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Sample records for alpha tc3 cells

  1. Development of a bioartificial pancreas: II. Effects of oxygen on long-term entrapped betaTC3 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Papas, K K; Long, R C; Sambanis, A; Constantinidis, I

    1999-01-01

    Tissue-engineered pancreatic constructs based on immunoisolated, insulin-secreting cells are promising in providing an effective, relatively inexpensive, long-term treatment for type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes. An in vitro characterization of construct function under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment is essential prior to any extensive animal experimentation. Encapsulated cells may experience hypoxic conditions postimplantation as a result of one or more of the following: the design of the construct; the environment at the implantation site; or the development of fibrosis around the construct. In this work, we studied the effects of 3- and 4-day-long hypoxic episodes on the metabolic and secretory activities and on the levels of intracellular metabolites detectable by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) of alginate/poly-L-lysine/alginate entrapped betaTC3 mouse insulinomas continuously perfused with culture medium. Results show that, upon decreasing the oxygen concentration in the surrounding medium, the encapsulated cell system reached a new, lower metabolic and secretory state. Hypoxia drove the cells to a more anaerobic glycolytic metabolism, increased the rates of glucose consumption (GCR) and lactate production (LPR), and reduced the rates of oxygen consumption (OCR) and insulin secretion (ISR). Furthermore, hypoxia reduced the levels of intracellular nucleotide triphosphates (NTP) and phosphorylcholine (PC) and caused a rapid transient increase in inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Upon restoration of the oxygen concentration in the perfusion medium, all parameters returned to their prehypoxic levels within 2 to 3 days following either gradual unidirectional changes (ISR, NTP, PC) or more complicated dynamic patterns (OCR, GCR, LPR). A further increase in oxygen concentration in the perfusion medium drove OCR, ISR, NTP, PC, and P(i) to new, higher levels. It is concluded that (31)P NMR spectroscopy can be used for the prolonged

  2. Glucose stimulates voltage- and calcium-dependent inositol trisphosphate production and intracellular calcium mobilization in insulin-secreting beta TC3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gromada, J; Frøkjaer-Jensen, J; Dissing, S

    1996-01-01

    The cellular processes leading to a rise in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) after glucose stimulation and K+ depolarization were investigated in insulin-secreting beta TC-3 cells. Stimulation with 11.2mM glucose causes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production and release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. A strong correlation was observed between the changes in Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration and the rise in [Ca2+]i, consistent with the former compound being responsible for release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 production was reduced by 68 +/- 4% when [Ca2+]i was kept low on glucose stimulation by loading cells with the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-NNN'N'-tetra-acetic acid (BAPTA). The Ins(1,4,5)P3 production was prevented in cells hyperpolarized with diazoxide, an opener of ATP-sensitive K+-channels, consistent with the membrane potential controlling the rate of Ins(1,4,5)P3 synthesis. Depolarizing K+ concentrations evoked changes in [Ca2+]i and Ins(1,4,5)P3 production in both the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca2+, and from the relation between the extracellular K+ concentration and membrane potential we found a half-maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3 production by a 28mV depolarization from a resting potential of -56mV and by a rise in [Ca2+]i of 390nM. We conclude that stimulation-induced changes in membrane potential and [Ca2+]i are important in controlling Ins(1,4,5)P3 production in beta TC-3 cells and that glucose-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores is due to voltage-dependent Ins(1,45)P3 production and depends on the concurrent increase in [Ca2+]i. PMID:8660305

  3. The unusually frail asteroid 2008 TC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.; Shaddad

    The first asteroid to be discovered in space and subsequently observed to impact Earth, asteroid 2008 TC3, exploded at a high 37 km altitude and stopped ablating at 32 km. This would classify the fireball as of Ceplecha's PE-criterion IIIb/a, meaning “cometary” in nature. In this case, the structural weakness may have come from pores found in some of the recovered meteorites, called “Almahata Sitta” (= Station 6 in Arabic). The explosion turned most of the asteroid mass to dust and vapor, only a tiny fraction shattered into macroscopic meteorites, the heaviest of which was 283 gram. Other similarly frail asteroids may be related to main belt comets.

  4. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  5. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owens, Timothy R.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.

    2009-11-01

    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  6. DNA binding activities of the Caenorhabditis elegans Tc3 transposase.

    PubMed Central

    Colloms, S D; van Luenen, H G; Plasterk, R H

    1994-01-01

    Tc3 is a member of the Tc1/mariner family of transposable elements. All these elements have terminal inverted repeats, encode related transposases and insert exclusively into TA dinucleotides. We have studied the DNA binding properties of Tc3 transposase and found that an N-terminal domain of 65 amino acids binds specifically to two regions within the 462 bp Tc3 inverted repeat; one region is located at the end of the inverted repeat, the other is located approximately 180 bp from the end. Methylation interference experiments indicate that this N-terminal DNA binding domain of the Tc3 transposase interacts with nucleotides on one face of the DNA helix over adjacent major and minor grooves. Images PMID:7838706

  7. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  8. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  9. Photometric Observations of Earth-impacting 2008 TC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Alberto Silva; Novaes, Alberto Brum; Beltrame, Paolo; Naves, Ramon; Muler, Gustavo

    2009-04-01

    Apollo NEA 2008 TC3 collided with Earth in a deserted region of Sudan on 2008 Oct. 7 UT. Based on our observations and assuming G = 0.2, we found an absolute magnitude H = 30.79 ± 0.08. With our H value and pV = 0.09, we estimate the diameter of 2008 TC3 to be D = 3 ± 1 m. Our period analysis of the lightcurve, which assumed a single period, found periods 97.05 s or 194.34 s. These do not account for the tumbling nature confirmed by Pravec and Harris using other data and so probably do not indicate the true rotation characteristics of the object.

  10. T cell responses in calcineurin A alpha-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have created embryonic stem (ES) cells and mice lacking the predominant isoform (alpha) of the calcineurin A subunit (CNA alpha) to study the role of this serine/threonine phosphatase in the immune system. T and B cell maturation appeared to be normal in CNA alpha -/- mice. CNA alpha -/- T cells responded normally to mitogenic stimulation (i.e., PMA plus ionomycin, concanavalin A, and anti-CD3 epsilon antibody). However, CNA alpha -/- mice generated defective antigen- specific T cell responses in vivo. Mice produced from CNA alpha -/- ES cells injected into RAG-2-deficient blastocysts had a similar defective T cell response, indicating that CNA alpha is required for T cell function per se, rather than for an activity of other cell types involved in the immune response. CNA alpha -/- T cells remained sensitive to both cyclosporin A and FK506, suggesting that CNA beta or another CNA-like molecule can mediate the action of these immunosuppressive drugs. CNA alpha -/- mice provide an animal model for dissecting the physiologic functions of calcineurin as well as the effects of FK506 and CsA. PMID:8627154

  11. The Impact and Recovery of 2008 TC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Petrus M. M.; Shaddad, M. H.; Numan, D.; Kudoda, A. M.; Almahata Sitta Consortium

    2009-09-01

    We report on the recovery of fragments from 2008 TC3, a small asteroid that impacted over northern Sudan on October 7, 2008. This was the first asteroid detected prior to impact and now also the first asteroid observed in space for which meteorites could be recovered. We interviewed eye witnesses of the fireball, who confirmed that the impact resulted in an explosion around 37 km high in the atmosphere, with no luminosity below 32 km. This is a behavior more typical of impacting comets than asteroids (fireball PE type IIIa/b). Never before had meteorites been recovered from an object exploding this high in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, 45 students and staff of the University of Khartoum were brought to the area just downstream of the explosion location, some 30 kilometers into the desert from the railroad track at Station 6 ("Almahata Sitta"). After two hours of searching on December 5, the first meteorite was recovered by Mohammed Alameen. The next two days, 14 more dark and scruffy looking meteorites were found that likely belonged to 2008 TC3, gradually increasing in size further along the approach path. A second search in late December brought the total number of recovered fragments up to 47, with a total mass of 3.95 kg, and increased the diversity of recovered materials. Some where very dark and flaky in texture, others light gray and fine grained. A third search in late February and early March 2009 measured the vertical extent of the strewn field, and thereby the conditions of ejection during the explosion, raising the total number of recovered fragments to close to 300. Aspects of the morphology and texture of the recovered meteorites in the strewn field will be discussed. The meteorite was classified as an anomalous polymict ureilite, now linked to asteroids of class F.

  12. Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

  13. Interaction of alpha-actinin with the cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex via alpha-catenin

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cadherins are Ca(2+)-dependent, cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion. Extracellularly, transmembrane cadherins such as E- , P-, and N-cadherin self-associate, while intracellularly they interact indirectly with the actin-based cytoskeleton. Several intracellular proteins termed catenins, including alpha-catenin, beta- catenin, and plakoglobin, are tightly associated with these cadherins and serve to link them to the cytoskeleton. Here, we present evidence that in fibroblasts alpha-actinin, but not vinculin, colocalizes extensively with the N-cadherin/catenin complex. This is in contrast to epithelial cells where both cytoskeletal proteins colocalize extensively with E-cadherin and catenins. We further show that alpha- actinin, but not vinculin, coimmunoprecipitates specifically with alpha- and beta-catenin from N- and E-cadherin-expressing cells, but only if alpha-catenin is present. Moreover, we show that alpha-actinin coimmunoprecipitates with the N-cadherin/catenin complex in an actin- independent manner. We therefore propose that cadherin/catenin complexes are linked to the actin cytoskeleton via a direct association between alpha-actinin and alpha-catenin. PMID:7790378

  14. GM=tc^3 Cosmology and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, Louise

    2010-10-01

    Relativity suggests an expanding cosmology of scale R = ct, where t is age of the Universe. Gravitation would then require that c be further related to t by: GM = tc^3. Where G and M are mass and gravitational constant, this simple expression predicts data from the microwave background, including 4.507034% baryonic matter and a stable density φ= 1 . The non-linear increase in Type 1a supernova redshifts may be precisely predicted without repulsive energies. (Riofrio, 2004) Prediction of a changing c may be tested with modern lanterns and the distant hilltop of the Moon. Our Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment has measured the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. The Mansfield sediment (Bills, Ray 2000) measures lunar recession at 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. More recent work accurately measures a recession rate of 2.88 ± 0.05 cm/yr. LLRE differs from independent experiments by 10 σ. If the speed of laser light were decaying, the Moon's apparent distance is predicted to increase by 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the Moon's orbit is precisely accounted for. This interesting result may have importance for cosmology, shedding light on puzzles of ``dark energy.'' In Planck units, this may be summarised as: M = R = t.

  15. Lunar Orbit Anomaly and GM=tc^3 Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, Louise

    2011-03-01

    Studies of the Moon at Johnson Space Center have confirmed a large anomaly in lunar orbital distance, with possible applications to Relativity. Our Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment has reported the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. The Mansfield sediment (Bills, Ray 2000) measures lunar recession at 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Additional observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. LLRE differs from independent experiments by 10 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter (Riofrio 2004). If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely accounted for, shedding light on puzzles of "dark energy." In Planck units this may be summarised as M=R=t.

  16. The impact and recovery of asteroid 2008 TC(3).

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, P; Shaddad, M H; Numan, D; Elsir, S; Kudoda, A M; Zolensky, M E; Le, L; Robinson, G A; Friedrich, J M; Rumble, D; Steele, A; Chesley, S R; Fitzsimmons, A; Duddy, S; Hsieh, H H; Ramsay, G; Brown, P G; Edwards, W N; Tagliaferri, E; Boslough, M B; Spalding, R E; Dantowitz, R; Kozubal, M; Pravec, P; Borovicka, J; Charvat, Z; Vaubaillon, J; Kuiper, J; Albers, J; Bishop, J L; Mancinelli, R L; Sandford, S A; Milam, S N; Nuevo, M; Worden, S P

    2009-03-26

    In the absence of a firm link between individual meteorites and their asteroidal parent bodies, asteroids are typically characterized only by their light reflection properties, and grouped accordingly into classes. On 6 October 2008, a small asteroid was discovered with a flat reflectance spectrum in the 554-995 nm wavelength range, and designated 2008 TC(3) (refs 4-6). It subsequently hit the Earth. Because it exploded at 37 km altitude, no macroscopic fragments were expected to survive. Here we report that a dedicated search along the approach trajectory recovered 47 meteorites, fragments of a single body named Almahata Sitta, with a total mass of 3.95 kg. Analysis of one of these meteorites shows it to be an achondrite, a polymict ureilite, anomalous in its class: ultra-fine-grained and porous, with large carbonaceous grains. The combined asteroid and meteorite reflectance spectra identify the asteroid as F class, now firmly linked to dark carbon-rich anomalous ureilites, a material so fragile it was not previously represented in meteorite collections. PMID:19325630

  17. The shape and rotation of asteroid 2008 TC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirich, Peter; Durech, Josef; Pravec, Petr; Kozubal, Marek; Dantowitz, Ron; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Betzler, Alberto Silva; Beltrame, Paolo; Muler, Gustavo; Birtwhistle, Peter; Kugel, Francois

    2010-10-01

    On October 6, 2008, a small F-class asteroid 2008 TC3 was discovered by Catalina Sky Survey telescope, and exploded 20 hr later in the Earth's atmosphere at 37 km altitude. We analyzed available photometric data taken from 6 October 21:10 to 7 October 01:46 UT, and created a numerical model of a shape and rotation state of the asteroid. The asteroid was in excited rotational state. We found two approximately mirror solutions of orientation of its angular momentum vector. Rotational and precession periods are 99.20 and 97.00 s (errors of the rotational period for the two solutions are 0.03 and 0.04 s; of the precession period are 0.05 s for both solutions). The volume of the convex model and the length of the longest axis of the dynamically equivalent, equal volume ellipsoid are ? and ?, where pV is surface geometric albedo. Assuming a mean albedo value for F taxonomic class, 0.049 ± 0.010, the volume is (25 ± 10) m3 and the longest axis is (6.7 ± 0.8) m. This volume of the convex model is an upper limit on a real volume of the asteroid, which may be less by up to 20% due to concavities.

  18. The impact and recovery of asteroid 2008 TC(3).

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, P; Shaddad, M H; Numan, D; Elsir, S; Kudoda, A M; Zolensky, M E; Le, L; Robinson, G A; Friedrich, J M; Rumble, D; Steele, A; Chesley, S R; Fitzsimmons, A; Duddy, S; Hsieh, H H; Ramsay, G; Brown, P G; Edwards, W N; Tagliaferri, E; Boslough, M B; Spalding, R E; Dantowitz, R; Kozubal, M; Pravec, P; Borovicka, J; Charvat, Z; Vaubaillon, J; Kuiper, J; Albers, J; Bishop, J L; Mancinelli, R L; Sandford, S A; Milam, S N; Nuevo, M; Worden, S P

    2009-03-26

    In the absence of a firm link between individual meteorites and their asteroidal parent bodies, asteroids are typically characterized only by their light reflection properties, and grouped accordingly into classes. On 6 October 2008, a small asteroid was discovered with a flat reflectance spectrum in the 554-995 nm wavelength range, and designated 2008 TC(3) (refs 4-6). It subsequently hit the Earth. Because it exploded at 37 km altitude, no macroscopic fragments were expected to survive. Here we report that a dedicated search along the approach trajectory recovered 47 meteorites, fragments of a single body named Almahata Sitta, with a total mass of 3.95 kg. Analysis of one of these meteorites shows it to be an achondrite, a polymict ureilite, anomalous in its class: ultra-fine-grained and porous, with large carbonaceous grains. The combined asteroid and meteorite reflectance spectra identify the asteroid as F class, now firmly linked to dark carbon-rich anomalous ureilites, a material so fragile it was not previously represented in meteorite collections.

  19. Alpha-amanitin resistance: a dominant mutation in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Lobban, P E; Siminovitch, L

    1975-02-01

    Hybrids of CHO cells were constructed consisting of either a 1:1 or 1:2 ratio of alpha-amanitin-resistant and sensitive cells, respectively. The resistance of such hybrids to killing by the drug was similar but slightly less than that of the resistant parent. The hybrids contained both resistant and wild-type RNA polymerase II, in amounts related to the expected gene dosage. The alpha-amanitin marker therefore is expressed codominantly. PMID:1168545

  20. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif. PMID:27190515

  1. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif. PMID:27190515

  2. The trajectory and impact circumstances of asteroid 2008 TC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul; Chesley, S.; Yeomans, D.

    2010-05-01

    On October 6, 2008, the small newly discovered near-Earth asteroid 2008 TC3 was found to be on an Earth-impacting trajectory, with impact less than 20 hours away. This was the first ever predicted impact of a near-Earth object. Fortunately, it was immediately clear that the object was only a few meters in size and would therefore almost certainly break up when it entered the Earth's atmosphere. We review the pre-impact orbit computations and predictions, the post-impact reconstructions of the trajectory, and the trajectory geometry. The first prediction of impact was made by the Minor Planet Center (MPC), which quickly made the discovery and subsequent follow-up observations available to the astronomical community and contacted us at the NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Our impact predictions indicated that the atmospheric entry would occur over northern Sudan around 02:46 UT on October 7. Over the course of the day, the number of observations sky-rocketed to several hundred, and the impact prediction uncertainty shrank to ±3 km. Topocentric parallax up to 15 degrees is present in the data and the rates of motion approached 13.4 arcsec/s prior to the object's disappearance into the Earth's umbra. Detections of the actual atmospheric impact event suggested that it was an airburst explosion at an altitude of 37 km with an energy equivalent of about one kiloton of TNT. The airburst occurred at 02:45:45 UT at about 32.2 East longitude and 20.8 North latitude, matching the final impact predictions to within 0.2 s in time and 1.5 km in position. We compute Monte Carlo clones of the final orbit to investigate possible source orbits. Trajectory dispersions remain fairly compact as far back as 1961 , when an Earth close approach at 0.18 ± 0.12 AU scatters the predictions. Only statistical characterizations of the earlier trajectory are possible.

  3. Nicotine enhances expression of the alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 5, and alpha 7 nicotinic receptors modulating calcium metabolism and regulating adhesion and motility of respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zia, S; Ndoye, A; Nguyen, V T; Grando, S A

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of direct toxic effects of nicotine (Nic) on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) suggested by our previous findings of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the epithelial cells lining mucocutaneous membranes. We now demonstrate for the first time that human and murine BEC both in vivo and in vitro express functional nAChRs, and that classic alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 5 and alpha 7 subunits can contribute to formation of these acetylcholine-gated ion channels. In human bronchial and mouse lung tissues, and in cultures of human BEC, the nAChRs were visualized by subunit-specific antibodies on the cell membranes, particularly at the sites of cell-to-cell contacts. The epithelial cells of submucosal glands abundantly expressed alpha 7 nAChRs. Smoking significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative numbers of nAChRs, and this effects could be reproduced in cultures of BEC exposed to 10 microM Nic. At a higher dose, Nic decreased the relative numbers of alpha 5-containing nAChRs, suggesting a role for receptor desensitization. The function of the nAChR channels expressed by BEC was demonstrated by biphasic increase in the concentrations of intracellular calcium ([Ca++]i) in response to activation of the channel by Nic and fluctuations of [Ca++]i due to channel blockade by mecamylamine (Mec). Long-term exposure to milimolar concentrations of Nic resulted in a steady increase of [Ca++]i, which may lead to cell damage. The biological roles of epithelial nAChRs apparently involve regulation of cell-to-cell communications, adhesion and motility, because Mec caused rapid and profound changes in these cell functions which were reversible by Nic. An over exposure of BEC to Nic, however, produced an antagonist-like effect, suggesting that the pathobiological effects of Nic toxicity might result from both activation of nAChR channels and nAChR desensitization. We conclude that medical consequences of

  4. Nicotine inhibits Fc epsilon RI-induced cysteinyl leukotrienes and cytokine production without affecting mast cell degranulation through alpha 7/alpha 9/alpha 10-nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neerad C; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; Boyd, R Thomas; Singh, Shashi P; Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Langley, Raymond J; Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Sopori, Mohan L

    2010-07-01

    Smokers are less likely to develop some inflammatory and allergic diseases. In Brown-Norway rats, nicotine inhibits several parameters of allergic asthma, including the production of Th2 cytokines and the cysteinyl leukotriene LTC(4). Cysteinyl leukotrienes are primarily produced by mast cells, and these cells play a central role in allergic asthma. Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). Following its cross-linking, cells degranulate and release preformed inflammatory mediators (early phase) and synthesize and secrete cytokines/chemokines and leukotrienes (late phase). The mechanism by which nicotine modulates mast cell activation is unclear. Using alpha-bungarotoxin binding and quantitative PCR and PCR product sequencing, we showed that the rat mast/basophil cell line RBL-2H3 expresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) alpha7, alpha9, and alpha10; exposure to exceedingly low concentrations of nicotine (nanomolar), but not the biologically inactive metabolite cotinine, for > or = 8 h suppressed the late phase (leukotriene/cytokine production) but not degranulation (histamine and hexosaminidase release). These effects were unrelated to those of nicotine on intracellular free calcium concentration but were causally associated with the inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activity and the PI3K/ERK/NF-kappaB pathway, including phosphorylation of Akt and ERK and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. The suppressive effect of nicotine on the late-phase response was blocked by the alpha7/alpha9-nAChR antagonists methyllycaconitine and alpha-bungarotoxin, as well as by small interfering RNA knockdown of alpha7-, alpha9-, or alpha10-nAChRs, suggesting a functional interaction between alpha7-, alpha9-, and alpha10-nAChRs that might explain the response of RBL cells to nanomolar concentrations of nicotine. This "hybrid" receptor might serve as a target for novel antiallergic/antiasthmatic therapies.

  5. The promoting effect of tumour necrosis factor alpha in radiation-induced cell transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, R. F.; Gong, Y. F.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a potent endogenous inflammatory agent, to promote malignant transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells (SHE) initiated by a 0.5-Gy dose of alpha-particles was investigated. Opsonized zymosan particles, which were phagocytosed by a human macrophage-like cell line, triggered TNF-alpha production from U937 cells. This cell supernatant could significantly increase the transformation frequency (TF) of primary SHE cells previously irradiated by a 0.5-Gy dose of alpha-particles. The TF decreased significantly if monoclonal antibody against TNF-alpha was added to the supernatant. Similarly, recombinant human TNF-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) increased the TF of alpha-irradiated primary SHE cells to an even greater extent. Addition of TNF-alpha to subcultures of irradiated SHE cells permitted the continuous propagation of these primary cells. In contrast, both TNF-alpha-treated control and alpha-irradiated cells without subsequent TNF-alpha treatment senesced after 7-15 passages. Irradiated SHE cells treated continuously with TNF-alpha could be subcultured over 40 passages and produced fibrosarcomas upon inoculation into nude mice. Our results provide the first evidence that TNF-alpha released by activated macrophages may contribute to the process of malignant transformation initiated by low-dose alpha-particles. PMID:9579824

  6. Alpha3* and alpha 7 nAChR-mediated Ca2+ transient generation in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ween, Hilde; Thorin-Hagene, Kirsten; Andersen, Elisabeth; Grønlien, Jens Halvard; Lee, Chih-Hung; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Malysz, John

    2010-10-01

    Alpha3-containing (alpha 3*) and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and implicated in Ca(2+) signaling. In this study, we investigated the intracellular Ca(2+) transient generation evoked by selective activation of alpha 3* (agonist potency rank order: epibatidine>varenicline>nicotine approximately cytisine) and alpha 7 (rank order in the presence of alpha 7 positive allosteric modulator or PAM: A-795723>NS6784 approximately PNU-282987) using, respectively, varenicline and NS6784 (+alpha 7 PAM) by Ca(2+) imaging. Effects of inhibitors of nAChRs (MLA and mecamylamine), ER Ca(2+) ATPase pump (CPA and thapsigargin), Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (ryanodine and dantrolene), Ca(2+) channels (nitrendipine, diltiazem, and Cd(2+)), and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) were examined. alpha 7 PAMs, when tested in the presence of NS6784, were more active when added first, followed by the agonist, than in the reverse order. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) - but not CPA, thapsigargin, ryanodine, dantrolene, nitrendipine, diltiazem, or Cd(2+) - diminished the alpha 7 agonist-evoked Ca(2+) transients. In contrast, only diltiazem and nitrendipine and removal of extracellular Ca(2+) inhibited the alpha 3*-mediated Ca(2+) transients. The differential effect of diltiazem and nitrendipine versus Cd(2+) was due to direct inhibition of alpha 3* nAChRs as revealed by Ca(2+) imaging in HEK-293 cells expressing human alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs and patch clamp in IMR-32 cells. In summary, this study provides evidence that alpha 3* and alpha 7 nAChR agonist-evoked global Ca(2+) transient generation in IMR-32 cells does not primarily involve voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, intracellular Ca(2+) stores, or Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. These mechanisms may, however, be still involved in other forms of nAChR-mediated Ca(2+) signaling.

