that represent the less massive and younger end of the distribution for local objects. This is connected with various properties, such that Lyα-emitting galaxies have lower metal abundances (median value of 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.1) and dust reddening. However, the presence of galactic outflows/winds is also vital to Doppler shift the Lyα line out of resonance with the atomic gas, and high W Lyα is found only among galaxies with winds faster than ~ 50 km s-1. The empirical evidence is then assembled into a coherent picture, and the requirement for star-formation-driven feedback is discussed in the context of an evolutionary sequence where the interstellar medium is accelerated and/or subject to hydrodynamical instabilities

  8. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  9. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  10. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  11. Coupling Between Microstrip Lines with Finite Width Ground Plane Embedded in Polyimide Layers for 3D-MMICs on Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Dalton, Edan; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.; Papapolymerou, John; Williams, W. Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional circuits built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing Si/SiGe monolithic microwave/millimeter-wave integrated circuits on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) (low resistivity) Si wafers. Thin film microstrip lines (TFMS) with finite width ground planes embedded in the polyimide are often used. However, the closely spaced TFMS lines are susceptible to high levels of coupling, which degrades circuit performance. In this paper, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis and experimental measurements are used to show that the ground planes must be connected by via holes to reduce coupling in both the forward and backward directions.

  12. Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.

  13. On the Stark Widths and Shifts of Ar II 472.68 nm Spectral Line

    SciTech Connect

    Mijatovic, Z.; Gajo, T.; Vujicic, B.; Djurovic, S.; Kobilarov, R.

    2008-10-22

    Stark widths and shifts of Ar II 472.68 nm spectral line were measured from T-tube plasmas. Plasma electron density ranged 1.8-2.210{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, while temperature ranged 20000-43000 K. Obtained results of widths and shifts were compared with measured results of other authors.

  14. Generation of an ultra-short electrical pulse with width shorter than the excitation laser

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Shaoqiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a rare phenomenon that the width of an electrical response is shorter than that of the excitation laser. In this work, generation of an ultrashort electrical pulse is by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and the generated electrical pulse width is shorter than that of the excitation laser from diode laser. When the pulse width and energy of the excitation laser are fixed at 25.7 ns and 1.6 μJ respectively, the width of the generated electrical pulse width by 3-mm-gap GaAs PCSS at the bias voltage of 9 kV is only 7.3 ns. The model of photon-activated charge domain (PACD) is used to explain the peculiar phenomenon in our experiment. The ultrashort electrical pulse width is mainly relevant to the time interval of PACD from occurrence to disappearance in the mode. The shorter the time interval is, the narrower the electrical pulse width will become. In more general terms, our result suggests that in nonlinear regime a response signal can have a much short width than the excitation pulses. The result clearly indicates that generating ultrashort electrical pulses can be achieved without the need of ultrashort lasers. PMID:27273512

  15. Effects of Content Polarization, Item Wording, and Rating Scale Width on Rating Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tony C. M.; Stevens, Joseph J.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the following three variables on rating scale response were studied: (1) polarization of opinion regarding scale content; (2) intensity of item wording; and (3) psychological width of the scale. Results with 167 college students suggest best ways to balance polarization and item wording regardless of scale width. (SLD)

  16. Lithologic Heterogeneity and Variable Valley Width in the Buffalo River Watershed, AR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, S. L.; Keen-Zebert, A.

    2014-12-01

    Lithologic heterogeneity across catchments is thought to be a key control on the style of incision, whether dominated by vertical or lateral processes, but little field evidence is available to support the claims. Map and field observations from the Buffalo National River (BNR) indicate that valley width is related to variation in lithology along the length of the river. The BNR is a gravel-mantled, ingrown meandering, bedrock river that incises through a sequence of Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, and Ordovician carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks. Using GIS, valley width was measured at 250 m intervals along the entire length of the river through two sequences of limestone and sandstone reaches that represent the dominant lithologies of the catchment. Preliminary results show measurable and statistically significant differences in valley width between limestone and sandstone reaches. Where limestone strata is exposed at river level the mean width is ~ 360 m and is highly variable with a standard deviation of 227 m. The mean width in sandstone strata is ~240 m with a standard deviation of 88 m. At each transition from limestone to sandstone there is a greater than 20% decrease in valley width downstream, with no visible change in channel width at map scales. It is possible the atypical pattern in valley width in the BNR is due to variation in lithologic resistance. These results support the assumption that lithologic heterogeneity exerts control on stream valley evolution.

