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Sample records for alpha satellite dna

  1. Sequence specific cleavage of African green monkey alpha-satellite DNA by micrococcal nuclease.

    PubMed

    Hörz, W; Fittler, F; Zachau, H G

    1983-07-11

    The sequence specificity of micrococcal nuclease complicates its use in experiments addressed to the still controversial issue of nucleosome phasing. In the case of alpha-satellite DNA containing chromatin from African green monkey (AGM) cells cleavage by micrococcal nuclease in the nucleus was reported to occur predominantly at only one location around position 126 of the satellite repeat unit (Musich et al. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 118-122). DNA control experiments conducted in the same study indicated the presence of many preferential cleavage sites for micrococcal nuclease on the 172 bp long alpha-satellite repeat unit. This difference was taken as evidence for a direct and simple phase relationship between the alpha-satellite DNA sequence and the position of the nucleosomes on the DNA. We have quantitatively analyzed the digestion products of the protein-free satellite monomer with micrococcal nuclease and found that 50% of all cuts occur at positions 123 and 132, 5% at position 79, and to a level of 1-3% at about 20 other positions. We also digested high molecular weight alpha-satellite DNA from AGM nuclei with micrococcal nuclease. Again cleavage occurred mostly at positions 123 and 132 of the satellite repeat unit. Thus digestion of free DNA yields results very similar to those reported by Musich et al. for the digestion of chromatin. Therefore no conclusions on a possible phase relationship can be drawn from the chromatin digestion experiments.

  2. Two Types of Alpha Satellite DNA in Distinct Chromosomal Locations in Azara's Owl Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Hirai, Yuriko; Hara, Toru; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Alpha satellite DNA is a repetitive sequence known to be a major DNA component of centromeres in primates (order Primates). New World monkeys form one major taxon (parvorder Platyrrhini) of primates, and their alpha satellite DNA is known to comprise repeat units of around 340 bp. In one species (Azara's owl monkey Aotus azarae) of this taxon, we identified two types of alpha satellite DNA consisting of 185- and 344-bp repeat units that we designated as OwlAlp1 and OwlAlp2, respectively. OwlAlp2 exhibits similarity throughout its entire sequence to the alpha satellite DNA of other New World monkeys. The chromosomal locations of the two types of sequence are markedly distinct: OwlAlp1 was observed at the centromeric constrictions, whereas OwlAlp2 was found in the pericentric regions. From these results, we inferred that OwlAlp1 was derived from OwlAlp2 and rapidly replaced OwlAlp2 as the principal alpha satellite DNA on a short time scale at the speciation level. A less likely alternative explanation is also discussed. PMID:23477842

  3. Two types of alpha satellite DNA in distinct chromosomal locations in Azara's owl monkey.

    PubMed

    Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Hirai, Yuriko; Hara, Toru; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2013-06-01

    Alpha satellite DNA is a repetitive sequence known to be a major DNA component of centromeres in primates (order Primates). New World monkeys form one major taxon (parvorder Platyrrhini) of primates, and their alpha satellite DNA is known to comprise repeat units of around 340 bp. In one species (Azara's owl monkey Aotus azarae) of this taxon, we identified two types of alpha satellite DNA consisting of 185- and 344-bp repeat units that we designated as OwlAlp1 and OwlAlp2, respectively. OwlAlp2 exhibits similarity throughout its entire sequence to the alpha satellite DNA of other New World monkeys. The chromosomal locations of the two types of sequence are markedly distinct: OwlAlp1 was observed at the centromeric constrictions, whereas OwlAlp2 was found in the pericentric regions. From these results, we inferred that OwlAlp1 was derived from OwlAlp2 and rapidly replaced OwlAlp2 as the principal alpha satellite DNA on a short time scale at the speciation level. A less likely alternative explanation is also discussed.

  4. An algorithmic analysis of the role of unequal crossover in alpha-satellite DNA evolution.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Can; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Eichler, Evan E; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Tuzun, Eray

    2002-01-01

    Human DNA consists of a large number of tandem repeat sequences. Such sequences are usually called satellites, with the primary example being the centromeric alpha-satellite DNA. The basic repeat unit of the alpha-satellite DNA is a 171 bp monomer. However, with the exception of peripheral alpha-satellite DNA, monomers can be grouped into blocks of k-monomers (4 < k < 20) between which the divergence rate is much smaller (e.g. 5%). Perhaps the simplest and best understood mechanism for tandem repeat array evolution is the unequal crossover. Although it is possible that the alpha-satellite sequence developed as a result of subsequent unequal crossovers only, no formal computational framework seems to have been developed to verify this possibility. In this paper we develop such a framework and perform experiments which seem to indicate that pericentromeric alpha-satellite segments (which are devoid of higher-order structure) are evolutionarily distinct from the higher-order repeat segments. It is likely that the higher order repeats developed independently in distinct regions of the genome and were carried into their current locations through an unknown mechanism of transposition.

  5. The role of unequal crossover in alpha-satellite DNA evolution: a computational analysis.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Can; Eichler, Evan E; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Tüzün, Eray

    2004-01-01

    Human DNA consists of a large number of tandem repeat sequences. Such sequences are usually called satellites, with the primary example being the centromeric alpha-satellite DNA. The basic repeat unit of the alpha-satellite DNA is a 171 bp monomer. Arbitrary monomer pairs usually have considerable sequence divergence (20-40%). However, with the exception of peripheral alpha-satellite DNA, monomers can be grouped into blocks of k-monomers (4 < or = k < or = 20) between which the divergence rate is much smaller (e.g., 5%). Perhaps the simplest and best understood mechanism for tandem repeat array evolution is unequal crossover. Although it is possible that alpha-satellite sequences developed as a result of subsequent unequal crossovers only, no formal computational framework seems to have been developed to verify this possibility. In this paper, we develop such a framework and report on experiments which imply that pericentromeric alpha-satellite segments (which are devoid of higher order structure) are evolutionarily distinct from the higher order repeat segments. It is likely that the higher order repeats developed independently in distinct regions of the genome and were carried into their current locations through an unknown mechanism of transposition.

  6. Locational Diversity of Alpha Satellite DNA and Intergeneric Hybridization Aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates Genera of Small Apes

    PubMed Central

    Baicharoen, Sudarath; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Yuriko; Duangsa-ard, Kwanruen; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Domae, Hiroshi; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae) in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes. PMID:25290445

  7. Locational diversity of alpha satellite DNA and intergeneric hybridization aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates genera of small apes.

    PubMed

    Baicharoen, Sudarath; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Yuriko; Duangsa-ard, Kwanruen; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Domae, Hiroshi; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae) in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes.

  8. Marker chromosomes lacking {alpha}-satellite DNA: A new intriguing class of abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, L.A.; Zinn, A.B.; Stallard, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies have implicated {alpha}-satellite DNA as an integral part of the centromere and important for the normal segregation of chromosomes. We analyzed four supernumerary marker chromosomes in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could detect neither pancentromeric or chromosome specific {alpha}-satellite DNA. Mosaicism of the markers existed, but each was present in the majority of cells indicating that they segregated normally. FISH with chromosome-specific libraries identified the origins of these markers as chromosomes 13 (1 case) and 15 (3 cases). High resolution analysis, combined with hybridization of a series of cosmid probes, revealed that each marker was a symmetrical duplication of the terminal long arm of the parent chromosome. Telomeric sequences were detected by FISH indicating linear structures. Breakpoint heterogeneity, as defined by cosmid probes, was demonstrated in the three cases involving chromosome 15. No pericentromeric satellite III DNA could be detected on three markers. Studies with anti-centromere antibodies are in progress to assay for centromeric antigens on the markers, as expected at functional centromeric sites. Our results demonstrate that the precise structural identification and heterogeneity of these markers can be easily elucidated using FISH with unique sequence cosmid probes. We conclude from our studies and others in the literature: (1) there is a newly defined class of markers lacking {alpha}-satellite DNA and containing duplications of terminal sequences; (2)neither {alpha}-satellite nor satellite III DNA at levels detectable by FISH is necessary for fidelity in the normal segregation of chromosomes; and (3) these markers were most likely formed by recombination of the long arms during meiosis.

  9. Alpha-satellite DNA and vector composition influence rates of human artificial chromosome formation.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Brenda R; Rhoades, Angela A; Willard, Huntington F

    2002-06-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have been proposed as a new class of potential gene transfer and gene therapy vector. HACs can be formed when bacterial cloning vectors containing alpha-satellite DNA are transfected into cultured human cells. We have compared the HAC-forming potential of different sequences to identify features critical to the efficiency of the process. Chromosome 17 or 21 alpha-satellite arrays are highly competent HAC-forming substrates in this assay. In contrast, a Y-chromosome-derived alpha-satellite sequence is inefficient, suggesting that centromere specification is at least partly dependent on DNA sequence. The length of the input array is also an important determinant, as reduction of the chromosome-17-based array from 80 kb to 35 kb reduced the frequency of HAC formation. In addition to the alpha-satellite component, vector composition also influenced HAC formation rates, size, and copy number. The data presented here have a significant impact on the design of future HAC vectors that have potential to be developed for therapeutic applications and as tools for investigating human chromosome structure and function.

  10. Replication of alpha-satellite DNA arrays in endogenous human centromeric regions and in human artificial chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Erliandri, Indri; Fu, Haiqing; Nakano, Megumi; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Miga, Karen H.; Liskovykh, Mikhail; Earnshaw, William C.; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Kouprina, Natalay; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Larionov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In human chromosomes, centromeric regions comprise megabase-size arrays of 171 bp alpha-satellite DNA monomers. The large distances spanned by these arrays preclude their replication from external sites and imply that the repetitive monomers contain replication origins. However, replication within these arrays has not previously been profiled and the role of alpha-satellite DNA in initiation of DNA replication has not yet been demonstrated. Here, replication of alpha-satellite DNA in endogenous human centromeric regions and in de novo formed Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) was analyzed. We showed that alpha-satellite monomers could function as origins of DNA replication and that replication of alphoid arrays organized into centrochromatin occurred earlier than those organized into heterochromatin. The distribution of inter-origin distances within centromeric alphoid arrays was comparable to the distribution of inter-origin distances on randomly selected non-centromeric chromosomal regions. Depletion of CENP-B, a kinetochore protein that binds directly to a 17 bp CENP-B box motif common to alpha-satellite DNA, resulted in enrichment of alpha-satellite sequences for proteins of the ORC complex, suggesting that CENP-B may have a role in regulating the replication of centromeric regions. Mapping of replication initiation sites in the HAC revealed that replication preferentially initiated in transcriptionally active regions. PMID:25228468

  11. Circomics of Cuban geminiviruses reveals the first alpha-satellite DNA in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Holger; Kober, Sigrid; Schäfer, Benjamin; Strohmeier, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    Circomics (circular DNA genomics), the combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and pyro-sequencing, has been used recently to identify geminiviruses with high efficiency and low costs. Circular DNAs associated with Cuban geminiviruses were characterised by RCA/RFLP analysis and 454 sequencing of two batches of DNA amplified from selected plant samples as well as individual cloning and Sanger sequencing of DNA components and compared to other geminiviral DNAs by phylogenetic analysis. Cuban geminiviruses that were closely related to each other challenged the circomics approach. Ten geminiviral components and one alpha-satellite DNA were determined and compared to three geminiviral components obtained by conventional cloning. New strains of Sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), tomato yellow distortion leaf virus (ToYDLV), Sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFV) and Sida golden mosaic Liguanea virus (SiGMLV) are described with host plant species being classified by molecular PCR-based bar coding. A new virus species is named Peristrophe mosaic virus. The first alpha-satellite found in Middle America establishes the New World branch of these elements which are related to nanoviruses and were previously thought to be restricted to the Old World. In conclusion, circomics is efficient for complex infections and closely related viruses to detected unexpected viral DNAs, but may need some scrutinisation by direct sequencing and cloning of individual components for certain cases.

  12. Comparative mapping of a gorilla-derived alpha satellite DNA clone on great ape and human chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Baldini, A; Miller, D A; Shridhar, V; Rocchi, M; Miller, O J; Ward, D C

    1991-11-01

    We have isolated an alpha satellite DNA clone, pG3.9, from gorilla DNA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on banded chromosomes under high stringency conditions revealed that pG3.9 identifies homologous sequences at the centromeric region of ten gorilla chromosomes, and, with few exceptions, also recognizes the homologous chromosomes in human. A pG3.9-like alphoid DNA is present on a larger number of orangutan chromosomes, but, in contrast, is present on only two chromosomes in the chimpanzee. These results show that the chromosomal subsets of related alpha satellite DNA sequences may undergo different patterns of evolution.

  13. Genomic variation within alpha satellite DNA influences centromere location on human chromosomes with metastable epialleles

    PubMed Central

    Aldrup-MacDonald, Megan E.; Kuo, Molly E.; Sullivan, Lori L.; Chew, Kimberline

    2016-01-01

    Alpha satellite is a tandemly organized type of repetitive DNA that comprises 5% of the genome and is found at all human centromeres. A defined number of 171-bp monomers are organized into chromosome-specific higher-order repeats (HORs) that are reiterated thousands of times. At least half of all human chromosomes have two or more distinct HOR alpha satellite arrays within their centromere regions. We previously showed that the two alpha satellite arrays of Homo sapiens Chromosome 17 (HSA17), D17Z1 and D17Z1-B, behave as centromeric epialleles, that is, the centromere, defined by chromatin containing the centromeric histone variant CENPA and recruitment of other centromere proteins, can form at either D17Z1 or D17Z1-B. Some individuals in the human population are functional heterozygotes in that D17Z1 is the active centromere on one homolog and D17Z1-B is active on the other. In this study, we aimed to understand the molecular basis for how centromere location is determined on HSA17. Specifically, we focused on D17Z1 genomic variation as a driver of epiallele formation. We found that D17Z1 arrays that are predominantly composed of HOR size and sequence variants were functionally less competent. They either recruited decreased amounts of the centromere-specific histone variant CENPA and the HSA17 was mitotically unstable, or alternatively, the centromere was assembled at D17Z1-B and the HSA17 was stable. Our study demonstrates that genomic variation within highly repetitive, noncoding DNA of human centromere regions has a pronounced impact on genome stability and basic chromosomal function. PMID:27510565

  14. Dynamic elastic behavior of alpha-satellite DNA domains visualized in situ in living human cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have constructed a fluorescent alpha-satellite DNA-binding protein to explore the motile and mechanical properties of human centromeres. A fusion protein consisting of human CENP-B coupled to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of A. victoria specifically targets to centromeres when expressed in human cells. Morphometric analysis revealed that the alpha-satellite DNA domain bound by CENPB-GFP becomes elongated in mitosis in a microtubule-dependent fashion. Time lapse confocal microscopy in live mitotic cells revealed apparent elastic deformations of the central domain of the centromere that occurred during metaphase chromosome oscillations. These observations demonstrate that the interior region of the centromere behaves as an elastic element that could play a role in the mechanoregulatory mechanisms recently identified at centromeres. Fluorescent labeling of centromeres revealed that they disperse throughout the nucleus in a nearly isometric expansion during chromosome decondensation in telophase and early G1. During interphase, centromeres were primarily stationary, although motility of individual or small groups of centromeres was occasionally observed at very slow rates of 7-10 microns/h. PMID:8909532

  15. Evidence for selection in evolution of alpha satellite DNA: the central role of CENP-B/pJ alpha binding region.

    PubMed

    Romanova, L Y; Deriagin, G V; Mashkova, T D; Tumeneva, I G; Mushegian, A R; Kisselev, L L; Alexandrov, I A

    1996-08-23

    Conservation of DNA segments performing sequence-related functions is a landmark of selection and functional significance. Phylogenetic variability of alpha satellite and apparent absence of conserved regions calls its functional significance into question, even though sequence-specific alpha satellite-binding proteins pJ alpha and CENP-B have been discovered. Moreover, the function of pJ alpha is obscure and CENP-B binding satellite DNA, which is thought to participate in centromere formation, is found only in few species and not necessarily in all chromosomes. Analysis of alpha satellite evolution allows us to recognize the order in this variability. Here we report a new alpha satellite suprachromosomal family, which together with the four defined earlier, covers all known alpha satellite sequences. Although each family has its characteristic types of monomers, they all descend from two prototypes, A and B. We show that most differences between prototypes are concentrated in a short region (positions 35 to 51), which exists in two alternative states: it matches a binding site for pJ alpha in type A and the one for CENP-B in type B. Lower primates have only type A monomers whereas great apes have both A and B. The new family is formed by monomeric types almost identical to A and B prototypes, thus representing a living relic of alpha satellite. Analysis of these data shows that selection-driven evolution, rather than random fixation of mutations, formed the distinction between A and B types. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for selection in any of the known satellite DNAs.

  16. Evolutionary Origin of Higher-Order Repeat Structure in Alpha-Satellite DNA of Primate Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Yuriko; Terada, Shoko; Jahan, Israt; Baicharoen, Sudarath; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-satellite DNA (AS) is a main DNA component of primate centromeres, consisting of tandemly repeated units of ∼170 bp. The AS of humans contains sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, in which a block of multiple repeat units forms a larger repeat unit and the larger units are repeated tandemly. The presence of HOR in AS is widely thought to be unique to hominids (family Hominidae; humans and great apes). Recently, we have identified an HOR-containing AS in the siamang, which is a small ape species belonging to the genus Symphalangus in the family Hylobatidae. This result supports the view that HOR in AS is an attribute of hominoids (superfamily Hominoidea) rather than hominids. A single example is, however, not sufficient for discussion of the evolutionary origin of HOR-containing AS. In the present study, we developed an efficient method for detecting signs of large-scale HOR and demonstrated HOR of AS in all the three other genera. Thus, AS organized into HOR occurs widely in hominoids. Our results indicate that (i) HOR-containing AS was present in the last common ancestor of hominoids or (ii) HOR-containing AS emerged independently in most or all basal branches of hominoids. We have also confirmed HOR occurrence in centromeric AS in the Hylobatidae family, which remained unclear in our previous study because of the existence of AS in subtelomeric regions, in addition to centromeres, of siamang chromosomes. PMID:24585002

  17. Sau3A in situ digestion of human chromosome 3 pericentrometric heterochromatin. I. Differential digestion of alpha-satellite and satellite 1 DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Buño, I; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Díez-Martín, J L; Gosálvez, J

    2001-02-01

    In situ digestion with the restriction endonuclease (RE) Sau3A (Sau3A REISD) uncovers a polymorphism for the pericentromeric heterochromatin of human chromosome 3, which can be positively stained (3+) or not (3-), and has proven useful to differentiate donor and recipient cells after sex-matched bone marrow transplantation and to analyze the so-called hemopoietic chimerism. The aim of the present investigation was to obtain insight into the molecular basis of such polymorphism to optimize its use for chimerism quantification using methodological approaches other than REISD. To this end, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays using probes for the satellite DNA sequences that mainly constitute chromosome 3 pericentromeric heterochromatin (alpha-satellite and satellite 1 DNA) were performed on control and Sau3A-digested chromosomes. The results obtained suggest that chromosome 3 alpha-satellite DNA is digested in all individuals studied, irrespective of the karyotype obtained by Sau3A REISD (3++, 3+-, 3--), and thus it does not seem to be involved in the polymorphism uncovered by Sau3A on this chromosome. Satellite 1 DNA is not digested in any case, and shows a polymorphism for its domain size, which correlates with the polymorphism uncovered by Sau3A in such a way that 3+ chromosomes show a large domain (3L) and 3- chromosomes show a small domain (3S). It seems, therefore, that the cause of the polymorphism uncovered by Sau3A on the pericentromeric region of chromosome 3 is a difference in the size of the satellite 1 DNA domain. Small satellite 1 DNA domains fall under the resolution level of REISD technique and are identified as 3-.

  18. Interhomologue sequence variation of alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 17: evidence for concerted evolution along haplotypic lineages.

    PubMed

    Warburton, P E; Willard, H F

    1995-12-01

    Alpha satellite DNA is a family of tandemly repeated DNA found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes. Different human chromosomes 17 in the population are characterized by distinct alpha satellite haplotypes, distinguished by the presence of variant repeat forms that have precise monomeric deletions. Pair-wise comparisons of sequence diversity between variant repeat units from each haplotype show that they are closely related in sequence. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified alpha satellite reveals heterogeneous positions between the repeat units on a chromosome as two bands at the same position on a sequencing ladder. No variation was detected in the sequence and location of these heterogeneous positions between chromosomes 17 from the same haplotype, but distinct patterns of variation were detected between chromosomes from different haplotypes. Subsequent sequence analysis of individual repeats from each haplotype confirmed the presence of extensive haplotype-specific sequence variation. Phylogenetic inference yielded a tree that suggests these chromosome 17 repeat units evolve principally along haplotypic lineages. These studies allow insight into the relative rates and/or timing of genetic turnover processes that lead to the homogenization of tandem DNA families.

  19. Centromeric Alpha-Satellite DNA Adopts Dimeric i-Motif Structures Capped by AT Hoogsteen Base Pairs.

    PubMed

    Garavís, Miguel; Escaja, Núria; Gabelica, Valérie; Villasante, Alfredo; González, Carlos

    2015-06-26

    Human centromeric alpha-satellite DNA is composed of tandem arrays of two types of 171 bp monomers; type A and type B. The differences between these types are concentrated in a 17 bp region of the monomer called the A/B box. Here, we have determined the solution structure of the C-rich strand of the two main variants of the human alpha-satellite A box. We show that, under acidic conditions, the C-rich strands of two A boxes self-recognize and form a head-to-tail dimeric i-motif stabilized by four intercalated hemi-protonated C:C(+) base pairs. Interestingly, the stack of C:C(+) base pairs is capped by T:T and Hoogsteen A:T base pairs. The two main variants of the A box adopt a similar three-dimensional structure, although the residues involved in the formation of the i-motif core are different in each case. Together with previous studies showing that the B box (known as the CENP-B box) also forms dimeric i-motif structures, our finding of this non-canonical structure in the A box shows that centromeric alpha satellites in all human chromosomes are able to form i-motifs, which consequently raises the possibility that these structures may play a role in the structural organization of the centromere. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. In situ hybridization analysis of gibbon chromosomes suggests that amplification of alpha satellite DNA in the telomere region is confined to two of the four genera.

    PubMed

    Baicharoen, Sudarath; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Yuriko; Hara, Toru; Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2012-11-01

    The siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), a species of the family Hylobatidae (gibbons), carries large blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in the telomere region of chromosomes. We recently found that alpha satellite DNA constitutes these heterochromatin blocks as a main component. Alpha satellite DNA, tandem repeat sequences of 171-bp repeat units, is a major component of centromeres in primates. In addition to the siamang, the white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) was previously found to carry the alpha satellite DNA in the telomere region, although not as large a scale as the siamang. Gibbons comprise four genera: Hoolock, Hylobates, Nomascus, and Symphalangus. Here, we report that the amplification of alpha satellite DNA in the telomere region is probably confined to two genera: Nomascus and Symphalangus. We examined one species of Hoolock and four species of Hylobates and obtained evidence against such an amplification event in these species. The phylogenetic relationship of the four gibbon genera remains unclear. One simple explanation for the current distribution of the telomere region alpha satellite DNA would be that Nomascus and Symphalangus are relatively closely related and the amplification occurred in their common ancestor.

  1. Dynamic organization of DNA replication in mammalian cell nuclei: spatially and temporally defined replication of chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Five distinct patterns of DNA replication have been identified during S- phase in asynchronous and synchronous cultures of mammalian cells by conventional fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. During early S-phase, replicating DNA (as identified by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) appears to be distributed at sites throughout the nucleoplasm, excluding the nucleolus. In CHO cells, this pattern of replication peaks at 30 min into S-phase and is consistent with the localization of euchromatin. As S-phase continues, replication of euchromatin decreases and the peripheral regions of heterochromatin begin to replicate. This pattern of replication peaks at 2 h into S-phase. At 5 h, perinucleolar chromatin as well as peripheral areas of heterochromatin peak in replication. 7 h into S-phase interconnecting patches of electron-dense chromatin replicate. At the end of S-phase (9 h), replication occurs at a few large regions of electron-dense chromatin. Similar or identical patterns have been identified in a variety of mammalian cell types. The replication of specific chromosomal regions within the context of the BrdU-labeling patterns has been examined on an hourly basis in synchronized HeLa cells. Double labeling of DNA replication sites and chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences indicates that the alpha-satellite DNA replicates during mid S-phase (characterized by the third pattern of replication) in a variety of human cell types. Our data demonstrates that specific DNA sequences replicate at spatially and temporally defined points during the cell cycle and supports a spatially dynamic model of DNA replication. PMID:1740468

  2. Higher-order repeat structure in alpha satellite DNA is an attribute of hominoids rather than hominids.

    PubMed

    Terada, Shoko; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    Alpha satellite DNA (AS), a major DNA component of primate centromeres, is composed of a tandem array of repeat units of approximately 170 bp. The AS of hominids (family Hominidae; humans and great apes) includes sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, with a periodic appearance of multiple copies of the basic repeat units. Here, we identified an HOR in AS of the siamang, a small ape phylogenetically distinct from hominids but included in hominoids (superfamily Hominoidea). We sequenced long stretches of genomic DNA, and found a repetition of blocks consisting of six and four basic repeat units. Thus, AS organization into HOR is an attribute of hominoids, rather than, as currently postulated, hominids. In addition to centromeres, siamangs carry AS in terminal heterochromatin blocks, and it cannot be determined at present whether these HOR-containing AS sequences originate from the centromere or from the terminal heterochromatin. Even if the latter is the case, these sequences might affect the composition of centromeric AS by being transferred to the centromere.

  3. Higher-order repeat structure in alpha satellite DNA occurs in New World monkeys and is not confined to hominoids.

    PubMed

    Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2015-05-14

    Centromeres usually contain large amounts of tandem repeat DNA. Alpha satellite DNA (AS) is the most abundant tandem repeat DNA found in the centromeres of simian primates. The AS of humans contains sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, which are tandem arrays of larger repeat units consisting of multiple basic repeat units. HOR-carrying AS also occurs in other hominoids, but results reported to date for phylogenetically more remote taxa have been negative. Here we show direct evidence for clear HOR structures in AS of the owl monkey and common marmoset. These monkeys are New World monkey species that are located phylogenetically outside of hominoids. It is currently postulated that the presence of HOR structures in AS is unique to hominoids. Our results suggest that this view must be modified. A plausible explanation is that generation of HOR structures is a general event that occurs occasionally or frequently in primate centromeres, and that, in humans, HOR-carrying AS became predominant in the central region of the centromere. It is often difficult to assemble sequence reads of tandem repeat DNAs into accurate contig sequences; our careful sequencing strategy allowed us to overcome this problem.

  4. Isolation and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 20-specific alpha-satellite DNA clone.

    PubMed

    Baldini, A; Archidiacono, N; Carbone, R; Bolino, A; Shridhar, V; Miller, O J; Miller, D A; Ward, D C; Rocchi, M

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized a human genomic DNA clone (PZ20, locus D20Z2) that identifies, under high-stringency hybridization conditions, an alphoid DNA subset specific for chromosome 20. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sequence analysis confirmed our previously reported data on the great similarity between the chromosome 20 and chromosome 2 alphoid subsets. Comparative mapping of pZ20 on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes, also performed under high-stringency conditions, indicates that the alphoid subset has ancestral sequences on chimpanzee chromosome 11 and gorilla chromosome 19. However, no hybridization was observed to chromosomes 21 in the great apes, the homolog of human chromosome 20.

  5. Cloning and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 4-specific alpha satellite DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    D'Aiuto, L; Antonacci, R; Marzella, R; Archidiacono, N; Rocchi, M

    1993-11-01

    We have isolated and characterized two human alphoid DNA clones: p4n1/4 and pZ4.1. Clone p4n1/4 identifies specifically the centromeric region of chromosome 4; pZ4.1 recognizes a subset of alphoid DNA shared by chromosomes 4 and 9. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on metaphase spreads and Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. The genomic organization of both subsets was also investigated. Comparative mapping on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes was performed. p4n1/4 hybridizes to chimpanzee chromosomes 11 and 13, homologs of human chromosomes 9 and 2q, respectively. On gorilla metaphase spreads, p4n1/4 hybridizes exclusively to the centromeric region of chromosome 19, partially homologous to human chromosome 17. No hybridization signal was detected on chromosome 3 of both chimpanzee and gorilla, in both species homolog of human chromosome 4. Identical comparative mapping results were obtained using pZ4.1 probe, although the latter recognizes an alphoid subset distinct from the one recognized by p4n1/4. The implications of these results in the evolution of centromeric regions of primate chromosomes are discussed.

  6. Cloning and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 4-specific alpha satellite DNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    D'Aiuto, L.; Marzella, R.; Archidiacono, N.; Rocchi, M. ); Antonacci, R. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized two human alphoid DNA clones: p4n1/4 and pZ4.1. Clone p4n1/4 identifies specifically the centromeric region of chromosome 4; pZ4.1 recognizes a subset of alphoid DNA shared by chromosomes 4 and 9. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on metaphase spreads and Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. The genomic organization of both subsets was also investigated. Comparative mapping on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes was performed. p4n1/4 hybridizes to chimpanzee chromosomes 11 and 13, homologs of human chromosomes 9 and 2q, respectively. On gorilla metaphase spreads, p4n1/4 hybridizes exclusively to the centromeric region of chromosome 19, partially homologous to human chromosome 17. No hybridization signal was detected on chromosome 3 of both chimpanzee and gorilla, in both species homolog of human chromosome 4. Identical comparative mapping results were obtained using pZ4.1 probe, although the latter recognizes an alphoid subset distinct from the one recognized by p4n1/4. The implications of these results in the evolution of centromeric regions of primate chromosomes are discussed. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Cytologic characterization of two distinct alpha satellite DNA domains on human chromosome 7, using double-labeling hybridizations in fluorescence and electron microscopy on a melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Fetni, R; Richer, C L; Malfoy, B; Dutrillaux, B; Lemieux, N

    1997-07-01

    The most prominent class of centromeric DNA sequences belongs to the alpha satellite family of tandemly repeated DNA. The human chromosome 7 has been shown to contain two distinct alpha satellite arrays: D7Z1 and D7Z2, separated by 1 Mb. The order of these arrays was analyzed in normal blood cells and in the melanoma cell line IPC182 with two approaches using in situ hybridization: (1) Relative mapping on high-resolution chromosomes in fluorescence and electron microscopy (EM); and (2) simultaneous visualization of the two sequences using fluorochromes of different colors or gold particles of different sizes. The location within the centromeric area of chromosome 7, on the side of the short arm for D7Z2 and near the long arm for D7Z1 is confirmed. In addition, the hybridization signal of D7Z2 is confined to two small areas of the centromeric region in external positions, whereas the D7Z1 signal covers the entire width of the primary constriction. In situ hybridization with D7Z1 and D7Z2, performed on the melanoma cell line IPC 182, allowed characterization of two isochromosomes, i(7)(q10) and idic(7)(q11), as well as the der(7)t(7;12) observed in this cell line. The three-derived chromosomes appeared to result from different breakpoints, but only D7Z1 was conserved in all cases, suggesting the importance of this sequence for the centromeric function.

  8. Molecular and evolutionary characteristics of the fraction of human alpha satellite DNA associated with CENP-A at the centromeres of chromosomes 1, 5, 19, and 21

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mode of evolution of the highly homogeneous Higher-Order-Repeat-containing alpha satellite arrays is still subject to discussion. This is also true of the CENP-A associated repeats where the centromere is formed. Results In this paper, we show that the molecular mechanisms by which these arrays evolve are identical in multiple chromosomes: i) accumulation of crossovers that homogenise and expand the arrays into different domains and subdomains that are mostly unshared between homologues and ii) sporadic mutations and conversion events that simultaneously differentiate them from one another. Individual arrays are affected by these mechanisms to different extents that presumably increase with time. Repeats associated with CENP-A, where the centromere is formed, are subjected to the same evolutionary mechanisms, but constitute minor subsets that exhibit subtle sequence differences from those of the bulk repeats. While the DNA sequence per se is not essential for centromere localisation along an array, it appears that certain sequences can be selected against. On chromosomes 1 and 19, which are more affected by the above evolutionary mechanisms than are chromosomes 21 and 5, CENP-A associated repeats were also recovered from a second homogeneous array present on each chromosome. This could be a way for chromosomes to sustain mitosis and meiosis when the normal centromere locus is ineluctably undermined by the above mechanisms. Conclusion We discuss, in light of these observations, possible scenarios for the normal evolutionary fates of human centromeric regions. PMID:20331851

  9. Nucleosome arrangement in alpha-satellite chromatin of African green monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M R; Lieberman, M W

    1984-01-01

    By analyzing the accessibility of restriction endonuclease sites in African green monkey alpha-satellite chromatin, we demonstrate the absence of a unique phase relationship between nucleosomes and alpha-satellite DNA. The data indicate a minimum of three different positions for nucleosome cores relative to the alpha-satellite sequence and suggest a random distribution in at least some regions. In addition, while we confirm published reports that staphylococcal nuclease cuts the alpha-satellite sequence in chromatin at a highly preferred site, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of nuclear digests demonstrates that this site is preferentially cut by staphylococcal nuclease even when it is within the nucleosome core. These data indicate that staphylococcal nuclease is not useful for determining nucleosome positions on alpha-satellite DNA, and perhaps on other specific DNA sequences as well. Images PMID:6089117

  10. Structure, organization, and sequence of alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 17: evidence for evolution by unequal crossing-over and an ancestral pentamer repeat shared with the human X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1986-09-01

    The centromeric regions of all human chromosomes are characterized by distinct subsets of a diverse tandemly repeated DNA family, alpha satellite. On human chromosome 17, the predominant form of alpha satellite is a 2.7-kilobase-pair higher-order repeat unit consisting of 16 alphoid monomers. We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the 16-monomer repeat, which is present in 500 to 1,000 copies per chromosome 17, as well as that of a less abundant 15-monomer repeat, also from chromosome 17. These repeat units were approximately 98% identical in sequence, differing by the exclusion of precisely 1 monomer from the 15-monomer repeat. Homologous unequal crossing-over is suggested as a probable mechanism by which the different repeat lengths on chromosome 17 were generated, and the putative site of such a recombination event is identified. The monomer organization of the chromosome 17 higher-order repeat unit is based, in part, on tandemly repeated pentamers. A similar pentameric suborganization has been previously demonstrated for alpha satellite of the human X chromosome. Despite the organizational similarities, substantial sequence divergence distinguishes these subsets. Hybridization experiments indicate that the chromosome 17 and X subsets are more similar to each other than to the subsets found on several other human chromosomes. We suggest that the chromosome 17 and X alpha satellite subsets may be related components of a larger alphoid subfamily which have evolved from a common ancestral repeat into the contemporary chromosome-specific subsets.

  11. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution. PMID:28926993

  12. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2017-09-18

    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  13. DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Couldrey, Christine; Wells, David N

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (αsatI-5) during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at αsatI-5 and resulting SCNT blastocysts showed significantly more methylation than IVF blastocysts. At implantation, no difference in methylation was observed between SCNT and AI in trophoblast tissue at αsatI-5, however, SCNT embryos were significantly hyper-methylated compared to AI controls at this time point. Following implantation, DNA methylation at αsatI-5 decreased in AI but not SCNT placental tissues. In contrast to placenta, the proportion of methylation at αsatI-5 remained high in adrenal, kidney and muscle tissues during development. Differences in the average proportion of methylation were smaller in somatic tissues than placental tissues but, on average, SCNT somatic tissues were hyper-methylated at αsatI-5. Although sperm from all bulls was less methylated than somatic tissues at αsatI-5, on average this site remained hyper-methylated in sperm from cloned bulls compared with control bulls. This developmental time course confirms that epigenetic reprogramming does occur, at least to some extent, following SCNT. However, the elevated methylation levels observed in SCNT blastocysts and cellular derivatives implies that there is either insufficient time or abundance of appropriate reprogramming factors in oocytes to ensure complete reprogramming. Incomplete reprogramming at this CpG site may be a contributing factor to low SCNT success rates, but more likely represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of incompletely reprogramming. Until protocols ensure the epigenetic signature of a

  14. Mammalian satellite DNA: a speaking dumb.

    PubMed

    Enukashvily, Natella I; Ponomartsev, Nikita V

    2013-01-01

    The tandemly organized highly repetitive satellite DNA is the main DNA component of centromeric/pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin. For almost a century, it was considered as "junk DNA," only a small portion of which is used for kinetochore formation. The current review summarizes recent data about satellite DNA transcription. The possible functions of the transcripts are discussed.

  15. Regulation of mouse satellite DNA replication time.

    PubMed

    Selig, S; Ariel, M; Goitein, R; Marcus, M; Cedar, H

    1988-02-01

    The satellite DNA sequences located near the centromeric regions of mouse chromosomes replicate very late in S in both fibroblast and lymphocyte cells and are heavily methylated at CpG residues. F9 teratocarcinoma cells, on the other hand, contain satellite sequences which are undermethylated and replicate much earlier in S. DNA methylation probably plays some role in the control of satellite replication time since 5-azacytidine treatment of RAG fibroblasts causes a dramatic temporal shift of replication to mid S. In contrast to similar changes accompanying the inactivation of the X-chromosome, early replication of satellite DNA is not associated with an increase in local chromosomal DNase I sensitivity. Fusion of F9 with mouse lymphocytes caused a dramatic early shift in the timing of the normally late replicating lymphocyte satellite heterochromatin, suggesting that trans-activating factors may be responsible for the regulation of replication timing.

  16. Polynucleotide recognition by DNA alpha-polymerase.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S H; Matsukage, A; Bohn, E W; Chen, Y C; Sivarajan, M

    1977-11-01

    In a survey of template-primer preference of a mouse myeloma DNA alpha-polymerase, the fastest rate of DNA synthesis was with poly(dT) as template and (rA)24 as primer. Such a preference for poly(dT).oligo(rA) was not observed with other DNA polymerases of mouse origin. DNA synthesis in this system resulted in formation of oligo(dA) chains, not template-length poly(dA); thus, the average enzyme molecule bound to a poly(dT).(rA)24 complex and initiated a new oligo(dA) chain many times during the incubation. Binding experiments revealed that the alpha-polymerase had high affinity for poly(dT). Although the alpha-polymerase did not bind to poly(dl) and failed to replicate it inreactions with a base pair complementary primer, poly(dl) was replicated after a (dT) block had been grafted to its 3'-end and the oligo(rA) primer had been added. In similar experiments, the (dT) block was found to be much more effective than other 3'-terminal blocks in promoting replication of denatured calf thymus DNA. The results indicate that specific base sequences may regulate initiation of DNA syntehsis by this alpha-polymerase.

  17. Novel Properties of Satellite DNA from Muskmelon

    PubMed Central

    Bendich, Arnold J.; Anderson, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    The purified dense satellite of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) represents 30% of the total DNA and forms a sharp, unimodal peak in both neutral and alkaline CsCl gradients. Spectrophotometric melting and DNA reassociation analyses revealed that one-third of the satellite is high melting and has a complexity of about 2.5 × 105 daltons, while the remaining two-thirds of the satellite melts 8° lower and has a complexity of about 5 × 108 daltons. The thermal stability of reassociated satellite DNA indicates that the multiple copies of the two melting fractions are essentially identical. The sharp, unimodal peak in Cs2SO4 becomes two distinct peaks when either silver or mercuric ions are included in the Cs2SO4 gradient Images PMID:4524654

  18. Physical Interactions between Mcm10, DNA, and DNA Polymerase [alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Eric M.; Huang, Hao; Fanning, Ellen; Chazin, Walter J.; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2009-10-21

    Mcm10 is an essential eukaryotic protein required for the initiation and elongation phases of chromosomal replication. Specifically, Mcm10 is required for the association of several replication proteins, including DNA polymerase {alpha} (pol {alpha}), with chromatin. We showed previously that the internal (ID) and C-terminal (CTD) domains of Mcm10 physically interact with both single-stranded (ss) DNA and the catalytic p180 subunit of pol {alpha}. However, the mechanism by which Mcm10 interacts with pol {alpha} on and off DNA is unclear. As a first step toward understanding the structural details for these critical intermolecular interactions, x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy were used to map the binary interfaces between Mcm10-ID, ssDNA, and p180. The crystal structure of an Mcm10-ID {center_dot} ssDNA complex confirmed and extended our previous evidence that ssDNA binds within the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding-fold cleft of Mcm10-ID. We show using NMR chemical shift perturbation and fluorescence spectroscopy that p180 also binds to the OB-fold and that ssDNA and p180 compete for binding to this motif. In addition, we map a minimal Mcm10 binding site on p180 to a small region within the p180 N-terminal domain (residues 286-310). These findings, together with data for DNA and p180 binding to an Mcm10 construct that contains both the ID and CTD, provide the first mechanistic insight into how Mcm10 might use a handoff mechanism to load and stabilize pol {alpha} within the replication fork.

  19. Nucleoli in a pronuclei-stage mouse embryo are represented by major satellite DNA of interconnecting chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Dozortsev, D; Coleman, A; Nagy, P; Diamond, M P; Ermilov, A; Weier, U; Liyanage, M; Reid, T

    2000-02-01

    To investigate the arrangement of chromosomes within pronuclei-stage mouse zygotes. In vitro study. Academic medical center. None. None. Location of major alpha-satellite DNA, centromeres, and telomeres, and relative location of chromosomes. Chromosomes appeared to be oriented inward by centromeres and to be interconnected by major alpha-satellite DNA, which appeared to be the sole DNA component of the nucleoli. This chromosomal arrangement persisted throughout interphase. Chromosomal painting failed to identify chromosomal ordering within pronuclei. Pronuclear nucleoli are represented by alpha-satellite sequences of interconnecting chromosomes that hold all chromosomes together during interphase. Chromosomes within the pronucleus are randomly positioned relative to each other.

  20. Breakpoints in Robertsonian translocations are localized to satellite III DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gravholt, C.H.; Friedrich, U.; Caprani, M.; Jorgensen, A.L. )

    1992-12-01

    The authors characterized 21 t(13;14) and 3 t(14;21) Robertsonian translocations for the presence of DNA derived from the short arms of the translocated acrocentric chromosomes and identified their centromeres. Nineteen of these 24 translocation carriers were unrelated. Using centromeric [alpha]-repeat DNA as chromosome-specific probe, they found by in situ hybridization that all 24 translocation chromosomes were dicentric. The chromatin between the two centromeres did not stain with silver, and no hybridization signal was detected with probes for rDNA or [beta]-satellite DNA that flank the distal and proximal ends of the rDNA region on the short arm of the acrocentrics. By contrast, all 24 translocation chromosomes gave a distinct hybridization signal when satellite III DNA was used as probe. This result strongly suggests that the chromosomal rearrangements leading to Robertsonian translocations occur preferentially in satellite III DNA. The authors hypothesize that guanine-rich satellite III repeats may promote chromosomal recombination by formation of tetraplex structures. The findings localize satellite III DNA to the short arm of the acrocentric chromosomes distal to centromeric [alpha]-repeat DNA and proximal to [beta]-satellite DNA. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Human gamma X satellite DNA: an X chromosome specific centromeric DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Li, X; Jabs, E W; Court, D; Lin, C C

    1995-11-01

    The cosmid clone, CX16-2D12, was previously localized to the centromeric region of the human X chromosome and shown to lack human X-specific alpha satellite DNA. A 1.2 kb EcoRI fragment was subcloned from the CX16-2D12 cosmid and was named 2D12/E2. DNA sequencing revealed that this 1,205 bp fragment consisted of approximately five tandemly repeated DNA monomers of 220 bp. DNA sequence homology between the monomers of 2D12/E2 ranged from 72.8% to 78.6%. Interestingly, DNA sequence analysis of the 2D12/E2 clone displayed a change in monomer unit orientation between nucleotide positions 585-586 from a "tail-to-head" arrangement to a "head-to-tail" configuration. This may reflect the existence of at least one inversion within this repetitive DNA array in the centromeric region of the human X chromosome. The DNA consensus sequence derived from a compilation of these 220 bp monomers had approximately 62% DNA sequence similarity to the previously determined gamma 8 satellite DNA consensus sequence. Comparison of the 2D12/E2 and gamma 8 consensus sequences revealed a 20 bp DNA sequence that was well conserved in both DNA consensus sequences. Slot-blot analysis revealed that this repetitive DNA sequence comprises approximately 0.015% of the human genome, similar to that found with gamma 8 satellite DNA. These observations suggest that this satellite DNA clone is derived from a subfamily of gamma satellite DNA and is thus designated gamma X satellite DNA. When genomic DNA from six unrelated males and two unrelated females was cut with SstI or HpaI and separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, no restriction fragment length polymorphisms were observed for either gamma X (2D12/E2) or gamma 8 (50E4) probes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the 2D12/E2 clone to the lateral sides of the primary constriction specifically on the human X chromosome.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of mouse satellite DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hörz, W; Altenburger, W

    1981-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of uncloned mouse satellite DNA has been determined by analyzing Sau96I restriction fragments that correspond to the repeat unit of the satellite DNA. An unambiguous sequence of 234 bp has been obtained. The sequence of the first 250 bases from dimeric satellite fragments present in Sau96I limit digests corresponds almost exactly to two tandemly arranged monomer sequences including a complete Sau96I site in the center. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that a low level of divergence which cannot be detected in sequence analyses of uncloned DNA is responsible for the appearance of dimeric fragments. Most of the sequence of the 5% fraction of Sau96 monomers that are susceptible to TaqI has also been determined and has been found to agree completely with the prototype sequence. The monomer sequence is internally repetitious being composed of eight diverged subrepeats. The divergence pattern has interesting implications for theories on the evolution of mouse satellite DNA. PMID:6261227

  3. The Orbital Design of Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Sasha; Belikov, Rus; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet candidates discovered by Kepler are too distant for biomarkers to be detected with foreseeable technology. Alpha Centauri has high separation from other stars and is of close proximity to Earth, which makes the binary star system 'low hanging fruit' for scientists. Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat) is a mission proposed to Small Explorer Program (SMEX) that will use a coronagraph to search for an orbiting planet around one of the stars of Alpha Centauri. The trajectory design for this mission is presented here where three different trajectories are considered: Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) and a Heliocentric Orbit. Uninterrupted stare time to Alpha Centauri is desirable for meeting science requirements, or an orbit that provides 90% stare time to the science target. The instrument thermal stability also has stringent requirements for proper function, influencing trajectory design.

  4. Characterization of a chromosome-specific chimpanzee alpha satellite subset: Evolutionary relationship to subsets on human chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, P.E.; Gosden, J.; Lawson, D.

    1996-04-15

    Alpha satellite DNA is a tandemly repeated DNA family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. The fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite DNA are diverged 169- to 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. The chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens (HSA)), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes (PTR) and Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. It is of interest to ask if alpha satellite arrays at centromeres of homologous chromosomes between these species are closely related (evolving in an orthologous manner) or if the evolutionary processes that homogenize and spread these arrays within and between chromosomes result in nonorthologous evolution of arrays. By using PCR primers specific for human chromosome 17-specific alpha satellite DNA, we have amplified, cloned, and characterized a chromosome-specific subset from the PTR chimpanzee genome. Hybridization both on Southern blots and in situ as well as sequence analysis show that this subset is most closely related, as expected, to sequences on HSA 17. However, in situ hybridization reveals that this subset is not found on the homologous chromosome in chimpanzee (PTR 19), but instead on PTR 12, which is homologous to HSA 2p. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  5. DNA polymerase alpha and beta in the California urchin.

    PubMed Central

    Racine, F M; Morris, P W

    1978-01-01

    DNA polymerase alpha and beta were identified in the urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The DNA polymerase beta sedimented at 3.4 S, constituted 5% of total DNA polymerase activity, and was resistant to N-ethylmaleimide and high ionic strength. The polymerase alpha sedimented at 6--8 S, was inhibited by N-ethylmalemide or 0.1 M (NH4)2SO4, and was dependent upon glycerol for preservation of activity. Both the polymerases alpha and beta were nuclear associated in embryos. The DNA polymerase alpha was markedly heterogeneous on DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange and showed three modal polymerase species. These polymerase alpha species were indistinguishable by template activity assays but the DNA polymerase associated ribonucleotidyl transferase (Biochemistry 75 : 3106-3113, 1976) was found predominantly with only one of the DNA polymerase alpha species. PMID:569291

  6. Satellite DNA in insects: a review.

    PubMed

    Palomeque, T; Lorite, P

    2008-06-01

    The study of insect satellite DNAs (satDNAs) indicates the evolutionary conservation of certain features despite their sequence heterogeneity. Such features can include total length, monomer length, motifs, particular regions and/or secondary and tertiary structures. satDNAs may act as protein-binding sites, structural domains or sites for epigenetic modifications. The selective constraints in the evolution of satDNAs may be due to the satDNA sequence interaction with specific proteins important in heterochromatin formation and possible a role in controlling gene expression. The transcription of satDNA has been described in vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. In insects, differential satDNA expression has been observed in different cells, developmental stages, sex and caste of the individuals. These transcription differences may suggest their involvement in gene-regulation processes. In addition, the satDNA or its transcripts appear to be involved in heterochromatin formation and in chromatin-elimination processes. The importance of transposable elements to insect satDNA is shown by their presence as a constituent of satDNA in several species of insects (including possible active elements). In addition, they may be involved in the formation of centromeres and telomeres and in the homogenization and expansion of satDNA.

  7. Human artificial chromosome assembly by transposon-based retrofitting of genomic BACs with synthetic alpha-satellite arrays.

    PubMed

    Basu, Joydeep; Willard, Huntington F; Stromberg, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The development of methodologies for the rapid assembly of synthetic alpha-satellite arrays recapitulating the higher-order periodic organization of native human centromeres permits the systematic investigation of the significance of primary sequence and sequence organization in centromere function. Synthetic arrays with defined mutations affecting sequence and/or organization may be evaluated in a de novo human artificial chromosome assay. This unit describes strategies for the assembly of custom built alpha-satellite arrays containing any desired mutation as well as strategies for the construction and manipulation of alpha satellite-based transposons. Transposons permit the rapid and reliable retrofitting of any genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) with synthetic alpha-satellite arrays and other functional components, thereby facilitating conversion into BAC-based human artificial chromosome vectors. These techniques permit identification and optimization of the critical parameters underlying the unique ability of alpha-satellite DNA to facilitate de novo centromere assembly, and they will establish the foundation for the next generation of human artificial chromosome vectors.

  8. [Non-radioactive in situ hybridization of alpha-satellite sequences in cytogenetic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Perfumo, C; Arslanian, A; Zara, F; Piombo, G; Pierluigi, M

    1992-01-01

    Non isotopic in situ hybridization with alpha-satellite DNA probes in the cytogenetic diagnosis. Standard banding cytogenetic techniques do not always allow to define the structure and the origin of chromosome rearrangements involving the centromere region. Non-isotopic in situ hybridization of alphoid sequences has allowed to determine the origin of the centromeres in the metaphases of 5 patients referred to us for: 2 structural rearrangements involving chromosome 21, 2 structural rearrangements involving chromosome Y and 1 reciprocal translocation involving on chromosome 20 and one chromosome 15.

  9. Influence of DNA methylation on positioning and DNA flexibility of nucleosomes with pericentric satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Akihisa; Adachi, Fumiya; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    DNA methylation occurs on CpG sites and is important to form pericentric heterochromatin domains. The satellite 2 sequence, containing seven CpG sites, is located in the pericentric region of human chromosome 1 and is highly methylated in normal cells. In contrast, the satellite 2 region is reportedly hypomethylated in cancer cells, suggesting that the methylation status may affect the chromatin structure around the pericentric regions in tumours. In this study, we mapped the nucleosome positioning on the satellite 2 sequence in vitro and found that DNA methylation modestly affects the distribution of the nucleosome positioning. The micrococcal nuclease assay revealed that the DNA end flexibility of the nucleosomes changes, depending on the DNA methylation status. However, the structures and thermal stabilities of the nucleosomes are unaffected by DNA methylation. These findings provide new information to understand how DNA methylation functions in regulating pericentric heterochromatin formation and maintenance in normal and malignant cells.

  10. Location and Underreplication of Satellite DNA in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Wollenzien, Paul; Barsanti, Paolo; Hearst, John E.

    1977-01-01

    The two light nuclear satellites (ρCsCl = 1.672 and ρCsCl = 1.687) have been quantified in DNA isolated from the larvel imaginal discs and brains of Drosophila melanogaster with the genotypes X/O, X/X and X/Y. By comparing the results from these different genotypes, the amounts of the two satellites in the X and Y chromosomes and in the autosomes have been determined. The lightest satellite is not located to any appreciable extent in the X chromosome. The heterochromatic regions are not completely filled by these satellites.—Satellite DNA has also been quantified in DNA isolated from adults containing different genotypes. The two satellites are underreplicated to different extents. The apparent amount of underreplication for one of the satellites is different in different parts of the genome. PMID:410698

  11. An autoradiographic demonstration of nuclear DNA replication by DNA polymerase alpha and of mitochondrial DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Geuskens, M; Hardt, N; Pedrali-Noy, G; Spadari, S

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of thymidine into the DNA of eukaryotic cells is markedly depressed, but not completely inhibited, by aphidicolin, a highly specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. An electron microscope autoradiographic analysis of the synthesis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in vivo in Concanavalin A stimulated rabbit spleen lymphocytes and in Hamster cell cultures, in the absence and in the presence of aphidicolin, revealed that aphidicolin inhibits the nuclear but not the mitochondrial DNA replication. We therefore conclude that DNA polymerase alpha performs the synchronous bidirectional replication of nuclear DNA and that DNA polymerase gamma, the only DNA polymerase present in the mitochondria, performs the "strand displacement" DNA synthesis of these organelles. Images PMID:6262734

  12. Organization and Molecular Evolution of CENP-A–Associated Satellite DNA Families in a Basal Primate Genome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Hayden, Karen E.; Willard, Huntington F.

    2011-01-01

    Centromeric regions in many complex eukaryotic species contain highly repetitive satellite DNAs. Despite the diversity of centromeric DNA sequences among species, the functional centromeres in all species studied to date are marked by CENP-A, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant. Although it is well established that families of multimeric higher-order alpha satellite are conserved at the centromeres of human and great ape chromosomes and that diverged monomeric alpha satellite is found in old and new world monkey genomes, little is known about the organization, function, and evolution of centromeric sequences in more distant primates, including lemurs. Aye-Aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is a basal primate and is located at a key position in the evolutionary tree to study centromeric satellite transitions in primate genomes. Using the approach of chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed to CENP-A, we have identified two satellite families, Daubentonia madagascariensis Aye-Aye 1 (DMA1) and Daubentonia madagascariensis Aye-Aye 2 (DMA2), related to each other but unrelated in sequence to alpha satellite or any other previously described primate or mammalian satellite DNA families. Here, we describe the initial genomic and phylogenetic organization of DMA1 and DMA2 and present evidence of higher-order repeats in Aye-Aye centromeric domains, providing an opportunity to study the emergence of chromosome-specific modes of satellite DNA evolution in primate genomes. PMID:21828373

  13. Interaction of macrolides with alpha dornase during DNA hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, L; Reinert, P; Pépin, L F; Lagrange, P H

    1996-05-01

    Since patients with cystic fibrosis are often treated with alpha dornase to reduce sputum viscosity, and because of preliminary reports of efficacy of long-term low-dose erythromycin therapy in chronic airway diseases, it is likely that alpha dornase and macrolides might be given together in such patients. A possible interaction between these drugs was therefore investigated. Using hyperchromic effect to quantify alpha dornase activity, a time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on human DNA hydrolysis has been observed for erythromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin. Inhibitory doses 50% for alpha dornase were graphically determined. Azithromycin exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect.

  14. K{alpha} satellite transitions in elements with 12{<=}Z{<=}30 produced by electron incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Limandri, Silvina P.; Carreras, Alejo C.; Trincavelli, Jorge C.; Bonetto, Rita D.

    2010-09-15

    The emission of x-ray satellite lines in the K{alpha} region of Mg, Si, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn induced by electron incidence was studied by means of wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The satellite lines studied were K{alpha}{sup '}, K{alpha}{sub 3}, K{alpha}{sub 4}, K{alpha}{sub 5}, K{alpha}{sub 6}, and two transitions denoted here as K{alpha}{sub 22} and K{alpha}{sub 12}. Energy shifts with respect to the main K{alpha}{sub 1} diagram line and transition probabilities relative to the whole K{alpha} group were determined for a number of lines through a careful spectral processing. The dependence of these parameters, as well as of the K{beta}:K{alpha} intensity ratio, on the atomic number was compared with previous experimental and theoretical determinations when available. A discussion about the different mechanisms responsible for vacancy creation involved in the production of double-ionization satellites was performed in the light of the results obtained. Finally, the behavior of the satellite intensities as a function of the incidence energy was discussed for silicon.

  15. Ultraviolet irradiation of monkey cells enhances the repair of DNA adducts in alpha DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Leadon, S.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-11-01

    Excision repair of bulky adducts in alpha DNA of African green monkey cells has previously been shown to be deficient relative to that in the overall genome. We have found that u.v. irradiation of these cells results in the enhanced removal of both aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts from the alpha DNA sequences without affecting repair in the bulk of the DNA. The degree of enhanced removal of AFB1 is dependent upon the u.v. dose and the time interval between irradiation and AFB1 treatment. The u.v. enhancement is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Exposure of the cells to dimethylsulfate or gamma-rays does not affect AFB1 adduct repair. The formation and removal of N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (NA-AAF) adducts from alpha and bulk DNA was studied in detail. A higher initial level of the acetylated C8 adduct of guanine was found in alpha DNA than in bulk DNA. Although both the acetylated and deacetylated C8 adducts were removed from the two DNA species, the level of repair was significantly greater in the bulk DNA. Irradiation of cells with u.v. prior to treatment with NA-AAF enhanced the removal of both adducts from alpha DNA with little or no effect on repair in bulk DNA. We conclude that the presence of u.v. photoproducts or some intermediate in their processing alters the chromatin structure of alpha DNA thereby rendering bulky adducts accessible to repair enzymes. In addition, the differential formation and repair of AAF adducts in alpha DNA compared with that in the bulk of the genome supports the hypothesis of an altered chromatin structure for alpha domains.

  16. Satellite DNA in Plants: More than Just Rubbish.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2015-01-01

    For decades, satellite DNAs have been the hidden part of genomes. Initially considered as junk DNA, there is currently an increasing appreciation of the functional significance of satellite DNA repeats and of their sequences. Satellite DNA families accumulate in the heterochromatin in different parts of the eukaryotic chromosomes, mainly in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions, but they also span the functional centromere. Tandem repeat sequences may spread from subtelomeric to interstitial loci, leading to the formation of chromosome-specific loci or to the accumulation in equilocal sites in different chromosomes. They also appear as the main components of the heterochromatin in the sex-specific region of sex chromosomes. Satellite DNA, required for chromosome organization, also plays a role in pairing and segregation. Some satellite repeats are transcribed and can participate in the formation and maintenance of heterochromatin structure and in the modulation of gene expression. In addition to the identification of the different satellite DNA families, their characteristics and location, we are interested in determining their impact on the genomes, by identifying the mechanisms leading to their appearance and amplification as well as in understanding how they change over time, the factors affecting these changes, and the influence exerted by the evolutionary history of the organisms. On the other hand, satellite DNA sequences are rapidly evolving sequences that may cause reproductive barriers between organisms and promote speciation. The accumulation of experimental data collected in recent years and the emergence of new approaches based on next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genome analysis are opening new perspectives that are changing our understanding of satellite DNA. This review examines recent data to provide a timely update on the overall information gathered about this part of the genome, focusing on the advances in the knowledge of its

  17. T-antigen-DNA polymerase alpha complex implicated in simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Smale, S T; Tjian, R

    1986-01-01

    We have combined in vitro DNA replication reactions and immunological techniques to analyze biochemical interactions between simian virus (SV40) large T antigen and components of the cellular replication apparatus. First, in vitro SV40 DNA replication was characterized with specific origin mutants. Next, monoclonal antibodies were used to demonstrate that a specific domain of T antigen formed a complex with cellular DNA polymerase alpha. Several antibodies were identified that coprecipitated T antigen and DNA polymerase alpha, while others were found to selectively prevent this interaction and concomitantly inhibit DNA replication. DNA polymerase alpha also bound efficiently to a T-antigen affinity column, confirming the immunoprecipitation results and providing a useful method for purification of the complete protein complex. Taken together, these results suggest that the T-antigen-polymerase association may be a key step in the initiation of SV40 DNA replication. Images PMID:3025630

  18. Satellite DNA relationships in man and the primates.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, A R; Gosden, J R; Ryder, O A

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the genomes of a series of primates to identify the presence of sequences related to human satellite DNAs I, II and III by restriction enzyme digestion and hybridisation with probes of these satellite DNAs. Where we have found such related sequences we have examined the extent to which they have diverged by measuring the stability of the hybrids. DNA satellite III is the oldest sequence being common to species which have diverged some 24 million years ago. In contrast DNA satellites I and II are of much more recent origin. Our results permit us to draw conclusions about the way these sequences have evolved, and how the evolution of repeated DNA sequences may be related to the evolution of the primate lineage. Images PMID:6269076

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA repeats from Phaseolus beans.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tiago; Dos Santos, Karla G B; Richard, Manon M S; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) subtelomeres are highly enriched for khipu, the main satellite DNA identified so far in this genome. Here, we comparatively investigate khipu genomic organization in Phaseolus species from different clades. Additionally, we identified and characterized another satellite repeat, named jumper, associated to khipu. A mixture of P. vulgaris khipu clones hybridized in situ confirmed the presence of khipu-like sequences on subterminal chromosome regions in all Phaseolus species, with differences in the number and intensity of signals between species and when species-specific clones were used. Khipu is present as multimers of ∼500 bp and sequence analyses of cloned fragments revealed close relationship among khipu repeats. The new repeat, named jumper, is a 170-bp satellite sequence present in all Phaseolus species and inserted into the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA in the P. vulgaris genome. Nevertheless, jumper was found as a high-copy repeat at subtelomeres and/or pericentromeres in the Phaseolus microcarpus lineage only. Our data argue for khipu as an important subtelomeric satellite DNA in the genus and for a complex satellite repeat composition of P. microcarpus subtelomeres, which also contain jumper. Furthermore, the differential amplification of these repeats in subtelomeres or pericentromeres reinforces the presence of a dynamic satellite DNA library in Phaseolus.

  20. Heterochromatin and satellite DNA in man: properties and prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Miklos, G L; John, B

    1979-01-01

    In reviewing the properties of heterochromatin and satellite DNA in man, it is clear that the human genome does not readily lend itself to experimental tests of the postulated functions for satellite DNA. Since the spectrum of known structural properties of vertebrate and invertebrate satellite DNAs are broadly overlapping, an alternative avenue is to experimentally manipulate the heterochromatin of an organism, and then evaluate the generality of the results. When this is done in Drosophila melanogaster, the one organism where such an experimental approach is indeed possible, the results provide no support for most of the popular hypotheses concerning satellite DNA function. They do, however, reveal an important effect on the meiotic system, namely that the position of crossover events can be markedly altered in the presence of heterochromatin known to be rich in satellite DNAs. This effect is not peculiar to Drosophila, since supporting data are readily available from natural situations in both mammals and grasshoppers. In all such cases, the effects are most easily discernible where the heterochromatic blocks are substantial in size, and non-centric in location, situations which do not apply in man. The human system, however, offers other potentials. The ubiquity of naturally occurring heterochromatic polymorphisms, coupled with the extreme sensitivity of the human genome to perturbation, offers some scope for assessing the possible somatic effects of alterations in the amount of satellite DNA. PMID:111544

  1. A possible structure for calf satellite DNA I.

    PubMed Central

    Roizes, G

    1976-01-01

    Calf satellite DNA I (p = 1.715) has been hydrolysed by a number or restriction endonucleases. It consists of a repeating unit of 1460 nucleotide pairs within which the sites of Eco R II Mbo I, Sac I, Alu I, Ava II and Hha I were localised in comparison with those of Eco R I and Hind II. The distribution of the Hpa II, Sac I, Hha I, Hinf I and Mbo II sites within calf satellite DNA I, as well as that of several restriction endonuclease sites within calf satellite DNA III (p = 1.705) allowed me to define subsatellite fractions. Furthermore, some of the sites of the CpG containing restriction enzymes Hpa II and Hha I are lacking. The possible implications of these results are discussed. PMID:995648

  2. Separation of satellite DNA chromatin and main band DNA chromatin from mouse brain.

    PubMed Central

    Mazrimas, J A; Balhorn, R; Hatch, F T

    1979-01-01

    Using restriction endonucleases which preferentially digest mouse main band DNA and leave satellite DNA intact, we have isolated highly purified chromatin fractions containing only mouse satellite or main band DNA. Following the digestion of mouse brain nuclei with EndoR Alu I, main band DNA chromatin is selectively extracted with 10mM Tris, 10mM EDTA. Satellite DNA chromatin is subsequently extracted from the nuclear pellet with Tris-3M urea and further purified on sucrose gradients. Chromatin extracted from digested nuclei with Tris-EDTA contains only main band DNA and has a molecular weight lower than 2 x 10(6). Chromatin fractions obtained from the lower regions of sucrose gradients of the Tris-Urea extracts contain 40--95% satellite DNA and have a molecular weight of 6 to 8 x 10(6). Both the satellite DNA and main band DNA chromatins contain all five histones and have a protein to DNA ratio of 1.3 to 1. Images PMID:116196

  3. pH-induced fabrication of DNA/chitosan/alpha-ZrP nanocomposite and DNA release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Limin; Zhang, Hai-Tang; Shen, Bo; He, Weijiang; Liu, Yuge; Lu, Guo-Yuan; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2010-03-12

    With positively charged chitosan as an intermediary, herring sperm DNA was intercalated into the interlayer galleries of negatively charged alpha-ZrP to form DNA/chitosan/alpha-ZrP ternary hybrids at pH 5.5. Fourier-transform IR, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed not only the coexistence of DNA, chitosan and alpha-ZrP in the composite but also the layered composite structure with an interlayer distance of 4.25 nm. Circular dichroism (CD) and UV spectroscopic studies disclosed that the restraint of DNA by the layered alpha-ZrP favors stabilization of the double-helical conformation of DNA and enhances the denaturation temperature. The intercalated DNA can be effectively released from the ternary nanocomposites at pHs higher than 6.5, and the released DNA displayed a similar CD spectrum to that of free DNA. The current research displays the promising potential to obtain a non-viral gene vector by intercalating DNA into negatively charged inorganic layered materials in the presence of a positively charged intermediary.