  7. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Hong, Seung-Heon; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-01-16

    Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for women's disease (e.g. breast and uterus cancer) and disorders of the liver and gallbladder. Several earlier studies have indicated that TO exhibits anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of TO on the cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2. Our results show that TO decreased the cell viability by 26%, and significantly increased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1alpha production compared with media control (about 1.6-fold for TNF-alpha, and 2.4-fold for IL-1alpha, P < 0.05). Also, TO strongly induced apoptosis of Hep G2 cells as determined by flow cytometry. Increased amounts of TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha contributed to TO-induced apoptosis. Anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha antibodies almost abolished it. These results suggest that TO induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

  8. Immunocytochemical localization of alpha-actinin in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, B; Tokuyasu, K T; Singer, S J

    1979-01-01

    alpha-Actinin was localized in chicken intestinal epithelial cells by immunofluorescence and immunoferritin labeling of thin frozen sections. Most of the label of the brush border was confined to the terminal web area. The label there was concentrated mainly along the "roots" of the microvilli core microfilaments and in the vicinity of the zonula adherens. In the latter structure, the narrow electron-dense zones adjacent to the cell membranes, however, were not significantly labeled. This suggests that alpha-actinin does not mediate directly the association of the transverse terminal web microfilaments to the membrane at the zonula adherens. Sparse ferritin labeling was found near the tight junction, whereas the staining associated with the spot desmosome was negligible. The microvilli were not significantly labeled by either immunofluorescence or immunoferritin staining unless the sections were previously treated with detergent. Moreover, alpha-actinin (or a structurally related protein) was not detected in preparations of purified microvillar vesicles, suggesting the possibility that the alpha-actinin staining in the microvilli may be an artificial due to its translocation by the detergent from the terminal web onto the microvilli. The possible roles of alpha-actinin in the organization and function of the brush border are discussed. Images PMID:379865

  9. Human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptors. I. Functional exploration and pharmacological definition with selected alpha-2 agonists and antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Galitzky, J.; Mauriege, P.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1989-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate more fully the pharmacological characteristics of the human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Biological assays were performed on intact isolated fat cells while radioligand binding studies were carried out with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine in membranes. These pharmacological studies brought: (1) a critical definition of the limits of the experimental conditions required for the exploration of alpha-2 adrenergic responsiveness on human fat cells and membranes; (2) an improvement in the pharmacological definition of the human fat cell postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Among alpha-2 agonists, UK-14,304 was the most potent and the relative order of potency was: UK-14,304 greater than p-aminoclonidine greater than clonidine = B-HT 920 greater than rilmenidine. For alpha-2 antagonists, the potency order was: yohimbine greater than idazoxan greater than SK F-86,466 much greater than benextramine; (3) a description of the impact of benextramine (irreversible alpha-1/alpha-2 antagonist) on human fat cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and on human fat cell function; the drug inactivates the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors with a minor impact on beta adrenergic receptors and without noticeable alterations of fat cell function as assessed by preservation of beta adrenergic and Al-adenosine receptor-mediated lipolytic responses; and (4) a definition of the relationship existing between alpha-2 adrenergic receptor occupancy, inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and antilipolysis with full and partial agonists. The existence of a receptor reserve must be taken into account when evaluating alpha-2 adrenergic receptor distribution and regulation of human fat cells.

  10. Quantitative-Proteomic Comparison of Alpha and Beta Cells to Uncover Novel Targets for Lineage Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Mertins, Philipp; Udeshi, Namrata D.; Dančík, Vlado; Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Kubicek, Stefan; Clemons, Paul A.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Carr, Steven A.; Wagner, Bridget K.

    2014-01-01

    Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by the immune system. An emerging strategy to regenerate beta-cell mass is through transdifferentiation of pancreatic alpha cells to beta cells. We previously reported two small molecules, BRD7389 and GW8510, that induce insulin expression in a mouse alpha cell line and provide a glimpse into potential intermediate cell states in beta-cell reprogramming from alpha cells. These small-molecule studies suggested that inhibition of kinases in particular may induce the expression of several beta-cell markers in alpha cells. To identify potential lineage reprogramming protein targets, we compared the transcriptome, proteome, and phosphoproteome of alpha cells, beta cells, and compound-treated alpha cells. Our phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that two kinases, BRSK1 and CAMKK2, exhibit decreased phosphorylation in beta cells compared to alpha cells, and in compound-treated alpha cells compared to DMSO-treated alpha cells. Knock-down of these kinases in alpha cells resulted in expression of key beta-cell markers. These results provide evidence that perturbation of the kinome may be important for lineage reprogramming of alpha cells to beta cells. PMID:24759943

  11. Radon measurement of natural gas using alpha scintillation cells.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael E; Torres, Miguel A; Haines, Douglas K; Semkow, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    Due to their sensitivity and ease of use, alpha-scintillation cells are being increasingly utilized for measurements of radon ((222)Rn) in natural gas. Laboratory studies showed an average increase of 7.3% in the measurement efficiency of alpha-scintillation cells when filled with less-dense natural gas rather than regular air. A theoretical calculation comparing the atomic weight and density of air to that of natural gas suggests a 6-7% increase in the detection efficiency when measuring radon in the cells. A correction is also applicable when the sampling location and measurement laboratory are at different elevations. These corrections to the measurement efficiency need to be considered in order to derive accurate concentrations of radon in natural gas.

  12. Bipolar cells of the chick retina containing alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hamassaki-Britto, D E; Brzozowska-Prechtl, A; Karten, H J; Lindstrom, J M

    1994-01-01

    Two cDNA clones for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits sensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt) have been isolated, the so-called alpha-Bgt binding proteins alpha 1 (or alpha 7 nAChR subunit) and alpha 2 (or alpha 8 nAChR subunit). Immunohistochemical experiments have shown that both alpha 7 and alpha 8 subunits, as well as subunits insensitive to alpha-Bgt (beta 2 and alpha 3), are present in amacrine and ganglion cells of the chick retina. However, only the alpha 8 subunit was observed in presumptive bipolar cells. The present study investigated in detail the pattern of distribution of the bipolar cells containing the alpha 8 nAChR subunit and its relation to the pattern of distribution of bipolar cells immunoreactive to protein kinase C (PKC). Presumptive alpha 8- and PKC-like immunoreactive (alpha 8-LI and PKC-LI) bipolar cells were observed sending their dendrites to the outer plexiform layers and their axons to the inner plexiform layer. Whereas alpha 8-LI bipolar cells corresponded to 40-53% of the whole population of bipolar cells, PKC-LI bipolar cells represented only 6-8% of the same population. The soma sizes of the alpha 8-LI bipolar cells were slightly smaller (mean +/- S.D.; 4.9 +/- 0.8 microns) than the soma sizes of the PKC-LI bipolar cells (5.4 +/- 0.9 microns). Double-labeling experiments indicated that probably all PKC-LI bipolar cells also contain alpha 8-LI. This indicates that two distinct groups of cholinoceptive bipolar cells exist in the chick retina, one that contains PKC-LI, and another one that does not.

  13. The G protein alpha o subunit alters morphology, growth kinetics, and phospholipid metabolism of somatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, D B; Bonventre, J V; Neer, E J; Seidman, J G

    1989-01-01

    The physiological role of the alpha o subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein was investigated with a murine adrenal cell line (Y1) transfected with a rat alpha o cDNA cloned in a retroviral expression vector. The parental cell line lacked detectable alpha o subunit. Expression of the alpha o cDNA in transfected cell lines was confirmed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The rat alpha o subunit interacted with murine beta and gamma subunits and associated with cell membranes. Y1 cells containing large amounts of alpha o subunit had altered cellular morphology and reduced rate of cell division. In addition, GTP-gamma S-stimulated release of arachidonic acid from these cells was significantly increased compared with that in control cells. The alpha o subunit appears directly or indirectly to regulate cellular proliferation, morphology, and phospholipid metabolism. Images PMID:2511433

  14. Integrin {alpha}6 cleavage: A novel modification to modulate cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, Sangita C.; Demetriou, Manolis C.; Nagle, Raymond B.; Bowden, G. Tim; Cress, Anne E. . E-mail: acress@azcc.arizona.edu

    2007-04-01

    Integrins play a major role in cell adhesion and migration. Previous work reported that a cleaved form of integrin {alpha}6 ({alpha}6p) was detected in invasive human prostate cancer tissue, absent in normal prostate tissue and was produced by urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) in a plasmin-independent manner. Using site-directed mutagenesis we identified amino acid residues R594 and R595, located in the 'stalk' region of integrin {alpha}6, as essential for cleavage. The cleavage site is located on the extracellular region of the protein between the {beta}-barrel domain and the thigh domain. Prostate cancer cells (PC3N) were stably transfected to overexpress the cleavable, wild-type (PC3N-{alpha}6-WT) or the non-cleavable form of integrin {alpha}6 (PC3N-{alpha}6-RR). The number of cells invading laminin 111- and laminin 332-coated filters by PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells increased by threefold as compared to PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) reduced the invasion of PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells by approximately 42% through laminin 332-coated filters and plasmin inhibitor aprotinin had no significant effect. Linear cell migration increased production of integrin {alpha}6p in the PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells and not in the PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells and 32% of the PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells migrated on laminin 111 in the linear migration assay as compared to the 5% PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells. These data taken together suggest that the uPA-mediated cell surface cleavage of the {alpha}6 integrin extracellular domain is involved in tumor cell invasion and migration on laminin.

  15. Altered enteroendocrine cell expression in T cell receptor alpha chain knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D C; Zhang, H; Qian, P; Lorenz, R G; Hutton, K; Peters, M G

    2000-10-15

    Mice lacking T cell receptor alpha chain (TCRalpha(-/-)) develop inflammation of the colon. We have examined the effect of this inflammation on the colonic epithelium by studying markers of epithelial cuff, enteroendocrine, and immune cell differentiation. Using immunohistochemical techniques, colons were compared in normal C57/BL6 and murine TCR alpha(-/-) mice aged 2 and 3 weeks and 3-11 months. TCR alpha(-/-) mice aged 3-11 months had histologic evidence of inflammation with increased expression of CD45, CD4+, CD8+, and B220+ cells and a decrease in expression of IgA+ cells. There was a decrease in the number of cholecystokinin, serotonin, and neurotensin enteroendocrine expressing cells in the colon of TCR alpha(-/-) mice. These changes were not present in 2-3-week-old suckling/weaning mice. In contrast, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1, and gastrin expression did not change and small intestinal enteroendocrine cells remained unaltered. The change in colonic enteroendocrine cell expression appears to be a specific response, since only a subset of these cells was altered, and the epithelium was intact by histologic analysis. The absence of functional T cells in TCR alpha(-/-) colon has a marked effect on differentiation of a specific subpopulation of enteroendocrine cells, prior to loss of integrity of the epithelium. PMID:11054861

  16. Alpha-tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faruqi, R; de la Motte, C; DiCorleto, P E

    1994-01-01

    Antioxidants have been proposed to be anti-atherosclerotic agents; however, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are poorly understood. We have examined the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tcp) on one cellular event in atherosclerotic plaque development, monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). Human umbilical vein ECs were pretreated with alpha-tcp before stimulation with known agonists of monocyte adhesion: IL-1 (10 ng/ml), LPS (10 ng/ml), thrombin (30 U/ml), or PMA (10 nM). Agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion, but not basal adhesion, was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. The IC50 of alpha-tcp on an IL-1-induced response was 45 microM. The inhibition correlated with a decrease in steady state levels of E-selectin mRNA and cell surface expression of E-selectin which is consistent with the ability of a monoclonal antibody to E-selectin to inhibit monocytic cell adhesion in this system. Probucol (50 microM) and N-acetylcysteine (20 mM) also inhibited agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion; whereas, several other antioxidants had no significant effect. Protein kinase C (PKC) does not appear to play a role in the alpha-tcp effect since no suppression of phosphorylation of PKC substrates was observed. Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B is reported to be necessary but not sufficient for E-selectin expression in EC. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays failed to show an alpha-tcp-induced decrease in activation of this transcription factor after cytokine stimulation. It has been hypothesized that alpha-tcp acts as an anti-atherosclerotic molecule by inhibiting generation of oxidized LDL--a putative triggering molecule in the atherosclerotic process. Our results point to a novel alternative mechanism of action of alpha-tcp. Images PMID:7518838

  17. Cultured Ito cells of rat liver express the alpha 2-macroglobulin gene.

    PubMed

    Andus, T; Ramadori, G; Heinrich, P C; Knittel, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1987-11-01

    Ito cells were isolated from rat liver and kept in culture for up to 13 days. The capability of the Ito cells to synthesize alpha 2-macroglobulin was analyzed at different times after isolation and by pulse-chase experiments. Newly synthesized alpha 2-macroglobulin was determined by immunoprecipitation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. alpha 2-Macroglobulin synthesis was hardly detectable in Ito cells and their media 3 days after plating. However, 5-11 days after the isolation of the cells, increasing amounts of alpha 2-macroglobulin were synthesized. The results of pulse-chase experiments performed on day 7 showed that radioactively labeled alpha 2-macroglobulin decreased in the intracellular compartment and increased in the culture medium. alpha 2-Macroglobulin was identified by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions. Furthermore, when unlabeled alpha 2-macroglobulin was added during the immunoprecipitation, a competition was observed. Incubation of pancreatic elastase with culture medium of rat Ito cells or rat hepatocytes led to the same cleavage products as found with alpha 2-macroglobulin. alpha 2-Macroglobulin-specific mRNA could be demonstrated by Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from rat Ito cells. Under the conditions where alpha 2-macroglobulin was synthesized in Ito cells, no synthesis of alpha 1-macroglobulin, alpha 1-inhibitor 3, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-acute-phase globulin (T-kininogen) and albumin could be demonstrated. It is concluded that alpha 2-macroglobulin is a true secretory protein of rat Ito cells in culture. This could be of importance for collagen metabolism in liver diseases. PMID:2444437

  18. Alpha-adrenergic blocker mediated osteoblastic stem cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jue Yeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin directly up-regulated bone metabolism at a low dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin induced osteoblastic stem cell differentiation without affecting cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This osteogenic stem cell differentiation is mediated by ERK-signal dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and

  19. The crystal structure of a TL/CD8{alpha}{alpha} complex at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution : implications for modulation of T cell activation and memory.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Xiong, Y.; Naidenko, O. V.; Liu, J.-H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Kronenberg, M.; Cheroutre, H.; Reinherz, E. L.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; La Jolla Inst. of Allergy and Immunology

    2003-02-01

    TL is a nonclassical MHC class I molecule that modulates T cell activation through relatively high-affinity interaction with CD8{alpha}{alpha}. To investigate how the TL/CD8{alpha}{alpha} interaction influences TCR signaling, we characterized the structure of the TL/CD8{alpha}{alpha} complex using X-ray crystallography. Unlike antigen-presenting molecules, the TL antigen-binding groove is occluded by specific conformational changes. This feature eliminates antigen presentation, severely hampers direct TCR recognition, and prevents TL from participating in the TCR activation complex. At the same time, the TL/CD8{alpha}{alpha} interaction is strengthened through subtle structure changes in the TL {alpha}3 domain. Thus, TL functions to sequester and redirect CD8{alpha}{alpha} away from the TCR, modifying lck-dependent signaling.

  20. Molecular mechanism of {alpha}-tocopheryl-phosphate transport across the cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Negis, Yesim; Meydani, Mohsen; Zingg, Jean-Marc; Azzi, Angelo . E-mail: angelo.azzi@tufts.edu

    2007-07-27

    {alpha}-Tocopheryl-phosphate ({alpha}-TP) is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues where it modulates several functions. {alpha}-TP is more potent than {alpha}-T in inhibiting cell proliferation, down-regulating CD36 transcription, inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation. Administration of {alpha}-TP to cells or animals requires its transfer through membranes, via a transporter. We show here that {alpha}-TP is passing the plasma membrane via a system that is inhibited by glibenclamide and probenecid, inhibitors of a number of transporters. Glibenclamide and probenecid prevent dose-dependently {alpha}-TP inhibition of cell proliferation. The two inhibitors act on ATP binding cassette (ABC) and organic anion transporters (OAT). Since ABC transporters function to export solutes and {alpha}-TP is transported into cells, it may be concluded that {alpha}-TP transport may occur via an OAT family member. Due to the protection by glibenclamide and probenecid on the {alpha}-TP induced cell growth inhibition it appears that {alpha}-TP acts after its uptake inside cells.

  1. ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna; Aarnisalo, Piia

    2010-05-28

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

  2. Islet beta-cell secretion determines glucagon release from neighbouring alpha-cells.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Maechler, Pierre; Gjinovci, Asllan; Herrera, Pedro-Luis; Wollheim, Claes B

    2003-04-01

    Homeostasis of blood glucose is maintained by hormone secretion from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Glucose stimulates insulin secretion from beta-cells but suppresses the release of glucagon, a hormone that raises blood glucose, from alpha-cells. The mechanism by which nutrients stimulate insulin secretion has been studied extensively: ATP has been identified as the main messenger and the ATP-sensitive potassium channel as an essential transducer in this process. By contrast, much less is known about the mechanisms by which nutrients modulate glucagon secretion. Here we use conventional pancreas perfusion and a transcriptional targeting strategy to analyse cell-type-specific signal transduction and the relationship between islet alpha- and beta-cells. We find that pyruvate, a glycolytic intermediate and principal substrate of mitochondria, stimulates glucagon secretion. Our analyses indicate that, although alpha-cells, like beta-cells, possess the inherent capacity to respond to nutrients, secretion from alpha-cells is normally suppressed by the simultaneous activation of beta-cells. Zinc released from beta-cells may be implicated in this suppression. Our results define the fundamental mechanisms of differential responses to identical stimuli between cells in a microorgan.

  3. Endogenous catecholamine enhances the dysfunction of unfolded protein response and alpha-synuclein oligomerization in PC12 cells overexpressing human alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoru; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Imamura, Keiko; Takeshima, Takao; Nakashima, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies. alpha-Synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies. Recently, many studies have focused on the interaction between alpha-synuclein and catecholamine in the pathogenesis of PD. However, no detailed relationship between cathecholamine and alpha-synuclein cytotoxicity has been elucidated. Therefore, this study established PC12 cell lines which overexpress human alpha-synuclein in a tetracycline-inducible manner. The overexpression of human alpha-synuclein increased the number of apoptotic cells in a long-term culture. Moreover, human alpha-synuclein expressing PC12 cells demonstrated an increased vulnerability to several stressors in a short culture period. Thapsigargin increased the SDS soluble oligomers of alpha-synuclein associated with catecholamine-quinone. The unfolded protein response (UPR) study showed that thapsigargin increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation and nuclear GADD153/CHOP induction under alpha-synuclein overexpressed conditions. The activities of the ATF6alpha and IRE1alpha pathways decreased. These findings suggest that an overexpression of alpha-synuclein partly inactivates the UPR. alpha-Methyltyrosine inhibited the dysfunction of the UPR caused by an overexpression of human alpha-synuclein. Therefore, these findings suggest that the coexistence of human alpha-synuclein with catecholamine enhances the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related toxicity in PD pathogenesis.

  4. Interferon alpha-2a in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Vegna, M L; Papa, G; Defazio, D; Pisani, F; Coppola, G; De Pità, O; Puddu, P; Ferranti, G; Simoni, R; Mandelli, F

    1990-01-01

    23 newly diagnosed patients affected by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma were treated with sub-cutaneous interferon alpha-2a to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and the toxicity of this agent. IFN was administered daily with dose escalation from 3 to 18 million units for 12 weeks; thereafter, patients induced into complete (CR) or partial (PR) remission were given IFN at maximal tolerated dose 3 times weekly for 6 or 9 months. The objective tumor response was observed in 17 patients (74%): 8 (35%) were CR and 9 (39%) were PR. A 74-yr-old patient died because of neutropenia and sepsis at the end of induction phase, while receiving IFN at dose of 18 million units. Disease stage is the initial feature predictive of response to IFN therapy. The dose schedule of this study was well tolerated: only 3 patients developed liver toxicity, while leukopenia was evident in 6 patients. Only 2 CR patients have relapsed, 18 and 24 months from response; the remaining 6 CR patients are in continuous complete remission with a median follow-up of 41.8 months. 6 PR patients have progressed from 8 to 17 months after response, and in the 3 PR patients not yet progressed the response duration ranges from 20 to 24 months. In conclusion, interferon alpha-2a is a very effective agent in therapy of untreated cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with an overall response rate of 74%.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhances IL-15-induced natural killer cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Suk Hyung; Shin, Nara; Jeong, Mira; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ran; Chung, Jin Woong; Kim, Tae-Don; Choi, Inpyo

    2009-09-04

    The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by various factors including soluble growth factors and transcription factors. Here, we have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a positive regulator of NK cell differentiation. TNF-{alpha} augmented the IL-15-induced expression of NK1.1 and CD122 in mature NK cells, and TNF-{alpha} alone also induced NK cell maturation as well as IL-15. TNF-{alpha} also increased IFN-{gamma} production in NK cells in the presence of IL-15. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of several transcription factors, including T-bet and GATA-3, was increased by the addition of TNF-{alpha} and IL-15. In addition, TNF-{alpha} increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity in NK cells and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B impeded TNF-{alpha}-enhanced NK cell maturation. Overall, these data suggest that TNF-{alpha} significantly increased IL-15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-{kappa}B activity.

  6. Crocin suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cell death of neuronally differentiated PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Soeda, S; Ochiai, T; Paopong, L; Tanaka, H; Shoyama, Y; Shimeno, H

    2001-11-01

    Crocus sativus L. is used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat some disorders of the central nervous system. Crocin is an ethanol-extractable component of Crocus sativus L.; it is reported to prevent ethanol-induced impairment of learning and memory in mice. In this study, we demonstrate that crocin suppresses the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on neuronally differentiated PC-12 cells. PC-12 cells dead from exposure to TNF-alpha show apoptotic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. These hallmark features of cell death did not appear in cells treated in the co-presence of 10 microM crocin. Moreover, crocin suppressed the TNF-alpha-induced expression of Bcl-Xs and LICE mRNAs and simultaneously restored the cytokine-induced reduction of Bcl-X(L) mRNA expression. The modulating effects of crocin on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins led to a marked reduction of a TNF-alpha-induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Crocin also blocked the cytochrome c-induced activation of caspase-3. To learn how crocin exhibits these anti-apoptotic actions in PC-12 cells, we tested the effect of crocin on PC-12 cell death induced by daunorubicin. We found that crocin inhibited the effect of daunorubicin as well. Our findings suggest that crocin inhibits neuronal cell death induced by both internal and external apoptotic stimuli.

  7. Cultured rat mesangial cells contain smooth muscle alpha-actin not found in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Elger, M.; Drenckhahn, D.; Nobiling, R.; Mundel, P.; Kriz, W.

    1993-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody against smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM alpha-actin) was used to study the expression of SM alpha-actin in kidney sections and mesangial cell (MC) cultures. In the tissue sections, indirect immunofluorescence revealed intense labeling of vascular smooth muscle cells and precapillary pericytes for SM alpha-actin. Glomerular cells including MC were negative, with the exception of scattered smooth muscle cells in the wall of the intraglomerular segment of the efferent arteriole. In contrast, in MC cultures 50 to 95% of the cells displayed bright fluorescence. Immunoreactivity for SM alpha-actin first appeared 3 days after explanation of glomeruli and increased until the primary culture reached subconfluence. In each subculture (1 to 10) expression of SM alpha-actin was weak on day 1 and pronounced at subconfluence. Growth arrest of subconfluent cultures for 1 to 7 days in serum-free medium did not alter the percentage of cells positive for SM alpha-actin. However, exposure of MC to serum-free medium beginning on the first day of subculture curtailed expression of SM alpha-actin. Double-labeling with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and SM alpha-actin revealed SM alpha-actin-positive filaments in both replicating and resting cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that some process or processes associated with cell proliferation and cell growth of MC are accompanied by de novo expression of SM alpha-actin. The relevance to the contractile behavior of the difference in SM alpha-actin expression under in vitro and in vivo conditions is unknown. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:8434645

  8. Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit gene are expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chini, B; Clementi, F; Hukovic, N; Sher, E

    1992-01-01

    alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha Bgtx) is a toxin known to interact with muscle nicotinic receptors and with some neuronal nicotinic receptors. We show that alpha Bgtx binding sites are also expressed in nonmuscle and nonneuronal human cells, including small cell lung carcinoma and several epithelial cell lines. These receptors are immunologically related to the alpha Bgtx receptors of unknown function described in the nervous system and in the IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line and are distinct from muscle nicotinic receptors. We have also cloned from IMR32 cells the human alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit, which is supposed to participate in the formation of alpha Bgtx receptors. Transcripts corresponding to the alpha 5-subunit gene were found not only in neuroblastoma cells but also in all the cell lines expressing alpha Bgtx receptors, with the exception of the TE671 cell line, whose nicotinic receptor subunits are of the muscle type. We conclude that both alpha Bgtx receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic subunit gene are not neuron-specific, as previously thought, but are expressed in a number of human cell lines of various origin. Images PMID:1542648

  9. G-protein. alpha. -subunit expression, myristoylation, and membrane association in COS cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mumby, S.M.; Gilman, A.G. ); Heukeroth, R.O.; Gordon, J.I. )

    1990-01-01

    Myristolyation of seven different {alpha} subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) was examined by expressing these proteins in monkey kidney COS cells. Metabolic labeling studies of cells transfected with cytomegalovirus-based expression vectors indicated that ({sup 3}H)myristate was incorporated into {alpha}{sub i1}, {alpha}{sub i2}, {alpha}{sub i3}, {alpha}{sub 0}, and {alpha}{sub 1}, and {alpha}{sub z} but not {alpha}{sub s} subunits. The role of myristoylation in the association of {alpha} subunits with membranes was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis and by substitution of myristate with a less hydrophobic analog, 10-(propoxy)decanoate (11-oxamyristate). Myristoylation of {alpha}{sub 0} was blocked when an alanine residue was substituted for its amino-terminal glycine, as was association of the protein with membranes. Substitution of the myristoyl group with 11-oxamyristate affected the cellular distribution of a subset of acylated {alpha} subunits. The results are consistent with a model wherein the hydrophobic interaction of myristate with the bilayer permits continued association of the protein with the plasma membrane when G-protein {alpha} subunits dissociated from {beta}{gamma}.