  17. Downstream variation in bankfull width of wadeable streams across the conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bankfull channel width is a fundamental measure of stream size and a key parameter of interest for many applications in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and stream ecology. We developed downstream hydraulic geometry relationships for bankfull channel width w as a function of dra...

  18. Characterization of homogeneous recombinant rat ovarian 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: fluorescent properties and inhibition profile.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H; Penning, T M

    1999-01-01

    In rat ovary, 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD), a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, converts progesterone into the inactive progestin 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and has been implicated in the termination of pregnancy. Here we report a convenient overexpression system that permits the purification of milligram quantities of homogeneous recombinant 20alpha-HSD with wild-type enzyme activity. The availability of this enzyme has permitted detailed kinetic, inhibition and fluorescence analyses. The enzyme exhibited narrow steroid specificity, catalysing reactions only at C-20; it reduced progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and oxidized 20alpha-hydroxypregnanes. It also turned over common AKR substrates, such as 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. The intrinsic fluorescence spectrum of 20alpha-HSD was characterized and was quenched on the binding of NADP(H), yielding a KNADPd of 0.36 microM and a KNADPHd of 0.64 microM. NADP(H) binding generated an energy transfer band that could not be quenched by steroids. Inhibition studies conducted with non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and synthetic oestrogens indicated that even though rat ovarian 20alpha-HSD and rat liver 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) share more than 67% amino acid identity, their inhibition profiles are markedly different. Unlike 3alpha-HSD, most of these compounds did not inhibit 20alpha-HSD. Only meclofenamic acid and hexoestrol were potent competitive inhibitors for 20alpha-HSD, yielding K(i) values of 18.9 and 14.3 microM respectively. These studies suggest that selective non-steroidal AKR inhibitors could be developed for 20alpha-HSD that might be useful in maintaining pregnancy and that specific inhibitors might be developed from either N-phenylanthranilates or biphenols. PMID:10417353

  19. Characterization of homogeneous recombinant rat ovarian 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: fluorescent properties and inhibition profile.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Penning, T M

    1999-08-01

    In rat ovary, 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD), a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, converts progesterone into the inactive progestin 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and has been implicated in the termination of pregnancy. Here we report a convenient overexpression system that permits the purification of milligram quantities of homogeneous recombinant 20alpha-HSD with wild-type enzyme activity. The availability of this enzyme has permitted detailed kinetic, inhibition and fluorescence analyses. The enzyme exhibited narrow steroid specificity, catalysing reactions only at C-20; it reduced progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and oxidized 20alpha-hydroxypregnanes. It also turned over common AKR substrates, such as 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. The intrinsic fluorescence spectrum of 20alpha-HSD was characterized and was quenched on the binding of NADP(H), yielding a KNADPd of 0.36 microM and a KNADPHd of 0.64 microM. NADP(H) binding generated an energy transfer band that could not be quenched by steroids. Inhibition studies conducted with non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and synthetic oestrogens indicated that even though rat ovarian 20alpha-HSD and rat liver 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) share more than 67% amino acid identity, their inhibition profiles are markedly different. Unlike 3alpha-HSD, most of these compounds did not inhibit 20alpha-HSD. Only meclofenamic acid and hexoestrol were potent competitive inhibitors for 20alpha-HSD, yielding K(i) values of 18.9 and 14.3 microM respectively. These studies suggest that selective non-steroidal AKR inhibitors could be developed for 20alpha-HSD that might be useful in maintaining pregnancy and that specific inhibitors might be developed from either N-phenylanthranilates or biphenols. PMID:10417353

  20. Selective down-regulation of the alpha6-integrin subunit in melanocytes by UVB light.

    PubMed

    Krengel, Sven; Stark, Imke; Geuchen, Christian; Knoppe, Bettina; Scheel, Gabriele; Schlenke, Peter; Gebert, Andreas; Wünsch, Lutz; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Tronnier, Michael