  4. Physical map of the centromeric region of human chromosome 7: relationship between two distinct alpha satellite arrays.

    PubMed Central

    Wevrick, R; Willard, H F

    1991-01-01

    A long-range physical map of the centromeric region of human chromosome 7 has been constructed in order to define the region containing sequences with potential involvement in centromere function. The map is centered around alpha satellite DNA, a family of tandemly repeated DNA forming arrays of hundreds to thousands of kilobasepairs at the primary constriction of every human chromosome. Two distinct alpha satellite arrays (the loci D7Z1 and D7Z2) have previously been localized to chromosome 7. Detailed one- and two- locus maps of the chromosome 7 centromere have been constructed. Our data indicate that D7Z1 and D7Z2 arrays are not interspersed with each other but are both present on a common Mlu I restriction fragment estimated to be 3500 kb and 5500 kb on two different chromosome 7's investigated. These long-range maps, combined with previous measurements of the D7Z1 and D7Z2 array lengths, are used to construct a consensus map of the centromere of chromosome 7. The analysis used to construct the map provides, by extension, a framework for analysis of the structure of DNA in the centromeric regions of other human and mammalian chromosomes. Images PMID:2041770

  5. Satellite DNA and heterochromatin of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum.

    PubMed

    Plohl, M; Lucijanić-Justić, V; Ugarković, D; Petitpierre, E; Juan, C

    1993-06-01

    The chromosomes of Tribolium confusum have conspicuous bulks of pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin. The amount of heterochromatin measured by C-banding in metaphase chromosomes is estimated to be 40-45%. It is composed of an A + T rich DNA according to the distamycin A/diamidinophenylindol staining of chromosomes. Restriction analysis of isolated T. confusum genomic DNA shows that this species has a satellite DNA that constitutes about 40% of the genome. Cloning and sequencing experiments reveal a monomer length of 158 base pairs and a copy number of 5.77 x 10(5) per haploid genome. Its sequence is A + T rich (73%), with direct and inverted repeats, one of them with a possibility of forming stable cruciform structure. The abundance, monomer length, and the mutation rate are similar to those found in other satellite families from different species of Tenebrionidae, but no sequence homology has been found among them. No retarded mobility of satellite DNA, characteristic for molecules with sequence-induced curvature, has been detected by electrophoresis on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. In situ digestions with restriction enzymes and in situ hybridization show that this satellite DNA is located in pericentromeric positions of all chromosomes coinciding with C-bands.

  6. Interim Definitive Orbit for the Satellite 1958-Alpha, Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    A summary of certain position information indicating accuracies for the orbital arcs underlying the ephemeris is presented in table 1. The detailed ephemeris information is presented at the end of this report in the form of tables which give the latitude and longitude of the subsatellite point and the satellite height for each minute of time. The subsatellite point is defined here as the point on the earth's surface over which the satellite was determined to be at the indicated time. The form of presentation was recommended by the International Geophysical Year agencies concerned, for use in specifying the orbital positions of IGy satellites. Time is specified by giving in columns, the day, hour, and minute of Greenwich mean time.

  7. Mutation and recombination in cattle satellite DNA: a feedback model for the evolution of satellite DNA repeats.

    PubMed

    Nijman, I J; Lenstra, J A

    2001-04-01

    The cattle genome contains several distinct centromeric satellites with interrelated evolutionary histories. We compared these satellites in Bovini species that diverged 0.2 to about 5 Myr ago. Quantification of hybridization signals by phosphor imaging revealed a large variation in the relative amounts of the major satellites. In the genome of water buffalo this has led to the complete deletion of satellite III. Comparative sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis of satellites IV, 1.711a, and 1.711b from the related Bos and Bison species revealed heterogeneities in 0.5 to 2% of the positions, again with variations in the relative amounts of sequence variants. Restriction patterns generated by double digestions suggested a recombination of sequence variants. Our results are compatible with a model of the life history of satellites during which homogeneity of interacting repeat units is both cause and consequence of the rapid turnover of satellite DNA. Initially, a positive feedback loop leads to a rapid saltatory amplification of homogeneous repeat units. In the second phase, mutations inhibit the interaction of repeat units and coexisting sequence variants amplify independently. Homogenization by the spreading of one of the variants is prevented by recombination and the satellite is eventually outcompeted by another, more homogeneous tandem repeat sequence.

  8. RNA Pol II Promotes Transcription of Centromeric Satellite DNA in Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Željka; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2008-01-01

    Transcripts of centromeric satellite DNAs are known to play a role in heterochromatin formation as well as in establishment of the kinetochore. However, little is known about basic mechanisms of satellite DNA expression within constitutive heterochromatin and its regulation. Here we present comprehensive analysis of transcription of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, PRAT from beetle Palorus ratzeburgii (Coleoptera). This satellite is characterized by preservation and extreme sequence conservation among evolutionarily distant insect species. PRAT is expressed in all three developmental stages: larvae, pupae and adults at similar level. Transcripts are abundant comprising 0.033% of total RNA and are heterogeneous in size ranging from 0.5 kb up to more than 5 kb. Transcription proceeds from both strands but with 10 fold different expression intensity and transcripts are not processed into siRNAs. Most of the transcripts (80%) are not polyadenylated and remain in the nucleus while a small portion is exported to the cytoplasm. Multiple, irregularly distributed transcription initiation sites as well as termination sites have been mapped within the PRAT sequence using primer extension and RLM-RACE. The presence of cap structure as well as poly(A) tails in a portion of the transcripts indicate RNA polymerase II–dependent transcription and a putative polymerase II promoter site overlaps the most conserved part of the PRAT sequence. The treatment of larvae with alpha-amanitin decreases the level of PRAT transcripts at concentrations that selectively inhibit pol II activity. In conclusion, stable, RNA polymerase II dependant transcripts of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, not regulated by RNAi, have been identified and characterized. This study offers a basic understanding of expression of highly abundant heterochromatic DNA which in beetle species constitutes up to 50% of the genome. PMID:18270581

  9. Schistosome satellite DNA encodes active hammerhead ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Ferbeyre, G; Smith, J M; Cedergren, R

    1998-07-01

    Using a computer program designed to search for RNA structural motifs in sequence databases, we have found a hammerhead ribozyme domain encoded in the Smalpha repetitive DNA of Schistosoma mansoni. Transcripts of these repeats are expressed as long multimeric precursor RNAs that cleave in vitro and in vivo into unit-length fragments. This RNA domain is able to engage in both cis and trans cleavage typical of the hammerhead ribozyme. Further computer analysis of S. mansoni DNA identified a potential trans cleavage site in the gene coding for a synaptobrevin-like protein, and RNA transcribed from this gene was efficiently cleaved by the Smalpha ribozyme in vitro. Similar families of repeats containing the hammerhead domain were found in the closely related Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosomatium douthitti species but were not present in Schistosoma japonicum or Heterobilharzia americana, suggesting that the hammerhead domain was not acquired from a common schistosome ancestor.

  10. Pericentric satellite DNA sequences in Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Vespertilionidae; Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Barragán, M J L; Martínez, S; Marchal, J A; Fernández, R; Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Sánchez, A

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports the molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a HindIII family of satellite DNA in the bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus. This satellite is organized in tandem repeats of 418 bp monomer units, and represents approximately 3% of the whole genome. The consensus sequence from five cloned monomer units has an A-T content of 62.20%. We have found differences in the ladder pattern of bands between two populations of the same species. These differences are probably because of the absence of the target sites for the HindIII enzyme in most monomer units of one population, but not in the other. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the satellite DNA in the pericentromeric regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome, but it was absent from the Y chromosome. Digestion of genomic DNAs with HpaII and its isoschizomer MspI demonstrated that these repetitive DNA sequences are not methylated. Other bat species were tested for the presence of this repetitive DNA. It was absent in five Vespertilionidae and one Rhinolophidae species, indicating that it could be a species/genus specific, repetitive DNA family.

  11. Detection of alpha particles using DNA/Al Schottky junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber E-mail: vengadeshp@um.edu.my; Periasamy, Vengadesh E-mail: vengadeshp@um.edu.my; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-09-21

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA can be utilized in an organic-metallic rectifying structure to detect radiation, especially alpha particles. This has become much more important in recent years due to crucial environmental detection needs in both peace and war. In this work, we fabricated an aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al structure and generated current–voltage characteristics upon exposure to alpha radiation. Two models were utilized to investigate these current profiles; the standard conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung and Cheung's method. Using these models, the barrier height, Richardson constant, ideality factor and series resistance of the metal-DNA-metal structure were analyzed in real time. The barrier height, Φ value calculated using the conventional method for non-radiated structure was 0.7149 eV, increasing to 0.7367 eV after 4 min of radiation. Barrier height values were observed to increase after 20, 30 and 40 min of radiation, except for 6, 8, and 10 min, which registered a decrease of about 0.67 eV. This was in comparison using Cheung and Cheung's method, which registered 0.6983 eV and 0.7528 eV for the non-radiated and 2 min of radiation, respectively. The barrier height values, meanwhile, were observed to decrease after 4 (0.61 eV) to 40 min (0.6945 eV). The study shows that conventional thermionic emission model could be practically utilized for estimating the diode parameters including the effect of series resistance. These changes in the electronic properties of the Al/DNA/Al junctions could therefore be utilized in the manufacture of sensitive alpha particle sensors.

  12. Detection of alpha particles using DNA/Al Schottky junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA can be utilized in an organic-metallic rectifying structure to detect radiation, especially alpha particles. This has become much more important in recent years due to crucial environmental detection needs in both peace and war. In this work, we fabricated an aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al structure and generated current-voltage characteristics upon exposure to alpha radiation. Two models were utilized to investigate these current profiles; the standard conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung and Cheung's method. Using these models, the barrier height, Richardson constant, ideality factor and series resistance of the metal-DNA-metal structure were analyzed in real time. The barrier height, Φ value calculated using the conventional method for non-radiated structure was 0.7149 eV, increasing to 0.7367 eV after 4 min of radiation. Barrier height values were observed to increase after 20, 30 and 40 min of radiation, except for 6, 8, and 10 min, which registered a decrease of about 0.67 eV. This was in comparison using Cheung and Cheung's method, which registered 0.6983 eV and 0.7528 eV for the non-radiated and 2 min of radiation, respectively. The barrier height values, meanwhile, were observed to decrease after 4 (0.61 eV) to 40 min (0.6945 eV). The study shows that conventional thermionic emission model could be practically utilized for estimating the diode parameters including the effect of series resistance. These changes in the electronic properties of the Al/DNA/Al junctions could therefore be utilized in the manufacture of sensitive alpha particle sensors.

  13. Reassociation kinetics of three satellite components of calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Votavová, H; Sponar, J

    1975-01-01

    Using absorption measurements the reassociation kinetics of three satellite DNA components isolated from calf thymus was studied under various conditions. A different method using CsC1 density gradient determinations particularly suited for kinetic analysis of mixtures was also used and shown to give similar results. Reassociation rate constants were corrected for mismatching during strand reassociation using data obtained by kinetic analysis of fractions of the 1.714 g/cm-3 satellite component. The values of corrected as well as uncorrected complexities were calculated and compared with results of other methods. They were shown to be compatible with the concept of sequence repetition at various levels. PMID:1168341

  14. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    PubMed Central

    Mazrimas, J. A.; Hatch, F.T.

    1977-01-01

    We have characterized satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) and have shown that the HS-α and HS-β satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs2SO4-Ag+ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomysbottae, contains Th-α (1.713 g/ml) and Th-β (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Caviaporcellus) contains Ca-α, Ca-β and Ca-γ at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilusharrisi) contains Am-α, 1.708 g/ml, Am-β, 1.717 g/ml, and Am-γ, 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago. PMID:561953

  15. The region of CQQQKPQRRP of PGC-1{alpha} interacts with the DNA-binding complex of FXR/RXR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaya, Eiko; Jingami, Hisato . E-mail: jingami@mfour.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-04-14

    PGC-1{alpha} co-activates transcription by several nuclear receptors. To study the interaction among PGC-1{alpha}, RXR{alpha}/FXR, and DNA, we performed electrophoresis mobility shift assays. The RXR{alpha}/FXR proteins specifically bound to DNA containing the IR-1 sequence in the absence of ligand. When the fusion protein of GST-PGC-1{alpha} was added to the mixture of RXR{alpha}/FXR/DNA, the ligand-influenced retardation of the mobility was observed. The ligand for RXR{alpha} (9-cis-retinoic acid) was necessary for this retardation, whereas, the ligand for FXR, chenodeoxycholic acid, barely had an effect. The results obtained using truncated PGC-1{alpha} proteins suggested that two regions are necessary for PGC-1{alpha} to interact with the DNA-binding complex of RXR{alpha}/FXR. One is the region of the second leucine-rich motif, and the other is that of the amino acid sequence CQQQKPQRRP, present between the second and third leucine-rich motifs. The results obtained with the SPQSS mutation for KPQRR suggested that the basic amino acids are important for the interaction.

  16. Apparent relatedness of the main component of ovine 1.714 satellite DNA to bovine 1.715 satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Reisner, A H; Bucholtz, C A

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the principal component of ovine 1.714 g/cm3 satellite DNA was determined from a monomeric fragment inserted at the BamHI site of pBR322 and cloned in Escherichia coli strain RR1. The 816-bp tandemly repeated sequence contains a number of small repeated sequences dispersed within it, one group of which forms a pentameric tandem repeat of a 13-bp segment (positions 548-612). A 20-bp region (60-79) shows an 85% homology with the reverse-complement of the sequence from 455 through 474. There are two regions of 67 bp (75-141) and 59 bp (755-813) which show greater than 70% homology with regions of bovine 1.715 g/cm3 satellite DNA (1402 bp; positions 1218-1284 and 1079-1137, respectively) while a 31-bp region (ovine 62-92, bovine 133-163) shows 80% homology. Quasi-correlation coefficients (Qr) were determined using the triplet numbers of the sheep satellite versus all sequences in the National Biomedical Research Foundation and EMBL nucleotide sequence data bases. Qr equals 0.85 for ovine 1.714 g/cm3 satellite versus bovine 1.715 g/cm3 satellite. The next highest Qr for a bovine satellite segment was 0.58. Thus, the ovine 1.714 g/cm3 and bovine 1.715 g/cm3 satellite appear demonstrably related. Taking into account that sheep and cattle diverged 18-20 million years ago, this suggests that the material may be functional and that its function is related to its sequence.

  17. Deficient repair of chemical adducts in alpha DNA of monkey cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zolan, M.E.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1982-03-01

    Researchers have examined excision repair of DNA damage in the highly repeated alpha DNA sequence of cultured African green monkey cells. Irradiation of cells with 254 nm ultraviolet light resulted in the same frequency of pyrimidine dimers in alpha DNA and the bulk of the DNA. The rate and extent of pyrimidine dimer removal, as judged by measurement of repair synthesis, was also similar for alpha DNA and bulk DNA. In cells treated with furocoumarins and long-wave-length ultraviolet light, however, repair synthesis in alpha DNA was only 30% of that in bulk DNA, although it followed the same time course. Researchers found that this reduced repair was not caused by different initial amounts of furocoumarin damage or by different sizes of repair patches, as researchers found these to be similar in the two DNA species. Direct quantification demonstrated that fewer furocoumarin adducts were removed from alpha DNA than from bulk DNA. In cells treated with another chemical DNA-damaging agent, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, repair synthesis in alpha DNA was 60% of that in bulk DNA. These results show that the repair of different kinds of DNA damage can be affected to different extents by some property of this tandemly repeated heterochromatic DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in primate cells of differential repair of cellular DNA sequences.

  18. Human Centromeres Produce Chromosome-Specific and Array-Specific Alpha Satellite Transcripts that Are Complexed with CENP-A and CENP-C.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Shannon M; Sullivan, Lori L; Sullivan, Beth A

    2017-08-07

    Human centromeres are defined by alpha satellite DNA arrays that are distinct and chromosome specific. Most human chromosomes contain multiple alpha satellite arrays that are competent for centromere assembly. Here, we show that human centromeres are defined by chromosome-specific RNAs linked to underlying organization of distinct alpha satellite arrays. Active and inactive arrays on the same chromosome produce discrete sets of transcripts in cis. Non-coding RNAs produced from active arrays are complexed with CENP-A and CENP-C, while inactive-array transcripts associate with CENP-B and are generally less stable. Loss of CENP-A does not affect transcript abundance or stability. However, depletion of array-specific RNAs reduces CENP-A and CENP-C at the targeted centromere via faulty CENP-A loading, arresting cells before mitosis. This work shows that each human alpha satellite array produces a unique set of non-coding transcripts, and RNAs present at active centromeres are necessary for kinetochore assembly and cell-cycle progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aphidicolin inhibits DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase alpha and isolated nuclei by a similar mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Krokan, H; Wist, E; Krokan, R H

    1981-01-01

    Aphidicolin is a selective inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. In contrast to earlier reports, the drug was found to inhibit DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase alpha and isolated HeLa cell nuclei by a similar mechanism. For both systems aphidicolin primarily competed with dCTP incorporation. However, the apparent Vmax for dCTP incorporation was reduced by 50-60% at relatively low concentrations of aphidicolin, thus the mechanism of inhibition is complex. Furthermore, a 2-5 fold increase in apparent Km for dTTP was observed in the presence of aphidicolin, but the apparent Km values for dATP and dGTP were essentially unaltered. This, together with additional evidence, suggested that the mechanism of action of aphidicolin involves a strong competition with dCMP incorporation, a weaker competition with dTMP incorporation and very little, if any, competition with dGMP and dAMP incorporation. PMID:6795595

  20. DNA-binding activity of TNF-{alpha} inducing protein from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzuhara, T. Suganuma, M.; Oka, K.; Fujiki, H.

    2007-11-03

    Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) inducing protein (Tip{alpha}) is a carcinogenic factor secreted from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), mediated through both enhanced expression of TNF-{alpha} and chemokine genes and activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B. Since Tip{alpha} enters gastric cancer cells, the Tip{alpha} binding molecules in the cells should be investigated. The direct DNA-binding activity of Tip{alpha} was observed by pull down assay using single- and double-stranded genomic DNA cellulose. The surface plasmon resonance assay, indicating an association between Tip{alpha} and DNA, revealed that the affinity of Tip{alpha} for (dGdC)10 is 2400 times stronger than that of del-Tip{alpha}, an inactive Tip{alpha}. This suggests a strong correlation between DNA-binding activity and carcinogenic activity of Tip{alpha}. And the DNA-binding activity of Tip{alpha} was first demonstrated with a molecule secreted from H. pylori.

  1. Karyopherin Alpha 1 Regulates Satellite Cell Proliferation and Survival by Modulating Nuclear Import.

    PubMed

    Choo, Hyo-Jung; Cutler, Alicia; Pavlath, Grace K

    2016-07-19

    Satellite cells are stem cells with an essential role in skeletal muscle repair. Precise regulation of gene expression is critical for proper satellite cell quiescence, proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal. Nuclear proteins required for gene expression are dependent on the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery to access to nucleus, however little is known about regulation of nuclear transport in satellite cells. The best characterized nuclear import pathway is classical nuclear import which depends on a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS) in a cargo protein and the heterodimeric import receptors, karyopherin alpha (KPNA) and beta (KPNB). Multiple KPNA1 paralogs exist and can differ in importing specific cNLS proteins required for cell differentiation and function. We show that transcripts for six Kpna paralogs underwent distinct changes in mouse satellite cells during muscle regeneration accompanied by changes in cNLS proteins in nuclei. Depletion of KPNA1, the most dramatically altered KPNA, caused satellite cells in uninjured muscle to prematurely activate, proliferate and undergo apoptosis leading to satellite cell exhaustion with age. Increased proliferation of satellite cells led to enhanced muscle regeneration at early stages of regeneration. In addition, we observed impaired nuclear localization of two key KPNA1 cargo proteins: p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor associated with cell cycle control and lymphoid enhancer factor 1, a critical cotranscription factor for β-catenin. These results indicate that regulated nuclear import of proteins by KPNA1 is critical for satellite cell proliferation and survival and establish classical nuclear import as a novel regulatory mechanism for controlling satellite cell fate. Stem Cells 2016.

  2. Karyopherin alpha 1 regulates satellite cell proliferation and survival by modulating nuclear import

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Hyo-Jung; Cutler, Alicia; Rother, Franziska; Bader, Michael; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite cells are stem cells with an essential role in skeletal muscle repair. Precise regulation of gene expression is critical for proper satellite cell quiescence, proliferation, differentiation and self -renewal. Nuclear proteins required for gene expression are dependent on the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery to access to nucleus, however little is known about regulation of nuclear transport in satellite cells. The best characterized nuclear import pathway is classical nuclear import which depends on a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS) in a cargo protein and the heterodimeric import receptors, karyopherin alpha (KPNA) and beta (KPNB). Multiple KPNA1 paralogs exist and can differ in importing specific cNLS proteins required for cell differentiation and function. We show that transcripts for six Kpna paralogs underwent distinct changes in mouse satellite cells during muscle regeneration accompanied by changes in cNLS proteins in nuclei. Depletion of KPNA1, the most dramatically altered KPNA, caused satellite cells in uninjured muscle to prematurely activate, proliferate and undergo apoptosis leading to satellite cell exhaustion with age. Increased proliferation of satellite cells led to enhanced muscle regeneration at early stages of regeneration. In addition, we observed impaired nuclear localization of two key KPNA1 cargo proteins: p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor associated with cell cycle control and lymphoid enhancer factor 1, a critical co-transcription factor for β-catenin. These results indicate that regulated nuclear import of proteins by KPNA1 is critical for satellite cell proliferation and survival and establish classical nuclear import as a novel regulatory mechanism for controlling satellite cell fate. PMID:27434733

  3. Genetic Determinants of Symptoms on Viral DNA Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chenjun; Qing, Ling; Li, Zhenghe; Liu, Yi; Qian, Yajuan; Zhou, Xueping

    2009-01-01

    Begomovirus-DNA-β disease complexes induce different symptom phenotypes in their hosts. To investigate the genetic determinants of the phenotypic differences, Nicotiana spp. and tomato plants were inoculated with infectious clones of Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV)/TbCSV DNA-β (TbCSB) and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV)/TYLCCNV DNA-β (TYLCCNB) pseudorecombinants and showed that TYLCCNB induced characteristic vein-thickening and enation symptoms, while TbCSB only slightly exacerbated the leaf-curling symptoms, regardless of the helper virus being used. The roles of DNA-β-encoded βC1 and a 430-nucleotide fragment containing the A-rich region and the putative βC1 promoter region of the βC1 gene (referred to as AP) in symptom development were further investigated by constructing hybrid satellites in which the βC1 coding region or AP was exchanged between the two satellite molecules. A TYLCCNB hybrid with TbCSB βC1 lost the ability to elicit the vein-thickening and enation phenotypes. TbCSB hybrids containing the TYLCCNB βC1 or AP fragment failed to induce the characteristic vein thickening and enations. A TYLCCNB hybrid having the TbCSB AP fragment produced the enations, but the number of enations was less and their sizes were reduced. Differently from the phloem-specific pattern of the TYLCCNB promoter, a full-length fragment upstream of the TbCSB βC1 gene confers a constitutive β-glucuronidase expression pattern in transgenic tobacco plants. The above results indicate that the DNA-β-encoded βC1 protein is the symptom determinant, but the promoter of the βC1 gene has influence on symptom production. PMID:19542327

  4. Cell cycle expression of two replicative DNA polymerases alpha and delta from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H; Francesconi, S; Wang, T S

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of two Schizosaccharomyces pombe replicative DNA polymerases alpha and delta during the cell cycle. The pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes encoding DNA polymerases alpha and delta were isolated from S. pombe. Both pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes are single copy genes in haploid cells and are essential for cell viability. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs, the steady-state transcripts of both S. pombe pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes were present throughout the cell cycle. Sequence analysis of the pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes did not reveal the Mlu I motifs in their upstream sequences that are involved in cell cycle-dependent transcription of S. cerevisiae DNA synthesis genes as well as the S. pombe cdc22+ gene at the G1/S boundary. However, five near-match Mlu I motifs were found in the upstream region of the pol alpha+ gene. S. pombe DNA polymerases alpha and delta proteins were also expressed constantly throughout the cell cycle. In addition, the enzymatic activity of the S. pombe DNA polymerase alpha measured by in vitro assay was detected at all stages of the cell cycle. Thus, these S. pombe replicative DNA polymerases, like that of S. pombe cdc17+ gene, are expressed throughout the cell cycle at the transcriptional and protein level. These results indicate that S. pombe has at least two regulatory modes for the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and DNA precursor synthesis. Images PMID:8443413

  5. alpha-Terthienyl photosensitizes damage to pBR322 DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, T P; Kagan, J; Tuveson, R W; Wang, G R

    1991-04-01

    alpha-Terthienyl photosensitizes single strand breaks in pBR322 DNA. Almost identical results were observed under oxygen and under argon. In the presence of oxygen, this DNA nicking was enhanced by histidine and was not affected by superoxide dismutase, catalase, or the antioxidant BHT. Although chemical damage to DNA treated with alpha-terthienyl plus near-UV was clearly demonstrated in vitro, transformation in E. coli with this damaged pBR322 DNA still took place. Likewise, Haemophilus influenzae DNA transforming activity was not significantly decreased by photosensitization with alpha-terthienyl.

  6. Pericentric satellite DNA and molecular phylogeny in Acomys (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Kunze, B; Traut, W; Garagna, S; Weichenhan, D; Redi, C A; Winking, H

    1999-01-01

    Satellite DNAs (stDNAs) of four Acomys species (spiny-mice), A. cahirinus, A. cineraceus, A. dimidiatus and A. russatus, belong to closely related sequence families. Monomer sizes range from 338 to 364 bp. Between-species sequence identity was from 81.0% to 97.2%. The molecular phylogeny of the sequences helps to clarify the taxonomy of this 'difficult' group. The A. dimidiatus genome contains about 60000 repeats. According to the restriction patterns, repeats are arranged in tandem. The stDNA maps to the centromeric heterochromatin of most autosomes, both acrocentric and metacentric, but appears to be absent in the centromeric region of Y chromosomes. A well-conserved centromere protein B (CENP-B) box is present in the stDNA of A. russatus while it is degenerated in the other species.

  7. SatDNA Analyzer: a computing tool for satellite-DNA evolutionary analysis.

    PubMed

    Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Aznarte, José Luis; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2007-03-15

    satDNA Analyzer is a program, implemented in C++, for the analysis of the patterns of variation at each nucleotide position considered independently amongst all units of a given satellite-DNA family when comparing it between a pair of species. The program classifies each site accordingly as monomorphic or polymorphic, discriminates shared from non-shared polymorphisms and classifies each non-shared polymorphism according to the model proposed by Strachan et al. in six different stages of transition during the spread of a variant repeat unit toward its fixation. Furthermore, this program implements several other utilities for satellite-DNA analysis evolution such as the design of the average consensus sequences, the average base pair contents, the distribution of variant sites, the transition to transversion ratio and different estimates of intra-specific variation and inter-specific variation. Aprioristic hypotheses on factors influencing the molecular drive process and the rates and biases of concerted evolution can be tested with this program. Additionally, satDNA Analyzer generates an output file containing a sequence alignment without shared polymorphisms to be used for further evolutionary analysis by using different phylogenetic softwares. satDNA Analyzer is freely available at http://satdna.sourceforge.net/. SatDNA Analyzer has been designed to operate on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.

  8. Tenebrio obscurus satellite DNA is resistant to cleavage by restriction endonucleases in situ.

    PubMed

    Ugarković, D; Plohl, M; Petitpierre, E; Lucijanić-Justić, V; Juan, C

    1994-05-01

    Satellite DNA from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio obscurus, is composed of 344 bp long monomers of high AT content (68%), and represents 15% of the total DNA. In situ hybridization reveals the positions of the satellite on the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all T. obscurus chromosomes. To compare restriction enzyme (RE) effects with those on naked DNA, fixed chromosomes were digested with REs having recognition sites in most of the satellite monomers, and also with enzymes having target sites present only partially, or very rarely in the satellite units. All enzymes produce similar C-like banding patterns showing heterochromatin resistance to digestion regardless of the enzyme used. In situ nick translation suggests the inability of REs to cleave satellite DNA rather than the inefficient extraction of DNA fragments. DNA in heterochromatin was only extensively digested when the chromosomes were preincubated with proteinase K, indicating that accessibility of REs to DNA is increased by the removal of chromosomal proteins. This is in contrast to recently obtained results in Tenebrio molitor, where cleavage of satellite DNA is equally efficient in both fixed chromosomes and in naked DNA. The satellite DNAs of the two congeneric species differ in their AT content, and their primary and higher order structure, which could influence both heterochromatin structure and the accessibility of REs to satellite DNA.

  9. Direct sequencing of genomic DNA for characterization of a satellite DNA in five species of eastern Pacific abalone.

    PubMed

    Muchmore, M E; Moy, G W; Swanson, W J; Vacquier, V D

    1998-03-01

    A tandemly repeated satellite DNA of 290-291 base pairs (bp) was identified by SalI digestion of genomic DNA of five species of Eastern Pacific (California) abalone (genus, Haliotis). Following cloning and sequencing of one repeat unit from one species, the consensus sequences of this satellite were determined for five species by directly sequencing genomic DNA using satellite-specific primers. Phylogenetic trees of the consensus satellite sequences had the same topology as trees constructed for two abalone sperm acrosomal proteins. In 12 randomly picked clones of the Red abalone (H. rufescens) SalI satellite, 16 positions varied, the variation being spread throughout the sequence. GenBank database searches found no significant similarities between this satellite and known sequences. Southern analysis showed that all 290-bp SalI repeats were excised from genomic DNA by Sau3A1 digestion. The tandem arrangement of satellite repeats was confirmed by sequencing through the SalI site into the next repeat using genomic DNA as template, time-dependent appearance of DNA ladders with an approximate 300-bp spacing in SalI digests of genomic DNA, and ladders of bands with an approximate 300-bp spacing generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA as template. In the Red abalone, the 290-bp SalI satellite represents approximately 0.5% of total DNA, equivalent to approximately 28,000 copies per haploid genome. The species-specific consensus sequence of this satellite, obtained directly using genomic DNA as the sequencing template, provides a molecular marker that could be used for identification of hybrid parentage, taxonomy, population identification, and forensic studies.

  10. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding coffee bean alpha-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, A; Goldstein, J

    1994-03-25

    Purified coffee bean alpha-galactosidase (alpha Gal) has been used for removing terminal alpha-galactose residues from the glyco-conjugates at the red cell surface, in studies of blood group conversion. Here, we report the isolation and sequence of the full-length clone for coffee bean alpha Gal by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The cDNA clone (1.4 kb) contains a single open reading frame which encodes a protein of 378 amino acids (aa). Its authenticity is confirmed by perfect alignment of aa sequences obtained from purified coffee bean alpha Gal, and by immune reaction with the antibody raised against the enzyme. Furthermore, the protein produced in insect cells shows enzymatic activity towards a synthetic alpha Gal substrate, p-nitro-phenyl-alpha-galactopyranoside.

  11. Resolution and purification of free primase activity from the DNA primase-polymerase alpha complex of HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanatha, J K; Baril, E F

    1986-01-01

    DNA primase activity has been resolved from a purified DNA primase-polymerase alpha complex of HeLa cells by hydrophobic affinity chromatography on phenylSepharose followed by chromatography on hexylagarose. This procedure provides a good yield (55%) of DNA primase that is free from polymerase alpha. The free DNA primase activity was purified to near homogeneity and its properties characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of the purified free DNA primase showed a major protein staining band of Mr 70,000. The native enzyme in velocity sedimentation has an S20'W of 5. DNA primase synthesizes RNA oligomers with single-stranded M-13 DNA, poly(dT) and poly(dC) templates that are elongated by the DNA polymerase alpha in a manner that has already been described for several purified eukaryotic DNA primase-polymerase alpha complexes. The purified free DNA primase activity is resistant to neutralizing anti-human DNA polymerase alpha antibodies, BuPdGTP and aphidicolin that specifically inhibit the free DNA polymerase alpha and also DNA polymerase alpha complexed with the primase. The free primase activity is more sensitive to monovalent salt concentrations and is more labile than polymerase alpha. Taken together these results indicate that the DNA primase and polymerase alpha activities of the DNA primase-polymerase alpha complex reside on separate polypeptides that associate tightly through hydrophobic interactions. Images PMID:3786132

  12. Isolation of human hexosaminidase. cap alpha. cDNA and expression of. cap alpha. chains in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Wiktorowicz, J.E.; Whitman, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Pooled antisera against homogeneous, glutaraldehyde cross-linked hexosaminidase (hex) A was adsorbed with E. coli lysate insolubilized on Sepharose 4B. Aliquots of a human liver lambdagtll cDNA library (50,000-100,000 pfu) were plated on E. coli Y1090. Expression of cloned cDNA, after sufficient plaque growth at 42/sup 0/, was accomplished by induction with isopropylthiogalactoside soaked nitrocellulose filters. Identification of hex cDNA clones was performed by incubation of the filters with purified antisera. Protein A labelled with I-125 was used to develop the reactive plaques. Positive plaques, identified by autoradiography, were picked, replated at a lower density, and rescreened. This was repeated several more times until all plaques yielded positive signals. Identification of the clones as containing ..cap alpha.. or ..beta.. cDNA was accomplished by replating the purified phage and rescreening the plaques with anti-hex B antiserum preadsorbed with E. coli lysate. According to this protocol several hex ..cap alpha.. clones have been identified. While these clones generate ..beta..-galactosidase: hex ..cap alpha.. fusion proteins, these findings suggest that in the future it may be possible to obtain large quantities of unmodified hex ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. polypeptides from E. coli for the study of the structural and enzymatic properties of these polypeptides and for diagnostic purposes in the GM2 gangliosidoses.

  13. Involvement of DNA polymerase alpha in host cell reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Maeno, K.

    1984-02-01

    Aphidicolin is a potent inhibitor of both host cell DNA polymerase alpha and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced DNA polymerase but has no effect on DNA polymerases beta and gamma of host cells. By using an aphidicolin-resistant mutant (Aphr) of HSV, a possible involvement of DNA polymerase alpha in host cell reactivation of UV-damaged HSV was studied. Plaque formation by UV-irradiated Aphr was markedly inhibited by 1 microgram of aphidicolin per ml, which did not affect the plating efficiency of nonirradiated Aphr. Aphidicolin added before 12 h postinfection inhibited plaque formation by irradiated Aphr, which became aphidicolin insensitive after 36 h postinfection. The results strongly suggest that host cell DNA polymerase alpha is involved in the repair of UV-irradiated HSV DNA.

  14. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

    2013-06-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa.

  15. Ordered replication of DNA sequences: synthesis of mouse satellite and adjacent main band sequences.

    PubMed

    Dooley, D C; Ozer, H L

    1979-03-01

    The replication of mouse satellite DNA was delayed when synchronized 3T3 cells were exposed to low concentrations of hydroxyurea during S phase, It appears that the onset of satellite replication is not a time dependent event, but instead requires that a certain amount of main band DNA be synthesized first. Using hydroxyapatite chromatography and S1 nuclease digestion, a procedure was developed to quantitate the synthesis of both satellite and neighboring main band sequences. The replication kinetics of satellite determined by this method agree with previous estimates. Main band sequences adjacent to satellite appear to replicate in concert with satellite DNA. The results are discussed and related to the limitations of the techniques utilized.

  16. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  17. Molecular Analysis and Genomic Organization of Major DNA Satellites in Banana (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa. PMID:23372772

  18. Conserved DNA Motifs, Including the CENP-B Box-like, Are Possible Promoters of Satellite DNA Array Rearrangements in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Car, Ana; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Abad, Pierre; Plohl, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Tandemly arrayed non-coding sequences or satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are rapidly evolving segments of eukaryotic genomes, including the centromere, and may raise a genetic barrier that leads to speciation. However, determinants and mechanisms of satDNA sequence dynamics are only partially understood. Sequence analyses of a library of five satDNAs common to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax together with a satDNA, which is specific for M. chitwoodi only revealed low sequence identity (32–64%) among them. However, despite sequence differences, two conserved motifs were recovered. One of them turned out to be highly similar to the CENP-B box of human alpha satDNA, identical in 10–12 out of 17 nucleotides. In addition, organization of nematode satDNAs was comparable to that found in alpha satDNA of human and primates, characterized by monomers concurrently arranged in simple and higher-order repeat (HOR) arrays. In contrast to alpha satDNA, phylogenetic clustering of nematode satDNA monomers extracted either from simple or from HOR array indicated frequent shuffling between these two organizational forms. Comparison of homogeneous simple arrays and complex HORs composed of different satDNAs, enabled, for the first time, the identification of conserved motifs as obligatory components of monomer junctions. This observation highlights the role of short motifs in rearrangements, even among highly divergent sequences. Two mechanisms are proposed to be involved in this process, i.e., putative transposition-related cut-and-paste insertions and/or illegitimate recombination. Possibility for involvement of the nematode CENP-B box-like sequence in the transposition-related mechanism and together with previously established similarity of the human CENP-B protein and pogo-like transposases implicate a novel role of the CENP-B box and related sequence motifs in addition to the known function in centromere protein binding. PMID:23826269

  19. Satellite DNA methylation status and expression of selected genes in Bos indicus blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Urrego, R; Bernal-Ulloa, S M; Chavarría, N A; Herrera-Puerta, E; Lucas-Hahn, A; Herrmann, D; Winkler, S; Pache, D; Niemann, H; Rodriguez-Osorio, N

    2017-01-31

    Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P < 0.05) in embryos produced in vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P < 0.05) compared with their in vivo derived counterparts. In conclusion, this study reported only minor changes in the expression of developmentally important genes and satellite DNA methylation related to the in vitro embryo production system.

  20. Unusual antioxidant behavior of alpha- and gamma-terpinene in protecting methyl linoleate, DNA, and erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Xiang; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2009-05-13

    The antioxidant effects of alpha-terpinene (alpha-TH) and gamma-terpinene (gamma-TH) on the oxidation of methyl linoleate (LH), DNA, and erythrocytes induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH) were investigated. The results from erythrocytes and DNA were treated by means of chemical kinetic equations. It was found that either alpha- or gamma-TH was able to scavenge approximately 0.4 radicals when they protected DNA. alpha-TH can trap approximately 0.7 radicals when protecting erythrocytes and can trap approximately 0.5 radicals when protecting LH. gamma-TH can trap approximately 1.2 radicals when protecting erythrocytes and LH. Therefore, the antioxidant effectiveness of gamma-TH was higher than alpha-TH. gamma-TH contained a nonconjugated diene, and the diene in alpha-TH was conjugated. The obtained results implied that the nonconjugated diene benefited for antioxidant capacity more than a conjugated diene. Moreover, the reactions of alpha- and gamma-TH with 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cation radical (ABTS(+) (*)) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) implicated that alpha- and gamma-TH were able to scavenge radicals directly. However, alpha- and gamma-TH promoted AAPH-induced hemolysis with a high concentration employed.

  1. The Evolutionary Origin of Man Can Be Traced in the Layers of Defunct Ancestral Alpha Satellites Flanking the Active Centromeres of Human Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Shepelev, Valery A.; Alexandrov, Alexander A.; Yurov, Yuri B.; Alexandrov, Ivan A.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha satellite domains that currently function as centromeres of human chromosomes are flanked by layers of older alpha satellite, thought to contain dead centromeres of primate progenitors, which lost their function and the ability to homogenize satellite repeats, upon appearance of a new centromere. Using cladistic analysis of alpha satellite monomers, we elucidated complete layer patterns on chromosomes 8, 17, and X and related them to each other and to primate alpha satellites. We show that discrete and chronologically ordered alpha satellite layers are partially symmetrical around an active centromere and their succession is partially shared in non-homologous chromosomes. The layer structure forms a visual representation of the human evolutionary lineage with layers corresponding to ancestors of living primates and to entirely fossil taxa. Surprisingly, phylogenetic comparisons suggest that alpha satellite arrays went through periods of unusual hypermutability after they became “dead” centromeres. The layer structure supports a model of centromere evolution where new variants of a satellite repeat expanded periodically in the genome by rounds of inter-chromosomal transfer/amplification. Each wave of expansion covered all or many chromosomes and corresponded to a new primate taxon. Complete elucidation of the alpha satellite phylogenetic record would give a unique opportunity to number and locate the positions of major extinct taxa in relation to human ancestors shared with extant primates. If applicable to other satellites in non-primate taxa, analysis of centromeric layers could become an invaluable tool for phylogenetic studies. PMID:19749981

  2. The evolutionary origin of man can be traced in the layers of defunct ancestral alpha satellites flanking the active centromeres of human chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Shepelev, Valery A; Alexandrov, Alexander A; Yurov, Yuri B; Alexandrov, Ivan A

    2009-09-01

    Alpha satellite domains that currently function as centromeres of human chromosomes are flanked by layers of older alpha satellite, thought to contain dead centromeres of primate progenitors, which lost their function and the ability to homogenize satellite repeats, upon appearance of a new centromere. Using cladistic analysis of alpha satellite monomers, we elucidated complete layer patterns on chromosomes 8, 17, and X and related them to each other and to primate alpha satellites. We show that discrete and chronologically ordered alpha satellite layers are partially symmetrical around an active centromere and their succession is partially shared in non-homologous chromosomes. The layer structure forms a visual representation of the human evolutionary lineage with layers corresponding to ancestors of living primates and to entirely fossil taxa. Surprisingly, phylogenetic comparisons suggest that alpha satellite arrays went through periods of unusual hypermutability after they became "dead" centromeres. The layer structure supports a model of centromere evolution where new variants of a satellite repeat expanded periodically in the genome by rounds of inter-chromosomal transfer/amplification. Each wave of expansion covered all or many chromosomes and corresponded to a new primate taxon. Complete elucidation of the alpha satellite phylogenetic record would give a unique opportunity to number and locate the positions of major extinct taxa in relation to human ancestors shared with extant primates. If applicable to other satellites in non-primate taxa, analysis of centromeric layers could become an invaluable tool for phylogenetic studies.

  3. Satellite DNA as a driver of population divergence in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Brajković, Josip; Zlatar, Ivo; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2014-12-19

    Tandemly repeated satellite DNAs are among most rapidly evolving sequences in eukaryotic genome, usually differing significantly among closely related species. By inducing changes in heterochromatin and/or centromere, satellite DNAs are expected to drive population and species divergence. However, despite high evolutionary dynamics, divergence of satellite DNA profiles at the level of natural population which precedes and possibly triggers speciation process is not readily detected. Here, we characterize minor TCAST2 satellite DNA of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and follow its dynamics among wild-type strains originating from diverse geographic locations. The investigation revealed presence of three distinct subfamilies of TCAST2 satellite DNA which differ in monomer size, genome organization, and subfamily specific mutations. Subfamilies Tcast2a and Tcast2b are tandemly arranged within pericentromeric heterochromatin whereas Tcast2c is preferentially dispersed within euchromatin of all chromosomes. Among strains, TCAST2 subfamilies are conserved in sequence but exhibit a significant content variability. This results in overrepresentation or almost complete absence of particular subfamily in some strains and enables discrimination between strains. It is proposed that homologous recombination, probably stimulated by environmental stress, is responsible for the emergence of TCAST2 satellite subfamilies, their copy number variation and dispersion within genome. The results represent the first evidence for the existence of population-specific satellite DNA profiles. Partial organization of TCAST2 satellite DNA in the form of single repeats dispersed within euchromatin additionally contributes to the genome divergence at the population level.

  4. Satellite DNA as a Driver of Population Divergence in the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Brajković, Josip; Zlatar, Ivo; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2015-01-01

    Tandemly repeated satellite DNAs are among most rapidly evolving sequences in eukaryotic genome, usually differing significantly among closely related species. By inducing changes in heterochromatin and/or centromere, satellite DNAs are expected to drive population and species divergence. However, despite high evolutionary dynamics, divergence of satellite DNA profiles at the level of natural population which precedes and possibly triggers speciation process is not readily detected. Here, we characterize minor TCAST2 satellite DNA of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and follow its dynamics among wild-type strains originating from diverse geographic locations. The investigation revealed presence of three distinct subfamilies of TCAST2 satellite DNA which differ in monomer size, genome organization, and subfamily specific mutations. Subfamilies Tcast2a and Tcast2b are tandemly arranged within pericentromeric heterochromatin whereas Tcast2c is preferentially dispersed within euchromatin of all chromosomes. Among strains, TCAST2 subfamilies are conserved in sequence but exhibit a significant content variability. This results in overrepresentation or almost complete absence of particular subfamily in some strains and enables discrimination between strains. It is proposed that homologous recombination, probably stimulated by environmental stress, is responsible for the emergence of TCAST2 satellite subfamilies, their copy number variation and dispersion within genome. The results represent the first evidence for the existence of population-specific satellite DNA profiles. Partial organization of TCAST2 satellite DNA in the form of single repeats dispersed within euchromatin additionally contributes to the genome divergence at the population level. PMID:25527837

  5. Theoretical profiles of Lyman-alpha satellites and application to synthetic spectra of DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, N. F.; Koester, D.

    1992-01-01

    We present new theoretical calculations for the red wing of the Lyman-alpha profile. Close collisions with neutral and ionized hydrogen lead to the formation of the pseudomolecules H-H and H-H(+) with the appearance of satellite features near 1600 and 1400 A. The calculations include multiperturber effects, which are responsible for the formation of H3 and H3 with features near 1950 and 2600 A. The theoretical absorption profiles are included in stellar atmosphere codes and used to predict synthetic spectra for DA white dwarfs of intermediate temperatures (20,000 to 8000 K). These new calculations offer a unique opportunity to determine accurate effective temperatures and surface gravities for the variable ZZ Ceti stars.

  6. [Position of the satellite DNA relative to heterochromatin in the interphase nuclei in cultured cells].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, I S; Matveev, I V; Podgornaia, O P; Enukashvili, N I

    2002-01-01

    It is considered that centromeric (CEN) regions play the leading role in the formation of chromocentres predominantly consisting of satellite DNA. Cloned mouse and human satellite DNA sequences from CEN and periGEN regions were used in order to trace their positions relative to chromocentres. Methods of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunoFISH with antibodies against CENP-B, known is a marker of prekinetochore, were employed. Peripheral position of the signals was observed at the chromocentres, but a combined signal of GEN and periGEN satellite DNAs never covered the whole brightly DAPI stained regions. A reasonable amount of the chromocentre body is not a satellite DNA. We suppose that the matrix-associated regions (MAR) of structural genes and, probably, the heavy methylated coding sequences of the genes, which are not expressed in the given cell type, are included in the chromocentres in addition to satellite DNAs.

  7. Chromatin opening of DNA satellites by targeted sequence-specific drugs.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Durussel, T; Laemmli, U K

    2000-11-01

    There are few tools available for dissecting and elucidating the functions of DNA satellites and other nongenic DNA. To address this, we have explored the experimental potential of DNA sequence-specific drugs containing pyrrole and imidazole amino acids (polyamides). Compounds were synthesized that target different Drosophila melanogaster satellites. Dimeric oligopyrroles were shown to target the AT-rich satellites I, III, and SARs (scaffold associated regions). One polyamide (P31) specifically binds the GAGAA satellite V. Specificity of targeting was established by footprinting, epifluorescence of nuclei, and polytene chromosomes stained with fluorescent derivatives. These polyamides were shown to mediate satellite-specific chromatin opening of the chromatin fiber. Remarkably, certain polyamides induced defined gain or loss-of-function phenotypes when fed to Drosophila melanogaster.

  8. Discovery of a Regulatory Motif for Human Satellite DNA Transcription in Response to BATF2 Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuejia; Huang, Wenqiu; Zhang, Chenguang; Niu, Jing; Ding, Wei

    2016-03-01

    One of the basic leucine zipper transcription factors, BATF2, has been found to suppress cancer growth and migration. However, little is known about the genes downstream of BATF2. HeLa cells were stably transfected with BATF2, then chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing was employed to identify the DNA motifs responsive to BATF2. Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses indicated that the most significant motif discovered as TTCCATT[CT]GATTCCATTC[AG]AT was primarily distributed among the chromosome centromere regions and mostly within human type II satellite DNA. Such motifs were able to prime the transcription of type II satellite DNA in a directional and asymmetrical manner. Consistently, satellite II transcription was up-regulated in BATF2-overexpressing cells. The present study provides insight into understanding the role of BATF2 in tumours and the importance of satellite DNA in the maintenance of genomic stability. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Satellite DNA From the Y Chromosome of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Krzywinski, Jaroslaw; Sangaré, Djibril; Besansky, Nora J.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite DNA is an enigmatic component of genomic DNA with unclear function that has been regarded as “junk.” Yet, persistence of these tandem highly repetitive sequences in heterochromatic regions of most eukaryotic chromosomes attests to their importance in the genome. We explored the Anopheles gambiae genome for the presence of satellite repeats and identified 12 novel satellite DNA families. Certain families were found in close juxtaposition within the genome. Six satellites, falling into two evolutionarily linked groups, were investigated in detail. Four of them were experimentally confirmed to be linked to the Y chromosome, whereas their relatives occupy centromeric regions of either the X chromosome or the autosomes. A complex evolutionary pattern was revealed among the AgY477-like satellites, suggesting their rapid turnover in the A. gambiae complex and, potentially, recombination between sex chromosomes. The substitution pattern suggested rolling circle replication as an array expansion mechanism in the Y-linked 53-bp satellite families. Despite residing in different portions of the genome, the 53-bp satellites share the same monomer lengths, apparently maintained by molecular drive or structural constraints. Potential functional centromeric DNA structures, consisting of twofold dyad symmetries flanked by a common sequence motif, have been identified in both satellite groups. PMID:15466420

  10. Satellite DNA Sequences in Canidae and Their Chromosome Distribution in Dog and Red Fox.

    PubMed

    Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Fröhlich, Jan; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Satellite DNA is a characteristic component of mammalian centromeric heterochromatin, and a comparative analysis of its evolutionary dynamics can be used for phylogenetic studies. We analysed satellite and satellite-like DNA sequences available in NCBI for 4 species of the family Canidae (red fox, Vulpes vulpes, VVU; domestic dog, Canis familiaris, CFA; arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus, VLA; raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides, NPR) by comparative sequence analysis, which revealed 86-90% intraspecies and 76-79% interspecies similarity. Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridisation in the red fox and dog showed signals of the red fox satellite probe in canine and vulpine autosomal centromeres, on VVUY, B chromosomes, and in the distal parts of VVU9q and VVU10p which were shown to contain nucleolus organiser regions. The CFA satellite probe stained autosomal centromeres only in the dog. The CFA satellite-like DNA did not show any significant sequence similarity with the satellite DNA of any species analysed and was localised to the centromeres of 9 canine chromosome pairs. No significant heterochromatin block was detected on the B chromosomes of the red fox. Our results show extensive heterogeneity of satellite sequences among Canidae and prove close evolutionary relationships between the red and arctic fox. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Uncoupling of Satellite DNA and Centromeric Function in the Genus Equus

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Elisa; Bertoni, Livia; Attolini, Carmen; Khoriauli, Lela; Raimondi, Elena; Giulotto, Elena

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that centromere repositioning, that is the shift along the chromosome of the centromeric function without DNA sequence rearrangement, has occurred frequently during the evolution of the genus Equus. In this work, the analysis of the chromosomal distribution of satellite tandem repeats in Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. burchelli highlighted two atypical features: 1) several centromeres, including the previously described evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs), seem to be devoid of satellite DNA, and 2) satellite repeats are often present at non-centromeric termini, probably corresponding to relics of ancestral now inactive centromeres. Immuno-FISH experiments using satellite DNA and antibodies against the kinetochore protein CENP-A demonstrated that satellite-less primary constrictions are actually endowed with centromeric function. The phylogenetic reconstruction of centromere repositioning events demonstrates that the acquisition of satellite DNA occurs after the formation of the centromere during evolution and that centromeres can function over millions of years and many generations without detectable satellite DNA. The rapidly evolving Equus species gave us the opportunity to identify different intermediate steps along the full maturation of ENCs. PMID:20169180

  12. Correlated variation and population differentiation in satellite DNA abundance among lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kevin H-C; Grenier, Jennifer K; Barbash, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew G

    2014-12-30

    Tandemly repeating satellite DNA elements in heterochromatin occupy a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes. Although often characterized as genomic parasites deleterious to the host, they also can be crucial for essential processes such as chromosome segregation. Adding to their interest, satellite DNA elements evolve at high rates; among Drosophila, closely related species often differ drastically in both the types and abundances of satellite repeats. However, due to technical challenges, the evolutionary mechanisms driving this rapid turnover remain unclear. Here we characterize natural variation in simple-sequence repeats of 2-10 bp from inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines derived from multiple populations, using a method we developed called k-Seek that analyzes unassembled Illumina sequence reads. In addition to quantifying all previously described satellite repeats, we identified many novel repeats of low to medium abundance. Many of the repeats show population differentiation, including two that are present in only some populations. Interestingly, the population structure inferred from overall satellite quantities does not recapitulate the expected population relationships based on the demographic history of D. melanogaster. We also find that some satellites of similar sequence composition are correlated across lines, revealing concerted evolution. Moreover, correlated satellites tend to be interspersed with each other, further suggesting that concerted change is partially driven by higher order structure. Surprisingly, we identified negative correlations among some satellites, suggesting antagonistic interactions. Our study demonstrates that current genome assemblies vastly underestimate the complexity, abundance, and variation of highly repetitive satellite DNA and presents approaches to understand their rapid evolutionary divergence.

  13. Comparative study of satellite DNA in ants of the Messor genus.

    PubMed

    Lorite, Pedro; Carrillo, José A; Tinaut, Alberto; Palomeque, Teresa

    2002-09-04

    The satellite DNA of ants Messor barbarus and Messor bouvieri is analysed. The results are compared with the satellite DNA data from Messor structor previously reported and with new data obtained from the genome of geographically distinct M. structor population, which have shown that this satellite DNA is highly conserved within the species. The satellite DNA is organized as tandemly repeated 79 bp monomers in all species. The sampled sequences of the three species show a high similarity and all belong to the same family of satellite DNA. Sequence comparisons suggested the occurrence of highly effective homogenization mechanism acting upon the ant genomes. In accordance with this hypothesis, putative gene conversion tracts are identified when the different monomers of the same species are compared. The highest sequence conservation in all species corresponds to a single region with inverted repeats. A CENP-B-like motif was found in this region. The possibility that it may be involved in the homogenization of satellite DNA is discussed.

  14. DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification occurs via excessive formation of centriolar satellites.

    PubMed

    Löffler, H; Fechter, A; Liu, F Y; Poppelreuther, S; Krämer, A

    2013-06-13

    Centrosome amplification is a frequent phenomenon in malignancies and may facilitate tumorigenesis by promoting chromosomal instability. On the other hand, a centrosome inactivation checkpoint comprising centrosome amplification leading to elimination of cells by mitotic catastrophe has been described in response to DNA damage by ionizing radiation or cytostatic drugs. So far, the exact nature of DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification, which might be overduplication or fragmentation of existing centrosomes, has been controversial. To solve this controversy, we have established a method to distinguish between these two possibilities using A549 cells expressing photoconvertible CETN2-Dendra2. In response to various DNA-damaging treatments, centrosome amplification but not fragmentation was observed. Moreover, centrosome amplification was preceded by excessive formation of centrin-containing centriolar satellites, which were identified as de novo-generated atypical centrin dots staining positive for centriolar satellite markers but negative or only weakly positive for other established centrosomal markers, and which could be verified as centriolar satellites using immunogold electron microscopy. In line with this notion, disruption of dynein-mediated recruitment of centrosomal proteins via centriolar satellites suppressed centrosome amplification after DNA damage, and excessive formation of centriolar satellites could be inhibited by interference with Chk1, a known mediator of centrosome amplification in response to DNA damage. In conclusion, we provide a model in which a Chk1-mediated DNA damage checkpoint induces excessive formation of centriolar satellites constituting assembly platforms for centrosomal proteins, which subsequently leads to centrosome amplification.

  15. [Detection of deletional alpha-thalassemia from free fetal DNA in maternal plasma].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Ou, Qi-Shui; Zhou, Hua-Rong

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to develop a simple, rapid, accurate and wound-free single-tube multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, which can be used for molecular screening and prenatal diagnosis of 3 types of the commonest deletional alpha-thalassemias in Chinese population. The deletional alpha-thalassemias free fetal DNA of 50 anemic pregnant plasma were detected by means of single-tube multiplex PCR with 4 groups of primers designed by using the gap-PCR protocol. The results showed that 5 cases were found to be alpha-thalassemias in free fetal DNA of 50 anaemia pregnant plasma, out of them 3 cases were the Southeast Asia type of deletional alpha-thalassemias, 2 cases were alpha-(3.7) type of deletional alpha-thalassemias (rightward deletion). It is concluded that the single-tube multiplex PCR assay presented in this study is a simple and convenient, rapid and accurate method for detecting 3 common deletional alpha-thalassemias, and use of this method has an important significance for the deletional alpha-thalassemias to ensure the population health quality and reduce the social burden.

  16. Satellite DNA and chromosomes in Neotropical fishes: methods, applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vicari, M R; Nogaroto, V; Noleto, R B; Cestari, M M; Cioffi, M B; Almeida, M C; Moreira-Filho, O; Bertollo, L A C; Artoni, R F

    2010-04-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin represents a substantial portion of the eukaryote genome, and it is mainly composed of tandemly repeated DNA sequences, such as satellite DNAs, which are also enriched by other dispersed repeated elements, including transposons. Studies on the organization, structure, composition and in situ localization of satellite DNAs have led to consistent advances in the understanding of the genome evolution of species, with a particular focus on heterochromatic domains, the diversification of heteromorphic sex chromosomes and the origin and maintenance of B chromosomes. Satellite DNAs can be chromosome specific or species specific, or they can characterize different species from a genus, family or even representatives of a given order. In some cases, the presence of these repeated elements in members of a single clade has enabled inferences of a phylogenetic nature. Genomic DNA restriction, using specific enzymes, is the most frequently used method for isolating satellite DNAs. Recent methods such as C(0)t-1 DNA and chromosome microdissection, however, have proven to be efficient alternatives for the study of this class of DNA. Neotropical ichthyofauna is extremely rich and diverse enabling multiple approaches with regard to the differentiation and evolution of the genome. Genome components of some species and genera have been isolated, mapped and correlated with possible functions and structures of the chromosomes. The 5SHindIII-DNA satellite DNA, which is specific to Hoplias malabaricus of the Erythrinidae family, has an exclusively centromeric location. The As51 satellite DNA, which is closely correlated with the genome diversification of some species from the genus Astyanax, has also been used to infer relationships between species. In the Prochilodontidae family, two repetitive DNA sequences were mapped on the chromosomes, and the SATH 1 satellite DNA is associated with the origin of heterochromatic B chromosomes in Prochilodus lineatus

  17. Role of DNA polymerase. cap alpha. in chromosomal aberration production by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aphidicolin is a tetracyclic diterpinoid fungal antibiotic which inhibits DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells by interfering specifically with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.., apparently by binding to and inactivating the DNA-polymerase ..cap alpha.. complex. We have shown that aphidicolin, like other inhibitors of DNA synthesis, both induces chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes, and, as a post-treatment, interacts synergistically with x rays to produce greatly enhanced aberration yields. The present experiments explore the effects of aphidicolin in human lymphocytes in the post-DNA-synthetic G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle. These experiments utilized labeling with tritiated thymidine to positively identify cells in the S phase at the time of treatment, and used serial colcemid collections and fixations to determine aberration yields over as much of the G/sub 2/ phase as feasible. Because DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. is the only DNA synthetic or repair enzyme known to be affected by aphidicolin, we infer that this enzyme is directly involved in the repair of DNA lesions which can result in visible chromosomal aberrations. (DT)

  18. The CHH motif in sugar beet satellite DNA: a modulator for cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schubert, Veit; Viehoever, Prisca; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Methylation of DNA is important for the epigenetic silencing of repetitive DNA in plant genomes. Knowledge about the cytosine methylation status of satellite DNAs, a major class of repetitive DNA, is scarce. One reason for this is that arrays of tandemly arranged sequences are usually collapsed in next-generation sequencing assemblies. We applied strategies to overcome this limitation and quantified the level of cytosine methylation and its pattern in three satellite families of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) which differ in their abundance, chromosomal localization and monomer size. We visualized methylation levels along pachytene chromosomes with respect to small satellite loci at maximum resolution using chromosome-wide fluorescent in situ hybridization complemented with immunostaining and super-resolution microscopy. Only reduced methylation of many satellite arrays was obtained. To investigate methylation at the nucleotide level we performed bisulfite sequencing of 1569 satellite sequences. We found that the level of methylation of cytosine strongly depends on the sequence context: cytosines in the CHH motif show lower methylation (44-52%), while CG and CHG motifs are more strongly methylated. This affects the overall methylation of satellite sequences because CHH occurs frequently while CG and CHG are rare or even absent in the satellite arrays investigated. Evidently, CHH is the major target for modulation of the cytosine methylation level of adjacent monomers within individual arrays and contributes to their epigenetic function. This strongly indicates that asymmetric cytosine methylation plays a role in the epigenetic modification of satellite repeats in plant genomes.

  19. A novel class of DNA satellites associated with New World begomoviruses.

    PubMed

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2012-04-25

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted plant DNA viruses that have been shown to be helper viruses for a number of distinct DNA satellites, including betasatellites and alphasatellites. Replication of the satellites interferes to some degree with replication of the helper and in some cases they affect the disease symptoms. To date, betasatellites and related molecules such as the satellite associated with Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV-sat), have only been associated with Old World begomoviruses. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of subviral molecules associated with bipartite begomoviruses from the New World, which constitute a novel class of DNA satellites, in two malvaceous plant species. These molecules, in addition to sharing some genetic features with betasatellites and ToLCV-sat, contain nucleotide stretches of begomoviral origin, presumably the remains of recombination events involved in their origin.