  10. Pharmacological properties of rat alpha 7 nicotinic receptors expressed in native and recombinant cell systems.

    PubMed

    Virginio, Caterina; Giacometti, Angelo; Aldegheri, Laura; Rimland, Joseph M; Terstappen, Georg C

    2002-06-12

    The pharmacological properties of the rat alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor endogenously expressed in PC12 cells and recombinantly expressed in GH4C1 cells (alpha7-GH4C1 cells) were characterized and compared. Patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that activation by choline and block by methyllycaconitine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine were similar, but block by mecamylamine was different. Whereas in alpha7-GH4C1 cells the inhibition curve for mecamylamine was monophasic (IC(50) of 1.6 microM), it was biphasic in PC12 cells (IC(50) values of 341 nM and 9.6 microM). The same rank order of potency was obtained for various nicotinic agonists, while acetylcholine was 3.7-fold less potent and 1.5-fold more effective in PC12 cells. Dihydro-beta-erythroidine differentially blocked acetylcholine-evoked currents in both systems. Since reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments revealed expression of alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha7 and beta4 subunits in PC12 cells, whereas GH4C1 cells express only the beta4 subunit, our results suggest that more than one form of alpha7 containing heteromeric nicotinic receptors might be functionally expressed in PC12 cells.

  11. Alpha cells secrete acetylcholine as a non-neuronal paracrine signal priming human beta cell function

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Jacques-Silva, M. Caroline; Fachado, Alberto; Molina, Judith; Abdulreda, Midhat; Ricordi, Camillo; Roper, Stephen D.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in the function of the insulin secreting pancreatic beta cell1,2. Parasympathetic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, the islets of Langerhans, has been shown to provide cholinergic input to the beta cell in several species1,3,4, but the role of autonomic innervation in human beta cell function is at present unclear. Here we show that, in contrast to mouse islets, cholinergic innervation of human islets is sparse. Instead, we find that the alpha cells of the human islet provide paracrine cholinergic input to surrounding endocrine cells. Human alpha cells express the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and release acetylcholine when stimulated with kainate or a lowering in glucose concentration. Acetylcholine secretion by alpha cells in turn sensitizes the beta cell response to increases in glucose concentration. Our results demonstrate that in human islets acetylcholine is a paracrine signal that primes the beta cell to respond optimally to subsequent increases in glucose concentration. We anticipate these results to revise models about neural input and cholinergic signaling in the endocrine pancreas. Cholinergic signaling within the islet represents a potential therapeutic target in diabetes5, highlighting the relevance of this advance to future drug development. PMID:21685896

  12. Biologically active monoiodinated alpha-MSH derivatives for receptor binding studies using human melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, A.N.; Verin, V.J.; Solca, F.; Siegrist, W.; Kueenlin, C.B.; Bagutti, C.; Stutz, S.; Girard, J. , University Hospital, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    Three different monoiodinated radioligands of alpha-MSH (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) were compared in a binding assay with human D10 melanoma cells: (Tyr(125I)2)-alpha-MSH, (Tyr(125I)2,NIe4)-alpha-MSH, and (Tyr(125I)2,NIe4,D-Phe7)-alpha-MSH. They were prepared either by the classical chloramine T method or by the Enzymobead method. A simple and rapid purification scheme was developed consisting of a primary separation on reversed-phase C18 silica cartridges immediately after the iodination, followed by HPLC purification before each binding experiment. Biological testing of the three radioligands showed that they all retained high melanotropic activity in the B16 melanin assay and the Anolis melanophore assay. However, in human D10 melanoma cells, (Tyr(125I)2,NIe4)-alpha-MSH led to a high degree of non-specific binding to the cells which could not be displaced by excess alpha-MSH and only partially by (NIe4)-alpha-MSH. The (Tyr(125I)2,NIe4,D-Phe7)-alpha-MSH tracer gave similar results but with a much lower proportion of non-specific binding. On the other hand, (Tyr(125I)2)-alpha-MSH proved to be an excellent radioligand whose non-specific binding to the D10 cells was not higher than 20% of the total binding.

  13. Transforming growth factor-alpha precursors in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Asbert, M; Montaner, B; Pérez-Tomás, R

    2001-06-01

    Among the proteins of the epidermal growth factor family, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may be an especially reliable indicator of metastasis or prognosis in human colorectal carcinomas. Moreover, anomalous forms of TGF-alpha have been detected in several tissues of cancer origin, suggesting a role of these forms in the development of the disease. This study was designed to identify the presence of TGF-alpha precursors in different colon cancer cell lines by mean of immunocytochemistry and western blotting techniques. Pro-TGF-alpha was detected in all cell lines tested. Staining for pro-TGF-alpha was observed in cytoplasm. Monoclonal antibody to TGF-alpha detected two bands of 20 and 21 kDa. Polyclonal antibody to pro-TGF-alpha revealed five bands ranging from 15 to 24 kDa. All these proteins were also detected in nonmalignant cells expressing a transfected rat pro-TGF-alpha gene. In conclusions, transformation in these human colon carcinoma cells is not due to the presence of anomalous forms of TGF-alpha precursors.

  14. Targeted Therapies: Bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2009-05-01

    Rini and colleagues provide additional data on bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in clear-cell carcinoma of the kidney; a comparison of these results with the findings from contemporary trials suggests that bevacizumab and interferon-alpha is another clinically useful treatment option for patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

  15. The p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-{alpha}, suppresses self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine the role of p53 in ES cells under unstressful conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} suppresses ES cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} induces ES cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} downregulates Nanog and cyclin D1. -- Abstract: Recent studies have reported the role of p53 in suppressing the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells after DNA damage and blocking the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, to date no evidence has been presented to support the function of p53 in unstressed ES cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of pifithrin (PFT)-{alpha}, an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation, on self-renewal of ES cells. Our results revealed that treatment of ES cells with PFT-{alpha} resulted in the inhibition of ES cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a marked reduction in the cell number and colony size. Also, PFT-{alpha} caused a cell cycle arrest and significant reduction in DNA synthesis. In addition, inhibition of p53 activity reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and Nanog. These findings indicate that p53 pathway in ES cells rather than acting as an inactive gene, is required for ES cell proliferation and self-renewal under unstressful conditions.

  16. Expression of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human lymphoid and non lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, A; Piantelli, M; Musiani, P; Larocca, L M; Revoltella, R P; Ranelletti, F O

    1986-01-01

    Expression of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-SDH), a putative T cell marker in the murine system, has been examined in human haematopoietic cells. Higher levels of enzymatic activity were expressed by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in comparison with thymocytes. When PBMC were fractionated into T and non T cell subsets, the greatest values of 20 alpha-SDH activity were associated with the non T cell population. Cells from bone marrow exhibited lower levels of 20 alpha-SDH than PBMC and thymocytes. Both myeloid and lymphoid leukaemic cells expressed significant 20 alpha-SDH activity. In addition our data in U-937 and CM-S human cell lines indicate that cells belonging to the myelomonocytic precursor compartment constitutively expressed 20 alpha-SDH activity. Furthermore, this activity was less expressed when these cells were induced to monocyte-macrophage differentiation. In conclusion, our data in the human system indicate that 20 alpha-SDH should not be viewed as a lymphoid lineage-restricted marker enzyme. PMID:3485485

  17. Expression of retinoic acid receptor alpha mRNA in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Largman, C; Detmer, K; Corral, J C; Hack, F M; Lawrence, H J

    1989-07-01

    The expression of the newly described human retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) in six nonlymphoid and six lymphoid leukemia cell lines and nine freshly obtained samples of leukemia cells from patients with acute nonlymphoid leukemia was assessed by Northern blot analysis, using a full length cDNA clone of RAR alpha as probe. RAR alpha was expressed in all 12 cell lines and in all fresh leukemia samples as two major transcripts of 2.6 and 3.5 kb in size. Levels of RAR alpha expression and transcript sizes in retinoid-sensitive cells (such as HL60 or fresh promyelocytic leukemia cells) were not different from those in other samples. Moreover, expression of RAR alpha was not significantly modulated by exposure to cis-retinoic acid (cisRA) in either cisRA-responsive or unresponsive cells. By using a 3' fragment of the RAR alpha gene as a probe, we confirmed that the transcripts visualized did not represent the homologous RAR beta gene. RAR alpha appears to be expressed in most human leukemia cells regardless of the type of biologic response to retinoic acid.

  18. Suppression of estrogen receptor-alpha transactivation by thyroid transcription factor-2 in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunsook; Gong, Eun-Yeung; Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Lee, Keesook

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 was expressed in mammary glands and breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 repressed ER{alpha} transactivation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptors (ERs), which mediate estrogen actions, regulate cell growth and differentiation of a variety of normal tissues and hormone-responsive tumors through interaction with cellular factors. In this study, we show that thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2) is expressed in mammary gland and acts as ER{alpha} co-repressor. TTF-2 inhibited ER{alpha} transactivation in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In addition, TTF-2 directly bound to and formed a complex with ER{alpha}, colocalizing with ER{alpha} in the nucleus. In MCF-7/TTF-2 stable cell lines, TTF-2 repressed the expression of endogenous ER{alpha} target genes such as pS2 and cyclin D1 by interrupting ER{alpha} binding to target promoters and also significantly decreased cell proliferation. Taken together, these data suggest that TTF-2 may modulate the function of ER{alpha} as a corepressor and play a role in ER-dependent proliferation of mammary cells.

  19. Overexpression of laminin alpha1 chain in colonic cancer cells induces an increase in tumor growth.

    PubMed

    De Arcangelis, A; Lefebvre, O; Méchine-Neuville, A; Arnold, C; Klein, A; Rémy, L; Kedinger, M; Simon-Assmann, P

    2001-10-01

    Laminins represent a growing family of glycoproteins constituting the basement membrane. They are known to direct many biological processes. With respect to carcinogenesis, laminins play an important role in cell adhesion, mitogenesis, differentiation and even metastasis. To further study the biological significance of laminin-1 (composed of alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains) in intestinal cell differentiation or tumorigenesis, an alpha1-laminin expression vector was introduced into the HT29 colonic cancer cells, in which laminin alpha1 chain is not expressed. Upon transfection of the alpha1 chain, the alpha1beta1gamma1 trimer was found secreted in the media along with free alpha1 chain as assessed by immunoprecipitation. The presence of the laminin alpha1 chain did not significantly modify the levels of the other laminin chains nor the integrins expressed by the HT29 cells. In spite of similar growth properties with the control cells in vitro (plastic dish, soft agar), the laminin alpha1 transfectants showed a significantly increased tumor growth when injected in nude mice. Histologic and immunohistochemic examination of the laminin alpha1-expressing tumors points to an increased recruitment of the host stromal and vascular cells, without modification in the differentiation profile and invasion potential. In parallel, a clear accumulation of laminin-10 (alpha5beta1gamma1) at the carcinoma/stromal interface and a segregation of the integrin beta4 subunit at the basal pole of the cancer cells occurred, compared to control tumors. Overall, our observations emphasize the importance of laminin-1 as a chemoattractant of both stromal and vascular cells and in epithelial/stromal cell interactions for the organization of the basement membrane and segregation of integrins leading to an epithelial cell growth signal. Such a sequence of events is reminiscent of what occurs during development.

  20. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone on the radiosensitivity of thiol-depleted mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgkiss, R.J.; Stratford, M.R.; Watfa, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    The effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers is increased when mammalian cells are depleted of endogenous glutathione by buthionine sulphoximine pre-treatment in vitro; a similar gain has not been observed in tumors in vivo despite evidence of glutathione depletion in vivo following buthionine sulphoximine treatment. However, concentrations of biological reducing agents other than glutathione were not measured in the in vivo experiments. Other reducing agents found in tumors include alpha-tocopherol, which reduces the sensitizing efficiency of nitro-aromatic sensitizers in thiol-depleted mammalian cells. These data suggest that the failure to observe large gains in misonidazole sensitizing efficiency in thiol-depleted tumors in vivo may be due, in part, to the presence of biological reducing agents such as alpha-tocopherol.

  1. Differential regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism by alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta5 integrins upon smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Paulhe, F; Racaud-Sultan, C; Ragab, A; Albiges-Rizo, C; Chap, H; Iberg, N; Morand, O; Perret, B

    2001-11-01

    Smooth muscle cell migration is a key step of atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. We demonstrate that alpha(V)beta(3) and alpha(V)beta(5) integrins synergistically regulate smooth muscle cell migration onto vitronectin. Using an original haptotactic cell migration assay, we measured a strong stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in migrating vascular smooth muscle cells. Phosphatidic acid production and phosphoinositide 3-kinase IA activation were triggered only upon alpha(V)beta(3) engagement. Blockade of alpha(V)beta(3) engagement or phospholipase C activity resulted in a strong inhibition of smooth muscle cell spreading on vitronectin. By contrast, blockade of alpha(V)beta(5) reinforced elongation and polarization of cell shape. Moreover, Pyk2-associated tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 4-kinase activities measured in Pyk2 immunoprecipitates were stimulated upon cell migration. Blockade of either alpha(V)beta(3) or alpha(V)beta(5) function, as well as inhibition of phospholipase C activity, decreased both Pyk2-associated activities. We demonstrated that the Pyk2-associated phosphoinositide 4-kinase corresponded to the beta isoform. Our data point to the metabolism of phosphoinositides as a regulatory pathway for the differential roles played by alpha(V)beta(3) and alpha(V)beta(5) upon cell migration and identify the Pyk2-associated phosphoinositide 4-kinase beta as a common target for both integrins.

  2. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM (3H)testosterone (({sup 3}H)T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. ({sup 3}H)5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (({sup 3}H)DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, ({sup 3}H)DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT.

  3. Synthesis of alpha 2-macroglobulin in rat hepatocytes and in a cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Andus, T; Gross, V; Tran-Thi, T A; Heinrich, P C

    1983-01-10

    The biosynthesis and secretion of alpha 2-macroglobulin was studied in rat hepatocyte primary cultures. After immunoprecipitation of alpha 2-macroglobulin from a cell homogenate and the hepatocyte medium, two forms of alpha 2-macroglobulin with app. Mr of 176000 and 182000, respectively, were identified. A precursor-product relationship for the two alpha 2-macroglobulin forms was demonstrated by a pulse-chase experiment. The cellular form of alpha 2-macroglobulin could be deglycosylated by endoglucosaminidase H, whereas the medium form of alpha 2-macroglobulin remained unaffected. On the other hand, only the medium form of alpha 2-macroglobulin was found to be susceptible to neuraminidase. In vitro translation of rat liver poly(A)+ RNA resulted in a translation product of an app. Mr of 162000. PMID:6186524

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asteroid 2008 TC3: Dispersion of organic compounds inside asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Morrow, Amy L.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.; Zare, Richard N.

    2010-10-01

    Ureilites are carbon-bearing ultramafic rocks characterized by partial melt depletion and a violent disruption resulting in graphitic carbon and diamonds. Among the predominantly polymict ureilite meteorites collected from the impact of asteroid 2008 TC3 on October 7, 2008—the first time an asteroid was spotted in space and subsequently recovered in the form of meteorites—were many fresh-looking chondrites. Four were classified as EH6 (#16), H5 (sample #25), EL6 (#41), and L4 (#A100) chondrites. All are called "Almahata Sitta," named after the nearby inhabited outpost of Station 6. Six hundred meteorites were collected, which show a wide range of densities, textures, reflection properties, and elemental compositions. In this study, we employ laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry to analyze the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents of six meteorites from 2008 TC3 that are ureilites (sample #1, #4, #7, #15, #27, and #47) and three anomalous fragments (sample #25, #16, and #41). Numerous organic compounds were detected with a PAH signature that has not been observed in the carbonaceous chondrites previously studied by our experimental apparatus. Specifically, the Almahata Sitta spectra lack the diversity of alkylation series of parent PAHs commonly observed in Murchison and other carbonaceous chondrites. Spatial mappings of aromatic species across the surface of a fragment of sample #4 are presented including detection of what appears to be the aromatic amino acid tyrosine. Potential sources of terrestrial organic contamination are discussed and ruled out as a source of our observations. Meteorites #25 and #16 are found to have the same distribution of PAHs as the Almahata Sitta meteorites. Other chondrites have much different organic fingerprints. We conclude that both an H5 and E chondrite were included in asteroid 2008 TC3 as foreign clasts and that organic compounds contained in ureilites can spread into other parts of an asteroid.

  5. Essential role of TNF-alpha in development of spleen fibroblastic reticular cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lintao; Chen, Junying; Liu, Lina; Gao, Jianbao; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2015-02-01

    TNF-alpha plays an important role in the development of secondary lymphoid tissues. Earlier studies showed that fibroblastic reticular cells express TNF-alpha receptor, suggesting that TNF-alpha may affect the development of FRCs. To test this, we analyzed the development and function of FRCs in wild-type or TNF-alpha knockout mice. We found that GP38 expression was down-regulated in the spleen of TNF-alpha knockout mice. Chemokines, mainly secreted by GP38(+) FRCs, were also down-regulated. Additionally, we found that absence of TNF-alpha decreased the homing ability to direct T cells to the spleen. However, absence of TNF-alpha did not affect the development of lymph nodes FRCs. These data reveal that TNF-alpha plays an important role in the development of spleen FRCs. Absence of TNF-alpha could cause abnormality of spleen FRCs, thereby weakening the homing ability of T cells to localize to the spleen T cell zone.

  6. Identification of novel targets for PGC-1{alpha} and histone deacetylase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Rita M. Talati, Pratik; Blake, Kathryn R.; Meador-Woodruff, James H.; Russell, James W.

    2009-02-06

    Recent evidence suggests that the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} coactivator 1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) is involved in the pathology of Huntington's Disease (HD). While animals lacking PGC-1{alpha} express lower levels of genes involved in antioxidant defense and oxidative phosphorylation in the brain, little is known about other targets for PGC-1{alpha} in neuronal cells and whether there are ways to pharmacologically target PGC-1{alpha} in neurons. Here, PGC-1{alpha} overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells upregulated expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function, glucose transport, fatty acid metabolism, and synaptic function. Overexpression also decreased vulnerability to hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and caspase 3 activation. Treatment of cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) trichostatin A and valproic acid upregulated PGC-1{alpha} and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). These results suggest that PGC-1{alpha} regulates multiple pathways in neurons and that HDACi's may be good candidates to target PGC-1{alpha} and GLUT4 in HD and other neurological disorders.

  7. Alpha interferon-induced antiviral response noncytolytically reduces replication defective adenovirus DNA in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Tianlun; Guo, Haitao; Block, Timothy M

    2007-12-01

    Although alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) is of benefit in the treatment of viral hepatitis B, HBV replication has been refractory to the cytokine in commonly used hepatocyte-derived cell lines. In search for a cell culture system to study the mechanism by which IFN-alpha inhibits HBV replication, we infected a variety of cell lines with an adenoviral vector containing a replication competent 1.3-fold genome length HBV DNA (AdHBV) and followed by incubation with IFN-alpha. We found that IFN-alpha efficiently decreased the level of HBV DNA replicative intermediates in AdHBV infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Further analysis revealed, surprisingly, that IFN-alpha did not directly inhibit HBV replication, rather the amount of adenovirus DNA in the nuclei of MDBK cells was reduced. As a consequence, HBV RNA transcription and DNA replication were inhibited. Experiments with adenoviral vector expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) further supported the notion that IFN-alpha treatment noncytolytically eliminated adenovirus DNA, but did not kill the vector infected MDBK cells. Our data suggest that IFN-alpha-induced antiviral program is able to discriminate host cellular DNA from episomal viral DNA and might represent a novel pathway of interferon mediate innate defense against DNA virus infections.

  8. Differential expression of alpha-subunits of G-proteins in human neuroblastoma-derived cell clones.

    PubMed

    Klinz, F J; Yu, V C; Sadée, W; Costa, T

    1987-11-16

    The distribution of alpha- and beta-subunits of G-proteins was analyzed in membranes of three cell clones which are derived from the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y shows a pattern of G-proteins very similar to that of human brain cortex with high levels of Gi alpha and Go alpha but low levels of G40 alpha. The intermediate clone SH-IN contains high levels of Go alpha and Gi alpha and moderate levels of G40 alpha. The non-neuronal clone SH-EP shows high levels of G40 alpha but lacks Go alpha. Differentiation of the neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y by retinoic acid or nerve growth factor does not change the amount of Gi alpha or Go alpha in the membrane. PMID:3119368

  9. T-cell receptor V sub. alpha. and C sub. alpha. alleles associated with multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Oksenberg, J.R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Steinman, L. ); Sherritt, M.; Bernard, C.C. ); Begovich, A.B.; Erlich, H.A. )

    1989-02-01

    Polymorphic markers in genes encoding the {alpha} chain of the human T-cell receptor (TcR) have been detected by Southern blot analysis in Pss I digests. Polymorphic bands were observed at 6.3 and 2.0 kilobases (kb) with frequencies of 0.30 and 0.44, respectively, in the general population. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the authors amplified selected sequences derived from the full-length TcR {alpha} cDNA probe. These PcR products were used as specific probes to demonstrate that the 6.3-kb polymorphic fragment hybridizes to the variable (V)-region probe and the 2.0-kb fragment hybridizes to the constant (C)-region probe. Segregation of the polymorphic bands was analyzed in family studies. To look for associations between these markers and autoimmune diseases, the authors have studied the restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution of the Pss I markers in patients with multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and Graves disease. Significant differences in the frequency of the polymorphic V{sub {alpha}} and C{sub {alpha}} markers were identified between patients and healthy individuals.

  10. Interaction between HP1{alpha} and replication proteins in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Auth, Tanja . E-mail: tauth@uni-bonn.de; Kunkel, Elisabeth; Grummt, Friedrich . E-mail: grummt@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    HP1 is an essential heterochromatin-associated protein known to play an important role in the organization of heterochromatin as well as in the transcriptional regulation of heterochromatic and euchromatic genes both in repression and activation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation, we report here that murine HP1{alpha} interacts with the preRC proteins ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6. Immunofluorescence staining and EGFP/DsRed fusion proteins revealed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6 in heterochromatin, supporting the notion that ORC and probably CDC6 play an important role in murine HP1{alpha} function. Besides that, we also observed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with {gamma}-tubulin suggesting a centrosomal localization of HP1{alpha} in murine cells. To gain insight into HP1{alpha} function, we applied the RNAi technique. Depletion of HP1{alpha} leads to a slow down of cell proliferation, an aberrant cell cycle progression as well as to multinucleated cells with insufficiently organized microtubule. These results together indicate that HP1{alpha} exerts functions in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  11. TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha induce apoptosis in subconfluent rat mesangial cells. Evidence for the involvement of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation as second messengers.

    PubMed

    Böhler, T; Waiser, J; Hepburn, H; Gaedeke, J; Lehmann, C; Hambach, P; Budde, K; Neumayer, H H

    2000-07-01

    Apoptosis of mesangial cells (MC) plays a role in glomerulonephritis (GN). In this study we investigated cytokine-induced apoptosis of cultured rat MC by morphological and biochemical features. TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha induced apoptosis in rat MC in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. RT-PCR experiments revealed that MC express the TNF-receptor 1 (p60) gene constitutively. TNF-alpha as well as IL-1alpha stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced lipid peroxidation. Coincubation with catalase inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha induced apoptosis as well as lipid peroxidation. TNF-alpha, but not IL-1alpha increased the expression of c-jun. These results provide evidence that TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha induce apoptosis in rat MC with hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation as second messengers. Increased c-jun expression may be a downstream intracellular signal of TNF-alpha-, but not IL-1alpha-induced apoptosis.