    2005-06-01

    In vivo, melanocytes bind to laminin (LM) molecules of the basement membrane (BM) via the integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1, and they adhere to neighbouring keratinocytes via E-cadherin. Only few studies have addressed the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on the interaction of melanocytes with their microenvironment. In this report, we examined the influence of UVB irradiation on the expression of the most important melanocyte-adhesion molecules (E-, N-cadherin, alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha5-, alpha6-, alphaV-, beta1-, beta3-integrins and ICAM-1) in vitro by flow cytometry. We were able to demonstrate that the alpha6-integrin subunit is selectively and reversibly down-regulated by UVB in a dwzm 150ose-dependent manner. In comparison, keratinocytes lacked UVB-inducible alterations in the expression of alpha6-integrin. In the presence of LM-1, the UVB-induced down-regulation of alpha6-integrin in melanocytes was significantly reduced. Moreover, LM-1 increased the resistance of melanocytes to UVB-induced cell death, as measured by annexinV-binding analysis. This effect was reversed by preincubation with an alpha6-integrin-blocking antibody. By immunofluorescence, we could demonstrate that UVB leads to a dose-dependent internalization of alpha6-integrin, providing an obvious explanation for the down-regulation on the outer cell surface observed by flow cytometry. We suggest that adhesion to LM-1 through alpha6-integrin represents a protective mechanism for melanocytes to withstand UVB damage. Through alpha6-integrin internalization, sunburns might alter the interaction between melanocytes and the BM, resulting in apoptosis induced by loss of anchorage (anoikis). Repeated sunburns may then lead to the selection of a population of melanocytes which are capable of anchorage-independent survival, culminating in solar nevogenesis and melanoma development.

  1. Line width roughness reduction by rational design of photoacid generator for sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jing; Thompson, Michael O.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2014-03-01

    Sub-millisecond laser post-exposure bake (PEB) is an alternative technology to address the excessive acid diffusion for chemically amplified photoresist systems. By rationally designing the resist, laser post-exposure bake is able to improve the resolution and reduce the line width roughness (LWR) compared to patterns exposed under the same conditions but using conventional hotplate PEB. It was found that only the resist with high deprotection activation energy and low diffusion activation energy showed improved performance using laser PEB. Accordingly, a PAG was designed to have low acid diffusivity by binding the counter ions to a molecular glass core while keeping photophysical properties and processing conditions similar to a conventional PAG. By reducing the diffusivity of the counter ions, the PAG was able to further reduce LWR by 60% using laser PEB.

  2. [Alpha-Synuclein in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with alpha-synucleinopathy].

    PubMed

    Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-03-01

    Alpha-Synuclein protein(alphaS) aggregates from a monomer to assemblies such as oligomers, protofibrils, and mature fibrils. The early intermediate aggregate, that is, the oligomer, has been reported to be the most toxic species. We recently reported that melatonin inhibits alphaS aggregation, including protofibril and oligomer formations. While the alphaS concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was reported to significantly decrease in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, there have been reports that the alphaS oligomer concentration was elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of PD patients. Moreover, it was reported that the alphaS oligomer concentration was also elevated in the blood of PD patients. Further studies may establish alphaS in cerebrospinal fluid and blood as a biomarker of alpha-synucleinopathies, including PD.

  3. Diastereoselectivity In The Reduction Of Alpha-Hydroxyketones: An Experiment For The Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David B.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment is developed that requires the use of the NMR spectrometer via a NOESY1D experiment to determine the diastereoselectivity in the reduction of alpha-methylbenzoin with various reducing agents. Students must synthesize racemic alpha-hydroxyketones, perform reductions under chelating and non-chelating conditions, and quantitatively…

  4. Integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Sansing, Hope A.; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Berrier, Allison L.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomics of clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinoma. {yields} p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. {yields} p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta} or {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.