  20. Nucleotide sequence of satellite DNA contained in the eliminated genome of Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, F; Walker, P; Aeby, P; Neuhaus, H; Felder, H; Back, E; Tobler, H

    1982-01-01

    Several restriction endonuclease fragments isolated from highly repetitive satellite DNA of the chromatin eliminating nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum have been cloned. Each type of restriction fragment corresponds to a different variant of the same related ancestral sequence. These variants differ by small deletions, insertions and single base substitutions. Restriction and DBM blot analyses show that members of the same variant class are tandemly linked and therefore are physically separated from other variant classes. A comparison of all the determined sequences establishes a 121 bp long and AT rich consensus sequence. There is evidence for an internal short range periodicity of 11 bp length, indicating that the Ascaris satellite initially may have evolved from an ancestral undecamer sequence. The satellite DNA sequences are mostly but not entirely eliminated from the presumptive somatic cells during chromatin diminution. We have no evidence for transcriptional activity of satellite DNA at any stage or tissue analyzed. Images PMID:6296780

  1. GlaI digestion of mouse gamma-satellite DNA: study of primary structure and ACGT sites methylation.

    PubMed

    Abdurashitov, Murat A; Chernukhin, Valery A; Gonchar, Danila A; Degtyarev, Sergey Kh

    2009-07-17

    Patterns of mouse DNA hydrolysis with restriction enzymes are coincided with calculated diagrams of genomic DNA digestion in silico, except presence of additional bright bands, which correspond to monomer and dimer of gamma-satellite DNA. Only small portion of mouse gamma-satellite DNA sequences are presented in databases. Methyl-directed endonuclease GlaI cleaves mouse DNA and may be useful for a detailed study of primary structure and CG dinucleotides methylation in gamma-satellite DNA. We have constructed a physical map and produced experimental patterns of mouse gamma-satellite DNA hydrolysis with unique site-specific methyl-directed endonuclease GlaI and several restriction endonucleases. Fifty two DNA fragments of gamma-satellite DNA have been cloned and sequenced. We have not observed any mutations of CG dinucleotide in position 208 of monomeric gamma-satellite DNA and confirmed 50% methylation of this CG dinucleoitide. A comparison of consensus sequences of arrayed gamma-satellite DNA and small blocks of satellite DNA (140 monomers and less) has shown a higher level of mutations and an absence of conserved CG dinucleotide in last ones. A replacement of CG dinucleotide by CA-dinucleotide in positions 178 and 17 in chromosomes 9 and 3, respectively, has been observed in blocks of monomers. Arrayed gamma-satellite DNA from mouse has at least one conservative CG-dinucleotide. Consensus sequences of this DNA and gamma-satellite DNA in small blocks of monomers are differing. The last one displays a higher level of CG dinucleotides mutations and an absence of conservative CG-dinucleotide. Presence of conservative and half-methylated CG-dinucleotide supports an idea of importance of this CG dinucleotide methylation/demethylation in arrayed gamma-satellite DNA functioning.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Satellite DNA in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Madhav; Warsinger-Pepe, Natalie; Watase, George J; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2017-02-09

    Satellite DNAs are highly repetitive sequences that account for the majority of constitutive heterochromatin in many eukaryotic genomes. It is widely recognized that sequences and locations of satellite DNAs are highly divergent even in closely related species, contributing to the hypothesis that satellite DNA differences may underlie speciation. However, due to its repetitive nature, the mapping of satellite DNAs has been mostly left out of recent genomics analyses, hampering the use of molecular genetics techniques to better understand their role in speciation and evolution. Satellite DNAs are most extensively and comprehensively mapped in Drosophila melanogaster, a species that is also an excellent model system with which to study speciation. Yet the lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding satellite DNA identity and location in its sibling species (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia) has prevented the full utilization of D. melanogaster in studying speciation. To overcome this problem, we initiated the mapping of satellite DNAs on the genomes of the D. melanogaster species complex (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia) using multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. Our study confirms a striking divergence of satellite DNAs in the D. melanogaster species complex, even among the closely related species of the D. simulans clade (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia), and suggests the presence of unidentified satellite sequences in these species.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Satellite DNA in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Madhav; Warsinger-Pepe, Natalie; Watase, George J.; Yamashita, Yukiko M.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite DNAs are highly repetitive sequences that account for the majority of constitutive heterochromatin in many eukaryotic genomes. It is widely recognized that sequences and locations of satellite DNAs are highly divergent even in closely related species, contributing to the hypothesis that satellite DNA differences may underlie speciation. However, due to its repetitive nature, the mapping of satellite DNAs has been mostly left out of recent genomics analyses, hampering the use of molecular genetics techniques to better understand their role in speciation and evolution. Satellite DNAs are most extensively and comprehensively mapped in Drosophila melanogaster, a species that is also an excellent model system with which to study speciation. Yet the lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding satellite DNA identity and location in its sibling species (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia) has prevented the full utilization of D. melanogaster in studying speciation. To overcome this problem, we initiated the mapping of satellite DNAs on the genomes of the D. melanogaster species complex (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia) using multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. Our study confirms a striking divergence of satellite DNAs in the D. melanogaster species complex, even among the closely related species of the D. simulans clade (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia), and suggests the presence of unidentified satellite sequences in these species. PMID:28007840

  4. Facile polymerization of dNTPs bearing unnatural base analogues by DNA polymerase alpha and Klenow fragment (DNA polymerase I).

    PubMed

    Chiaramonte, Molly; Moore, Chad L; Kincaid, Kristi; Kuchta, Robert D

    2003-09-09

    The high fidelity of DNA replication is largely dependent upon accurate incorporation of dNTPs by DNA polymerases. To study the mechanism underlying nucleotide selection, we synthesized four nucleotide analogues bearing the unnatural bases benzimidazole, 5-nitrobenzimidazole, 6-nitrobenzimidazole, and 5-nitroindole and analyzed their incorporation by three DNA polymerases. We have found that human DNA polymerase alpha (pol alpha) and the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (KF) incorporate all four nucleotide analogues opposite all four canonical bases up to 4000-fold more efficiently than an incorrect natural dNTP (i.e., rates that approach those of a correct, natural dNTP), even though the shape of any base pair formed between the analogue and the template likely does not resemble a normal base pair. While pol alpha preferentially incorporated the analogues opposite template pyrimidines, KF surprisingly preferred to polymerize them opposite template purines. Although neither pol alpha nor KF readily polymerized a natural dNTP opposite either 5- or 6-nitrobenzimidazole in the template strand, the enzymes did incorporate the analogues to generate novel base pairs. Both pol alpha and KF polymerized the analogues up to 140-fold more efficiently than dATP both across from abasic sites and as 3'-overhangs on blunt-ended templates. Although Maloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase did not measurably incorporate the analogues, this enzyme bound the analogues with K(I)'s only slightly higher than the K(m) for polymerization of the normal dNTP. The implications of these results with respect to how polymerases discriminate between correct and incorrect dNTPs are discussed.

  5. Positioning of a nucleosome on mouse satellite DNA inserted into a yeast plasmid is determined by its DNA sequence and an adjacent nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Kiryanov, G I; Kintsurashvili, L N; Isaeva, L V; Zakharova, M G

    2004-09-01

    It has earlier been shown that multiple positioning of nucleosomes on mouse satellite DNA is determined by its nucleotide sequence. To clarify whether other factors, such as boundary ones, can affect the positionings, we modified the environment of satellite DNA monomer by inserting it into a yeast plasmid between inducible GalCyc promoter and a structural region of the yeast FLP gene. We have revealed that the positions of nucleosomes on satellite DNA are identical to those detected upon reconstruction in vitro. The positioning signal (GAAAAA sequence) of satellite DNA governs nucleosome location at the adjacent nucleotide sequence as well. Upon promoter induction the nucleosome, translationally positioned on the GalCyc promoter, transfers to the satellite DNA and its location follows the positioning signal of the latter. Thus, the alternatives of positioning of a nucleosome on satellite DNA are controlled by its nucleotide sequence, though the choice of one of them is determined by the adjacent nucleosome.

  6. Intra-specific variability and unusual organization of the repetitive units in a satellite DNA from Rana dalmatina: molecular evidence of a new mechanism of DNA repair acting on satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Picariello, Orfeo; Chinali, Gianni

    2006-11-15

    We have characterized the S1 satellite from eight European populations of Rana dalmatina by Southern blot, cloning and a new method that determines the sequence variability of repetitive units in the genome. This report completes our previous studies on this satellite DNA family, thus providing the first characterization of the overall variability of the structure and genomic organization of a satellite DNA within a species and among related species. The S1 satellite from R. dalmatina has a pericentromeric location on ten chromosome pairs and presents two homologous repeats S1a (494 bp) and S1b (332 bp), mostly organized as composite S1a-S1b repetitive units. In other brown frog species, both repeats have different sequences and locations, and are usually organized as separate arrays, although composite S1a-S1b repeats represent a minor, widely variable component in Rana italica. The average genomic sequences indicate that the species contains an enormous number of variants of each repeat derived from a unique, species-specific common sequence. The repeat variability is restricted to specific base changes in specific sequence positions in all population samples. Our data show that the structure and evolution of S1 satellite family is not due to crossing-over and gene conversion, but to a mechanism that maintains the ability of the satellite DNA to assemble in constitutive heterochromatin by replacing altered satellite segments with new arrays generated by rolling circle amplification. The mode of action of this repair process not only directly explains the intra- and inter-specific variability of the structure and organization of the S1 satellite repeats from European brown frogs, but also accounts for all general features of satellite DNA in eukaryotes, including its discontinuous evolution. This repair mechanism can maintain the satellite structure in a species indefinitely, but also promote a rapid generation of new variants or types of satellite DNA when

  7. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  8. High-throughput analysis of the satellitome illuminates satellite DNA evolution.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; López-León, María Dolores; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2016-07-07

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a major component yet the great unknown of eukaryote genomes and clearly underrepresented in genome sequencing projects. Here we show the high-throughput analysis of satellite DNA content in the migratory locust by means of the bioinformatic analysis of Illumina reads with the RepeatExplorer and RepeatMasker programs. This unveiled 62 satDNA families and we propose the term "satellitome" for the whole collection of different satDNA families in a genome. The finding that satDNAs were present in many contigs of the migratory locust draft genome indicates that they show many genomic locations invisible by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The cytological pattern of five satellites showing common descent (belonging to the SF3 superfamily) suggests that non-clustered satDNAs can become into clustered through local amplification at any of the many genomic loci resulting from previous dissemination of short satDNA arrays. The fact that all kinds of satDNA (micro- mini- and satellites) can show the non-clustered and clustered states suggests that all these elements are mostly similar, except for repeat length. Finally, the presence of VNTRs in bacteria, showing similar properties to non-clustered satDNAs in eukaryotes, suggests that this kind of tandem repeats show common properties in all living beings.

  9. High-throughput analysis of the satellitome illuminates satellite DNA evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; López-León, María Dolores; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a major component yet the great unknown of eukaryote genomes and clearly underrepresented in genome sequencing projects. Here we show the high-throughput analysis of satellite DNA content in the migratory locust by means of the bioinformatic analysis of Illumina reads with the RepeatExplorer and RepeatMasker programs. This unveiled 62 satDNA families and we propose the term “satellitome” for the whole collection of different satDNA families in a genome. The finding that satDNAs were present in many contigs of the migratory locust draft genome indicates that they show many genomic locations invisible by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The cytological pattern of five satellites showing common descent (belonging to the SF3 superfamily) suggests that non-clustered satDNAs can become into clustered through local amplification at any of the many genomic loci resulting from previous dissemination of short satDNA arrays. The fact that all kinds of satDNA (micro- mini- and satellites) can show the non-clustered and clustered states suggests that all these elements are mostly similar, except for repeat length. Finally, the presence of VNTRs in bacteria, showing similar properties to non-clustered satDNAs in eukaryotes, suggests that this kind of tandem repeats show common properties in all living beings. PMID:27385065

  10. High-throughput analysis of the satellitome illuminates satellite DNA evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; López-León, María Dolores; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.

    2016-07-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a major component yet the great unknown of eukaryote genomes and clearly underrepresented in genome sequencing projects. Here we show the high-throughput analysis of satellite DNA content in the migratory locust by means of the bioinformatic analysis of Illumina reads with the RepeatExplorer and RepeatMasker programs. This unveiled 62 satDNA families and we propose the term “satellitome” for the whole collection of different satDNA families in a genome. The finding that satDNAs were present in many contigs of the migratory locust draft genome indicates that they show many genomic locations invisible by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The cytological pattern of five satellites showing common descent (belonging to the SF3 superfamily) suggests that non-clustered satDNAs can become into clustered through local amplification at any of the many genomic loci resulting from previous dissemination of short satDNA arrays. The fact that all kinds of satDNA (micro- mini- and satellites) can show the non-clustered and clustered states suggests that all these elements are mostly similar, except for repeat length. Finally, the presence of VNTRs in bacteria, showing similar properties to non-clustered satDNAs in eukaryotes, suggests that this kind of tandem repeats show common properties in all living beings.

  11. Epigenetic assembly of centromeric chromatin at ectopic alpha-satellite sites on human chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Megumi; Okamoto, Yasuhide; Ohzeki, Jun-ichirou; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism of chromatin assembly at human centromeres, we isolated cultured human cell lines in which a transfected alpha-satellite (alphoid) YAC was integrated ectopically into the terminal region of host chromosome 16, where it was stably maintained. Centromere activity of the alphoid YAC was suppressed at ectopic locations on the host chromosome, as indicated by the absent or reduced assembly of CENP-A and -C. However, long-term culture in selective medium, or short-term treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), promoted the re-assembly of CENPA, -B and -C at the YAC site and the release of minichromosomes containing the YAC integration site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses of the re-formed minichromosome and the alphoid YAC-based stable human artificial chromosome both indicated that CENP-A and CENP-B assembled only on the inserted alphoid array but not on the YAC arms. On the YAC arms at the alphoid YAC integration sites, TSA treatment increased both the acetylation level of histone H3 and the transcriptional level of a marker gene. An increase in the level of transcription was also observed after long-term culture in selective medium. These activities, which are associated with changes in chromatin structure, might reverse the suppressed chromatin state of the YAC at ectopic loci, and thus might be involved in the epigenetic change of silent centromeres on ectopic alphoid loci.

  12. Annotation of suprachromosomal families reveals uncommon types of alpha satellite organization in pericentromeric regions of hg38 human genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Shepelev, V A; Uralsky, L I; Alexandrov, A A; Yurov, Y B; Rogaev, E I; Alexandrov, I A

    2015-09-01

    Centromeric alpha satellite (AS) is composed of highly identical higher-order DNA repetitive sequences, which make the standard assembly process impossible. Because of this the AS repeats were severely underrepresented in previous versions of the human genome assembly showing large centromeric gaps. The latest hg38 assembly (GCA_000001405.15) employed a novel method of approximate representation of these sequences using AS reference models to fill the gaps. Therefore, a lot more of assembled AS became available for genomic analysis. We used the PERCON program previously described by us to annotate various suprachromosomal families (SFs) of AS in the hg38 assembly and presented the results of our primary analysis as an easy-to-read track for the UCSC Genome Browser. The monomeric classes, characteristic of the five known SFs, were color-coded, which allowed quick visual assessment of AS composition in whole multi-megabase centromeres down to each individual AS monomer. Such comprehensive annotation of AS in the human genome assembly was performed for the first time. It showed the expected prevalence of the known major types of AS organization characteristic of the five established SFs. Also, some less common types of AS arrays were identified, such as pure R2 domains in SF5, apparent J/R and D/R mixes in SF1 and SF2, and several different SF4 higher-order repeats among reference models and in regular contigs. No new SFs or large unclassed AS domains were discovered. The dataset reveals the architecture of human centromeres and allows classification of AS sequence reads by alignment to the annotated hg38 assembly. The data were deposited here: http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgTracks?db=hg38&hgt.customText=https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/22994534/AS-tracks/human-GRC-hg38-M1SFs.bed.bz2.

  13. A human centromere protein, CENP-B, has a DNA binding domain containing four potential alpha helices at the NH2 terminus, which is separable from dimerizing activity

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The alphoid DNA-CENP-B (centromere protein B) complex is the first sequence-specific DNA/protein complex detected in the centromeric region of human chromosomes. In the reaction, CENP-B recognizes a 17-bp sequence (CENP-B box) and assembles two alphoid DNA molecules into a complex, which is designated complex A (Muro, Y., H. Masumoto, K. Yoda, N. Nozaki, M. Ohashi, and T. Okazaki. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 116:585-596). Since CENP-B gene is conserved in mammalian species and CENP-B boxes are found also in mouse centromere satellite DNA (minor satellite), this sequence-specific DNA-protein interaction may be important for some kind of common centromere function. In this study we have characterized the structure of CENP-B and CENP-B-alphoid DNA complex. We have shown by chemical cross-linking that CENP-B formed a dimer, and have estimated by molecular weight determination the composition of complex A to be a CENP-B dimer and two molecules of alphoid DNA. The DNA binding domain has been delimited within the NH2-terminal 125-amino acid region containing four potential alpha-helices using truncated CENP-B made in Escherichia coli cells. We have shown that CENP-B had sites highly sensitive to proteases and that the DNA binding domain was separable from the dimerizing activity by the proteolytic cleavage at 20 kD from the COOH terminus of the molecule. Thus, CENP-B may organize a higher order structure in the centromere by juxtaposing two CENP-B boxes in the alphoid DNA repeat through both the DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. PMID:1469042

  14. Sex-dependent expression of mouse testosterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase (cytochrome P-450(16) alpha): cDNA cloning and pretranslational regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Harada, N; Negishi, M

    1985-01-01

    By using both double-colony hybridization and an in situ immunostaining assay for transformants, 39 cDNA clones (clone p-16 alpha) encoding mouse liver microsomal testosterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase (cytochrome P-450(16) alpha) were isolated from a cDNA library constructed in the cloning vector pUC-9 with poly(A)+ RNA immunoenriched from total liver polysomes of male 129/J mice. mRNA selected by hybridization with clone p-16 alpha translated the P-450(16) alpha apoprotein in vitro. Total cellular proteins, which were prepared from immunopositive transformant Escherichia coli cells, were conjugated with Sepharose 4B. Antibody purified with the Sepharose 4B conjugate from mixed antiserum to P-450(16) alpha and P-450(15) alpha specifically inhibited testosterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity in microsomes. The cDNA insert of one recombinant plasmid (clone P-16 alpha-1) was 1.75 kilobases in size and contained one or more internal restriction sites for HindIII, BamHI, Bgl I, Pst I, Alu I, HinpI, and Rsa I. 32P-labeled clone p-16 alpha-1 hybridized with a single mRNA (2000 bases) that was 10 times more concentrated in liver cells from male 129/J mice than in female mice. This result was consistent with the finding that poly(A)+ RNA from male mice translated 10 times as much P-450(16) alpha in vitro as did the poly(A)+ RNA from females. Thus, the predominant expression of testosterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase in male 129/J mice is regulated pretranslationally, presumably at the transcriptional level of the P-450(16) alpha gene. Images PMID:3856880

  15. Rapid creation of BAC-based human artificial chromosome vectors by transposition with synthetic alpha-satellite arrays

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Joydeep; Stromberg, Gregory; Compitello, George; Willard, Huntington F.; Bokkelen, Gil Van

    2005-01-01

    Efficient construction of BAC-based human artificial chromosomes (HACs) requires optimization of each key functional unit as well as development of techniques for the rapid and reliable manipulation of high-molecular weight BAC vectors. Here, we have created synthetic chromosome 17-derived alpha-satellite arrays, based on the 16-monomer repeat length typical of natural D17Z1 arrays, in which the consensus CENP-B box elements are either completely absent (0/16 monomers) or increased in density (16/16 monomers) compared to D17Z1 alpha-satellite (5/16 monomers). Using these vectors, we show that the presence of CENP-B box elements is a requirement for efficient de novo centromere formation and that increasing the density of CENP-B box elements may enhance the efficiency of de novo centromere formation. Furthermore, we have developed a novel, high-throughput methodology that permits the rapid conversion of any genomic BAC target into a HAC vector by transposon-mediated modification with synthetic alpha-satellite arrays and other key functional units. Taken together, these approaches offer the potential to significantly advance the utility of BAC-based HACs for functional annotation of the genome and for applications in gene transfer. PMID:15673719

  16. Extinction of alpha1-antitrypsin expression in cell hybrids is independent of HNF1alpha and HNF4 and involves both promoter and internal DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bulla, G A

    1999-01-01

    In rat hepatoma x fibroblast somatic cell hybrids, extinction of rat alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) gene expression is accompanied by the loss of liver-enriched transcription factors hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1alpha) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4). Previous analysis showed that forced expression of functional HNF1alpha failed to prevent extinction of the rat alpha1AT locus in cell hybrids. Here I show that ectopic co-expression of HNF1alpha plus HNF4 fails to prevent extinction of either rat or human alpha1AT genes in cell hybrids. A 40 kb human alpha1AT minilocus integrated into the rat genome is fully silenced in cell hybrids in the presence of transacting factors. The integrated alpha1AT promoter, but not a viral or ubiquitously active promoter, is repressed 35-fold in the cell hybrids. In addition, position effects also contributed to extinction of many integrated transgenes in a cell type-dependent manner. Finally, internal DNA sequences within the human alpha1AT gene contributed dramatically to the extinction phenotype, resulting in a further 10- to 30-fold reduction in alpha1AT gene expression in cell hybrids. Thus, multiple mechanisms contribute to silencing of tissue-specific gene expression of the alpha1AT gene in cell hybrids. PMID:9927755

  17. Cloning and sequencing of an alpha-tubulin cDNA from Artemia franciscana: evidence for translational regulation of alpha-tubulin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Roy, P J; Liang, P; MacRae, T H

    1998-11-08

    The brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, exhibits a limited number of tubulin isotypes which change little during early postgastrula growth. In order to better understand the synthesis of alpha-tubulins during Artemia development, a cDNA termed alphaAT1 was cloned and sequenced. Alignment analyses revealed that the polypeptide encoded by alphaAT1 is similar to alpha-tubulins from other species. Hybridization of alphaAT1 to restriction-digested DNA on Southern blots produced a simple banding pattern, indicating that Artemia have a small number of alpha-tubulin genes. Probing of Northern blots demonstrated an abundant supply of alpha-tubulin mRNA in dormant cysts, emerging nauplii and instar I larvae. However, it was not until instar I larvae were produced that the amount of polysomal alpha-tubulin mRNA increased, suggesting that synthesis of the tubulin corresponding to alphaAT1 is translationally controlled. This work provides one of the few examples where tubulin synthesis is thought to be translationally regulated. Moreover, when considered in the light of previous analyses, the findings imply that cell differentiation in postgastrula Artemia and the diversification of microtubule function certain to accompany this process occur with little or no change in alpha-tubulin composition.

  18. Identification of the DNA sequences controlling the expression of the MAT alpha locus of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Siliciano, P G; Tatchell, K

    1986-01-01

    We have excised a 28-base-pair DNA fragment from the MAT alpha intergenic region and tested its ability to direct diploid-specific transcriptional repression. This fragment (1643-1671, 5'-GCTTCCCAATGTAGAAAAGTACA-TCATA-3') lies within a region required for the normal diploid-specific repression of the MAT alpha transcripts. First, the fragment was inserted into a 53-base-pair MAT alpha deletion that expresses alpha 1 and alpha 2 constitutively. Insertion of the fragment restores proper diploid regulation to the MAT alpha transcripts: alpha 1 mRNA is strongly repressed and alpha 2 mRNA is reduced by a factor of approximately equal to 10 from its haploid level. The fragment works equally well in either orientation, and two copies of the fragment do not lead to stronger repression than a single copy. We also inserted the fragment at three sites upstream of the CYC1-lacZ fusion gene. Insertions placing the regulatory fragment between the CYC1 upstream activator sequence (UAS) and the coding region make beta-galactosidase efficiently in alpha haploids but produce 1/40th the enzyme in a/alpha diploids. This diploid-specific repression requires functional MATa-1 gene product. Insertion of the MAT fragment on the opposite side of the UAS (37 base pairs upstream of the UAS) also caused diploid repression of the fusion gene, but only by a factor of 7. When the regulatory fragment is inserted at a large distance on the far side of the UAS (375 base pairs), it has little if any effect on beta-galactosidase expression. We postulate that this sequence is the operator recognized by the diploid-specific repressor. Images PMID:3517864

  19. Distribution and sequence homogeneity of an abundant satellite DNA in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C A; Wyatt, G R

    1989-01-01

    The mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains an unusually abundant and homogeneous satellite DNA which constitutes up to 60% of its genome. The satellite DNA is shown to be present in all of the chromosomes by in situ hybridization. 18 dimers of the repeat unit were cloned and sequenced. The consensus sequence is 142 nt long and lacks any internal repeat structure. Monomers of the sequence are very similar, showing on average a 2% divergence from the calculated consensus. Variant nucleotides are scattered randomly throughout the sequence although some variants are more common than others. Neighboring repeat units are no more alike than randomly chosen ones. The results suggest that some mechanism, perhaps gene conversion, is acting to maintain the homogeneity of the satellite DNA despite its abundance and distribution on all of the chromosomes. Images PMID:2762148

  20. Correlated variation and population differentiation in satellite DNA abundance among lines of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kevin H.-C.; Grenier, Jennifer K.; Barbash, Daniel A.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Tandemly repeating satellite DNA elements in heterochromatin occupy a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes. Although often characterized as genomic parasites deleterious to the host, they also can be crucial for essential processes such as chromosome segregation. Adding to their interest, satellite DNA elements evolve at high rates; among Drosophila, closely related species often differ drastically in both the types and abundances of satellite repeats. However, due to technical challenges, the evolutionary mechanisms driving this rapid turnover remain unclear. Here we characterize natural variation in simple-sequence repeats of 2–10 bp from inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines derived from multiple populations, using a method we developed called k-Seek that analyzes unassembled Illumina sequence reads. In addition to quantifying all previously described satellite repeats, we identified many novel repeats of low to medium abundance. Many of the repeats show population differentiation, including two that are present in only some populations. Interestingly, the population structure inferred from overall satellite quantities does not recapitulate the expected population relationships based on the demographic history of D. melanogaster. We also find that some satellites of similar sequence composition are correlated across lines, revealing concerted evolution. Moreover, correlated satellites tend to be interspersed with each other, further suggesting that concerted change is partially driven by higher order structure. Surprisingly, we identified negative correlations among some satellites, suggesting antagonistic interactions. Our study demonstrates that current genome assemblies vastly underestimate the complexity, abundance, and variation of highly repetitive satellite DNA and presents approaches to understand their rapid evolutionary divergence. PMID:25512552

  1. Alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in deficient individuals enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Adriano R; Rouhani, Farshid; Li, Ning; Schreck, Pam; Brantly, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous augmentation therapy with purified intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin replaces the deficient protein and is the only currently approved treatment for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) related lung disease. While augmentation therapy has been available for more than 20 years, there are a limited number of studies evaluating the effect of augmentation on lung function. We examined the decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) in patients enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank in relation to the use or not of alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy. For the purpose of our analysis we included 164 patients with AATD and PI ZZ genotype. Mean age of the patients was 60 years, 52% were females, 94% were white and 78% ex-smokers. The mean FEV(1) at baseline was 1.7 L and the mean FEV(1) % of predicted was 51.3%. The mean follow-up time was 41.7 months. A total of 124 (76%) patients received augmentation therapy (augmented group) while 40 patients (24%) did not received it (non-augmented group). When adjusted by age at baseline, sex, smoking status, baseline FEV(1) % of predicted, the mean overall change in FEV(1) was 47.6 mL/year, favoring the augmented group (DeltaFEV(1) 10.6 +/- 21.4 mL/year) in comparison with the non-augmented group (DeltaFEV(1) -36.96 +/- 12.1 mL/year) (P = 0.05). Beneficial DeltaFEV(1) were observed in ex-smokers and the group with initial FEV(1) % of predicted of <50%. No differences were observed in mortality. In conclusion, augmentation therapy improves lung function in subjects with AATD when adjusted by age, gender, smoking status and baseline FEV(1) % of predicted. The beneficial effects were noted in ex-smoker subjects with FEV(1) below 50% of predicted.

  2. Organization and evolution of highly repeated satellite DNA sequences in plant chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Raina, S N

    2005-01-01

    A major component of the plant nuclear genome is constituted by different classes of repetitive DNA sequences. The structural, functional and evolutionary aspects of the satellite repetitive DNA families, and their organization in the chromosomes is reviewed. The tandem satellite DNA sequences exhibit characteristic chromosomal locations, usually at subtelomeric and centromeric regions. The repetitive DNA family(ies) may be widely distributed in a taxonomic family or a genus, or may be specific for a species, genome or even a chromosome. They may acquire large-scale variations in their sequence and copy number over an evolutionary time-scale. These features have formed the basis of extensive utilization of repetitive sequences for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. Hybrid polyploids have especially proven to be excellent models for studying the evolution of repetitive DNA sequences. Recent studies explicitly show that some repetitive DNA families localized at the telomeres and centromeres have acquired important structural and functional significance. The repetitive elements are under different evolutionary constraints as compared to the genes. Satellite DNA families are thought to arise de novo as a consequence of molecular mechanisms such as unequal crossing over, rolling circle amplification, replication slippage and mutation that constitute "molecular drive". Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Diversity of DNA beta, a satellite molecule associated with some monopartite begomoviruses.

    PubMed

    Briddon, Rob W; Bull, Simon E; Amin, Imran; Idris, Ali M; Mansoor, Shahid; Bedford, Ian D; Dhawan, Poonam; Rishi, Narayan; Siwatch, Surender S; Abdel-Salam, Aly M; Brown, Judith K; Zafar, Yusuf; Markham, Peter G

    2003-07-20

    DNA beta molecules are symptom-modulating, single-stranded DNA satellites associated with monopartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae). Such molecules have thus far been shown to be associated with Ageratum yellow vein virus from Singapore and Cotton leaf curl Multan virus from Pakistan. Here, 26 additional DNA beta molecules, associated with diverse plant species obtained from different geographical locations, were cloned and sequenced. These molecules were shown to be widespread in the Old World, where monopartite begomoviruses are known to occur. Analysis of the sequences revealed a highly conserved organization for DNA beta molecules consisting of a single conserved open reading frame, an adenine-rich region, and a region of high sequence conservation [the satellite conserved region (SCR)]. The SCR contains a potential hairpin structure with the loop sequence TAA/GTATTAC; similar to the origins of replication of geminiviruses and nanoviruses. Two major groups of DNA beta satellites were resolved by phylogenetic analyses. One group originated from hosts within the Malvaceae and the second from a more diverse group of plants within the Solanaceae and Compositae. Within the two clusters, DNA beta molecules showed relatedness based both on host and geographic origin. These findings strongly support coadaptation of DNA beta molecules with their respective helper begomoviruses.

  4. Effect of N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen upon DNA adduct formation by tamoxifen and alpha-hydroxytamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Marques, M Matilde; Fu, Xin; Churchwell, Mona I; Wang, Yu-Ping; Doerge, Daniel R; Beland, Frederick A

    2007-11-18

    Tamoxifen undergoes sequential metabolism to N-desmethyltamoxifen and N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen. Whereas N-desmethyltamoxifen is a major metabolite in humans, nonhuman primates, and rats, appreciable concentrations of N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen are formed in humans and nonhuman primates but not in rats. This difference in the extent of N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen formation may be important because it has been proposed that N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed alpha-hydroxylation of tamoxifen and resultant tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation. To test this hypothesis directly, we compared the extent of tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in rats co-administered 27micromol N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen per kg body weight and either 27micromol tamoxifen per kg body weight or 27micromol alpha-hydroxytamoxifen per kg body weight daily for 7days. Female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen had a 44% decrease (p >0.05) in CYP 3A2 content (the CYP isoform responsible for tamoxifen alpha-hydroxylation), an 18% decrease (p =0.010) in CYP 3A activity, and higher blood levels of tamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen compared to rats treated with solvent. Total tamoxifen-DNA adduct levels were 4.1-fold higher (p <0.001) in rats given alpha-hydroxytamoxifen as compared to tamoxifen. N,N-Didesmethyltamoxifen treatment caused a 1.2-fold increase in total tamoxifen-DNA adduct levels with both tamoxifen and alpha-hydroxytamoxifen, a difference that was not significant. These results indicate that, with this experimental model, N,N-didesmethyltamoxifen does not impair the metabolism of tamoxifen to a reactive electrophile.

  5. Loss of LAP2 alpha delays satellite cell differentiation and affects postnatal fiber-type determination.

    PubMed

    Gotic, Ivana; Schmidt, Wolfgang M; Biadasiewicz, Katarzyna; Leschnik, Michael; Spilka, Rita; Braun, Juliane; Stewart, Colin L; Foisner, Roland

    2010-03-31

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 2 alpha (LAP2 alpha) is a nucleoplasmic protein implicated in cell cycle regulation through its interaction with A-type lamins and the retinoblastoma protein. Mutations in lamin A/C and LAP2 alpha cause late onset striated muscle diseases, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the role of LAP2 alpha in skeletal muscle function and postnatal tissue homeostasis, we generated complete and muscle-specific LAP2 alpha knockout mice. Whereas overall muscle morphology, function, and regeneration were not detectably affected, the myofiber-associated muscle stem cell pool was increased in complete LAP2 alpha knockout animals. At molecular level, the absence of LAP2 alpha preserved the stem cell-like phenotype of Lap2 alpha(-/-) primary myoblasts and delayed their in vitro differentiation. In addition, loss of LAP2 alpha shifted the myofiber-type ratios of adult slow muscles toward fast fiber types. Conditional Cre-mediated late muscle-specific ablation of LAP2 alpha affected early stages of in vitro myoblast differentiation, and also fiber-type determination, but did not change myofiber-associated stem cell numbers in vivo. Our data demonstrate multiple and distinct functions of LAP2 alpha in muscle stem cell maintenance, early phases of myogenic differentiation, and muscle remodeling.

  6. Molecular cloning of rat brain Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, J W; Mercer, R W; Caplan, M; Emanuel, J R; Sweadner, K J; Benz, E J; Levenson, R

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone for the rat brain Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit. A lambda gt11 cDNA expression library constructed from mRNA of 1- and 2-week-old rat brains was screened with an antibody reactive with rat brain Na,K-ATPase. A positive phage clone, lambda rb5, containing a 1200-base-pair cDNA insert expressed a beta-galactosidase-cDNA fusion protein that was reactive by immunoblotting with the Na,K-ATPase antibody. This fusion protein was also reactive in ELISA with a monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase. A 27S mRNA species exhibiting sequence hybridization to the cDNA insert of lambda rb5 was identified in rat brain, kidney, and liver, as well as in dog kidney. This 27S mRNA exhibited a tissue-specific pattern of abundance consistent with the relative abundance of Na,K-ATPase polypeptides in vivo: kidney greater than brain greater than liver. In a ouabain-resistant HeLa cell line, C+, which contains minute chromosomes and at least a 10-fold greater number of sodium pumps than parental HeLa cells, DNA sequences complementary to lambda rb5 cDNA were amplified approximately 40-fold. Analysis of the lambda rb5 cDNA sequence demonstrated a perfect nucleotide sequence match between a portion of the cDNA and the amino acid sequence of the Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit fluorescein isothiocyanate binding site. Taken together, the data presented here demonstrate that the lambda rb5 cDNA clone is a portion of the gene coding for the rat brain Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit. The ATPase gene appears to be present in one or very few copies in the rat and human genomes and to be transcriptionally regulated in different rat tissues. In a ouabain-resistant human cell line, on the other hand, ouabain resistance appears to involve an increase in the number of gene copies coding for the Na,K-ATPase. Images PMID:2994074

  7. A satellite DNA family from pollock (Pollachius virens).

    PubMed

    Denovan, E M; Wright, J M

    1990-03-15

    We have cloned and sequenced a highly reiterated EcoRI fragment of DNA from pollock (Pollachus virens). The EcoRI repeat is 200 (+/- 5) bp long, A + T-rich (65%) and exhibits a high degree of sequence conservation among representative members. It comprises 13% of the pollock nuclear DNA with a copy number of 5 x 10(5) per haploid genome. Partial digestion of pollock DNA with EcoRI or Hinf1, which cleaves within the repeat, followed by blot hybridization to a cloned repeat sequence, produced a ladder of hybridising bands indicating a tandemly arrayed organisation for the EcoRI repeat. Longer range periodicities, revealed by restriction endonuclease digestion, are superimposed on the tandem array.

  8. Exploration of factors driving incorporation of unnatural dNTPS into DNA by Klenow fragment (DNA polymerase I) and DNA polymerase alpha.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Kristi; Beckman, Jeff; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Halcomb, Randall L; Engels, Joachim W; Kuchta, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    In order to further understand how DNA polymerases discriminate against incorrect dNTPs, we synthesized two sets of dNTP analogues and tested them as substrates for DNA polymerase alpha (pol alpha) and Klenow fragment (exo-) of DNA polymerase I (Escherichia coli). One set of analogues was designed to test the importance of the electronic nature of the base. The bases consisted of a benzimidazole ring with one or two exocyclic substituent(s) that are either electron-donating (methyl and methoxy) or electron-withdrawing (trifluoromethyl and dinitro). Both pol alpha and Klenow fragment exhibit a remarkable inability to discriminate against these analogues as compared to their ability to discriminate against incorrect natural dNTPs. Neither polymerase shows any distinct electronic or steric preferences for analogue incorporation. The other set of analogues, designed to examine the importance of hydrophobicity in dNTP incorporation, consists of a set of four regioisomers of trifluoromethyl benzimidazole. Whereas pol alpha and Klenow fragment exhibited minimal discrimination against the 5- and 6-regioisomers, they discriminated much more effectively against the 4- and 7-regioisomers. Since all four of these analogues will have similar hydrophobicity and stacking ability, these data indicate that hydrophobicity and stacking ability alone cannot account for the inability of pol alpha and Klenow fragment to discriminate against unnatural bases. After incorporation, however, both sets of analogues were not efficiently elongated. These results suggest that factors other than hydrophobicity, sterics and electronics govern the incorporation of dNTPs into DNA by pol alpha and Klenow fragment.

  9. Population variation in the A chromosome distribution of satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, J; Perfectti, F; Gómez, R; Camacho, J P M; López-León, M D

    2003-01-01

    The double FISH analysis of two repetitive DNAs (a satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA) in 12 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans collected at the south (Granada and Málaga provinces) and south-east (Albacete and Murcia provinces) of the Iberian Peninsula has shown their wide-spread presence throughout the whole genome as well as extensive variation among populations. Both DNAs are found in most A chromosomes. Regularly, both DNAs occurred in the S11 and X chromosomes, rDNA in the S10 and satDNA in the L2 and M3. No correlation was found between the number of satDNA and rDNA clusters in the A genomes of the 12 populations analysed, and both figures were independent of the presence of B chromosomes. The genomic distribution of both DNAs showed no association with the geographical localization of the populations analysed. Finally, we provide evidence that the supernumerary chromosome segment proximally located on the S11 chromosome is, in most cases, the result of satDNA amplification but, in some cases, it might also derive from amplification of both satDNA and rDNA.

  10. A Glimpse into the Satellite DNA Library in Characidae Fish (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Silva, Duílio M. Z. A.; Serrano, Érica A.; Rosa, Ivana F.; Scudeler, Patrícia E. S.; Hashimoto, Diogo T.; Oliveira, Claudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is an abundant fraction of repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes and plays an important role in genome organization and evolution. In general, satDNA sequences follow a concerted evolutionary pattern through the intragenomic homogenization of different repeat units. In addition, the satDNA library hypothesis predicts that related species share a series of satDNA variants descended from a common ancestor species, with differential amplification of different satDNA variants. The finding of a same satDNA family in species belonging to different genera within Characidae fish provided the opportunity to test both concerted evolution and library hypotheses. For this purpose, we analyzed here sequence variation and abundance of this satDNA family in ten species, by a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS), PCR and Sanger sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found extensive between-species variation for the number and size of pericentromeric FISH signals. At genomic level, the analysis of 1000s of DNA sequences obtained by Illumina sequencing and PCR amplification allowed defining 150 haplotypes which were linked in a common minimum spanning tree, where different patterns of concerted evolution were apparent. This also provided a glimpse into the satDNA library of this group of species. In consistency with the library hypothesis, different variants for this satDNA showed high differences in abundance between species, from highly abundant to simply relictual variants. PMID:28855916

  11. Mammalian DNA polymerase alpha holoenzymes with possible functions at the leading and lagging strand of the replication fork.

    PubMed Central

    Ottiger, H P; Hübscher, U

    1984-01-01

    At an early purification stage, DNA polymerase alpha holoenzyme from calf thymus can be separated into four different forms by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. All four enzyme forms (termed A, B, C, and D) are capable of replicating long single-stranded DNA templates, such as parvoviral DNA or primed M13 DNA. Peak A possesses, in addition to the DNA polymerase alpha, a double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase, as well as DNA topoisomerase type II, 3'-5' exonuclease, and RNase H activity. Peaks B, C, and D all contain, together with DNA polymerase alpha, activities of primase and DNA topoisomerase type II. Furthermore, peak B is enriched in an RNase H, and peaks C and D are enriched in a 3'-5' exonuclease. DNA methylase (DNA methyltransferase) was preferentially identified in peaks C and D. Velocity sedimentation analyses of the four peaks gave evidence of unexpectedly large forms of DNA polymerase alpha (greater than 11.3 s), indicating that copurification of the above putative replication enzymes is not fortuitous. With moderate and high concentrations of salt, enzyme activities cosedimented with DNA polymerase alpha. Peak C is more resistant to inhibition by salt and spermidine than the other three enzyme forms. These results suggest the existence of a leading strand replicase (peak A) and several lagging strand replicase forms (peaks B, C, and D). Finally, the salt-resistant C form might represent a functional DNA polymerase alpha holoenzyme, possibly fitting in a higher-order structure, such as the replisome or even the chromatin. Images PMID:6588375

  12. Flavonoid glycoside: a new inhibitor of eukaryotic DNA polymerase alpha and a new carrier for inhibitor-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Ishidoh, Tomomi; Kamisuki, Shinji; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Takemura, Masaharu; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2003-02-07

    Two flavonoid glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-(6"-acetyl)-beta-glucopyranoside (KAG) and quercetin 3-O-(6"-acetyl)-beta-glucopyranoside (QAG), were found to be inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerases from a Japanese vegetable, Petasites japonicus. These compounds inhibited the activities of mammalian replicative DNA polymerases (i.e., pol alpha, delta, and epsilon), but not other pol beta, eta, kappa, and lambda activities. KAG was a stronger inhibitor and more selective to pol alpha than QAG. The IC(50) values of KAG for pol alpha, delta, and epsilon were 41, 164, and 127 microM, respectively. The pol alpha inhibition by KAG was non-competitive with respect to both the DNA template-primer and the dNTP substrate. KAG and QAG did not influence the activities of prokaryotic DNA polymerases or other mammalian DNA metabolic enzymes such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, human telomerase, human DNA topoisomerase I and II, T7 RNA polymerase, and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. Therefore, we concluded that these flavonoid glycosides are moderate replicative DNA polymerase inhibitors leaning more relatively to pol alpha, and could be used as chromatographic carriers to purify the DNA polymerases rather than cytotoxic agents. We then made a KAG-conjugated column such as the epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. In the column, pol alpha was selectively adsorbed and eluted.

  13. Controlling the translocation of single-stranded DNA through alpha-hemolysin ion channels using viscosity.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Ryuji; Schibel, Anna E P; Cauley, Christopher; White, Henry S

    2009-01-20

    Translocation of single-stranded DNA through alpha-hemolysin (alpha-HL) channels is investigated in glycerol/water mixtures containing 1 M KCl. Experiments using glass nanopore membranes as the lipid bilayer support demonstrate that the translocation velocities of poly(deoxyadenylic acid), poly(deoxycytidylic acid), and poly(deoxythymidylic acid) 50-mers are decreased by a factor of approximately 20 in a 63/37 (vol %) glycerol/water mixture, relative to aqueous solutions. The ion conductance of alpha-HL and the entry rate of the polynucleotides into the protein channel also decrease with increasing viscosity. Precise control of translocation parameters by adjusting viscosity provides a potential means to improve sequencing methods based on ion channel recordings.

  14. Satellite DNA sequences flank amplified DHFR domains in marker chromosomes of mouse fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Riva, P; Orlando, S; Labella, T; Larizza, L

    1994-01-01

    This study centers on marker chromosomes carrying expanded chromosomal regions which were observed in two independent derivatives of the AA12 murine fibrosarcoma line, the 10(-3) M MTX-res H2 and the 5 x 10(-7) M MTX-res E. Previous characterization of the marker chromosomes of MTX-res variants showed their common derivation from a marker chromosome (m) of the parental line, endowed with two interstitial C-bands. Cytogenetic evidence pointed to one C-band of m as the site involved in the chromosomal rearrangements leading to the HSR/ASR chromosomes. ISH of a 3H-labeled satellite DNA probe allowed satellite sequences flanking the HSR/ASR in the marker chromosomes, where the C-band was no longer visible, to be detected. FISH experiments using biotinylated DHFR and satellite DNA probes showed that the respective target sequences are contiguous in new marker chromosomes. They also allowed inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements to be seen at DHFR amplicons and satellite sequences. Double-color FISH using digoxygenated satellite DNA and biotinylated pDHFR7 showed that in a marker chromosome from the H2 cell line the two target sequences are not only adjacent, but closer than 3 Mb, as indicated by overlapping of the different fluorescence signals given by the two probes. Another marker chromosome in the E variant was shown to display a mixed ladder structure consisting of a head-to-head tandem of irregularly-sized satellite DNA blocks, with two symmetrical interspersed DHFR clusters.

  15. Application of genomic DNA affinity chromatography identifies multiple interferon-alpha-regulated Stat2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Ghislain, J J; Fish, E N

    1996-05-24

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha)-induced signal transduction is mediated by the phosphorylation-activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins Stat1, Stat2, and Stat3. Previous studies have shown that these activated STATs dimerize to form four distinct STAT complexes which translocate to the nucleus and activates transcription by binding to specific promoter elements. The interferon-stimulated gene factor-3 (ISGF3) consists of Stat2 and Stat1 heterodimers in association with a DNA-binding protein, p48, that binds to the interferon stimulated response element. Homo-and heterodimers of Stat1 and Stat3 bind to the palindromic interferon response element (pIRE). In this report we demonstrate the utility of a biochemical procedure that we have developed, based on genomic DNA affinity chromatography, for the identification of IFN-alpha-induced STAT complexes. Using this approach, we identified ISGF3-independent Stat2-containing STAT complexes. Results from the analysis of Stat2 complexes in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay were consistent with genomic DNA affinity chromatography results and identified a Stat2:1 complex that binds with low affinity to the pIRE of the interferon regulatory factor-1 gene. Immunoprecipitation studies of Stat2 revealed an IFN-alpha dependent co-precipitation of both Stat1 and Stat3. Taken together, our results suggest that IFN-alpha activates, in addition to ISGF3, other Stat2-containing STAT complexes, one of which binds to an element related to the interferon regulatory factor-1 pIRE.

  16. An unusual polyanion from Physarum polycephalum that inhibits homologous DNA polymerase. alpha. in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.; Erdmann, S.; Holler, E. )

    1989-06-13

    From extracts of microplasmodia of Physarum polycephalum and their culture medium, an unusual substance was isolated which inhibited homologous DNA polymerase {alpha} of this slime mold but not {beta}-like DNA polymerase and not heterologous DNA polymerases. Analysis, especially NMR spectroscopy, revealed the major component to be an anionic polyester of L-malic acid and the inhibition to be due to poly(L-malate) in binding reversibly to DNA polymerase {alpha}. The mode of inhibition is competitive with substrate DNA and follows an inhibition constant K{sub i} = 10 ng/mL. Inhibition is reversed in the presence of spermine, spermidine, poly(ethylene imine), and calf thymus histone H1. According to its ester nature, the inhibitor is slightly labile at neutral and instable at acid and alkaline conditions. Its largest size corresponds to a molecular mass of 40-50 kDa, but the bulk of the material after purification has lower molecular masses. The inhibitory activity depends on the polymer size and has a minimal size requirement.

  17. Satellite DNA Modulates Gene Expression in the Beetle Tribolium castaneum after Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding repetitive DNAs have been proposed to perform a gene regulatory role, however for tandemly repeated satellite DNA no such role was defined until now. Here we provide the first evidence for a role of satellite DNA in the modulation of gene expression under specific environmental conditions. The major satellite DNA TCAST1 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum is preferentially located within pericentromeric heterochromatin but is also dispersed as single repeats or short arrays in the vicinity of protein-coding genes within euchromatin. Our results show enhanced suppression of activity of TCAST1-associated genes and slower recovery of their activity after long-term heat stress relative to the same genes without associated TCAST1 satellite DNA elements. The level of gene suppression is not influenced by the distance of TCAST1 elements from the associated genes up to 40 kb from the genes’ transcription start sites, but it does depend on the copy number of TCAST1 repeats within an element, being stronger for the higher number of copies. The enhanced gene suppression correlates with the enrichment of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2/3 at dispersed TCAST1 elements and their flanking regions as well as with increased expression of TCAST1 satellite DNA. The results reveal transient, RNAi based heterochromatin formation at dispersed TCAST1 repeats and their proximal regions as a mechanism responsible for enhanced silencing of TCAST1-associated genes. Differences in the pattern of distribution of TCAST1 elements contribute to gene expression diversity among T. castaneum strains after long-term heat stress and might have an impact on adaptation to different environmental conditions. PMID:26275223

  18. Satellite DNA Modulates Gene Expression in the Beetle Tribolium castaneum after Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2015-08-01

    Non-coding repetitive DNAs have been proposed to perform a gene regulatory role, however for tandemly repeated satellite DNA no such role was defined until now. Here we provide the first evidence for a role of satellite DNA in the modulation of gene expression under specific environmental conditions. The major satellite DNA TCAST1 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum is preferentially located within pericentromeric heterochromatin but is also dispersed as single repeats or short arrays in the vicinity of protein-coding genes within euchromatin. Our results show enhanced suppression of activity of TCAST1-associated genes and slower recovery of their activity after long-term heat stress relative to the same genes without associated TCAST1 satellite DNA elements. The level of gene suppression is not influenced by the distance of TCAST1 elements from the associated genes up to 40 kb from the genes' transcription start sites, but it does depend on the copy number of TCAST1 repeats within an element, being stronger for the higher number of copies. The enhanced gene suppression correlates with the enrichment of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2/3 at dispersed TCAST1 elements and their flanking regions as well as with increased expression of TCAST1 satellite DNA. The results reveal transient, RNAi based heterochromatin formation at dispersed TCAST1 repeats and their proximal regions as a mechanism responsible for enhanced silencing of TCAST1-associated genes. Differences in the pattern of distribution of TCAST1 elements contribute to gene expression diversity among T. castaneum strains after long-term heat stress and might have an impact on adaptation to different environmental conditions.

  19. Electronic Properties of DNA-Based Schottky Barrier Diodes in Response to Alpha Particles

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Detection of nuclear radiation such as alpha particles has become an important field of research in recent history due to nuclear threats and accidents. In this context; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) acting as an organic semiconducting material could be utilized in a metal/semiconductor Schottky junction for detecting alpha particles. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the effect of alpha irradiation on an Al/DNA/p-Si/Al Schottky diode by investigating its current-voltage characteristics. The diodes were exposed for different periods (0–20 min) of irradiation. Various diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance, Richardson constant and saturation current were then determined using conventional, Cheung and Cheung’s and Norde methods. Generally, ideality factor or n values were observed to be greater than unity, which indicates the influence of some other current transport mechanism besides thermionic processes. Results indicated ideality factor variation between 9.97 and 9.57 for irradiation times between the ranges 0 to 20 min. Increase in the series resistance with increase in irradiation time was also observed when calculated using conventional and Cheung and Cheung’s methods. These responses demonstrate that changes in the electrical characteristics of the metal-semiconductor-metal diode could be further utilized as sensing elements to detect alpha particles. PMID:26007733

  20. Electronic Properties of DNA-Based Schottky Barrier Diodes in Response to Alpha Particles.

    PubMed

    Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-05-21

    Detection of nuclear radiation such as alpha particles has become an important field of research in recent history due to nuclear threats and accidents. In this context; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) acting as an organic semiconducting material could be utilized in a metal/semiconductor Schottky junction for detecting alpha particles. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the effect of alpha irradiation on an Al/DNA/p-Si/Al Schottky diode by investigating its current-voltage characteristics. The diodes were exposed for different periods (0-20 min) of irradiation. Various diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance, Richardson constant and saturation current were then determined using conventional, Cheung and Cheung's and Norde methods. Generally, ideality factor or n values were observed to be greater than unity, which indicates the influence of some other current transport mechanism besides thermionic processes. Results indicated ideality factor variation between 9.97 and 9.57 for irradiation times between the ranges 0 to 20 min. Increase in the series resistance with increase in irradiation time was also observed when calculated using conventional and Cheung and Cheung's methods. These responses demonstrate that changes in the electrical characteristics of the metal-semiconductor-metal diode could be further utilized as sensing elements to detect alpha particles.

  1. Anti-tumor effects of dehydroaltenusin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Naoki; Kokai, Yasuo; Ohtani, Seiji; Sahara, Hiroeki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Kamisuki, Shinji; Takahashi, Shunya; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sato, Noriyuki; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki . E-mail: mizushin@nutr.kobegakuin.ac.jp

    2007-01-12

    In the screening of selective inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerases (pols), dehydroaltenusin was found to be an inhibitor of pol {alpha} from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis). We succeeded in chemically synthesizing dehydroaltenusin, and the compound inhibited only mammalian pol {alpha} with IC{sub 50} value of 0.5 {mu}M, and did not influence the activities of other replicative pols such as pols {delta} and {epsilon}, but also showed no effect on pol {alpha} activity from another vertebrate, fish, or from a plant species. Dehydroaltenusin also had no influence on the other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. The compound also inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells with LD{sub 50} values of 38.0-44.4 {mu}M. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HeLa cells, dehydroaltenusin was shown to be a promising suppressor of solid tumors. Histopathological examination revealed that increased tumor necrosis and decreased mitotic index were apparently detected by the compound in vivo. Therefore, dehydroaltenusin could be of interest as not only a mammalian pol {alpha}-specific inhibitor, but also as a candidate drug for anti-cancer treatment.

  2. New satellite DNA in Lacerta s. str. lizards (Sauria: Lacertidae): evolutionary pathways and phylogenetic impact.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Doina; Grechko, Vernata V; Darevsky, Ilya S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2004-11-15

    A new tandemly repeated (satellite) DNA family namely Agi160, from Lacerta agilis and Lacerta strigata (Lacerta sensu stricto (s. str.), Linnaeus 1758) have been cloned and sequenced. Agi160 is found in the above two species, as well as two other representatives of the same genus, L. viridis and L. media. DNA hybridization did not reveal it in Darevskia, Podarcis, Zootoca, Eremias, Ophisops, and Gallotia - the other genera of the family Lacertidae. The results suggest that Agi160 is a Lacerta s. str. specific family of tandem DNA repeats. However, a comparison between sequences of Agi160 and CLsat repeat units revealed 60 bp regions 62-74% identical. The latter is a satellite DNA family typical for Darevskia (syn. "L. saxicola complex") (Grechko et al., Molecular-genetic classification and phylogenetic relatedness of some species of Lacertidae lizards by taxonoprint data. Mol Biol 32:172-183, 1988.). Both Agi160 and CLsat tandem repeats share several common features (e.g., the same AT content and distribution of multiple short A-T runs, internal structure of repeated units, the presence of conservative regions). These data are indicative of their common origin and a possibly strong selective pressure upon conserving both satellites. A comparative analysis of structure, organization, and abundance of these two families of satDNA reveals evolutionary pathways that led to their formation and divergence. The data are consistent with the hypotheses of the concerted evolution of satellite DNA families. The possibility of use of Agi160 as a phylogenetic tool, defining relationships within Lacerta s. str., as well as within the whole family of Lacertidae is discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Amplification of marine methanotrophic enrichment DNA with 16S rDNA PCR primers for type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Rockne, Karl J; Strand, Stuart E

    2003-09-01

    Type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs are capable of a wide range of cometabolic transformations of chlorinated solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and this activity has been exploited in many terrestrial bioremediation systems. However, at present, all known obligately marine methanotrophic isolates are Type I gamma proteobacteria which do not have this activity to the extent of Type II methanotrophs. In previous work in our laboratory, determining the presence of Type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs in marine enrichment cultures that co-metabolized PAHs required a more sensitive assay. 16S rDNA PCR primers were designed based on oligonucleotide probes for serine pathway methanotrophs and serine pathway methylotrophs with an approximate amplification fragment size of 870 base pairs. Comparison of the primers using double primer BLAST searches in established nucleotide databases showed potential amplification with all Methylocystis and Methylosinus spp., as well as potential amplification with Methylocella palustrus. DNA from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, a Type II methanotroph, amplified with the primers with a fragment size of approximately 850 base pairs, whereas DNA extracted from Methylomonas methanica, a Type I methanotroph, did not. The primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from two marine methanotrophic enrichment cultures: a low nitrogen/low copper enrichment to select for Type II methanotrophs and a high nitrogen/high copper enrichment to select for Type I methanotrophs. Although DNA from both cultures amplified with the PCR primers, amplification was stronger in cultures that were specifically enriched for Type II methanotrophs, suggesting the presence of higher numbers of Type II methanotrophs. These results provide further evidence for the existence of Type II marine methanotrophs, suggesting the possibility of exploiting cometabolic activity in marine systems.

  4. Isolation and characterization of the murine alpha-L-iduronidase cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, L.A.; Zhang, H. Nasir, J.

    1994-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) are a group of disorders caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase. The characterization of the human gene and the identification of mutations underlying MPS I in humans has led to the delineation of the molecular basis of this disorder. Model systems are now needed for the evaluation and development of therapeutics for this disorder. Both canine and feline models for MPS type I have been described but only the canine gene has been isolated and characterized. We report here the cloning and expression of the murine alpha-L-iduronidase cDNA. The murine cDNA was obtained by screening a mouse liver cDNA library with a probe from the human cDNA. The full length murine cDNA is 3120 base pairs in length and thus is considerably larger than both the human and canine transcripts. The increase in size is due to a 1.2 kb 3{prime} untranslated region in the murine cDNA that contains a CA dinucleotide repeat. Within the coding region the murine cDNA shows sequences. At the protein level the murine protein shows 77% similarity with the human protein and 75% similarity with the canine protein. There are significant differences in both the start and stop sites with the murine protein 9 amino acids shorter at both the N terminal signal peptide region and the C terminus. Expression of the murine cDNA in COS-1 cells resulted in a 20 fold increase in intracellular alpha-L-iduronidase activity as well as the detection of considerable enzyme activity in the culture medium. Comparison of the reported missense mutations underlying MPS I in humans (A75T, H82P, R89Q, L218P, P533R, Q310X, T366P) has shown conservation of these amino acid residues in the murine protein. The isolation of the murine iduronidase cDNA will now allow for the development of a murine model for MPS I.

  5. A chimeric satellite transgene sequence is inefficiently targeted by viroid-induced DNA methylation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Dalakouras, Athanasios; Moser, Mirko; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2010-07-01

    In plants, transgenes containing Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) cDNA sequences were efficient targets of PSTVd infection-mediated RNA-directed DNA methylation. Here, we demonstrate that in PSTVd-infected tobacco plants, a 134 bp PSTVd fragment (PSTVd-134) did not become densely methylated when it was inserted into a chimeric Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) construct. Only about 4-5% of all cytosines (Cs) of the PSTVd-134 were methylated when flanked by satellite sequences. In the same plants, C methylation was approximately 92% when the PSTVd-134 was in a PSTVd full length sequence context and roughly 33% when flanked at its 3' end by a 19 bp PSTVd and at its 5' end by a short viroid-unrelated sequence. In addition, PSTVd small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) produced from the replicating viroid failed to target PSTVd-134-containing chimeric STMV RNA for degradation. Satellite RNAs appear to have adopted secondary structures that protect them against RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated degradation. Protection can be extended to short non-satellite sequences residing in satellite RNAs, rendering them poor targets for nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAi induced in trans.

  6. Multiple phosphorylation sites of DNA polymerase alpha-primase cooperate to regulate the initiation of DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schub, O; Rohaly, G; Smith, R W; Schneider, A; Dehde, S; Dornreiter, I; Nasheuer, H P

    2001-10-12

    DNA polymerase alpha-primase (pol-prim) is the only enzyme that can start DNA replication de novo. The 180-kDa (p180) and 68-kDa (p68) subunits of the human four-subunit enzyme are phosphorylated by Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Cyclin A-Cdk2 physically interacts with pol-prim and phosphorylates N-terminal amino acids of the p180 and the p68 subunits, leading to an inhibition of pol-prim in initiating cell-free SV40 DNA replication. Mutation of conserved putative Cdk phosphorylation sites in the N terminus of human p180 and p68 reduced their phosphorylation by Cyclin A-Cdk2 in vitro. In contrast to wild-type pol-prim these mutants were no longer inhibited by Cyclin A-Cdk2 in the initiation of viral DNA replication. Importantly, rather than inhibiting it, Cyclin A-Cdk2 stimulated the initiation activity of pol-prim containing a triple N-terminal alanine mutant of the p180 subunit. Together these results suggest that Cyclin A-Cdk2 executes both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the activity of pol-prim in initiating DNA replication.

  7. Structure and population dynamics of the major satellite DNA in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni; Ugarković, Durđica

    2011-08-01

    In the beetle genus Tribolium, satellite DNAs comprise a significant amount of pericentromeric heterochromatin and are characterized by rapid turnover resulting in species specific profiles. In the present work we characterize the major pericentromeric satellite DNA TCAST of the beetle T. castaneum and analyse its population dynamics. Using direct sequencing of genomic PCR products we show that the TCAST satellite exists in the form of two related subfamilies: Tcast1a and Tcast1b that make up 20 and 15% of the genome, respectively. Tcast1a and Tcast1b have consensus sequences of 377 and 362 bp respectively, share an average similarity of 79% and are characterized by a divergent, subfamily specific region of approximately 100 bp. The two subfamilies are prevalently organized in the interspersed form, although a portion exists in the form of homogenous tandem arrays composed of only Tcast1a or Tcast1b. The pattern of restriction enzyme digestion indicates that Tcast1a and Tcast1b are organized in composite higher order repeats. Comparison of sequence variability of Tcast1a and Tcast1b among ten strains reveals a difference in the frequency of particular mutations present at some positions. However, no difference in the organization and in the amount of subfamilies was detected among strains. The results show that direct genomic sequencing can be a useful method for the detection of population specific features of satellite DNA. In the case of TCAST satellite DNA, changes in the mutational profiles seem to represent the first step in the genesis of a population specific satellite profile.

  8. Construction of a small Mus musculus repetitive DNA library: identification of a new satellite sequence in Mus musculus.

    PubMed Central

    Pietras, D F; Bennett, K L; Siracusa, L D; Woodworth-Gutai, M; Chapman, V M; Gross, K W; Kane-Haas, C; Hastie, N D

    1983-01-01

    We report the construction of a small library of recombinant plasmids containing Mus musculus repetitive DNA inserts. The repetitive cloned fraction was derived from denatured genomic DNA by reassociation to a Cot value at which repetitive, but not unique, sequences have reannealed followed by exhaustive S1 nuclease treatment to degrade single stranded DNA. Initial characterizations of this library by colony filter hybridizations have led to the identification of a previously undetected M. musculus minor satellite as well as to clones containing M. musculus major satellite sequences. This new satellite is repeated 10-20 times less than the major satellite in the M. musculus genome. It has a repeat length of 130 nucleotides compared with the M. musculus major satellite with a repeat length of 234 nucleotides. Sequence analysis of the minor satellite has shown that it has a 29 base pair region with extensive homology to one of the major satellite repeating subunits. We also show by in situ hybridization that this minor satellite sequence is located at the centromeres and possibly the arms of at least half the M musculus chromosomes. Sequences related to the minor satellite have been found in the DNA of a related Mus species, Mus spretus, and may represent the major satellite of that species. Images PMID:6314268

  9. Completing the human genome: the progress and challenge of satellite DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Miga, Karen H

    2015-09-01

    Genomic studies rely on accurate chromosome assemblies to explore sequence-based models of cell biology, evolution and biomedical disease. However, even the extensively studied human genome has not yet reached a complete, 'telomere-to-telomere', chromosome assembly. The largest assembly gaps remain in centromeric regions and acrocentric short arms, sites known to contain megabase-sized arrays of tandem repeats, or satellite DNAs. This review aims to briefly address the progress and challenges of generating correct assemblies of satellite DNA arrays. Although the focus is placed on the human genome, many concepts presented here are applicable to other genomes.

  10. Molecular diversity of the DNA-beta satellites associated with tomato leaf curl disease in India.

    PubMed

    Sivalingam, P N; Malathi, V G; Varma, A

    2010-05-01

    DNA-beta satellites, referred to here as betasatellites, were found associated with tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) in India. The size of eight betasatellites isolated from different geographical locations in India varied from 1353 to 1424 nt; these molecules had an ORF beta C1, an adenine-rich region, and a satellite conserved region. Their nucleotide sequence identity varied from 45 to 93%. In phylogenetic analysis, these betasatellites grouped according to their geographic locations rather than the host species. Two new betasatellites, tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite and tomato leaf curl Maharashtra betasatellite, were identified.

  11. Synchronization of HeLa cell cultures by inhibition of DNA polymerase alpha with aphidicolin.

    PubMed Central

    Pedrali-Noy, G; Spadari, S; Miller-Faurès, A; Miller, A O; Kruppa, J; Koch, G

    1980-01-01

    Both the inhibitory effect of aphidicolin on the replicative alpha-polymerase and the reversibility of its action in vivo (Pedrali-Noy & Spadari, 1979, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88, 1194-2002) allow the synchronization of cells in culture. Aphidicolin prevents G1 cells from entering the DNA synthetic period, blocks cells in "S" phase, allows G2, M and G1 cells to continue the cell cycle and to accumulate at the G1/S border. Aphidicolin is a more useful reagent than hydroxyurea and thymidine because it does not affect cell viability or "S" phase duration and does not interfere with the synthesis of dNTPs or DNA polymerases. In fact cells exposed to the drug continue to synthesize all three DNA polymerases alpha, beta and gamma as well as all dNTPs which, when the block is removed, are present at levels optimal for DNA initiation and replication. The technique is simple and can be applied to cells growing in suspension or monolayers and allows one to harvest large quantities of synchronized cells. PMID:6775308

  12. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status.