  12. Alpha-amylase production is induced by sulfuric acid in rice aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Mitsunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kobayashi, Midori; Fukui, Satoe; Fukuoka, Kayoko; Kawakami, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Junji; Ohshima, Masahiro; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2007-12-01

    The hydrolytic enzyme alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) is produced mainly in aleurone cells of germinating cereals, and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) is essential for its induction. However, in rice (Oryza sativa L.), sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) induces alpha-amylase production in aleurone tissue even in the absence of GA. Here, the pre-treatment of rice aleurone cells with H(2)SO(4) and incubation in water induced alpha-amylase activity, as if the cells had been incubated in GA solution. PMID:17988885

  13. PKC{alpha} expression regulated by Elk-1 and MZF-1 in human HCC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-H.; Wu, T.-T.; Tsai, J.-H.; Huang, C.-Y.; Hsieh, Y.-S.; Liu, J.-Y. . E-mail: jyl@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-01-06

    Our previous study found that PKC{alpha} was highly expressed in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells and associated with cell migration and invasion. In this study, we further investigated the gene regulation of this enzyme. We showed that PKC{alpha} expression enhancement in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells was found neither by DNA amplification nor by increasing mRNA stability using differential PCR and mRNA decay assays. After screening seven transcription factors in the putative cis-acting regulatory elements of human PKC{alpha} promoters, only Elk-1 and MZF-1 antisense oligonucleotide showed a significant reduction in the PKC{alpha} mRNA level. They also reduced cell proliferation, cell migratory and invasive capabilities, and DNA binding activities in the PKC{alpha} promoter region. Over-expression assay confirmed that the PKC{alpha} expression may be modulated by these two factors at the transcriptional level. Therefore, these results may provide a novel mechanism for PKC{alpha} expression regulation in human HCC cells.

  14. Transplantation of neural stem cells expressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) improves behavioral recovery in a rat stroke model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wanfu; Chen, Xiu; Hu, Changlin; Li, Jinfang; Yu, Zhen; Cai, Wenqin

    2010-01-01

    We explored the possibility that hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) might contribute to the therapeutic effect of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in cerebral ischemia. The relative efficacy of modified NSC to promote behavioral recovery was investigated in a rat model of stroke induced by a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). A recombinant adenovirus (Ad-HIF-1alpha) was engineered to express HIF-1alpha. Control NSC infected with control adenovirus (NSC-Ad), recombinant adenovirus Ad-HIF-1alpha, or NSC infected by Ad-HIF-1alpha (NSC-Ad-HIF-1alpha), were used for intraventricular transplantion into rat brain 24 hours after MCAO. Neurological deficits were assessed over 4 weeks using the modified neurological severity scale (NSS) score. Long-term in vivo expression of HIF-1alpha was demonstrated by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, and derivatives of nestin-positive transplanted cells contributed to both neuronal (neurofilament-positive) and astroglial (glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive) lineages. All animals showed functional improvement. Improvement was accelerated in animals receiving either NSC-Ad or Ad-HIF-1alpha, while improvement at all times between 7 days and 28 days post MCAO was significantly greater in animals transplanted with NSC-Ad-HIF-1alpha than for other treated animals. NSC-Ad-HIF-1alpha cells also increased the number of factor VIII-positive cells in the region of ischemic injury, indicating that HIF-1alpha expression can promote angiogenesis. Gene-modified NSC expressing HIF-1alpha have therapeutic potential in ischemic stroke.

  15. alpha-Lactalbumin species variation, HAMLET formation, and tumor cell death.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Jenny; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2006-06-23

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of apo alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, formed in casein after low pH treatment of human milk. This study examined if HAMLET-like complexes are present in casein from different species and if isolated alpha-lactalbumin from those species can form such complexes with oleic acid. Casein from human, bovine, equine, and porcine milk was separated by ion exchange chromatography and active complexes were only found in human casein. This was not explained by alpha-lactalbumin sequence variation, as purified bovine, equine, porcine, and caprine alpha-lactalbumins formed complexes with oleic acid with biological activity similar to HAMLET. We conclude that structural variation of alpha-lactalbumins does not preclude the formation of HAMLET-like complexes and that natural HAMLET formation in casein was unique to human milk, which also showed the highest oleic acid content.

  16. Effect of transforming growth factor-alpha on inositol phospholipid metabolism in human epidermoid carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Takenawa, T.; Twardzik, D.R.

    1988-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) stimulates (in a dose-dependent manner) the incorporation of (/sup 32/P)Pi into phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431). The effect of TGF-alpha on the incorporation was found to be similar to that of EGF. On the other hand, a striking difference in the activation of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase activity was seen between TGF-alpha and EGF. At least 100 times more TGF-alpha was required to achieve maximal stimulation of DG kinase activity relative to EGF. These results suggest that the activation of DG kinase by TGF-alpha may involve a mechanism independent from or subsequent to activation of the EGF receptor.

  17. Detection of Clostridium novyi type B alpha toxin by cell culture systems.

    PubMed

    Borrmann, E; Schulze, F

    1999-07-01

    Ten permanent cell lines were examined for their reaction to the Clostridium novyi alpha toxin. The action of the toxin was determined after 3 days by microscopic examination and the MTT assay. The alpha toxin exhibited the strongest effect on ESH-L cells rather than other cell lines. Vero and SFT-R cells reacted in a comparable way, but less sensitively. We were able to show that the cytopathic effect on the three types of cells was neutralised by the international standard for gas gangrene antitoxin (C. novyi) but in no case by heterologous antisera. Our results have shown that the three cell lines were specific indicators for the detection of the cytopathic effect of alpha toxin. The cytopathic effect can be measured reproducibly by the cell culture assay used. These results are suitable as the starting point for the development of the neutralisation test using cell cultures.

  18. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase II{alpha} to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A. . E-mail: jat@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-06-17

    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase II{alpha} (topo II{alpha}), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo II{alpha} mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo II{alpha} mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo II{alpha} mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo II{alpha} mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo II{alpha} mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors.

  19. Biotransformation of alpha- and 6beta-santonin by fungus and plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Dai, J; Sakai, J-I; Ando, M

    2006-06-01

    One fungus, Abisidia coerulea IFO 4011, and suspended cell cultures of one plant, Asparagus officinalis, were employed to bioconvert alpha- and 6beta-santonin. Incubation of alpha-santonin with the cell cultures of the fungus afforded two products, 11beta-hydroxy-alpha-santonin (1, in 76.5% yield) and 8alpha-hydroxy-alpha-santonin (2, in 2.0% yield). And from 6beta-santonin, four major products (3, 4, 5 and 6) and four minor products (7, 8, 9 and 10) were obtained, including 8alpha-hydroxylated products in trace yields. Very interestingly, a skeletal rearrangement occurred and a guaiane product (13) formed in a very low yield when alpha-santonin incubating with A.officinalis cell cultures, while not in the case of 6beta-santonin as substrate. Among the obtained 15 products, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 are new compounds. The fact of 8alpha hydroxylation of santonin enables the formation of 8,12-eudesmanolide instead of 6,12-eudesmanolide and some useful modification at C-8 position. In addition, these reactions would provide evidence for the biogenesis between different types of eudesmane and/or guaiane compounds in the plants in nature. PMID:16864442

  20. Pancreatic-derived factor (FAM3B), a novel islet cytokine, induces apoptosis of insulin-secreting beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaopei; Gao, Zhiyong; Robert, Claudia E; Greene, Scott; Xu, Gang; Xu, Weizhen; Bell, Ewan; Campbell, Don; Zhu, Yuan; Young, Robert; Trucco, Matteo; Markmann, James F; Naji, Ali; Wolf, Bryan A

    2003-09-01

    PANDER (PANcreatic DERived factor, FAM3B), a newly discovered secreted cytokine, is specifically expressed at high levels in the islets of Langerhans of the endocrine pancreas. To evaluate the role of PANDER in beta-cell function, we investigated the effects of PANDER on rat, mouse, and human pancreatic islets; the beta-TC3 cell line; and the alpha-TC cell line. PANDER protein was present in alpha- and beta-cells of pancreatic islets, insulin-secreting beta-TC3 cells, and glucagon-secreting alpha-TC cells. PANDER induced islet cell death in rat and human islets. Culture of beta-TC3 cells with recombinant PANDER had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell viability. This effect was also time-dependent. PANDER caused apoptosis of beta-cells as assessed by electron microscopy, annexin V fluorescent staining, and flow-cytometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. PANDER did not affect cytosolic Ca(2+) levels or nitric oxide levels. However, PANDER activated caspase-3. Hence, PANDER may have a role in the process of pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis.

  1. Alpha actinin-1 regulates cell-matrix adhesion organization in keratinocytes: consequences for skin cell motility.

    PubMed

    Hamill, Kevin J; Hiroyasu, Sho; Colburn, Zachary T; Ventrella, Rosa V; Hopkinson, Susan B; Skalli, Omar; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2015-04-01

    The migration of keratinocytes in wound healing requires coordinated activities of the motility machinery of a cell, the cytoskeleton, and matrix adhesions. In this study, we assessed the role of alpha actinin-1 (ACTN1), one of the two alpha actinin isoforms expressed in keratinocytes, in skin cell migration via a small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown approach. Keratinocytes deficient in ACTN1 exhibit changes in their actin cytoskeleton organization, a loss in front-rear polarity, and impaired lamellipodial dynamics. They also display aberrant directed motility and move slower compared with their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, they have abnormally arranged matrix adhesion sites. Specifically, the focal adhesions in ACTN1 knockdown keratinocytes are not organized as distinct entities. Rather, focal adhesion proteins are arranged in a circle subjacent to cortical fibers of actin. In the same cells, hemidesmosome proteins arrange in cat paw patterns, more typical of confluent, stationary cells, and β4 integrin dynamics are reduced in knockdown cells compared with control keratinocytes. In summary, our data suggest a mechanism by which ACTN1 determines the motility of keratinocytes by regulating the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and hemidesmosome proteins complexes, thereby modulating cell speed, lamellipodial dynamics, and directed migration. PMID:25431851

  2. Interleukin 1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulate autocrine amphiregulin expression and proliferation of human papillomavirus-immortalized and carcinoma-derived cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, C D; McMullin, E; Iglesias, M; Plowman, G D

    1995-01-01

    Infection with multiple sexually transmitted agents has been associated with inflammation of the cervix and an increased risk of cervical cancer in women infected with human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), inhibited proliferation of normal epithelial cells cultured from human cervix. In contrast, both cytokines significantly stimulated proliferation of cervical cell lines (5 of 7) immortalized by transfection with HPV-16 or -18 DNAs or lines derived from cervical carcinomas (7 of 11). Stimulation was dose dependent from 0.01 to 1.0 nM and was blocked by specific inhibitors, such as the IL-1 receptor antagonist or the TNF type 1 or 2 soluble receptors. Growth stimulation by IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha was accompanied by a 6- to 10-fold increase in RNA encoding amphiregulin, an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligand. Recombinant human amphiregulin (0.1 nM) was as effective as IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha in promoting proliferation. Monoclonal antibodies that blocked signal transduction by the EGF receptor or that neutralized amphiregulin activity prevented mitogenic stimulation by IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha. These studies indicate that IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha stimulate proliferation of immortal and malignant cervical epithelial cells by an EGF receptor-dependent pathway requiring autocrine stimulation by amphiregulin. Furthermore, they suggest that chronic inflammation and release of proinflammatory cytokines might provide a selective growth advantage for abnormal cervical cells in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7708734

  3. Photometric Observations of 1998 OR2, 1999 AQ10, and 2008 TC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Alberto Silva; Novaes, Alberto Brum

    2009-10-01

    The near-Earth asteroids 1999 AQ10 and 1998 OR2 were observed by the authors between 2009 February and March to determine their basic physical parameters. The absolute magnitudes are, respectively, H = 20.4 ± 0.5 and 16.1 ± 0.2 using G = 0.15. The lightcurve parameters for 1999 AQ10 are P = 2.79 ± 0.02 h, A = 0.205 ± 0.005 mag and, for 1998 OR2, P = 3.198 ± 0.006 h, A = 0.29 ± 0.01 mag. The linear phase coefficient for 1999 AQ10 is ß = 0.034 ± 0.002 mag/deg. For 2008 TC3, we obtain B-V = 0.608 ± 0.002.

  4. Unique large diamonds in a ureilite from Almahata Sitta 2008 TC3 asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Masaaki; Ohtani, Eiji; El Goresy, Ahmed; Lin, Yangting; Feng, Lu; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Gillet, Philippe; Nagase, Toshiro; Muto, Jun; Nishijima, Masahiko

    2015-08-01

    The Almahata Sitta MS-170 ureilite (a piece of a breccia originating from the asteroid, 2008 TC3) consists mainly of olivine, with many diamond and graphite grains existing between the olivine grains. The occurrences of the diamonds are unique; i.e., (i) some diamonds exhibit sub-euhedral habits and (ii) some diamonds have large grain-size (up to about 40 μm). Several diamonds are segmented into many fragments by fractures. Individual fragments have similar crystallographic orientation, which implies that the adjacent diamond segments were originally a single crystal. Large diamond assemblages occur besides such individual diamond grains. In one of the largest assemblages (almost about 100 μm in size) has also the same crystallographic orientation. They can be regarded as the pieces of a previously unique single diamond, which provides evidence for large single-crystals diamond in meteorites. Almahata Sitta MS-170 is a meteorite fragment from the 2008 TC3 asteroid that underwent less shock than other ureilitic meteorites. It is unlikely that such large diamonds were formed from graphite through a shock-induced phase transformation during planetesimal collision, despite this idea being now widely accepted as the diamond formation mechanism of ureilites. Fine-scale heterogeneous distribution of impurities (hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen) exists in single crystal diamonds, indicative of sluggish growth. This distribution is reminiscent of sector zoning growth. Its grain size, the shock features of MS-170, and the C- and N-isotopic composition signatures allow us to revive classical and but not widely accepted models for diamond formation in ureilites; i.e., a diamond formed from partially melted magma or a C-O-H fluid in the deep interior of the ureilite parent-body or, alternatively, through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the solar nebula. Considering present mineralogical and isotopic features, the former scenario is more favorable.

  5. Bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) selectively stimulate intracellular calcium signaling in different cat iris sphincter cells.

    PubMed

    Spada, Clayton S; Krauss, Achim H-P; Woodward, David F; Chen, June; Protzman, Charles E; Nieves, Amelia L; Wheeler, Larry A; Scott, David F; Sachs, George

    2005-01-01

    Bimatoprost is a synthetic analog of prostaglandin F(2 alpha) ethanolamide (prostamide F(2 alpha)), and shares a pharmacological profile consistent with that of the prostamides. Like prostaglandin F(2 alpha) carboxylic acid, bimatoprost potently lowers intraocular pressure in dogs, primates and humans. In order to distinguish its mechanism of action from prostaglandin F(2 alpha), fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine the effects of bimatoprost, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 17-phenyl prostaglandin F(2 alpha) on calcium signaling in resident cells of digested cat iris sphincter, a tissue which exhibits contractile responses to both agonists. Constant superfusion conditions obviated effective conversion of bimatoprost. Serial challenge with 100 nM bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) consistently evoked responses in different cells within the same tissue preparation, whereas prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 17-phenyl prostaglandin F(2 alpha) elicited signaling responses in the same cells. Bimatoprost-sensitive cells were consistently re-stimulated with bimatoprost only, and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) sensitive cells could only be re-stimulated with prostaglandin F(2 alpha). The selective stimulation of different cells in the same cat iris sphincter preparation by bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha), along with the complete absence of observed instances in which the same cells respond to both agonists, strongly suggests the involvement of distinct receptors for prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and bimatoprost. Further, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) but not bimatoprost potently stimulated calcium signaling in isolated human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with the feline- and human-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) FP-receptor and in human dermal fibroblast cells, and only prostaglandin F(2 alpha) competed with radioligand binding in HEK-feFP cells. These studies provide further evidence for the existence of a bimatoprost-sensitive receptor that is distinct from

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced changes in insulin-producing beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Jai; Chaudhry, Muhammad A; Rhoten, William B

    2005-10-01

    The migration of macrophages and lymphocytes that produce cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) causes beta-cell death, leading to type 1 diabetes. Similarly, in type 2 diabetes, the adipocyte-derived cytokines including TNF-alpha are elevated in the circulation, causing inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, the studies described in this article using TNF-alpha are relevant to furthering our understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. We used RINr1046-38 (RIN) insulin-producing beta-cells, which constitutively express calbindin-D(28k), to characterize the effect of TNF-alpha on apoptosis, replication, insulin release, and gene and protein expression. Western blots of TNF-alpha-treated RIN cells revealed a decrease in calbindin-D(28k). By ELISA, TNF-alpha-treated beta-cells had 47% less calbindin-D(28k) than controls. In association with the decline in calbindin-D(28k), TNF-alpha treatment of RIN cells led to a 73% greater increase in changes in intracellular calcium concentration (Delta[Ca(2+)](i)) in TNF-alpha-treated cells as compared to that in control RIN cells upon treatment with 50 mM KCl; caused a greater increase in the [Ca(2+)](i) following the addition of 5.5 microM ionomycin; increased by more than threefold the apoptotic rate, expressed as the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei to total nuclei; decreased the rate of cell replication by 36%; and increased and decreased selectively the expression of specific genes as determined by microarray analysis. The subcellular localizations of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, and Bax, a proapoptotic protein, within RIN cells were altered with TNF-alpha treatment such that the two were colocalized with mitochondria in the perinuclear region. We conclude that the proapoptotic action of TNF-alpha on beta-cells is manifested via decreased expression of calbindin-D(28k) and is mediated at least in part by [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:16114068

  7. Mechanisms for the proliferation of eosinophilic leukemia cells by FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Kenji; Kitamura, Hajime; Hiraizumi, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Takahashi, Aki; Zee, OkPyo; Seyama, Toshio; Hong, JangJa; Ohuchi, Kazuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2008-02-22

    The constitutively activated tyrosine kinase Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha}) causes eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells to proliferate. Recently, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressed this proliferation and induced the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils in parallel with a decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation and whether the suppression of cell proliferation triggers the differentiation into eosinophils. The FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} inhibitor imatinib inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and decreased the level of the oncoprotein c-Myc as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The proliferation of EoL-1 cells and expression of c-Myc were also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of the eosinophilic differentiation marker CCR3 was not induced by imatinib. These findings suggest that FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation of EoL-1 cells through the induction of c-Myc expression via ERK and JNK signaling pathways, but is not involved in the inhibition of differentiation toward mature eosinophils.

  8. Protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress induced-retinal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Su, Tu; Qiu, Xiaorong; Mao, Pingan; Xu, Yidan; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Liu, Qinghuai

    2016-01-01

    It is known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. Alpha-mangostin is the main xanthone purified from mangosteen known as anti-oxidative properties. The aim of the study was to test the protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress both in retina of light-damaged mice model and in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stressed RPE cells. We observed that alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited light-induced degeneration of photoreceptors and 200 μM H2O2-induced apoptosis of RPE cells. 200 μM H2O2-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and light-induced generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) were suppressed by alpha-mangostin. Alpha-mangostin stimulation resulted in an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and glutathione (GSH) content both in vivo and vitro. Furthermore, the mechanism of retinal protection against oxidative stress by alpha-mangostin involves accumulation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) along with up-regulation the expression of heme oxygenas-1 (HO-1). Meanwhile, alpha-mangostin can activate the expression of PKC-δ and down-regulate the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1/2, JNK, P38. The results suggest that alpha-mangostin could be a new approach to suspend the onset and development of AMD. PMID:26888416

  9. Interleukin-1 alpha production during Rickettsia rickettsii infection of cultured endothelial cells: potential role in autocrine cell stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Sporn, L A; Marder, V J

    1996-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii infection results in numerous responses by cultured endothelial cells, among them a rapid, transient increase in steady-state levels of tissue factor mRNA (L.A. Sporn, P.J. Haidaris, R.-J. Shi, Y. Nemerson, D.J. Silverman, and V.J. Marder, Blood 83:1527-1534, 1994). In this study, production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) was measured during infection and its potential role in autocrine cell stimulation was investigated. A fivefold increase in levels of IL-1 alpha antigen was measured in cell lysate samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 18 h of infection. The majority of IL-1 alpha remained cell associated, as no significant increase was detected in culture medium. No IL-1 beta antigen was detected in cell lysates or culture medium from either control or infected cultures. A dramatic increase in the levels of IL-1 alpha mRNA occurred following infection, as measured by reverse transcriptase PCR, which revealed the appearance of the expected 421-kb product with RNA extracted from cells infected for 4 h and no detectable product from control cell samples. The presence of functional, cell-associated IL-1 alpha activity in infected cells was confirmed, following disruption, by the ability of the infected cells to induce tissue factor expression in target endothelial cells. Such induction was eliminated by pretreatment of the disrupted cell samples with neutralizing antibodies against IL-1 alpha but not against IL-1 beta. To investigate whether endogenously produced IL-1 participates in the stimulation of tissue factor expression, neutralizing antibodies against IL-1 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist were added to culture medium during infection. Both anti-IL-1 alpha and the IL-1 receptor antagonist resulted in approximately 40% inhibition of tissue factor expression, thus implicating IL-1 alpha in autocrine cell stimulation. PMID:8613368

  10. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha induces translocation of protein kinase C in tumour necrosis factor-sensitive cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, N; Fuchimoto, S; Orita, K

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether the anti-proliferative effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was associated with the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), using PANC-1 cells (TNF-alpha sensitive) and LoVo cells (TNF-alpha resistant). In combination with 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of PKC, TNF-alpha caused marked inhibition of the growth of LoVo cells. Inhibition of PANC-1 cell growth by TNF-alpha was blocked by pretreatment with TPA for 24 hr, along with down-regulation of PKC activity. Intracellular translocation of PKC from cytosol to membrane was induced by TNF-alpha treatment in PANC-1 cells but not in LoVo cells. PMID:1916896

  11. alpha-Amylase and programmed cell death in aleurone of ripening wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Mrva, Kolumbina; Wallwork, Meredith; Mares, Daryl J

    2006-01-01

    Late maturity alpha-amylase (LMA) in wheat is a genetic defect that may result in the accumulation of unacceptable levels of high pI alpha-amylase in grain in the absence of germination or weather damage. During germination, gibberellin produced in the embryo triggers expression of alpha-Amy genes, the synthesis of alpha-amylase and, subsequently, cell death in the aleurone. LMA also involves the aleurone and whilst LMA appears to be independent of the embryo there is nevertheless some evidence that gibberellin is involved. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether the increase in alpha-amylase activity in LMA-prone genotypes, like alpha-amylase synthesis by aleurone cells in germinating or GA-challenged grains, is followed by aleurone cell death. Programmed cell death was seen in aleurone layers from developing, ripe and germinated grains using confocal microscopy and fluorescent probes specific for dead or living cells. Small pockets of dying cells were observed distributed at random throughout the aleurone of ripening LMA-affected grains and by harvest-ripeness these cells were clearly dead. The first appearance of dying cells, 35 d post-anthesis, coincided with the later part of the 'window of sensitivity' in grain development in LMA-prone wheat cultivars. No dead or dying cells were present in ripening or fully ripe grains of control cultivars. In germinating grains, dying cells were observed in the aleurone adjacent to the scutellum and, as germination progressed, the number of dead cells increased and the affected area extended further towards the distal end of the grain. Aside from the obvious differences in spatial distribution, dying cells in 20-24 h germinated grains were similar to dying cells in developing LMA-affected grains, consistent with previous measurements of alpha-amylase activity. The increase in high pI alpha-amylase activity in developing grains of LMA-prone cultivars, like alpha-amylase synthesis in germinating grains, is

  12. Effects of alpha-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of alpha-particles emitted from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of alpha-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated alpha-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for alpha-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (alpha/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET alpha-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for alpha-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. G Protein Coupled Receptors in Embryonic Stem Cells: A Role for Gs-Alpha Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Layden, Brian T.; Newman, Marsha; Chen, Fei; Fisher, Amanda; Lowe, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of receptor mediated signaling pathways in embryonic stem (ES) cells is needed to facilitate strategies for cell replacement using ES cells. One large receptor family, largely uninvestigated in ES cells, is G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). An important role for these receptors in embryonic development has been described, but little is known about GPCR expression in ES cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We have examined the expression profile of 343 different GPCRs in mouse ES cells demonstrating for the first time that a large number of GPCRs are expressed in undifferentiated and differentiating ES cells, and in many cases at high levels. To begin to define a role for GPCR signaling in ES cells, the impact of activating Gs-alpha, one of the major alpha subunits that couples to GPCRs, was investigated. Gs-alpha activation resulted in larger embryoid bodies (EBs), due, in part, to increased cell proliferation and prevented the time-related decline in expression of transcription factors important for maintaining ES cell pluripotency. Significance/Conclusions These studies suggest that Gs-alpha signaling contributes to ES cell proliferation and pluripotency and provide a framework for further investigation of GPCRs in ES cells. PMID:20161705

  14. Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B receptors in the OK cell, an opossum kidney cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B (5HT{sub 1B}) receptors, both negatively-coupled to adenylyl cyclase, were characterized in the OK cell line, a renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line derived from the kidney of a North American opossum. In membrane saturation radioligand binding experiments, ({sup 3}H)yohimbine and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine labeled an equivalent number of binding sites. Detailed pharmacological analysis of OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in competition binding assays indicate this receptor is neither an alpha-2A nor an alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtype, although the alpha-2B receptor subtype-selective drugs prazosin, ARC-239 and chlorpromazine have affinities for OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors similar to those at the alpha-2B receptor subtype. Determinations of agonist potency for inhibition of PTH-stimulated cyclic AMP production and radioligand binding analysis using ({sup 125}I)({minus})-cyanopindolol indicate that a 5HT{sub 1B} receptor is expressed in the OK cell line. A biochemical effector system coupled to this receptor subtype has not been previously described. Several compounds appear to be potent agonists at the 5TH{sub 1B} receptor including the beta adrenergic antagonists cyanopindolol, pindolol, propranolol and alprenolol.