  5. Effects of aperture averaging and beam width on a partially coherent Gaussian beam over free-space optical links with turbulence and pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Lee, It Ee; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Ng, Wai Pang; Khalighi, Mohammad-Ali; Liaw, Shien-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    Joint effects of aperture averaging and beam width on the performance of free-space optical communication links, under the impairments of atmospheric loss, turbulence, and pointing errors (PEs), are investigated from an information theory perspective. The propagation of a spatially partially coherent Gaussian-beam wave through a random turbulent medium is characterized, taking into account the diverging and focusing properties of the optical beam as well as the scintillation and beam wander effects. Results show that a noticeable improvement in the average channel capacity can be achieved with an enlarged receiver aperture in the moderate-to-strong turbulence regime, even without knowledge of the channel state information. In particular, it is observed that the optimum beam width can be reduced to improve the channel capacity, albeit the presence of scintillation and PEs, given that either one or both of these adverse effects are least dominant. We show that, under strong turbulence conditions, the beam width increases linearly with the Rytov variance for a relatively smaller PE loss but changes exponentially with steeper increments for higher PE losses. Our findings conclude that the optimal beam width is dependent on the combined effects of turbulence and PEs, and this parameter should be adjusted according to the varying atmospheric channel conditions. Therefore, we demonstrate that the maximum channel capacity is best achieved through the introduction of a larger receiver aperture and a beam-width optimization technique.

  6. Radiocarbon to calendar date conversion: Calendrical band widths as a function of radiocarbon precision

    SciTech Connect

    McCormac, F.G.; Baillie, M.G.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Accurate high-precision [sup 14]C dating (i.e., [plus minus] 20 yr precision or less on the [sup 14]C date) provides the narrowest calendrical band width and, hence, the best age range determination possible. However, because of the structure in the [sup 14]C calibration curve, the calendar age range for a given [sup 14]C precision is not constant throughout the calibration range. In this study, they quantify the calendar band widths for a range of [sup 14]C precisions throughout the calibration range. They show that an estimate of the likely calendar band width in years can be obtained from the expression: Band width (yr) = 2.12 x [sup 14]C precision (1 [sigma]) + 54.6. They also show that calendar band widths are widest around 4000 Bp at the start of the Bronze Age, and become narrow through the later Bronze Age and Iron Age and back into the Neolithic.

  7. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  8. Temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate in one dimensional optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ahmed S.; Soliman, Shemi S. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a conventional method of quantum statistical mechanics is used to study the temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate bosons in 1D optical potential. We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the temperature dependence of the in situ widths becomes perceivable. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the in situ widths is completely different from that of a rotating condensate or trapped bosons in the optical lattice separately. The z-width shows distinct behavior from x- and y-widths due to the rotation effect. The obtained results provide useful qualitative theoretical results for future Bose Einstein condensation experiments in such traps.

  9. Research on crack width evolution of RC beams strengthened with CFL under cyclic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chen; Huang, Peiyan; Guo, Xinyan

    2008-11-01

    Using carbon fiber laminate (CFL) invented by our group, we take the lead in studying the fatigue behaviors of the beams strengthened with FRP under the cyclic loads. The maximum crack width of the RC beams strengthened with CFL conforms to the law of three-stages, and the main factors which affect the fatigue crack propagation behavior was analyzed. Theoretical analyses are performed for the evolvement rule of maximum crack width of the strengthened RC beams under constant amplitude and random fatigue loads. Then, a method for calculating the propagation rule of maximum flexural crack width under fatigue loads is proposed, based on the initial crack width under static loads and the coefficient of the strain of CFL. This method can be used not only for crack width determination under constant amplitude cyclic load but also the random fatigue load. Using the method, permissive fatigue life can be estimated.