    PubMed

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena; Lindegren, Sture; Jensen, Holger; Bäck, Tom; Swanpalmer, John; Elmroth, Kecke

    2014-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ((60)Co) and alpha particles from (211)At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to (211)At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1Gy (211)At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative effectiveness of alpha particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation of chicken alpha ENaC splice variants from a cochlear cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Killick, R; Richardson, G

    1997-01-03

    Three splice variants of the alpha subunit of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (alpha ENaC) have been isolated from a chicken cochlear cDNA library. A PCR product, generated from the cochlear library using degenerate primers to regions of homology between the rat alpha ENaC and the degenerin Mec-4, was used as a probe. The three splice variant cDNAs with sizes of 2321, 3399 and 3845 bp correspond to transcripts of 2.5, 3.5 and 3.9 kb as detected by Northern blot analysis. The 3399 bp clone differs from the 2321 clone solely by the addition of 1079 bases in the 3'-non-coding region. Both these cDNAs code for an identical predicted protein of 637 amino acids which has 68% similarity to the rat alpha ENaC, and is probably the chicken homologue of alpha ENaC. The third cDNA of 3845 bp is similar to the 3399 bp clone but includes two exons within the open reading frame. The first of these exons introduces a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated predicted protein of 434 amino acids. Northern blot analysis shows expression of the 2.5 and 3.5 kb transcripts in cochlea and colon, the 2.5 kb transcript in cartilage, whilst the 3.9 kb transcript is only detected in cochlea. No expression is detected in brain, liver, and heart nor, most notably, in lung or kidney.

  14. Unusual chromosomal distribution of a major satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Amor, N; Odierna, G; Chinali, G; Said, K; Picariello, O

    2009-01-01

    A new highly abundant satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Dp-sat1) was isolated and characterized. The repetitive unit (0.51 kb) has 2 HindIII sites and only one SpeI site: digestion of genomic DNA with HindIII produces 3 fragments: HA (0.17 kb), HB (0.34 kb), and HC = HA + HB (0.51 kb), while digestion with SpeI produces the whole repetitive unit (0.51 kb) that contains both HindIII sites. Sequence analysis of cloned repeats indicates an average A + T content of 71%, with many A- and T-runs. Southern blot analysis shows an arrangement of multiple bands of the 0.51 kb monomer in SpeI-digested DNA, while HindIII-digested DNA shows a ladder composed of all the possible combinations of the 3 digested fragments. Quantitative dot-blot indicates that Dp-sat1 accounts for about 6% of the D. pictus genome: this value represents about 1.5 x 10(6) copies of repetitive units per nucleus. This satellite DNA is also a major repetitive DNA in 4 other Discoglossus species, in which the repetitive unit presents the same size and restriction sites except in D. montalentii where it contains a unique HindIII site. This satellite DNA was absent in all the other tested archaeo- and neo-bratrachian species, as well as non-amphibian species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis shows that Dp-sat1 is localized only in peri- and/or para-centromeric areas of the 7 small chromosome pairs, while no labeling was observed in the 7 large chromosome pairs. Remarkably, Dp-sat1 heterochromatin is found only at one pole of the nucleus, suggesting that during interphase all 7 small chromosome pairs are located in the same nuclear region.

  15. Thiol-modulated mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of thimerosal and inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II alpha.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Liang, Hong; O'Hara, Kimberley A; Yalowich, Jack C; Hasinoff, Brian B

    2008-02-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound that is widely used as a preservative in vaccines and other solution formulations. The use of thimerosal has caused concern about its ability to cause neurological abnormalities due to mercury accumulation during a normal schedule of childhood vaccinations. While the chemistry and the biological effects of methylmercury have been well-studied, those of thimerosal have not. Thimerosal reacted rapidly with cysteine, GSH, human serum albumin, and single-stranded DNA to form ethylmercury adducts that were detectable by mass spectrometry. These results indicated that thimerosal would be quickly metabolized in vivo because of its reactions with protein and nonprotein thiols. Thimerosal also potently inhibited the decatenation activity of DNA topoisomerase II alpha, likely through reaction with critical free cysteine thiol groups. Thimerosal, however, did not act as a topoisomerase II poison and the lack of cross-resistance with a K562 cell line with a decreased level of topoisomerase II alpha (K/VP.5 cells) suggested that inhibition of topoisomerase II alpha was not a significant mechanism for the inhibition of cell growth. Depletion of intracellular GSH with buthionine sulfoximine treatment greatly increased the K562 cell growth inhibitory effects of thimerosal, which showed that intracellular glutathione had a major role in protecting cells from thimerosal. Pretreatment of thimerosal with glutathione did not, however, change its K562 cell growth inhibitory effects, a result consistent with the rapid exchange of the ethylmercury adduct among various thiol-containing cellular reactants. Thimerosal-induced single and double strand breaks in K562 cells were consistent with a rapid induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, these studies have elucidated some of the chemistry and biological activities of the interaction of thimerosal with topoisomerase II alpha and protein and nonprotein thiols and with DNA.

  16. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    PubMed

    Allegrucci, Giuliana; Sbordoni, Valerio; Cesaroni, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA). Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  17. Insights on genome size evolution from a miniature inverted repeat transposon driving a satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Scalvenzi, Thibault; Pollet, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The genome size in eukaryotes does not correlate well with the number of genes they contain. We can observe this so-called C-value paradox in amphibian species. By analyzing an amphibian genome we asked how repetitive DNA can impact genome size and architecture. We describe here our discovery of a Tc1/mariner miniature inverted-repeat transposon family present in Xenopus frogs. These transposons named miDNA4 are unique since they contain a satellite DNA motif. We found that miDNA4 measured 331 bp, contained 25 bp long inverted terminal repeat sequences and a sequence motif of 119 bp present as a unique copy or as an array of 2-47 copies. We characterized the structure, dynamics, impact and evolution of the miDNA4 family and its satellite DNA in Xenopus frog genomes. This led us to propose a model for the evolution of these two repeated sequences and how they can synergize to increase genome size.

  18. Is Radon Emission in Caves Causing Deletions in Satellite DNA Sequences of Cave-Dwelling Crickets?

    PubMed Central

    Allegrucci, Giuliana; Sbordoni, Valerio; Cesaroni, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA). Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration. PMID:25822625

  19. Chromosome polymorphism in Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae). 2--Chromosomal location of a satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Pazza, R; Frehner Kavalco, K; Bertollo, L A C

    2008-01-01

    Studies about composition of repetitive sequences and their chromosomal location have been helpful to evolutionary studies in many distinct organisms. In order to keep on assessing the possible relationships among different cytotypes of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) in the Mogi-Guaçu River (São Paulo State, Brazil), C-banding, chromomycin A(3) staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with a repetitive DNA sequence (As51) isolated from Astyanax scabripinnis were performed in the present work. The constitutive heterochromatin was distributed in terminal regions on long arms of submetacentric, subtelocentric, and acrocentric chromosomes and in the terminal region on short arms of a pair of submetacentric chromosomes in both standard cytotypes. This latter heterochromatic site was also GC-rich, as revealed by chromomycin A(3) staining, corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region (NOR), as shown by previous studies. The sites of the satellite As51 DNA were located in terminal regions on long arms of several chromosomes. Some variant karyotypic forms, which diverge from the two standard cytotypes, also presented distinctive chromosomes carrying As51 satellite DNA. It is possible that the standard 2n = 46 cytotype represents an invader population in the Mogi-Guaçu River able to interbreed with the resident standard 2n = 48 cytotype. Therefore, the variant karyotypes would be related to a possible viable offspring, where complementary chromosomal rearrangements could favor new locations of the satellite DNA analyzed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Molecular characterization of a new begomovirus infecting Sida cordifolia and its associated satellite DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojian; Zhou, Xueping

    2006-12-01

    Two virus isolates Hn57 and Hn60 were obtained from Sida cordifolia showing mild upward leaf-curling symptoms in Hainan province of China. Comparison of partial sequences of DNA-A like molecule confirmed the existence of a single type of begomovirus. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A of Hn57 was determined to be 2757 nucleotides, with a genomic organization typical of begomoviruses. Complete sequence comparison with other reported begomoviruses revealed that Hn57 DNA-A has the highest sequence identity (71.0%) with that of Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus. Consequently, Hn57 was considered to be a new begomovirus species, for which the name Sida leaf curl virus (SiLCV) is proposed. In addition to DNA-A molecule, two additional circular single-stranded satellite DNA molecules corresponding to DNAbeta and DNA1 were found to be associated with SiLCV isolates. Both DNAbeta and DNA1 were approximately half the size of their cognate genomic DNA. Sequence analysis shows that DNAbeta of Hn57 and Hn60 share 93.8% nucleotide sequence identity, and they have the highest sequence identity (58.5%) with DNAbeta associated with Ageratum leaf curl disease (AJ316027). The nucleotide sequence identity between DNA1 of Hn57 and that of Hn60 was 83.8%, they share 58.2-79.3% nucleotide sequence identities in comparison with other previously reported DNAl.

  1. Interim Definitive Orbit for the Satellite 1959 Alpha Vanguard-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    A summary of certain position information indicating accuracies for the orbital arcs underlying the ephemeris is presented in table 1. The detailed ephemeris information is presented at the end of this report in the form of tables which give the latitude and longitude of the sub satellite point and the satellite height for each minute of time. The subsatellite point is defined here as the point on the earth's surface over which the satellite was determined to be at the indicated time. This form of presentation was recommended by the International Geophysical Year agencies concerned, for use in specifying the orbital positions of IGY satellites. Time is specified by giving in columns, the day, hour, and minute of Greenwich mean time.

  2. Sulfate- and sialic acid-containing glycolipids inhibit DNA polymerase alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Simbulan, C M; Taki, T; Tamiya-Koizumi, K; Suzuki, M; Savoysky, E; Shoji, M; Yoshida, S

    1994-03-16

    The effects of various glycolipids on the activity of immunoaffinity-purified calf thymus DNA polymerase alpha were studied in vitro. Preincubation with sialic acid-containing glycolipids, such as sialosylparagloboside (SPG), GM3, GM1, and GD1a, and sulfatide (cerebroside sulfate ester, CSE) dose-dependently inhibited the activity of DNA polymerase alpha, while other glycolipids, as well as free sphingosine and ceramide did not. About 50% inhibition was achieved by preincubating the enzyme with 2.5 microM of CSE, 50 microM of SPG or GM3, and 80 microM of GM1. Inhibition was noncompetitive with both the DNA template and the substrate dTTP, as well as with the other dNTPs. Since the inhibition was largely reversed by the addition of 0.05% Nonidet P40, these glycolipids may interact with the hydrophobic region of the enzyme protein. Apparently, the sulfate moiety in CSE and the sialic acid moiety in gangliosides were essential for the inhibition since neither neutral glycolipids (i.e., glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide) nor asialo-gangliosides (GA1 and GA2) showed any inhibitory effect. Furthermore, the ceramide backbone was also found to be necessary for maximal inhibition since the inhibition was largely abolished by substituting the lipid backbone with cholesterol. Increasing the number of sialic acid moieties per molecule further enhanced the inhibition, while elongating the sugar chain diminished it. It was clearly shown that the N-acetyl residue of the sialic acid moiety is particularly essential for inhibition by both SPG and GM3 because the loss of this residue or substitution with a glycolyl residue completely negated their inhibitory effect on DNA polymerase alpha activity.

  3. Differential spreading of HinfI satellite DNA variants during radiation in Centaureinae

    PubMed Central

    Quesada del Bosque, María Ester; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N.; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Subtribe Centaureinae appears to be an excellent model group in which to analyse satellite DNA and assess the influence that the biology and/or the evolution of different lineages have had on the evolution of this class of repetitive DNA. Phylogenetic analyses of Centaureinae support two main phases of radiation, leading to two major groups of genera of different ages. Furthermore, different modes of evolution are observed in different lineages, reflected by morphology and DNA sequences. Methods The sequences of 502 repeat units of the HinfI satellite DNA family from 38 species belonging to ten genera of Centaureinae were isolated and compared. A phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Key Results Up to eight different HinfI subfamilies were found, based on the presence of a set of diagnostic positions given by a specific mutation shared by all the sequences of one group. Subfamilies V–VIII were mostly found in older genera (first phase of radiation in the subtribe, late Oligocene–Miocene), although some copies of these types of repeats were also found in some species of the derived genera. Subfamilies I–IV spread mostly in species of the derived clade (second phase of radiation, Pliocene to Pleistocene), although repeats of these subfamilies exist in older species. Phylogenetic trees did not group the repeats by taxonomic affinity, but sequences were grouped by subfamily provenance. Concerted evolution was observed in HinfI subfamilies spread in older genera, whereas no genetic differentiation was found between species, and several subfamilies even coexist within the same species, in recently radiated groups or in groups with a history of recurrent hybridization of lineages. Conclusions The results suggest that the eight HinfI subfamilies were present in the common ancestor of Centaureinae and that each spread differentially in different genera during the two main phases of radiation

  4. Differential spreading of HinfI satellite DNA variants during radiation in Centaureinae.

    PubMed

    Quesada del Bosque, María Ester; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2013-12-01

    Subtribe Centaureinae appears to be an excellent model group in which to analyse satellite DNA and assess the influence that the biology and/or the evolution of different lineages have had on the evolution of this class of repetitive DNA. Phylogenetic analyses of Centaureinae support two main phases of radiation, leading to two major groups of genera of different ages. Furthermore, different modes of evolution are observed in different lineages, reflected by morphology and DNA sequences. The sequences of 502 repeat units of the HinfI satellite DNA family from 38 species belonging to ten genera of Centaureinae were isolated and compared. A phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Up to eight different HinfI subfamilies were found, based on the presence of a set of diagnostic positions given by a specific mutation shared by all the sequences of one group. Subfamilies V-VIII were mostly found in older genera (first phase of radiation in the subtribe, late Oligocene-Miocene), although some copies of these types of repeats were also found in some species of the derived genera. Subfamilies I-IV spread mostly in species of the derived clade (second phase of radiation, Pliocene to Pleistocene), although repeats of these subfamilies exist in older species. Phylogenetic trees did not group the repeats by taxonomic affinity, but sequences were grouped by subfamily provenance. Concerted evolution was observed in HinfI subfamilies spread in older genera, whereas no genetic differentiation was found between species, and several subfamilies even coexist within the same species, in recently radiated groups or in groups with a history of recurrent hybridization of lineages. The results suggest that the eight HinfI subfamilies were present in the common ancestor of Centaureinae and that each spread differentially in different genera during the two main phases of radiation following the library model of satellite DNA evolution

  5. Human cDNA clones for an. cap alpha. subunit of G/sub i/ signal-transduction protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, P.; Carter, A.; Guo, V.; Puckett, C.; Kamholz, J.; Spiegel, A.; Nirenberg, M.

    1987-08-01

    Two cDNA clones were obtained from a lambdagt11 cDNA human brain library that correspond to ..cap alpha../sub i/ subunits of G signal-transduction proteins (where ..cap alpha../sub i/ subunits refer to the ..cap alpha.. subunits of G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase). The nucleotide sequence of human brain ..cap alpha../sub i/ is highly homologous to that of bovine brain ..cap alpha../sub i/ and the predicted amino acid sequences are identical. However, human and bovine brain ..cap alpha../sub i/ cDNAs differ significantly from ..cap alpha../sub i/ cDNAs from human monocytes, rat glioma, and mouse macrophages in amino acid (88% homology) and nucleotide (71-75% homology) sequences. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of the 3' untranslated regions of human and bovine brain ..cap alpha../sub i/ cDNAs differ markedly from the sequences of human monocyte, rat glioma, and mouse macrophage ..cap alpha../sub i/ cDNAs. These results suggest there are at least two classes of ..cap alpha../sub i/ mRNA

  6. cDNA sequence and chromosome localization of pig {alpha}1,3 galactosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Strahan, K.M.; Preece, A.F.; Gustafsson, K.; Gu, F.; Gustavsson, I.; Anderson, L.

    1995-01-11

    Human serum contains natural antibodies (NAb), which can bind to endothelial cell surface antigens of other mammals. This is believed to be the major initiating event in the process of hyperacute rejection of pig to primate xenografts. Recent work has implicated galactosyl {alpha}1,3 galactosyl {beta}1,4 N-acetyl-glucosaminyl carbohydrate epitopes, on the surface of pig endothelial cells, as a major target of human natural antibodies. This epitope is made by a specific galactosyltransferase ({alpha}1,3 GT) present in pigs but not in higher primates. We have now cloned and sequenced a full-length pig {alpha}1,3 GT cDNA. The predicted 371 amino acid protein sequence shares 85% and 76% identity with previously characterized cattle and mouse {alpha}1,3 GT protein sequences, respectively. By using fluorescence and isotopic in situ hybridization, the GGTA/gene was mapped to the region q2.10-q2.11 of pig chromosome 1, providing further evidence of homology between the subterminal region of pig chromosome 1q and human chromosome 9q, which harbors the locus encoding the ABO blood group system, as well as a human pseudogene homologous to the pig GGTA1 gene. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  7. A cDNA clone encoding human cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit C. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, F.; Hanks, S.K. )

    1988-08-25

    The authors have determined the nucleotide sequence from both complementary strands of a human cDNA coding for cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit type {alpha} (cAPK-C{alpha}). This cDNA was one of many protein kinase cDNAs isolated from a HeLa cell library by screening with oligonucleotide probes designed to recognize target sequences encoding highly conserved segments within the catalytic domains. The deduced human cAPK-C{alpha} amino acid sequence of 350 residues differs from the bovine and murine sequences at 3 and 7 positions, respectively.

  8. Centromeric and non-centromeric satellite DNA organisation differs in holocentric Rhynchospora species.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tiago; Marques, André; Novák, Petr; Schubert, Veit; Vanzela, André L L; Macas, Jiri; Houben, Andreas; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2016-09-19

    Satellite DNA repeats (or satDNA) are fast-evolving sequences usually associated with condensed heterochromatin. To test whether the chromosomal organisation of centromeric and non-centromeric satDNA differs in species with holocentric chromosomes, we identified and characterised the major satDNA families in the holocentric Cyperaceae species Rhynchospora ciliata (2n = 10), R. globosa (2n = 50) and R. tenuis (2n = 2x = 4 and 2n = 4x = 8). While conserved centromeric repeats (present in R. ciliata and R. tenuis) revealed linear signals at both chromatids, non-centromeric, species-specific satDNAs formed distinct clusters along the chromosomes. Colocalisation of both repeat types resulted in a ladder-like hybridisation pattern at mitotic chromosomes. In interphase, the centromeric satDNA was dispersed while non-centromeric satDNA clustered and partly colocalised to chromocentres. Despite the banding-like hybridisation patterns of the clustered satDNA, the identification of chromosome pairs was impaired due to the irregular hybridisation patterns of the homologues in R. tenuis and R. ciliata. These differences are probably caused by restricted or impaired meiotic recombination as reported for R. tenuis, or alternatively by complex chromosome rearrangements or unequal condensation of homologous metaphase chromosomes. Thus, holocentricity influences the chromosomal organisation leading to differences in the distribution patterns and condensation dynamics of centromeric and non-centromeric satDNA.

  9. Identification of sequence elements contributing to the intrinsic curvature of the mouse satellite DNA repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, P; Martínez-Balbás, M A; Portugal, J; Azorín, F

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the contribution of different sequence elements to the intrisic curvature of the mouse satellite DNA repeat was investigated. This DNA fragment contains nineteen groups of three or more consecutive adenines which are only poorly phased with respect to the helical repeat. The mouse satellite DNA repeat shows a sinusoidal pattern of cleavage by the hydroxyl radical; the waves of reactivity are phased with respect to the A-tracts. Some interesting observations arise from a detailed analysis of these cleavage patterns: a) the maxima of hydroxyl radical cleavage are more periodically spaced along the DNA sequence than the A-tracts themselves. As a consequence, the position of each maximum with respect to the A-tract is variable; b) the sequence 5' TGGAATATG/AA 3' shows a sinusoidal pattern of hydroxyl radical cleavage. This sequence shows a retarded migration in polyacrylamide gels indicating that it is actually intrinsically curved. These results are discussed in view of the current models for DNA curvature. Images PMID:1658737

  10. MULTI-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS FROM MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. IV. ALPHA ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS IN MILKY WAY SATELLITE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Sohn, Sangmo Tony

    2011-02-01

    We derive the star formation histories of eight dwarf spheroidal (dSph) Milky Way satellite galaxies from their alpha element abundance patterns. Nearly 3000 stars from our previously published catalog comprise our data set. The average [{alpha}/Fe] ratios for all dSphs follow roughly the same path with increasing [Fe/H]. We do not observe the predicted knees in the [{alpha}/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram, corresponding to the metallicity at which Type Ia supernovae begin to explode. Instead, we find that Type Ia supernova ejecta contribute to the abundances of all but the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -2.5) stars. We have also developed a chemical evolution model that tracks the star formation rate, Types II and Ia supernova explosions, and supernova feedback. Without metal enhancement in the supernova blowout, massive amounts of gas loss define the history of all dSphs except Fornax, the most luminous in our sample. All six of the best-fit model parameters correlate with dSph luminosity but not with velocity dispersion, half-light radius, or Galactocentric distance.

  11. Structure-activity relationships for the inhibition of DNA polymerase alpha by aphidicolin derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G; Edelson, R A; Gorycki, P D; Macdonald, T L

    1989-01-01

    Aphidicolin and 17 derivatives that have been structurally modified in the A- and D-rings were assessed for their ability to inhibit DNA polymerase alpha. No derivative surpassed the activity of aphidicolin; derivatives with structural alterations in the A-ring exhibited significantly greater loss of activity relative to derivatives with structural alterations in the D-ring. The conclusions of these studies indicate a critical role for the C-18 function in the interaction of aphidicolin with polymerase alpha. Molecular modelling studies could not identify structural features of the aphidicolin-dCTP "overlap" that is unique to dCTP, relative to the remaining dNTPs, and that is consistent with the extant structure-activity data. PMID:2505232

  12. Sanfilippo syndrome type B: cDNA and gene encoding human {alpha}-N-acetylglucosaminidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.G.; Lopez, R.; Rennecker, J.

    1994-09-01

    Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme {alpha}-N-acetlyglucosaminidase underlies the type B Sanfilippo syndrome (MPS III B), a mucopolysaccharide storage disease with profound neurologic deterioration. We are acquiring tools to study the molecular basis of the disorder. The enzyme was purified from bovine testis; after ConA-, DEAE- and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, it was subjected to SDS-PAGE without preheating. Of two bands of activity detected on the gel, 170 kDa and 87 kDa, the larger one, which coincided with a well-defined Coomassie blue band, was selected for sequence analysis. Degenerate 17-base oligonucleotides, corresponding to the ends of an internal 23 amino acid sequence, were used for RT-PCR of RNA from human fibroblasts. A 41-mer was synthesized from the sequence of the RT-PCR product and used to screen a human testis cDNA library. A number of cDNA inserts were isolated, all lacking the 5{prime} end and none longer than 1.7 kb. An additional 300 bp segment has been obtained by RACE. The cDNA sequence accounts for 9 of 11 peptides, allowing for species difference. Northern analysis of fibroblast RNA with a 1.5 kb cDNA probe showed the presence of a 3 kb mRNA; marked deficiency of this mRNA in two MPS III B fibroblast lines confirmed the authenticity of the cloned cDNA. While no homologous amino acid sequence has been found in a search of GenBank, the nucleotide sequence (interrupted by 4 introns) is present in a flanking region upstream of an unrelated gene on chromosome 17q11-21 (human 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). This must therefore be the chromosomal locus of the {alpha}-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene and of MPS III B.

  13. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of alpha-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed Central

    Kasarda, D D; Okita, T W; Bernardin, J E; Baecker, P A; Nimmo, C C; Lew, E J; Dietler, M D; Greene, F C

    1984-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence for an alpha-type gliadin protein of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) endosperm has been derived from a cloned cDNA sequence. An additional cDNA clone that corresponds to about 75% of a similar alpha-type gliadin has been sequenced and shows some important differences. About 97% of the composite sequence of A-gliadin (an alpha-type gliadin fraction) has also been obtained by direct amino acid sequencing. This sequence shows a high degree of similarity with amino acid sequences derived from both cDNA clones and is virtually identical to one of them. On the basis of sequence information, after loss of the signal sequence, the mature alpha-type gliadins may be divided into five different domains, two of which may have evolved from an ancestral gliadin gene, whereas the remaining three contain repeating sequences that may have developed independently. Images PMID:6589619

  14. Satellite DNA and Transposable Elements in Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), a Dioecious Plant with Small Y and Large X Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Puterova, Janka; Razumova, Olga; Martinek, Tomas; Alexandrov, Oleg; Divashuk, Mikhail; Kubat, Zdenek; Hobza, Roman; Karlov, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is a dioecious shrub commonly used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and environmental industry as a source of oil, minerals and vitamins. In this study, we analyzed the transposable elements and satellites in its genome. We carried out Illumina DNA sequencing and reconstructed the main repetitive DNA sequences. For data analysis, we developed a new bioinformatics approach for advanced satellite DNA analysis and showed that about 25% of the genome consists of satellite DNA and about 24% is formed of transposable elements, dominated by Ty3/Gypsy and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons. FISH mapping revealed X chromosome-accumulated, Y chromosome-specific or both sex chromosomes-accumulated satellites but most satellites were found on autosomes. Transposable elements were located mostly in the subtelomeres of all chromosomes. The 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA were localized on one autosomal locus each. Although we demonstrated the small size of the Y chromosome of the seabuckthorn and accumulated satellite DNA there, we were unable to estimate the age and extent of the Y chromosome degeneration. Analysis of dioecious relatives such as Shepherdia would shed more light on the evolution of these sex chromosomes. PMID:28057732

  15. Identification of two families of satellite-like repetitive DNA sequences from the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ekker, M; Fritz, A; Westerfield, M

    1992-08-01

    To further our understanding of the structure and organization of the zebrafish genome, we have undertaken the analysis of highly and middle-repetitive DNA sequences. We have cloned and sequenced two families of tandemly repeated DNA fragments. The monomer units of the Type I satellite-like sequence are 186 bp long, A+T-rich (65%), and exhibit a high degree of sequence conservation. The Type I satellite-like sequence constitutes 8% of the zebrafish genome, or approximately 8 x 10(5) copies per haploid genome. Southern analysis of genomic DNA, digested with several restriction endonucleases, shows a ladder of hybridizing bands, consistent with a tandem array, and suggests longer range periodic variations in the sequence of the tandem repeats. The Type II satellite has a monomer length of 165 bp, is also A+T-rich (68%), and constitutes 0.2% of the zebrafish genome (22,000 copies per haploid genome). Southern analysis reveals a complex pattern rather than a ladder of regularly spaced hybridizing bands.

  16. A novel satellite DNA sequence in the Peromyscus genome (PMSat): Evolution via copy number fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Louzada, Sandra; Vieira-da-Silva, Ana; Mendes-da-Silva, Ana; Kubickova, Svatava; Rubes, Jiri; Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel

    2015-11-01

    Satellite DNAs (satDNA) are tandemly arrayed repeated sequences largely present in eukaryotic genomes, which play important roles in genome evolution and function, and therefore, their analysis is vital. Here, we describe the isolation of a novel satellite DNA family (PMSat) from the rodent Peromyscus eremicus (Cricetidae, Rodentia), which is located in pericentromeric regions and exhibits a typical satellite DNA genome organization. Orthologous PMSat sequences were isolated and characterized from three species belonging to Cricetidae: Cricetus cricetus, Phodopus sungorus and Microtus arvalis. In these species, PMSat is highly conserved, with the absence of fixed species-specific mutations. Strikingly, different numbers of copies of this sequence were found among the species, suggesting evolution by copy number fluctuation. Repeat units of PMSat were also found in the Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii BioProject, but our results suggest that these repeat units are from genome regions outside the pericentromere. The remarkably high evolutionary sequence conservation along with the preservation of a few numbers of copies of this sequence in the analyzed genomes may suggest functional significance but a different sequence nature/organization. Our data highlight that repeats are difficult to analyze due to the limited tools available to dissect genomes and the fact that assemblies do not cover regions of constitutive heterochromatin.

  17. Insights into the Replisome from the Structure of a Ternary Complex of the DNA Polymerase III [alpha]-Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, R.A.; Bailey, S.; Steitz, T.A.

    2009-03-27

    The crystal structure of the catalytic {alpha}-subunit of the DNA polymerase III (PolIII{alpha}) holoenzyme bound to primer-template DNA and an incoming deoxy-nucleoside 5{prime}-triphosphate has been determined at 4.6-{angstrom} resolution. The polymerase interacts with the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA across its minor groove, which is made possible by significant movements of the thumb, finger, and {beta}-binding domains relative to their orientations in the unliganded polymerase structure. Additionally, the DNA and incoming nucleotide are bound to the active site of PolIII{alpha} nearly identically as they are in their complex with DNA polymerase {beta}, thereby proving that the eubacterial replicating polymerase, but not the eukaryotic replicating polymerase, is homologous to DNA polymerase {beta}. Finally, superimposing a recent structure of the clamp bound to DNA on this PolIII{alpha} complex with DNA places a loop of the {beta}-binding domain into the appropriate clamp cleft and supports a mechanism of polymerase switching.

  18. Isolation and expression of a novel chick G-protein cDNA coding for a G alpha i3 protein with a G alpha 0 N-terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, E J; Galper, J B

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned cDNAs coding for G-protein alpha subunits from a chick brain cDNA library. Based on sequence similarity to G-protein alpha subunits from other eukaryotes, one clone was designated G alpha i3. A second clone, G alpha i3-o, was identical to the G alpha i3 clone over 932 bases on the 3' end. The 5' end of G alpha i3-o, however, contained an alternative sequence in which the first 45 amino acids coded for are 100% identical to the conserved N-terminus of G alpha o from species such as rat, mouse, human, bovine and hamster. Both clones were found to be expressed in all tissues studied. The unusual alpha o-alpha i3-like G-protein chimera, G alpha i3-o, was found to be expressed at significantly lower levels than G alpha i3. In vitro transcription and translation of the G alpha i3-o cDNA clone gave a protein of approx. 41 kDa which stably bound guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. G alpha i3-o appears to be the first G-protein alpha subunit cloned which contains ends that are homologous to two different alpha subunit isoforms, G alpha o and G alpha i3. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8297335

  19. Report of the blind trial of the Cetus Amplitype HLA DQ alpha forensic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) amplification and typing kit.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P S; Fildes, N; Louie, A S; Higuchi, R

    1991-09-01

    The AmpliType HLA DQ alpha forensic DNA amplification and typing kit is designed for the qualitative analysis of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha alleles present in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from forensic samples. The AmpliType kit is the first forensic DNA typing product based on the GeneAmp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The kit was evaluated by five forensic science laboratories (test sites) to assess their ability to perform DNA typing using PCR on sample types typically encountered by forensic laboratories. None of the DNA-containing samples was mistyped. Of the 180 DNA-containing samples analyzed, results were reported for 178 (98.9%). Of the 178 samples with results, all were correctly typed. Two sites did not report a result for one sample each. Four of the five laboratories experienced no significant levels of contamination in the DNA-containing samples. At the one site with the highest number of DNA-containing samples with contamination, the typing results were not compromised. This site was able to correct the contamination problem through simple procedural changes and stricter attention to sterile technique. Blank controls were important to monitor contamination. In conclusion, the trial demonstrated that forensic science laboratories are capable of setting up a PCR-based DNA typing laboratory and successfully using the AmpliType HLA DQ alpha forensic DNA amplification and typing kit to analyze forensic samples.

  20. Statistical Analysis on Detecting Recombination Sites in DNASatellites Associated with Old World Geminiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Yoshida, Ruriko

    2010-01-01

    Although exchange of genetic information by recombination plays an important role in the evolution of viruses, it is not clear how it generates diversity. Understanding recombination events helps with the study of the evolution of new virus strains or new viruses. Geminiviruses are plant viruses which have ambisense single-stranded circular DNA genomes and are one of the most economically important plant viruses in agricultural production. Small circular single-stranded DNA satellites, termed DNA-β, have recently been found to be associated with some geminivirus infections. In this paper we analyze several DNA-β sequences of geminiviruses for recombination events using phylogenetic and statistical analysis and we find that one strain from ToLCMaB has a recombination pattern and is a recombinant molecule between two strains from two species, PaLCuB-[IN:Chi:05] (major parent) and ToLCB-[IN:CP:04] (minor parent). We propose that this recombination event contributed to the evolution of the strain of ToLCMaB in South India. The Hidden Markov Chain (HMM) method developed by Webb et al. (2009) estimating phylogenetic tree through out the whole alignment provide us a recombination history of these DNA-β strains. It is the first time that this statistic method has been used on DNA-β recombination study and give a clear recombination history of DNA-β recombination. PMID:21423447

  1. Identification and molecular characterization of begomovirus and associated satellite DNA molecules infecting Cyamopsis tetragonoloba.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J; Kumar, A; Roy, J K; Tuli, R; Khan, J A

    2010-08-01

    Monopartite begomoviruses comprise DNA-A as the main genome and associated satellite DNAs. Viral DNA extracted from guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) showing leaf curl symptoms exhibited positive amplification of coat protein (CP) gene of DNA-A component, suggesting the presence of begomovirus. Full length DNA-A was amplified by primer pair re-designed from CP gene nucleotide sequence. The associated alphasatellite and betasatellite DNA molecules were amplified and sequenced, confirming the presence of monopartite begomovirus. Sequence comparisons showed 89% identity with other begomoviruses. The Neighbor-Joining tree based on full length DNA-A nucleotide sequence showed that the guar infecting begomovirus clustered separately from other known begomoviruses. The betasatellite shared a high (96%) nucleotide identity to Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellites. The alphasatellite showed 91% nucleotide identity to alphasatellite associated with begomovirus infecting Okra. Recombination analyses showed three recombinant fragments in DNA-A, two in betasatellite, and four in alphasatellite. The results suggest that the begomovirus identified in this study was a new recombinant virus. Its name was proposed as Cyamopsis tetragonoloba leaf curl virus (CyTLCuV).

  2. A new family of satellite DNA sequences as a major component of centromeric heterochromatin in owls (Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Nishida-Umehara, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2004-03-01

    We isolated a new family of satellite DNA sequences from HaeIII- and EcoRI-digested genomic DNA of the Blakiston's fish owl ( Ketupa blakistoni). The repetitive sequences were organized in tandem arrays of the 174 bp element, and localized to the centromeric regions of all macrochromosomes, including the Z and W chromosomes, and microchromosomes. This hybridization pattern was consistent with the distribution of C-band-positive centromeric heterochromatin, and the satellite DNA sequences occupied 10% of the total genome as a major component of centromeric heterochromatin. The sequences were homogenized between macro- and microchromosomes in this species, and therefore intraspecific divergence of the nucleotide sequences was low. The 174 bp element cross-hybridized to the genomic DNA of six other Strigidae species, but not to that of the Tytonidae, suggesting that the satellite DNA sequences are conserved in the same family but fairly divergent between the different families in the Strigiformes. Secondly, the centromeric satellite DNAs were cloned from eight Strigidae species, and the nucleotide sequences of 41 monomer fragments were compared within and between species. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the nucleotide sequences were highly correlated with both the taxonomy based on morphological traits and the phylogenetic tree constructed by DNA-DNA hybridization. These results suggest that the satellite DNA sequence has evolved by concerted evolution in the Strigidae and that it is a good taxonomic and phylogenetic marker to examine genetic diversity between Strigiformes species.

  3. Construction of a cDNA clone corresponding to mouse alpha 1(IV) procollagen.

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, C L; Villa, L L; Sonohara, S; Brentani, R R

    1984-01-01

    A new procedure for the synthesis of double stranded cDNA, based upon release of mRNA by "in vitro" translation, was used to clone type IV collagen. Collagen synthesizing polysomes selectively isolated from a mouse parietal yolk sac carcinoma (PYS-2) were used for translation in an heterologous cell-free system. Translation products were collagenase-sensitive and displayed an electrophoretic mobility correspondent to type IV collagen. Translation released mRNA was employed to construct a 100 base pairs long cDNA clone which hybridized to a 7,800 nucleotides long mRNA. Peptides synthesized by "in vitro" translation of hybrid selected mRNA displayed an electrophoretic mobility compatible with that of alpha 1 (IV) collagen, were sensitive to collagenase and were immunoprecipitated by anti-type IV collagen antibody. Images PMID:6546618

  4. cDNA cloning and complete primary structure of skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase (alpha subunit).

    PubMed Central

    Zander, N F; Meyer, H E; Hoffmann-Posorske, E; Crabb, J W; Heilmeyer, L M; Kilimann, M W

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding the alpha subunit of phosphorylase kinase from rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle. The cDNA molecule consists of 388 nucleotides of 5'-nontranslated sequence, the complete coding sequence of 3711 nucleotides, and 342 nucleotides of 3'-nontranslated sequence followed by a poly(dA) tract. It encodes a polypeptide of 1237 amino acids and a deduced molecular mass of 138,422 Da. Nearly half of the deduced amino acid sequence is confirmed by peptide sequencing. Seven positions of endogenously phosphorylated serine residues and autophosphorylation sites, identified by peptide sequencing, could be assigned. They cluster in a segment of only 60 amino acids. RNA blot hybridization analysis demonstrates a predominant RNA species of approximately equal to 4500 nucleotides and a less abundant RNA of 8700 nucleotides. Images PMID:3362857

  5. Overexpression of a splice variant of DNA methyltransferase 3b, DNMT3b4, associated with DNA hypomethylation on pericentromeric satellite regions during human hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshimasa; Kanai, Yae; Sakamoto, Michiie; Saito, Hidetsugu; Ishii, Hiromasa; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2002-07-23

    DNA hypomethylation on pericentromeric satellite regions is an early and frequent event associated with heterochromatin instability during human hepatocarcinogenesis. A DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3b, is required for methylation on pericentromeric satellite regions during mouse development. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying DNA hypomethylation on pericentromeric satellite regions during human hepatocarcinogenesis, we examined mutations of the DNMT3b gene and mRNA expression levels of splice variants of DNMT3b in noncancerous liver tissues showing chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, which are considered to be precancerous conditions, and in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Mutation of the DNMT3b gene was not found in HCCs. Overexpression of DNMT3b4, a splice variant of DNMT3b lacking conserved methyltransferase motifs IX and X, significantly correlated with DNA hypomethylation on pericentromeric satellite regions in precancerous conditions and HCCs (P = 0.0001). In particular, the ratio of expression of DNMT3b4 to that of DNMT3b3, which is the major splice variant in normal liver tissues and retains conserved methyltransferase motifs I, IV, VI, IX, and X, showed significant correlation with DNA hypomethylation (P = 0.009). Transfection of human epithelial 293 cells with DNMT3b4 cDNA induced DNA demethylation on satellite 2 in pericentromeric heterochromatin DNA. These results suggest that overexpression of DNMT3b4, which may lack DNA methyltransferase activity and compete with DNMT3b3 for targeting to pericentromeric satellite regions, results in DNA hypomethylation on these regions, even in precancerous stages, and plays a critical role in human hepatocarcinogenesis by inducing chromosomal instability.

  6. A satellite DNA evolutionary analysis in the North American endemic dioecious plant Rumex hastatulus (Polygonaceae).

    PubMed

    del Bosque, M E Quesada; Navajas-Pérez, R; Panero, J L; Fernández-González, A; Garrido-Ramos, M A

    2011-04-01

    We studied the evolution of RAE180 satellite DNA family in the North American endemic dioecious plant Rumex hastatulus. In this species, the Texas race is characterized by a single XX/XY sex chromosome system, whereas the North Carolina race has evolved a derived complex XX/XY(1)Y(2) sex chromosome system. RAE180 repeats were autosomic and poorly represented (2 × 10(-4)% of the genome) with no differences between individuals of different genders or different races of R. hastatulus. In fact, the sex chromosomes of the North Carolina race are still euchromatic, and they have not accumulated satellite DNA sequences, which contrasts with that occurring in the rest of dioecious XX/XY(1)Y(2) Rumex species. In R. hastatulus, we detected the existence of three RAE180 subfamilies. Notwithstanding, while in the Texas race the TX1/NC1 subfamily is the most frequent, the TX2/NC2 subfamily is the most abundant in the North Carolina race. Additionally, the third, less represented subfamily (TX3/NC3) appears currently as relict sequences in both genomes. A common feature of RAE180 satellite is the sudden replacement of one sequence variant by another in different species (or populations as in R. hastatulus races). Thus, the phylogenetic analysis of RAE180 repeats from six dioecious Rumex species supports the "library" hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, we assume that a set of divergent RAE180 variants were present in the ancestral genome of dioecious Rumex species, from which novel tandem arrays originated by the amplification of different variants in different lineages. Differential levels of RAE180 satellite DNA amplification in each lineage, at different evolutionary times, and in different chromosomal positions gave rise to differential patterns of sequence evolution.

  7. Formation Mechanism of alpha-Fe2O3 Nanotubes via Electrospinning and Their Adsorption Characteristics of BSA and DNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruijiang; Wang, Peng; Tao, Yuting; Liu, Yifan; Shen, Xiangqian

    2016-02-01

    The alpha-Fe2O3 nanotubes with diameters of 400-700 nm have been prepared via the sol-gel assisted electrospinning and subsequent one-step heat treatment with ferric nitrate, ethanol and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as starting regents. The resultant alpha-Fe2O3 nanotubes were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and VSM techniques. The hollow structure is mainly influenced by the water content in the gel precursor and the heating rate, and the hollow formation mechanism of alpha-Fe2O9 nanotubes is discussed. Adsorption of BSA onto the as-prepared alpha-Fe2O3 nanotubes exhibits a good capacity of 56.5 mg/g with the initial BSA concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, which demonstrates their feasibility in delivery of biomacromolecules. Subsequently, the adsorption characteristics of DNA onto the alpha-Fe2O3 nanotubes were investigated, and the adsorbance of DNA can achieve a maximum value of 4.19 microg/g when the initial DNA concentration is 50 microg/mL. The adsorption process of DNA onto alpha-Fe2O3 nanotubes can be described well by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model at room temperature according to the correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9978.

  8. Electron microscopic studies of the interaction between a Bacillus subtilis alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore protein with DNA: protein binding is cooperative, stiffens the DNA, and induces negative supercoiling.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, J; Makhov, A; Santiago-Lara, L; Setlow, P

    1994-01-01

    DNA within spores of Bacillus subtilis is complexed with a group of alpha/beta-type small acid-soluble spore proteins (alpha/beta-type SASPs), which have almost identical primary sequences and DNA binding properties. Here electron microscopic and cyclization studies were carried out on alpha/beta-type SASP-DNA complexes. When an alpha/beta-type SASP was incubated with linear DNA, the protein bound cooperatively, forming a helical coating 6.6 +/- 0.4 nm wide with a 2.9 +/- 0.3 nm periodicity. alpha/beta-Type SASP binding to an 890-bp DNA was weakest at an (A+T)-rich region that was highly bent, but binding eliminated the bending. alpha/beta-Type SASP binding did not alter the rise per bp in DNA but greatly increased the DNA stiffness as measured by both electron microscopic and cyclization assays. Addition of alpha/beta-type SASPs to negatively supertwisted DNA led to protein binding without significant alteration of the plectonemically interwound appearance of the DNA. Addition of alpha/beta-type SASPs to relaxed or nicked circular DNA led to molecules that by electron microscopy appeared similar to supertwisted DNA. The introduction of negative supertwists in nicked circular DNA by alpha/beta-type SASPs was confirmed by ligation of these molecules followed by topoisomer analyses using agarose gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:8058784

  9. Target practice: aiming at satellite repeats with DNA minor groove binders.

    PubMed

    Susbielle, Guillaume; Blattes, Roxane; Brevet, Vanessa; Monod, Caroline; Käs, Emmanuel

    2005-07-01

    Much progress has been made in recent years in developing small molecules that target the minor groove of DNA. Striking advances have led to the design of synthetic molecules that recognize specific DNA sequences with affinities comparable to those of eukaryotic transcription factors. This makes it feasible to modulate or inhibit DNA/protein interactions in vivo, a major step towards the development of general strategies of anti-gene therapy. Examples from anti-parasitic drugs also suggest that synthetic molecules can affect a variety of cellular functions crucial to cell viability by more generally targeting vast portions of genomes based on their biased base composition. This provides a rationale for developing approaches based on selective interactions with broad genomic targets such as satellite repeats that are associated with structural or architectural components of chromatin essential for cellular proliferation. Using examples drawn from the Drosophila melanogaster model system, we review here the use of synthetic polyamides or diamidines that bind the DNA minor groove and can be used as highly selective agents capable of interfering with specific protein/DNA interactions that occur in A+T-rich repeated sequences that constitute a significant portion of eukaryotic genomes. The satellite localization of cellular proteins that bind the minor groove of DNA via domains such as the AT hook motif is highly sensitive to these molecules. A major consequence of the competition between these proteins and their synthetic mimics is an alteration of the nuclear localization and function of proteins such as topoisomerase II, a major target of anti-cancer drugs.

  10. Human DNA polymerase alpha gene: sequences controlling expression in cycling and serum-stimulated cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, B E; Nasheuer, H P; Wang, T S

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the DNA polymerase alpha promoter sequence requirements for the expression of a heterologous gene in actively cycling cells and following serum addition to serum-deprived cells. An 11.4-kb genomic clone that spans the 5' end of this gene and includes 1.62 kb of sequence upstream from the translation start site was isolated. The transcription start site was mapped at 46 +/- 1 nucleotides upstream from the translation start site. The upstream sequence is GC rich and lacks a TATA sequence but has a CCAAT sequence on the opposite strand. Analysis of a set of deletion constructs in transient transfection assays demonstrated that efficient expression of the reporter in cycling cells requires 248 bp of sequence upstream from the cap site. Clustered within these 248 nucleotides are sequences similar to consensus sequences for Sp1-, Ap1-, Ap2-, and E2F-binding sites. The CCAAT sequence and the potential E2F- and Ap1-binding sites are shown to be protected from DNase I digestion by partially purified nuclear proteins. The DNA polymerase alpha promoter can confer upon the reporter an appropriate, late response to serum addition. No single sequence element could be shown to confer serum inducibility. Rather, multiple sequence elements appear to mediate the full serum response. Images PMID:2005899

  11. DNA restriction-site polymorphisms associated with the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D W; Billingsley, G D; Mansfield, T

    1987-01-01

    Restriction-site variation in and around the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene has been studied using two genomic probes. With use of restriction enzymes SstI, MspI, and AvaII, three polymorphic sites have been described with a 4.6-kb probe in the 5' portion of the gene. With use of a 6.5-kb probe, polymorphisms in the coding and 3' regions of the gene have been detected with AvaII, MaeIII, and TaqI. All of these polymorphisms are of sufficiently high frequency to be useful in genetic mapping studies. The polymorphisms with AvaII and MaeIII (6.5-kb probe) are particularly useful for prenatal diagnosis. PI types and M subtypes tend to be associated with specific DNA haplotypes; there are two different types of DNA haplotypes associated with PI M1. The extent of linkage disequilibrium differs throughout the region of the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2890296

  12. Hyperhomocysteinemia inhibits satellite cell regenerative capacity through p38 alpha/beta MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Lominadze, David; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-07-15

    Chronic failure in maintenance and regeneration of skeletal muscles leads to lower muscle mass (sarcopenia), muscle weakness, and poor response to injury. Evidence suggests that aberrant p38 MAPK signaling undermines the repair process after injury in aged mice. Previous studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been associated with muscle weakness and lower than normal body weights. However, whether or not HHcy condition also compromises skeletal muscle regenerative capabilities is not clear. In the current study, we show that CBS-/+ mice, a model for HHcy condition, exhibited compromised regenerative function and cell proliferation upon injury. However, there was no significant difference in Pax7 expression levels in the satellite cells from CBS-/+ mouse skeletal muscles. Interestingly, the satellite cells from CBS-/+ mice not only exhibited diminished in vitro proliferative capabilities, but also there was heightened oxidative stress. In addition, there was enhanced p38 MAPK activation as well as p16 and p21 expression in the CBS-/+ mouse satellite cells. Moreover, the C2C12 myoblasts also exhibited higher p38 MAPK activation and p16 expression upon treatment with homocysteine in addition to enhanced ROS presence. Tissue engraftment potential and regeneration after injury were restored to some extent upon treatment with the p38-MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, in the CBS-/+ mice. These results together suggest that HHcy-induced diminished satellite cell proliferation involves excessive oxidative stress and p38 MAPK signaling. Our study further proposes that HHcy is a potential risk factor for elderly frailty, and need to be considered as a therapeutic target while designing the alleviation interventions/postinjury rehabilitation measures for adults with HHcy.

  13. Hyperhomocysteinemia inhibits satellite cell regenerative capacity through p38 alpha/beta MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lominadze, David; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic failure in maintenance and regeneration of skeletal muscles leads to lower muscle mass (sarcopenia), muscle weakness, and poor response to injury. Evidence suggests that aberrant p38 MAPK signaling undermines the repair process after injury in aged mice. Previous studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been associated with muscle weakness and lower than normal body weights. However, whether or not HHcy condition also compromises skeletal muscle regenerative capabilities is not clear. In the current study, we show that CBS−/+ mice, a model for HHcy condition, exhibited compromised regenerative function and cell proliferation upon injury. However, there was no significant difference in Pax7 expression levels in the satellite cells from CBS−/+ mouse skeletal muscles. Interestingly, the satellite cells from CBS−/+ mice not only exhibited diminished in vitro proliferative capabilities, but also there was heightened oxidative stress. In addition, there was enhanced p38 MAPK activation as well as p16 and p21 expression in the CBS−/+ mouse satellite cells. Moreover, the C2C12 myoblasts also exhibited higher p38 MAPK activation and p16 expression upon treatment with homocysteine in addition to enhanced ROS presence. Tissue engraftment potential and regeneration after injury were restored to some extent upon treatment with the p38-MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, in the CBS−/+ mice. These results together suggest that HHcy-induced diminished satellite cell proliferation involves excessive oxidative stress and p38 MAPK signaling. Our study further proposes that HHcy is a potential risk factor for elderly frailty, and need to be considered as a therapeutic target while designing the alleviation interventions/postinjury rehabilitation measures for adults with HHcy. PMID:25980021

  14. The clustering of four subfamilies of satellite DNA at individual chromosome ends in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Suto, Yumiko; Uchida, Wakana; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2006-05-01

    The satellite DNA (satDNA) on the ends of chromosomes has been isolated and characterized in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia. BAC clones containing large numbers of repeat units of satDNA in a tandem array were isolated to examine the clustering of the repeat units. satDNA repeat units were purified from each isolated BAC clone and sequenced. To investigate pairwise similarities among the repeat units, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm. The repeat units derived from 7 BAC clones were grouped into SacI, KpnI, #11F02, and #16E07 subfamilies. The SacI and KpnI subfamilies have been reported previously. Multicolored fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using SacI or KpnI subfamily probes resulted in different signal intensities and locations at the chromosomal ends, indicating that each chromosomal end has a unique composition of subfamilies of satDNA. For example, the p arm of the X chromosome exhibited signal composition similar to that on the pseudo autosomal region (PAR) of the Y chromosome, but not to that on the q arm of the X chromosome. The satDNA has not been completely homogenized in the S. latifolia genome. Each subfamily is available for a probe of FISH karyotyping.

  15. Human and Tree Shrew Alpha-synuclein: Comparative cDNA Sequence and Protein Structure Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Cun; Huang, Zhang-Qiong; Jiang, Qin-Fang; Dai, Jie-Jie; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Jia-Hong; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Nai-Hong; Yuan, Yu-He; Li, Cong; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yun; Ma, Kai-Li

    2015-10-01

    The synaptic protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and homology analyses among many species have been reported. Nevertheless, little is known about the cDNA sequence and protein structure of α-syn in tree shrews, and this information might contribute to our understanding of its role in both health and disease. We designed primers to the human α-syn cDNA sequence; then, tree shrew α-syn cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced. Based on the acquired tree shrew α-syn cDNA sequence, both the amino acid sequence and the spatial structure of α-syn were predicted and analyzed. The homology analysis results showed that the tree shrew cDNA sequence matches the human cDNA sequence exactly except at nucleotide positions 45, 60, 65, 69, 93, 114, 147, 150, 157, 204, 252, 270, 284, 298, 308, and 324. Further protein sequence analysis revealed that the tree shrew α-syn protein sequence is 97.1 % identical to that of human α-syn. The secondary protein structure of tree shrew α-syn based on random coils and α-helices is the same as that of the human structure. The phosphorylation sites are highly conserved, except the site at position 103 of tree shrew α-syn. The predicted spatial structure of tree shrew α-syn is identical to that of human α-syn. Thus, α-syn might have a similar function in tree shrew and in human, and tree shrew might be a potential animal model for studying the pathogenesis of α-synucleinopathies.

  16. Characterization of the satellite DNA Msat-160 from the species Chionomys nivalis (Rodentia, Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Acosta, M J; Marchal, J A; Martínez, S; Puerma, E; Bullejos, M; la de Guardia, R Díaz; Sánchez, A

    2007-05-01

    The satellite DNA Msat-160 has been previously characterized in several species of the genus Microtus. Here we present the characterization of Msat-160 from Chionomys nivalis, a species with a very primitive karyotype. As in other Microtus species analyzed, C. nivalis Msat-160 is AT rich, has a monomer length of 160 bp, is undermethylated and is mainly located in all the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all autosomes and the X chromosome, but is completely absent from the Y chromosome. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that Msat-160 was initially distributed in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all autosomes and the X chromosome. The taxonomic status of the genus Chionomys in relation to the genus Microtus is a very interesting issue, so we constructed phylogenetic dendrograms using Msat-160 sequences from several Microtus species. Although the results were not informative about this issue, the presence of Msat-160 in C. nivalis and Microtus species suggested that both genera are closely related and that this satellite DNA was present in the common ancestor. Studies of Msat-160 in different arvicoline species could help to determine the origin of this satellite and, perhaps, to establish the phylogenetic relationships of some arvicoline groups.

  17. Characterization, evolution and chromosomal distribution of two satellite DNA sequence families in Lathyrus species.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, M; Sarri, V; Polizzi, E; Andreozzi, G; Cionini, P G

    2010-06-01

    DNA clones containing highly repetitive DNA sequences were selected from partial libraries of Lathyrus sativus and L. sylvestris. Two satellite DNA sequence families were isolated from the genome of the former species. A first family was made up of repeats that varied in length from 54-56 bp, and shared 51.7-94.8% nucleotide sequence similarity. The repeats of the second sequence family were 52-62 bp in length, and shared a 58.5-78.5% nucleotide sequence similarity. All the repeat units contained in a clone from L. sylvestris were 41 bp in length and showed an almost perfect structural conservation (95.1-100% nucleotide sequence similarity). The evolution of the first sequence family from L. sativus and of that isolated from L. sylvestris was studied by dot-blot hybridization to the genomic DNA of these species and 3 other Lathyrus species, L. clymenum, L. latifolius and L. odoratus. The former repeats were found to be species-specific and their redundancy was calculated to be 2.9 x 10(7). The satellite DNA sequence isolated from L. sylvestris was present also in L.latifolius, with a redundancy of 1.4 x 10(7) and 1.1 x 10(7), respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to investigate the chromosomal distribution of the two sequence families and of 45S and 5S ribosomal genes. The species-specific sequences of L. sativus were located around the centromere of chromosome pair IV, where they occupied a very broad region, and, in a much smaller amount, close to the centromere in the short arm of pair II. Sequences related to the repeat units isolated from L. sylvestris were found, both in this species and L. latifolius, in all of the chromosome pairs at terminal and interstitial regions, where they co-localize with the vast majority of DAPI bands. The pattern of distribution of the satellite DNA sequences investigated, together with that of DAPI bands and ribosomal DNA, allowed each chromosome pair of the 3 complements studied to be identified

  18. [Frequency of various mini- and micro-satellite sequences in DNA of human chromosome 13].

    PubMed

    Ryskov, A P; Kupriianova, N S; Kapanadze, B I; Nechvolodov, K K; Pozmogova, G E; Prosniak, M I; Iankovskiĭ, N K

    1993-10-01

    The frequency of specific mini- and micro-satellites known also as short tandem repeated sequences (STR) in the human 13 chromosome was estimated by hybridization of STR core oligonucleotides to recombinant cosmid clones transferred to a grid from a human 13 chromosome specific cosmid library ICRF Lawrist 4 C108 (DN L4/HS 13). Oligonucleotides: M13 and Jeffreys minisatellite core sequences and micro-satellite core sequences (TCC)5, (CAC)5, and (GACA)4 were [gamma-32P] end labeled and hybridized to membrane filters carrying good ordered cosmid clones. It was shown that great number of all these mini- and micro-satellite copies (besides of Jeffreys minisatellite) are spread independently along the 13th chromosome. It was also estimated that two or more (GACA)n blocks present in the same cosmid (i.e. on the stretch of 40-50 kb) forming similar groups of clustered micro-satellites. The interesting peculiarity has been recorded that some (GACA)n+ cosmids are also hybridizable to conservative 28SrDNA 3'-fragment that indicates that (GACA)n localization in the nucleoli area. As the result of it we began the creation of a new highly polymorphic markers collections for these chromosome.

  19. DNA synthesis on UV irradiated model templates using human DNA polymerases alpha and beta: primer slippage to account for evident transdimer continuity in product.

    PubMed

    Philippe, M; Wang, T S; Hanawalt, P C; Korn, D

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the comparative behavior of human DNA polymerases alpha and beta on a polynucleotide template of dT100 with dA15 covalently attached at the 3' end to serve as primer when defined numbers of pyrimidine dimers are introduced by UV (254 nm) irradiation. We have obtained the surprising result that with both alpha and beta polymerases the incorporation of labelled dATP is enhanced when the template has been irradiated (maximum value at 1000 J/m2 UV incident dose). In the presence of Mn2+, DNA polymerase beta produces a product size corresponding to full copying of the template whether irradiated or not. In marked contrast DNA polymerase alpha produces only short products on unirradiated strands but full copying of irradiated templates. Evidently both polymerases utilize a much larger fraction of the template pool following UV irradiation.

  20. cap alpha. /sub i/-3 cDNA encodes the. cap alpha. subunit of G/sub k/, the stimulatory G protein of receptor-regulated K/sup +/ channels

    SciTech Connect

    Codina, J.; Olate, J.; Abramowitz, J.; Mattera, R.; Cook, R.G.; Birnbaumer, L.

    1988-05-15

    cDNA cloning has identified the presence in the human genome of three genes encoding ..cap alpha.. subunits of pertussis toxin substrates, generically called G/sub i/. They are named ..cap alpha../sub i/-1, ..cap alpha../sub i/-2 and ..cap alpha../sub i/-3. However, none of these genes has been functionally identified with any of the ..cap alpha.. subunits of several possible G proteins, including pertussis toxin-sensitive G/sub p/'s, stimulatory to phospholipase C or A/sub 2/, G/sub i/, inhibitory to adenylyl cyclase, or G/sub k/, stimulatory to a type of K/sup +/ channels. The authors now report the nucleotide sequence and the complete predicted amino acid sequence of human liver ..cap alpha../sub i/-3 and the partial amino acid sequence of proteolytic fragments of the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human erythrocyte G/sub k/. The amino acid sequence of the proteolytic fragment is uniquely encoded by the cDNA of ..cap alpha../sub i/-3, thus identifying it as ..cap alpha../sub k/. The probable identity of ..cap alpha../sub i/-1 with ..cap alpha../sub p/ and possible roles for ..cap alpha../sub i/-2, as well as additional roles for ..cap alpha../sub i/-1 and ..cap alpha../sub i/-3 (..cap alpha../sub k/) are discussed.

  1. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) - Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed.

  2. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) – Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P.; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem–loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem–loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed. PMID:26925037

  3. Centromeric Satellite DNA in Flatfish (Order Pleuronectiformes) and Its Relation to Speciation Processes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisca Robles; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Cano-Roldán, Belén; Sola-Campoy, Pedro Juan; García-Zea, Jerson Alexander; Rejón, Carmelo Ruiz

    2016-11-04

    Two new centromeric satellite DNAs in flatfish (Order Pleuronectiformes) have been characterized. The SacI-family from Hippoglossus hippoglossus, restricted to this species, had a monomeric size of 334 base pair (bp) and was located in most of the centromeres of its karyotype. The PvuII-family, with a monomeric size of 177 bp, was initially isolated from the genome of Solea senegalensis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the repeat to centromeres of most of the chromosomes. This family could only be amplified in 2 other species of the genus Solea (Solea solea and Solea lascaris). Molecular features and chromosomal location indicated a possible structural and/or functional role of these sequence repeats. The presence of species-specific satellite-DNA families in the centromeres and their possible role in the speciation processes in this group of fishes is discussed.

  4. Centromeric Satellite DNA in Flatfish (Order Pleuronectiformes) and Its Relation to Speciation Processes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisca Robles; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Cano-Roldán, Belén; Sola-Campoy, Pedro Juan; García-Zea, Jerson Alexander; Rejón, Carmelo Ruiz

    2017-03-01

    Two new centromeric satellite DNAs in flatfish (Order Pleuronectiformes) have been characterized. The SacI-family from Hippoglossus hippoglossus, restricted to this species, had a monomeric size of 334 base pair (bp) and was located in most of the centromeres of its karyotype. The PvuII-family, with a monomeric size of 177 bp, was initially isolated from the genome of Solea senegalensis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the repeat to centromeres of most of the chromosomes. This family could only be amplified in 2 other species of the genus Solea (Solea solea and Solea lascaris). Molecular features and chromosomal location indicated a possible structural and/or functional role of these sequence repeats. The presence of species-specific satellite-DNA families in the centromeres and their possible role in the speciation processes in this group of fishes is discussed.

  5. Cross-hybridizing snake satellite, Drosophila, and mouse DNA sequences may have arisen independently.

    PubMed

    Levinson, G; Marsh, J L; Epplen, J T; Gutman, G A

    1985-11-01

    Previous reports have interpreted hybridization between snake satellite DNA and DNA clones from a variety of distant taxonomic groups as evidence for evolutionary conservation, which implies common ancestry (homology) and/or convergence (analogy) to produce the cross-hybridizing sequences. We have isolated 11 clones from a genomic library of Drosophila melanogaster, using a cloned 2.5-kb snake satellite probe of known nucleotide sequence. We have also analysed published sequence data from snakes, mice, and Drosophila. These data show that (1) all of the cross-hybridization between the snake, fly, and mouse clones can be accounted for by the presence of either of two tandem repeats, [GATA]n and [GACA]n and (2) these tandem repeats are organized differently among the different species. We find no evidence that these sequences are homologous apart from the existence of the simple repeat itself, although their divergence from a common ancestral sequence cannot be ruled out. The sequences contain a variety of homogeneous clusters of tandem repeats of CATA, GA, TA, and CA, as well as GATA and GACA. We suggest that these motifs may have arisen by a self-accelerating process involving slipped-strand mispairing of DNA. Homogeneity of the clusters might simply be the result of a rate of accumulation of tandem repeats that exceeds that of other mutations.

  6. Characterization of RUSI, a telomere-associated satellite DNA, in the genus Rumex (Polygonaceae).

    PubMed

    Navajas-Pérez, R; Schwarzacher, T; Ruiz Rejón, M; Garrido-Ramos, M A

    2009-01-01

    A satellite-DNA family (RUSI) has been isolated and characterized in Rumexinduratus Boiss and Reuter (Polygonaceae), an Iberian endemic polygamous sorrel. The RUSI repeats are 170 bp in length and approximately 68% AT-rich containing different variants of degenerate telomere motifs--(TT)(n)AN(GG)(n) -, a typical feature of subtelomeric DNA repeats adjacent to telomeres, which have been referred to as telomere-associated sequences or TASs. In fact, fluorescent in situhybridization showed that this satellite DNA is located in subtelomeric positions of most of the chromosomes of R. induratus, with some centromeric loci. PCR and Southern-blot hybridization assays for sequence conservation in the genus Rumex, indicated that the RUSI sequences are restricted to the genomes of R. induratus and R. scutatus, both species of the section Scutati, suggesting that they are recently evolved. Sequence variation within the two species is high (mean value of sequence differences between repeats of 15% for R. induratus and 7.5% for R. scutatus) and the degree of sequence differentiation between species is low with no species-specific variants, postulated to be due to slowed rates of spreading of sequence variants by molecular homogenizing mechanisms. Characteristics of RUSI sequences are discussed in the light of their chromosomal location and analyzed for their evolutionary and phylogenetic implications.

  7. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-02-02

    Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites) dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640-750 nucleotides) satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (<1 kilobase), non-coding begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity.