  15. Alpha toxin from Clostridium perfringens induces proinflammatory changes in endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bunting, M; Lorant, D E; Bryant, A E; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M; Stevens, D L; Prescott, S M

    1997-01-01

    Alpha toxin from Clostridium perfringens type A, a phospholipase C, has been implicated in many of the localized and systemic features of gas gangrene. We demonstrated that human endothelial cells synthesize two vasoactive lipids, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and prostacyclin, in response to alpha toxin treatment. The stimulated synthesis of PAF required the enzymatic activity of the toxin and subsequent protein kinase C activation. Alpha toxin-treated endothelial cells accumulated the products of the phospholipase C reaction, diacylglycerol and ceramide, and exhibited a decrease in the enzymatic precursors phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Furthermore, the temporal accumulation of PAF depended on the concentration of the toxin in the overlying medium and was blocked in the presence of a neutralizing antibody. The cultured endothelial cells also exhibited enhanced neutrophil adhesion in response to alpha toxin which was mediated through the PAF receptor and P-selectin. P-selectin expression by endothelial cells and extravascular neutrophil accumulation were also observed in tissue sections from alpha toxin-injected Sprague-Dawley rats. These endothelial cell-mediated processes are important in maintaining vascular homeostasis and, when activated in a dysregulated manner by C. perfringens alpha toxin, may contribute to localized and systemic manifestations of gas gangrene including enhanced vascular permeability, localized neutrophil accumulation, and myocardial dysfunction. PMID:9239403

  16. The Alpha Stem Cell Clinic: A Model for Evaluating and Delivering Stem Cell-Based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Natalie D.; Feigal, Ellen G.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cellular therapies require the careful preparation, expansion, characterization, and delivery of cells in a clinical environment. There are major challenges associated with the delivery of cell therapies and high costs that will limit the companies available to fully evaluate their merit in clinical trials, and will handicap their application at the present financial environment. Cells will be manufactured in good manufacturing practice or near-equivalent facilities with prerequisite safety practices in place, and cell delivery systems will be specialized and require well-trained medical and nursing staff, technicians or nurses trained to handle cells once delivered, patient counselors, as well as statisticians and database managers who will oversee the monitoring of patients in relatively long-term follow-up studies. The model proposed for Alpha Stem Cell Clinics will initially use the capacities and infrastructure that exist in the most advanced tertiary medical clinics for delivery of established bone marrow stem cell therapies. As the research evolves, they will incorporate improved procedures and cell preparations. This model enables commercialization of medical devices, reagents, and other products required for cell therapies. A carefully constructed cell therapy clinical infrastructure with the requisite scientific, technical, and medical expertise and operational efficiencies will have the capabilities to address three fundamental and critical functions: 1) fostering clinical trials; 2) evaluating and establishing safe and effective therapies, and 3) developing and maintaining the delivery of therapies approved by the Food and Drug Administration, or other regulatory agencies. PMID:23197634

  17. GTPase-deficient G alpha 16 and G alpha q induce PC12 cell differentiation and persistent activation of cJun NH2-terminal kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Heasley, L E; Storey, B; Fanger, G R; Butterfield, L; Zamarripa, J; Blumberg, D; Maue, R A

    1996-01-01

    Persistent stimulation of specific protein kinase pathways has been proposed as a key feature of receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular oncoproteins that signal neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Among the protein serine/threonine kinases identified to date, the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been highlighted for their potential role in signalling PC12 cell differentiation. We report here that retrovirus-mediated expression of GTPase-deficient, constitutively active forms of the heterotrimeric Gq family members, G alpha qQ209L and G alpha 16Q212L, in PC12 cells induces neuronal differentiation as indicated by neurite outgrowth and the increased expression of voltage-dependent sodium channels. Differentiation was not observed after cellular expression of GTPase-deficient forms of alpha i2 or alpha 0, indicating selectivity for the Gq family of G proteins. As predicted, overexpression of alpha qQ209L and alpha 16Q212L constitutively elevated basal phospholipase C activity approximately 10-fold in PC12 cells. Significantly, little or no p42/44 MAP kinase activity was detected in PC12 cells differentiated with alpha 16Q212L or alpha qQ209L, although these proteins were strongly activated following expression of constitutively active cRaf-1. Rather, a persistent threefold activation of the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) was observed in PC12 cells expressing alpha qQ209L and alpha 16Q212L. This level of JNK activation was similar to that achieved with nerve growth factor, a strong inducer of PC12 cell differentiation. Supportive of a role for JNK activation in PC12 cell differentiation, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of cJun, a JNK target, in PC12 cells induced neurite outgrowth. The results define a p42/44 MAP kinase-independent mechanism for differentiation of PC12 cells and suggest that persistent activation of the JNK members of the proline-directed protein kinase family by GTPase-deficient G alpha q and G

  18. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  19. PPAR{alpha} agonists up-regulate organic cation transporters in rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luci, Sebastian; Geissler, Stefanie; Koenig, Bettina; Koch, Alexander; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Hirche, Frank; Eder, Klaus . E-mail: klaus.eder@landw.uni-halle.de

    2006-11-24

    It has been shown that clofibrate treatment increases the carnitine concentration in the liver of rats. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we observed for the first time that treatment of rats with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} agonist clofibrate increases hepatic mRNA concentrations of organic cation transporters (OCTNs)-1 and -2 which act as transporters of carnitine into the cell. In rat hepatoma (Fao) cells, treatment with WY-14,643 also increased the mRNA concentration of OCTN-2. mRNA concentrations of enzymes involved in carnitine biosynthesis were not altered by treatment with the PPAR{alpha} agonists in livers of rats and in Fao cells. We conclude that PPAR{alpha} agonists increase carnitine concentrations in livers of rats and cells by an increased uptake of carnitine into the cell but not by an increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  20. Posttranscriptional regulation of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, B; Hellerbrand, C; Holcik, M; Briendl, M; Aliebhaber, S; Brenner, D A

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the primary cell responsible for the dramatic increase in the synthesis of type I collagen in the cirrhotic liver. Quiescent HSCs contain a low level of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA, while activated HSCs contain about 60- to 70-fold more of this mRNA. The transcription rate of the collagen alpha1(I) gene is only two fold higher in activated HSCs than in quiescent HSCs. In assays using actinomycin D or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside collagen alpha1(I) mRNA has estimated half-lives of 1.5 h in quiescent HSCs and 24 h in activated HSCs. Thus, this 16-fold change in mRNA stability is primarily responsible for the increase in collagen alpha1(I) mRNA steady-state level in activated HSCs. We have identified a novel RNA-protein interaction targeted to the C-rich sequence in the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR). This sequence is localized 24 nucleotides 3' to the stop codon. In transient transfection experiments, mutation of this sequence diminished accumulation of an mRNA transcribed from a collagen alpha1(I) minigene and in stable transfections decreased the half-life of collagen alpha1(I) minigene mRNA. Binding to the collagen alpha1(I) 3' UTR is present in cytoplasmic extracts of activated but not quiescent HSCs. It contains as a subunit alphaCP, which is also found in the complex involved in stabilization of alpha-globin mRNA. The auxiliary factors necessary to promote binding of alphaCP to the collagen 3' UTR are distinct from the factors necessary for binding to the alpha-globin sequence. Since alphaCP is expressed in both quiescent and activated HSCs, these auxiliary factors are responsible for the differentially expressed RNA-protein interaction at the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' UTR. PMID:9271398

  1. Comparative characteristics of mu chain and alpha chain transcripts expressed by individual tonsil plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, S; Grammer, A C; Yavuz, A S; Nanki, T; Lipsky, P E

    2001-01-01

    Plasma cells (PCs) are one of the two major cell types generated during germinal center reactions. To test the hypothesis that PCs express a unique repertoire of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes resulting from intensive antigenic stimulation and selection, the mutational pattern and distribution of V(H) gene segments within 178 transcripts amplified from individual IgM and IgA secreting tonsil PCs were analyzed. The results demonstrated that both mu and alpha transcripts expressed repertoires with limited diversity. Moreover, both mu and alpha transcripts were heavily mutated, with a significantly increased mutational frequency noted for alpha compared to mu transcripts (5.0 x 10(-2) vs 1.8 x 10(-2), P<0.001). In addition, both mu and alpha transcripts showed significantly greater targeting of mutations to RGYW motifs (purine/guanine/pyrimidine/A or T) compared to memory B cells. Finally, clonally expanded cells were detected in alpha but not mu PC compartments. These results indicate that antigen driven stimulation and selection shape the entire expressed PC repertoire, but the impact is greater in alpha expressing PCs.

  2. Molecular targets of a human HNF1 alpha mutation responsible for pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Antinozzi, P A; Hagenfeldt, K A; Maechler, P; Wollheim, C B

    2000-08-15

    The reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator system was employed in insulinoma INS-1 cells to achieve controlled inducible expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1 alpha)-P291fsinsC, the most common mutation associated with subtype 3 of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY3). Nuclear localized HNF1 alpha-P291fsinsC protein exerts its dominant-negative effects by competing with endogenous HNF1 alpha for the cognate DNA-binding site. HNF1 alpha controls multiple genes implicated in pancreatic beta-cell function and notably in metabolism- secretion coupling. In addition to reduced expression of the genes encoding insulin, glucose transporter-2, L-pyruvate kinase, aldolase B and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, induction of HNF1 alpha-P291fsinsC also significantly inhibits expression of mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) E1 subunit mRNA and protein. OGDH enzyme activity and [(14)C]pyruvate oxidation were also reduced. In contrast, the mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 were dramatically increased by HNF1 alpha-P291fsinsC induction. As predicted from this altered gene expression profile, HNF1 alpha-P291fsinsC also inhibits insulin secretory responses to glucose and leucine, correlated with impaired nutrient-evoked mitochondrial ATP production and mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization. These unprecedented results suggest the molecular mechanism of HNF1 alpha-P291fsinsC causing beta-cell dysfunction. PMID:10944108

  3. Protein kinase C-alpha and -beta play antagonistic roles in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dieter, P; Schwende, H

    2000-05-01

    The roles of protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells are investigated. Inhibition of PKC by RO 31-8220 reduces the phagocytosis of latex particles and the release of superoxide, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The proliferation of THP-1 cells is slightly enhanced by RO 31-8220. Stable transfection of THP-1 cells with asPKC-alpha, and incubation of THP-1 cells with antisense (as) PKC-alpha oligodeoxynucleotides reduces PKC-alpha levels and PKC activity. asPKC-alpha-transfected THP-1 cells show a decreased phagocytosis and a decreased release of superoxide, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha. The proliferation of asPKC-alpha-transfected THP-1 cells is enhanced. Stable transfection of THP-1 cells with asPKC-beta, and incubation of THP-1 cells with asPKC-beta oligodeoxynucleotides, reduces PKC-beta levels and PKC activity. asPKC-beta-transfected THP-1 cells show a decreased phagocytosis, a decreased TNF-alpha release, and a decreased proliferation. However, no difference is measured in the release of superoxide and PGE(2). These results suggest that: (1) PKC-alpha but not PKC-beta is involved in the release of superoxide and PGE(2); (2) TNF-alpha release and the phagocytosis of latex particles are mediated by PKC-alpha, PKC-beta, and other PKC isoenzymes; and (3) PKC-alpha and PKC-beta play antagonistic roles in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells. PKC-alpha promotes the differentiation process of THP-1 cells, PKC-beta retards the differentiation of THP-1 cells into macrophage-like cells. PMID:10822170

  4. Germinal center formation, immunoglobulin class switching, and autoantibody production driven by "non alpha/beta" T cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The production of class-switched antibodies, particularly immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgE, occurs efficiently in T cell receptor (TCR) alpha-/- mice that are congenitally devoid of alpha/beta T cells. This finding runs counter to a wealth of data indicating that IgG1 and IgE synthesis are largely dependent on the collaboration between B and alpha/beta T cells. Furthermore, many of the antibodies synthesized in TCR alpha-/- mice are reactive to a similar spectrum of self-antigens as that targeted by autoantibodies characterizing human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE, too, is most commonly regarded as an alpha/beta T cell-mediated condition. To distinguish whether the development of autoantibodies in TCR alpha-/- mice is due to an intrinsic de-regulation of B cells, or to a heretofore poorly characterized collaboration between B and "non-alpha/beta T" cells, the phenotype has been reconstituted by transfer of various populations of B and non-alpha/beta T cells including cloned gamma/delta T cells derived from TCR alpha-/- mice, to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The results establish that the reproducible production of IgG1 (including autoantibodies) is a product of non-alpha/beta T cell help that can be provided by gamma/delta T cells. This type of B-T collaboration sustains the production of germinal centers, lymphoid follicles that ordinarily are anatomical signatures of alpha/beta T-B cell collaboration. Thus, non-alpha/beta T cell help may drive Ig synthesis and autoreactivity under various circumstances, especially in cases of alpha/beta T cell immunodeficiency. PMID:8642336

  5. Infection of human fallopian tube epithelial cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae protects cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-06-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-alpha was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  6. Stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}/CXCL12) stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth through the EGF receptor transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Porcile, Carola; Bajetto, Adriana . E-mail: bajetto@cba.unige.it; Barbieri, Federica; Barbero, Simone; Bonavia, Rudy; Biglieri, Marianna; Pirani, Paolo; Florio, Tullio . E-mail: florio@cba.unige.it; Schettini, Gennaro

    2005-08-15

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecologic diseases in which there is evidence for a complex chemokine network. Chemokines are a family of proteins that play an important role in tumor progression influencing cell proliferation, angiogenic/angiostatic processes, cell migration and metastasis, and, finally, regulating the immune cells recruitment into the tumor mass. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that SDF-1{alpha} treatment induced cell proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that chemokines may play an important role in tumor cells' growth in vitro. In the present study, we report that CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in OC cell lines. We demonstrate that SDF-1{alpha} induces a dose-dependent proliferation in OC cells, by the specific interaction with CXCR4 and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases. Our results further indicate that CXCR4 activation induces EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation that in turn was linked to the downstream intracellular kinases activation, ERK1/2 and Akt. In addition, we provide evidence for cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (c-Src) involvement in the SDF-1/CXCR4-EGFR transactivation. These results suggest a possible important 'cross-talk' between SDF-1/CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that may link signals of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer.

  7. HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) triggers autophagic tumor cell death.

    PubMed

    Aits, Sonja; Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Mattias; Trulsson, Maria; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Mograbi, Baharia; Svanborg, Catharina

    2009-03-01

    HAMLET, a complex of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, kills a wide range of tumor cells. Here we propose that HAMLET causes macroautophagy in tumor cells and that this contributes to their death. Cell death was accompanied by mitochondrial damage and a reduction in the level of active mTOR and HAMLET triggered extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and the formation of double-membrane-enclosed vesicles typical of macroautophagy. In addition, HAMLET caused a change from uniform (LC3-I) to granular (LC3-II) staining in LC3-GFP-transfected cells reflecting LC3 translocation during macroautophagy, and this was blocked by the macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. HAMLET also caused accumulation of LC3-II detected by Western blot when lysosomal degradation was inhibited suggesting that HAMLET caused an increase in autophagic flux. To determine if macroautophagy contributed to cell death, we used RNA interference against Beclin-1 and Atg5. Suppression of Beclin-1 and Atg5 improved the survival of HAMLET-treated tumor cells and inhibited the increase in granular LC3-GFP staining. The results show that HAMLET triggers macroautophagy in tumor cells and suggest that macroautophagy contributes to HAMLET-induced tumor cell death.

  8. Complete sequence of three alpha-tubulin cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary cells: each encodes a distinct alpha-tubulin isoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, E M; Henderson, G; Sarangi, F; Ling, V

    1986-01-01

    The genome of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells contains a complex family of approximately 16 alpha-tubulin genes, many of which may be pseudogenes. We present here the complete cDNA sequences of three expressed alpha-tubulin genes; one of these genes has been identified only in CHO cells. The noncoding regions of these three CHO alpha-tubulin genes differed significantly, but their coding regions were highly conserved. Nevertheless, we observed differences in the predicted amino acid sequences for the three genes. A comparison of the CHO alpha-tubulin sequences with all of the sequences available for mammals allowed assignment of the alpha-tubulin genes to three classes. The proteins encoded by the members of two of these classes showed no class-specific amino acids among the mammalian species examined. The gene belonging to the third class encoded an isoprotein which was clearly distinct, and members of this class may play a unique role in vivo. Sequencing of the three alpha-tubulin genes was also undertaken in CMR795, a colcemid-resistant clonal CHO cell line which has previously been shown to have structural and functional alterations in its tubulin proteins. We found differences in the tubulin nucleotide sequence compared with the parental line; however, no differences in the alpha-tubulin proteins encoded in the two cell lines were observed. PMID:3773896

  9. Loss of cell wall alpha(1–3) glucan affects Cryptococcus neoformans from ultrastructure to virulence

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Amy J.; Yoneda, Aki; Breger, Julia A.; Beauvais, Anne; Liu, Hong; Griffith, Cara L.; Bose, Indrani; Kim, Myoung-Ju; Skau, Colleen; Yang, Sarah; Sefko, Julianne A.; Osumi, Masako; Latge, Jean-Paul; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Doering, Tamara L.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Yeast cell walls are critical for maintaining cell integrity, particularly in the face of challenges such as growth in mammalian hosts. The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans additionally anchors its polysaccharide capsule to the cell surface via α(1–3) glucan in the wall. Cryptococcal cells disrupted in their alpha glucan synthase gene were sensitive to stresses, including temperature, and showed difficulty dividing. These cells lacked surface capsule, although they continued to shed capsule material into the environment. Electron microscopy showed that the alpha glucan that is usually localized to the outer portion of the cell wall was absent, the outer region of the wall was highly disorganized, and the inner region was hypertrophic. Analysis of cell wall composition demonstrated complete loss of alpha glucan accompanied by a compensatory increase in chitin/chitosan and a redistribution of beta glucan between cell wall fractions. The mutants were unable to grow in a mouse model of infection, but caused death in nematodes. These studies integrate morphological and biochemical investigations of the role of alpha glucan in the cryptococcal cell wall. PMID:17244196

  10. Inhibition of Calpain Prevents Manganese-Induced Cell Injury and Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization in Organotypic Brain Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Deng, Yu; Yang, Tian-Yao; Feng, Shu; Xu, Zhao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to manganese has been known to promote alpha-synuclein oligomerization and enhance cellular toxicity. However, the exact mechanism of Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization is unclear. To explore whether alpha-synuclein oligomerization was associated with the cleavage of alpha-synuclein by calpain, we made a rat brain slice model of manganism and pretreated slices with calpain inhibitor II, a cell-permeable peptide that restricts the activity of calpain. After slices were treated with 400 μM Mn for 24 h, there were significant increases in the percentage of apoptotic cells, lactate dehydrogenase release, intracellular [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, and the mRNA and protein expression of calpain 1 and alpha-synuclein. Moreover, the number of C- and N-terminal fragments of alpha-synuclein and the amount of alpha-synuclein oligomerization also increased. These results also showed that calpain inhibitor II pretreatment could reduce Mn-induced nerve cell injury and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the number of C- and N-terminal fragments of alpha-synuclein in calpain inhibitor II-pretreated slices. These findings revealed that Mn induced the cleavage of alpha-synuclein protein via overactivation of calpain and subsequent alpha-synuclein oligomerization in cultured slices. Moreover, the cleavage of alpha-synuclein by calpain 1 is an important signaling event in Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. PMID:25756858

  11. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in oesophageal diseases; correlation with transforming growth factor alpha expression.

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, J; McMenemin, R; Yu, C; Hopwood, D; Wormsley, K G

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to correlate mucosal proliferation in Barrett's oesophagus with expression of a growth promoting peptide, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha). Oesophageal mucosa was studied from 50 patients with oesophageal disease who had been treated by oesophagectomy. Histological analysis showed a range of oesophageal pathology - 18 patients had gastric type Barrett's mucosa, 18 had intestinal type Barrett's mucosa, and 14 had oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Sections were stained immunohistochemically for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (an index of cellular proliferation) and TGF alpha. PCNA immunostaining was seen mainly in the basal cells of the neck/foveolar epithelial compartment of the glands in Barrett's oesophagus. However, in mucosa with high grade dysplasia, the proliferative compartment extended upwards into the superficial layers of the glands. At least 2000 cells were counted in each patient to determine the proportion with PCNA immunoreactivity (PCNA labelling index). The labelling index was highest in adenocarcinoma (25%) and in Barrett's intestinal type mucosa with high grade dysplasia (26%) compared with intestinal type mucosa with no significant dysplasia (20%) and Barrett's gastric type mucosa (12%). There was a significant positive correlation between PCNA labelling indices and TGF alpha expression in Barrett's mucosa (p less than 0.01). In glands showing high grade dysplasia, TGF alpha immunoreactivity was seen in the same regions of the glands as PCNA immunoreactivity, indicating the possibility of involvement of TGF alpha in (pre) neoplastic proliferation in Barrett's oesophagus. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:1351861

  12. Regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression by IL-4 and TNF-alpha in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Iademarco, M F; Barks, J L; Dean, D C

    1995-01-01

    Interaction between vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells and alpha 4 integrins on leukocytes is thought to mediate the selective recruitment of eosinophils and lymphocytes that occurs in allergic diseases. IL-4 is associated with allergic conditions, and it has been shown to selectively increase expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells in vivo, suggesting that it could be responsible for VCAM-1 expression in allergic disease. Using a combination of immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Northern analysis, we compared the effect of TNF-alpha and IL-4 on VCAM-1 expression. TNF-alpha is also associated with allergic diseases, and it rapidly increases transcription of the VCAM-1 gene. The effect of IL-4 was relatively modest with prolonged kinetics: VCAM-1 was not detected until 72 h after treatment with IL-4. However, when TNF-alpha and IL-4 were combined, there was a synergistic increase in VCAM-1 expression and a dramatic prolongation of the appearance of VCAM-1 on the cell surface. This synergy results from a combination of transcriptional activation by TNF-alpha and the stabilization of resulting transcripts by IL-4. We propose that IL-4 allows subthreshold concentrations of TNF-alpha (concentrations that would not normally activate expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelium) to selectively increase VCAM-1 expression and to prolong its appearance on the surface of cells in allergic disease. Images PMID:7529260

  13. Overexpression of {alpha}-catenin increases osteoblastic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dohee; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Shin, Chan Soo

    2009-05-15

    {alpha}- and {beta}-Catenin link cadherins to the actin-based cytoskeleton at adherens junctions and regulate cell-cell adhesion. Although roles of cadherins and canonical Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling in osteoblastic differentiation have been extensively studied, the role of {alpha}-catenin is not known. Murine embryonic mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells, were transduced with retrovirus encoding {alpha}-catenin (MSCV-{alpha}-catenin-HA-GFP). In the presence of Wnt-3A conditioned medium or osteogenic medium ({beta}-glycerol phosphate and ascorbic acid), cells overexpressing {alpha}-catenin showed enhanced osteoblastic differentiation as measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP activity assay compared to cells transduced with empty virus (MSCV-GFP). In addition, mRNA expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 was significantly increased compared to control. Cell aggregation assay revealed that {alpha}-catenin overexpression has significantly increased cell-cell aggregation. However, cellular {beta}-catenin levels (total, cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio) and {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF transcriptional activity did not change by overexpression of {alpha}-catenin. Knock-down of {alpha}-catenin using siRNA decreased osteoblastic differentiation as measured by ALP assay. These results suggest that {alpha}-catenin overexpression increases osteoblastic differentiation by increasing cell-cell adhesion rather than Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling.