  10. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  11. Adenosine decreases post-ischaemic cardiac TNF-alpha production: anti-inflammatory implications for preconditioning and transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, D R; Cain, B S; Cleveland, J C; Meng, X; Ayala, A; Banerjee, A; Harken, A H

    1997-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an autocrine contributor to myocardial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death in ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), sepsis, chronic heart failure and cardiac allograft rejection. Cardiac resident macrophages, infiltrating leucocytes, and cardiomyocytes themselves produce TNF-alpha. Although adenosine reduces macrophage TNF-alpha production and protects myocardium against I/R, it remains unknown whether I/R induces an increase in cardiac TNF-alpha in a crystalloid-perfused model (in the absence of blood), and, whether adenosine decreases cardiac TNF-alpha and protects function after I/R. To study this, isolated rat hearts were crystalloid-perfused using the Langendorff method and subjected to I/R, with or without adenosine pretreatment. Post-ischaemic cardiac TNF-alpha (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bioassay) and function were determined (Langendorff). I/R increased cardiac TNF-alpha and impaired myocardial function. Adenosine decreased cardiac TNF-alpha and improved post-ischaemic functional recovery. This study demonstrates that: first, I/R induces an increase in cardiac tissue TNF-alpha in a crystalloid-perfused model: second, adenosine decreases cardiac TNF-alpha and improves post-ischaemic myocardial function; third, decreased cardiac TNF-alpha may represent a mechanism by which adenosine protects myocardium; and fourth, adenosine-induced suppression of cardiac TNF-alpha may provide an anti-inflammatory link to preconditioning and have implications for cardiac allograft preservation. PMID:9497488

  12. Inhibition of Calpain Prevents Manganese-Induced Cell Injury and Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization in Organotypic Brain Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Deng, Yu; Yang, Tian-Yao; Feng, Shu; Xu, Zhao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to manganese has been known to promote alpha-synuclein oligomerization and enhance cellular toxicity. However, the exact mechanism of Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization is unclear. To explore whether alpha-synuclein oligomerization was associated with the cleavage of alpha-synuclein by calpain, we made a rat brain slice model of manganism and pretreated slices with calpain inhibitor II, a cell-permeable peptide that restricts the activity of calpain. After slices were treated with 400 μM Mn for 24 h, there were significant increases in the percentage of apoptotic cells, lactate dehydrogenase release, intracellular [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, and the mRNA and protein expression of calpain 1 and alpha-synuclein. Moreover, the number of C- and N-terminal fragments of alpha-synuclein and the amount of alpha-synuclein oligomerization also increased. These results also showed that calpain inhibitor II pretreatment could reduce Mn-induced nerve cell injury and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the number of C- and N-terminal fragments of alpha-synuclein in calpain inhibitor II-pretreated slices. These findings revealed that Mn induced the cleavage of alpha-synuclein protein via overactivation of calpain and subsequent alpha-synuclein oligomerization in cultured slices. Moreover, the cleavage of alpha-synuclein by calpain 1 is an important signaling event in Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. PMID:25756858

  13. Expression of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare) alpha-galactosidase genes in Escherichia coli and characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Suhong; Kim, Wook-Dong; Kaneko, Satoshi; Prema, Prukutty A; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    2007-02-01

    Two putative alpha-galactosidase genes from rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 27 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. These enzymes showed alpha-galactosidase activity and were purified by Ni Sepharose column chromatography. Two purified recombinant alpha-galactosidases (alpha-galactosidase II and III; alpha-Gal II and III) showed a single protein band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 42 kDa. These two enzymes cleaved not only alpha-D-galactosyl residues from the non-reducing end of substrates such as melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose, but also liberated the galactosyl residues attached to the O-6 position of the mannosyl residue at the reducing-ends of mannobiose and mannotriose. In addition, these enzymes clipped the galactosyl residues attached to the inner-mannosyl residues of mannopentaose. Thus, alpha-Gal II catalyzes efficient degalactosylation of galactomannans, such as guar gum and locust bean gum.