  8. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Karyna; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E.; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-01-01

    Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites) dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640–750 nucleotides) satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (<1 kilobase), non-coding begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity. PMID:26848679

  9. Evolutionary story of a satellite DNA from Phodopus sungorus (Rodentia, Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Paço, Ana; Adega, Filomena; Meštrović, Nevenka; Plohl, Miroslav; Chaves, Raquel

    2014-10-21

    With the goal to contribute for the understanding of satellite DNA evolution and its genomic involvement, in this work it was isolated and characterized the first satellite DNA (PSUcentSat) from Phodopus sungorus (Cricetidae). Physical mapping of this sequence in P. sungorus showed large PSUcentSat arrays located at the heterochromatic (peri)centromeric region of five autosomal pairs and Y-chromosome. The presence of orthologous PSUcentSat sequences in the genomes of other Cricetidae and Muridae rodents was also verified, presenting however, an interspersed chromosomal distribution. This distribution pattern suggests a PSUcentSat-scattered location in an ancestor of Muridae/Cricetidae families, that assumed afterwards, in the descendant genome of P. sungorus a restricted localization to few chromosomes in the (peri)centromeric region. We believe that after the divergence of the studied species, PSUcentSat was most probably highly amplified in the (peri)centromeric region of some chromosome pairs of this hamster by recombinational mechanisms. The bouquet chromosome configuration (prophase I) possibly displays an important role in this selective amplification, providing physical proximity of centromeric regions between chromosomes with similar size and/or morphology. This seems particularly evident for the acrocentric chromosomes of P. sungorus (including the Y-chromosome), all presenting large PSUcentSat arrays at the (peri)centromeric region. The conservation of this sequence in the studied genomes and its (peri)centromeric amplification in P. sungorus strongly suggests functional significance, possibly displaying this satellite family different functions in the different genomes. The verification of PSUcentSat transcriptional activity in normal proliferative cells suggests that its transcription is not stage-limited, as described for some other satellites.

  10. Evolutionary Story of a Satellite DNA from Phodopus sungorus (Rodentia, Cricetidae)

    PubMed Central

    Paço, Ana; Adega, Filomena; Meštrović, Nevenka; Plohl, Miroslav; Chaves, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    With the goal to contribute for the understanding of satellite DNA evolution and its genomic involvement, in this work it was isolated and characterized the first satellite DNA (PSUcentSat) from Phodopus sungorus (Cricetidae). Physical mapping of this sequence in P. sungorus showed large PSUcentSat arrays located at the heterochromatic (peri)centromeric region of five autosomal pairs and Y-chromosome. The presence of orthologous PSUcentSat sequences in the genomes of other Cricetidae and Muridae rodents was also verified, presenting however, an interspersed chromosomal distribution. This distribution pattern suggests a PSUcentSat-scattered location in an ancestor of Muridae/Cricetidae families, that assumed afterwards, in the descendant genome of P. sungorus a restricted localization to few chromosomes in the (peri)centromeric region. We believe that after the divergence of the studied species, PSUcentSat was most probably highly amplified in the (peri)centromeric region of some chromosome pairs of this hamster by recombinational mechanisms. The bouquet chromosome configuration (prophase I) possibly displays an important role in this selective amplification, providing physical proximity of centromeric regions between chromosomes with similar size and/or morphology. This seems particularly evident for the acrocentric chromosomes of P. sungorus (including the Y-chromosome), all presenting large PSUcentSat arrays at the (peri)centromeric region. The conservation of this sequence in the studied genomes and its (peri)centromeric amplification in P. sungorus strongly suggests functional significance, possibly displaying this satellite family different functions in the different genomes. The verification of PSUcentSat transcriptional activity in normal proliferative cells suggests that its transcription is not stage-limited, as described for some other satellites. PMID:25336681

  11. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1. PMID:23429197

  12. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH).

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-02-19

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  13. Nuclear alpha spectrin: Critical roles in DNA interstrand cross-link repair and genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Non-erythroid alpha spectrin (αIISp) is a structural protein which we have shown is present in the nucleus of human cells. It interacts with a number of nuclear proteins such as actin, lamin, emerin, chromatin remodeling factors, and DNA repair proteins. αIISp’s interaction with DNA repair proteins has been extensively studied. We have demonstrated that nuclear αIISp is critical in DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair in S phase, in both genomic (non-telomeric) and telomeric DNA, and in maintenance of genomic stability following ICL damage to DNA. We have proposed that αIISp acts as a scaffold aiding to recruit repair proteins to sites of damage. This involvement of αIISp in ICL repair and telomere maintenance after ICL damage represents new and critical functions for αIISp. These studies have led to development of a model for the role of αIISp in DNA ICL repair. They have been aided by examination of cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), a repair-deficient genetic disorder in which a deficiency in αIISp leads to defective ICL repair in genomic and telomeric DNA, telomere dysfunction, and chromosome instability following DNA ICL damage. We have shown that loss of αIISp in FA cells is due to increased breakdown by the protease, µ-calpain. Importantly, we have demonstrated that this deficiency can be corrected by knockdown of µ-calpain and restoring αIISp levels to normal. This corrects a number of the phenotypic deficiencies in FA after ICL damage. These studies suggest a new and unexplored direction for therapeutically restoring genomic stability in FA cells and for correcting numerous phenotypic deficiencies occurring after ICL damage. Developing a more in-depth understanding of the importance of the interaction of αIISp with other nuclear proteins could significantly enhance our knowledge of the consequences of loss of αIISp on critical nuclear processes. PMID:27480253

  14. Effect of location, organization, and repeat-copy number in satellite-DNA evolution.

    PubMed

    Navajas-Pérez, R; Quesada del Bosque, M E; Garrido-Ramos, M A

    2009-10-01

    Here, we analyze the evolutionary dynamics of a satellite-DNA family in an attempt to understand the effect of factors such as location, organization, and repeat-copy number in the molecular drive process leading to the concerted-evolution pattern found in this type of repetitive sequences. The presence of RAE180 satellite-DNA in the dioecious species of the plant genus Rumex is a noteworthy feature at this respect, as RAE180 satellite repeats have accumulated differentially, showing a distinct distribution pattern in different species. The evolution of dioecious Rumex gave rise to two phylogenetic clades: one clade composed of species with an ancestral XX/XY sex chromosome system and a second, derived clade of species with a multiple sex-chromosome system XX/XY(1)Y(2). While in the XX/XY dioecious species, the RAE180 satellite-DNA is located only in a small autosomal locus, the RAE180 repeats are present also in a small autosomal locus and additionally have been massively amplified in the Y chromosomes of XX/XY(1)Y(2) species. Here, we have found that the RAE180 repeats of the autosomal locus of XX/XY species are characterized by intra-specific sequence homogeneity and inter-specific divergence and that the comparison of individual nucleotide positions between related species shows a general pattern of concerted evolution. On the contrary, both in the autosomal and the Y-linked loci of XX/XY(1)Y(2) species, ancestral variability has remained with reduced rates of sequence homogenization and of evolution. Thus, this study demonstrates that molecular mechanisms of non-reciprocal exchange are key factors in the molecular drive process; the satellite DNAs in the non-recombining Y chromosomes show low rates of concerted evolution and intra-specific variability increase with no inter-specific divergence. By contrast, freely recombining loci undergo concerted evolution with genetic differentiation between species as occurred in the autosomal locus of XX/XY species

  15. Stable yeast transformants that secrete functional. cap alpha. -amylase encoded by cloned mouse pancreatic cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, S.A.; Galembeck, E.V.; Faria, J.B.; Frascino, A.C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Mouse pancreatic ..cap alpha..-amylase complementary DNA was inserted into a yeast shuttle vector after the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MF..cap alpha..1 promoter and secretion signals coding sequences. When transformed with the recombinant plasmid, S. cerevisiae cells were able to synthesize and secrete functional ..cap alpha..-amylase, efficiently hydrolyzing starch present in the culture medium. Stable amylolytic cells were obtained from different yeast strains. This work represents a significant step towards producing yeast that can convert starchy materials directly to ethanol.

  16. alpha-MSH inhibits induction of C/EBPbeta-DNA binding activity and NOS2 gene transcription in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Diaz, R A; Higham, S; Kone, B C

    2000-06-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is an endogenous tridecapeptide that exerts anti-inflammatory actions and abrogates postischemic renal injury in rodents. alpha-MSH inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of several cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2), but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been clearly defined. To test the hypothesis that alpha-MSH inhibits the expression of inducible trans-activating factors involved in NOS2 regulation, we used RAW 264.7 macrophage cells to examine the effects of alpha-MSH on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBPbeta), trans-acting factors known to be involved in LPS + interferon (IFN)-gamma induction of the NOS2 gene. Gel shift assays were performed to identify NF-kappaB and C/EBP DNA binding activities in LPS + IFN-gamma-treated RAW 264.7 cells in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. NOS2 promoter assays were conducted to identify the effects of alpha-MSH on LPS + IFN-gamma-mediated induction of NOS2 transcription. Gel shift assays demonstrated LPS + IFN-gamma induction of NF-kappaB and C/EBP family protein-DNA complexes in nuclei harvested from the cells. Supershift assays revealed that the C/EBP complexes were comprised of C/EBPbeta, but not C/EBPalpha, C/EBPdelta, or C/EBPepsilon. alpha-MSH (100 nmol/L) inhibited the LPS + IFN-gamma-mediated induction of nuclear DNA binding activity of C/EBPbeta, but not that of NF-kappaB (in contrast to reports in other cell types), as well as the activity of a murine NOS2 promoter-luciferase construct. In contrast, alpha-MSH (100 nmol/L) had no effect on the induction of NOS2 promoter-luciferase genes harboring deletion or mutation of the C/EBP box. These data indicate that alpha-MSH inhibits the induction of C/EBPbeta DNA binding activity and that this effect is a major mechanism by which alpha-MSH inhibits the transcription of the NOS2 gene. The

  17. Evaluation of DNA bending models in their capacity to predict electrophoretic migration anomalies of satellite DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Matyášek, Roman; Fulneček, Jaroslav; Kovařík, Aleš

    2013-09-01

    DNA containing a sequence that generates a local curvature exhibits a pronounced retardation in electrophoretic mobility. Various theoretical models have been proposed to explain relationship between DNA structural features and migration anomaly. Here, we studied the capacity of 15 static wedge-bending models to predict electrophoretic behavior of 69 satellite monomers derived from four divergent families. All monomers exhibited retarded mobility in PAGE corresponding to retardation factors ranging 1.02-1.54. The curvature varied both within and across the groups and correlated with the number, position, and lengths of A-tracts. Two dinucleotide models provided strong correlation between gel mobility and curvature prediction; two trinucleotide models were satisfactory while remaining dinucleotide models provided intermediate results with reliable prediction for subsets of sequences only. In some cases, similarly shaped molecules exhibited relatively large differences in mobility and vice versa. Generally less accurate predictions were obtained in groups containing less homogeneous sequences possessing distinct structural features. In conclusion, relatively universal theoretical models were identified suitable for the analysis of natural sequences known to harbor relatively moderate curvature. These models could be potentially applied to genome wide studies. However, in silico predictions should be viewed in context of experimental measurement of intrinsic DNA curvature. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ocean Primary Production Estimates from Terra MODIS and Their Dependency on Satellite Chlorophyll Alpha Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Essias, Wayne E.; Abbott, Mark; Carder, Kendall; Campbell, Janet; Clark, Dennis; Evans, Robert; Brown, Otis; Kearns, Ed; Kilpatrick, Kay; Balch, W.

    2003-01-01

    Simplistic models relating global satellite ocean color, temperature, and light to ocean net primary production (ONPP) are sensitive to the accuracy and limitations of the satellite estimate of chlorophyll and other input fields, as well as the primary productivity model. The standard MODIS ONPP product uses the new semi-analytic chlorophyll algorithm as its input for two ONPP indexes. The three primary MODIS chlorophyll Q estimates from MODIS, as well as the SeaWiFS 4 chlorophyll product, were used to assess global and regional performance in estimating ONPP for the full mission, but concentrating on 2001. The two standard ONPP algorithms were examined with 8-day and 39 kilometer resolution to quantify chlorophyll algorithm dependency of ONPP. Ancillary data (MLD from FNMOC, MODIS SSTD1, and PAR from the GSFC DAO) were identical. The standard MODIS ONPP estimates for annual production in 2001 was 59 and 58 GT C for the two ONPP algorithms. Differences in ONPP using alternate chlorophylls were on the order of 10% for global annual ONPP, but ranged to 100% regionally. On all scales the differences in ONPP were smaller between MODIS and SeaWiFS than between ONPP models, or among chlorophyll algorithms within MODIS. Largest regional ONPP differences were found in the Southern Ocean (SO). In the SO, application of the semi-analytic chlorophyll resulted in not only a magnitude difference in ONPP (2x), but also a temporal shift in the time of maximum production compared to empirical algorithms when summed over standard oceanic areas. The resulting increase in global ONPP (6-7 GT) is supported by better performance of the semi-analytic chlorophyll in the SO and other high chlorophyll regions. The differences are significant in terms of understanding regional differences and dynamics of ocean carbon transformations.

  19. Ocean Primary Production Estimates from Terra MODIS and Their Dependency on Satellite Chlorophyll Alpha Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Essias, Wayne E.; Abbott, Mark; Carder, Kendall; Campbell, Janet; Clark, Dennis; Evans, Robert; Brown, Otis; Kearns, Ed; Kilpatrick, Kay; Balch, W.

    2003-01-01

    Simplistic models relating global satellite ocean color, temperature, and light to ocean net primary production (ONPP) are sensitive to the accuracy and limitations of the satellite estimate of chlorophyll and other input fields, as well as the primary productivity model. The standard MODIS ONPP product uses the new semi-analytic chlorophyll algorithm as its input for two ONPP indexes. The three primary MODIS chlorophyll Q estimates from MODIS, as well as the SeaWiFS 4 chlorophyll product, were used to assess global and regional performance in estimating ONPP for the full mission, but concentrating on 2001. The two standard ONPP algorithms were examined with 8-day and 39 kilometer resolution to quantify chlorophyll algorithm dependency of ONPP. Ancillary data (MLD from FNMOC, MODIS SSTD1, and PAR from the GSFC DAO) were identical. The standard MODIS ONPP estimates for annual production in 2001 was 59 and 58 GT C for the two ONPP algorithms. Differences in ONPP using alternate chlorophylls were on the order of 10% for global annual ONPP, but ranged to 100% regionally. On all scales the differences in ONPP were smaller between MODIS and SeaWiFS than between ONPP models, or among chlorophyll algorithms within MODIS. Largest regional ONPP differences were found in the Southern Ocean (SO). In the SO, application of the semi-analytic chlorophyll resulted in not only a magnitude difference in ONPP (2x), but also a temporal shift in the time of maximum production compared to empirical algorithms when summed over standard oceanic areas. The resulting increase in global ONPP (6-7 GT) is supported by better performance of the semi-analytic chlorophyll in the SO and other high chlorophyll regions. The differences are significant in terms of understanding regional differences and dynamics of ocean carbon transformations.

  20. Identification of cDNA encoding an additional. alpha. subunit of a human GTP-binding protein: Expression of three. alpha. sub i subtypes in human tissues and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Ang, S.L.; Bloch, D.B.; Bloch, K.D.; Kawahara, Y.; Tolman, C.; Lee, R.; Seidman, J.G.; Neer, E.J. )

    1988-06-01

    The guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which mediate hormonal regulation of many membrane functions, are composed of {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits. The authors have cloned and characterized cDNA from a human T-cell library encoding a form of {alpha}{sub i} that is different from the human {alpha}{sub i} subtypes previously reported. {alpha}{sub i} is the {alpha} subunit of a class of G proteins that inhibits adenylate cyclase and regulates other enzymes and ion channels. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 354 amino acids and is assigned to encode the {alpha}{sub i-3} subtype of G proteins on the basis of its similarity to other {alpha}{sub i}-like cDNAs and the presence of a predicted site for ADP ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They have determined the expression of mRNA for this and two other subtypes of human {alpha}{sub i} ({alpha}{sub i-1} and {alpha}{sub i-2}) in a variety of human fetal tissues and in human cell lines. All three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes were present in the tissues tested. However, analysis of individual cell types reveals specificity of {alpha}{sub i-1} expression. mRNA for {alpha}{i-1} is absent in T cells, B cells, and monocytes but is present in other cell lines. The finding of differential expression of {alpha}{sub i-1} genes may permit characterization of distinct physiological roles for this {alpha}{sub i} subunit. mRNA for {alpha}{sub i-2} and {alpha}{sub i-3} was found in all the primary and transformed cell lines tested. Thus, some cells contain all three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes. This observation raises the question of how cells prevent cross talk among receptors that are coupled to effectors through such similar {alpha} proteins.

  1. Replication of alpha and beta globin DNA sequences occurs during early S phase in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Epner, E; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

    1981-01-01

    Murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) can be induced to express the characteristics of erythroid differentiation by a variety of agents. Previous studies indicate that an action of inducer, occurring during early S phase, may be critical to the expression of differentiated characteristics such as initiation of accumulation of newly synthesized alpha and beta globin mRNAs. In this investigation, the time of replication of globin genes in MELC was studied. DNA was isolated from synchronous populations of cells obtained by centrifugal elutriation. Newly replicated DNA sequences were prepared from synchronized cells cultured for 1 1/2 hr with 5-bromodeoxyuridine; bromodeoxyuridine-containing DNA was isolated by CsCl gradient centrifugation. By employing cloned probes for hybridization to newly synthesized DNA, it was found that alpha and beta globin gene sequences are replicated early in S phase, while ribosomal RNA gene sequences are replicated to about the same extent in early, middle, and late S phases. PMID:6942415

  2. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  3. Plutonium-catalyzed oxidative DNA damage in the absence of significant alpha-particle decay

    SciTech Connect

    Claycamp, H.G.; Luo, D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium is considered to be a carcinogen because it emits {alpha} particles that may result in the irradiation of stem cell population. In the present study we show that plutonium can also catalyze reactions that induce hydroxyl radicals in the absence of significant {alpha}-particle irradiation. Using the low specific activity isotope, {sup 242}Pu, experiments were performed under conditions in which chemical generation of hydroxyl radicals was expected to exceed the radiolytic generation by 10{sup 5}-fold. The results showed that markers of oxidative DNA base damage, thymine glycol and 8-oxoguanine could be induced from plutonium-catalyzed reactions of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate similarly to those occurring in the presence of iron catalysts. Plutonium-242, as a neutralized nitrate in phosphate buffer, was 4.8-fold more efficient than iron at catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate at pH 7. The results suggest that plutonium complexes could participate in reactions at pH 7 that induce oxidative stress - a significant tumor-promoting factor in generally accepted models of carcinogenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Alpha Particles and X Rays Interact in Inducing DNA Damage in U2OS Cells.

    PubMed

    Sollazzo, Alice; Brzozowska, Beata; Cheng, Lei; Lundholm, Lovisa; Haghdoost, Siamak; Scherthan, Harry; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are monitored for health effects within the Life Span Study (LSS). The LSS results represent the most important source of data about cancer effects from ionizing radiation exposure, which forms the foundation for the radiation protection system. One uncertainty connected to deriving universal risk factors from these results is related to the problem of mixed radiation qualities. The A-bomb explosions generated a mixed beam of the sparsely ionizing gamma radiation and densely ionizing neutrons. However, until now the possible interaction of the two radiation types of inducing biological effects has not been taken into consideration. The existence of such interaction would suggest that the application of risk factors derived from the LSS to predict cancer effects after pure gamma-ray irradiation (such as in the Fukushima prefecture) leads to an overestimation of risk. To analyze the possible interaction of radiation types, a mixed-beam exposure facility was constructed where cells can be exposed to sparsely ionizing X rays and densely ionizing alpha particles. U2OS cells were used, which are stably transfected with a plasmid coding for the DNA repair gene 53BP1 coupled to a gene coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The induction and repair of DNA damage, which are known to be related to cancer induction, were analyzed. The results suggest that alpha particles and X rays interact, leading to cellular and possibly cancer effects, which cannot be accurately predicted based on assuming simple additivity of the individual mixed-beam components.

  5. Selective disruption of ER{alpha} DNA-binding activity alters uterine responsiveness to estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sylvia C; O'Brien, Jeanne E; Jameson, J Larry; Kissling, Grace E; Korach, Kenneth S

    2009-12-01

    In vitro models have been used to demonstrate that estrogen receptors (ERs) can regulate estrogen-responsive genes either by directly interacting with estrogen-responsive element (ERE) DNA motifs or by interacting with other transcription factors such as AP1. In this study, we evaluated estrogen (E(2))-dependent uterine gene profiles by microarray in the KIKO mouse, an in vivo knock-in mouse model that lacks the DNA-binding function of ERalpha and is consequently restricted to non-ERE-mediated responses. The 2- or 24-h E(2)-mediated uterine gene responses were distinct in wild-type (WT), KIKO, and alphaERKO genotypes, indicating that unique sets of genes are regulated by ERE and non-ERE pathways. After 2 h E(2) treatment, 38% of the WT transcripts were also regulated in the KIKO, demonstrating that the tethered mechanism does operate in this in vivo model. Surprisingly, 1438 E(2)-regulated transcripts were unique in the KIKO mouse and were not seen in either WT or alphaERKO. Pathway analyses revealed that some canonical pathways, such as the Jak/Stat pathway, were affected in a similar manner by E(2) in WT and KIKO. In other cases, however, the WT and KIKO differed. One example is the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway; this pathway was impacted, but different members of the pathway were regulated by E(2) or were regulated in a different manner, consistent with differences in biological responses. In summary, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of uterine genes regulated by E(2) via ERE and non-ERE pathways.

  6. The EcoRI centromeric satellite DNA of the Sparidae family (Pisces, Perciformes) contains a sequence motive common to other vertebrate centromeric satellite DNAs.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ramos, M A; Jamilena, M; Lozano, R; Ruiz Rejón, C; Ruiz Rejón, M

    1995-01-01

    By means of cloning, sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have determined that the EcoRI satellite DNA family is conserved in the 10 sparid species analyzed here. Its conservation, its chromosomal location at the centromere of each chromosome, and its structural features could make this satellite DNA family an important structural and/or functional element of the centromeres of these species. Monomeric units of this satellite DNA have a consensus length of 187 bp. Its sequence is characterized by a high AT content and the presence of short runs of consecutive AT base pairs. These monomeric EcoRI repeats also contain three to four copies, depending on the species, of a short sequence reflecting the repetitive duplication and subsequent divergence of an ancestral 9-bp sequence in this family. This sequence motive is conserved in some parts of the monomeric units of the different species studied at the same positions, and, precisely, surrounding the area in which the curvature of the monomeric molecule is greatest. The 9-bp sequence motive is similar to other direct-repeat sequences of the centromeric satellite DNAs of other vertebrates, including those of amphibians and mammals.

  7. Pericentromeric satellite repeat expansions through RNA-derived DNA intermediates in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, Francesca; Lee, Eunjung; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Xu, Andrew W.; Liu, Mingzhu; Xega, Kristina; MacKenzie, Olivia C.; Brannigan, Brian W.; Wittner, Ben S.; Jung, Hyunchul; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Park, Peter J.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Ting, David T.; Haber, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant transcription of the pericentromeric human satellite II (HSATII) repeat is present in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. In deriving experimental systems to study its deregulation, we observed that HSATII expression is induced in colon cancer cells cultured as xenografts or under nonadherent conditions in vitro, but it is rapidly lost in standard 2D cultures. Unexpectedly, physiological induction of endogenous HSATII RNA, as well as introduction of synthetic HSATII transcripts, generated cDNA intermediates in the form of DNA/RNA hybrids. Single molecule sequencing of tumor xenografts showed that HSATII RNA-derived DNA (rdDNA) molecules are stably incorporated within pericentromeric loci. Suppression of RT activity using small molecule inhibitors reduced HSATII copy gain. Analysis of whole-genome sequencing data revealed that HSATII copy number gain is a common feature in primary human colon tumors and is associated with a lower overall survival. Together, our observations suggest that cancer-associated derepression of specific repetitive sequences can promote their RNA-driven genomic expansion, with potential implications on pericentromeric architecture. PMID:26575630

  8. The characteristics of karyotype and telomeric satellite DNA sequences in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, A; Nakata, A; Mito, T; Noji, S

    2006-01-01

    The chromosomes derived from the Japanese population of Gryllus bimaculatus were characterized by C-banding and Ag-NOR staining. The chromosome number, 2n = 28 + XX (female)/XO (male), corresponded with that of other populations of G. bimaculatus, but the chromosome configuration in idiograms varied between the populations. NORs were carried on one pair of autosomes and appeared polymorphous. The positive C-bands located at the centromere of all chromosomes and the distal regions of many chromosome pairs, and the size and the distribution pattern of the distal C-heterochromatin showed differences among the chromosomes. In addition, this paper reports on the characteristics of HindIII satellite DNA isolated from the genome of G. bimaculatus. The HindIII repetitive fragments were about 0.54 kb long, and localized at the distal C-bands of the autosomes and the interstitial C-bands of the X chromosome. Molecular analysis showed two distinct satellite DNA sequences, named the GBH535 and GBH542 families, with high AT contents of about 67 and 66%, respectively. The two repetitive families seem to be derived from a common ancestral sequence, and both families possessed the same 13-bp palindrome sequence. The results of Southern blot hybridization suggest that the sequence of the GBH535 family is conserved in the genomic DNAs of Gryllus species, whereas the GBH542 family is a species-specific sequence. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. In vitro conversion of MVM parvovirus single-stranded DNA to the replicative form by DNA polymerase alpha from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, E A; Rankin, C D

    1982-01-01

    A partially purified preparation of DNA polymerase alpha, obtained from the cytosol of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, has been found to catalyze the conversion of MVM parvovirus, SS DNA (5 kilobases) to RF in vitro. The reaction initiates at a natural 55 base pair hairpin which exists at the 3' terminus of MVM SS DNA. The SS leads to RF conversion is sensitive to aphidicolin, resistant to ddTTP and is promoted by purine ribonucleoside 5' triphosphates, a phenomenon which could not be explained simply by stabilization effects on the in vitro deoxynucleotide precursor pool. In the absence of rNTPs, nascent complementary strands frequently terminate prematurely at a preferred location, between 1300 and 1700 nucleotides from the initiating 3' hairpin terminus. This in vitro system, involving self-primed parvovirus DNA synthesis, provides a convenient assay for those components of the mammalian replicative DNA polymerase complex which are required for the elongation of nascent DNA chains. Images PMID:6812024

  10. Humidity influenced capacitance and resistance of an Al/DNA/Al Schottky diode irradiated by alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ta’Ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2016-05-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA based sensors, especially as humidity and alpha particle sensors have become quite popular in recent times due to flexible and highly optimizable nature of this fundamental biomaterial. Application of DNA electronics allow for more sensitive, accurate and effective sensors to be developed and fabricated. In this work, we examined the effect of different humidity conditions on the capacitive and resistive response of Aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al Schottky barrier structure when bombarded by time-dependent dosages of alpha particles. Based on current-voltage profiles, which demonstrated rectifying behaviours, Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance was calculated. Results observed generally pointed towards a decrease in the resistance value from the pristine to the radiated structures. It was also demonstrated that under the effect of humidity, the capacitance of the DNA thin film increased from 0.05894 to 92.736 nF, with rising relative humidity level. We also observed the occurrence of the hypersensitivity phenomena after alpha irradiation between 2 to 4 min by observing a drop in the series resistance, crucial in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. These observations may also suggest the exciting possibility of utilizing Al/DNA/Al Schottky diodes as potentially sensitive humidity sensors.

  11. Humidity influenced capacitance and resistance of an Al/DNA/Al Schottky diode irradiated by alpha particles

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA based sensors, especially as humidity and alpha particle sensors have become quite popular in recent times due to flexible and highly optimizable nature of this fundamental biomaterial. Application of DNA electronics allow for more sensitive, accurate and effective sensors to be developed and fabricated. In this work, we examined the effect of different humidity conditions on the capacitive and resistive response of Aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al Schottky barrier structure when bombarded by time-dependent dosages of alpha particles. Based on current-voltage profiles, which demonstrated rectifying behaviours, Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance was calculated. Results observed generally pointed towards a decrease in the resistance value from the pristine to the radiated structures. It was also demonstrated that under the effect of humidity, the capacitance of the DNA thin film increased from 0.05894 to 92.736 nF, with rising relative humidity level. We also observed the occurrence of the hypersensitivity phenomena after alpha irradiation between 2 to 4 min by observing a drop in the series resistance, crucial in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. These observations may also suggest the exciting possibility of utilizing Al/DNA/Al Schottky diodes as potentially sensitive humidity sensors. PMID:27160654

  12. Obesity-induced sperm DNA methylation changes at satellite repeats are reprogrammed in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Youngson, Neil A; Lecomte, Virginie; Maloney, Christopher A; Leung, Preston; Liu, Jia; Hesson, Luke B; Luciani, Fabio; Krause, Lutz; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    There is now strong evidence that the paternal contribution to offspring phenotype at fertilisation is more than just DNA. However, the identity and mechanisms of this nongenetic inheritance are poorly understood. One of the more important questions in this research area is: do changes in sperm DNA methylation have phenotypic consequences for offspring? We have previously reported that offspring of obese male rats have altered glucose metabolism compared with controls and that this effect was inherited through nongenetic means. Here, we describe investigations into sperm DNA methylation in a new cohort using the same protocol. Male rats on a high-fat diet were 30% heavier than control-fed males at the time of mating (16-19 weeks old, n = 14/14). A small (0.25%) increase in total 5-methyl-2Ͳ-deoxycytidine was detected in obese rat spermatozoa by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Examination of the repetitive fraction of the genome with methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) and pyrosequencing revealed that retrotransposon DNA methylation states in spermatozoa were not affected by obesity, but methylation at satellite repeats throughout the genome was increased. However, examination of muscle, liver, and spermatozoa from male 27-week-old offspring from obese and control fathers (both groups from n = 8 fathers) revealed that normal DNA methylation levels were restored during offspring development. Furthermore, no changes were found in three genomic imprints in obese rat spermatozoa. Our findings have implications for transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming. They suggest that postfertilization mechanisms exist for normalising some environmentally-induced DNA methylation changes in sperm cells.

  13. Obesity-induced sperm DNA methylation changes at satellite repeats are reprogrammed in rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Youngson, Neil A; Lecomte, Virginie; Maloney, Christopher A; Leung, Preston; Liu, Jia; Hesson, Luke B; Luciani, Fabio; Krause, Lutz; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    There is now strong evidence that the paternal contribution to offspring phenotype at fertilisation is more than just DNA. However, the identity and mechanisms of this nongenetic inheritance are poorly understood. One of the more important questions in this research area is: do changes in sperm DNA methylation have phenotypic consequences for offspring? We have previously reported that offspring of obese male rats have altered glucose metabolism compared with controls and that this effect was inherited through nongenetic means. Here, we describe investigations into sperm DNA methylation in a new cohort using the same protocol. Male rats on a high-fat diet were 30% heavier than control-fed males at the time of mating (16–19 weeks old, n = 14/14). A small (0.25%) increase in total 5-methyl-2’-deoxycytidine was detected in obese rat spermatozoa by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Examination of the repetitive fraction of the genome with methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) and pyrosequencing revealed that retrotransposon DNA methylation states in spermatozoa were not affected by obesity, but methylation at satellite repeats throughout the genome was increased. However, examination of muscle, liver, and spermatozoa from male 27-week-old offspring from obese and control fathers (both groups from n = 8 fathers) revealed that normal DNA methylation levels were restored during offspring development. Furthermore, no changes were found in three genomic imprints in obese rat spermatozoa. Our findings have implications for transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming. They suggest that postfertilization mechanisms exist for normalising some environmentally-induced DNA methylation changes in sperm cells. PMID:26608942

  14. Molecular variation of satellite DNA beta molecules associated with Malvastrum yellow vein virus and their role in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Jiang, Tong; Zhang, Xian; Li, Guixin; Zhou, Xueping

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have found that the diversity of begomovirus-associated DNA beta satellites is related to host and geographical origin. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced 20 different isolates of DNA beta molecules associated with Malvastrum yellow vein virus (MYVV) isolated from Malvastrum coromandelianum plants in different geographical locations of Yunnan Province, China. Analyses of their molecular variation indicate that the satellites are clustered together according to their geographical location but that they have only limited sequence diversity. Infectivity tests using infectious clones of MYVV and its associated DNA beta molecule indicate that MYVV DNA beta is indispensable for symptom induction in Nicotiana benthamiana, N. glutinosa, Petunia hybrida, and M. coromandelianum plants. Furthermore, we showed that MYVV interacts functionally with heterologous DNA beta molecules in N. benthamiana plants.

  15. Satellite DNA-Like Elements Associated With Genes Within Euchromatin of the Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Brajković, Josip; Feliciello, Isidoro; Bruvo-Mađarić, Branka; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2012-01-01

    In the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum the major TCAST satellite DNA accounts for 35% of the genome and encompasses the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes. Because of the presence of transcriptional regulatory elements and transcriptional activity in these sequences, TCAST satellite DNAs also have been proposed to be modulators of gene expression within euchromatin. Here, we analyze the distribution of TCAST homologous repeats in T. castaneum euchromatin and study their association with genes as well as their potential gene regulatory role. We identified 68 arrays composed of TCAST-like elements distributed on all chromosomes. Based on sequence characteristics the arrays were composed of two types of TCAST-like elements. The first type consists of TCAST satellite-like elements in the form of partial monomers or tandemly arranged monomers, up to tetramers, whereas the second type consists of TCAST-like elements embedded with a complex unit that resembles a DNA transposon. TCAST-like elements were also found in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the CR1-3_TCa retrotransposon, and therefore retrotransposition may have contributed to their dispersion throughout the genome. No significant difference in the homogenization of dispersed TCAST-like elements was found either at the level of local arrays or chromosomes nor among different chromosomes. Of 68 TCAST-like elements, 29 were located within introns, with the remaining elements flanked by genes within a 262 to 404,270 nt range. TCAST-like elements are statistically overrepresented near genes with immunoglobulin-like domains attesting to their nonrandom distribution and a possible gene regulatory role. PMID:22908042

  16. Significance of satellite DNA revealed by conservation of a widespread repeat DNA sequence among angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goel, Shailendra; Raina, Soom Nath; Rajpal, Vijay Rani

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of plant genome structure and evolution requires comprehensive characterization of repetitive sequences that make up the majority of plant nuclear DNA. In the present study, we analyzed the nature of pCtKpnI-I and pCtKpnI-II tandem repeated sequences, reported earlier in Carthamus tinctorius. Interestingly, homolog of pCtKpnI-I repeat sequence was also found to be present in widely divergent families of angiosperms. pCtKpnI-I showed high sequence similarity but low copy number among various taxa of different families of angiosperms analyzed. In comparison, pCtKpnI-II was specific to the genus Carthamus and was not present in any other taxa analyzed. The molecular structure of pCtKpnI-I was analyzed in various unrelated taxa of angiosperms to decipher the evolutionary conserved nature of the sequence and its possible functional role.

  17. AraUTP-Affi-Gel 10: a novel affinity absorbent for the specific purification of DNA polymerase alpha-primase.

    PubMed

    Izuta, S; Saneyoshi, M

    1988-10-01

    For the specific purification of eukaryotic DNA-dependent DNA polymerase alpha, we prepared two novel affinity resins bearing 5-(E)-(4-aminostyryl) araUTP as a ligand. One of them was araUTP-Sepharose 4B which was coupled directly with the ligand and the other was araUTP-Affi-Gel 10 which was coupled with the ligand through a spacer. No DNA polymerase alpha-primase activity from cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) testes was bound on the araUTP-Sepharose 4B in all cases examined. On the other hand, the araUTP-Affi-Gel 10 retains this enzyme activity when poly(dA) or poly(dA)-oligo(dT)12-18 is present. The retained enzyme activity was sharply eluted around 100-mM KCl concentrations as a single peak, and this fraction showed a specific activity of about 170,000 units/mg as alpha-polymerase activity. The highly purified DNA polymerase alpha-primase isolated using the araUTP-Affi-Gel 10 contained only three polypeptides, which showed Mr values of 120,000, 62,000, and 58,000, respectively, as judged using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  18. Chromodomain protein Swi6-mediated role of DNA polymerase alpha in establishment of silencing in fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Saini, S; Arora, S; Singh, J

    2001-12-21

    Although DNA replication has been thought to play an important role in the silencing of mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recent studies indicate that silencing can be decoupled from replication. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, mating type silencing is brought about by the trans-acting proteins, namely Swi6, Clr1-Clr4, and Rhp6, in cooperation with the cis-acting silencers. The latter contain an autonomous replication sequence, suggesting that DNA replication may be critical for silencing in S. pombe. To investigate the connection between DNA replication and silencing in S. pombe, we analyzed several temperature-sensitive mutants of DNA polymerase alpha. We find that one such mutant, swi7H4, exhibits silencing defects at mat, centromere, and telomere loci. This effect is independent of the checkpoint and replication defects of the mutant. Interestingly, the extent of the silencing defect in the swi7H4 mutant at the silent mat2 locus is further enhanced in absence of the cis-acting, centromere-proximal silencer. The chromodomain protein Swi6, which is required for silencing and is localized to mat and other heterochromatin loci, interacts with DNA polymerase alpha in vivo and in vitro in wild type cells. However, it does not interact with the mutant pol alpha and is delocalized away from the silent mat loci in the mutant. Our results demonstrate a role of DNA polymerase alpha in the establishment of silencing. We propose a recruitment model for the coupling of DNA replication with the establishment of silencing by the chromodomain protein Swi6, which may be applicable to higher eukaryotes.

  19. Sequence arrangement of a highly methylated satellite DNA of a plant, Scilla: A tandemly repeated inverted repeat

    PubMed Central

    Deumling, Barbara

    1981-01-01

    G+C-rich satellite DNA, representing about 19% of total nuclear DNA, was isolated from various tissues of the monocotyledonous plant, Scilla siberica, by using Ag+-Cs2SO4 gradient techniques. This satellite DNA had an unusually high melting point and a high methylcytosine (m5C) content (≈25% of total bases; m5C/cytosine ratio ≈1.5) and was localized, by in situ hybridization, in the heterochromatin regions of the chromosomes. Digestion with restriction endonuclease Hae III yielded a series of fragments ranging from 35 to several hundred nucleotide pairs. The major fragments, I-IV (35, 50, 59, and 69, nucleotide pairs, respectively), were isolated, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The dominant fragment I was a highly symmetrical molecule, with a basically palindromic arrangement. This sequence represented the basic unit of Scilla satellite DNA and was tandemly repeated many times, with some base substitutions and multiple successive insertions of the tetranucleotide G-T-C-C. The dinucleotide CpG was the commonest nearest-neighbor sequence. Thin layer chromatography, DNA sequence analysis, and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry showed the high m5C content (m5C/Cyt = 2.2 and 2.8, respectively, for fragments II and III). Identical cleavage fragments were found in satellite DNAs from two other species of this genus (S. amoena and S. ingridae), which suggests that this constitutively methylated sequence is evolutionarily stable. The sequence arrangement of this plant satellite DNA is compared with those reported for several animal satellite DNAs. Images PMID:16592953

  20. Alpha fetoprotein DNA prime and adenovirus boost immunization of two hepatocellular cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal antigen over-expressed by many hepatocellular cancers (HCC). We previously demonstrated that HLA-A2-restricted epitopes derived from AFP are immunogenic in vitro and in vivo despite high circulating levels of this oncofetal antigen. In order to test a more broadly applicable, HLA-unrestricted, inexpensive, cell-free vaccine platform capable of activating tumor antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, we tested full length AFP in a plasmid DNA construct in combination with an AFP-expressing replication-deficient adenovirus (AdV) in a prime-boost vaccine strategy. Methods HCC patients who had an AFP+ tumor and previous treatment for HCC were screened and two patients received vaccination with three plasmid DNA injections followed by a single AdV injection, all delivered intramuscularly (i.m.). Results The vaccine was well tolerated and safe. Both patients showed immunologic evidence of immunization. The first patient had a weak AFP-specific T cell response, a strong AdV-specific cellular response and recurred with an AFP-expressing HCC at nine months. The second patient developed a strong AFP-specific CD8+ and CD4+ cellular response and an AdV neutralizing antibody response, and recurred at 18 months without an increase in serum AFP. Conclusions The AFP DNA prime-AdV boost vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Circulating anti-AdV neutralizing antibodies at baseline did not prohibit the development of AFP-specific cellular immunity. The patient who developed CD8+ and CD4+ AFP-specific T cell immunity had more favorable progression-free survival. The observations with these two patients support development of this vaccine strategy in a larger clinical trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00093548 PMID:24708667

  1. The interactions of the separated strands of satellite DNAs with other DNAs: 1. Conditions for associations of the alpha-satellite of the guinea pig with heterologous double-stranded DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, D M; Chambers, C A

    1977-01-01

    The separated H- and L-strands of the alpha-satellite of the guinea pig, Cavea porcellus, recovered from centrifugation in alkaline CsC1 gradients, from complexes with 7 different double-stranded (ds) DNAs including those of 1 bacteriophage, 2 prokaryotes, 2 invertebrates and 2 mammals. The complexes are not artifacts due to in vitro labeling of the satellite, methods of collection, the presence of divalent cations, or the fact that trace amounts of single-stranded (ss) DNAs are used. More complex dsDNAs, such as that recovered from nicked RF M13, do not associate with dsDNAs. PMID:405659

  2. Isolation and identification of a cDNA clone coding for an HLA-DR transplantation antigen alpha-chain.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, K; Bill, P; Larhammar, D; Wiman, K; Claesson, L; Schenning, L; Servenius, B; Sundelin, J; Rask, L; Peterson, P A

    1982-10-01

    Membrane-bound mRNA was isolated from Raji cells and enriched for message coding for the HLA-DR transplantation antigen alpha-chain by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Double-stranded cDNA was constructed from this mRNA fraction, ligated to plasmid pBR322, and cloned into Escherichia coli. By hybrid selection, a plasmid, pDR-alpha-1, able to hybridize with mRNA coding for the HLA-DR alpha-chain was identified. From the nucleotide sequence of one end of the insert an amino acid sequence was predicted which is identical to part of the amino-terminal sequence of an HLA-DR alpha-chain preparation isolated from Raji cells. This clearly shows that pDR-alpha-1 carries almost the complete message for an HLD-DR alpha-chain. From the nucleotide sequence of this plasmid it will be possible to predict the primary structure of an HLA-DR alpha-chain.

  3. Clusters of alpha satellite on human chromosome 21 are dispersed far onto the short arm and lack ancient layers.

    PubMed

    Ziccardi, William; Zhao, Chongjian; Shepelev, Valery; Uralsky, Lev; Alexandrov, Ivan; Andreeva, Tatyana; Rogaev, Evgeny; Bun, Christopher; Miller, Emily; Putonti, Catherine; Doering, Jeffrey

    2016-09-01

    Human alpha satellite (AS) sequence domains that currently function as centromeres are typically flanked by layers of evolutionarily older AS that presumably represent the remnants of earlier primate centromeres. Studies on several human chromosomes reveal that these older AS arrays are arranged in an age gradient, with the oldest arrays farthest from the functional centromere and arrays progressively closer to the centromere being progressively younger. The organization of AS on human chromosome 21 (HC21) has not been well-characterized. We have used newly available HC21 sequence data and an HC21p YAC map to determine the size, organization, and location of the AS arrays, and compared them to AS arrays found on other chromosomes. We find that the majority of the HC21 AS sequences are present on the p-arm of the chromosome and are organized into at least five distinct isolated clusters which are distributed over a larger distance from the functional centromere than that typically seen for AS on other chromosomes. Using both phylogenetic and L1 element age estimations, we found that all of the HC21 AS clusters outside the functional centromere are of a similar relatively recent evolutionary origin. HC21 contains none of the ancient AS layers associated with early primate evolution which is present on other chromosomes, possibly due to the fact that the p-arm of HC21 and the other acrocentric chromosomes underwent substantial reorganization about 20 million years ago.

  4. The molecular cloning and characterisation of cDNA coding for the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Sumikawa, K; Houghton, M; Smith, J C; Bell, L; Richards, B M; Barnard, E A

    1982-01-01

    A rare cDNA coding for most of the alpha subunit of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been cloned into bacteria. The use of a mismatched oligonucleotide primer of reverse transcriptase facilitated the design of an efficient, specific probe for recombinant bacteria. DNA sequence analysis has enabled the elucidation of a large part of the polypeptide primary sequence which is discussed in relation to its acetylcholine binding activity and the location of receptor within the plasma membrane. When used as a radioactive probe, the cloned cDNA binds specifically to a single Torpedo mRNA species of about 2350 nucleotides in length but fails to show significant cross-hybridisation with alpha subunit mRNA extracted from cat muscle. Images PMID:6183641

  5. Upstream promoter sequences and alphaCTD mediate stable DNA wrapping within the RNA polymerase-promoter open complex.

    PubMed

    Cellai, Sara; Mangiarotti, Laura; Vannini, Nicola; Naryshkin, Nikolai; Kortkhonjia, Ekaterine; Ebright, Richard H; Rivetti, Claudio

    2007-03-01

    We show that the extent of stable DNA wrapping by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) in the RNAP-promoter open complex depends on the sequence of the promoter and, in particular, on the sequence of the upstream region of the promoter. We further show that the extent of stable DNA wrapping depends on the presence of the RNAP alpha-subunit carboxy-terminal domain and on the presence and length of the RNAP alpha-subunit interdomain linker. Our results indicate that the extensive stable DNA wrapping observed previously in the RNAP-promoter open complex at the lambda P(R) promoter is not a general feature of RNAP-promoter open complexes.

  6. DNA methylation analysis on satellite I region in blastocysts obtained from somatic cell cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Ken-Ichi; Kaneda, Masahiro; Inaba, Yasushi; Saito, Koji; Kubota, Kaiyu; Sakatani, Miki; Sugimura, Satoshi; Imai, Kei; Watanabe, Shinya; Takahashi, Masashi

    2011-08-01

    Many observations have been made on cloned embryos and on adult clones by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but it is still unclear whether the progeny of cloned animals is presenting normal epigenetic status. Here, in order to accumulate the information for evaluating the normality of cloned cattle, we analyzed the DNA methylation status on satellite I region in blastocysts obtained from cloned cattle. Embryos were produced by artificial insemination (AI) to non-cloned or cloned dams using semen from non-cloned or cloned sires. After 7 days of AI, embryos at blastocyst stage were collected by uterine flushing. The DNA methylation levels in embryos obtained by using semen and/or oocytes from cloned cattle were similar to those in in vivo embryos from non-cloned cattle. In contrast, the DNA methylation levels in SCNT embryos were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those in in vivo embryos from non-cloned and cloned cattle, approximately similar to those in somatic cells used as donor cells. Thus, this study provides useful information that epigenetic status may be normal in the progeny of cloned cattle, suggesting the normality of germline cells in cloned cattle. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Preservation of a complex satellite DNA in two species of echinoderms.

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, J; Cornudella, L

    1990-01-01

    The cloning and sequencing of a tandemly arrayed repetitive DNA sequence from the sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa has been recently described (Sainz, J., Azorín, F. and Cornudella, L. 1989. Gene 80, 57-64). We have now searched the genomes of several echinoderm species for the presence of homologous repetitive elements. A close but not identical repeated sequence has been identified in a related holothuroid, H. polii. The monomeric repeat unit is 391 bp long and has a base composition of 66.8% A and T residues, lined up in tracts of 4 nt or larger. The monomeric sequence lacks any internal subrepeat organization although it displays a substantial degree of internal redundancy in the form of inverted and direct repeats. The repeated element accounts for 0.34% of the genome which corresponds to a repetition frequency of about 0.5 x 10(5) copies per haploid complement. The intra- and interspecific homologies among monomers of the satellite DNA as derived from sequence analyses are very high, averaging 97%. The results suggest that the homogeneity of the highly reiterated DNA sequence may be attributed to evolutionary conservative trends. Images PMID:2315043

  8. Human CDC45 protein binds to minichromosome maintenance 7 protein and the p70 subunit of DNA polymerase alpha.

    PubMed

    Kukimoto, I; Igaki, H; Kanda, T

    1999-11-01

    Budding yeast CDC45 encodes Cdc45p, an essential protein required to trigger initiation of DNA replication in late G1 phase. We cloned four and one species of the human Cdc45p homolog cDNA, resulting from different splicing patterns, from HeLa cell and human placenta cDNA libraries, respectively. A comparison of the cDNAs and the genomic sequence showed that the longest encoding a 610-amino acid protein was comprised of 20 exons. One species, which lacks exon 7 and contains the shorter of two exons 18, was identical with the previously reported CDC45L cDNA and constituted 24 out of 28 clones from HeLa cells. Splicing was different in HeLa cells and TIG-1 cells, a human diploid cell line. Human CDC45 protein was found to bind directly in vitro to human minichromosome maintenance 7 protein (hMCM7) and to the p70 subunit of DNA polymerase alpha. The data support a thesis that human CDC45 acts as a molecular tether to mediate loading of the DNA polymerase alpha on to the DNA replication complex through binding to hMCM7.

  9. Immunohistochemical study of DNA topoisomerase I, DNA topoisomerase II alpha, p53, and Ki-67 in oral preneoplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hafian, Hilal; Venteo, Lydie; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor; Lefevre, Benoît; Pluot, Michel

    2004-06-01

    Human DNA topoisomerase I (topo I) is the molecular target of the camptothecin group of anticancer drugs. Laboratory studies have shown that the cellular response to topo I-targeted drugs depends on the topo I expression and DNA replication rate and the apoptotic pathway activity. In this study, we tested potential indicators of the sensitivity of topo I-targeted drugs in 36 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67, p53, and topo I, and with polyclonal antibodies against DNA topoisomerase II-alpha (topo II-alpha). These markers were also tested in 18 epithelial hyperplastic lesions and 18 mild dysplasias. Immunostaining was quantified by the percentage of stained nuclei in each sample (the labeling index); 200 immunoreactive epithelial nuclei were counted per case for each antibody. The results support the possibility of using topo II-alpha staining for assessing the proliferative activity. High expression of topo II-alpha and topo I in OSCCs suggests that they may serve as potential indicators of sensitivity to topo I inhibitors. However, the apoptotic pathway assessed by p53 immunostaining was found to be uninformative. Analysis of the relationship between immunohistochemical results and clinical and pathologic parameters (the T and N stages and differentiation) showed that only the differentiation parameter correlated with the topo I expression rate. Thus, significant increase in the topo I expression in the poorly differentiated OSCCs suggests their higher sensitivity to drug treatment.

  10. alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

    2009-10-01

    One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for Trypanosoma vivax based on satellite repeat DNA.

    PubMed

    Njiru, Z K; Ouma, J O; Bateta, R; Njeru, S E; Ndungu, K; Gitonga, P K; Guya, S; Traub, R

    2011-08-25

    Trypanosoma vivax is major cause of animal trypanosomiasis and responsible for enormous economic burden in Africa and South America animal industry. T. vivax infections mostly run low parasitaemia with no apparent clinical symptoms, making diagnosis a challenge. This work reports the design and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for detecting T. vivax DNA based on the nuclear satellite repeat sequence. The assay is rapid with results obtained within 35 min. The analytical sensitivity is ∼ 1 trypanosome/ml while that of the classical PCR tests ranged from 10 to 10(3)trypanosomes/ml. The T. vivax LAMP test reported here is simple, robust and has future potential in diagnosis of animal trypanosomiasis in the field.

  12. Characterization of the satellite DNA Msat-160 from species of Terricola (Microtus) and Arvicola (Rodentia, Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Acosta, Manuel J; Marchal, Juan A; Fernández-Espartero, Cecilia; Romero-Fernández, Ismael; Rovatsos, Michail T; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B; Gornung, Ekaterina; Castiglia, Riccardo; Sánchez, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    In the subfamily Arvicolinae (Cricetidae, Rodentia) the satellite DNA Msat-160 has been so far described in only some species from the genus Microtus and in one species from another genus, Chionomys nivalis. Here we cloned and characterized this satellite in two new arvicoline species, Microtus (Terricola) savii and Arvicola amphibius (terrestris). We have also demonstrated, by PCR and FISH, its existence in the genomes of several other species from both genera. These results suggest that Msat-160 already occurred in the common ancestor of the four genera/subgenera of Arvicolinae (Microtus, Chionomys, Arvicola, and Terricola). In Arvicola and Terricola, Msat-160 showed the basic monomer length of 160 bp, although a higher-order repeat (HORs) of 640 bp could have been probably replacing the original monomeric unit in A. a. terrestris. Msat-160 was localized by FISH mostly on the pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes, but the signal intensity and the number of carrier chromosomes varied extremely even between closely related species, resulting in a species-specific pattern of chromosomal distribution of this satellite. Such a variable pattern most likely is a consequence of a rapid amplification and contraction of particular repeats in the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes. In addition, we proposed that the rapid variation of pericentromeric repeats is strictly related to the prolific species radiation and diversification of karyotypes that characterize Arvicolinae lineage. Finally, we performed phylogenetic analysis in this group of related species based on Msat-160 that results to be in agreement with previously reported phylogenies, derived from other molecular markers.

  13. Irreversible denaturation mapping of a pyrimidine-rich domain of a complex satellite DNA

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarca, M.E.; Allison, D.P.; Skinner, D.M.

    1981-06-25

    The highly complex G + C-rich satellite DNA of the Bermuda land crab Gecarcinus lateralis has been studied by denaturation mapping. Following digestion of the satellite with EndoR.Eco RI, the major 2.07-kilo-base pair (kbp) basic repeating unit and a minor 4.14-kbp fragment were exposed to 254 nm light in the presence of silver ions, conditions which resulted in essentially irreversible denaturation of regions rich in adjacent pyrimidines by the formation of pyrimidine dimers. The positions and sizes of the denatured regions were determined in electron micrographs of partially denatured 2.07-kbp and 4.14-kbp fragments spread in the presence of formamide. The positions of the denaturation bubbles in the 4.14-kbp fragments support restriction enzyme mapping evidence that it is a dimer of the 2.07-kbp fragment arranged head to tail. Sequencing data show that the predominant sequence of a 0.29-kbp region centered aroung 0.64 kbp in the basic repeat unit is 49% A + T and that 42% of the bases are adjacent TTs and CTs capable of dimerization under the conditions used.

  14. Incorporation of fludarabine and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine 5'-triphosphates by DNA polymerase alpha: affinity, interaction, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, V; Huang, P; Chapman, A J; Chen, F; Plunkett, W

    1997-08-01

    Fludarabine and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) are effective nucleoside analogues for the treatment of leukemias when used as single agents or together. Recent trials of the fludarabine and ara-C therapy with or without growth factors suggested an improved clinical response by combining fludarabine and ara-C. The activity of these antimetabolites depends on their phosphorylation to the respective triphosphates, F-ara-ATP and ara-CTP. The principal mechanism through which these triphosphates cause cytotoxicity is incorporation into DNA and inhibition of further DNA synthesis. A model system of DNA primer extension on a defined template sequence was used to quantitate the consequences of incorporation of one or two analogues by human DNA polymerase alpha (pol alpha). The template (31-mer) was designed so that DNA pol alpha incorporated six deoxynucleotides (alternately G and T) on the 17-mer primer, followed by insertion of an A and then a C. The primer was then elongated with G and T to the full-length product. The apparent Kms of DNA pol alpha to incorporate these analogues (0. 053 and 0.077 microM, respectively) were similar to the Km for dCTP (0.037 microM) and dATP (0.044 microM), suggesting that the enzyme recognized these analogues and incorporated them efficiently on the growing DNA primer. The velocity of extension (Vmax) of these primers ranged between 0.53 and 0.77%/min when normal nucleotides were present. Once inserted at the 3'-terminus, F-ara-AMP or ara-CMP were poor substrates for extension. However, in reactions lacking dCTP and dATP and with high concentrations of ara-CTP, ara-CMP was inserted by pol alpha after incorporation of the F-ara-AMP residue. This tandem incorporation of the two analogues resulted in almost complete inhibition (99.3%) of further extension of the primer. In the presence of competing deoxynucleotides, each analogue resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis. When present together, inhibition of the

  15. Antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid inhibits osteoclast differentiation by reducing nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding and prevents in vivo bone resorption induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyon Jong; Chang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Man; Lee, Seung Bok; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Su Kim, Ghi; Kim, Hong-Hee

    2006-05-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and bone mineral density or osteoporosis has recently been reported. As bone loss occurring in osteoporosis and inflammatory diseases is primarily due to increases in osteoclast number, reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be relevant to osteoclast differentiation, which requires receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) frequently present in inflammatory conditions has a profound synergy with RANKL in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), a strong antioxidant clinically used for some time, on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. At concentrations showing no growth inhibition, alpha-LA potently suppressed osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived precursor cells driven either by a high-dose RANKL alone or by a low-dose RANKL plus TNF-alpha (RANKL/TNF-alpha). alpha-LA abolished ROS elevation by RANKL or RANKL/TNF-alpha and inhibited NF-kappaB activation in osteoclast precursor cells. Specifically, alpha-LA reduced DNA binding of NF-kappaB but did not inhibit IKK activation. Furthermore, alpha-LA greatly suppressed in vivo bone loss induced by RANKL or TNF-alpha in a calvarial remodeling model. Therefore, our data provide evidence that ROS plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation through NF-kappaB regulation and the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid has a therapeutic potential for bone erosive diseases.

  16. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of an AT-rich satellite DNA family in Urvillea chacoensis Hunz. (Paullinieae, Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Urdampilleta, Juan D; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Schneider, Dilaine R S; Vanzela, André L L; Ferrucci, María S; Martins, Eliana R F

    2009-05-01

    Urvillea chacoensis is a climber with 2n = 22 and some terminal AT-rich heterochromatin blocks that differentiate it from other species of the genus. The AT-rich highly repeated satellite DNA was isolated from U. chacoensis by the digestion of total nuclear DNA with HindIII and XbaI and cloned in Escherichia coli. Satellite DNA structure and chromosomal distribution were investigated. DNA sequencing revealed that the repeat length of satDNA ranges between 721 and 728 bp, the percentage of AT-base pairs was about 72-73% and the studied clones showed an identity of 92.5-95.9%. Although this monomer has a tetranucleosomal size, direct imperfect repetitions of ~180 bp subdividing it in four nucleosomal subregions were observed. The results obtained with FISH indicate that this monomer usually appears distributed in the terminal regions of most chromosomes and is associated to heterochromatin blocks observed after DAPI staining. These observations are discussed in relation to the satellite DNA evolution and compared with other features observed in several plant groups.

  17. Heterogeneity of rat type I 5 alpha-reductase cDNA: cloning, expression and regulation by pituitary implants and dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Solache, I; Luu-The, V; Séralini, G E; Labrie, F

    1996-03-01

    Primer extension analysis reveals the presence of different forms of mRNA species for rat type I 5 alpha-reductase. Using a 5 alpha-reductase cDNA probe to screen the rat liver lambda gt11 cDNA library, we isolated cDNA clones that have 4 additional amino acids in the NH2-terminal region as compared with the previously reported sequence for rat type I 5 alpha-reductase. These four additional amino acids elongate the rat type I 5 alpha-reductase amino acid sequence to 259 amino acids, the same number as in human type I 5 alpha-reductase, with which it shares 60% identity. Expression of the long and short rat type I 5 alpha-reductase by transfection in human adrenal adenocarcinoma cells, SW-13 cells, indicated that the long cDNA encoded a protein with a higher affinity for the substrate than the short cDNA. To determine the effect of pituitary hormones and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the mRNA levels in the livers of rats treated with pituitary implants, hypophysectomized, castrated, and castrated coupled with DHT treatment were quantified by dot-blot hybridization assay using rat type I 5 alpha-reductase cDNA as probes. The results demonstrated that rat type I 5 alpha-reductase mRNA is stimulated by pituitary hormones and castration but is decreased by DHT and hypophysectomy.

  18. Ultraviolet B, melanin and mitochondrial DNA: Photo-damage in human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes modulated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Markus; Hill, Helene Z.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) increases melanogenesis and protects from UV-induced DNA damage. However, its effect on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is unknown. We have addressed this issue in a pilot study using human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes incubated with alpha-MSH and irradiated with UVB. Real-time touchdown PCR was used to quantify total and deleted mtDNA. The deletion detected encompassed the common deletion but was more sensitive to detection. There were 4.4 times more mtDNA copies in keratinocytes than in melanocytes. Irradiation alone did not affect copy numbers. Alpha-MSH slightly increased copy numbers in both cell types in the absence of UVB and caused a similar small decrease in copy number with dose in both cell types. Deleted copies were nearly twice as frequent in keratinocytes as in melanocytes. Alpha-MSH reduced the frequency of deleted copies by half in keratinocytes but not in melanocytes. UVB dose dependently led to an increase in the deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated melanocytes. UVB irradiation had little effect on deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated keratinocytes. In summary, alpha-MSH enhances mtDNA damage in melanocytes presumably by increased melanogenesis, while α-MSH is protective in keratinocytes, the more so in the absence of irradiation. PMID:27303631

  19. Ultraviolet B, melanin and mitochondrial DNA: Photo-damage in human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes modulated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Markus; Hill, Helene Z

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) increases melanogenesis and protects from UV-induced DNA damage. However, its effect on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is unknown. We have addressed this issue in a pilot study using human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes incubated with alpha-MSH and irradiated with UVB. Real-time touchdown PCR was used to quantify total and deleted mtDNA. The deletion detected encompassed the common deletion but was more sensitive to detection. There were 4.4 times more mtDNA copies in keratinocytes than in melanocytes. Irradiation alone did not affect copy numbers. Alpha-MSH slightly increased copy numbers in both cell types in the absence of UVB and caused a similar small decrease in copy number with dose in both cell types. Deleted copies were nearly twice as frequent in keratinocytes as in melanocytes. Alpha-MSH reduced the frequency of deleted copies by half in keratinocytes but not in melanocytes. UVB dose dependently led to an increase in the deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated melanocytes. UVB irradiation had little effect on deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated keratinocytes. In summary, alpha-MSH enhances mtDNA damage in melanocytes presumably by increased melanogenesis, while α-MSH is protective in keratinocytes, the more so in the absence of irradiation.

  20. Calculation of the Electronic Parameters of an Al/DNA/p-Si Schottky Barrier Diode Influenced by Alpha Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2015-01-01

    Many types of materials such as inorganic semiconductors have been employed as detectors for nuclear radiation, the importance of which has increased significantly due to recent nuclear catastrophes. Despite the many advantages of this type of materials, the ability to measure direct cellular or biological responses to radiation might improve detector sensitivity. In this context, semiconducting organic materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA have been studied in recent years. This was established by studying the varying electronic properties of DNA-metal or semiconductor junctions when exposed to radiation. In this work, we investigated the electronics of aluminium (Al)/DNA/silicon (Si) rectifying junctions using their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics when exposed to alpha radiation. Diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance were determined for different irradiation times. The observed results show significant changes with exposure time or total dosage received. An increased deviation from ideal diode conditions (7.2 to 18.0) was observed when they were bombarded with alpha particles for up to 40 min. Using the conventional technique, barrier height values were observed to generally increase after 2, 6, 10, 20 and 30 min of radiation. The same trend was seen in the values of the series resistance (0.5889–1.423 Ω for 2–8 min). These changes in the electronic properties of the DNA/Si junctions could therefore be utilized in the construction of sensitive alpha particle detectors. PMID:25730484

  1. Novel alpha D-conopeptides and their precursors identified by cDNA cloning define the D-conotoxin superfamily.

    PubMed

    Loughnan, Marion L; Nicke, Annette; Lawrence, Nicole; Lewis, Richard J

    2009-05-05

    AlphaD-conotoxins are peptide inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) first described from Conus vexillum (alphaD-VxXIIA-C and renamed here to alphaD-VxXXA, alphaD-VxXXB, and alphaD-VxXXC). In this study, we report cDNA sequences encoding D-superfamily conopeptides identified in the Clade XII Conidae Conus vexillum, Conus capitaneus, Conus mustelinus, and Conus miles, together with partial sequences of corresponding peptides from this family. The D-superfamily signal peptide sequences display greater heterogeneity than reported for other conotoxin superfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships among alphaD-conotoxin precursors reveals two distinct groups containing either an EMM or AVV signal peptide sequence motif. Homodimer and heterodimer combinations of predicted mature toxin sequences likely account for the partial amino acid sequences and mass values observed for several of the native dimeric peptide components identified in C. capitaneus, C. miles, and C. mustelinus venom. The discovery of the precursors and several novel conotoxins from different species defines this large conotoxin family and expands our understanding of sequence diversification mechanisms in Conus species.

  2. CpG-containing immunostimulatory DNA sequences elicit TNF-alpha-dependent toxicity in rodents but not in humans.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John D; Cho, Yan; Foster, Martyn L; Kanzler, Holger; Kachura, Melissa A; Lum, Jeremy A; Ratcliffe, Marianne J; Sathe, Atul; Leishman, Andrew J; Bahl, Ash; McHale, Mark; Coffman, Robert L; Hessel, Edith M

    2009-09-01

    CpG-containing immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISS), which signal through TLR9, are being developed as a therapy for allergic indications and have proven to be safe and well tolerated in humans when administrated via the pulmonary route. In contrast, ISS inhalation has unexplained toxicity in rodents, which express TLR9 in monocyte/macrophage lineage cells as well as in plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and B cells, the principal TLR9-expressing cells in humans. We therefore investigated the mechanisms underlying this rodent-specific toxicity and its implications for humans. Mice responded to intranasally administered 1018 ISS, a representative B class ISS, with strictly TLR9-dependent toxicity, including lung inflammation and weight loss, that was fully reversible and pDC and B cell independent. Knockout mouse experiments demonstrated that ISS-induced toxicity was critically dependent on TNF-alpha, with IFN-alpha required for TNF-alpha induction. In contrast, human PBMCs, human alveolar macrophages, and airway-derived cells from Ascaris suum-allergic cynomolgus monkeys did not produce appreciable TNF-alpha in vitro in response to ISS stimulation. Moreover, sputum of allergic humans exposed to inhaled ISS demonstrated induction of IFN-inducible genes but minimal TNF-alpha induction. These data demonstrate that ISS induce rodent-specific TNF-alpha-dependent toxicity that is absent in humans and reflective of differential TLR9 expression patterns in rodents versus humans.