  14. Karyopherin alpha2: a control step of glucose-sensitive gene expression in hepatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guillemain, Ghislaine; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cassany, Aurélia; Loizeau, Martine; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Leturque, Armelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose is required for an efficient expression of the glucose transporter GLUT2 and other genes. We have shown previously that the intracytoplasmic loop of GLUT2 can divert a signal, resulting in the stimulation of glucose-sensitive gene transcription. In the present study, by interaction with the GLUT2 loop, we have cloned the rat karyopherin alpha2, a receptor involved in nuclear import. The specificity of the binding was restricted to GLUT2, and not GLUT1 or GLUT4, and to karyopherin alpha2, not alpha1. When rendered irreversible by a cross-linking agent, this transitory interaction was detected in vivo in hepatocytes. A role for karyopherin alpha2 in the transcription of two glucose-sensitive genes was investigated by transfection of native and inactive green fluorescent protein-karyopherin alpha2 in GLUT2-expressing hepatoma cells. The amount of inactive karyopherin alpha2 receptor reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA levels by competition with endogenous active receptor. In contrast, the overexpression of karyopherin alpha2 did not significantly stimulate GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA accumulation in green fluorescent protein-sorted cells. The present study suggests that, in concert with glucose metabolism, karyopherin alpha2 transmits a signal to the nucleus to regulate glucose-sensitive gene expression. The transitory tethering of karyopherin alpha2 to GLUT2 at the plasma membrane might indicate that the receptor can load the cargo to be imported locally. PMID:11988093

  15. ENaC alpha-subunit variants are expressed in lung epithelial cells and are suppressed by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haishan; Chu, Shijian

    2007-12-01

    Amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a major sodium channel in the lung facilitating fluid absorption. ENaC is composed of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits, and the alpha-subunit is indispensable for ENaC function in the lung. In human lungs, the alpha-subunit is expressed as various splice variants. Among them, alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits are two major variants with different upstream regulatory sequences that possess similar channel characteristics when tested in Xenopus oocytes. Despite the importance of alpha-ENaC, little was known about the relative abundance of its variants in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, lung infection and inflammation are often accompanied by reduced alpha-ENaC expression, oxidative stress, and pulmonary edema. However, it was not clear how oxidative stress affects expression of alpha-ENaC variants. In this study, we examined relative expression levels of alpha-subunit variants in four human lung epithelial cell lines. We also tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress inhibits alpha-ENaC expression. Our results show that both alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-ENaC variants are expressed in the cells we tested, but relative abundance varies. In the two monolayer-forming cell lines, H441 and Calu-3, alpha(2)-ENaC is the predominant variant. We also show that H(2)O(2) specifically suppresses alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-ENaC variant expression in H441 and Calu-3 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. This suppression is achieved by inhibition of their promoters and is attenuated by dexamethasone. These data demonstrate the importance of the alpha(2)-subunit variant and suggest that glucocorticoids and antioxidants may be useful in correcting infection/inflammation-induced lung fluid imbalance. PMID:17905853

  16. Tumour-derived interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) up-regulates the release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) by endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fonsatti, E.; Altomonte, M.; Coral, S.; Cattarossi, I.; Nicotra, M. R.; Gasparollo, A.; Natali, P. G.; Maio, M.

    1997-01-01

    Levels of circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are elevated in patients affected by solid malignancies; however, the cellular sources generating high levels of sICAM-1 remain to be characterized. Using conditioned media (CM) from seven ICAM-1-positive or -negative neoplastic cells, we demonstrate that tumour-derived interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) significantly (P < 0.05) up-regulates the release of sICAM-1 by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The intensity of the effect correlated with the amounts of IL-1alpha detectable in CM. Levels of ICAM-1 mRNA were also up-regulated by tumour-secreted IL-1alpha. The up-regulation of the shedding of sICAM-1 and of its expression at protein and mRNA level were completely reversed by the addition of anti-IL-1alpha neutralizing antibodies. Consistent with the in vitro data, tumour endothelia were strongly stained for ICAM-1 compared with autologous normal tissue endothelia. Taken altogether, our observations reveal an IL-1alpha-mediated tumour-endothelium relationship sustaining the shedding of sICAM-1 by endothelial cells. This is a general phenomenon in solid malignancies that correlates with the ability of neoplastic cells to secrete IL-1alpha rather than with their expression of ICAM-1 and/or histological origin. sICAM-1 has been previously shown to inhibit LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell interactions; therefore, the ability of neoplastic cells to secrete IL-1alpha is likely to represent a mechanism for their escape from immune interaction. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9374368

  17. Alpha-lactalbumin unfolding is not sufficient to cause apoptosis, but is required for the conversion to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    PubMed

    Svensson, Malin; Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Düringer, Caroline; Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Brooks, Charles L; Berliner, Lawrence; Linse, Sara; Svanborg, Catharina

    2003-12-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex of human alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid (C18:1:9 cis) that kills tumor cells by an apoptosis-like mechanism. Previous studies have shown that a conformational change is required to form HAMLET from alpha-lactalbumin, and that a partially unfolded conformation is maintained in the HAMLET complex. This study examined if unfolding of alpha-lactalbumin is sufficient to induce cell death. We used the bovine alpha-lactalbumin Ca(2+) site mutant D87A, which is unable to bind Ca(2+), and thus remains partially unfolded regardless of solvent conditions. The D87A mutant protein was found to be inactive in the apoptosis assay, but could readily be converted to a HAMLET-like complex in the presence of oleic acid. BAMLET (bovine alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) and D87A-BAMLET complexes were both able to kill tumor cells. This activity was independent of the Ca(2+)site, as HAMLET maintained a high affinity for Ca(2+) but D87A-BAMLET was active with no Ca(2+) bound. We conclude that partial unfolding of alpha-lactalbumin is necessary but not sufficient to trigger cell death, and that the activity of HAMLET is defined both by the protein and the lipid cofactor. Furthermore, a functional Ca(2+)-binding site is not required for conversion of alpha-lactalbumin to the active complex or to cause cell death. This suggests that the lipid cofactor stabilizes the altered fold without interfering with the Ca(2+)site.

  18. Spatial Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in 2008 TC3 Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Morrow, A.; Zare, R. N.; Jenniskens, P.

    2009-09-01

    Hassan Sabbah1, Amy L. Morrow1, Richard N. Zare1 and Petrus Jenniskens2 1Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, 2 SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 515 North Whisman Road, Mountain View, California 94043, USA. In October 2006 a small asteroid (2-3 meters) was observed in outer space. On October 7, 2008, it entered the Earth's atmosphere creating a fireball over Northern Sudan. Some 280 meteorites were collected by the University of Khartoum. In order to explore the existence of organic materials, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we applied two-step laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry (L2MS) to some selected fragments. This technique consists of desorbing with a pulsed infrared laser beam the solid materials into a gaseous phase with no fragmentation followed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization to analyze the PAH content. L2MS was already applied to an array of extraterrestrial objects including interplanetary dust particles IDPs, carbonaceous chondrites and comet coma particles. Moreover, spatial resolution of PAHs in 2008 TC3 samples was achieved to explore the heterogeneity within individual fragments. The results of these studies and their contribution to understanding the formation of this asteroid will be discussed.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces the expression of transforming growth factor alpha and the epidermal growth factor receptor in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmiegel, W; Roeder, C; Schmielau, J; Rodeck, U; Kalthoff, H

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha increased the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA and protein in all of six human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines tested. In addition, TNF-alpha increased the expression of an EGFR ligand, transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, at the mRNA and protein level in all cell lines. Increased expression of EGFR protein was associated with elevated steady-state EGFR mRNA levels. Nuclear run-on analysis showed that increase in EGFR mRNA was due to an increased rate of transcription. Induction of EGFR mRNA expression by TNF-alpha was abrogated by cycloheximide but occurred independently of TNF-alpha-induced production of TGF-alpha protein. Protein kinase A or Gi-type guanine nucleotide-binding proteins were not involved in this process as assessed by using appropriate stimulators and inhibitors of these signal transduction pathways. By contrast, staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, partially inhibited, and 4-bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase inhibitor, completely inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent EGFR mRNA expression. The phospholipase C-specific inhibitor tricyclodecan-9-yl xanthogenate did not alter TNF-alpha-dependent EGFR mRNA expression, suggesting that phospholipase A2 is involved in the modulation of EGFR expression by TNF-alpha. The simultaneous induction of a ligand/receptor system by TNF-alpha suggests that this cytokine modulates autocrine growth-regulatory pathways in pancreatic cancer cells. Images PMID:8430098

  20. Role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors 1alpha and 2alpha in the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in a human trophoblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Meade, E S; Ma, Y Y; Guller, S

    2007-10-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAIs) play critical roles in regulating hemostatic and invasive functions of trophoblasts through suppression of plasmin-dependent fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix degradation. The expression of PAI-1 is increased under hypoxic conditions, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. In the current study we used HTR-8/SVneo cells, a first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, and siRNA technology to examine the role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs)-1alpha and -2alpha in the regulation of PAI-1 expression. Using serum-containing and serum-free media culture media it was initially noted that levels of PAI-1, but not PAI-2 protein, were markedly induced by hypoxic (2-3% oxygen) treatment. Under hypoxic conditions, Western blotting revealed that the presence of siRNAs to HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha suppressed expression of their respective proteins, whereas treatment with non-targeting and cyclophilin B siRNAs did not. Importantly, incubation with siRNA to HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha alone reduced PAI-1 protein levels to a similar extent, with the combined treatment inducing a more profound effect. The presence of HIF siRNAs reduced levels of PAI-1 mRNA as measured by quantitative real-time PCR, indicating that HIF-1alpha and HIF-2 alpha regulate PAI-1 expression at a transcriptional level. These results indicate that both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha play important and similar roles in hypoxia-mediated stimulation of PAI-1 expression in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our findings provide insight into the physiological regulation of trophoblast PAI-1 expression in early pregnancy when placental oxygen levels are low, as well as a mechanism for over-expression of placental PAI-1 noted in pregnancies with preeclampsia.

  1. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaomin; Luo, Yongzhang

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90{alpha} (Hsp90{alpha}) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90{alpha} can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90{alpha} in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} but not Hsp90{beta} is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90{alpha} neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90{alpha} localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90{alpha} can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90{alpha} as a stimulator for wound repair.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations from whole blood cultures correlate with isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cellular immune assays are impractical because they require labor-intensive isolation of cells from their natural environment. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between cell culture supernatant TNF-alpha from isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and w...

  3. Targeted inhibition of {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin with an RNA aptamer impairs endothelial cell growth and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mi Jing; Zhang Xiuwu; Giangrande, Paloma H.; McNamara, James O.; Nimjee, Shahid M.; Sarraf-Yazdi, Shiva; Sullenger, Bruce A.; Clary, Bryan M. . E-mail: mi001@duke.edu

    2005-12-16

    {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin is a crucial factor involved in a variety of physiological processes, such as cell growth and migration, tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin exerts its effect by regulating endothelial cell (EC) migration, proliferation, and survival. Inhibiting the function of {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin, therefore, represents a potential anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, and anti-inflammatory strategy. In this study, we tested an RNA aptamer, Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 that binds recombinant {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin, for its ability to bind endogenous {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin on the surface of cells in culture and to subsequently affect cellular response. Our data illustrate that Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 binds {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin expressed on the surface of live HUVECs. This interaction significantly decreases both basal and PDGF-induced cell proliferation as well as inhibition of cell adhesion. Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 can also reduce PDGF-stimulated tube formation and increase HUVEC apoptosis through inhibition of FAK phosphorylation pathway. Our results demonstrate that by binding to its target, Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 can efficiently inhibit human EC proliferation and survival, resulting in reduced angiogenesis. It predicts that Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 could become useful in both tumor imaging and the treatment of tumor growth, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and inflammation.

  4. Differentiation of renal beta-intercalated cells to alpha-intercalated and principal cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Fejes-Tóth, G; Náray-Fejes-Tóth, A

    1992-01-01

    The renal collecting duct is a heterogenous epithelium consisting of intercalated cells (ICC) and principal cells (PC). The origin of this cellular heterogeneity is not clear. To test the hypothesis that the two cell types might originate from one another, pure populations of ICC (beta subtype) and PC were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and grown on permeable supports. After the monolayers reached confluence, the expression of ICC- and PC-specific functions and antigens was monitored. Cultures of sorted beta-ICC, in addition to expressing ICC-specific functions (such as an electrogenic H+ secretion) and antigens, progressively acquired PC functions (amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport and K+ secretion). On day 6, cultures of sorted beta-ICC exhibited a lumen-negative transepithelial potential difference of 83 +/- 4 mV and a short circuit current of 107 +/- 15 microA/cm2 and created a lumen-to-bath K+ concentration ratio of approximately 10. The percentage of cells staining with two PC-specific antibodies was 53% and 65%. On the other hand, cultures of sorted PC failed to acquire ICC-specific functions while maintaining PC characteristics. To rule out preferential proliferation of a few contaminating PC as an explanation of these results, we have generated a continuous collecting duct cell line (M-1) originating from mice transgenic for the early region of simian virus 40. Cell lines cloned from M-1 cells exhibit both PC and ICC functions and show mutually exclusive heterogenous expression of PC and ICC antigens, demonstrating a common origin of the two cell types. These data indicate that while beta-ICC in culture can give rise to both alpha-ICC and PC, PC cannot convert to ICC, which raises the possibility that beta-ICC is the stem cell in the renal collecting duct. Differentiation of ICC to PC may explain the cellular heterogeneity in the cortical collecting duct. Images PMID:1608958

  5. Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.; Mishra, R.K.

    1989-02-15

    The existence of specific alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites has been shown in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SH5Y) cells using direct radioligand binding. (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, exhibited high affinity, saturable binding to both Y-79 and SH-SY5Y cell membranes. The binding of alpha 1 specific antagonist, (/sup 3/H)Prazocine, was not detectable in either cell type. Competition studies with antagonists yielded pharmacological characteristics typical of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors: rauwolscine greater than yohimbine greater than phentolamine greater than prazocine. Based on the affinity constants of prazocine and oxymetazoline, it appears that Y-79 cells contain alpha 2A receptor, whereas SH-SY5Y cells probably represent a mixture of alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptors. alpha 2-agonists clonidine and (-)epinephrine inhibition curves yielded high and low affinity states of the receptor in SH-SY5Y cells. Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions reduced the proportion of high affinity sites of alpha 2 receptors. These two neuronal cell lines of human origin would prove useful in elucidating the action and regulation of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and their interaction with other receptor systems.

  6. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  7. PDGFBB promotes PDGFR{alpha}-positive cell migration into artificial bone in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Kawana, Hiromasa; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Hoshi, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Hao, Wu; and others

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined effects of PDGFBB in PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration in artificial bones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB was not expressed in osteoblastic cells but was expressed in peripheral blood cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB promoted PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration into artificial bones but not osteoblast proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB did not inhibit osteoblastogenesis. -- Abstract: Bone defects caused by traumatic bone loss or tumor dissection are now treated with auto- or allo-bone graft, and also occasionally by artificial bone transplantation, particularly in the case of large bone defects. However, artificial bones often exhibit poor affinity to host bones followed by bony union failure. Thus therapies combining artificial bones with growth factors have been sought. Here we report that platelet derived growth factor bb (PDGFBB) promotes a significant increase in migration of PDGF receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha})-positive mesenchymal stem cells/pre-osteoblastic cells into artificial bone in vivo. Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF{beta}) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) reportedly inhibit osteoblast differentiation; however, PDGFBB did not exhibit such inhibitory effects and in fact stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro, suggesting that combining artificial bones with PDGFBB treatment could promote host cell migration into artificial bones without inhibiting osteoblastogenesis.

  8. Topoisomerase II alpha mRNA and tumour cell proliferation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Lohri, A; Reuter, J; Gudat, F; Herrmann, R

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To elucidate potential mechanisms of drug resistance, levels of topoisomerase II alpha mRNA, a target for cytostatic drugs, were measured in cryopreserved tumour tissue from 36 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To evaluate the potential association between topoisomerase II alpha and cell proliferation, Ki-67 immunostaining was also assessed. METHODS: The study population comprised 13 patients with low grade and 20 with high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Three patients had recurrent disease. Topoisomerase II alpha mRNA was quantitated by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the PCR product measured by using HPLC. The MIB-1 monoclonal antibody was used for Ki-67 immunostaining. RESULTS: Levels of topoisomerase II alpha mRNA correlated strongly with the Ki-67 labelling index and were higher in high grade than in low grade lymphomas. Patients in complete clinical remission of high grade lymphoma had a higher Ki-67 labelling index and tended to have higher topoisomerase II alpha mRNA levels. CONCLUSIONS: Although topoisomerase II alpha mRNA levels may be indicative of sensitivity to drugs, it is more likely that they reflect the proliferation status of the cell, which in turn involves a large number of additional molecular systems that influence response to treatment. PMID:9059350

  9. Polarization of yeast cells in spatial gradients of alpha mating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Segall, J E

    1993-01-01

    The process of cell fusion during mating of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by factors secreted by the mating partners. Spatial gradients of one of these mating factors, alpha-factor, polarized the growth of projections by MATa cells. The site of previous budding did not affect the direction of polarization, and subsequent budding was also polarized if mating factor was removed. Orientation occurred in the presence of nocodazole, suggesting that microtubules were not critical. At extremely low concentrations of alpha-factor, sst2-mutants (which in genetic studies do not discriminate between partners producing different amounts of alpha-factor) were able to polarize their projections. The sensitivity of this spatial sensing mechanism in wild-type cells is such that differences in receptor occupancy estimated to be about 1% are sufficient for orientation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8397402

  10. Cell-specific activation of the human skeletal alpha-actin by androgens.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mei Hua; Sun, Hong; Jin, Cheng He; Chapman, Mark; Hu, Junlian; Chang, William; Burnett, Kelven; Rosen, Jon; Negro-Vilar, Andres; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2008-03-01

    Although it is evident that androgens increase muscle mass and strength, little is known about the critical molecular targets of androgens in skeletal muscle. In rodents, the skeletal alpha-actin gene is a tissue-specific gene expressed only in the levator ani and other skeletal muscles but not in the prostate or preputial gland, the well-known androgen target tissue. We identified tissue-specific androgen-regulated genes in the skeletal muscle in rats after oral administration of androgens and focused on androgen-dependent up-regulation of the skeletal alpha-actin gene. To investigate the mechanism of action, an in vitro system with various cell lines and a series of deletion mutants of the alpha-actin promoter were used. The human skeletal alpha-actin promoter was activated by androgens in the muscle cell line C2C12 but not in the liver, prostate, or breast cancer cell lines in which exogenous human androgen receptor is expressed. The sequence of the promoter is sufficient for cell-specific androgen response, providing a model for the tissue specificity demonstrated in vivo. Using a series of deletion mutants, the androgen response can be maintained using just the proximal promoter region. The importance of androgen regulation of this small portion of the human skeletal alpha-actin promoter was demonstrated by the correlation between muscle and the alpha-actin promoter activity for an array of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), including an orally active SARM LGD2226. Taken together, the results suggest that the regulation of skeletal alpha-actin by androgens/SARMs may represent an important model system for understanding androgen anabolic action in the muscle.

  11. Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin regulates hemopoietic stem and progenitor cell functions through interactions with alpha9beta1 and alpha4beta1 integrins.

    PubMed

    Grassinger, Jochen; Haylock, David N; Storan, Melonie J; Haines, Gemma O; Williams, Brenda; Whitty, Genevieve A; Vinson, Andrew R; Be, Cheang Ly; Li, Songhui; Sørensen, Esben S; Tam, Patrick P L; Denhardt, David T; Sheppard, Dean; Choong, Peter F; Nilsson, Susan K

    2009-07-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional acidic glycoprotein, expressed by osteoblasts within the endosteal region of the bone marrow (BM) suppresses the proliferation of hemopoietic stem and progenitor cells and also regulates their lodgment within the BM after transplantation. Herein we demonstrate that OPN cleavage fragments are the most abundant forms of this protein within the BM. Studies aimed to determine how hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) interact with OPN revealed for the first time that murine and human HSCs express alpha(9)beta(1) integrin. The N-terminal thrombin cleavage fragment of OPN through its binding to the alpha(9)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(1) integrins plays a key role in the attraction, retention, regulation, and release of hemopoietic stem and progenitor cells to, in, and from their BM niche. Thrombin-cleaved OPN (trOPN) acts as a chemoattractant for stem and progenitor cells, mediating their migration in a manner that involves interaction with alpha(9)beta(1) and alpha(4)beta(1) integrins. In addition, in the absence of OPN, there is an increased number of white blood cells and, specifically, stem and progenitor cells in the peripheral circulation.

  12. Alpha-irradiation-induced G2 delay: a period of cell recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke-Huhle, C.

    1982-02-01

    Exponentially growing Chinese hamster V79 cells were delayed in G2 very efficiently by 3.4-MeV ..cap alpha.. particles. In comparison with the effect caused by sparsely ionizing /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays, G2 delay after ..cap alpha.. irradiation was greater by a factor of 6.7 and 4.2 for doses <0.5 Gy and >0.5 Gy, respectively, if the slopes of the dose-effect curves are compared. While at low doses (0.03-0.5 Gy) G2 arrest was reversible within 10 hr, increasing doses (0.5-4.38 Gy) of ..cap alpha.. irradiation blocked increasing fractions of cells for more than 16 hr, as determined by flow cytometry, and only some of these were able to complete mitosis. Addition of caffeine, however, reduced G2 arrest considerably if given directly after irradiation and reversed G2 arrest if added 8 hr after 4.38 Gy of ..cap alpha.. particles, a time when most of the cells already had accumulated in G2, caffeine treatment during G2 decreased survival after ..cap alpha.. irradiation by factors of 1.3 and 1.7 for 1 and 2 mM caffeine, respectively.

  13. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Stanley K.L.; Neo, Soek-Ying; Yap, Yann-Wan; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Ren, Ee-Chee

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modifies adhesion properties of rat islet B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cirulli, V; Halban, P A; Rouiller, D G

    1993-01-01

    The characteristic three-dimensional cell type organization of islets of Langerhans is perturbed in animal models of diabetes, suggesting that it may be important for islet function. Rat islet cells in culture are able to form aggregates with an architecture similar to native islets (pseudoislets), thus providing a good model to study the molecular basis of islet architecture and its role in islet function. Sorted islet B cells and non-B cells were permanently labeled with two different fluorescent dyes (DiO and DiI), mixed, and allowed to form aggregates during a 5-d culture in the presence or absence of TNF-alpha (100 U/ml), a cytokine suggested to be implicated in the early physiological events leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Confocal microscopy of aggregates revealed that TNF-alpha reversibly perturbs the typical segregation between B and non-B cells. Insulin secretion, was altered in the disorganized aggregates, and returned towards normal when pseudoislets had regained their typical architecture. The homotypic adhesion properties of sorted B and non-B cells cultured for 20 h in the presence or absence of TNF-alpha were studied in a short term aggregation assay. TNF-alpha induced a significant rise in Ca(2+)-independent adhesion of B cells (from 24 +/- 1.1% to 44.3 +/- 1.2%; n = 4, P < 0.001). These findings raise the possibility that the increased expression of Ca(2+)-independent adhesion molecules on B cells leads to altered islet architecture, which might be a factor in the perturbation of islet function induced by TNF-alpha. Images PMID:8098044

  15. alpha-Smooth muscle actin-expressing cells and lubricin in periprosthetic tissue.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Tadanao; Martin, Scott D; Wolf, Bryce T; Schmid, Thomas M; Thornhill, Thomas S; Spector, Myron

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the distributions of (1) cells expressing the contractile actin isoform, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and (2) a lubricating and antiadhesion glycoprotein, lubricin, in the tissue around loose joint replacement prostheses in human subjects. Periprostehtic tissue resected at revision arthroplasty of noncemented glenoid components of total shoulder arthroplasties was obtained from 10 patients. Samples of periprosthetic tissue were stained with monoclonal antibodies to alpha-SMA and lubricin. alpha-SMA was found in cells, principally of fibroblast morphology, in many of the fields of view (FOVs) in samples from all patients. Moderate correlations were observed between the percentage of FOVs containing alpha-SMA-expressing cells and the percentages of FOVs containing polyethylene (R(2) = 0.79) and metallic (R(2) = 0.75) particles. Lubricin was identified (1) as a discrete layer on the surface, (2) within the extracellular matrix, and (3) intracellularly. These lubricin-positive features were found in samples from all patients. Strong correlations were noted between the percentages of FOVs with matrix and intracellular lubricin staining (R(2) = 0.97) and between the percentages of FOVs with surface and matrix staining for lubricin (R(2) = 0.96). Having established the presence of alpha-SMA and lubricin in periprosthetic tissue, hypotheses regarding their role in the development and persistence of periprosthetic tissue can be synthesized for future study: for example, alpha-SMA-enabled contracture of the fibrous periprosthetic tissue results in its densification, and lubricin-coated surfaces interfere with integrative repair processes necessary for resorption and remodeling.

  16. Human GATA-3: a lineage-restricted transcription factor that regulates the expression of the T cell receptor alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, I C; Vorhees, P; Marin, N; Oakley, B K; Tsai, S F; Orkin, S H; Leiden, J M

    1991-01-01

    In addition to its role in the recognition of foreign antigens, the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha gene serves as a model system for studies of developmentally-regulated, lineage-specific gene expression in T cells. TCR alpha gene expression is restricted to cells of the TCR alpha/beta+ lineage, and is controlled by a T cell-specific transcriptional enhancer located 4.5 kb 3' to the C alpha gene segment. The TCR alpha enhancer contains four nuclear protein binding sites called T alpha 1-T alpha 4. In this report we describe the identification and characterization of a novel human cDNA, hGATA-3 that binds to the T alpha 3 element of the human TCR alpha enhancer. hGATA-3 contains a zinc finger domain that is highly related to the DNA-binding domain of the erythroid-specific transcription factor, GATA-1, and binds to a region of T alpha 3 that contains a consensus GATA binding site (AGATAG). Northern blot analyses of hematopoietic cell lines demonstrate that hGATA-3 is expressed exclusively in T cells. Overexpression of hGATA-3 in HeLa cells or human B cells specifically activated transcription from a co-transfected reporter plasmid containing two copies of the T alpha 3 binding site located upstream of the minimal SV40 promoter. Taken together these results demonstrate that hGATA-3 is a novel lineage-specific hematopoietic transcription factor that appears to play an important role in regulating the T cell-specific expression of the TCR alpha gene. Images PMID:1827068

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  18. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  19. Central tolerance regulates B cells reactive with Goodpasture antigen alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Su, Susan C.; Hecox, Douglas B.; Brady, Graham F.; Mackin, Katherine M.; Clark, Amy G.; Foster, Mary H.