  14. A 28-day repeat dose toxicity study of steroidal glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, Søren; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Schrøder, Malene; Meyer, Otto; Slob, Wout; Peijnenburg, Ad; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-06-01

    Glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine are naturally present toxicants in the potato plant (Solanumtuberosum). Human intake of high doses of glycoalkaloids has led to acute intoxication, in severe cases coma and death. Previous studies have indicated that the ratio of alpha-solanine to alpha-chaconine may determine the degree and nature of the glycoalkaloid toxicity in potatoes, as the toxicity of the two alkaloids act synergistically. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an altered ratio of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine would reduce the toxicity of the glycoalkaloids. The Syrian Golden hamster was given daily doses of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine by gavage for 28 days. Doses of up to 33.3 mg total glycoalkaloids/kg body weight were applied in ratios of 1:3.7 and 1:70 (alpha-solanine:alpha-chaconine). Administration of the highest doses of both ratios resulted in distended and fluid filled small intestines and stomach. Animals receiving the ratio with the reduced content of alpha-solanine were less affected compared to those receiving the other ratio. Gene expression profiling experiments were conducted using RNA from epithelial scrapings from the small intestines of the hamsters administered the highest doses of the glycoalkaloid treatments. In general, more differential gene expression was observed in the epithelial scrapings of the hamsters fed the ratio of 1:3.7. Mostly, pathways involved in lipid and energy metabolism were affected by the ratio of 1:3.7.

  15. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  16. Oxygen radicals as second messengers for expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein, JE/MCP-1, and the monocyte colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and immunoglobulin G. Evidence for involvement of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent oxidase.

    PubMed

    Satriano, J A; Shuldiner, M; Hora, K; Xing, Y; Shan, Z; Schlondorff, D

    1993-09-01

    The potential involvement of reactive oxygen species in the expression of genes involved in immune response was examined in mesangial cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and aggregated (aggr.) IgG increased mRNA levels for the monocyte chemoattractant protein, JE/MCP-1, and the colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1. Scavengers for free radicals such as di- and tetra-methylthiourea (DMTU and TMTU) attenuated the increase in mRNA levels in response to TNF-alpha and aggr. IgG. Generation of superoxide anion by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine increased mRNA levels of these genes, but exogenous H2O2 did not. Addition of NADPH to activate a membrane-bound NADPH-oxidase generated superoxide and caused a dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels and further enhanced the stimulation by TNF-alpha or aggr. IgG. An inhibitor of NADPH-dependent oxidase 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-acetophenone attenuated the rise in mRNA levels in response to TNF-alpha and aggr. IgG. By nuclear run-on experiments TNF-alpha, aggr. IgG and NADPH increased the transcription rates for JE/MCP-1 and CSF-1, effects inhibited by TMTU. We conclude that generation of reactive oxygen species, possibly by NADPH-dependent oxidase, are involved in the induction of the JE/MCP-1 and CSF-1 genes by TNF-alpha and IgG complexes. The concerted expression of leukocyte-directed cytokines represents a general response to tissue injury.

  17. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  18. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, Charles J.; Rhudy, Ralph G.; Bushman, Ralph E.

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  19. Microscopic calculation of {alpha}-decay half-lives with a deformed potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Dongdong; Ren Zhongzhou

    2009-11-15

    A new version of the generalized density-dependent cluster model is presented to describe an {alpha} particle tunneling through a deformed potential barrier. The microscopic deformed potential is numerically constructed in the double-folding model by the multipole expansion method. The decay width is computed using the coupled-channel Schroedinger equation with outgoing wave boundary conditions. We perform a systematic calculation on {alpha}-decay half-lives of even-even nuclei ranging from Z=52 to Z=104, including 65 well-deformed ones. The calculated {alpha}-decay half-lives are found to be in good agreement with the experimental values. There also exists good agreement with the available experimental branching ratios for well-deformed systems.

  20. An investigation on optimum ridge width and exposed side strips width of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Razavipour, Seyed Ghasem; Wasilewski, Zbigniew; Ban, Dayan

    2013-12-30

    The impacts of side exposed side strips (for high order modes suppression) and ridge width on terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) performance are investigated through numerical modeling and verified experimentally. Our results show that shrinking ridge width of THz QCLs with metal-metal waveguides leads to a substantial degradation of device performance due to higher optical loss resulting from the side-exposed strips in the highly-doped top contact layer. Nevertheless, the side-exposed strips facilitate single mode operation by strongly suppressing higher-order modes. An optimal width of the side exposed strips is obtained for achieving adequate higher-order mode suppression and maintaining sufficiently low fundamental mode loss.