  3. The first characterisation of the overall variability of repetitive units in a species reveals unexpected features of satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Picariello, Orfeo; Chinali, Gianni

    2005-04-11

    We investigated the overall variability of the S1a satellite DNA repeats in ten European populations of Rana temporaria by a new procedure that determines the average sequence of the repeats in a genome. The average genomic sequences show that only 17% of the S1a repeat sequence (494 bp) is variable. The variable positions contain the same major and minor bases in all or many of the population samples tested, but the percentages of these bases can greatly vary among populations. This indicates the presence in the species of an enormous number of repeats having a different distribution of bases in these variable positions. Individual genomes contain thousands of repeat variants, but these mixtures have very similar characteristics in all populations because they present the same type of restricted and species-specific variability. Southern blots analyses and sequences of cloned S1a repeats fully support this conclusion. The S1 satellite DNA of other European brown frog species also presents properties indicating the same type of variability. This first characterisation of the overall repeat variability of a satellite DNA in a species has revealed features that cannot be determined by gene conversion and crossing over. Our results suggest that a specific directional process based on rolling circle amplification should play a relevant role in the evolution of satellite DNA.

  4. Alpha-momorcharin: a ribosome-inactivating protein from Momordica charantia, possessing DNA cleavage properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Yinzhen; Yan, Junjie; Zhu, Zhixuan; Wu, Zhihua; Ding, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) function to inhibit protein synthesis through the removal of specific adenine residues from eukaryotic ribosomal RNA and rending the 60S subunit unable to bind elongation factor 2. They have received much attention in biological and biomedical research due to their unique activities toward tumor cells, as well as the important roles in plant defense. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a member of the type I family of RIPs, is rich in the seeds of Momordica charantia L. Previous studies demonstrated that α-MC is an effective antifungal and antibacterial protein. In this study, a detailed analysis of the DNase-like activity of α-MC was conducted. Results showed that the DNase-like activity toward plasmid DNA was time-dependent, temperature-related, and pH-stable. Moreover, a requirement for divalent metal ions in the catalytic domain of α-MC was confirmed. Additionally, Tyr(93) was found to be a critical residue for the DNase-like activity, while Tyr(134), Glu(183), Arg(186), and Trp(215) were activity-related residues. This study on the chemico-physical properties and mechanism of action of α-MC will improve its utilization in scientific research, as well as its potential industrial uses. These results may also assist in the characterization and elucidation of the DNase-like enzymatic properties of other RIPs.

  5. CENP-B box and pJalpha sequence distribution in human alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR).

    PubMed

    Rosandić, Marija; Paar, Vladimir; Basar, Ivan; Gluncić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Pilas, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Using our Key String Algorithm (KSA) to analyze Build 35.1 assembly we determined consensus alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR) and consensus distributions of CENP-B box and pJalpha motif in human chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 19, and X. We determined new suprachromosomal family (SF) assignments: SF5 for 13mer (2211 bp), SF5 for 13mer (2214 bp), SF2 for 11mer (1869 bp), SF1 for 18mer (3058 bp), SF3 for 12mer (2047 bp), SF3 for 14mer (2379 bp), and SF5 for 17mer (2896 bp) in chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 19, respectively. In chromosome 5 we identified SF5 13mer without any CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, highly homologous (96%) to 13mer in chromosome 19. Additionally, in chromosome 19 we identified new SF5 17mer with one CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, aligned to 13mer by deleting four monomers. In chromosome 11 we identified SF3 12mer, homologous to 12mer in chromosome X. In chromosome 10 we identified new SF1 18mer with eight CENP-B boxes in every other monomer (except one). In chromosome 4 we identified new SF5 13mer with CENP-B box in three consecutive monomers. We found four exceptions to the rule that CENP-B box belongs to type B and pJalpha motif to type A monomers.

  6. Identification and characterization of a subtelomeric satellite DNA in Callitrichini monkeys.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Naiara Pereira; de Lima, Leonardo Gomes; Dias, Guilherme Borges; Kuhn, Gustavo Campos Silva; de Melo, Alan Lane; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Stanyon, Roscoe; Svartman, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Repetitive DNAs are abundant fast-evolving components of eukaryotic genomes, which often possess important structural and functional roles. Despite their ubiquity, repetitive DNAs are poorly studied when compared with the genic fraction of genomes. Here, we took advantage of the availability of the sequenced genome of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus to assess its satellite DNAs (satDNAs) and their distribution in Callitrichini. After clustering analysis of all reads and comparisons by similarity, we identified a satDNA composed by 171 bp motifs, named MarmoSAT, which composes 1.09% of the C. jacchus genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomes of species from the genera Callithrix, Mico and Callimico showed that MarmoSAT had a subtelomeric location. In addition to the common monomeric, we found that MarmoSAT was also organized in higher-order repeats of 338 bp in Callimico goeldii. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that MarmoSAT repeats from C. jacchus lack chromosome-specific features, suggesting exchange events among subterminal regions of non-homologous chromosomes. MarmoSAT is transcribed in several tissues of C. jacchus, with the highest transcription levels in spleen, thymus and heart. The transcription profile and subtelomeric location suggest that MarmoSAT may be involved in the regulation of telomerase and modulation of telomeric chromatin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  7. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  8. Amplification, contraction and genomic spread of a satellite DNA family (E180) in Medicago (Fabaceae) and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Marcela; Galián, José A.; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Satellite DNA is a genomic component present in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. The turnover of highly repetitive satellite DNA is an important element in genome organization and evolution in plants. Here we assess the presence and physical distribution of the repetitive DNA E180 family in Medicago and allied genera. Our goals were to gain insight into the karyotype evolution of Medicago using satellite DNA markers, and to evaluate the taxonomic and phylogenetic signal of a satellite DNA family in a genus hypothesized to have a complex evolutionary history. Methods Seventy accessions from Medicago, Trigonella, Melilotus and Trifolium were analysed by PCR to assess the presence of the repetitive E180 family, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping in somatic chromosomes. Key Results The E180 repeat unit was PCR-amplified in 37 of 40 taxa in Medicago, eight of 12 species of Trigonella, six of seven species of Melilotus and in two of 11 Trifolium species. Examination of the mitotic chromosomes revealed that only 13 Medicago and two Trigonella species showed FISH signals using the E180 probe. Stronger hybridization signals were observed in subtelomeric and interstitial loci than in the pericentromeric loci, suggesting this satellite family has a preferential genomic location. Not all 13 Medicago species that showed FISH localization of the E180 repeat were phylogenetically related. However, nine of these species belong to the phylogenetically derived clade including the M. sativa and M. arborea complexes. Conclusions The use of the E180 family as a phylogenetic marker in Medicago should be viewed with caution. Its amplification appears to have been produced through recurrent and independent evolutionary episodes in both annual and perennial Medicago species as well as in basal and derived clades. PMID:22186276

  9. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis.

  10. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis. PMID:23990328

  11. Immunochemical detection of a primase activity related subunit of DNA polymerase. cap alpha. from human and mouse cells using the monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Yagura, T.; Kozu, T.; Seno, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1987-12-01

    A hybrid cell line (HDR-854-Er) secreting monoclonal antibody (E4 antibody) against a subunit of human DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. was established by immunizing mice with DNA replicase complex (DNA polymerase ..cap alpha..-primase complex) prepared from HeLa cells. The E4 antibody immunoprecipitates DNA replicase complex from both human and mouse cells. The E4 antibody neutralized the primase activity as assessed either by the direct primase assay (incorporation of (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)AMP) or by assay of DNA polymerase activity coupled with the primase activity using unprimed poly(dT) as a template. The E4 antibody does not neutralize DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. activity with the activated calf thymus DNA as a template. Western immunoblotting analysis shows that the E4 antibody binds to a polypeptide of 77 kilodaltons (kDa) which is tightly associated with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha... The 77-kDa polypeptide was distinguished from the catalytic subunit (160 and 180 kDA) for DNA synthesis which was detected by another monoclonal antibody, HDR-863-A5. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the 77-kDa peptide is the primase, since we found that the E4 antibody also immunoprecipitates the mouse 7.3 S DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. which has no primase activity, and Western immunoblotting analysis shows that the 77-kDa polypeptide is a subunit of the 7.3S DNA polymerase ..cap alpha... Furthermore, after dissociation of the primase from mouse DNA replicase by chromatography on a hydroxyapatite column in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol, the 77-kDA polypeptide is associated with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.., and not with the primase. These results indicate that the 77-kDa polypeptide detected with the E4 antibody is not the primase but is a subunit firmly bound to DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. catalytic polypeptide and yet influences the activity of the associated DNA primase.

  12. [beta]-hexosaminidase isozymes from cells cotransfected with [alpha] and [beta] cDNA constructs: Analysis of the [alpha]-subunit missense mutation associated with the adult form of Tay-Sachs disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A.; Mahuran, D.J. )

    1993-08-01

    In vitro mutagenesis and transient expression in COS cells has been used to associate a missense mutation with a clinical or biochemical phenotype. Mutations affecting the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A ([alpha][beta]) (E.C.3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. Because hexosaminidase A is heterodimeric, analysis of [alpha]-chain mutations is not straightforward. The authors examine three approaches utilizing previously identified mutations affecting [alpha]-chain folding. These involve transfection of (1) the [alpha] cDNA alone; (2) a [beta] cDNA construct encoding a [beta]-subunit substituted at a position homologous to that of the [alpha]-subunit, and (3) both [alpha] and [beta] cDNAs. The latter two procedures amplified residual activity levels over that of patient samples, an effect not previously found with mutations affecting an [open quotes]active[close quotes] [alpha]Arg residue. This effect may help to discriminate between protein-folding and active-site mutations. The authors conclude that, with proper controls, the latter method of cotransfection can be used to evaluate the effects and perhaps to predict the clinical course of some [alpha]-chain mutations. Using this technique, they demonstrate that the adult-onset Tay-Sachs mutation, [alpha]Gly[yields]Ser[sup 269], does not directly affect [alpha][beta] dimerization but exerts an indirect effect on the dimer through destabilizing the folded [alpha]-subunit at physiological temperatures. Two other [alpha] mutations linked to more severe phenotypes appear to inhibit the initial folding of the subunit. 36 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Alpha-lipoic acid potently inhibits peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation: implications for the neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenquan; Zhu, Hong; Vitto, Michael J; Misra, Bhaba R; Li, Yunbo; Misra, Hara P

    2009-03-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has recently been reported to afford protection against neurodegenerative disorders in humans and experimental animals. However, the mechanisms underlying LA-mediated neuroprotection remain an enigma. Because peroxynitrite has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of various forms of neurodegenerative disorders, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of LA in peroxynitrite-induced DNA strand breaks, a critical event leading to peroxynitrite-elicited cytotoxicity. Incubation of phi X-174 plasmid DNA with the 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite generator, led to the formation of both single- and double-stranded DNA breaks in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The presence of LA at 100-1,600 microM was found to significantly inhibit SIN-1-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration-dependent manner. The consumption of oxygen induced by 250 microM SIN-1 was found to be decreased in the presence of high concentrations of LA (400-1,600 microM), indicating that LA at these concentrations may affect the generation of peroxynitrite from auto-oxidation of SIN-1. It is observed that incubation of the plasmid DNA with authentic peroxynitrite resulted in a significant formation of DNA strand breaks, which could also be dramatically inhibited by the presence of LA (100-1,600 microM). EPR spectroscopy in combination with spin-trapping experiments, using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as spin trap, resulted in the formation of DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct (DMPO-OH) from authentic peroxynitrite and LA at 50-1,600 microM inhibited the adduct signal. Taken together, these studies demonstrate for the first time that LA can potently inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation. In view of the critical involvement of peroxynitrite in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, the inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage by LA may be responsible, at least

  14. The sensitivity of the alkaline comet assay in detecting DNA lesions induced by X rays, gamma rays and alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Rössler, U; Hornhardt, S; Seidl, C; Müller-Laue, E; Walsh, L; Panzer, W; Schmid, E; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R; Gomolka, M

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were designed and performed in order to investigate whether or not the different cellular energy deposition patterns of photon radiation with different energies (29 kV, 220 kV X rays; Co-60, Cs-137-gamma-rays) and alpha-radiation from an Am-241 source differ in DNA damage induction capacity in human cells. For this purpose, the alkaline comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) was applied to measure the amount of DNA damage in relation to the dose received. The comet assay data for the parameters '% DNA in the tail' and 'tail moment' for human peripheral lymphocytes did not indicate any difference in the initial radiation damage produced by 29 kV X rays relative to the reference radiations, 220 kV X rays and the gamma rays, whether for the total mean dose range of 0-3 Gy nor in the low-dose range. In contrast, when the 'tail length' data were analysed saturation of the fitted dose response curve appeared for X rays at about 1.5 Gy but was not apparent for gamma rays up to 3 Gy. Preliminary data for alpha exposures of HSC45-M2 cells showed a significant increase in DNA damage only at high doses (>2 Gy Am-241), but the damage at 2 Gy exceeded the damage induced at 2 Gy by Cs-137-gamma-rays by a factor of 2.5. In contrast, other experiments involving different cell systems and DNA damage indicators such as chromosomal aberrations have detected a significant increase in DNA damage at much lower doses, that is at 0.02 Gy for Am-241 and depicte a higher biological effectiveness. These results indicate that differences in biological effects arise through downstream processing of complex DNA damage.

  15. [Molecular evolution of satellite DNA CLsat in lizards of the Darevskia species (Sauria: Lacertidae): correlation with species diversity].

    PubMed

    Chobanu, D G; Grechko, V V; Darevskiĭ, I S

    2003-11-01

    The structure and evolution of a satellite DNA family was examined in lizards from the genus Darevskia (family Lacertidae). Comparison of tandem units of repeated DNA (satDNA), CLsat, in all species from the genus Darevskia has shown that their variability is largely based on single-nucleotide substitutions, which constitute about 50 diagnostic positions underlying classification of the family into three subfamilies. Maximum differences between the subfamilies reached 25%. At this level of tandem unit divergence between the subfamilies, no cross-hybridization between them was observed (at 65 degrees C). The individual variability of one subfamily within the species was on average 5% while the variability between species consensuses within a subfamily was 10%. The presence of highly conserved regions in all monomers and some features of their organization show that satellites of all Darevskia species belong to one satDNA family. The organization of unit sequences of satellites CLsat and Agi also detected by us in another lizard genus, Lacerts s. str. was compared. Similarity that was found between these satellites suggests their relatedness and common origin. A possible pathway of evolution of these two satDNA families is proposed. The distribution and content of CLsat repeat subfamilies in all species of the genus was examined by Southern blotting hybridization. Seven species had mainly CLsatI (83 to 96%); three species, approximately equal amounts of CLsatI and CLsatIII (the admixture of CLsatII was 2-3%); and five species, a combination of all three subfamilies in highly varying proportions. Based on these results as well as on zoogeographic views on phylogeny and taxonomy of the Darevskia species, hypotheses on the evolution of molecular-genetic relationships within this genus are advanced.

  16. Ectopic expression of DNA encoding IFN-alpha 1 in the cornea protects mice from herpes simplex virus type 1-induced encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Noisakran, S; Campbell, I L; Carr, D J

    1999-04-01

    A novel approach to combat acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has recently been developed by administration with a plasmid DNA construct encoding cytokine genes. Cytokines, especially type I IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) play an important role in controlling acute HSV-1 infection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential efficacy of ectopically expressed IFN-alpha 1 against ocular HSV-1 infection following in situ transfection of mouse cornea with a naked IFN-alpha 1-containing plasmid DNA. Topical administration of the IFN-alpha 1 plasmid DNA exerted protection against ocular HSV-1 challenge in a time- and dose-dependent manner and antagonized HSV-1 reactivation. In addition, IFN-alpha 1-transfected eyes expressed a fivefold increase in MHC class I mRNA over vector-treated controls. The protective efficacy of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene antagonized viral replication, as evidenced by the reduction of the viral gene transcripts (infected cell polypeptide 27, thymidine kinase, and viral protein 16) and viral load in eyes and trigeminal ganglia during acute infection. The administration of neutralizing Ab to IFN-alpha beta antagonized the protective effect of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of using naked plasmid DNA transfection in the eye to achieve ectopic gene expression of therapeutically active agents.

  17. Alpha-phellandrene-induced DNA damage and affect DNA repair protein expression in WEHI-3 murine leukemia cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Jyh; Wu, Chih-Chung; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Huang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-11-01

    Although there are few reports regarding α-phellandrene (α-PA), a natural compound from Schinus molle L. essential oil, there is no report to show that α-PA induced DNA damage and affected DNA repair associated protein expression. Herein, we investigated the effects of α-PA on DNA damage and repair associated protein expression in murine leukemia cells. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the effects of α-PA on total cell viability and the results indicated that α-PA induced cell death. Comet assay and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining were used for measuring DNA damage and condensation, respectively, and the results indicated that α-PA induced DNA damage and condensation in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA gel electrophoresis was used to examine the DNA damage and the results showed that α-PA induced DNA damage in WEHI-3 cells. Western blotting assay was used to measure the changes of DNA damage and repair associated protein expression and the results indicated that α-PA increased p-p53, p-H2A.X, 14-3-3-σ, and MDC1 protein expression but inhibited the protein of p53, MGMT, DNA-PK, and BRCA-1.

  18. DNA Repair, Redox Regulation and Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Mediated Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Ducey, Carol Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Interaction of estrogen receptor [alpha] (ER[alpha]) with 17[beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) facilitates binding of the receptor to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, which in turn leads to recruitment of coregulatory proteins. To better understand how estrogen-responsive genes are regulated, our laboratory identified a number of…

  19. DNA Repair, Redox Regulation and Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Mediated Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Ducey, Carol Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Interaction of estrogen receptor [alpha] (ER[alpha]) with 17[beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) facilitates binding of the receptor to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, which in turn leads to recruitment of coregulatory proteins. To better understand how estrogen-responsive genes are regulated, our laboratory identified a number of…

  20. The GCN4 basic region leucine zipper binds DNA as a dimer of uninterrupted alpha helices: crystal structure of the protein-DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Ellenberger, T E; Brandl, C J; Struhl, K; Harrison, S C

    1992-12-24

    The yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 is 1 of over 30 identified eukaryotic proteins containing the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA-binding motif. We have determined the crystal structure of the GCN4 bZIP element complexed with DNA at 2.9 A resolution. The bZIP dimer is a pair of continuous alpha helices that form a parallel coiled coil over their carboxy-terminal 30 residues and gradually diverge toward their amino termini to pass through the major groove of the DNA-binding site. The coiled-coil dimerization interface is oriented almost perpendicular to the DNA axis, giving the complex the appearance of the letter T. There are no kinks or sharp bends in either bZIP monomer. Numerous contacts to DNA bases and phosphate oxygens are made by basic region residues that are conserved in the bZIP protein family. The details of the bZIP dimer interaction with DNA can explain recognition of the AP-1 site by the GCN4 protein.

  1. [New protein vectors based on an alpha-fetoprotein fragment for targeted DNA delivery into cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, O N; Gorokhovets, N V; Makarov, V A; Posypanova, G A; Serebriakova, M V; Pozmogova, G E

    2010-01-01

    A human alpha-fetoprotein fragment (AFP) modified with oligocationic homologs of nuclear localization signal was used to construct new target cell-selective DNA-carrier proteins. The new recombinant vectors containing C- or N-terminal polynucleotide-binding domains are able to form stable complexes with single- or double-stranded oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA. Using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy, it was shown that such nucleoprotein complexes can be selectively internalized in target cells receptors superexpressing AFP receptors. The results obtained are important both for understanding mechanisms of formation of DNA-protein complexes and for studying their interaction with intracellular molecular targets. The new proteins can be used as a tool for the development of highly selective and efficacious gene-selective antitumour drugs.

  2. Cloning of a Streptomyces clavuligerus DNA fragment encoding the cephalosporin 7 alpha-hydroxylase and its expression in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, X; Hintermann, G; Häusler, A; Barker, P J; Foor, F; Demain, A L; Piret, J

    1993-01-01

    A 26-mer DNA probe was designed from N-terminal sequence data for the cephalosporin 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CH) of Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and used to screen a DNA library from this organism. The library was constructed in the lambda GEM-11 phage system. After plaque purification and reprobing, positive recombinant phages were chosen for further analysis. Characterization of the cloned DNA by restriction mapping and Southern hybridization showed that a 1.5-kb SalI fragment hybridized to the probe. Polymerase chain reaction assays using this fragment as a template and the probe as a primer indicated that the fragment carries the entire putative CH gene (cmcI). This was confirmed through the expression of CH enzymatic activity when the fragment was introduced into Streptomyces lividans. A putative beta-lactamase activity was detected in S. lividans. Images PMID:8431021

  3. Human placental Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-11-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (approx. = 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) lambdagt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1.

  4. Satellite-DNA diversification and the evolution of major lineages in Cardueae (Carduoideae Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    del Bosque, María Ester Quesada; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2014-09-01

    In a previous work, we characterized the HinfI satellite DNA family in the subtribe Centaureinae (Cardueae) demonstrating that a "library" of eight HinfI subfamilies would exist in the common ancestor of all Centaureinae, which were differentially amplified in different lineages. Now, we extend our study by analyzing a total of 219 additional repeats from fifteen species belonging to Carlininae, Echinopsinae and Carduinae, and comparing them to those of Centaureinae. Most HinfI sequences belonged to the subfamily II, although a few sequences of other subfamilies were detected in some species. Additionally, a new subfamily characteristic of several Carduinae species was discovered. Although phylogenetic trees grouped sequences by subfamily affinity instead of species provenance, when comparing repeats of the same subfamily, the degree of divergence between any pair of sequences was related to the evolutionary distance between the species compared in most cases. Exceptions were in comparisons between sequences of some Centaureinae species, and between sequences of some Carduinae species and those of Centaureinae. Our results demonstrate that: (1) At least nine HinfI subfamilies would exist in the common ancestor of Cardueae, each one differentially amplified in different lineages; (2) After differential spreading, sequences of each subfamily evolved concertedly through molecular drive, resulting in the gradual divergence of repeats between different species; (3) The rate to which concerted evolution occurred was different between lineages according to the evolutionary history of each one.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic characterization and chromosomal distribution of the satellite DNA in the genome of Oxya hyla intricata (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, A; Nakata, A; Kuro-o, M; Obara, Y; Ando, Y

    2006-01-01

    The genomic DNA of the grasshopper (Oxya hyla intricata) was subjected to electrophoresis after digestion with HaeIII, and the result showed two bands of highly repetitive DNA, approximately 200 and 400 bp in length. The 200-bp HaeIII-digested fragment was cloned and characterized by sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results showed the presence of two distinct satellite DNA (stDNA) families: one consisting of a 169-bp repeated element having an A+T content of 60.9% and the other consisting of a 204-bp repeated element having an A+T content of 53.9%. No significant homology between the two stDNA families was observed. FISH showed that the chromosomal locations of these families are different from each other. The 169-bp element was located in the C-band-positive regions of the short arms of most of the chromosomes, whereas the 204-bp element was located in the centromeric regions of three chromosome pairs. These results imply that the origins of these two DNA families are different. The results of zoo-blot hybridization to the genomic DNA from four Oxya species, O. hyla intricata, O. japonica japonica, O. chinensis formosana, and O. yezoensis, suggest that the two stDNA families found in the present study are species-specific for O. hyla intricata. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Sequence studies on mouse L-cell satellite DNA by base-specific degradation with T4 endonuclease IV.

    PubMed

    Harbers, K; Spencer, J H

    1978-10-24

    The base sequence of mouse L-cell satellite DNA was investigated by degradation of the two separated complementary strands with the base specific enzyme, T4 endonuclease IV. Digestion of the heavy strand DNA released a limited number of oligonucleotides which were separated by ionophoresis/homochromatography, isolated, and sequenced by the 'wandering spot' method. The light strand DNA was resistant to digestion with T4 endonuclease IV and no detectable amounts of oligonucleotides were released. The oligonucleotides obtained from the heavy strand were related in sequence, indicating that mouse satellite DNA derived from a short tandemly repeated sequence. The sequence of part of the original repeat unit is proposed to be C-A-T-T-T-T-T-C. Five major oligonucleotides were identified, all of which differ from the proposed original sequence by single base changes. The five major oligonucleotides occur with about equal frequency and together comprise approximately 50% of the oligonucleotides released by T4 endonuclease IV from the heavy strand DNA. In addition to the five major oligonucleotides, several oligonucleotides were found to occur in lesser amounts. Since these oligonucleotides are related to the major oligonucleotides, it is likely that they have arisen from them by mutation.

  7. Structure of repaired sites in human DNA synthesized in the presence of inhibitors of DNA polymerases alpha and beta in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cleaver, J E

    1983-04-15

    Excision repair of ultraviolet damage in human fibroblasts was partially inhibited by drugs that block DNA polymerases alpha or beta (cytosine arabinoside, aphidicolin and dideoxythymidine) causing a reduction in unscheduled synthesis and an accumulation of single-strand breaks. The strand breaks accumulated in the presence of aphidicolin could be resealed within 30 min after removal of the drug, but those accumulated by cytosine arabinoside took many hours. Digestion of repaired DNA with exonuclease III or S1 nuclease revealed that even the highest concentration of polymerase inhibitors, singly or in combination, that produced maximal accumulation of single-strand breaks only blocked 37-86% of repair sites. Use of single-strand break frequencies to measure the number of repair events can therefore be in error by as much as a factor of 3. The blocked patches with free 3'OH termini were, on average, 22% of normal length, corresponding to between 6 and 17 bases (assuming a normal patch of 25-75 bases in length). Patches that remained unsealed in vivo were also resistant to sealing by T4 ligase in vitro. The data are more consistent with a mechanism of repair in which long single-strand gaps are first made by excision enzymes and subsequently filled in by DNA polymerase alpha. Strand displacement or nick translation mechanisms seem unlikely.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of DNA damage initiated by. alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated carbonyl compounds as criteria for genotoxicity and mutagenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, E.; Hoffman, C.; Bastian, H.; Deininger, C.; Scheckenbach, S. )

    1990-08-01

    {alpha},{beta}-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds are important not only from a theoretical but also a practical standpoint. These ubiquitous compounds can interact with DNA through various mechanisms. The predominant interaction is the formation of cyclic 1,N{sup 2}-deoxyguanosine adducts; 7,8-cyclic guanine adducts are also found. The authors have synthesized and characterized the stereoisomers of adducts formed by about 20 {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The different types of adducts and the mutagenic and genotoxic response can be explained by the molecular structures of the agents. Metabolic epoxidation of the double bond and other metabolic activation, e.g., activation of the nitrogroups via nitroreductases, were also found to contribute to genotoxic and mutagenic activities. The results have further elucidated the genotoxic mechanisms of these compounds; however, additional investigations are required for a complete understanding of the genotoxic activity of this class of compounds.

  9. Specific gain- and loss-of-function phenotypes induced by satellite-specific DNA-binding drugs fed to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Cuvier, O; Müller, M; Laemmli, U K

    2000-11-01

    DNA-binding pyrrole-imidazole compounds were synthesized that target different Drosophila melanogaster satellites. Compound P31 specifically binds the GAGAA satellite V, and P9 targets the AT-rich satellites I and III. Remarkably, these drugs, when fed to developing Drosophila flies, caused gain- or loss-of-function phenotypes. While polyamide P9 (not P31) suppressed PEV of white-mottled flies (increased gene expression), P31 (not P9) mediated three well-defined, homeotic transformations (loss-of-function) exclusively in brown-dominant flies. Both phenomena are explained at the molecular level by chromatin opening (increased accessibility) of the targeted DNA satellites. Chromatin opening of satellite III by P9 is proposed to suppress PEV of white-mottled flies, whereas chromatin opening of satellite V by P31 is proposed to create an inopportune "sink" for the GAGA factor (GAF).

  10. The Nucleotide Capture Region of Alpha Hemolysin: Insights into Nanopore Design for DNA Sequencing from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Manara, Richard M. A.; Tomasio, Susana; Khalid, Syma

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore technology for DNA sequencing is constantly being refined and improved. In strand sequencing a single strand of DNA is fed through a nanopore and subsequent fluctuations in the current are measured. A major hurdle is that the DNA is translocated through the pore at a rate that is too fast for the current measurement systems. An alternative approach is “exonuclease sequencing”, in which an exonuclease is attached to the nanopore that is able to process the strand, cleaving off one base at a time. The bases then flow through the nanopore and the current is measured. This method has the advantage of potentially solving the translocation rate problem, as the speed is controlled by the exonuclease. Here we consider the practical details of exonuclease attachment to the protein alpha hemolysin. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to determine the ideal (a) distance from alpha-hemolysin, and (b) the orientation of the monophosphate nucleotides upon release from the exonuclease such that they will enter the protein. Our results indicate an almost linear decrease in the probability of entry into the protein with increasing distance of nucleotide release. The nucleotide orientation is less significant for entry into the protein.

  11. The Nucleotide Capture Region of Alpha Hemolysin: Insights into Nanopore Design for DNA Sequencing from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Manara, Richard M A; Tomasio, Susana; Khalid, Syma

    2015-01-27

    Nanopore technology for DNA sequencing is constantly being refined and improved. In strand sequencing a single strand of DNA is fed through a nanopore and subsequent fluctuations in the current are measured. A major hurdle is that the DNA is translocated through the pore at a rate that is too fast for the current measurement systems. An alternative approach is "exonuclease sequencing", in which an exonuclease is attached to the nanopore that is able to process the strand, cleaving off one base at a time. The bases then flow through the nanopore and the current is measured. This method has the advantage of potentially solving the translocation rate problem, as the speed is controlled by the exonuclease. Here we consider the practical details of exonuclease attachment to the protein alpha hemolysin. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to determine the ideal (a) distance from alpha-hemolysin, and (b) the orientation of the monophosphate nucleotides upon release from the exonuclease such that they will enter the protein. Our results indicate an almost linear decrease in the probability of entry into the protein with increasing distance of nucleotide release. The nucleotide orientation is less significant for entry into the protein.

  12. Alpha, beta-unsaturated lactones 2-furanone and 2-pyrone induce cellular DNA damage, formation of topoisomerase I- and II-DNA complexes and cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Orta, Manuel Luis; Pastor, Nuria; Austin, Caroline A; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2013-09-12

    The alpha, beta-unsaturated lactones 2-furanone and 2-pyrone are part of the chemical structure of a variety of naturally occurring compounds (e.g., cardenolides, bufadienolides, acetogenins, coumarins, and food-flavoring furanones), some of which have shown anticancer activity and/or DNA damaging effects. Here we report that 2-furanone and 2-pyrone induce cellular DNA damage (assessed by the comet assay and the gamma-H2AX focus assay) and the formation of topoisomerase I- and topoisomerase II-DNA complexes in cells (visualized and quantified in situ by the TARDIS assay). Cells mutated in BRCA2 (deficient in homologous recombination repair) were significantly hypersensitive to the cytotoxic activity of 2-pyrone, therefore suggesting that BRCA2 plays an important role in the repair of DNA damage induced by this lactone. Both lactones were cytotoxic in A549 lung cancer cells at lower concentrations than in MRC5 non-malignant lung fibroblasts. The possible involvement of 2-furanone and 2-pyrone in the anticancer and DNA-damaging activities of compounds containing these lactones is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of the C-terminal extension (CTE) of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta DNA binding domain in DNA binding and interaction with HMGB.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Vida Senkus; Harrell, Chuck; Adelman, James S; Kraus, W Lee; Churchill, Mair; Edwards, Dean P

    2004-04-09

    HMGB-1/-2 are coregulatory proteins that facilitate the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of steroid receptor members of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We investigated the influence and mechanism of action of HMGB-1/-2 (formerly known as HMG-1/-2) on estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta. Both ER subtypes were responsive to HMGB-1/-2 with respect to enhancement of receptor DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity in cells. Responsiveness to HMGB-1/-2 was dependent on the C-terminal extension (CTE) region of the ER DNA binding domain (DBD) and correlated with a direct protein interaction between HMGB-1/-2 and the CTE. Thus the previously reported higher DNA binding affinity and transcription activity of ERalpha as compared with ERbeta is not due to a lack of ERbeta interaction with HMGB-1/-2. Using chimeric receptor DBDs, the higher intrinsic DNA binding affinity of ERalpha than ERbeta was shown to be due to a unique property of the ERalpha CTE, independent of HMGB-1/-2. The CTE of both ER subtypes was also shown to be required for interaction with ERE half-sites. These studies reveal the importance of the CTE and HMGB-1/-2 for ERalpha and ERbeta interaction with their cognate target DNAs.

  14. Preliminary results on an H-alpha map of the Gum nebula obtained with the D-z-A satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamont, J. E.; Levasseur, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    Hydrogen emissions, including telluric H alpha, in the terrestrial atmosphere were studied. The H alpha experiment was designed to use a monochromatic photometer that would provide measurements of weak H alpha emission originating at altitudes of a few hundred or thousand km, free of contamination by other telluric emissions. The Gum nebula was recorded by the instrument as a much more intense feature than the geocoronal emission. The spacecraft employed and the optical onboard equipment are described. Field of view, spectral response, absolute calibration, linearity, and inflight performance are discussed.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Pancreatic Cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Shannon M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Lan, Qing; Lui, Chin-San; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Rothman, Nathaniel; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes, obesity, and cigarette smoke, consistent risk factors for pancreatic cancer, are sources of oxidative stress in humans that could cause mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and increase mtDNA copy number. Methods To test whether higher mtDNA copy number is associated with increased incident pancreatic cancer, we conducted a nested case-control study in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort of male smokers, aged 50-69 years at baseline. Between 1992 and 2004, 203 incident cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma occurred (follow-up: 12 years) among participants with whole blood samples used for mtDNA extraction. For these cases and 656 controls, we calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, smoking, and diabetes history. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Higher mtDNA copy number was significantly associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk (highest vs. lowest mtDNA copy number quintile, OR=1.64, 95%CI=1.01-2.67, continuous OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23), particularly for cases diagnosed during the first 7 years of follow-up (OR=2.14,95% CI=1.16-3.96, p-trend=0.01, continuous OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.33), but not for cases occurring during follow-up of 7 years or greater (OR= 1.14, 95% CI=0.53-2.45, continuous OR=1.05, 95% CI 0.93-1.18). Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that mtDNA copy number is associated with pancreatic cancer and could possibly serve as a biomarker for pancreatic cancer development. PMID:21859925

  16. The Bag320 satellite DNA family in Bacillus stick insects (Phasmatodea): different rates of molecular evolution of highly repetitive DNA in bisexual and parthenogenic taxa.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, B; Tinti, F; Bachmann, L; Scali, V

    1997-12-01

    The Bag320 satellite DNA (satDNA) family was studied in seven populations of the stick insects Bacillus atticus (parthenogenetic, unisexual) and Bacillus grandii (bisexual). It was characterized as widespread in all zymoraces of B. atticus and in all subspecies of B. grandii. The copy number of this satellite is higher in the bisexual B. grandii (15%-20% of the genome) than in the parthenogenetic B. atticus (2%-5% of the genome). The nucleotide sequences of 12 Bag320 clones from B. atticus and 17 from B. grandii differed at 13 characteristic positions by fixed nucleotide substitutions. Thus, nucleotide sequences from both species cluster conspecifically in phylogenetic dendrograms. The nucleotide sequences derived from B. grandii grandii could be clearly discriminated from those of B. grandii benazzii and B. grandii maretimi on the basis of 25 variable sites, although all taxa come from Sicily. In contrast, the Bag320 sequences from B. atticus could not be discriminated accordingly, although they derive from geographically quite distant populations of its three zymoraces (the Italian and Greek B. atticus atticus, the Greek and Turkish B. atticus carius, and the Cyprian B. atticus cyprius). The different rate of evolutionary turnover of the Bag320 satDNA in both species can be related to their different modes of reproduction. This indicates that meiosis and chromosome segregation affect processes in satDNA diversification.

  17. Herpes simplex virus 1 activates cdc2 to recruit topoisomerase II alpha for post-DNA synthesis expression of late genes.

    PubMed

    Advani, Sunil J; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Roizman, Bernard

    2003-04-15

    A subset (gamma(2)) of late herpes simplex virus 1 genes depends on viral DNA synthesis for its expression. For optimal expression, a small number of these genes, exemplified by U(S)11, also requires two viral proteins, the alpha protein infected cell protein (ICP) 22 and the protein kinase U(L)13. Earlier we showed that U(L)13 and ICP22 mediate the stabilization of cdc2 and the replacement of its cellular partner, cyclin B, with the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor U(L)42. Here we report that cdc2 and its new partner, U(L)42, bind a phosphorylated form of topoisomerase II alpha. The posttranslational modification of topoisomerase II alpha and its interaction with cdc2-U(L)42 proteins depend on ICP22 in infected cells. Although topoisomerase II is required for viral DNA synthesis, ICP22 is not, indicating a second function for topoisomerase II alpha. The intricate manner in which the virus recruits topoisomerase II alpha for post-DNA synthesis expression of viral genes suggests that topoisomerase II alpha also is required for untangling concatemeric DNA progeny for optimal transcription of late genes.

  18. Structure analysis of two Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum satellite DNA families and evolution of their common monomeric sequence.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Marina; de Miguel, Natalia; Lia, Veronica V; Matrajt, Mariana; Angel, Sergio O

    2004-05-01

    A family of repetitive DNA elements of approximately 350 bp-Sat350-that are members of Toxoplasma gondii satellite DNA was further analyzed. Sequence analysis identified at least three distinct repeat types within this family, called types A, B, and C. B repeats were divided into the subtypes B1 and B2. A search for internal repetitions within this family permitted the identification of conserved regions and the design of PCR primers that amplify almost all these repetitive elements. These primers amplified the expected 350-bp repeats and a novel 680-bp repetitive element (Sat680) related to this family. Two additional tandemly repeated high-order structures corresponding to this satellite DNA family were found by searching the Toxoplasma genome database with these sequences. These studies were confirmed by sequence analysis and identified: (1). an arrangement of AB1CB2 350-bp repeats and (2). an arrangement of two 350-bp-like repeats, resulting in a 680-bp monomer. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that both high-order structures may have originated from the same ancestral 350-bp repeat. PCR amplification, sequence analysis and Southern blot showed that similar high-order structures were also found in the Toxoplasma-sister taxon Neospora caninum. The Toxoplasma genome database (http://ToxoDB.org ) permitted the assembly of a contig harboring Sat350 elements at one end and a long nonrepetitive DNA sequence flanking this satellite DNA. The region bordering the Sat350 repeats contained two differentially expressed sequence-related regions and interstitial telomeric sequences.

  19. A histone arginine methylation localizes to nucleosomes in satellite II and III DNA sequences in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Capurso, Daniel; Xiong, Hao; Segal, Mark R

    2012-11-15

    Applying supervised learning/classification techniques to epigenomic data may reveal properties that differentiate histone modifications. Previous analyses sought to classify nucleosomes containing histone H2A/H4 arginine 3 symmetric dimethylation (H2A/H4R3me2s) or H2A.Z using human CD4+ T-cell chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data. However, these efforts only achieved modest accuracy with limited biological interpretation. Here, we investigate the impact of using appropriate data pre-processing -deduplication, normalization, and position- (peak-) finding to identify stable nucleosome positions - in conjunction with advanced classification algorithms, notably discriminatory motif feature selection and random forests. Performance assessments are based on accuracy and interpretative yield. We achieved dramatically improved accuracy using histone modification features (99.0%; previous attempts, 68.3%) and DNA sequence features (94.1%; previous attempts, <60%). Furthermore, the algorithms elicited interpretable features that withstand permutation testing, including: the histone modifications H4K20me3 and H3K9me3, which are components of heterochromatin; and the motif TCCATT, which is part of the consensus sequence of satellite II and III DNA. Downstream analysis demonstrates that satellite II and III DNA in the human genome is occupied by stable nucleosomes containing H2A/H4R3me2s, H4K20me3, and/or H3K9me3, but not 18 other histone methylations. These results are consistent with the recent biochemical finding that H4R3me2s provides a binding site for the DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) that methylates satellite II and III DNA. Classification algorithms applied to appropriately pre-processed ChIP-Seq data can accurately discriminate between histone modifications. Algorithms that facilitate interpretation, such as discriminatory motif feature selection, have the added potential to impart information about underlying biological mechanism.

  20. The effects of modulation of microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity on microsome-catalyzed activation of benzo[alpha]pyrene and its covalent binding to DNA.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Oesch, F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of modulation of microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity on the binding of calf thymus DNA of benzo[alpha]pyrene metabolically activated by rat liver microsomes were investigated. In systems where microsomal epoxide hydrolase levels were not manipulated, 2 major bound species, one derived from 9-hydroxybenzo[alpha]pyrene and the other derived from benzo[alpha]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol, were found in approximately equivalent amounts. When epoxide hydrolase levels were increased, either by addition in vitro of purified enzyme or by induction in vivo by trans-stilbene oxide, the binding of the benzo[alpha]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol product was increased, while the binding of the 9-hydroxybenzo[alpha]pyrene product was practically eliminated. When microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity was decreased by selective inhibition with low concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloropropene 2,3-oxide, the binding of the species derived from 9-hydroxybenzo[alpha]pyrene was increased several-fold, while that of the species derived from benzo[alpha]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol was greatly decreased. The results indicate that the binding species derived from 9-hydroxybenzo[alpha]pyrene is formed through a metabolic pathway leading to an epoxide which is a substrate of microsomal epoxide hydrolase and that microsomal epoxide hydrolase is important in regulating the pattern of binding of individual microsomally-formed benzo[alpha]pyrene metabolites to DNA.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of two satellite DNA families in rock lizards of the genus Iberolacerta (Squamata, Lacertidae): different histories but common traits.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Verónica; Martínez-Lage, Andrés; Giovannotti, Massimo; González-Tizón, Ana M; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo; Galán, Pedro; Olmo, Ettore; Naveira, Horacio

    2015-09-01

    Satellite DNAs compose a large portion of all higher eukaryotic genomes. The turnover of these highly repetitive sequences is an important element in genome organization and evolution. However, information about the structure and dynamics of reptilian satellite DNA is still scarce. Two satellite DNA families, HindIII and TaqI, have been previously characterized in four species of the genus Iberolacerta. These families showed different chromosomal locations, abundances, and evolutionary rates. Here, we extend the study of both satellite DNAs (satDNAs) to the remaining Iberolacerta species, with the aim to investigate the patterns of variability and factors influencing the evolution of these repetitive sequences. Our results revealed disparate patterns but also common traits in the evolutionary histories of these satellite families: (i) each satellite DNA is made up of a library of monomer variants or subfamilies shared by related species; (ii) species-specific profiles of satellite repeats are shaped by expansions and/or contractions of different variants from the library; (iii) different turnover rates, even among closely related species, result in great differences in overall sequence homogeneity and in concerted or non-concerted evolution patterns, which may not reflect the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. Contrasting turnover rates are possibly related to genomic constraints such as karyotype architecture and the interspersed organization of diverging repeat variants in satellite arrays. Moreover, rapid changes in copy number, especially in the centromeric HindIII satDNA, may have been associated with chromosomal rearrangements and even contributed to speciation within Iberolacerta.

  2. DNA methylation profiles in the human genes for tumor necrosis factors. alpha. and. beta. in subpopulations of leukocytes and in leukemias

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, S.; Radbruch, A.; Tesch, H.; Renz, D.; Doerfler, W. )

    1991-07-01

    The genomic sequencing technique has been applied to assess the state of methylation in the DNA from human leukocyte subpopulations from healthy individuals and in the DNA from several individuals with myeloid or lymphatic leukemias or non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Leukocyte populations were purified by the high-gradient magnetic cell sorting technique. In the human tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) gene segment between nucleotides 300 and 1150, the specific methylation profile in the DNA from human granulocytes and monocytes is maintained in three cases of myeloid leukemia. In the TNF-{beta} gene, DNA methylation is decreased in several examples of acute or chronic myeloid leukemias in comparison to normal human granulocytes or monocytes, whose DNA is almost completely methylated between nucleotides 700 and 900. In human T and B lymphocytes, the main producers of TNF-{beta}, in three instances of chronic lymphatic leukemias and two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, all 5{prime}-CG-3{prime} sequences are unmethylated in this region. The DNA from the human HeLa cell line is highly methylated at all 5{prime}-CG-3{prime} sequences in the TNF-{alpha} and -{beta} genes. The TNF-{alpha} gene is transcribed in the cells of one case of acute myeloid leukemia in which the analyzed region of the TNF-{alpha} gene is completely unmethylated. The TNF-{beta} gene is not transcribed in any of the malignant cells tested.

  3. Non-linearity issues and multiple ionization satellites in the PIXE portion of spectra from the Mars alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John L.; Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Ganly, Brianna

    2016-09-01

    Spectra from the laboratory and flight versions of the Curiosity rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer were fitted with an in-house version of GUPIX, revealing departures from linear behavior of the energy-channel relationships in the low X-ray energy region where alpha particle PIXE is the dominant excitation mechanism. The apparent energy shifts for the lightest elements present were attributed in part to multiple ionization satellites and in part to issues within the detector and/or the pulse processing chain. No specific issue was identified, but the second of these options was considered to be the more probable. Approximate corrections were derived and then applied within the GUAPX code which is designed specifically for quantitative evaluation of APXS spectra. The quality of fit was significantly improved. The peak areas of the light elements Na, Mg, Al and Si were changed by only a few percent in most spectra. The changes for elements with higher atomic number were generally smaller, with a few exceptions. Overall, the percentage peak area changes are much smaller than the overall uncertainties in derived concentrations, which are largely attributable to the effects of rock heterogeneity. The magnitude of the satellite contributions suggests the need to incorporate these routinely in accelerator-based PIXE using helium beams.

  4. ColorHOR--novel graphical algorithm for fast scan of alpha satellite higher-order repeats and HOR annotation for GenBank sequence of human genome.

    PubMed

    Paar, Vladimir; Pavin, Nenad; Rosandic, Marija; Gluncic, Matko; Basar, Ivan; Pezer, Robert; Zinic, Sonja Durajlija

    2005-04-01

    GenBank data are at present lacking alpha satellite higher-order repeat (HOR) annotation. Furthermore, exact HOR consensus lengths have not been reported so far. Given the fast growth of sequence databases in the centromeric region, it is of increasing interest to have efficient tools for computational identification and analysis of HORs from known sequences. We develop a graphical user interface method, ColorHOR, for fast computational identification of HORs in a given genomic sequence, without requiring a priori information on the composition of the genomic sequence. ColorHOR is based on an extension of the key-string algorithm and provides a color representation of the order and orientation of HORs. For the key string, we use a robust 6 bp string from a consensus alpha satellite and its representative nature is tested. ColorHOR algorithm provides a direct visual identification of HORs (direct and/or reverse complement). In more detail, we first illustrate the ColorHOR results for human chromosome 1. Using ColorHOR we determine for the first time the HOR annotation of the GenBank sequence of the whole human genome. In addition to some HORs, corresponding to those determined previously biochemically, we find new HORs in chromosomes 4, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 19. For the first time, we determine exact consensus lengths of HORs in 10 chromosomes. We propose that the HOR assignment obtained by using ColorHOR be included into the GenBank database.

  5. Construction of Plasmonic Core-Satellite Nanostructures on Substrates Based on DNA-Directed Self-Assembly as a Sensitive and Reproducible Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Li, He; Hou, Shengwei; Dong, Youqing; Pang, Guangsheng; Zhang, Yingwei

    2015-12-16

    We report the successful construction of plasmonic core-satellite nanostructured assemblies on two-dimensional substrates, based on a strategy of combining DNA-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) with the specific recognition ability toward target to enable satellite NPs to self-assemble around the core immobilized on substrates. A strongly coupled plasmonic resonance band was observed because of the close proximity between core and satellite NPs, which presented significant red-shift and enhanced extinction with respect to the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band of individual core NPs on the substrate. The functionality of this core-satellite nanostructured assembly as a biosensor was further explored, and the changes in extinction intensity and the peak shift of the plasmonic coupling resonance band arising from the probe-target DNA binding event all proved to be useful criteria for target DNA detection. Moreover, high selectivity down to single-base mismatched DNA was achieved using this strongly coupled plasmonic core-satellite nanostructured assembly on a substrate. Such substrate-based detection was advantageous, and its reusability and high cycle stability were demonstrated after five cycles of disassembly and reassembly. Our work demonstrates the biosensing capacity of this DNA-functionalized plasmonic nanoassembly model system on two-dimensional substrate, which is also applicable to the detection of numerous DNA-recognized biomolecules. Likewise, the presented construction method can be extended to fabricate other compositional core-satellite nanoassemblies.

  6. DNA elements regulating alpha1-tubulin gene induction during regeneration of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Periz, G; Keller, L R

    1997-07-01

    Eukaryotic flagella are complex organelles composed of more than 200 polypeptides. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing synthesis of the flagellar protein subunits and their assembly into this complex organelle. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the premier experimental model system for studying such cellular processes. When acid shocked, C. reinhardtii excises its flagella, rapidly and coordinately activates transcription of a set of flagellar genes, and ultimately regenerates a new flagellar pair. To define functionally the regulatory sequences that govern induction of the set of genes after acid shock, we analyzed the alpha1-tubulin gene promoter. To simplify transcriptional analysis in vivo, we inserted the selectable marker gene ARG7 on the same plasmid with a tagged alpha1-tubulin gene and stably introduced it into C. reinhardtii cells. By deletion of various sequences, two promoter regions (-176 to -122 and -85 to -16) were identified as important for induction of the tagged alpha1-tubulin gene. Deleting the region between -176 and -122 from the transcription start site resulted in an induction level which was only 45 to 70% of that of the resident gene. Deleting the region upstream of -56 resulted in a complete loss of inducibility without affecting basal expression. The alpha1-tubulin promoter region from -85 to -16 conferred partial acid shock inducibility to an arylsulfatase (ARS) reporter gene. These results show that induction of the alpha1-tubulin gene after acid shock is a complex response that requires diverse sequence elements.

  7. Molecular determinants conferring alpha-toxin resistance in recombinant DNA-derived acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Keller, S H; Kreienkamp, H J; Kawanishi, C; Taylor, P

    1995-02-24

    Sequences of the alpha-subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from the snake and mongoose contain several differences in the region between amino acids 183 and 200. Receptors from both of these species reveal resistance to the snake alpha-toxins presumably arising as a protective evolutionary mechanism. Sequence differences include the added glycosylation signals at residue 187 in the mongoose and at residues 189 and 111 in snake. Although previous observations with peptides and fusion proteins either synthesized chemically or in a bacterial expression system indicate that certain amino acid residues may contribute to the resistance, our findings with the intact receptor in an eukaryotic expression system indicate the major role for glycosylation. In this study, we show that addition of glycosylation signals gives rise to virtually complete glycosylation at the added sites, although heterogeneity of oligosaccharide processing is evident. By analysis of combinations of mutants, we document that glycosylation exerts the predominant influence on alpha-toxin binding. Substitutions at other residues are largely without influence as single mutations but appear to decrease affinity further in multiple mutants, particularly where the receptor is glycosylated at the 187 and 189 positions. Glycosylation exerts a major influence on the dissociation as well as the association rates of the alpha-toxin-receptor complex, suggesting that the decrease for alpha-toxin affinity is not simply a consequence of restricted diffusional access, rather glycosylation affects the conformation and stability of the bound complex.

  8. Cloning of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha cDNA from a high hypoxia tolerant mammal-plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, T B; Ning, H X; Zhu, S S; Sun, P; Xu, S X; Chang, Z J; Zhao, X Q

    2004-04-02

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a transcription factor composed of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta. It plays an important role in the signal transduction of cell response to hypoxia. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a high hypoxia-tolerant and cold adaptation species living only at 3000-5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this study, HIF-1alpha cDNA of plateau pika was cloned and its expression in various tissues was studied. The results indicated that plateau pika HIF-1alpha cDNA was highly identical to those of the human (82%), bovine (89%), mouse (82%), and Norway rat (77%). The deduced amino acid sequence (822bp) showed 90%, 92%, 86%, and 86% identities with those of the human, bovine, house mouse, and Norway rat, respectively. Northern blot analyses detected two isoforms named pLHIF-1alpha and pSHIF-1alpha. The HIF-1alpha mRNA was highly expressed in the brain and kidney, and much less in the heart, lung, liver, muscle, and spleen, which was quite different from the expression pattern of mouse mRNA. Meanwhile, a new variant of plateau pika HIF-1alpha mRNA was identified by RT-PCR and characterized. The deduced protein, composed of 536 amino acids, lacks a part of the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODD), both transactivation domains (TADs), and the nuclear localization signal motif (NLS). Our results suggest that HIF-1alpha may play an important role in the pika's adaptation to hypoxia, especially in brain and kidney, and pika HIF-1alpha function pattern may be different from that of mouse HIF-1alpha. Furthermore, for the high ratio of HIF-1alpha homology among the animals, the HIF-1alpha gene may be a good phylogenetic performer in recovering the true phylogenetic relationships among taxa.

  9. In cultured astrocytes, p53 and MDM2 do not alter hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha function regardless of the presence of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Rempe, David A; Lelli, Katherine M; Vangeison, Grace; Johnson, Randall S; Federoff, Howard J

    2007-06-01

    A principal molecular mechanism by which cells respond to hypoxia is by activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha). Several studies describe a binding of p53 to HIF-1alpha in a protein complex, leading to attenuated function, half-life, and abundance of HIF-1alpha. However, these reports almost exclusively utilized transformed cell lines, and many employed transfection of p53 or HIF-1alpha plasmid constructs and/or p53 and HIF-1alpha reporter constructs as surrogates for endogenous protein activity and target expression, respectively. Thus, it remains an open and important question as to whether p53 inhibits HIF-1alpha-mediated transactivation of endogenous HIF-1alpha targets in nontransformed cells. After determining in primary astrocyte cultures the HIF-1alpha targets that were most dependent on HIF-1alpha function, we examined the effect of the loss of p53 function either alone or in combination with MDM2 on expression of these targets. Although p53 null astrocyte cultures resulted in markedly increased HIF-1alpha-dependent target expression compared with controls, this altered expression was determined to be the result of increased cell density of p53 null cultures and the accompanying acidosis, not loss of p53 protein. Although activation of p53 by DNA damage induced p53 target expression in astrocytes, it did not alter hypoxia-induced HIF-1alpha target expression. Finally, a combined loss of MDM2 and p53 did not alter HIF-1alpha target expression compared with loss of p53 alone. These data strongly suggest that p53 and MDM2 do not influence the hypoxia-induced transactivation of HIF-1alpha targets, regardless of p53 activation, in primary astrocytes.

  10. Unusual and strongly structured sequence variation in a complex satellite DNA family from the nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi.

    PubMed

    Castagnone-Sereno, P; Leroy, H; Semblat, J P; Leroy, F; Abad, P; Zijlstra, C

    1998-02-01

    An AluI satellite DNA family has been isolated in the genome of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi. This repeated sequence was shown to be present at approximately 11,400 copies per haploid genome, and represents about 3.5% of the total genomic DNA. Nineteen monomers were cloned and sequenced. Their length ranged from 142 to 180 bp, and their A + T content was high (from 65.7 to 79.1%), with frequent runs of As and Ts. An unexpected heterogeneity in primary structure was observed between monomers, and multiple alignment analysis showed that the 19 repeats could be unambiguously clustered in six subfamilies. A consensus sequence has been deduced for each subfamily, within which the number of positions conserved is very high, ranging from 86.7% to 98.6%. Even though blocks of conserved regions could be observed, multiple alignment of the six consensus sequences did not enable the establishment of a general unambiguous consensus sequence. Screening of the six consensus sequences for evidence of internal repeated subunits revealed a 6-bp motif (AAATTT), present in both direct and inverted orientation. This motif was found up to nine times in the consensus sequences, also with the occurrence of degenerated subrepeats. Along with the meiotic parthenogenetic mode of reproduction of this nematode, such structural features may argue for the evolution of this satellite DNA family either (1) from a common ancestral sequence by amplification followed by mechanisms of sequence divergence, or (2) through independent mutations of the ancestral sequence in isolated amphimictic nematode populations and subsequent hybridization events. Overall, our results suggest the ancient origin of this satellite DNA family, and may reflect for M. chitwoodi a phylogenetic position close to the ancestral amphimictic forms of root-knot nematodes.

  11. Knockdown of {alpha}II spectrin in normal human cells by siRNA leads to chromosomal instability and decreased DNA interstrand cross-link repair

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Laura W.; Zhang Pan; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Lefferts, Joel A.; Lambert, Muriel W.

    2009-04-03

    Nonerythroid {alpha}-spectrin ({alpha}IISp) is a structural protein involved in repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and is deficient in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which are defective in ability to repair cross-links. In order to further demonstrate the importance of the role that {alpha}IISp plays in normal human cells and in the repair defect in FA, {alpha}IISp was knocked down in normal cells using siRNA. Depletion of {alpha}IISp in normal cells by siRNA resulted in chromosomal instability and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents. An increased number of chromosomal aberrations were observed and, following treatment with a DNA interstrand cross-linking agent, mitomycin C, cells showed decreased cell growth and survival and decreased formation of damage-induced {alpha}IISp and XPF nuclear foci. Thus depletion of {alpha}IISp in normal cells leads to a number of defects observed in FA cells, such as chromosome instability and a deficiency in cross-link repair.

  12. Sequence variability of the MspI satellite DNA family of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at different geographic scales.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo; Castagnone, Chantal; Mallez, Sophie; Espada, Margarida; Navas, Alfonso; Mota, Manuel; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Tandemly repeated sequences known as satellite DNA (satDNA) generally exhibit complex evolutionary patterns of concerted evolution in which mutations are homogenized and fixed in a stochastic process of molecular drive. Here, the nucleotidic variability of the MspI satDNA family of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is analyzed in order to understand the evolutionary dynamics of satDNA at the intraspecific level. A total of 425 MspI monomer units, either PCR-amplified from isolates of local (Peninsula of Setúbal, Portugal) or worldwide origin, or retrieved from the B. xylophilus genome sequence, were characterized and compared. Whatever their origin, sliding window analysis of sequence variability patterns among monomers revealed low, moderate and highly variant domains, indicating that variable levels of evolutionary constraint may act upon the entire monomers. The phylogenetic inference based on the different sets of MspI satDNA family for this species shows a broad polymorphism of the individual monomers, which were distributed into four main clusters. However, such clustering appeared independent from the geographic origin of the nematodes, and could not discriminate isolates or groups of geographically close isolates. Rather, the formation of different phylogenetic groups within this satDNA family suggests an a priori embodying of a set of diverging repeats from a common ancestor satDNA library, which have been differently amplified along the evolutionary pathway of this species. The present work improves knowledge on the evolutionary dynamics of satDNA at the intraspecific level, and provides new information on satDNA sequence variability among natural populations sampled at a local geographic scale.

  13. Pericentromeric regions containing 1.688 satellite DNA sequences show anti-kinetochore antibody staining in prometaphase chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Abad, J P; Agudo, M; Molina, I; Losada, A; Ripoll, P; Villasante, A

    2000-11-01

    A striking characteristic of the centromeric heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster is that each chromosome carries different satellite DNA sequences. Here we show that while the major component of the 1.688 satellite DNA family expands across the centromere of the X chromosome the rest of the minor variants are located at pericentromeric positions in the large autosomes. Immunostaining of prometaphase chromosomes with the kinetocore-specific anti-BUB1 antibody reveals the transient presence of this centromeric protein in all the regions containing the 1.688 satellite.

  14. Polymorphism, recombination and alternative unscrambling in the DNA polymerase alpha gene of the ciliate Stylonychia lemnae (Alveolata; class Spirotrichea).

    PubMed Central

    Ardell, David H; Lozupone, Catherine A; Landweber, Laura F

    2003-01-01

    DNA polymerase alpha is the most highly scrambled gene known in stichotrichous ciliates. In its hereditary micronuclear form, it is broken into >40 pieces on two loci at least 3 kb apart. Scrambled genes must be reassembled through developmental DNA rearrangements to yield functioning macronuclear genes, but the mechanism and accuracy of this process are unknown. We describe the first analysis of DNA polymorphism in the macronuclear version of any scrambled gene. Six functional haplotypes obtained from five Eurasian strains of Stylonychia lemnae were highly polymorphic compared to Drosophila genes. Another incompletely unscrambled haplotype was interrupted by frameshift and nonsense mutations but contained more silent mutations than expected by allelic inactivation. In our sample, nucleotide diversity and recombination signals were unexpectedly high within a region encompassing the boundary of the two micronuclear loci. From this and other evidence we infer that both members of a long repeat at the ends of the loci provide alternative substrates for unscrambling in this region. Incongruent genealogies and recombination patterns were also consistent with separation of the two loci by a large genetic distance. Our results suggest that ciliate developmental DNA rearrangements may be more probabilistic and error prone than previously appreciated and constitute a potential source of macronuclear variation. From this perspective we introduce the nonsense-suppression hypothesis for the evolution of ciliate altered genetic codes. We also introduce methods and software to calculate the likelihood of hemizygosity in ciliate haplotype samples and to correct for multiple comparisons in sliding-window analyses of Tajima's D. PMID:14704164

  15. Isolation, characterization, and cDNA sequencing of alpha-1-antiproteinase-like protein from rainbow trout seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Mak, Monika; Mak, Paweł; Olczak, Mariusz; Szalewicz, Agata; Glogowski, Jan; Dubin, Adam; Watorek, Wiesław; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2004-03-17

    Seminal plasma of teleost fish contains serine proteinase inhibitors related to those present in blood. These inhibitors can be bound to Q-Sepharose and sequentially eluted with a NaCl gradient. In the present study, using a two-step procedure, we purified (73-fold to homogeneity) and characterized the inhibitor eluted as the second fraction of antitrypsin activity (inhibitor II) from Q-Sepharose. The molecular weight of this inhibitor was estimated to be 56 kDa with an isoelectric point of 5.4. It effectively inhibited trypsin and chymotrypsin but was less effective against elastase. It formed SDS-stable complexes with cod and bovine trypsin. Inhibitor II appeared to be a glycoprotein. Carbohydrate content was determined to be 16%. N-terminal Edman sequencing allowed identification of the first 30 N-terminal amino acids HDGDHAGHTEDHHHHLHHIAGEAHPQHSHG and 25 amino acids within the reactive loop IMPMSLPDTIMLNRPFLLFILEDST. The N-terminal sequence did not match any known sequence, however, the sequence within the reactive loop was significantly similar to carp and mammalian alpha1-antiproteinases. Both sequences were used to construct primers and obtain a cDNA sequence from liver. The mRNA coding the protein is 1675 nt in length including a single open reading frame of 1281 nt that encodes 426 amino acid residues. Analysis of this sequence indicated the presence of putative conserved serpin domains and confirmed the similarity to carp alpha1-antiproteinase and mammalian alpha1-antiproteinase. Our results indicate that inhibitor II belongs to the serpin superfamily and is similar to alpha1-antiproteinase.

  16. Protein-DNA interactions of the mouse alpha A-crystallin control regions. Differences between expressing and non-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Kantorow, M; Cvekl, A; Sax, C M; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-03-20

    Genomic footprinting, in vitro footprinting and mobility shift assays were used to investigate the molecular basis for expression of mouse alpha A-crystallin, a major structural protein of the transparent lens of vertebrates. The putative control region of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene was footprinted by DNase I digestion in nuclear extracts, by dimethylsulfate treatment in cultured cells, and by micrococcal nuclease digestion in isolated nuclei. The resulting digestion patterns were compared between alpha TN4-1 lens cells, which express alpha A-crystallin, and L929 fibroblasts, which do not express alpha A-crystallin. Four regions of DNA were found occupied in both cell types. These included positions -111 to -97 (DE-1 region), positions -75 to -55 (alpha A-CRYBP1 region), positions -35 to -12 (TATA box and PE-1 region), and positions +23 to +43 (an AP-1 consensus sequence). The DNase I footprints of the DE-1 and alpha A-CRYBP1 regions, previously implicated as functional control elements, were substantially more pronounced using nuclear extract from the alpha TN4-1 cells than from the L929 fibroblasts, suggesting more stable protein binding with the former than with the latter. Numerous in vivo binding variations were noted between the two cell types in all four of the footprinted regions examined. Finally, two complexes (A and B) were formed specifically with nuclear extracts from the alpha TN4-1 cells and a synthetic deoxyoligonucleotide comprising the alpha A-CRYBP1 region. These data indicate that specific differences in protein-DNA interactions with putative control regions are associated with tissue-preferred expression of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene.