    2008-01-01

    Patients and rodents with Goodpasture’s syndrome (GPS) develop severe autoimmune crescentic glomerulonephritis, kidney failure, and lung hemorrhage due to binding of pathogenic autoantibodies to the NC1 domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen. Target epitopes are cryptic, normally hidden from circulating antibodies by protein-protein interactions and the highly tissue-restricted expression of the alpha3(IV) collagen chain. Based on this limited antigen exposure, it has been suggested that target epitopes are not available as B cell tolerogens. To determine how pathogenic anti-GPS autoantibody responses are regulated, we generated an immunoglobulin (Ig) transgenic (Tg) mouse model that expresses an Ig that binds alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen epitopes recognized by serum IgG of patients with GPS. Phenotypic analysis reveals B cell depletion and light chain editing in Tg mice. To determine the default tolerance phenotype in the absence of receptor editing and endogenous lymphocyte populations, we crossed Tg mice two generations with mice deficient in recombinase activating gene (Rag). Resulting Tg Rag-deficient mice have central B cell deletion. Thus development of Tg anti-alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen B cells is halted in the bone marrow, at which point the cells are deleted unless rescued by a Rag enzyme-dependent process, such as editing. The central tolerance phenotype implies that tolerizing self antigen is expressed in bone marrow. PMID:18941198

  20. The RNA polymerase II of an alpha-amanitin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    Lobban, P E; Siminovitch, L; Ingles, C J

    1976-05-01

    Amal, an alpha-amanitin-resistant mutant of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, contains an RNA polymerase activity which elutes from DEAE-Sephadex at a salt concentration characteristic of an RNA polymerase II, but which is not sensitive to alpha-amanitin at levels where the polymerase II of wild-type cells is strongly inhibited. This result suggests that Amal owes its amanitin-resistant phenotype to a mutation affecting one of its genes for RNA polymerase II. To test this hypothesis, we purified the enzyme from Amal and then compared its properties with those of the wild-type enzyme. The mutant enzyme is indeed a polymerase II, and is over 600 times less sensitive to alpha-amanitin and more thermolabile than the wild-type enzyme. PMID:954093

  1. TNF-{alpha} promotes cell survival through stimulation of K{sup +} channel and NF{kappa}B activity in corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ling; Reinach, Peter; Lu, Luo . E-mail: lluou@ucla.edu

    2005-11-15

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-{alpha}) in various cell types induces either cell death or mitogenesis through different signaling pathways. In the present study, we determined in human corneal epithelial cells how TNF-{alpha} also promotes cell survival. Human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells were cultured in DMEM/F-12 medium containing 10% FBS. TNF-{alpha} stimulation induced activation of a voltage-gated K{sup +} channel detected by measuring single channel activity using patch clamp techniques. The effect of TNF-{alpha} on downstream events included NF{kappa}B nuclear translocation and increases in DNA binding activities, but did not elicit ERK, JNK, or p38 limb signaling activation. TNF-{alpha} induced increases in p21 expression resulting in partial cell cycle attenuation in the G{sub 1} phase. Cell cycle progression was also mapped by flow cytometer analysis. Blockade of TNF-{alpha}-induced K{sup +} channel activity effectively prevented NF{kappa}B nuclear translocation and binding to DNA, diminishing the cell-survival protective effect of TNF-{alpha}. In conclusion, TNF-{alpha} promotes survival of HCE cells through sequential stimulation of K{sup +} channel and NF{kappa}B activities. This response to TNF-{alpha} is dependent on stimulating K{sup +} channel activity because following suppression of K{sup +} channel activity TNF-{alpha} failed to activate NF{kappa}B nuclear translocation and binding to nuclear DNA.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of Kasumi-1 human myeloid leukaemia cell line resistant to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ido, M.; Hayashi, K.; Kato, S.; Ogawa, H.; Komada, Y.; Zhau, Y. W.; Zhang, X. L.; Sakurai, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukaemia cell line, Kasumi-1. To examine the role of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, a variant cell line resistant to TNF-alpha was established by an intermittent challenge of Kasumi-1 cells with increasing concentrations of TNF-alpha for 6 months. The mechanism of resistance to TNF-alpha appears to be in the post-receptor pathway because expression of p55 TNF receptor in the variant cells is increased compared with that of the parental Kasumi-1 cells. In renaturation assays, TNF-alpha induced a rapid activation of different protein kinases of different molecular weights, including the 50 kDa protein kinase (PK50) followed by the 35 kDa protein kinase (PK35), in the parental Kasumi-1 cells. The dose-response of TNF-alpha required to activate PK50 and PK35 was closely related to concentrations of TNF-alpha that induced apoptosis. Treatment of Kasumi-1 cells with ceramide also activated PK35. In TNF-resistant variant cells, activation of PK35 in response to TNF-alpha or ceramide was practically nil. These findings suggest that activation of PK35 through the ceramide pathway may play an important role in signal transduction of TNF-alpha in the Kasumi-1 cell line, while the decreased activation of PK35 may explain the insensitivity of the variant cells towards TNF-alpha. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8562342

  3. Different patterns of 5{alpha}-reductase expression, cellular distribution, and testosterone metabolism in human follicular dermal papilla cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shicheng Yamauchi, Hitoshi

    2008-04-18

    Androgens regulate hair growth, and 5{alpha}-reductase (5{alpha}R) plays a pivotal role in the action of androgens on target organs. To clarify the molecular mechanisms responsible for controlling hair growth, the present study presents evidence that the human follicular dermal papilla cells (DPCs) from either beard (bDPCs) or scalp hair (sDPCs) possess endogenous 5{alpha}R activity. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the highest level of 5{alpha}R1 mRNA was found in bDPCs, followed by sDPCs, and a low but detectable level of 5{alpha}R1 mRNA was observed in fibroblasts. Minimally detectable levels of 5{alpha}R2 mRNA were found in all three cell types. A weak band at 26 kDa corresponding to the human 5{alpha}R1 protein was detected by Western blot in both DPCs, but not in fibroblasts. Immuonofluorescence analysis confirmed that 5{alpha}R1 was localized to the cytoplasm rather than in the nuclei in both DPCs Furthermore, a 5{alpha}R assay using [{sup 14}C]testosterone labeling in intact cells revealed that testosterone was transformed primarily into androstenedione, and in small amounts, into DHT. Our results demonstrate that the 5{alpha}R activities of either bDPCs or sDPCs are stronger than that of dermal fibroblasts, despite the fact that the major steroidogenic activity is attributed to 17{beta}-HSD rather than 5{alpha}R among the three cell types. The 5{alpha}R1 inhibitor MK386 exhibited a more potent inhibitory effect on 5{alpha}R activity than finasteride (5{alpha}R2 inhibitor) in bDPCs.

  4. The lipocalin alpha1-microglobulin protects erythroid K562 cells against oxidative damage induced by heme and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Magnus G; Olofsson, Tor; Tapper, Hans; Akerstrom, Bo

    2008-08-01

    Alpha(1)-microglobulin is a 26 kDa plasma and tissue glycoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin protein superfamily. Recent reports show that it is a reductase and radical scavenger and that it binds heme and has heme-degrading properties. This study has investigated the protective effects of alpha(1)-microglobulin against oxidation by heme and reactive oxygen species in the human erythroid cell line, K562. The results show that alpha(1)-microglobulin prevents intracellular oxidation and up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 induced by heme, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reaction-generated hydroxyl radicals in the culture medium. It also reduces the cytosol of non-oxidized cells. Endogeneous expression of alpha(1)-microglobulin was up-regulated by these oxidants and silencing of the alpha(1)-microglobulin expression increased the cytosol oxidation. alpha(1)-microglobulin also inhibited cell death caused by heme and cleared cells from bound heme. Binding of heme to alpha(1)-microglobulin increased the radical reductase activity of the protein as compared to the apo-protein. Finally, alpha(1)-microglobulin was localized mainly at the cell surface both when administered exogeneously and in non-treated cells. The results suggest that alpha(1)-microglobulin is involved in the defence against oxidative cellular injury caused by haemoglobin and heme and that the protein may employ both heme-scavenging and one-electron reduction of radicals to achieve this.

  5. Yeast peptide pheromones, a-factor and alpha-factor, activate a common response mechanism in their target cells.

    PubMed

    Bender, A; Sprague, G F

    1986-12-26

    We show that in yeast the cell type specificity of pheromone response is determined solely by the species of receptor that a cell synthesizes. The two receptor-pheromone interactions are functionally interchangeable and involve the creation of a common intracellular signal. In particular, we find that provision of a-factor receptor or alpha-factor receptor in mat alpha 1 mutants, which normally do not express either receptor or any other a- or alpha-specific products, allows response to the appropriate pheromone. Moreover, provision of a-factor receptor in a cells lacking alpha-factor receptor restores mating competence to those cells. Finally, an aspect of pheromone response that is normally unique to a-factor action on alpha cells--increased transcription from the alpha-specific STE3 gene--can also be observed following alpha-factor treatment of pseudo-a cells (mat alpha 2 ste3 ste13), special mutants that respond to alpha-factor and also have an active STE3 promoter.

  6. CACCC and GATA-1 sequences make the constitutively expressed alpha-globin gene erythroid-responsive in mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ren, S; Li, J; Atweh, G F

    1996-01-01

    Although the human alpha-globin and beta-globin genes are co-regulated in adult life, they achieve the same end by very different mechanisms. For example, a transfected beta-globin gene is expressed in an inducible manner in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells while a transfected alpha-globin gene is constitutively expressed at a high level in induced and uninduced MEL cells. Interestingly, when the alpha-globin gene is transferred into MEL cells as part of human chromosome 16, it is appropriately expressed in an inducible manner. We explored the basis for the lack of erythroid-responsiveness of the proximal regulatory elements of the human alpha-globin gene. Since the alpha-globin gene is the only functional human globin gene that lacks CACCC and GATA-1 motifs, we asked whether their addition to the alpha-globin promoter would make the gene erythroid-responsive in MEL cells. The addition of each of these binding sites to the alpha-globin promoter separately did not result in inducibility in MEL cells. However, when both sites were added together, the alpha-globin gene became inducible in MEL cells. This suggests that erythroid non-responsiveness of the alpha-globin gene results from the lack of erythroid binding sites and is not necessarily a function of the constitutively active, GC rich promoter. PMID:8628660

  7. Alpha-defensins 1-3 release by dendritic cells is reduced by estrogen

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During pregnancy the immune system of the mother must protect any activation that may negatively affect the fetus. Changes in susceptibility to infection as well as resolution of some autoimmune disorders represent empirical evidence for pregnancy related alterations in immunity. Sex hormones reach extremely high levels during pregnancy and have been shown to have direct effects on many immune functions including the antiviral response of dendritic cells. Among the immunologically active proteins secreted by monocyte derived DCs (MDDC) are the alpha-defensins 1-3. This family of cationic antimicrobial peptides has a broad spectrum of microbicidal activity and has also been shown to link innate to adaptive immunity by attracting T cells and immature DCs, which are essential for initiating and polarizing the immune response. Methods We compare culture-generated monocyte derived DCs (MDDCs) with directly isolated myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and measure their alpha-defensins 1-3 secretion by ELISA both, in basal situations and after hormone (E2 or PG) treatments. Moreover, using a cohort of pregnant women we isolated mDCs from blood and also measure the levels of these anti-microbial peptides along pregnancy. Results We show that mDCs and pDCs constitutively produce alpha-defensins 1-3 and at much higher levels than MDDCs. Alpha-defensins 1-3 production from mDCs and MDDCs but not pDCs is inhibited by E2. PG does not affect alpha-defensins 1-3 in any of the populations. Moreover, alpha-defensins 1-3 production by mDCs was reduced in the later stages of pregnancy in 40% of the patients. Conclusions Here, we demonstrate that mDCs and pDCs secrete alpha-defensins 1-3 and present a novel effect of E2 on the secretion of alpha-defensins 1-3 by dendritic cells. PMID:21861873

  8. Erythropoietin protects myocardin-expressing cardiac stem cells against cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Shelat, Harnath; Xue, Qun; Willerson, James T.; De Caterina, Raffaele; Geng, Yong-Jian

    2009-10-15

    Cardiac stem cells are vulnerable to inflammation caused by infarction or ischemic injury. The growth factor, erythropoietin (Epo), ameliorates the inflammatory response of the myocardium to ischemic injury. This study was designed to assess the role of Epo in regulation of expression and activation of the cell death-associated intracellular signaling components in cardiac myoblasts stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. Cardiac myoblasts isolated from canine embryonic hearts characterized by expression of myocardin A, a promyogenic transcription factor for cardiovascular muscle development were pretreated with Epo and then exposed to TNF-{alpha}. Compared to untreated cells, the Epo-treated cardiac myoblasts exhibited better morphology and viability. Immunoblotting revealed lower levels of active caspase-3 and reductions in iNOS expression and NO production in Epo-treated cells. Furthermore, Epo pretreatment reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B and inhibited phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B) in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated cardiac myoblasts. Thus, Epo protects cardiac myocyte progenitors or myoblasts against the cytotoxic effects of TNF-{alpha} by inhibiting NF-{kappa}B-mediated iNOS expression and NO production and by preventing caspase-3 activation.

  9. Alpha2 adrenoceptors regulate proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaak, S; Cussac, D; Cayla, C; Devedjian, J; Guyot, R; Paris, H; Denis, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Previous studies on rodents have suggested that catecholamines stimulate proliferation of the intestinal epithelium through activation of α2 adrenoceptors located on crypt cells. The occurrence of this effect awaits demonstration in humans and the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of α2 agonists on a clone of Caco2 cells expressing the human α2A adrenoceptor.
METHODS—Cells were transfected with a bicistronic plasmid containing the α2C10 and neomycin phosphotransferase genes. G418 resistant clones were assayed for receptor expression using radioligand binding. Receptor functionality was assessed by testing its ability to couple Gi proteins and to inhibit cAMP production. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was followed by western blot, and cell proliferation was estimated by measuring protein and DNA content.
RESULTS—Permanent transfection of Caco2 cells allowed us to obtain a clone (Caco2-3B) expressing α2A adrenoceptors at a density similar to that found in normal human intestinal epithelium. Caco2-3B retained morphological features and brush border enzyme expression characteristic of enterocytic differentiation. The receptor was coupled to Gi2/Gi3 proteins and its stimulation caused marked diminution of forskolin induced cAMP production. Treatment of Caco2-3B with UK14304 (α2 agonist) induced a rapid increase in the phosphorylation state of MAPK, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 (Erk1), and 2 (Erk2). This event was totally abolished in pertussis toxin treated cells and in the presence of kinase inhibitors (genistein or PD98059). It was unaffected by protein kinase C downregulation but correlated with a transient increase in Shc tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, sustained exposure of Caco2-3B to UK14304 resulted in modest but significant acceleration of cell proliferation. None of these effects was observed in the parental cell line Caco2.

  10. Proglucagon is processed to glucagon by prohormone convertase PC2 in alpha TC1-6 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rouillé, Y; Westermark, G; Martin, S K; Steiner, D F

    1994-01-01

    Proglucagon is processed differentially in the pancreatic alpha cells and the intestinal L cells to yield either glucagon or glucagon-like peptide 1, respectively, structurally related hormones with opposing metabolic actions. Here, we have studied the processing of proglucagon in alpha TC1-6 cells, an islet-cell line transformed by simian virus 40 large tumor (T) antigen, a model of the pancreatic alpha cell. We found that these cells process proglucagon at certain dibasic cleavage sites to release glucagon and only small amounts of glucagon-like peptide 1, as demonstrated by both continuous and pulse-chase labeling experiments. Both normal islet alpha cells and alpha TC1-6 cells were shown to express the prohormone convertase PC2 at high levels, but not the related protease PC3. Expression of PC2 antisense RNA in alpha TC1-6 cells inhibited both PC2 production and proglucagon processing concomitantly. We conclude that PC2 is the key endoprotease responsible for proglucagon processing in cells with the alpha-cell phenotype. Images PMID:8159732

  11. TRIM32 promotes retinoic acid receptor {alpha}-mediated differentiation in human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomonobu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 enhanced RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 stabilized RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells induced granulocytic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 may function as a coactivator for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in APL cells. -- Abstract: Ubiquitination, one of the posttranslational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (RAR{alpha}). We previously reported that an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32, interacts with several important proteins including RAR{alpha} and enhances transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha} in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA), which acts as a ligand to nuclear receptors including RAR{alpha}, plays crucial roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and apoptosis. In this study, we found that TRIM32 enhances RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA and stabilizes RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Moreover, we found that overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells suppresses cellular proliferation and induces granulocytic differentiation even in the absence of RA. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the coactivators for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL) cells, and thus TRIM32 may become a potentially therapeutic target for APL.

  12. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail: imyh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  13. Cytotoxicity of Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin: its oligomerization in detergent resistant membranes of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Mukamoto, Masafumi; Kohda, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Nakaba; Kozaki, Shunji

    2004-12-01

    Alpha-toxin is an important agent of the virulence of Clostridium septicum. We examined cytotoxicity for alpha-toxin to various mammalian cells with recombinant toxin fused with a histidine-tag at the amino-terminal. The recombinant toxin retained the activity indistinguishable from the native form. Mammalian nucleated cells examined in this study are more sensitive to the protoxin than to the trypsinized toxin, except RAW 264.7 and P3U1 cells of myeloid lineage. Cellular proteins of various molecular sizes interacted with the toxin. The size and SDS-PAGE pattern of the proteins were different among cell lines but they were liberated from the cells by the treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. The toxin appeared to target and utilize detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) for binding and subsequent oligomerization. In discontinuous sucrose density gradient, we demonstrated by immunoblotting that the toxin bound to DRMs contained in L929 cells and caused the oligomer formation. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion with cholesterol-interacting agents reduced toxin oligomerization and lowered cytotoxicity of the toxin towards cells. These results suggest that alpha-toxin preferentially exploits DRMs for oligomerization.

  14. Contrasting signaling pathways of alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor subtype activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Ras in transfected NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z W; Shi, X Y; Lin, R Z; Hoffman, B B

    1999-01-01

    Activation of protein kinases is an important intermediate step in signaling pathways of many G protein-coupled receptors including alpha1-adrenergic receptors. The present study was designed to investigate the capacity of the three cloned subtypes of human alpha1-receptors, namely, alpha1A, alpha1B and alpha1D to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and p21ras in transfected NIH3T3 cells. Norepinephrine activated PI 3-kinase in cells expressing human alpha1A and alpha1B via pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins; alpha1D-receptors did not detectably activate this kinase. Transient transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with the alpha-subunit of the G protein transducin (alpha(t)) a scavenger of betagamma-subunits released from activated G proteins, inhibited alpha1B-receptor but not alpha1A-receptor-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity. Stimulation of both alpha1A- and alpha1B-receptors activated p21ras and stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange on Ras protein. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of p21ras attenuated alpha1B-receptor but not alpha1A-receptor activation of PI 3-kinase. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of PI 3-kinase attenuated alpha1A- but not alpha1B-receptor-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. These results demonstrate the capacity for heterologous signaling of the alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes in promoting cellular responses in NIH3T3 cells.

  15. DNA binding of Pd(TC3), a conformable cationic porphyrin with a long-lived triplet state.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Srijana; Bork, Matthew A; Zhang, Hanyu; Fanwick, Phillip E; Zeller, Matthias; Choi, Jong Hyun; McMillin, David R

    2016-09-28

    The goal of this work has been to synthesize and investigate Pd(TC3), an intercalating porphyrin that has conformable substituents capable of groove binding to B-form DNA. (TC3 denotes the doubly deprotonated form of 5,10,15,20-tetra[3-(3'-methylimidazolium-1'-yl)prop-1-yl]porphyrin.) Palladium(ii) is an apt choice for the central metal ion because it remains strictly four-coordinate and provides for a luminescent triplet excited state with a long lifetime. The DNA hosts are hairpin-forming sequences programmed to differ in base composition. Luminescence, absorbance, and circular dichroism results are consistent with the idea that congruent structural reorganization takes place at the host and ligand during uptake. Photoexcitation of DNA-bound Pd(TC3) generates a comparatively modest steady state concentration of singlet oxygen, due to a relatively slow reaction with molecular oxygen in solution. The sheer size of the substituent groups disfavors quenching, but groove-binding interactions compound the problem by inhibiting mobility. The results show how ligand design affects adduct structure as well as function. PMID:27534907

  16. Staging of alpha-synuclein in the olfactory bulb in a model of Parkinson's disease: cell types involved.

    PubMed

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Fradejas, Noelia; Calvo, Soledad; Argandoña-Palacios, Lucia; Garcia-Muñozguren, Susana; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2010-08-15

    Impaired olfaction is an early symptom of Parkinson's disease. The underlying neuropathology likely includes alpha-synucleinopathy in the olfactory bulb at an earlier stage (Braak's stage1) than pathology in the substantia nigra, which is not observed until stage 3. In this report, we investigated the distribution and cell types affected by alpha-synuclein in the olfactory bulb of transgenic mice (2-8 months of age) expressing the human A53T variant of alpha-synuclein. alpha-Synuclein immunostaining progressively affects interneurons and mitral cells. Double labeling studies demonstrate that dopaminergic cells are hardly involved, whereas glutamatergic- and calcium binding protein-positive cells are severely affected. This temporal evolution and the cell types expressing alpha-synuclein are reminiscent of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and support the usefulness of this model to address specific topics in the premotor phase of the disease.

  17. Inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release from mast cells by the anti-inflammatory drugs, sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, E Y; Enciso, J A; Befus, A D

    1995-01-01

    TNF-alpha is a cytokine thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and in several other inflammatory conditions. Given recent evidence that mast cells (MC) are an important source of TNF-alpha, we investigated the effects of two anti-inflammatory drugs, nedocromil sodium (NED) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG), on rat MC-derived TNF-alpha. We established that at least 2 h pretreatment with NED or SCG followed by washing was required to inhibit TNF-alpha-dependent cytotoxicity by rat peritoneal MC (PMC). A maximum inhibition of TNF-alpha occurred after 6 h treatment. The inhibitory effect of NED and SCG (10(-5)-10(-3)M) was concentration-dependent (20-37% for NED and 16-37% for SCG). The time-course analysis and the use of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, provided strong evidence that new protein synthesis by the MC is required for this inhibitory effect. Furthermore, 24 h treatment with 1 mM NED inhibited the levels of mRNA for TNF-alpha by 59-83%. In addition to the effect on TNF-alpha-dependent cytotoxicity by MC, 20 min pretreatment with 10(-4) M NED and SCG inhibited antigen-stimulated TNF-alpha release (6h) by 42% and 48%, respectively. Interestingly, the functionally distinct intestinal mucosal MC (IMMC) is unresponsive to these drugs with regard to histamine secretion. However, as with PMC, 2h pretreatment with NED or SCG inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent cytotoxicity by IMMC. These effects may be important in the action of these drugs in vivo in the late phase reaction in asthma or other inflammatory conditions. Images Fig. 6 PMID:7554404

  18. Tumor cell alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and its involvement in GcMAF-related macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Saharuddin B; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-05-01

    Alpha-N-acetyl galactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) has been reported to accumulate in serum of cancer patients and be responsible for deglycosylation of Gc protein, which is a precursor of GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, finally leading to immunosuppression in advanced cancer patients. We studied the biochemical characterization of alpha-NaGalase from several human tumor cell lines. We also examined its effect on the potency of GcMAF to activate mouse peritoneal macrophage to produce superoxide in GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade. The specific activity of alpha-NaGalases from human colon tumor cell line HCT116, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and normal human liver cells (Chang liver cell line) were evaluated using two types of substrates; GalNAc-alpha-PNP (exo-type substrate) and Gal-beta-GalNAc-alpha-PNP (endo-type substrate). Tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase having higher activity than normal alpha-NaGalase, had higher substrate specificity to the exo-type substrate than to the endo-type substrate, and still maintained its activity at pH 7. GcMAF enhance superoxide production in mouse macrophage, and pre-treatment of GcMAF with tumor cell lysate reduce the activity. We conclude that tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase is different in biochemical characterization compared to normal alpha-NaGalase from normal Chang liver cells. In addition, tumor cell-derived alpha-NaGalase decreases the potency of GcMAF on macrophage activation. PMID:12062184

  19. Identification of a putative alpha-glucan synthase essential for cell wall construction and morphogenesis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hochstenbach, Frans; Klis, Frans M.; van den Ende, Herman; van Donselaar, Elly; Peters, Peter J.; Klausner, Richard D.