  17. Benzo(alpha)pyrene metabolism and DNA-binding in cultured explants of human bronchus and in monolayer cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells treated with ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Teel, R W; Stoner, G D; Babcock, M S; Dixit, R; Kim, K

    1986-01-01

    Ellagic acid, a plant phenolic compound present in certain foods eaten by humans, has been reported to possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. To evaluate the potential anticarcinogenic effect of ellagic acid in humans, we investigated the effect of nontoxic concentrations of ellagic acid on the metabolism of benzo(alpha)pyrene and binding of benzo(alpha)pyrene metabolites to DNA in cultured explants of human bronchus and in human bronchial epithelial cell cultures. Ellagic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, or 50 microM did not significantly alter the metabolism of benzo(alpha)pyrene in the bronchial explant cultures and in only one of four bronchial cell cultures. However, binding of metabolites of benzo(alpha)pyrene to DNA was inhibited in all explant and cell cultures of human bronchus by 26 to 77%. These results support the work of other investigators and suggest that ellagic acid may be an inhibitor of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced carcinogenesis in humans.

  18. Ultraviolet irradiation of DNA complexed with. alpha. /. beta. -type small, acid-soluble proteins from spores of Bacillus or Clostridium species makes spore photoproduct but not thymine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.L.; Setlow, B.; Setlow, P. )

    1991-10-01

    UV irradiation of complexes of DNA and an {alpha}/{beta}-type small, acid-soluble protein (SASP) from Bacillus subtilis spores gave decreasing amounts of pyrimidine dimers and increasing amounts of spore photoproduct as the SASP/DNA ratio was increased. The yields of pyrimidine dimers and spore photoproduct were < 0.2% and 8% of total thymine, respectively, when DNA saturated with SASP was irradiated at 254 nm with 30 kJ/m{sup 2}; in the absence of SASP the yields were reversed - 4.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Complexes of DNA with {alpha}/{beta}-type SASP from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, or Clostridium bifermentans spores also gave spore photoproduct upon UV irradiation. However, incubation of these SASPs with DNA under conditions preventing complex formation or use of mutant SASPs that do not form complexes did not affect the photoproducts formed in vitro. These results suggest that the UV photochemistry of bacterial spore DNA in vivo is due to the binding of {alpha}/{beta}-type SASP, a binding that is known to cause a change in DNA conformation in vitro from the B form to the A form. The yields of spore photoproduct in vitro were significantly lower than in vivo, perhaps because of the presence of substances other than SASP in spores. It is suggested that as these factors diffuse out in the first minutes of spore germination, spore photoproduct yields become similar to those observed for irradiation of SASP/DNA complexes in vitro.

  19. Characterization of an EcoRI family of satellite DNA from two species of the genus Eptesicus (Vespertilionidae; Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Marchal, J A; Martínez, S; Acosta, M J; Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Sánchez, A

    2004-11-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a 321 bp band of repetitive DNA from Eptesicus fuscus and E. serotinus observed after gel electrophoresis of EcoRI digested genomic DNA in both species. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA (from both species) digested with the same enzyme showed the existence of a ladder pattern indicating that the repetitive DNA is arrayed in tandem. The repetitive sequences have a monomer unit of 321 bp which is composed of two subunits of 160 bp, suggested by the existence of a 160 bp band in the ladder of E. fuscus and by the presence of some direct repeats found in the analysis of the consensus sequence. Analysis of the methylation status demonstrated that cytosines in CCGG sequences in this satellite DNA are methylated in E. fuscus but not in the E. serotinus. Alignment of the sequenced clones showed that several nucleotide positions are diagnostic species-specific and consequently the phylogenetic analysis grouped the monomer units from both species in two clearly separated groups.

  20. Induction of single- and double-strand breaks in plasmid DNA by monoenergetic alpha-particles with energies below the Bragg-maximum.

    PubMed

    Scholz, V; Weidner, J; Köhnlein, W; Frekers, D; Wörtche, H J

    1997-01-01

    The yield of single-strand breaks (ssb) and double-strand breaks (dsb) produced by alpha-particles at the end of their track in DNA-films was determined experimentally. Helium nuclei were accelerated to 600 keV in the 400 kV ion accelerator and scattered at a carbon target. The elastically scattered alpha-particles with energies of 344 keV and 485 keV were used to irradiate supercircular plasmid DNA in vacuo. For the dosimetry of the alpha-particles a surface barrier detector was used and the energy distribution of the alpha-particles determined. The energy loss of the particles in the DNA-layer was calculated. DNA samples were separated into the three conformational isomers using agarose gel electrophoresis. After fluorochromation the number of ssb and dsb per plasmid DNA molecule was established from the band intensities assuming the validity of Poisson statistics. Linear dose effect correlations were found for ssb and dsb per plasmid molecule. In the case of 344 keV-alpha-particles the yield of dsb was (8.6 +/- 0.9) x 10(-11) breaks/Gy x dalton. The ratio of ssb/dsb was 0.5 +/- 0.2. This is at least a factor of six larger than the ratio found in experiments with higher energy alpha-particles and from model calculations. Similar experiments with protons yielded a relative biological effectiveness (rbe) value of 2.8 for the induction of double-strand breaks by track end alpha-particles.

  1. Topical application of the cornea post-infection with plasmid DNA encoding interferon-alpha1 but not recombinant interferon-alphaA reduces herpes simplex virus type 1-induced mortality in mice.

    PubMed

    Noisakran, S; Carr, D J

    2001-12-03

    A study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of recombinant interferon (rIFN)-alphaA to plasmid DNA encoding IFN-alpha1 against ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The topical application of rIFN-alphaA (100-300 units/eye) onto the cornea of mice subsequently infected 24 h later with HSV-1 antagonized viral-induced mortality. The enhancement in cumulative survival in the rIFN-alphaA-treated mice correlated with a reduction of viral titers recovered in the eye and trigeminal ganglion (TG) at 3 and 6 days post-infection. The protective effect was site-specific such that when rIFN-alphaA was administered orally or intranasally, no efficacy against HSV-1 was observed. However, the protective effect was time-dependent. Specifically, when the rIFN-alphaA (100-1000 units/eye) was administered at 24 h post-infection, no protective effect was observed against HSV-1 compared to the vehicle-treated group. In contrast, plasmid DNA (100 microg/eye) containing the IFN-alpha1 transgene showed significant protection when topically applied 24 h post-infection. Although the transgene was found to traffic distal from the site of application (eye), including the trigeminal ganglion and the spleen where CD11b(+) and CD11c(+) cells express the transgene, the migration of the transgene did not correlate with efficacy. Collectively, the results suggest that naked DNA encoding type I IFN applied post-infection provides a greater degree of protection against ocular HSV-1 infection in comparison with recombinant protein effectively antagonizing viral replication and spread.

  2. MultiTEP platform-based DNA vaccines for alpha-synucleinopathies: preclinical evaluation of immunogenicity and therapeutic potency.

    PubMed

    Davtyan, Hayk; Zagorski, Karen; Petrushina, Irina; Kazarian, Konstantin; Goldberg, Natalie R S; Petrosyan, Janet; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Masliah, Eliezer; Cribbs, David H; Agadjanyan, Michael G; Ghochikyan, Anahit

    2017-08-10

    We have previously demonstrated that anti-beta amyloid DNA vaccine (AV-1959D) based on our proprietary MultiTEP platform technology is extremely immunogenic in mice, rabbits, and monkeys. Importantly, MultiTEP platform enables development of vaccines targeting pathological molecules involved in various neurodegenerative disorders. Taking advantage of the universality of MultiTEP platform, we developed DNA vaccines targeting 3 B-cell epitopes (amino acids [aa]85-99, aa109-126, and aa126-140) of human alpha-synuclein (hα-Syn) separately or all 3 epitopes simultaneously. All 4 DNA vaccines (1) generate high titers of anti-hα-Syn antibodies and (2) induce robust MultiTEP-specific T-helper cell responses without activation of potentially detrimental autoreactive anti-hα-Syn T-helper cells. Generated antibodies recognize misfolded hα-Syn produced by neuroblastoma cells, hα-Syn in the brain tissues of transgenic mouse strains and in the brain tissues of dementia with Lewy body cases. Based on these results, the most promising vaccine targeting 3 B-cell epitopes of hα-Syn simultaneously (PV-1950D) has been chosen for ongoing preclinical assessment in mouse models of hα-Syn with the aim to translate it to the human clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A recombinant DNA vaccine protects mice deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor against lethal challenge with Usutu virus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Cañas-Arranz, Rodrigo; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-04-19

    Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus whose circulation had been confined to Africa since it was first detected in 1959. However, in the last decade USUV has emerged in Europe causing episodes of avian mortality and sporadic severe neuroinvasive infections in humans. Remarkably, adult laboratory mice exhibit limited susceptibility to USUV infection, which has impaired the analysis of the immune responses, thus complicating the evaluation of virus-host interactions and of vaccine candidates against this pathogen. In this work, we showed that mice deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor (IFNAR (-/-) mice) were highly susceptible to USUV infection and provided a lethal challenge model for vaccine testing. To validate this infection model, a plasmid DNA vaccine candidate encoding the precursor of membrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins of USUV was engineered. Transfection of cultured cells with this plasmid resulted in expression of USUV antigens and the assembly and secretion of small virus-like particles also known as recombinant subviral particles (RSPs). A single intramuscular immunization with this plasmid was sufficient to elicit a significant level of protection against challenge with USUV in IFNAR (-/-) mice. The characterization of the humoral response induced revealed that DNA vaccination primed anti-USUV antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies. Overall, these results probe the suitability of IFNAR (-/-) mice as an amenable small animal model for the study of USUV host virus interactions and vaccine testing, as well as the feasibility of DNA-based vaccine strategies for the control of this pathogen.

  4. Alpha-beta chimeric oligo-DNA bearing intercalator-conjugated nucleobase inside the linker sequence remarkably improves thermal stability of an alternate-stranded triple helix.

    PubMed

    Zafrul Azam, A T M; Hasegawa, Minoru; Moriguchi, Tomohisa; Shinozuka, Kazuo

    2004-12-06

    Novel alpha-beta chimeric oligodeoxynucleotides bearing an intercalator-conjugated nucleobase located at the internal 4-nt linker region were synthesized, and their triplex-stabilizing property was examined. The triple helical DNA formed between the modified chimera DNA and double-stranded DNA exhibited remarkable thermal stability; however, the position of the intercalator-conjugated nucleobase had little influence on the stability. Among the examined, modified chimera DNA bearing the two intercalator-conjugated nucleobases at adjacent positions exhibited the highest stability.

  5. Isolation of a cDNA Clone for alpha-Amylase in Mung Bean Cotyledons : Analysis of alpha-Amylase mRNA Levels in Cotyledons during and following Germination of Mung Bean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Koizuka, N; Tanaka, Y; Morohashi, Y

    1990-11-01

    A cDNA was isolated that codes for alpha-amylase in mung bean (Vigna radiata) cotyledons, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence (421 amino acid residues) is about 65% homologous with those of barley alpha-amylases. By comparing the deduced sequence with the sequence of the purified alpha-amylase, it was inferred that 23 N-terminal amino acids of a nascent polypeptide represent a signal peptide. Northern blot analysis showed that the levels of alpha-amylase mRNA are in parallel with the activities of alpha-amylase synthesis in cotyledons. Under the conditions where the solute leakage from cotyledons is accelerated during imbibition, a rapid increase in the amount of the alpha-amylase mRNA occurs. We postulate that a factor(s) which regulates in an inhibitory manner the alpha-amylase expression at the transcriptional level may be present in dry cotyledons and be removed by leakage.

  6. FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies of triplex formation between alpha-oligonucleotides with non-ionic phoshoramidate linkages and DNA targets.

    PubMed

    Michel, Thibault; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Geinguenaud, Frédéric; Taillandier, Elaine

    2003-12-01

    The triplexes formed by pyrimidine alpha-oligodeoxynucleotides, 15mers alpha dT(15) or 12mers alpha dCT having dimethoxyethyl (PNHdiME), morpholino (PMOR) or propyl (PNHPr) non-ionic phosphoramidate linkages with DNA duplex targets have been investigated by UV and FTIR spectroscopy. Due to the decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between partner strands of identical lengths all modifications result in triplexes more stable than those formed with unmodified phosphodiester beta-oligodeoxynucleotides (beta-ODNs). Among the alpha-ODN third strands having C and T bases and non-ionic phosphoramidate linkages (alpha dCTPN) the most efficient modification is (PNHdiME). The enhanced third strand stability of the alpha dCTPN obtained as diastereoisomeric mixtures is attenuated by the steric hindrance of the PMOR linkages or by the hydrophobicity of the PNHPr linkages. All alpha dCTPN strands form triplexes even at neutral pH. In the most favorable case (PNHdiME), we show by FTIR spectroscopy that the triplex formed at pH 7 is held by Hoogsteen T*A.T triplets and in addition by an hydrogen bond between O6 of G and C of the third strand (Tm = 30 degrees C). The detection of protonated cytosines is correlated at pH 6 with a high stabilization of the triplex (Tm = 65 degrees C). While unfavorable steric effects are overcome with alpha anomers, the limitation of the pH dependence is not completely suppressed. Different triplexes are evidenced for non pH dependent phosphoramidate alpha-thymidilate strands (alpha dT(15)PN) interacting with a target duplex of identical length. At low ionic strength and DNA concentration we observe the binding to beta dA(15) either of alpha dT(15)PN as duplex strand and beta dT(15) as third strand, or of two hydrophobic alpha dT(15)PNHPr strands. An increase in the DNA and counterion concentration stabilizes the anionic target duplex and then the alpha dT(15)PN binds as Hoogsteen third strand.

  7. alpha-DNA II. Synthesis of unnatural alpha-anomeric oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing the four usual bases and study of their substrate activities for nucleases.

    PubMed Central

    Morvan, F; Rayner, B; Imbach, J L; Thenet, S; Bertrand, J R; Paoletti, J; Malvy, C; Paoletti, C

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the synthesis of alpha-oligonucleotides containing the four usual bases. Two unnatural hexadeoxyribonucleotides: alpha-[d(CpApTpGpCpG)] and alpha-[d(CpGpCpApTpG)], consisting only of alpha-anomeric nucleotide units, were obtained by an improved phosphotriester method, in solution. Starting material was the four base-protected alpha-deoxyribonucleosides 3a-d. Pyrimidine alpha-deoxynucleosides 3a and 3b were prepared by self-anomerization reactions followed by selective deprotection of sugar hydroxyles, while the two purine alpha-deoxynucleosides 3c and 3d were prepared by glycosylation reactions. In the case of guanine alpha-nucleoside derivative a supplementary base-protecting group: N,N-diphenylcarbamoyl was introduced on O6-position in order to avoid side-reactions during oligonucleotide assembling. The hexadeoxynucleotide alpha-[d(CpApTpGpCpG)] was tested as substrate of selected endo- and exonucleases. In conditions where the natural corresponding beta-hexamer was completely degradated by nuclease S1 and calf spleen phosphodiesterase, the alpha-oligonucleotide remained almost intact. PMID:3575096

  8. Amino acid substitution analyses of the DNA contact region, two amphipathic alpha-helices and a recognition-helix-like helix outside the dimeric beta-barrel of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Ikeda, M; Kusano, S; Yamazaki, M; Ito, S; Obayashi, M; Yanagi, K

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), which is essential for EBV latency, homodimerizes and binds to the EBV replication origin, oriP. We analyzed the dimerization/DNA-binding domain of EBNA-1 by random and site-directed amino acid substitution. Random point mutations that resulted in reduced DNA binding clustered in the DNA contact region (a.a. 461-473) and at or near the termini of alpha-helix II (514-527). Three substitutions of Gly in the DNA contact region each greatly reduced binding to a single binding site oligonucleotide. Substitutions at and near the termini of alpha-helix II diminished DNA binding. A helix-deforming substitution in alpha-helix I (477-489) blocked DNA binding. A helix-deforming substitution in alpha-helix III (568-582) abolished dimerization and DNA binding. Similarities in surface electrostatic properties and conserved amino acids were found between alpha-helix II and recognition helices of papillomavirus E2 proteins. The basic DNA contact region is crucial for the specific interaction of EBNA-1 with a single binding site. Alpha-helix I477 is indispensable for oriP binding, and alpha-helix III568 contributes to the homodimeric structure of EBNA-1. Alpha-helix II514 contributes to oriP binding, perhaps changing its alignment with DNA. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Structural regularities of helicoidally-like biopolymers in the framework of algebraic topology: II. {alpha}-Helix and DNA structures

    SciTech Connect

    Samoylovich, M. I.; Talis, A. L.

    2013-09-15

    The developed apparatus of the 'structural application' of algebraic geometry and topology makes it possible to determine topologically stable helicoidally-like packings of polyhedra (clusters). A packing found is limited by a minimal surface with zero instability index; this surface is set by the Weierstrass representation and corresponds to the bifurcation point. The symmetries of the packings under consideration are determined by four-dimensional polyhedra (polytopes) from a closed sequence, which begins with diamondlike polytope (240). One example of these packings is a packing of tetrahedra, which arises as a result of the multiplication of a peculiar starting aggregation of tetrahedra by a fractional 40/11 axis with an angle of helical rotation of 99 Degree-Sign . The arrangement of atoms in particular positions of this starting aggregation allows one to obtain a model of the {alpha}-helix. This apparatus makes it possible to determine a priori the symmetry parameters of DNA double helices.

  10. Protein and DNA analysis for the prenatal diagnosis of alpha2-laminin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Lydia U; Gollop, Thomas R; Naccache, Nadyr F; Pavanello, Rita C M; Zanoteli, Edmar; Zatz, Mayana; Vainzof, Mariz

    2004-09-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are characterized by neonatal hypotonia and/or artrogriposis associated with a dystrophic muscle biopsy. The CMD1A form is caused by a deficiency of the alpha2 chain of laminin 2 (LAMA2 gene at 6q2), a protein present in the basal lamina of muscle fibers, in Schwann cells, epidermis, and in fetal trophoblastic tissue. This allows its study for prenatal diagnosis in the chorionic villous (CV), which was performed in a family with one deceased affected CMD1A child. Immunohistochemical analysis of the CV using antibodies against the C- and N-terminal domains of the alpha2-laminin protein showed a normal positive labeling for both antibodies in the "at-risk" CV, which did not differ from the normal control CV. The integrity of the CV membrane was confirmed through the analysis with antibodies against alpha1, beta1, and gamma1 laminins. DNA study using markers flanking the 6q2 region showed that the affected patient and the "at-risk" fetus did not share the same haplotype. Therefore, the fetus was considered normal through both methodologies, which was confirmed after the birth of a clinically normal male baby. As the LAMA2 gene is very large and the spectrum of mutations causing disease is wide, the analysis of the protein in muscle biopsy has been largely used for the diagnosis. Besides, the possibility to detect it in the chorionic villous, mainly using positive markers, also offers a powerful tool for prenatal diagnosis.

  11. DNA synthesis in pulmonary alveolar macrophages and type II cells: effects of ozone exposure and treatment with alpha-difluoromethylornithine

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, E.S.; White, D.M.; Brady, A.N.; Li, L.C.; D'Arcy, J.B.; Smiler, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in the number of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AM) can be induced by a number of toxic insults to the lung, including ozone, an important photochemical oxidant air pollutant. This increase could arise from an influx of monocytes from the vascular or interstitial compartments, or from proliferation of AM in situ. While proliferation of alveolar type II cells after oxidant exposure has been well documented, it is not clear whether AM are also capable of this response. Rats were exposed to air or to 0.12, 0.25, or 0.50 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 3, 7, or 14 d, 20 h/d. The labeling index in both AM and type II cells increased about 10-fold after 2 d of exposure to 0.25 and 0.50 ppm of ozone, but returned to control levels by the end of 1 wk of exposure. These changes closely paralleled the temporal and dose-response characteristics of changes in total lung DNA synthesis. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) administered to rats during a 2-d exposure to 0.50 ppm ozone did not inhibit the ozone-induced increase in labeling index in AM or type II cells, although evidence of inhibition of lung ornithine decarboxylase activity was obtained, and the ozone-induced increase in total lung DNA synthesis was inhibited by 23%. These results suggest that, like type II cells, AM are capable of entering the cell cycle and synthesizing new DNA in situ in response to short-term exposure to environmentally relevant doses of ozone, and that the ozone-induced stimulation of DNA synthesis in these cell types was refractory to inhibition by DFMO.

  12. Detection and characterization of a mouse. alpha. -spectrin cDNA clone by its expression in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Cioe, L.; Curtis, P.

    1985-03-01

    A cloned segment of mouse ..alpha..-spectrin mRNA has been identified by radioimmunoassay and immunoautoradiography. Double-stranded cDNA derived from spleens of anemic mice was introduced into a bacterial expression vector, pUC, and transformed Escherichia coli colonies were screened by using an /sup 125/I-labeled antiserum to erythrocyte membrane ghost proteins. Of 17 positive colonies, 2 bound antibody to mouse spectrin, and these 2 colonies contained 750-base-pair inserts that cross-hybridized. Transfer of the 750-base-pair insert to an expression vector containing the P/sub L/ promoter of phage lambda produced larger amounts of peptides that were bound by antibody to mouse spectrin. The spectrin-like peptides made in E. coli elicited antibody that reacted only with the ..alpha..-spectrin subunit of erythrocyte membranes. This clone will be useful for the study of the structure and expression of the spectrin gene, particularly in understanding the role of spectrin in human inherited hemolytic anemias.

  13. Ionic current blockades from DNA and RNA molecules in the alpha-hemolysin nanopore.

    PubMed

    Butler, Tom Z; Gundlach, Jens H; Troll, Mark

    2007-11-01

    We characterize the substate structure of current blockades produced when single-stranded polynucleotide molecules were electrophoretically driven into the alpha-hemolysin protein pore. We frequently observe substates where the ionic current is reduced by approximately 50%. Most of these substates can be associated with a molecular configuration where a polymer occupies only the vestibule region of the pore, though a few appear related to a polymer occupying only the transmembrane beta-barrel region of the pore. The duration of the vestibule configuration depends on polymer composition and on which end of the polymer, 3' or 5', subsequently threads into the narrowest constriction and initiates translocation. Below approximately 140 mV a polymer is more likely to escape from the vestibule against the applied voltage gradient, while at higher voltages a polymer is more likely to follow the voltage gradient by threading through the narrowest constriction and translocating through the pore. Increasing the applied voltage also increases the duration of the vestibule configuration. A semiquantitative model of these trends suggests that escape has stronger voltage dependence than threading, and that threading is sensitive to polymer orientation while escape is not. These results emphasize the utility of alpha-hemolysin as a model system to study biologically relevant physical and chemical processes at the single-molecule level.

  14. Alphoid satellite DNA is tightly associated with centromere antigens in human chromosomes throughout the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Masumoto, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Kenji; Okazaki, Tuneko )

    1989-03-01

    In this study, the authors have examined a DNA element specific to the centromere domain of human chromosomes. Purified HeLa chromosomes were digested with the restriction enzyme Sau3AI and fractionated by sedimentation through a sucrose gradient. Fractions showing antigenicity to anticentromere (kinetochore) serum obtained from a scleroderma CREST patient were used to construct a DNA library. From this library they found one clone which has specifically hybridized to the centromere domain of metaphase chromosomes using a biotinylated probe DNA and FITC-conjugated avidin. The clone contained a stretch of alphoid DNA dimer. To determine precisely the relative location of the alphoid DNA stretch and the centromere antigen, a method was developed to carry out in situ hybridization of DNA and indirect immunofluorescent staining of antigen on the same cell preparation. Using this method, they have found perfect overlapping of the alphoid DNA sites with the centromere antigen in both metaphase chromosomes and nuclei at various stages in the cell cycle. They have also observed this exact correlation at the attachment sites of artificially extended sister chromatids. These results suggest the possibility that alphoid DNA repeats are a key component of kinetochore structure.

  15. DNA sequence functionalized with heterogeneous core-satellite nanoassembly for novel energy-transfer-based photoelectrochemical bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-05-15

    This work reports the use of compositionally heterogeneous asymmetric Ag@Au core-satellite nanoassembly functionalized with DNA sequence as unique signaling nanoprobes for the realization of new energy-transfer-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay of prostate- specific antigen (PSA). Specifically, the Ag@Au asymmetric core-satellite nanoassemblies (Ag@Au ACS) were fabricated on a two-dimensional glass substrate by a modified controlled assembly technique, and then functionalized with DNA sequences containing PSA aptamers as signaling nanoprobes. Then, the sandwich complexing between the PSA, its antibodies, and the signaling nanoprobes was performed on a CdS QDs modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The single stranded DNA can server as a facile mediator that place the Ag@Au ACS in proximity of CdS QDs, stimulating the interparticle exciton-plasmon interactions between Ag@Au ACS and CdS QDs and thus quenching the excitonic states in the latter. Since the damping effect is closely related to the target concentration, a novel energy-transfer-based PEC bioanalysis could be achieved for the sensitive and specific PSA assay. The developed biosensor displayed a linear range from 1.0×10(-11)gmL(-1) to 1.0×10(-7)gmL(-1) and the detection limit was experimentally found to be of 0.3×10(-13)gmL(-1). This strategy used the Ag@Au ACS-DNA signaling nanoprobes and overcame the deficiency of short operating distance of the energy transfer process for feasible PEC immunoassay. More significantly, it provided a way to couple the plasmonic properties of the Ag NPs and Au NPs in a single PEC bioanalytical system. We expected this work could inspire more interests and further investigations on the advanced engineering of the core-satellite or other judiciously designed nanostructures for new PEC bioanalytical uses with novel properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TRAV gene usage in pig T-cell receptor alpha cDNA.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryuji; Uenishi, Hirohide; Hatsuse, Hiromi; Sato, Eimei; Awata, Takashi; Yasue, Hiroshi; Takagaki, Yohtaroh

    2005-05-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa) TRA clones were isolated from cDNA libraries of total RNA from two different sources, the thymus of a 1-month-old LW strain pig and the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a 5-month-old Clawn strain pig. Among 103 complete TRA cDNA clones from both sources, 33 different TRAV genes were identified. By comparing their sequence identities against one another, these pig TRAV genes were grouped into 20 subgroups, including 13 subgroups, each containing only a single member. All of these pig subgroups gave corresponding human and mouse functional counterparts, suggesting their functional commonality. An exception was the Va01 gene segment, which lacked a functional human counterpart. The present report provides groundwork for studies on pig TRA expression.

  17. The alpha/beta fold uracil DNA glycosylases: a common origin with diverse fates

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, L; Koonin, Eugene V

    2000-01-01

    Background: Uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) are major repair enzymes that protect DNA from mutational damage caused by uracil incorporated as a result of a polymerase error or deamination of cytosine. Four distinct families of UDGs have been identified, which show very limited sequence similarity to each other, although two of them have been shown to possess the same structural fold. The structural and evolutionary relationships between the rest of the UDGs remain uncertain. Results: Using sequence profile searches, multiple alignment analysis and protein structure comparisons, we show here that all known UDGs possess the same fold and must have evolved from a common ancestor. Although all UDGs catalyze essentially the same reaction, significant changes in the configuration of the catalytic residues were detected within their common fold, which probably results in differences in the biochemistry of these enzymes. The extreme sequence divergence of the UDGs, which is unusual for enzymes with the same principal activity, is probably due to the major role of the uracil-flipping caused by the conformational strain enacted by the enzyme on uracil-containing DNA, as compared with the catalytic action of individual polar residues. We predict two previously undetected families of UDGs and delineate a hypothetical scenario for their evolution. Conclusions: UDGs form a single protein superfamily with a distinct structural fold and a common evolutionary origin. Differences in the catalytic mechanism of the different families combined with the construction of the catalytic pocket have, however, resulted in extreme sequence divergence of these enzymes. PMID:11178247

  18. Evolution of the structure and composition of house mouse satellite DNA sequences in the subgenus Mus (Rodentia: Muridea): a cytogenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Cazaux, B; Catalan, J; Justy, F; Escudé, C; Desmarais, E; Britton-Davidian, J

    2013-06-01

    The composition and orientation of the house mouse satellite DNA sequences (minor, major, TLC) were investigated by a FISH and CO-FISH approach in 11 taxa belonging to three clades of the subgenus Mus. Using a phylogenetic framework, our results highlighted two distribution patterns. The TLC satellite, the most recently discovered satellite, was present in all clades but varied quantitatively among species. This distribution supported its appearance in the ancestor of the subgenus followed by independent evolution in species of each clade. In contrast, the minor and major satellites occurred in only two clades of the subgenus indicating the simultaneous and recent amplification of these sequences. In addition, although qualitative differences in the composition and orientation of the satellite sequences were observed among the taxa, none of the features studied were unique to the house mouse and could account for the extensive chromosomal plasticity evidenced in Mus musculus domesticus.

  19. DNA topoisomerase II alpha is the major chromosome protein recognized by the mitotic phosphoprotein antibody MPM-2.

    PubMed Central

    Taagepera, S; Rao, P N; Drake, F H; Gorbsky, G J

    1993-01-01

    We have determined that the major mitotic phosphoprotein in chromosomes recognized by the antiphosphoprotein antibody MPM-2 is the 170-kDa isoform of topoisomerase II (topo II), the isoform predominant in proliferating cells. As a prerequisite to making this discovery, it was necessary to develop protocols to protect chromosomal proteins from dephosphorylation during cell extraction and chromosome isolation procedures. Immunofluorescence analysis of the large chromosomes prepared from Indian Muntjac cells revealed colocalization of MPM-2 and anti-topo II antibodies to the chromosomal centromeres and to the axial regions of the chromosomal arms. For biochemical fractionation studies, large quantities of chromosomes from the P388D1 mouse lymphocyte cell line were isolated and treated to remove DNA and histone proteins. Immunoblot and immunoprecipitation experiments with this chromosome scaffold fraction identified the major MPM-2-reactive phosphoprotein to be DNA topo II. Using a panel of anti-peptide antibodies specific to the isoforms of topo II, we determined that the major phosphoprotein recognized by MPM-2 is the 170-kDa isoform of topo II, topo II alpha. The 180-kDa isoform, topo II beta, present in the isolated chromosomes in much smaller quantities, is also recognized by MPM-2. The mitotic phosphorylation of the topo II proteins may be critical for proper chromosome condensation and segregation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7690961

  20. Guinea pig alpha 1-microglobulin/bikunin: cDNA sequencing, tissue expression and expression during acute phase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Suzuki, Y; Yamamoto, K; Sinohara, H

    1999-02-01

    cDNA encoding alpha 1-microglobulin/bikunin (AMBP) was amplified from guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) liver mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods, cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence was found to be homologous to the sequence of AMBP of other mammals (69-76% amino acid identity). It has two Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor domains in the bikunin part as reactive sites, one in the N-terminal region and another in the C-terminal region. The N-terminal inhibitor domain sequence is well-conserved, but the P1 residue of the C-terminal inhibitor domain sequence was found to be Gln rather than Arg, a residue highly conserved in the AMBP of seven other mammals examined to date. By RT-PCR and nested PCR, AMBP mRNA was detected not only in liver tissue, previously known to be a site of its synthesis, but also in pancreas, stomach, small intestine, colon, lung, spleen, kidney, testis, skeletal muscle, and leukocytes, but not in brain or heart. We examined the AMBP mRNA levels in guinea pig liver by RT-PCR, comparing normal levels and those in a state of inflammation. The mRNA levels, however, did not significantly change.

  1. Screening and Identifying a Novel ssDNA Aptamer against Alpha-fetoprotein Using CE-SELEX

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lili; Tan, Qiwen; Ye, Wei; Liu, Dongli; Chen, Haifeng; Hu, Hongwei; Wen, Duo; Liu, Yang; Cao, Ya; Kang, Jingwu; Fan, Jia; Guo, Wei; Wu, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a liver cancer associated protein and has long been utilized as a serum tumor biomarker of disease progression. AFP is usually detected in HCC patients by an antibody based system. Recently, however, aptamers generated from systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) were reported to have an alternative potential in targeted imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In this study, AFP-bound ssDNA aptamers were screened and identified using capillary electrophoresis (CE) SELEX technology. After cloning, sequencing and motif analysis, we successfully confirmed an aptamer, named AP273, specifically targeting AFP. The aptamer could be used as a probe in AFP immunofluorescence imaging in HepG2, one AFP positive cancer cell line, but not in A549, an AFP negative cancer cell line. More interesting, the aptamer efficiently inhibited the migration and invasion of HCC cells after in vivo transfection. Motif analysis revealed that AP273 had several stable secondary motifs in its structure. Our results indicate that CE-SELEX technology is an efficient method to screen specific protein-bound ssDNA, and AP273 could be used as an agent in AFP-based staining, diagnosis and therapy, although more works are still needed. PMID:26497223

  2. [Construction of infectious cDNA clone of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA XJs1 and preliminary study on its biological function].

    PubMed

    Xi, De-Hui; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xiang, Ben-Chun

    2006-04-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) sugar beet isolate caused yellow mosaic, leaf distortion, crinkle and stunt symptoms on sugar beet in nature. It exhibited some special biological properties with narrower host range and had no symptom on Nicotiana glutinosa L. and Nicotiana tobacum L. cv. NC-89. A new satellite RNA, XJs1 was found to be associated with the helper virus. In order to know the cause of the special pathogenicity of the CMV isolate. Full-length infectious cDNA clone of CMV satellite RNA XJs1, pMSC20, was constructed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis showed that the satellite RNA consists of 384 nucleotides (nt) (GenBank accession number: D0070748). Compared the nucleotide sequence of satellite RNA XJsl with those of other representative CMV satellite RNAs displayed that it contains typical necrogenic consensus sequence block from positions 325 to 350, and shared 73.27% - 91.93% nucleotide sequence identity with some published CMV satellite RNAs. By in vitro transcription, satellite RNA XJsl was inoculated on Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana glutinosa together with CMV-AH, a CMV isolate without satellite RNA. The results showed that satellite RNA XJsl could attenuate symptoms on Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana glutinosa induced by CMV-AH. Detection by RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization revealed XJs1 obtained replication in the above two host plants, showing the pathogenicity changes of CMV-AH on Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana glutinosa were induced by co-infecting with satellite RNA XJsl. These results indicated that XJsl is probably an attenuate satellite RNA. The relationship between helper virus, satellite RNA and host plants is discussed.

  3. Lack of satellite DNA species-specific homogenization and relationship to chromosomal rearrangements in monitor lizards (Varanidae, Squamata).

    PubMed

    Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Suntronpong, Aorarat; Singchat, Worapong; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Phatcharakullawarawat, Rattanin; Muangmai, Narongrit; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Matsubara, Kazumi; Ezaz, Tariq; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2017-08-16

    Satellite DNAs (stDNAs) are highly repeated sequences that constitute large portions of any genome. The evolutionary dynamics of stDNA (e.g. copy number, nucleotide sequence, location) can, therefore, provide an insight into genome organization and evolution. We investigated the evolutionary origin of VSAREP stDNA in 17 monitor lizards (seven Asian, five Australian, and five African) at molecular and cytogenetic level. Results revealed that VSAREP is conserved in the genome of Asian and Australian varanids, but not in African varanids, suggesting that these sequences are either differentiated or lost in the African varanids. Phylogenetic and arrangement network analyses revealed the existence of at least four VSAREP subfamilies. The similarity of each sequence unit within the same VSAREP subfamily from different species was higher than those of other VSAREP subfamilies belonging to the same species. Additionally, all VSAREP subfamilies isolated from the three Australian species (Varanus rosenbergi, V. gouldii, and V. acanthurus) were co-localized near the centromeric or pericentromeric regions of the macrochromosomes, except for chromosomes 3 and 4 in each Australian varanid. However, their chromosomal arrangements were different among species. The VSAREP stDNA family lack homogenized species-specific nucleotide positions in varanid lineage. Most VSAREP sequences were shared among varanids within the four VSAREP subfamilies. This suggests that nucleotide substitutions in each varanid species accumulated more slowly than homogenization rates in each VSAREP subfamily, resulting in non-species-specific evolution of stDNA profiles. Moreover, changes in location of VSAREP stDNA in each Australian varanid suggests a correlation with chromosomal rearrangements, leading to karyotypic differences among these species.

  4. The satellite DNA AflaSAT-1 in the A and B chromosomes of the grasshopper Abracris flavolineata.

    PubMed

    Milani, Diogo; Ramos, Érica; Loreto, Vilma; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Cardoso, Adauto Lima; de Moraes, Karen Cristiane Martinez; Martins, Cesar; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2017-08-29

    Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are organized in repetitions directly contiguous to one another, forming long arrays and composing a large portion of eukaryote genomes. These sequences evolve according to the concerted evolution model, and homogenization of repeats is observed at the intragenomic level. Satellite DNAs are the primary component of heterochromatin, located primarily in centromeres and telomeres. Moreover, satDNA enrichment in specific chromosomes has been observed, such as in B chromosomes, that can provide clues about composition, origin and evolution of this chromosome. In this study, we isolated and characterized a satDNA in A and B chromosomes of Abracris flavolineata by integrating cytogenetic, molecular and genomics approaches at intra- and inter-population levels, with the aim to understand the evolution of satDNA and composition of B chromosomes. AflaSAT-1 satDNA was shared with other species and in A. flavolineata, was associated with another satDNA, AflaSAT-2. Chromosomal mapping revealed centromeric blocks variable in size in almost all chromosomes (except pair 11) of A complement for both satDNAs, whereas for B chromosome, only a small centromeric signal occurred. In distinct populations, variable number of AflaSAT-1 chromosomal sites correlated with variability in copy number. Instead of such variability, low sequence diversity was observed in A complement, but monomers from B chromosome were more variable, presenting also exclusive mutations. AflaSAT-1 was transcribed in five tissues of adults in distinct life cycle phases. The sharing of AflaSAT-1 with other species is consistent with the library hypothesis and indicates common origin in a common ancestor; however, AflaSAT-1 was highly amplified in the genome of A. flavolineata. At the population level, homogenization of repeats in distinct populations was documented, but dynamic expansion or elimination of repeats was also observed. Concerning the B chromosome, our data provided new

  5. Suppression of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45alpha expression confers resistance to sulindac and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hodges, Amy; Hoa, Neil

    2010-09-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as sulindac and indomethacin are a major cause of gastric erosions and ulcers. Induction of apoptosis by NSAIDs is an important mechanism involved. Understanding how NSAIDs affect genes that regulate apoptosis is useful for designing therapeutic or preventive strategies and for evaluating the efficacy of safer drugs being developed. We investigated whether growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45alpha (GADD45alpha), a stress signal response gene involved in regulation of DNA repair and induction of apoptosis, plays a part in NSAID-induced gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis in vivo in mice and in vitro in cultured human AGS and rat RGM-1 gastric epithelial cells. Intraperitoneal administration of sulindac and indomethacin both resulted in up-regulation of GADD45alpha expression and induction of significant injury and apoptosis in gastric mucosa of wild-type mice. GADD45alpha(-/-) mice were markedly more resistant to both sulindac- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis than wild-type mice. Sulindac sulfide and indomethacin treatments also concentration-dependently increased GADD45alpha expression and apoptosis in AGS and RGM-1 cells. Antisense suppression of GADD45alpha expression significantly reduced sulindac and indomethacin-induced activation of caspase-9 and apoptosis in AGS cells. Pretreatments with exogenous prostaglandins and small interfering RNA suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 did not affect up-regulation of GADD45alpha by sulindac sulfide and indomethacin in AGS cells. These findings indicate that GADD45alpha up-regulation is a COX-independent mechanism that is required for induction of severe gastric mucosal apoptosis and injury by NSAIDs, probably via a capase-9-dependent pathway of programmed cell death.

  6. Characterization of the heterochromatin of the darkling beetle Misolampus goudoti: cloning of two satellite DNA families and digestion of chromosomes with restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pons, J; Petitpierre, E; Juan, C

    1993-01-01

    The darkling beetle Misolampus goudoti Er. has 58% of C-banded chromosome material. In this paper we deal with the study of the heterochromatin of this insect both by molecular and cytogenetical methods. Two different satellite DNA families have been characterized in Misolampus goudoti by agarose gel electrophoresis of EcoRI and PstI restriction fragments, respectively. The EcoRI family is composed of a monomeric unit of 196 bp (64.3% A-T rich) DNA sequence, representing about 120,000 copies per haploid genome. The presence of frequent intermediate-size satellite variants and an internal direct repetition of 61 bp in the EcoRI repetitive main monomer suggest that the evolution of this satellite proceeded by unequal crossing-over, occurring both within and between the 196 bp unit. Another highly repetitive sequence, defined by digestion of genomic DNA with PstI, has a more complex unit of 1.2 kb with about 70,000 copies per haploid genome. In situ digestion of M. goudoti chromosomes with restriction enzymes shows a non-specific chromosome DNA extraction from pericentromeric positions with EcoRI and chromosome specific extraction of DNA with PstI and HinfI. This is discussed in relation to the chromosomal location of both satellites.

  7. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application.

  8. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  9. Cloning and heterologous expression of cDNA encoding class alpha rat glutathione transferase 8-8, an enzyme with high catalytic activity towards genotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, G; Ridderström, M; Engström, A; Pemble, S E; Mannervik, B

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA clone, lambda GTRA8, encoding rat glutathione transferase subunit 8 has been isolated from a lambda gt10 rat hepatoma cDNA library. The previously known amino acid sequence of the enzyme was used to design primers for a polymerase chain reaction that yielded a 0.3 kb DNA fragment from the hepatoma library. The 0.3 kb fragment was used as a probe for screening and a 0.9 kb cDNA clone containing a complete open reading frame was obtained. After DNA sequencing and subcloning into an expression vector, the enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Specific activities and kcat./Km values were determined for a number of substrates, including alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The highest activity was obtained with 4-hydroxyalkenals and with acrolein, genotoxic products of lipid peroxidation. In addition, the rat class Alpha glutathione transferase 8-8 displays high catalytic activity in the reaction between glutathione and the diuretic drug ethacrynic acid, a compound normally considered as a substrate characteristic for class Pi glutathione transferases. PMID:1599415

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of an at-rich satellite DNA and its contribution to karyotype differentiation in wild diploid Arachis species.

    PubMed

    Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Robledo, Germán; Bertioli, David; Seijo, José Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a major component of the heterochromatic regions of eukaryote genomes and usually shows a high evolutionary dynamic, even among closely related species. Section Arachis (genus Arachis) is composed of species belonging to six different genomes (A, B, D, F, G and K). The most distinguishing features among these genomes are the amount and distribution of the heterochromatin in the karyotypes. With the objective of gaining insight into the sequence composition and evolutionary dynamics of the heterochromatin fraction in Arachis, we investigated here the sequence diversity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of a satDNA family (ATR-2) among seven diploid species of section Arachis. All of the isolated sequences were AT-rich and highly conserved at both intraspecific and interspecific levels, without any species-specific polymorphism. Pairwise comparisons of isolated ATR-2 monomers revealed that most of the nucleotide sites were in the first two transitional stages of Strachan's model. However, the abundance of ATR-2 was significantly different among genomes according to the 'library hypothesis'. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that ATR-2 is a main component of the DAPI(+) centromeric heterochromatin of the A, F, and K genomes. Thus, the evolution of the different heterochromatin patterns observed in Arachis genomes can be explained, at least in part, by the differential representation of ATR-2 among the different species or even among the chromosomes of the same complement. These findings are the first to demonstrate the participation of satDNA sequences in the karyotype diversification of wild diploid Arachis species.

  11. Intracellular localization of human ZBP1: Differential regulation by the Z-DNA binding domain, Z{alpha}, in splice variants

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Thanh Pham; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Ahn, Jin-Hyun . E-mail: jahn@med.skku.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    We investigated the subcellular distribution of human ZBP1, which harbors the N-terminal Z-DNA binding domains, Z{alpha} and Z{beta}. ZBP1 was distributed primarily in the cytoplasm and occasionally as nuclear foci in interferon (IFN)-treated primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and in several other transfected cell types. In leptomycin B (LMB)-treated cells, endogenous ZBP1 efficiently accumulated in nuclear foci, which overlapped PML oncogenic domains (PODs) or nuclear bodies (NBs). In transfection assays, the unique C-terminal region of ZBP1 was necessary for its typical cytoplasmic localization. Interestingly, the Z{alpha}-deleted form displayed an increased association with PODs compared to wild-type and, unlike wild-type, perfectly accumulated in PODs in LMB-treated cells, implying that the presence of Z{alpha} domain also facilitates the cytoplasmic localization. Our results demonstrate that ZBP1 is localized primarily in the cytoplasm but also associated with nuclear PODs in IFN or LMB-treated cells. Given that about half of ZBP1 mRNA lacks exon 2 encoding the Z{alpha} domain, our data also suggest that the localization of ZBP1 may be differentially regulated by the Z-DNA binding domain, Z{alpha}, in splice variants.

  12. In vivo topoisomerase II cleavage of the Drosophila histone and satellite III repeats: DNA sequence and structural characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Käs, E; Laemmli, U K

    1992-01-01

    We have identified two classes of in vivo topoisomerase II cleavage sites in the Drosophila histone gene repeat. One class co-localizes with DNase I-hypersensitive regions and another novel class maps to a subset of consecutive nucleosome linker sites in the scaffold-associated region (SAR) of the histone gene loop. Prominent topoisomerase II cleavage is also observed in one of the linker regions of the two nucleosomes spanning satellite III, a centromeric SAR-like DNA sequence with a repeat length of 359 bp. At the sequence level, in vivo topoisomerase II cleavage is highly site specific. Comparison of 10 nucleosome linker sites defines an in vivo cleavage sequence whose major characteristic is a prominent GC-rich core. These GC-rich cleavage sites are flanked by extensive arrays of oligo(dA).oligo(dT) tracts characteristic of SAR sequences. Treatment of cells with distamycin selectively enhances cleavage at nucleosome linker sites of the SAR and satellite regions, suggesting that AT-rich sequences flanking cleavage sites may be involved in determining topoisomerase II activity in the cell. These observations provide evidence for the association of topoisomerase II with SARS in vivo. Images PMID:1311255

  13. Identification of alpha-bungarotoxin (A31) as the major postsynaptic neurotoxin, and complete nucleotide identity of a genomic DNA of Bungarus candidus from Java with exons of the Bungarus multicinctus alpha-bungarotoxin (A31) gene.

    PubMed

    Kuch, Ulrich; Molles, Brian E; Omori-Satoh, Tamotsu; Chanhome, Lawan; Samejima, Yuji; Mebs, Dietrich

    2003-09-15

    The Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) is one of the most medically significant snake species in Southeast Asia. No specific antivenom exists to treat envenoming by this species. Death within 30 min after its bite has been reported from Java, suggesting the presence of highly lethal postsynaptic neurotoxins in the venom of these snakes. We purified and identified the major postsynaptic toxin in the venom of B. candidus from Java. The toxin was indistinguishable from alpha-bungarotoxin (A31), a toxin originally isolated from Bungarus multicinctus, in its mass (7983.75 Da), LD50 (0.23 microg/g in mice i.p.), affinity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and by its 40 N-terminal amino acid residues as determined by Edman degradation. Identity with alpha-bungarotoxin was confirmed by cloning and sequencing a genomic DNA from B. candidus which encodes the 74 amino acid sequence of alpha-bungarotoxin (A31) and part of its signal peptide, revealing complete identity to the alpha-bungarotoxin (A31) gene in exon and 98.9% identity in intron sequences. The entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the krait species B. candidus from Java and B. multicinctus from Taiwan was sequenced for comparison, suggesting that these snakes are phylogenetically closely related. alpha-Bungarotoxin appears to be widely present and conserved in Southeast and East Asian black-and-white kraits across populations and taxa.

  14. A GC-rich satellite DNA and karyology of the bivalve mollusk Donax trunculus: a dominance of GC-rich heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Petrović, V; Pérez-García, C; Pasantes, J J; Satović, E; Prats, E; Plohl, M

    2009-01-01

    We characterized the DTF2 satellite DNA family of the clam Donaxtrunculus and compared its chromosomal localization with cytogenetic data revealed by fluorochrome banding, C-banding, and 28S rDNA FISH. In contrast to the other satellites detected previously in this species, DTF2 is an abundant (2%) GC-rich satellite that exhibits CpG methylation. Sequence characteristics of DTF2 indicate that its evolution is not affected by constraints that might indicate some functional interactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed subtelomeric location of this satellite on a subset of 14 out of 19 D. trunculus chromosome pairs. The chromomycin A(3) (CMA) staining of GC-rich regions on D. trunculus chromosomes revealed a complex banding pattern that overlaps completely with C-bands. In total, only three bands show subtelomeric location, while 13 bands are located interstitially, one of them being coincident with the 28S rDNA hybridization signal. No bands, either CMA positive (GC-rich) or DAPI positive (AT-rich) were detected at centromeric chromosomal positions. Only two of the CMA-positive bands co-localize with the DTF2 satellite, showing a) the presence of small islands of GC-rich repetitive sequences that remained undetected by CMA/C-banding and b) the abundance of DTF2-divergent GC-rich sequences at interstitial chromosomal locations. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Alpha is Essential to Maintain the Satellite Cell Niche During Skeletal Muscle Injury and Sarcopenia of Aging.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Anna; Lee, Jang-Won; Yang, An; Liu, Yan-Yun; Sedrakyan, Sargis; Cheng, Sheue-Yann; Perin, Laura; Brent, Gregory A

    2017-10-01

    Myopathic changes are commonly described in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients, including muscular atrophy and weakness. Satellite cells (SCs) play a major role in skeletal muscle maintenance and regeneration after injury. A mouse model of resistance to thyroid hormone-TRα1PV demonstrated impaired skeletal muscle regeneration after injury with significant reduction of SCs, suggesting that exhaustion of the SC pool contributes to the impaired regeneration. To test this hypothesis, SC activation and proliferation were analyzed in vivo in response to skeletal muscle injury and during aging. SCs of TRα1PV male mice were analyzed four days after cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury, and they were compared to wild-type (WT) male animals. TRα-knockdown C2C12 myoblasts were injected into injured skeletal muscle, and four days after transplantation, the in vivo behavior was compared to control C2C12 myoblasts. Skeletal muscle regeneration was compared in younger and older TRα1PV and WT animals. The total number of SCs in skeletal muscle of TRα1PV mice was significantly lower than control, both before and shortly after muscle injury, with significant impairment of SC activation, consistent with SC pool exhaustion. TRα-knockdown myoblasts showed impaired in vivo proliferation and migration. TRα1PV mice had skeletal muscle loss and significant impairment in skeletal muscle regeneration with aging. This translated to a significant reduction of the SC pool with aging compared to WT mice. TRα plays an important role in the maintenance of the SC pool. Impaired skeletal muscle regeneration in TRα1PV mice is associated with insufficient SC activation and proliferation, as well as the progressive loss of the SC pool with aging. Regulation of the SC pool and SC proliferation provides a therapeutic target to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration and possibly slow age-associated sarcopenia.

  16. An ancient satellite DNA has maintained repetitive units of the original structure in most species of the living fossil plant genus Zamia.

    PubMed

    Cafasso, Donata; Chinali, Gianni

    2014-03-01

    ZpS1 satellite DNA is specific to the genus Zamia and presents repetitive units organized as long arrays and also as very short arrays dispersed in the genome. We have characterized the structure of the ZpS1 repeats in 12 species representative of the whole geographic distribution of the genus. In most species, the clone most common sequences (cMCS) were so similar that a general most common sequence (GMCS) of the ZpS1 repetitive unit in the genus could be obtained. The few partial variations from the GMCS found in cMCS of some species correspond to variable positions present in most other species, as indicated by the clone consensus sequences (cCS). Two species have an additional species-specific variety of ZpS1 satellite. The dispersed repeats were found to contain more mutations than repeats from long arrays. Our results indicate that all or most species of Zamia inherited the ZpS1 satellite from a common ancestor in Miocene and have maintained repetitive units of the original structure till present. The features of ZpS1 satellite in the genus Zamia are poorly compatible with the model of concerted evolution, but they are perfectly consistent with a new model of satellite evolution based on experimental evidences indicating that a specific amplification-substitution repair mechanism maintains the homogeneity and stability of the repeats structure in each satellite DNA originally present in a species as long as the species exists.

  17. Human DNA polymerase alpha uses a combination of positive and negative selectivity to polymerize purine dNTPs with high fidelity.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Jeff; Kincaid, Kristi; Hocek, Michal; Spratt, Thomas; Engels, Joachim; Cosstick, Richard; Kuchta, Robert D

    2007-01-16

    DNA polymerases accurately replicate DNA by incorporating mostly correct dNTPs opposite any given template base. We have identified the chemical features of purine dNTPs that human pol alpha uses to discriminate between right and wrong dNTPs. Removing N-3 from guanine and adenine, two high-fidelity bases, significantly lowers fidelity. Analogously, adding the equivalent of N-3 to low-fidelity benzimidazole-derived bases (i.e., bases that pol alpha rapidly incorporates opposite all four natural bases) and to generate 1-deazapurines significantly strengthens the ability of pol alpha to identify the resulting 1-deazapurines as wrong. Adding the equivalent of the purine N-1 to benzimidazole or to 1-deazapurines significantly decreases the rate at which pol alpha polymerizes the resulting bases opposite A, C, and G while simultaneously enhancing polymerization opposite T. Conversely, adding the equivalent of adenine's C-6 exocyclic amine (N-6) to 1- and 3-deazapurines also enhances polymerization opposite T but does not significantly decrease polymerization opposite A, C, and G. Importantly, if the newly inserted bases lack N-1 and N-6, pol alpha does not efficiently polymerize the next correct dNTP, whereas if it lacks N-3, one additional nucleotide is added and then chain termination ensues. These data indicate that pol alpha uses two orthogonal screens to maximize its fidelity. During dNTP polymerization, it uses a combination of negative (N-1 and N-3) and positive (N-1 and N-6) selectivity to differentiate between right and wrong dNTPs, while the shape of the base pair is essentially irrelevant. Then, to determine whether to add further dNTPs onto the just added nucleotide, pol alpha appears to monitor the shape of the base pair at the primer 3'-terminus. The biological implications of these results are discussed.

  18. The incidence of mini- and micro-satellite repetitive DNA in the canine genome.

    PubMed

    Rothuizen, J; Wolfswinkel, J; Lenstra, J A; Frants, R R

    1994-10-01

    We have estimated the incidence of microand mini-satellites in the dog genome. A genomic phage library from canine liver, with an average insert size of 16 kb, was screened to detect potentially polymorphic microand mini-satellite sequences, which may be useful for the development of markers of inherited diseases, for fingerprinting, or for population genetics. Synthetic oligonucleotide probes were used to search for microsatellite sequences, and minisatellites were investigated with eight heterologous VNTR probes. (CA)n.(GT)n sequences were by far the most frequent, with a calculated average distance between consecutive loci of 42 kb. The average distance between loci of tri- or tetra-nucleotide repeats was about 330 kb. Mean inter-locus distances were 320 kb for (GGC)n, 205 kb for (GTG)n, 563 kb for (AGG)n, 320 kb for (TCG)n, 233 kb for (TTA)n, 384 kb for (CCTA)n, 368 kb for (CTGT)n, 122 kb for (TTCC)n, 565 kb for (TCTA)n, and 229 kb for (TAGG)n. Cross-hybridization with eight human minisatellite probes was found at average distances of 1400 kb; only one did not hybridize at all. We conclude that the di-, tri and tetra-nucleotide short tandem repeats, as well as some minisatellite sequences, are potentially useful as genetic markers, for mapping of the canine genome, and also for paternity testing and the analysis of population characteristics.

  19. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol prevents arsenic-induced protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by arsenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadirvel, R; Sundaram, K; Mani, S; Samuel, S; Elango, N; Panneerselvam, C

    2007-12-01

    Contamination of arsenic in drinking water is associated with several human diseases including cancer. It has been reported that oxidative stress plays a vital role in arsenic-induced biochemical and molecular alterations. The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of arsenic-induced oxidative damage to proteins and to DNA and the role of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol in alleviating arsenic-induced damages in experimental rats. A significant increase in the levels of protein oxidation, DNA strand breaks, and DNA-protein cross-links was observed in blood, liver, and kidney of rats exposed to arsenic (100 ppm in drinking water) for 30 days. Co-administration of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol to arsenic-exposed rats showed a substantial reduction in the levels of arsenic-induced oxidative products of protein and DNA. The results of this study support that free radical-mediated toxic manifestations of arsenic and also suggest that ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation can improve the arsenic-induced molecular alterations.

  20. Regulated expression of nuclear protein(s) in myogenic cells that binds to a conserved 3' untranslated region in pro alpha 1 (I) collagen cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Herget, T; Burba, M; Schmoll, M; Zimmermann, K; Starzinski-Powitz, A

    1989-01-01

    We describe the identification and DNA-binding properties of nuclear proteins from rat L6 myoblasts which recognize an interspecies conserved 3' untranslated segment of pro alpha 1 (I) collagen cDNA. Levels of the two pro alpha 1 (I) collagen RNAs, present in L6 myoblasts, decreased drastically between 54 and 75 h after induction of myotube formation in serum-free medium. Both mRNAs contained a conserved sequence segment of 135 nucleotides (termed tame sequence) in the 3' untranslated region that had 96% homology to the human and murine pro alpha 1 (I) collagen genes. The cDNA of this tame sequence was specifically recognized by nuclear protein(s) from L6 myoblasts, as judged by gel retardation assays and DNase I footprints. The tame-binding protein(s) was able to recognize its target sequence on double-stranded DNA but bound also to the appropriate single-stranded oligonucleotide. Protein that bound to the tame sequence was undetectable in nuclear extracts of L6 myotubes that did not accumulate the two collagen mRNAs. Therefore, the activity of this nuclear protein seems to be linked to accumulation of the sequences that it recognizes in vitro. The collagen RNAs and the nuclear tame-binding proteins reappeared after a change of medium, which further suggests that the RNAs and the protein(s) are coordinately regulated. Images PMID:2779548

  1. A B-cell-specific nuclear protein that binds to DNA sites 5' to immunoglobulin S alpha tandem repeats is regulated during differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, S H; Saikh, K U; Stavnezer, J

    1989-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy-chain switching is effected by recombination events between sites associated with tandemly repeated switch sequences located 5' to immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Using the band mobility shift assay, we have identified two distinct sites 5' to the alpha heavy-chain switch sequence with affinity for a single B-cell-specific DNA-binding protein, S alpha-BP. S alpha-BP was present in nuclear extracts from pre-B and B cells but was not detected in extracts from plasmacytomas, B-cell hybridomas, T-cell lymphomas, or a macrophage cell line. It was also not detectable in other nonlymphoid cells tested. Evidence suggests there are S alpha-BP-binding sites near other immunoglobulin switch sequences. As with the S alpha sites, these sites appear to be distinct from the consensus tandem repeats characteristic of immunoglobulin switch sequences. The possible functions of S alpha-BP on contacting its binding sites are discussed in the context of immunoglobulin heavy-chain switch recombination. Images PMID:2511438

  2. alpha,beta-poly(asparthylhydrazide)-glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride copolymers (PAHy-GTA): novel polymers with potential for DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Pedone, E; Cavallaro, G; Richardson, S C; Duncan, R; Giammona, G

    2001-11-09

    Hydrophilic polycations form complexes when mixed with plasmids. Following functionalisation with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTA) alpha,beta-poly(asparthylhydrazide) (PAHy), a water-soluble synthetic macromolecule, becomes polycationic and potentially useful for systemic gene delivery. Initially the biocompatibility of PAHy and PAHy-GTA derivatives with different degrees of positive charge substitution were studied and it was shown that PAHy-GTA was neither haemolytic nor cytotoxicity up to 1 mg/ml. After intravenous injection (125)I-labelled PAHy-GTA derivative containing 46 mol% (PAHy-GTA(b)) of trimethylammonium groups did not accumulate in the liver (4.1+/-0.9% of the recovered dose after 1 h) but was subjected to renal excretion (45+/-21% of the recovered dose was in the kidneys after 1 h). PAHy-GTA formed complexes with DNA (gel retardation) and they protected against degradation by DNase II. Finally the ability of the PAHy-GTA(b) derivative to mediate the transfection of HepG2 cells using the marker gene beta-galactosidase was studied. The optimum plasmid/polymer mass ratio was examined in comparison to LipofectACE, Lipofectin and polyethylenimine.

  3. Evidence of DNA double strand breaks formation in Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to alpha particles of different LET assessed by the SOS response.

    PubMed

    Serment-Guerrero, Jorge; Breña-Valle, Matilde; Aguilar-Moreno, Magdalena; Balcázar, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Ionizing radiation produces a plethora of lesion upon DNA which sometimes is generated among a relatively small region due to clustered energy deposition events, the so called locally multiply damaged sites that could change to DSB. Such clustered damages are more likely to occur in high LET radiation exposures. The effect of alpha particles of different LET was evaluated on the bacterium Escherichia coli either by survival properties or the SOS response activity. Alpha radiation and LET distribution was controlled by means of Nuclear Track Detectors. The results suggest that alpha particles produce two types of lesion: lethal lesions and SOS inducing-mutagenic, a proportion that varies depending on the LET values. The SOS response as a sensitive parameter to assess RBE is mentioned.

  4. The CcrM DNA methyltransferase is widespread in the alpha subdivision of proteobacteria, and its essential functions are conserved in Rhizobium meliloti and Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Wright, R; Stephens, C; Shapiro, L

    1997-09-01

    The Caulobacter crescentus DNA methyltransferase CcrM (M.CcrMI) methylates the adenine residue in the sequence GANTC. The CcrM DNA methyltransferase is essential for viability, but it does not appear to be part of a DNA restriction-modification system. CcrM homologs are widespread in the alpha subdivision of gram-negative bacteria. We have amplified and sequenced a 258-bp region of the cerM gene from several of these bacteria, including Rhizobium meliloti, Brucella abortus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Rhodobacter capsulatus. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that these proteins constitute a highly conserved DNA methyltransferase family. Isolation of the full-length ccrM genes from the aquatic bacterium C. crescentus, the soil bacterium R. meliloti, and the intracellular pathogen B. abortus showed that this sequence conservation extends over the entire protein. In at least two alpha subdivision bacteria, R. meliloti and C. crescentus, CcrM-mediated methylation has important cellular functions. In both organisms, CcrM is essential for viability. Overexpression of CcrM in either bacterium results in defects in cell division and cell morphology and in the initiation of DNA replication. Finally, the C. crescentus and R. meliloti ccrM genes are functionally interchangeable, as the complemented strains are viable and the chromosomes are methylated. Thus, in both R. meliloti and C. crescentus, CcrM methylation is an integral component of the cell cycle. We speculate that CcrM-mediated DNA methylation is likely to have similar roles among alpha subdivision bacteria.

  5. Complementary DNA sequences encoding the multimammate rat MHC class II DQ alpha and beta chains and cross-species sequence comparison in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Bellocq, J Goüy; Leirs, H

    2009-09-01

    Sequences of the complete open reading frame (ORF) for rodents major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are rare. Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the alpha and beta chains of MHC class II DQ gene was cloned from a rapid amplifications of cDNA Emds (RACE) cDNA library. The ORFs consist of 801 and 771 bp encoding 266 and 256 amino acid residues for DQB and DQA, respectively. The genomic structure of Mana-DQ genes is globally analogous to that described for other rodents except for the insertion of a serine residue in the signal peptide of Mana-DQB, which is unique among known rodents.

  6. Polymerization of the triphosphates of AraC, 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (dFdC) and OSI-7836 (T-araC) by human DNA polymerase alpha and DNA primase.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Katherine A; Vega, Tanya P; Richardson, Frank C; Moore, Chad L; Rohloff, John C; Tomkinson, Blake; Bendele, Raymond A; Kuchta, Robert D

    2004-12-15

    OSI-7836 (4'-thio-araC, T-araC) is a nucleoside analogue that shows efficacy against solid tumor xenograft models. We examined how the triphosphates of OSI-7836 (T-araCTP), cytarabine (araCTP), and gemcitabine (dFdCTP) affected the initiation of new DNA strands by the pol alpha primase complex. Whereas dFdCTP very weakly inhibited primase, both T-araCTP and araCTP potently inhibited this enzyme. Primase polymerized T-araCTP and araCTP more readily than its natural substrate, CTP, and incorporation resulted in strong chain termination. dFdCTP, araCTP, and T-araCTP inhibited pol alpha competitively with respect to dCTP. When exogenously added primentemplates were used, pol alpha incorporated all three analogues into DNA, and incorporation caused either weak chain termination (dFdCTP), strong termination (araCTP), or extremely strong termination (T-araC). Furthermore, pol alpha polymerized T-araCTP only nine-fold less well than dCTP, whereas it polymerized araCTP and dFdCTP 24- and 83-fold less well, respectively. The presence of these three analogues in the template strand resulted in significant pausing by pol alpha, although the site and severity of pausing varied between the analogues. During the elongation of primase-synthesized primers, a reaction that is thought to mimic the normal sequence of events during the initiation of new DNA strands, pol alpha polymerized all three compounds. However, incorporation of araCTP and dFdCTP resulted in minimal chain termination, while incorporation of T-araCTP still caused extremely strong termination. The implications of these results with respect to how these compounds affect cells are discussed.

  7. Stoichiometry of expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors depends on the ratio of subunit cDNA transfected.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Kelly R; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2010-05-07

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is the target of many depressants, including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and alcohol. Although the highly prevalent alphabetagamma GABA(A)R subtype mediates the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain, receptors containing delta subunits also play a key role, mediating tonic inhibition and the actions of endogenous neurosteroids and alcohol. However, the fundamental properties of delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, such as subunit stoichiometry, are not well established. To determine subunit stoichiometry of expressed delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, we inserted the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site tag in the alpha(4), beta(2), and delta subunit N termini. An enhanced green fluorescent protein tag was also inserted into the beta(2) subunit to shift its molecular weight, allowing us to separate subunits using SDS-PAGE. Tagged alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs were expressed in HEK293T cells using various ratios of subunit cDNA, and receptor subunit stoichiometry was determined by quantitating fluorescent alpha-bungarotoxin bound to each subunit on Western blots of surface immunopurified tagged GABA(A)Rs. The results demonstrate that the subunit stoichiometry of alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs is regulated by the ratio of subunit cDNAs transfected. Increasing the ratio of delta subunit cDNA transfected increased delta subunit incorporation into surface receptors with a concomitant decrease in beta(2) subunit incorporation. Because receptor subunit stoichiometry can directly influence GABA(A)R pharmacological and functional properties, considering how the transfection protocols used affect subunit stoichiometry is essential when studying heterologously expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs. Successful bungarotoxin binding site tagging of GABA(A)R subunits is a novel tool with which to accurately quantitate subunit stoichiometry and will be useful for monitoring GABA(A)R trafficking in live cells.

  8. NMR structure of duplex DNA containing the alpha-OH-PdG.dA base pair: a mutagenic intermediate of acrolein.

    PubMed

    Zaliznyak, Tanya; Lukin, Mark; El-khateeb, Mahmoud; Bonala, Rahda; Johnson, Francis; de los Santos, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Acrolein, a cell metabolic product and main component of cigarette smoke, reacts with DNA generating alpha-OH-PdG lesions, which have the ability to pair with dATP during replication thereby causing G to T transversions. We describe the solution structure of an 11-mer DNA duplex containing the mutagenic alpha-OH-PdG.dA base pair intermediate, as determined by solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and retrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The NMR data support a mostly regular right-handed helix that is only perturbed at its center by the presence of the lesion. Undamaged residues of the duplex are in anti orientation, forming standard Watson-Crick base pairs alignments. Duplication of proton signals at and near the damaged base pair reveals the presence of two enantiomeric duplexes, thus establishing the exocyclic nature of the lesion. The alpha-OH-PdG adduct assumes a syn conformation pairing to its partner dA base that is protonated at pH 6.6. The three-dimensional structure obtained by restrained molecular dynamics simulations show hydrogen bond interactions that stabilize alpha-OH-PdG in a syn conformation and across the lesion containing base pair. We discuss the implications of the structures for the mutagenic bypass of acrolein lesions.

  9. Dynamic changes in the distribution of a satellite homologous to intergenic 26-18S rDNA spacer in the evolution of Nicotiana.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K Y; Skalicka, K; Koukalova, B; Volkov, R A; Matyasek, R; Hemleben, V; Leitch, A R; Kovarik, A

    2004-01-01

    An approximately 135-bp sequence called the A1/A2 repeat was isolated from the transcribed region of the 26-18S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of Nicotiana tomentosiformis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern blot analysis revealed its occurrence as an independent satellite (termed an A1/A2 satellite) outside of rDNA loci in species of Nicotiana section Tomentosae. The chromosomal location, patterns of genomic dispersion, and copy numbers of its tandemly arranged units varied between the species. In more distantly related Nicotiana species the A1/A2 repeats were found only at the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR). There was a trend toward the elimination of the A1/A2 satellite in N. tabacum (tobacco), an allotetraploid with parents closely related to the diploids N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. This process may have already commenced in an S(3) generation of synthetic tobacco. Cytosine residues in the IGS were significantly hypomethylated compared with the A1/A2 satellite. There was no clear separation between the IGS and satellite fractions in sequence analysis of individual clones and we found no evidence for CG suppression. Taken together the data indicate a dynamic nature of the A1/A2 repeats in Nicotiana genomes, with evidence for recurrent integration, copy number expansions, and contractions. PMID:15126410

  10. Peginterferon alpha-2b plus adefovir induce strong cccDNA decline and HBsAg reduction in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Wursthorn, Karsten; Lutgehetmann, Marc; Dandri, Maura; Volz, Tassilo; Buggisch, Peter; Zollner, Bernhard; Longerich, Thomas; Schirmacher, Peter; Metzler, Frauke; Zankel, Myrga; Fischer, Conrad; Currie, Graeme; Brosgart, Carol; Petersen, Joerg

    2006-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is responsible for persistent infection of hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to determine changes in intrahepatic cccDNA in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CH-B) during 48 weeks of antiviral therapy and its correlation to virological, biochemical, and histological parameters. Twenty-six HBsAg-positive CH-B patients received combination treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2b (peg-IFN) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for 48 weeks. Paired liver biopsies from before and at the end of treatment were analyzed for intrahepatic HBV-DNA. Median serum HBV-DNA had decreased by -4.9 log10 copies/mL at the end of treatment and was undetectable in 13 individuals (54%). Median intrahepatic total HBV-DNA and cccDNA had decreased by -2.2 and -2.4 log10, respectively. Changes in intracellular HBV-DNA positively correlated with HBsAg serum reduction and were accompanied by a high number of serological responders. Eight of 15 HBeAg-positive patients lost HBeAg, and five developed anti-HBe antibodies during treatment. These eight patients exhibited lower cccDNA levels before and at the end of therapy than did patients without HBeAg loss. Four patients developed anti-HBs antibodies. ALT normalized in 11 patients. The number of HBs-antigen- and HBc-antigen-positive hepatocytes was significantly lower after treatment, suggesting the involvement of cytolytic mechanisms. In conclusion, combination therapy with peg-IFN and ADV led to marked decreases in serum HBV-DNA and intrahepatic cccDNA, which was significantly correlated with reduced HBsAg.

  11. Identification and DNA sequence analysis of 15 new {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin variants, including two PI*QO alleles and one deficient PI*M allele

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, J.P.; Kirchgesser, M.; Schwaab, R.; Bidlingmaier, F.; Poller, W.; Weidinger, S.; Olek, K. |

    1994-12-01

    The authors have investigated the molecular basis of 15 new {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin ({alpha}1AT) variants. Phenotyping by isoelectric focusing (IEF) was used as a screening method to detect {alpha}1AT variants at the protein level. Genotyping was then performed by sequence analysis of all coding exons, exon-intron junctions, and the hepatocyte-specific promotor region including exon Ic. Three of these rare variants are alleles of clinical relevance, associated with undetectable or very low serum levels of {alpha}1AT: the PI*Q0saarbruecken allele generated by a 1-bp C-nucleotide insertion within a stretch of seven cytosines spanning residues 360-362, resulting in a 3{prime} frameshift and the acquisition of a stop codon at residue 376; a point mutation in the PI*Q0lisbon allele, resulting in a single amino acid substitution Thr{sup 68}(ACC){yields}Ile(ATC); and an in-frame trinucleotide deletion {Delta}Phe{sup 51} (TTC) in the highly deficient PI*Mpalermo allele. The remaining 12 alleles are associated with normal {alpha}1AT serum levels and are characterized by point mutations causing single amino acid substitutions in all but one case. This exception is a silent mutation, which does not affect the amino acid sequence. The limitation of IEF compared with DNA sequence analysis, for identification of new variants, their generation by mutagenesis, and the clinical relevance of the three deficiency alleles are discussed.

  12. A partial genomic DNA clone for the alpha subunit of the mouse complement receptor type 3 and cellular adhesion molecule Mac-1.

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, L; Roman, J M; Teplow, D B; Dreyer, W J; Gee, C E; Larson, R S; Roberts, T M; Springer, T A

    1986-01-01

    A genomic clone coding for the alpha subunit of the mouse complement receptor type 3 and the cellular adhesion molecule Mac-1 has been isolated directly from a genomic library using synthetic oligonucleotide probes based on the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein. The identity of the clone has been established by DNA sequencing and in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The gene is present in a single copy in the murine genome. The region containing the amino-terminal exon has been sequenced. RNA gel blotting shows that the Mac-1 alpha-subunit mRNA is 6 kilobases in length. Mac-1 alpha-subunit mRNA is present in macrophages but not T lymphoma or L cells. During gamma interferon-stimulated maturation of the mouse premyelocytic cell line M1, Mac-1 alpha-subunit mRNA is induced. This corresponds with the tissue distribution of the Mac-1 alpha subunit, showing expression is regulated at least partially at the message level. Images PMID:2942940

  13. Preclinical study on combined chemo- and nonviral gene therapy for sensitization of melanoma using a human TNF-alpha expressing MIDGE DNA vector.

    PubMed

    Kobelt, Dennis; Aumann, Jutta; Schmidt, Manuel; Wittig, Burghardt; Fichtner, Iduna; Behrens, Diana; Lemm, Margit; Freundt, Greta; Schlag, Peter M; Walther, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Nonviral gene therapy represents a realistic option for clinical application in cancer treatment. This preclinical study demonstrates the advantage of using the small-size MIDGE(®) DNA vector for improved transgene expression and therapeutic application. This is caused by significant increase in transcription efficiency, but not by increased intracellular vector copy numbers or gene transfer efficiency. We used the MIDGE-hTNF-alpha vector for high-level expression of hTNF-alpha in vitro and in vivo for a combined gene therapy and vindesine treatment in human melanoma models. The MIDGE vector mediated high-level hTNF-alpha expression leads to sensitization of melanoma cells towards vindesine. The increased efficacy of this combination is mediated by remarkable acceleration and increase of initiator caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspase 3 and 7 activation. In the therapeutic approach, the nonviral intratumoral in vivo jet-injection gene transfer of MIDGE-hTNF-alpha in combination with vindesine causes melanoma growth inhibition in association with increased apoptosis in A375 cell line or patient derived human melanoma xenotransplant (PDX) models. This study represents a proof-of-concept for an anticipated phase I clinical gene therapy trial, in which the MIDGE-hTNF-alpha vector will be used for efficient combined chemo- and nonviral gene therapy of malignant melanoma.

  14. Mutational spectrum of CENP-B box and α-satellite DNA on chromosome 21 in Down syndrome children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Tan, Bin; He, Jun-Lin; Liu, Xue-Qing; Chen, Xue-Mei; Gao, Ru-Fei; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Ying-Xiong; Qi, Hong-Bo

    2017-04-01

    The centromere is responsible for the correct inheritance of eukaryotic chromosomes during cell division. Centromere protein B (CENP‑B) and its 17 base pair binding site (CENP‑B box), which appears at regular intervals in centromeric α-satellite DNA (α-satDNA), are important for the assembly of the centromere components. Therefore, it is conceivable that CENP-B box mutations may induce errors in cell division. However, the association between the deoxynucleotide alterations of the CENP‑B box and the extra chromosome 21 (Chr21) present in patients with Down syndrome (DS) remains to be elucidated. The mutational spectrum of the α‑satDNA, including 4 functional CENP‑B boxes in Chr21 from 127 DS and 100 healthy children were analyzed by direct sequencing. The de novo occurrences of mutations within CENP‑B boxes in patients with DS were excluded. The prevalence of 6 novel mutations (g.661delC, g.1035_1036insA, g.1076_1077insC, g.670T>G, g.1239A>T, g.1343T>C) and 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (g.727C/T, g.863A/C, g.1264C/G) were not significantly different between DS and controls (P>0.05). However, g.525C/G (P=0.01), g.601T/C (P=0.00000002), g.1279A/G (P=0.002), g.1294C/T (P=0.0006) and g.1302 G/T (P=0.004) were significantly associated with the prevalence of DS (P<0.05). The results indicated that CENP‑B boxes are highly conserved in DS patients and may not be responsible for Chr21 nondisjunction events. However, α‑satDNA in Chr21 is variable and deoxynucleotide deletions, mutations and polymorphisms may act as potential molecular diagnostic markers of DS.

  15. De novo evolution of satellite DNA on the rye B chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, T; Seago, C; Jones, R N; Ougham, H; Thomas, H; Forster, J W; Jenkins, G

    2000-01-01

    The most distinctive region of the rye B chromosome is a subtelomeric domain that contains an exceptional concentration of B-chromosome-specific sequences. At metaphase this domain appears to be the physical counterpart of the subtelomeric heterochromatic regions present on standard rye chromosomes, but its conformation at interphase is less condensed. In this report we show that the two sequence families that have been previously found to make up the bulk of the domain have been assembled from fragments of a variety of sequence elements, giving rise to their ostensibly foreign origin. A single mechanism, probably based on synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), is responsible for their assembly. We provide evidence for sequential evolution of one family on the B chromosome itself. The extent of these rearrangements and the complexity of the higher-order organization of the B-chromosome-specific families indicate that instability is a property of the domain itself, rather than of any single sequence. Indirect evidence suggests that particular fragments may have been selected to confer different properties on the domain and that rearrangements are frequently selected for their effect on DNA structure. The current organization appears to represent a transient stage in the evolution of a conventional heterochromatic region from complex sequences. PMID:10655237

  16. Molecular cloning, cDNA sequence, and chromosomal localization of the human phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110{alpha} (PIK3CA) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Volinia, S.; Hiles, I.; Waterfield, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase is a heterodimeric enzyme comprising a 110-kDa catalytic subunit and an 85-kDa regulatory subunit that binds to tyrosine phosphopeptide sites linked directly or indirectly to receptors serving diverse signal functions. Knowledge of the structure and function of PI 3-kinase was greatly advanced by the purification, cDNA cloning, and subsequent expression of the bovine enzyme. Here the cloning of the cDNA for the human p110{alpha}subunit of PI 3-kinase (PIK3CA), encoding a protein 99% identical to the bovine p110, and of its gene in YAC is described. The chromosomal localization of the gene for PIK3CA is shown to be at 3q21-qter as determined using somatic cell hybrids. In situ hybridization performed using Alu-PCR from the YAC DNA located the gene in 3q26.3. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Diagnosis of. alpha. sub 1 -antitrypsin deficiency by enzymatic amplification of human genomic DNA and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.R.; Graham, A.; Powell, S.; Gammack, A.; Riley, J.; Markham, A.F. ); Kalsheker, N. )

    1988-09-12

    The authors have compared sequencing of cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products and the direct sequencing of PCR products in the examination of individuals from six families affected with {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In families where paternity was in question they confirmed consanguinity by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of locus-specific minisatellite probes. They demonstrate that direct sequencing of PCR amplification products is the method of choice for the absolutely specific diagnosis of AAT deficiency and can distinguish normals, heterozygotes and homozygotes in a single, rapid and facile assay. Furthermore, they demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCR and a rapid DNA isolation procedure. They have also shown that two loci can be simultaneously amplified and that the PCR product from each locus can be independently examined by direct DNA sequencing.

  18. Interplay of selective pressure and stochastic events directs evolution of the MEL172 satellite DNA library in root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Mestrović, Nevenka; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Plohl, Miroslav

    2006-12-01

    According to the library model, related species can have in common satellite DNA (satDNA) families amplified in differing abundances, but reasons for persistence of particular sequences in the library during long periods of time are poorly understood. In this paper, we characterize 3 related satDNAs coexisting in the form of a library in mitotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Due to sequence similarity and conserved monomer length of 172 bp, this group of satDNAs is named MEL172. Analysis of sequence variability patterns among monomers of the 3 MEL172 satellites revealed 2 low-variable (LV) domains highly reluctant to sequence changes, 2 moderately variable (MV) domains characterized by limited number of mutations, and 1 highly variable (HV) domain. The latter domain is prone to rapid spread and homogenization of changes. Comparison of the 3 MEL172 consensus sequences shows that the LV domains have 6% changed nucleotide positions, the MV domains have 48%, whereas 78% divergence is concentrated in the HV domain. Conserved distribution of intersatellite variability might indicate a complex pattern of interactions in heterochromatin, which limits the range and phasing of allowed changes, implying a possible selection imposed on monomer sequences. The lack of fixed species-diagnostic mutations in each of the examined MEL172 satellites suggests that they existed in unaltered form in a common ancestor of extant species. Consequently, the evolution of these satellites seems to be driven by interplay of selective constraints and stochastic events. We propose that new satellites were derived from an ancestral progenitor sequence by nonrandom accumulation of mutations due to selective pressure on particular sequence segments. In the library of particular taxa, established satellites might be subject to differential amplification at chance due to stochastic mechanisms of concerted evolution.

  19. Zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of human and Indian muntjac karyotypes (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis) reveals satellite DNA clusters at the margins of conserved syntenic segments.

    PubMed

    Frönicke, L; Scherthan, H

    1997-06-01

    Zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with human whole chromosome-specific paint probes revealed extensive homoeologies between Indian muntjac (2n=6, 7 female, male) and human karyotypes (2n=46). Forty-two conserved syntenic segments, corresponding to all human chromosomes except the Y chromosome, produced a near-complete coverage of the muntjac complement and revealed margins of interspecific segmental homoeology. To test the hypothesis that interstitial satellite DNA loci, illuminated by a Chinese muntjac C5-satellite probe in Indian muntjac chromosome arms, mark ancestral fusion points (Lin CC, Sasi R, Fan YS, Chen Z-Q (1991) New evidence for tandem chromosome fusions in the karyotypic evolution of the Asian muntjacs. Chromosoma 101: 19-24), we combined Zoo-FISH with C5 satellite mapping. Twenty-six interstitial satellite DNA loci were detected in the haploid Indian muntjac genome and were found to co-localize with the margins of conserved human/Indian muntjac syntenic segments. These results were confirmed by two-colour FISH and are in accordance with the tandem fusion hypothesis for Indian muntjac chromosomes. Furthermore, conserved syntenic segment combinations detected in pig, cattle and Indian muntjac Zoo-FISH maps reveal ancestral artiodactyl chromosomes.

  20. Structure and expression of the gene coding for the alpha-subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the chloroplast genome of Zea mays.

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, M; Kössel, H

    1988-01-01

    The rpoA gene coding for the alpha-subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase located on the DNA of Zea mays chloroplasts has been characterized with respect to its position on the chloroplast genome and its nucleotide sequence. The amino acid sequence derived for a 39 Kd polypeptide shows strong homology with sequences derived from the rpoA genes of other chloroplast species and with the amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit from E. coli RNA polymerase. Transcripts of the rpoA gene were identified by Northern hybridization and characterized by S1 mapping using total RNA isolated from maize chloroplasts. Antibodies raised against a synthetic C-terminal heptapeptide show cross reactivity with a 39 Kd polypeptide contained in the stroma fraction of maize chloroplasts. It is concluded that the rpoA gene is a functional gene and that therefore, at least the alpha-subunit of plastidic RNA polymerase, is expressed in chloroplasts. Images PMID:3399379

  1. In Vitro Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against S. aureus Alpha Toxin and Sensitive Detection in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ka L.; Battistella, Luisa; Salva, Alysia D.; Williams, Ryan M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both community and hospital settings. Due to the prevalence of S. aureus related infections and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of S. aureus infections is crucial in benefiting patient health outcomes. In this study, a rigorous Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) variant previously developed by our laboratory was utilized to select a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element (MRE) targeting alpha toxin with high affinity and specificity. At the end of the 12-round selection, the selected MRE had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 93.7 ± 7.0 nM. Additionally, a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed by using the selected ssDNA MRE as the toxin-capturing element and a sensitive detection of 200 nM alpha toxin in undiluted human serum samples was achieved. PMID:25633102

  2. Binding of nuclear factors to a satellite DNA of retroviral origin with marked differences in copy number among species of the rodent Ctenomys.

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, C G; Rossi, M S; Muro, A F; Reig, O A; Zorzópulos, J; Kornblihtt, A R

    1994-01-01

    The major satellite DNA of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys, named RPCS, contains several consensus sequences characteristic of the U3 region of retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs), such as a polypurine tract, CCAAT boxes, binding sites for the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), a TATA box and putative polyadenylation signals. RPCS presents an enormous variation in abundance between species of the same genus: while C. australis or C. talarum have approximately 3 x 10(6) copies per genome, C. opimus has none. A sequence (RPCS-I) with identity to the SV40-enhancer core element, present in all the repeating units of the satellite is specifically protected in DNase I footprintings. Competitions of band-shift assays with different transcription factor binding sites indicate that binding to RPCS-I is specific and involves CCAAT proteins related to NF-1, but not to C/EBP. By the use of quantitative protein/DNA binding assays we determined that, despite of their conspicuous difference in RPCS copy number, C. talarum and C. opimus have equivalent amounts and identical quality of RPCS-binding proteins. These results are consistent with the observation, by in situ hybridization, that RPCS is clustered in heterochromatic regions, where it might have restricted accessibility to transcription factors in vivo. This is the first report of the binding of transcription factors to a satellite DNA of retroviral origin. Images PMID:8127714

  3. DNA sequence analysis of a mouse pro alpha 1 (I) procollagen gene: evidence for a mouse B1 element within the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J M; Friedman, J; McCarthy, B J

    1982-01-01

    In a 3.8-kilobase mouse DNA sequence encoding amino acid sequences for the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen, 14 coding sequences were identified which specify a sequence 95% homologous to amino acid residues 568 to 963 of the bovine alpha 1(I) chain. All of these coding sequences were flanked by appropriate splice junctions following the GT/AG rule. These observations suggest, but do not prove, that this pro alpha 1(I) gene is transcriptionally active. Of the 14 coding sequences, 7 were 54 base pairs in length, whereas the remainder were higher multiples of 54 base pairs. Nonrandom utilization of codons pertained throughout all of the coding sequences showing a preference (56%) for U in the wobble position. Two of the intervening sequences encoded imperfect vestiges of coding sequences which exhibited a codon preference different from that of the pro alpha 1(I) gene proper and were not flanked by splice junctions. One intervening sequence encoded a member of the mouse B1 family of middle repetitive sequences. It was flanked by 8-base-pair direct repeats and had a truncated A-rich region, suggesting that it may be a mobile element. Within this element were sequences which could function as a RNA polymerase III split promoter. Images PMID:6298597

  4. Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose:. beta. -D-galactoside 2-. alpha. -L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.D.; Ernst, L.K.; Nair, R.P.; Lowe, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors have previously used a gene-transfer scheme to isolate a human genomic DNA fragment that determines expression of a GDP-L-fucose:{beta}D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-L-fucosyltransferase. Although this fragment determined expression of an {alpha}(1,2)FT whose kinetic properties mirror those of the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT, their precise nature remained undefined. They describe here the molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human of cDNA corresponding to these human genomic sequences. When expressed in COS-1 cells, the cDNA directs expression of cell surface H structures and a cognate {alpha}(1,2)FT activity with properties analogous to the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT. The cDNA sequence predicts a 365-amino acid polypeptide characteristic of a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a domain structure analogous to that of other glycosyltransferases but without significant primary sequence similarity to these or other known proteins. To directly demonstrate that the cDNA encodes an {alpha}(1,2)FT, the COOH-terminal domain predicted to be Golgi-resident was expressed in COS-1 cells as a catalytically active, secreted, and soluble protein A fusion peptide. Southern blot analysis showed that this cDNA identified DNA sequences syntenic to the human H locus on chromosome 19. These results strongly suggest that this cloned {alpha}(1,2)FT cDNA represents the product of the human H blood group locus.

  5. Identification of Vitis vinifera (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase by in silico screening of full-length cDNA ESTs and functional characterization of recombinant terpene synthase.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diane M; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-05-01

    The flavour and aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape varieties is dominated by volatile terpenes and small volatile aldehydes. Monoterpenes contribute to the final grape and wine aroma and flavour in form of free volatiles and as glycoside conjugates of monoterpene alcohols. Typical monoterpenol components of the cultivar Gewürztraminer and other aroma-rich grape varieties are linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol, and alpha-terpineol. In a functional genomics effort to identify genes for the formation of monoterpene alcohols in V. vinifera, a database of full-length cDNA sequences was screened in silico and yielded two clones for putative monoterpene synthases. The gene products were functionally characterized by expression in Escherichia coli, in vitro enzyme assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) product identification as multi-product (-)-alpha-terpineol synthases.

  6. Molecular modeling of NK-CT1, from Indian monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia) and its docking interaction with human DNA topoisomerase II alpha

    PubMed Central

    Bandopadhyay, Pathikrit; Halder, Soma; Sarkar, Mrinmoy; Kumar Bhunia, Sujay; Dey, Sananda; Gomes, Antony; Giri, Biplab

    2016-01-01

    A 6.76 kDa molecular weight cardio and cytotoxic protein of 60 amino acids in length called NK-CT1, was purified from the venom of Indian monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia) by ion-exchange chromatography and HPLC as described in our earlier report. Therefore it is of interest to utlize the sequence of NK-CT1 for further functional inference using molecular modeling and docking. Thus homology model of NK-CT1 is described in this report. The anti-proliferative activity of the protein, binding with human DNA topoisomerase-II alpha was demonstrated using docking data with AUTODOCK and AUTODOCK MGL tools. Data shows that M26, V27 and S28 of NK-CT1 is in close contact with the nucleotides of the oligonucleotide, bound with topoisomerase-II alpha complex. PMID:28149043

  7. Crystal Structure of a B-form DNA Duplex Containing (L)-alpha-Threofuranosyl (3'-2') Nucleosides (TNA): A Simple Four Carbon Sugar is Easily Accommodated into the Backbone of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Wilds, C.J.; Wawrzak, Z.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A.; Egli, M.

    2010-03-08

    (L)-{alpha}-Threofuranosyl-(3' {yields} 2')-oligonucleotides (TNA) containing vicinally connected phosphodiester linkages undergo informational base pairing in an antiparallel strand orientation and are capable of cross-pairing with RNA and DNA. TNA is derived from a sugar containing only four carbon atoms and is one of the simplest potentially natural nucleic acid alternatives investigated thus far in the context of a chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure. Compared to DNA and RNA that contain six covalent bonds per repeating nucleotide unit, TNA contains only five. We have determined the atomic-resolution crystal structure of the B-form DNA duplex [d(CGCGAA)T*d(TCGCG)]{sub 2} containing a single (L)-{alpha}-threofuranosyl thymine (T*) per strand. In the modified duplex base stacking interactions are practically unchanged relative to the reference DNA structure. The orientations of the backbone at the TNA incorporation sites are slightly altered in order to accommodate fewer atoms and covalent bonds. The conformation of the threose is C4'-exo with the 2'- and 3'-substituents assuming quasi-diaxial orientation.

  8. The Trypanosoma cruzi Satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi Kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for Diagnosis of Chagas Disease: A Multi-cohort Comparative Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    De Winne, Koen; Büscher, Philippe; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Tavares, Suelene B. N.; Oliveira, Rodrigo A.; Solari, Aldo; Zulantay, Ines; Apt, Werner; Diosque, Patricio; Monje Rumi, Mercedes; Gironès, Nuria; Fresno, Manuel; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Perez-Molina, José A.; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Garcia, Lineth; Deborggraeve, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Background The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA) OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a new prototype of the OligoC-TesT based on kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) detection. We evaluated the satDNA and kDNA OligoC-TesTs in a multi-cohort study with 187 chronic Chagas patients and 88 healthy endemic controls recruited in Argentina, Chile and Spain and 26 diseased non-endemic controls from D.R. Congo and Sudan. All specimens were tested in duplicate. The overall specificity in the controls was 99.1% (95% CI 95.2%–99.8%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 97.4% (95% CI 92.6%–99.1%) for the kDNA OligoC-TesT. The overall sensitivity in the patients was 67.9% (95% CI 60.9%–74.2%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 79.1% (95% CI 72.8%–84.4%) for the kDNA OligoC-Test. Conclusions/Significance Specificities of the two T. cruzi OligoC-TesT prototypes are high on non-endemic and endemic controls. Sensitivities are moderate but significantly (p = 0.0004) higher for the kDNA OligoC-TesT compared to the satDNA OligoC-TesT. PMID:24392177

  9. The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for diagnosis of Chagas disease: a multi-cohort comparative evaluation study.

    PubMed

    De Winne, Koen; Büscher, Philippe; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Tavares, Suelene B N; Oliveira, Rodrigo A; Solari, Aldo; Zulantay, Ines; Apt, Werner; Diosque, Patricio; Monje Rumi, Mercedes; Gironès, Nuria; Fresno, Manuel; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Perez-Molina, José A; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Garcia, Lineth; Deborggraeve, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA) OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients. We developed a new prototype of the OligoC-TesT based on kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) detection. We evaluated the satDNA and kDNA OligoC-TesTs in a multi-cohort study with 187 chronic Chagas patients and 88 healthy endemic controls recruited in Argentina, Chile and Spain and 26 diseased non-endemic controls from D.R. Congo and Sudan. All specimens were tested in duplicate. The overall specificity in the controls was 99.1% (95% CI 95.2%-99.8%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 97.4% (95% CI 92.6%-99.1%) for the kDNA OligoC-TesT. The overall sensitivity in the patients was 67.9% (95% CI 60.9%-74.2%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 79.1% (95% CI 72.8%-84.4%) for the kDNA OligoC-Test. Specificities of the two T. cruzi OligoC-TesT prototypes are high on non-endemic and endemic controls. Sensitivities are moderate but significantly (p = 0.0004) higher for the kDNA OligoC-TesT compared to the satDNA OligoC-TesT.

  10. Ambivalent incorporation of the fluorescent cytosine analogues tC and tCo by human DNA polymerase alpha and Klenow fragment.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Gudrun; Purse, Byron W; Wilhelmsson, L Marcus; Urban, Milan; Kuchta, Robert D

    2009-08-11

    We studied the incorporation of the fluorescent cytidine analogues 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenothiazine (tC) and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tCo) by human DNA polymerase alpha and Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I (Escherichia coli). These tricyclic nucleobases possess the regular hydrogen bonding interface of cytosine but are significantly expanded in size toward the major groove. Despite the size alteration, both DNA polymerases insert dtCTP and dtCoTP with remarkable catalytic efficiency. Polymerization opposite guanine is comparable to the insertion of dCTP, while the insertion opposite adenine is only approximately 4-11 times less efficient than the formation of a T-A base pair. Both enzymes readily extend the formed tC(o)-G and tC(o)-A base pairs and can incorporate at least four consecutive nucleotide analogues. Consistent with these results, both DNA polymerases efficiently polymerize dGTP and dATP when tC and tCo are in the template strand. Klenow fragment inserts dGTP with a 4-9-fold higher probability than dATP, while polymerase alpha favors dGTP over dATP by a factor of 30-65. Overall, the properties of tC(o) as a templating base and as an incoming nucleotide are surprisingly symmetrical and may be universal for A and B family DNA polymerases. This finding suggests that the aptitude for ambivalent base pairing is a consequence of the electronic properties of tC(o).

  11. Isolation of cDNA clones coding for the alpha and beta chains of human propionyl-CoA carboxylase: chromosomal assignments and DNA polymorphisms associated with PCCA and PCCB genes.

    PubMed Central

    Lamhonwah, A M; Barankiewicz, T J; Willard, H F; Mahuran, D J; Quan, F; Gravel, R A

    1986-01-01

    Propionyl-CoA carboxylase [PCC, propanoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.4.1.3] is a biotin-dependent enzyme involved in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, fatty acids with odd-numbered chain lengths, and other metabolites. Inherited deficiency of the enzyme results in propionic acidemia, an autosomal recessive disorder showing considerable clinical heterogeneity. To facilitate investigations of enzyme structure and the nature of mutation in propionic acidemia, we have isolated cDNA clones coding for the alpha and beta polypeptides of human PCC. Sequences of two peptides derived from human liver PCC were used to specify oligonucleotide probes that were then used to screen a human fibroblast cDNA library. Two classes of cDNA clones were thus identified. One class contained the anticipated Ala-Met-Lys-Met sequence, corresponding to the biotin binding site found in several biotin-dependent carboxylases, thus confirming the alpha-chain assignment of these clones. In addition, they contained the deduced amino acid sequence of two of the sequenced peptides, including that of one of the oligonucleotide probes. The second class, coding for the beta polypeptide, contained the sequences of four peptides, including the sequence corresponding to the other oligonucleotide probe. Blot hybridization of RNA from normal human fibroblasts revealed a single mRNA species of 2.9 kilobases coding for the alpha polypeptide and two species of 4.5 and 2.0 kilobases detected for the beta polypeptide. By use of a panel of somatic mouse-human hybrids, the human gene encoding the alpha polypeptide (PCCA) was localized to chromosome 13, while the gene encoding the beta polypeptide (PCCB) was assigned to chromosome 3. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were identified, at both PCCA and PCCB, that should prove useful to individual families at risk for propionic acidemia. Images PMID:3460076

  12. Exploring the Diversity of Plant DNA Viruses and Their Satellites Using Vector-Enabled Metagenomics on Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Duffy, Siobain; Polston, Jane E.; Bixby, Elise; Vallad, Gary E.; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed “vector-enabled metagenomics” (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral

  13. Exploring the diversity of plant DNA viruses and their satellites using vector-enabled metagenomics on whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Duffy, Siobain; Polston, Jane E; Bixby, Elise; Vallad, Gary E; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-04-22

    Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed "vector-enabled metagenomics" (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral diseases.

  14. A Viral Satellite DNA Vector (TYLCCNV) for Functional Analysis of miRNAs and siRNAs in Plants.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zheng; Cao, Dongyan; Gao, Chao; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhai, Baiqiang; Li, Shan; Zhu, Hongliang; Fu, Daqi; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2017-04-01

    With experimental and bioinformatical methods, numerous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), have been found in plants, and they play vital roles in various biological regulation processes. However, most of these small RNAs remain to be functionally characterized. Until now, only several viral vectors were developed to overexpress miRNAs with limited application in plants. In this study, we report a new small RNA overexpression system via viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) vector, which could highly overexpress not only artificial and endogenous miRNAs but also endogenous siRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana First, we constructed basic TYLCCNV-amiRPDS(319L) vector with widely used AtMIR319a backbone, but the expected photobleaching phenotype was very weak. Second, through comparing the effect of backbones (AtMIR319a, AtMIR390a, and SlMIR159) on specificity and significance of generating small RNAs, the AtMIR390a backbone was optimally selected to construct the small RNA overexpression system. Third, through sRNA-Seq and Degradome-Seq, the small RNAs from AtMIR390a backbone in TYLCCNV-amiRPDS(390) vector were confirmed to highly overexpress amiRPDS and specifically silence targeted PDS gene. Using this system, rapid functional analysis of endogenous miRNAs and siRNAs was carried out, including miR156 and athTAS3a 5'D8(+). Meanwhile, through designing corresponding artificial miRNAs, this system could also significantly silence targeted endogenous genes and show specific phenotypes, including PDS, Su, and PCNA These results demonstrated that this small RNA overexpression system could contribute to investigating not only the function of endogenous small RNAs, but also the functional genes in plants.

  15. Residues required for Bacillus subtilis PhoP DNA binding or RNA polymerase interaction: alanine scanning of PhoP effector domain transactivation loop and alpha helix 3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinghua; Abdel-Fattah, Wael R; Hulett, F Marion

    2004-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis PhoP is a member of the OmpR family of response regulators that activates or represses genes of the Pho regulon upon phosphorylation by PhoR in response to phosphate deficiency. Because PhoP binds DNA and is a dimer in solution independent of its phosphorylation state, phosphorylation of PhoP may optimize DNA binding or the interaction with RNA polymerase. We describe alanine scanning mutagenesis of the PhoP alpha loop and alpha helix 3 region of PhoPC (Val190 to E214) and functional analysis of the mutated proteins. Eight residues important for DNA binding were clustered between Val202 and Arg210. Using in vivo and in vitro functional analyses, we identified three classes of mutated proteins. Class I proteins (PhoP(I206A), PhoP(R210A), PhoP(L209A), and PhoP(H208A)) were phosphorylation proficient and could dimerize but could not bind DNA or activate transcription in vivo or in vitro. Class II proteins (PhoP(H205A) and PhoP(V204A)) were phosphorylation proficient and could dimerize but could not bind DNA prior to phosphorylation. Members of this class had higher transcription activation in vitro than in vivo. The class III mutants, PhoP(V202A) and PhoP(D203A), had a reduced rate of phosphotransfer and could dimerize but could not bind DNA or activate transcription in vivo or in vitro. Seven alanine substitutions in PhoP (PhoP(V190A), PhoP(W191A), PhoP(Y193A), PhoP(F195A), PhoP(G197A,) PhoP(T199A), and PhoP(R200A)) that specifically affected transcription activation were broadly distributed throughout the transactivation loop extending from Val190 to as far toward the C terminus as Arg200. PhoP(W191A) and PhoP(R200A) could not activate transcription, while the other five mutant proteins showed decreased transcription activation in vivo or in vitro or both. The mutagenesis studies may indicate that PhoP has a long transactivation loop and a short alpha helix 3, more similar to OmpR than to PhoB of Escherichia coli.

  16. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Downregulates IL-1β and IL-6 by DNA Hypermethylation in SK-N-BE Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Dinicola, Simona; Proietti, Sara; Cucina, Alessandra; Bizzarri, Mariano; Fuso, Andrea

    2017-09-26

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a pleiotropic molecule with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, of which the effects are exerted through the modulation of NF-kB. This nuclear factor, in fact, modulates different inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1b and IL-6, in different tissues and cell types. We recently showed that IL-1b and IL-6 DNA methylation is modulated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients, and that IL-1b expression is associated to DNA methylation in the brain of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. These results prompted us to ask whether ALA-induced repression of IL-1b and IL-6 was dependent on DNA methylation. Therefore, we profiled DNA methylation in the 5'-flanking region of the two aforementioned genes in SK-N-BE human neuroblastoma cells cultured in presence of ALA 0.5 mM. Our experimental data pointed out that the two promoters are hypermethylated in cells supplemented with ALA, both at CpG and non-CpG sites. Moreover, the observed hypermethylation is associated with decreased mRNA expression and decreased cytokine release. These results reinforce previous findings indicating that IL-1b and IL-6 undergo DNA methylation-dependent modulation in neural models and pave the road to study the epigenetic mechanisms triggered by ALA.

  17. DNA topoisomerase II alpha and Ki-67 in human adrenocortical neoplasms: a possible marker of differentiation between adenomas and carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Iino, K; Sasano, H; Yabuki, N; Oki, Y; Kikuchi, A; Yoshimi, T; Nagura, H

    1997-09-01

    Cell kinetic information is valuable in evaluating the diagnosis and/or biologic behavior of various human neoplasms. Monoclonal antibody Ki-67 recognizes the cells other than G0 of the cell cycle. A cell cycle-related intranuclear protein, topoisomerase II alpha (topoII alpha), separates chromosomes at the end of mitosis. Its expression is mostly limited to the S to G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We studied cell proliferative activity in adrenocortical adenomas (n = 28), carcinomas (n = 17), and normal adrenal glands (n = 6) by immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 and topoII alpha to evaluate their value in the diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy. We detected Ki-67 and topoII alpha immunohistoreactivity in the nuclei of each case we examined. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.927) between the Ki-67 and topoII alpha labeling indexes (LIs), the percentage of positive cells. In normal adrenal cortex and adenoma, the LIs for Ki-67 and topoII alpha were 0.48 +/- 0.16 and 0.44 +/- 0.15 for normal and 0.64 +/- 0.11 and 0.72 +/- 0.12 for adenoma, respectively, with no significant differences in the LIs of adenomas and normal adrenals. The Ki-67 and topoII alpha LIs in the carcinomas were 5.84 +/- 1.33 and 6.13 +/0 1.65, respectively; these LIs were significantly higher than the LIs of adenomas. Eleven of 17 carcinomas demonstrated topoII alpha and Ki-67 LIs of more than 2.5, whereas none of the adenomas did. The topoII alpha and Ki-67 LIs in carcinomas with metastasis (11.21 +/- 3.15 and 9.75 +/- 2.31 respectively; n = 7) were significantly higher than in those without metastasis (2.58 +/- 0.61 and 3.12 +/- 0.90, respectively; n = 10). This indicates that immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 and topoII alpha could help to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma in resected adrenocortical neoplasms and might predict aggressive biologic behavior in carcinomas.

  18. Characterization and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a protein related to the murine 102-kDa cadherin-associated protein ([alpha]-catenin)

    SciTech Connect

    Claverie, J.M. ); Hardelin, J.P.; Legouis, R.; Levilliers, J.; Petit, C. ); Bougueleret, L. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1993-01-01

    We report the characterization of a human cDNA encompassing the complete coding region of a 945-residue putative protein (CAP-R) 80% identical to the recently described murine 102-kDa [alpha]-catenin (CAP102). The CAP-R protein mostly differs from CAP102 by the presence of a 48-residue insert. This insert exhibits similarity with a segment of the type 1 neurofibromatosis gene product. The analysis of a publicly available human [open quote]expressed sequence tag[close quotes] collection revealed the existence of another human cDNA more closely related (89% identical) to CAP 102. This strongly suggests that CAP-R is not the human homologue of the murine 102- kDa [alpha]-catenin but a new closely related gene of the vinculin family. This is further supported by the computed mutation rates falling outside the range observed for mammalian orthologous genes. Using in situ hybridization, the CAP-R gene could be mapped to the pll.l-pl2 region of human chromosome 2 and to the homologous B3-D region of mouse chromosome 6. 32 refs., 4 fig.

  19. Conformational properties of bacterial DnaK and yeast mitochondrial Hsp70. Role of the divergent C-terminal alpha-helical subdomain.

    PubMed

    Moro, Fernando; Fernández-Sáiz, Vanesa; Slutsky, Olga; Azem, Abdussalam; Muga, Arturo

    2005-06-01

    Among the eukaryotic members of the Hsp70 family, mitochondrial Hsp70 shows the highest degree of sequence identity with bacterial DnaK. Although they share a functional mechanism and homologous co-chaperones, they are highly specific and cannot be exchanged between Escherichia coli and yeast mitochondria. To provide a structural basis for this finding, we characterized both proteins, as well as two DnaK/mtHsp70 chimeras constructed by domain swapping, using biochemical and biophysical methods. Here, we show that DnaK and mtHsp70 display different conformational and biochemical properties. Replacing different regions of the DnaK peptide-binding domain with those of mtHsp70 results in chimeric proteins that: (a) are not able to support growth of an E. coli DnaK deletion strain at stress temperatures (e.g. 42 degrees C); (b) show increased accessibility and decreased thermal stability of the peptide-binding pocket; and (c) have reduced activation by bacterial, but not mitochondrial co-chaperones, as compared with DnaK. Importantly, swapping the C-terminal alpha-helical subdomain promotes a conformational change in the chimeras to an mtHsp70-like conformation. Thus, interaction with bacterial co-chaperones correlates well with the conformation that natural and chimeric Hsp70s adopt in solution. Our results support the hypothesis that a specific protein structure might regulate the interaction of Hsp70s with particular components of the cellular machinery, such as Tim44, so that they perform specific functions.

  20. Advances toward DNA-based identification and phylogeny of North American Armillaria species using elongation factor-1 alpha gene

    Treesearch

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    The translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships among 30 previously characterized isolates representing ten North American Armillaria species: A. solidipes (=A. ostoyae), A. gemina, A. calvescens, A. sinapina, A. mellea, A. gallica, A. nabsnona, North American biological species X, A. cepistipes, and A. tabescens. The...

  1. A Pilot Study of Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Alpha- and Beta-Thalassemia with Target Capture Sequencing of Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Haiqing; Wang, Yaoshen; Zeng, Dan; Yang, Yihua; Yi, Xin; Xia, Yang; Zhu, Chunjiang

    2017-07-01

    Thalassemia is a dangerous hematolytic genetic disease. In south China, ∼24% Chinese carry alpha-thalassemia or beta-thalassemia gene mutations. Given the fact that the invasive sampling procedures can only be performed by professionals in experienced centers, it may increase the risk of miscarriage or infection. Thus, most people are worried about the invasive operation. As such, a noninvasive and accurate prenatal diagnosis is needed for appropriate genetic counseling for families with high risks. Here we sought to develop capture probes and their companion analysis methods for the noninvasive prenatal detection of deletional and nondeletional thalassemia. Two families diagnosed as carriers of either beta-thalassemia gene or Southeast Asian deletional alpha-thalassemia gene mutation were recruited. The maternal plasma and amniotic fluid were collected for prenatal diagnosis. Probes targeting exons of the genes of interest and the highly heterozygous SNPs within the 1Mb flanking region were designed. The target capture sequencing was performed with plasma DNA from the pregnant woman and genomic DNA from the couples and their children. Then the parental haplotype was constructed by the trios-based strategy. The fetal haplotype was deduced from the parental haplotype with a hidden Markov model-based algorithm. The fetal genotypes were successfully deduced in both families noninvasively. The noninvasively constructed haplotypes of both fetuses were identical to the invasive prenatal diagnosis results with an accuracy rate of 100% in the target region. Our study demonstrates that the effective noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia can be achieved with the targeted capture sequencing and the haplotype-assisted analysis method.

  2. Survival and DNA damage in Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to alpha particles emitted by DNA-incorporated astatine-211.

    PubMed

    Walicka, M A; Vaidyanathan, G; Zalutsky, M R; Adelstein, S J; Kassis, A I

    1998-09-01

    Asynchronous Chinese hamster V79 lung fibroblasts were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min with the thymidine analog 5-[211At]astato-2'-deoxyuridine (211AtdU, exposure from DNA-incorporated activity) or with [211At]astatide (211At-, exposure from extracellular activity), and DNA-incorporated activity was determined. The 211AtdU content in cellular DNA increased as a function of extracellular concentration. Incorporation of 211At- was less than 1% of that of 211AtdU. After exposure, cells were frozen in the presence of 10% DMSO. One month later, survival was determined by the colony-forming assay, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were measured by the neutral elution method (pH 9.6). The survival curve for 211AtdU was biphasic (D37 = 2.8 decays per cell), reflecting killing of 211At-DNA-labeled cells and of unlabeled cells irradiated by 211At in neighboring labeled cells. The toxicity of 211At- decaying outside the cell (30-min exposure) was negligible. Analysis of the survival curve produced a D0 of 1.3 decays/cell for 211At-labeled cells. The yield of DSBs from the decay of DNA-incorporated 211At was compared with that from DNA-incorporated 125I. Each decay of 211At produced at least 10 times the number of DSBs as that obtained per 125I decay. The extreme radiotoxicity of DNA-incorporated 211AtdU seems to be associated with considerable damage to the mammalian cell genome.

  3. Development of a VIGS vector based on the β-satellite DNA associated with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jeyabharathy, C; Shakila, H; Usha, R

    2015-01-02

    Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYMV) is a monopartite begomovirus with an associated β-satellite. βC1 ORF encoded by the β-satellite is the symptom determinant and a strong suppressor of post transcriptional gene silencing. To create a virus induced gene silencing vector based upon the β-satellite associated with BYVMV the βC1 ORF was replaced with multiple cloning sites. GFP transgene and plant endogenous genes Su, PDS, PCNA and AGO1 were cloned into β-satellite based VIGS vector. GFP expression was silenced in the GFP expressing transgenic 16c Nicotiana benthamiana plants infiltrated with VIGS vector carrying GFP gene inside. N. benthamiana plants infiltrated with the VIGS vector harboring the endogenous genes Su, PDS, PCNA and AGO1 produced the phenotypic symptoms yellowing of the veins, photobleaching of the veins, stunting of the plant and upward leaf curling, respectively. Real time PCR analyses revealed a reduction in the levels of the corresponding transgene or endogenous target mRNA. The β-satellite based VIGS vector was able to silence the target genes effectively. Hence, BYVMV β-satellite based VIGS vector can be used in functional genomics studies.

  4. Delayed secondary glucocorticoid response elements. Unusual nucleotide motifs specify glucocorticoid receptor binding to transcribed regions of alpha 2u-globulin DNA.

    PubMed

    Chan, G C; Hess, P; Meenakshi, T; Carlstedt-Duke, J; Gustafsson, J A; Payvar, F

    1991-11-25

    Glucocorticoids stimulate the transcription of rat alpha 2u-globulin (RUG) genes. Because this induction occurs after a time lag of several hours and is blocked by inhibitors of protein synthesis, it exemplifies a delayed secondary response to steroid hormones. In this report, we show that a region of RUG-transcribed DNA (approximately +1800 to +2174) contains multiple footprint sites for glucocorticoid receptor that are, apparently, organized into at least three independent binding clusters. The DNA sequences bound by the receptor and the location of binding sites were determined. A family of sequences related to half-sites of the consensus primary glucocorticoid response element (GRE) is discernible at each cluster of sites. Compared to the consensus GRE, which contains two pseudo-palindromic hexanucleotides arranged in a tail-to-tail fashion and separated by three bases, the arrangements of hexanucleotides within this segment of RUG DNA are unusual and heterogeneous. Methylation interference of a binding cluster containing three receptor footprints demonstrates that certain guanines of the GRE-like hexanucleotides are essential for efficient receptor binding. A synthetic 29-base pair (bp) RUG element, containing one receptor footprint from this cluster, selectively binds the receptor. Within this 29-bp element, six nucleotides separate two directly repeated copies of GRE-like hexanucleotides. RUG DNA fragments containing all or part of the three binding clusters, including the 29-bp element, confer a delayed secondary hormone responsiveness upon a linked heterologous promoter and reporter gene in stably transfected cell lines. We speculate that the unusual DNA sequence motifs of the receptor-binding sites are crucial for the generation of certain delayed secondary responses.

  5. Mosquito carboxylesterase Est alpha 2(1) (A2). Cloning and sequence of the full-length cDNA for a major insecticide resistance gene worldwide in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, A; Hemingway, J

    1995-07-14

    Organophosphorus insecticide resistance in Culex mosquitoes is commonly caused by increased activity of one or more esterases. The commonest phenotype involves elevation of the esterases Est alpha 2 (A2) and Est beta 2 (B2). A cDNA encoding the Est alpha 2 esterase has now been isolated from a Sri Lankan insecticide-resistant mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus, Say) expression library. In line with a recently suggested nomenclature system (Karunaratne, S. H. P. P. (1994) Characterization of Multiple Variants of Carboxylesterases Which Are Involved in Insecticide Resistance in the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Ph.D. thesis, University of London), as the first sequenced variant of this esterase, it is now referred to as Est alpha 2(1). The full-length cDNA of est alpha 2(1) codes for a 540-amino acid protein, which has high homology with other esterases and lipases and belongs to the serine or B-esterase enzyme family. The predicted secondary structure of Est alpha 2(1) is similar to the consensus secondary structure of proteins within the esterase/lipase family where the secondary and tertiary structures have been resolved. The level of identity (approximately 47% at the amino acid level) between the est alpha 2(1) and the various Culex est beta (B1 and B2) cDNA alleles that have been cloned and sequenced suggests that the two esterase loci are closely related and arose originally from duplication of a common ancestral gene. The lack of a distinct hydrophobic signal sequence for Est alpha 2(1) and two possible N-linked glycosylation sites, both situated close to the active site serine, suggest that it is a nonglycosylated protein that is not exported from the cell. Southern and dot blot analysis of genomic DNA from various insecticide-resistant and susceptible mosquito strains show that the est alpha 2(1) gene, like est beta 2(1), is amplified in resistant strains. The restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, after probing Southern blots of Eco

  6. Elucidating Protein-DNA Interactions in Human Alphoid Chromatin via Hybridization Capture and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Katherine E; Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Shortreed, Michael R; Zaidan, Nur Zafirah; Olivier, Michael; Scalf, Mark; Sridharan, Rupa; Smith, Lloyd M

    2017-09-01

    The centromere is the chromosomal locus where the kinetochore forms and is critical for ensuring proper segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. A substantial amount of effort has been devoted to understanding the characteristic features and roles of the centromere, yet some fundamental aspects of the centromere, such as the complete list of elements that define it, remain obscure. It is well-known that human centromeres include a highly repetitive class of DNA known as alpha satellite, or alphoid, DNA. We present here the first DNA-centric examination of human protein-alpha satellite interactions, employing an approach known as HyCCAPP (hybridization capture of chromatin-associated proteins for proteomics) to identify the protein components of alphoid chromatin in a human cell line. Using HyCCAPP, cross-linked alpha satellite chromatin was isolated from cell lysate, and captured proteins were analyzed via mass spectrometry. After being compared to proteins identified in control pulldown experiments, 90 proteins were identified as enriched at alphoid DNA. This list included many known centromere-binding proteins in addition to multiple novel alpha satellite-binding proteins, such as LRIF1, a heterochromatin-associated protein. The ability of HyCCAPP to reveal both known as well as novel alphoid DNA-interacting proteins highlights the validity and utility of this approach.

  7. C1q tumor necrosis factor alpha-related protein isoform 5 is increased in mitochondrial DNA-depleted myocytes and activates AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Yoon; Choi, Jung Hyun; Ryu, Hyun Su; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lee, Wan

    2009-10-09

    Depletion of mtDNA in myocytes causes insulin resistance and alters nuclear gene expression that may be involved in rescuing processes against cellular stress. Here we show that the expression of C1q tumor necrosis factor alpha-related protein isoform 5 (C1QTNF5) is drastically increased following depletion of mtDNA in myocytes. C1QTNF5 is homologous to adiponectin in respect to domain structure, and its expression and secretion from myocytes correlated negatively with the cellular mtDNA content. Similar to adiponectin, C1QTNF5 induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to increased cell surface recruitment of GLUT4 and increased glucose uptake. Treatment of cells with purified recombinant C1QTNF5 increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and stimulated fatty acid oxidation. C1QTNF5-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK or acetyl-CoA carboxylase was unaffected by depletion of adiponectin receptors such as AdipoR1 or AdipoR2, which indicated that adiponectin receptors do not participate in C1QTNF5-induced activation of AMPK. Serum C1QTNF5 levels were significantly higher in obese/diabetic animals (OLETF rats, ob/ob mice, and db/db mice). These results highlight C1QTNF5 as a putative biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction and a potent activator of AMPK.

  8. Satellite-DNA evolutionary patterns under a complex evolutionary scenario: the case of Acrolophus subgroup (Centaurea L., Compositae) from the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N; Blanca, Gabriel; Ruiz-Rejón, Manuel; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2007-12-01

    Within the genus Centaurea (subtribe Centaureinae, tribe Cardueae, Compositae) hybridizations and reticulate-evolution phenomena have widely been recognized. This is especially true in the taxa included in the subgroup Acrolophus from the western Mediterranean area, in which recurrent hybridizations of parapatric ("microallopatric") lineages within the geographical range of a primary radiation have been suggested. The subgroup Acrolophus includes taxa from three sections (i.e. Acrolophus, Phalolepis and Willkommia), and, together with other subgroups, forms the named Jacea group (one of the three main groups into which Centaurea is divided). In this paper, we have studied the influence that the complex evolutionary scenario described for the Acrolophus subgroup from the western Mediterranean exerts on the evolutionary pattern of a satellite-DNA family, the HinfI family, which exists within the genomes of these taxa. To this end, we have analyzed the evolution of this satellite-DNA family in taxa from different taxonomic comparative levels: i) seven subspecies of the C. boissieri complex (one of which with two varieties) of the sect. Willkommia; ii) species of the sections Willkommia (10 species, 19 taxa), Acrolophus (two species), and Phalolepis (two species), all in the Acrolophus subgroup; iii) one external species to the Jacea group, C. granatensis from the group Acrocentron; iv) and species from other related genera from the Centaureinae subtribe (Phonus and Carthamus, both belonging to the Carthamus group). The influence of the suggested model for the origin and diversification of the Acrolophus subgroup is evidenced by the existence of three different HinfI satellite-DNA subfamilies coexisting in some genomes, and by the analysis that we have made by comparing site-by-site the transition stages in the process of concerted evolution between the sequences of the each subfamily. From this analysis, we can deduce that the HinfI repeated subfamilies evolved in a

  9. The significance of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) & DNA Topoisomerase II alpha (DNA-Topo II alpha) immunoreactivity in normal oral mucosa, Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Shamaa, Ali A; Zyada, Manal M; Wagner, Mathias; Awad, Sally S; Osman, Mohamed M; Azeem, Ali A Abdel

    2008-01-01

    Background Head and neck cancer including oral cancer is considered to develop by accumulated genetic alterations and the major pathway is cancerization from lesions such as intraepithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia. The relationship of proliferation markers with the grading of dysplasia is uncertain. The involvement of EBV in oral carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Aim The present study was designed to investigate the role of EBV and DNA Topoisomerase II∝ (DNA-Topo II∝) during oral carcinogenesis and to examine the prognostic significance of these protein expressions in OSCCs. Methods Using specific antibodies for EBV and DNA-Topo II∝, we examined protein expressions in archival lesion tissues from 16 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, 22 oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 normal oral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospective database from the tumor registry. Results DNA-Topo II∝ was expressed in all examined specimens. Analysis of Variance ANOVA revealed highly significant difference (P < 0.01) in young aged labial tissues and significant (P ≤ 0.05) in gingival and not significant (P > 0.05) in inferior surface of tongue and in hard palatal tissues. Significant differences were observed between OEDs and NSE (P < 0.001) and SCCs and controls (P < 0.001), also, significant differences could be observed between SCCs and OEDs. DNA-Topo II∝ expression was significantly higher in tumors of low differentiation versus tumors of moderate and high differentiation (P < 0.001), DNA-Topo II∝ expression was correlated with age, tumor size, tumor stage, node metastasis and tumor differentiation, but not with gender and tumor site. None of normal squamous epithelium (NSE) expressed EBV. Heterogenous reactivity for EBV was observed through the series of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. Its expression increased progressively with lymph node metastasis and low tumor

  10. DNA cleavage in red light promoted by copper(II) complexes of alpha-amino acids and photoactive phenanthroline bases.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ashis K; Bhowmick, Tuhin; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2008-12-28

    Ternary copper(II) complexes [Cu(L-trp)(B)(H(2)O)](NO(3)) (1-3) and [Cu(L-phe)(B)(H(2)O)](NO(3)) (4-6) of L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-phenylalanine (L-phe) having phenanthroline bases (B), viz. 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1 and 4), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2 and 5) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3 and 6), were prepared and characterized by physico-chemical techniques. Complexes 3 and 6 were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and show the presence of a square pyramidal (4 + 1) CuN(3)O(2) coordination geometry in which the N,O-donor amino acid (L-trp or L-phe) and N,N-donor phenanthroline base bind at the equatorial plane with an aqua ligand coordinated at the elongated axial site. Complex 3 shows significant distortion from the square pyramidal geometry and a strong intramolecular pi-pi stacking interaction between the pendant indole ring of L-trp and the planar dppz aromatic moiety. All the complexes display good binding propensity to the calf thymus DNA giving an order: 3,6 (dppz) > 2,5 (dpq) > 1,4 (phen). The binding constant (K(b)) values are in the range of 2.1 x 10(4)-1.1 x 10(6) mol(-1) with the binding site size (s) values of 0.17-0.63. The phen and dpq complexes are minor groove binders while the dppz analogues bind at the DNA major groove. Theoretical DNA docking studies on 2 and 3 show the close proximity of two photosensitizers, viz. the indole moiety of L-trp and the quinoxaline/phenazine of the dpq/dppz bases, to the complementary DNA strands. Complexes 2 and 3 show oxidative DNA double strand breaks (dsb) of supercoiled (SC) DNA forming a significant quantity of linear DNA along with the nicked circular (NC) form on photoexposure to UV-A light of 365 nm and red light of 647.1 nm (Ar-Kr laser). Complexes 1,5 and 6 show only single strand breaks (ssb) forming NC DNA. The red light induced DNA cleavage involves metal-assisted photosensitization of L-trp and dpq/dppz base resulting in the formation of a reactive

  11. Cloning and cDNA sequence of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component of human. cap alpha. -ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, G.; Raefsky-Estrin, C.; Carothers, D.J.; Pepin, R.A.; Javed, A.A.; Jesse, B.W.; Ganapathi, M.K.; Samols, D.; Patel, M.S.

    1988-03-01

    cDNA clones comprising the entire coding region for human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase have been isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The cDNA sequence of the largest clone consisted of 2082 base pairs and contained a 1527-base open reading frame that encodes a precursor dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of 509 amino acid residues. The first 35-amino acid residues of the open reading frame probably correspond to a typical mitochondrial import leader sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of the mature protein, starting at the residue number 36 of the open reading frame, is almost identical (>98% homology) with the known partial amino acid sequence of the pig heart dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. The cDNA clone also contains a 3' untranslated region of 505 bases with an unusual polyadenylylation signal (TATAAA) and a short poly(A) track. By blot-hybridization analysis with the cDNA as probe, two mRNAs, 2.2 and 2.4 kilobases in size, have been detected in human tissues and fibroblasts, whereas only one mRNA (2.4 kilobases) was detected in rat tissues.

  12. Major satellite repeat RNA stabilize heterochromatin retention of Suv39h enzymes by RNA-nucleosome association and RNA:DNA hybrid formation.

    PubMed

    Velazquez Camacho, Oscar; Galan, Carmen; Swist-Rosowska, Kalina; Ching, Reagan; Gamalinda, Michael; Karabiber, Fethullah; De La Rosa-Velazquez, Inti; Engist, Bettina; Koschorz, Birgit; Shukeir, Nicholas; Onishi-Seebacher, Megumi; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Jenuwein, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 histone lysine methyltransferases are hallmark enzymes at mammalian heterochromatin. We show here that the mouse Suv39h2 enzyme differs from Suv39h1 by containing an N-terminal basic domain that facilitates retention at mitotic chromatin and provides an additional affinity for major satellite repeat RNA. To analyze an RNA-dependent interaction with chromatin, we purified native nucleosomes from mouse ES cells and detect that Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 exclusively associate with poly-nucleosomes. This association was attenuated upon RNaseH incubation and entirely lost upon RNaseA digestion of native chromatin. Major satellite repeat transcripts remain chromatin-associated and have a secondary structure that favors RNA:DNA hybrid formation. Together, these data reveal an RNA-mediated mechanism for the stable chromatin interaction of the Suv39h KMT and suggest a function for major satellite non-coding RNA in the organization of an RNA-nucleosome scaffold as the underlying structure of mouse heterochromatin.

  13. Major satellite repeat RNA stabilize heterochromatin retention of Suv39h enzymes by RNA-nucleosome association and RNA:DNA hybrid formation

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez Camacho, Oscar; Galan, Carmen; Swist-Rosowska, Kalina; Ching, Reagan; Gamalinda, Michael; Karabiber, Fethullah; De La Rosa-Velazquez, Inti; Engist, Bettina; Koschorz, Birgit; Shukeir, Nicholas; Onishi-Seebacher, Megumi; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Jenuwein, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 histone lysine methyltransferases are hallmark enzymes at mammalian heterochromatin. We show here that the mouse Suv39h2 enzyme differs from Suv39h1 by containing an N-terminal basic domain that facilitates retention at mitotic chromatin and provides an additional affinity for major satellite repeat RNA. To analyze an RNA-dependent interaction with chromatin, we purified native nucleosomes from mouse ES cells and detect that Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 exclusively associate with poly-nucleosomes. This association was attenuated upon RNaseH incubation and entirely lost upon RNaseA digestion of native chromatin. Major satellite repeat transcripts remain chromatin-associated and have a secondary structure that favors RNA:DNA hybrid formation. Together, these data reveal an RNA-mediated mechanism for the stable chromatin interaction of the Suv39h KMT and suggest a function for major satellite non-coding RNA in the organization of an RNA-nucleosome scaffold as the underlying structure of mouse heterochromatin. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25293.001 PMID:28760199

  14. Rapid DNA extraction protocol for detection of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency from dried blood spots by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Struniawski, R; Szpechcinski, A; Poplawska, B; Skronski, M; Chorostowska-Wynimko, J

    2013-01-01

    The dried blood spot (DBS) specimens have been successfully employed for the large-scale diagnostics of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency as an easy to collect and transport alternative to plasma/serum. In the present study we propose a fast, efficient, and cost effective protocol of DNA extraction from dried blood spot (DBS) samples that provides sufficient quantity and quality of DNA and effectively eliminates any natural PCR inhibitors, allowing for successful AAT genotyping by real-time PCR and direct sequencing. DNA extracted from 84 DBS samples from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was genotyped for AAT deficiency variants by real-time PCR. The results of DBS AAT genotyping were validated by serum IEF phenotyping and AAT concentration measurement. The proposed protocol allowed successful DNA extraction from all analyzed DBS samples. Both quantity and quality of DNA were sufficient for further real-time PCR and, if necessary, for genetic sequence analysis. A 100% concordance between AAT DBS genotypes and serum phenotypes in positive detection of two major deficiency S- and Z- alleles was achieved. Both assays, DBS AAT genotyping by real-time PCR and serum AAT phenotyping by IEF, positively identified PI*S and PI*Z allele in 8 out of the 84 (9.5%) and 16 out of 84 (19.0%) patients, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed protocol noticeably reduces the costs and the hand-on-time of DBS samples preparation providing genomic DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for further real-time PCR or genetic sequence analysis. Consequently, it is ideally suited for large-scale AAT deficiency screening programs and should be method of choice.