    1998-01-01

    The cell wall protects fungi against lysis and determines their cell shape. Alpha-glucan is a major carbohydrate component of the fungal cell wall, but its function is unknown and its synthase has remained elusive. Here, we describe a fission yeast gene, ags1+, which encodes a putative alpha-glucan synthase. In contrast to the structure of other carbohydrate polymer synthases, the predicted Ags1 protein consists of two probable catalytic domains for alpha-glucan assembly, namely an intracellular domain for alpha-glucan synthesis and an extracellular domain speculated to cross-link or remodel alpha-glucan. In addition, the predicted Ags1 protein contains a multipass transmembrane domain that might contribute to transport of alpha-glucan across the membrane. Loss of Ags1p function in a temperature-sensitive mutant results in cell lysis, whereas mutant cells grown at the semipermissive temperature contain decreased levels of cell wall alpha-glucan and fail to maintain rod shapes, causing rounding of the cells. These findings demonstrate that alpha-glucan is essential for fission yeast morphogenesis. PMID:9689051

  20. Transforming growth factor-alpha in vivo stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in digestive tissues of suckling rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hormi, K; Lehy, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role that exogenous transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may exert on cell proliferation in vivo is poorly understood. AIM: To investigate the effect of rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in all suckling rat digestive tissues and to compare it with that of rat epidermal growth factor (EGF). ANIMAL AND METHODS: TGF-alpha and EGF were given three times daily either subcutaneously (10 or 20 micrograms/kg) or intraperitoneally (100 micrograms/kg) to rats from the ninth postnatal day. Cell proliferation was assessed through 5-bromo- 2-deoxyuridine incorporation and estimation of labelling indices. RESULTS: For both growth factors, the highest dose given for only two days significantly increased stomach and intestinal weights compared with controls (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The proliferative responded depended on the dose given, colonic mucosa being the most sensitive whereas oxyntic mucosa remained unresponsive. TGF-alpha was as potent as EGF in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation in antral, duodenal, and colonic mucosae. However, EGF was more active on oesophageal and jejunal cell proliferation whereas TGF-alpha was more active on pancreatic exocrine cell proliferation and the differences between the two growth factor treated groups were significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results prove for the first time the stimulating effect in vivo of exogenous rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in rat digestive tissues during the developmental period and support a functional role for TGF-alpha at that time. PMID:8944561

  1. Alpha cells secrete acetylcholine as a non-neuronal paracrine signal priming beta cell function in humans.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Jacques-Silva, M Caroline; Fachado, Alberto; Molina, Judith; Abdulreda, Midhat H; Ricordi, Camillo; Roper, Stephen D; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2011-06-19

    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that has a major role in the function of the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell. Parasympathetic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, the islets of Langerhans, has been shown to provide cholinergic input to the beta cell in several species, but the role of autonomic innervation in human beta cell function is at present unclear. Here we show that, in contrast to the case in mouse islets, cholinergic innervation of human islets is sparse. Instead, we find that the alpha cells of human islets provide paracrine cholinergic input to surrounding endocrine cells. Human alpha cells express the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and release acetylcholine when stimulated with kainate or a lowering in glucose concentration. Acetylcholine secretion by alpha cells in turn sensitizes the beta cell response to increases in glucose concentration. Our results demonstrate that in human islets acetylcholine is a paracrine signal that primes the beta cell to respond optimally to subsequent increases in glucose concentration. Cholinergic signaling within islets represents a potential therapeutic target in diabetes, highlighting the relevance of this advance to future drug development.

  2. Cell-cell contact between marrow stromal cells and myeloma cells via VCAM-1 and alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin enhances production of osteoclast-stimulating activity.

    PubMed

    Michigami, T; Shimizu, N; Williams, P J; Niewolna, M; Dallas, S L; Mundy, G R; Yoneda, T

    2000-09-01

    Myeloma is a unique hematologic malignancy that exclusively homes in the bone marrow and induces massive osteoclastic bone destruction presumably by producing cytokines that promote the differentiation of the hematopoietic progenitors to osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis). It is recognized that neighboring bone marrow stromal cells influence the expression of the malignant phenotype in myeloma cells. This study examined the role of the interactions between myeloma cells and neighboring stromal cells in the production of osteoclastogenic factors to elucidate the mechanism underlying extensive osteoclastic bone destruction. A murine myeloma cell line 5TGM1, which causes severe osteolysis, expresses alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin and tightly adheres to the mouse marrow stromal cell line ST2, which expresses the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a ligand for alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with primary bone marrow cells generated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with ST2 showed increased production of bone-resorbing activity and neutralizing antibodies against VCAM-1 or alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin inhibited this. The 5TGM1 cells contacting recombinant VCAM-1 produced increased osteoclastogenic and bone-resorbing activity. The activity was not blocked by the neutralizing antibody to known osteoclastogenic cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These data suggest that myeloma cells are responsible for producing osteoclastogenic activity and that establishment of direct contact with marrow stromal cells via alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin/VCAM-1 increases the production of this activity by myeloma cells. They also suggest that the presence of stromal cells may provide a microenvironment that allows exclusive colonization of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. (Blood. 2000;96:1953-1960) PMID:10961900

  3. Alpha tumor necrosis factor contributes to CD8{sup +} T cell survival in the transition phase

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Meiqing; Ye, Zhenmin; Umeshappa, Keshav Sokke; Moyana, Terence; Xiang, Jim . E-mail: jxiang@scf.sk.ca

    2007-08-31

    Cytokine and costimulation signals determine CD8{sup +} T cell responses in proliferation phase. In this study, we assessed the potential effect of cytokines and costimulations to CD8{sup +} T cell survival in transition phase by transferring in vitro ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed dendritic cell-activated CD8{sup +} T cells derived from OVA-specific T cell receptor transgenic OT I mice into wild-type C57BL/6 mice or mice with designated gene knockout. We found that deficiency of IL-10, IL-12, IFN-{gamma}, CD28, CD40, CD80, CD40L, and 41BBL in recipients did not affect CD8{sup +} T cell survival after adoptive transfer. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} deficiency in both recipients and donor CD8{sup +} effector T cells significantly reduced CD8{sup +} T cell survival. Therefore, our data demonstrate that the host- and T cell-derived TNF-{alpha} signaling contributes to CD8{sup +} effector T cell survival and their transition to memory T cells in the transition phase, and may be useful information when designing vaccination.

  4. Squamous Carcinoma Cells Influence Monocyte Phenotype and Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TNF-alpha in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lam-ubol, Aroonwan; Hopkin, Dustin; Letuchy, Elena M.; Kurago, Zoya B.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria and chronic inflammation are present in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), but their roles in the pathogenesis of HNSCC are unclear. Our studies described here revealed that human monocytes co-cultured short term with HNSCC cells were more likely to express CD16, and CD16+ small mononuclear cells were common in HNSCC specimens. In addition, we identified monocytes as the primary source of LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the monocyte-HNSCC co-cultures. Remarkably, relative to LPS-stimulated monocytes cultured alone, HNSCC cells profoundly suppressed LPS-induced TNF-alpha in monocytes, without compromising IL-6 production. High levels of cytoprotective factors like IL-6 and low levels of TNF-alpha are important for the tumor microenvironment that enables tumor cell survival, affects monocyte differentiation and may contribute to tumor colonization by bacteria. This study provides novel observations that HNSCC cells affect monocyte phenotype and function, which are relevant to the regulation of the HNSCC microenvironment. PMID:20084448

  5. The HPV-16 E7 oncogene sensitizes malignant cells to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong

    2005-10-01

    Interferons (IFNs) exert antitumor effects in several human malignancies, but their mechanism of action is unclear. There is a great variability in sensitivity to IFN treatment depending on both tumor type and the individual patient. The reason for this variable sensitivity is not known. The fact that several IFN-induced anticellular effects are exerted through modulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may indicate that the malignant genotype may be decisive in the cell's sensitivity to IFN. To determine if a deregulated oncogene could alter the cellular response to IFN, a mouse lymphoma cell line (J3D) was stably transfected with the viral human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) E7 oncogene. The E7-transfected cells and their respective mock-transfected sister clones were treated with IFN-{alpha} and examined for possible IFN-induced anticellular effects. We found that the E7-transfected clones were greatly sensitized to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis compared with their mock-transfected counterparts. Induction of apoptosis in the transfected cells correlated with the ability of IFN to activate parts of the proapoptotic machinery specifically in these cells, including activation of caspases and the proapoptotic protein Bak. In summary, our data suggest that transfection of malignant cells with the E7 oncogene can sensitize them to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. This demonstrates that an oncogenic event may alter the cellular sensitivity to IFN and might also have implications for treatment of HPV related diseases with IFN.

  6. alpha-1 Adrenergic receptors stimulation induces the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Takeshi; Ihara, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2006-11-01

    The proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is regulated by classical neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, via its own receptors. Previous studies have reported that the depletion of L-norepinephrine decreases the proliferation of NPCs in the adult rat hippocampus and it has been suggested that L-norepinephrine regulates the proliferation of NPCs. However, it remains unknown whether or not adrenergic receptors are involved in the increased proliferation of NPCs. In the present study, an MTT cell proliferation assay was carried out in order to investigate the roles played by adrenergic receptors in the proliferation of NPCs. We demonstrated that L-epinephrine enhanced the proliferation of embryonic NPCs in vitro. In addition, the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist L-phenylephrine was found to enhance the proliferation of NPCs, whereas an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and selective alpha-1 antagonists significantly inhibited cell proliferation increases induced by L-epinephrine and L-phenylephrine. These results suggest that stimulation with alpha-1 adrenergic receptors induces the proliferation of embryonic NPCs.

  7. Alpha-galactosidase stimulates acetylcholine receptor aggregation in skeletal muscle cells via PNA-binding carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Parkhomovskiy, N; Martin, P T

    2000-04-21

    Aggregation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in skeletal muscle is an essential step in the formation of the mammalian neuromuscular junction. While proteins that bind to myotube receptors such as agrin and laminin can stimulate AChR aggregation in cultured myotubes, removal of cell surface sialic acids stimulates aggregation in a ligand-independent manner. Here, we show that removal of cell surface alpha-galactosides also stimulates AChR aggregation in the absence of added laminin or agrin. AChR aggregation stimulated by alpha-galactosidase was blocked by peanut agglutinin (PNA), which binds to lactosamine-containing disaccharides, but not by the GalNAc-binding lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA-B4). AChR aggregation stimulated by alpha-galactosidase potentiated AChR clustering induced by either neural agrin or laminin-1 and could be inhibited by muscle agrin. These data suggest that capping of cell surface lactosamines or N-acetyllactosamines with alpha-galactose affects AChR aggregation much as capping with sialic acids does.

  8. Method of using alpha-1 acid glycoprotein on T-cells as a marker for alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fudenberg, H.H.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described of diagnosing a dementia of the Alzheimer's type characterized by a change in the percentage of T-cells bearing surface membrane alpha-1 acid glycoprotein which comprises providing T-cells from a subject, determining the percentage of those T cells which bear surface membrane alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and comparing that percentage of the percentage of T cells which bear the glycoprotein in a control, whereby the dementia is diagnosed.

  9. An in-cell alpha detection system for radioisotope component assembly operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carteret, B.A. ); Goles, R.W. )

    1991-09-01

    A remotely operated alpha detection system is being developed for use at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It will be used in hot cells being constructed to assemble components of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators for space power applications. The in-cell detection equipment will survey radiological swipe samples to determine smearable surface contamination levels on radioisotope fuel, fueled components, and hot-cell work areas. This system is potentially adaptable to other hot cell and glovebox applications where radiation dose rates and contamination levels are expected to be low. 2 figs.

  10. Kruppel-like factor 4 regulates laminin alpha 3A expression in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, K A; Eklund, E A; Peddinghaus, M L; Cao, Z; Fernandes, N; Turk, P W; Thimmapaya, B; Weitzman, S A

    2001-11-16

    Laminin-5, the major extracellular matrix protein produced by mammary epithelial cells, is composed of three chains (designated alpha3A, beta3, and gamma2), each encoded by a separate gene. Laminin-5 is markedly down-regulated in breast cancer cells. Little is known about the regulation of laminin gene transcription in normal breast cells, nor about the mechanism underlying the down-regulation seen in cancer. In the present study, we cloned the promoter of the gene for the human laminin alpha3A chain (LAMA3A) and investigated its regulation in functionally normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells and several breast cancer cell lines. Using site-directed mutagenesis of promoter-reporter constructs in transient transfection assays in MCF10A cells, we find that two binding sites for Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4/GKLF/EZF) are required for expression driven by the LAMA3A promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal absence of KLF4 binding activity in extracts from T47D, MDA-MB 231, ZR75-1, MDA-MB 436, and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Transient transfection of a plasmid expressing KLF4 activates transcription from the LAMA3A promoter in breast cancer cells. A reporter vector containing duplicate KLF4-binding sites in its promoter is expressed at high levels in MCF10A cells but at negligible levels in breast cancer cells. Thus, KLF4 is required for LAMA3A expression and absence of laminin alpha3A in breast cancer cells appears, at least in part, attributable to the lack of KLF4 activity.

  11. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors of the human retinoblastoma cell line (Y79) may represent an additional example of the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, M. M.; Hieble, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    1. In agreement with the literature, correlation of the ability of a series of agonists and antagonists to displace [3H]-rauwolscine binding shows the alpha 2-adrenoceptors of HT29 cells, NG108-15 cells, OK cells and homogenates of rat sublingual gland to represent four distinct subtypes. 2. [3H]-rauwolscine also bound with high affinity (KD = 0.30 +/- 0.10 mM) to a human retinoblastoma cell line (Y79). Specific binding represents 73% of total binding, and a Bmax of 38 +/- 1 fmol mg-1 protein was determined. 3. Correlation of antagonist affinities against [3H]-rauwolscine with corresponding values in the other four tissue sources showed the Y79 cells to resemble most closely the OK cells, the prototype example of an alpha 2C-adrenoceptor, with a correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a regression slope of 1.01 being obtained for 10 antagonists in these two systems. 4. Comparison of KD values for [3H]-rauwolscine also showed a similarity between the OK cells (0.19 +/- 0.07 nM) and Y79 cells. 5. These data suggest that the human retinoblastoma cell line may represent an additional example of the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor subtype. PMID:1358385

  12. Immune and inflammatory responses in TNF alpha-deficient mice: a critical requirement for TNF alpha in the formation of primary B cell follicles, follicular dendritic cell networks and germinal centers, and in the maturation of the humoral immune response

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the role of TNF alpha in the development of in vivo immune response we have generated TNF alpha-deficient mice by gene targeting. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and fertile, develop lymph nodes and Peyer's patches and show no apparent phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that TNF alpha is not required for normal mouse development. In the absence of TNF alpha mice readily succumb to L. monocytogenes infections and show reduced contact hypersensitivity responses. Furthermore, TNF alpha knockout mice are resistant to the systemic toxicity of LPS upon D-galactosamine sensitization, yet they remain sensitive to high doses of LPS alone. Most interestingly, TNF alpha knockout mice completely lack splenic primary B cell follicles and cannot form organized follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks and germinal centers. However, despite the absence of B cell follicles, Ig class-switching can still occur, yet deregulated humoral immune responses against either thymus-dependent (TD) or thymus-independent (TI) antigens are observed. Complementation of TNF alpha functioning by the expression of either human or murine TNF alpha transgenes is sufficient to reconstitute these defects, establishing a physiological role for TNF alpha in regulating the development and organization of splenic follicular architecture and in the maturation of the humoral immune response. PMID:8879212

  13. In vitro cell irradiation systems based on 210Po alpha source: construction and characterisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, J.; Feher, I.; Palfalvi, J.; Balashazy, I.; Dam, A. M.; Polonyi, I.; Bogdandi, E. N.

    2002-01-01

    One way of studying the risk to human health of low-level radiation exposure is to make biological experiments on living cell cultures. Two 210Po alpha-particle emitting devices, with 0.5 and 100 MBq activity, were designed and constructed to perform such experiments irradiating monolayers of cells. Estimates of dose rate at the cell surface were obtained from measurements by a PIPS alpha-particle spectrometer and from calculations by the SRIM 2000, Monte Carlo charged particle transport code. Particle fluence area distributions were measured by solid state nuclear track detectors. The design and dosimetric characterisation of the devices are discussed. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid regulation of pancreatic alpha- and beta- cell signalling systems by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Cristina; Ropero, Ana B; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Quesada, Ivan; Fuentes, Esther; Nadal, Angel

    2008-03-01

    Rapid estrogen actions are triggered after estrogens are bound to a variety of proteins in organelles other than the nucleus. Those include classic estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta, novel membrane proteins that behave as estrogen receptors such as GPR30, ion channels, and other ligand receptors. In pancreatic alpha and beta-cells, estrogens binding to a non-classical membrane estrogen receptors at physiological concentrations regulate ion channels and [Ca(2+)](i) signals, provoking important physiological responses. In beta-cells, 17beta-estradiol regulates K(ATP) channel activity and glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, eliciting changes in insulin release and the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factors. In alpha-cells, 17beta-estradiol abolishes low glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations.

  15. Bone homing of mesenchymal stem cells by ectopic alpha 4 integrin expression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2007-12-01

    The pluripotent nature of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) widens their potential for tissue regeneration and as vehicles for cell therapy in molecular medicine. Although the MSC are relatively easier to obtain and propagate in culture, a major impediment remains in their engraftment to target tissues on autologous transfer. We report here that transient, ectopic expression of alpha4 integrin (CD49d) on MSC greatly increases bone homing in an immunocompetent mouse model. Heterodimerization of the alpha4 integrin with endogenous beta1 integrin (CD29) was confirmed to influence this targeting. In addition to retaining their stem cell property, the engrafted MSC were also found to form osteoblasts and osteocytes in the growth plate of recipient mouse limb bones (femur/tibia) in vivo. These findings provide evidence for a novel strategy to achieve bone homing of genetically engineered MSC, which may broadly benefit in targeted therapies for osteopenic bone defects and cancer bone metastasis.

  16. Involvement of PKC{alpha} in PMA-induced facilitation of exocytosis and vesicle fusion in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Renhao; Zhao Yanying; Chen Peng

    2009-03-06

    Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, a stable analog of the important signaling membrane lipid diacylglycerol (DAG), is known to potentiate exocytosis and modulate vesicle fusion kinetics in neurons and endocrine cells. The exact mechanisms underlying the actions of PMA, however, is often not clear, largely because of the diversity of the DAG/PMA receptors involved in the exocytotic process, which include, most notably, various isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, the roles of PKC{alpha} in PMA-mediated regulation of exocytosis were investigated by over-expressing wild-type PKC{alpha} (wt-PKC{alpha}) or dominant negative PKC{alpha} (dn-PKC{alpha}). Amperometric measurements based on carbon fiber microelectrodes demonstrated that PKC{alpha} has a key role in the PMA-mediated facilitation of exocytosis and vesicle fusion in neuroendocrine PC12 cells.

  17. The PPFLMLLKGSTR motif in globular domain 3 of the human laminin-5 {alpha}3 chain is crucial for integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding and cell adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Won Ho; Min, Byung-Moo . E-mail: bmmin@snu.ac.kr

    2005-03-10

    Laminin-5 regulates various cellular functions, including cell adhesion, spreading, and motility. Here, we expressed the five human laminin {alpha}3 chain globular (LG) domains as monomeric, soluble fusion proteins, and examined their biological functions and signaling. Recombinant LG3 (rLG3) protein, unlike rLG1, rLG2, rLG4, and rLG5, played roles in cell adhesion, spreading, and integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding. More significantly, we identified a novel motif (PPFLMLLKGSTR) in the LG3 domain that is crucial for these responses. Studies with the synthetic peptides delineated the PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide within LG3 domain as a major site for both integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding and cell adhesion. Substitution mutation experiments suggest that the Arg residue is important for these activities. rLG3 protein- and PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide-induced keratinocyte adhesion triggered cell signaling through FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine-397 and -577. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide within the LG3 domain is a novel motif that is capable of supporting integrin {alpha}3{beta}1-dependent cell adhesion and spreading.

  18. Stable expression of transfected Torpedo acetylcholine receptor. cap alpha. subunits in mouse fibroblast L cells

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio, T.

    1987-08-01

    Torpedo californica electric organ cDNA libraries were constructed in lambdagt10 and lambdagt11. Four acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) subunit cDNA clones were isolated and shown to contain the entire coding region for each of the subunits. When in vitro synthesized AcChoR mRNA was microinjected into Xenopus laevis oocytes, functional cell surface AcChoRs were expressed. A very simple and fast /sup 22/Na-uptake experiment was performed on batches of microinjected oocytes to identify oocytes that were expressing large quantities of functional cell surface AcChoRs for use in single-channel recordings. In addition to the transient expression system, DNA-mediated contransformation is described, which is a method for stably introducing AcChoR cDNAs into the chromosomes of tissue culture cells. Because the AcChoR is composed of four different subunits, it is necessary to integrate four cDNAs into the chromosomes of the same cell before stable expression of a completely functional receptor complex can be established. The authors show that 80% of the cells that integrated the selectable marker gene into their chromosomes also integrated all four AcChoR cDNAs. When Torpedo ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA inserted into an appropriate expression vector was introduced into cells by transfection, ..cap alpha..-subunit protein was synthesized that migrated on NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gels with the same molecular mass as native Torpedo ..cap alpha.. subunits and expressed antigenic determinants similar to those of native Torpedo ..cap alpha.. subunits.

  19. Identification of a novel, alpha2-fucosylation-dependent uptake system in highly proliferative cells.

    PubMed

    Aldi, Silvia; Capone, Antonietta; Giovampaola, Cinzia Della; Ermini, Leonardo; Pianigiani, Elisa; Mariotti, Giancarlo; Rosati, Floriana

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe a new structure present in highly proliferative cells and absent in cells with normal growth potential. We used cultured bovine venular endothelial cells (CVEC) as examples of high proliferation, and dermal fibroblasts of a primary culture as examples of normal proliferation. The structure, consisting of tubules radiating from the nuclear region to the tips of cell protrusions, was revealed by its strong positivity to the fucose-binding lectin from Lotus (LTL) that prefers glycans with alpha-1,2-linked fucose. Another fucose-binding lectin that prefers glycans with alpha-1,6-linked fucose was instead found to localize glycans exclusively in Golgi complexes. LTL binding sites were also found at the surface of CVEC in a restricted region close to the nucleus. The role of alpha-1,2-linked fucose in forming or maintaining the tubules was confirmed by the fact that down-regulation of the fucosyltransferases FUT1 and FUT2 resulted in disappearance of the tubular structure. LTL also proved able to penetrate the cells through the tubular structures up to the nuclear region and to inhibit proliferation. Endostatin was also found to massively penetrate the cells in the tubular structures in control cells but not in FUT1/2 depleted cells. In cells of a first passage primary culture of dermal fibroblasts the tubular LTL-positive structure was absent as well as the LTL-positive sites at the external surface, and both fucose-binding lectins were found to exclusively localize glycans in Golgi complexes. Tubules were again found progressively in fibroblasts derived from repeated passages, where faster growing cells predominate. Disappearance of LTL-positivity in Golgi complexes paralleled appearance of LTL-positive tubules. The role of Golgi complexes in forming the tubules is discussed.

  20. Induction of a bystander mutagenic effect of alpha particles in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, H.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Waldren, C. A.; Vannais, D.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of X-rays was made by Rontgen more than a hundred years ago, it has always been accepted that the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation such as mutation and carcinogenesis are attributable mainly to direct damage to DNA. Although evidence based on microdosimetric estimation in support of a bystander effect appears to be consistent, direct proof of such extranuclear/extracellular effects are limited. Using a precision charged particle microbeam, we show here that irradiation of 20% of randomly selected A(L) cells with 20 alpha particles each results in a mutant fraction that is 3-fold higher than expected, assuming no bystander modulation effect. Furthermore, analysis by multiplex PCR shows that the types of mutants induced are significantly different from those of spontaneous origin. Pretreatment of cells with the radical scavenger DMSO had no effect on the mutagenic incidence. In contrast, cells pretreated with a 40 microM dose of lindane, which inhibits cell-cell communication, significantly decreased the mutant yield. The doses of DMSO and lindane used in these experiments are nontoxic and nonmutagenic. We further examined the mutagenic yield when 5-10% of randomly selected cells were irradiated with 20 alpha particles each. Results showed, likewise, a higher mutant yield than expected assuming no bystander effects. Our studies provide clear evidence that irradiated cells can induce a bystander mutagenic response in neighboring cells not directly traversed by alpha particles and that cell-cell communication process play a critical role in mediating the bystander phenomenon.

  1. TNF-alpha associated with extracellular matrix fibronectin provides a stop signal for chemotactically migrating T cells.

    PubMed

    Franitza, S; Hershkoviz, R; Kam, N; Lichtenstein, N; Vaday, G G; Alon, R; Lider, O

    2000-09-01

    The migration of T cells into extravascular sites of inflammation is regulated by information derived from the molecular structure of the invaded tissue and from chemokine and cytokine gradients in the context of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although recent studies have highlighted the role of particular chemoattractants in leukocyte migration, to date little is known about how specific combinations of contextual signals control the migration of leukocytes and their localization at sites of inflammation. Here we studied the interplay between a pleiotropic cytokine, TNF-alpha, and two prototypic chemoattractants, RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), on human CD45RO+ T cells migrating within an ECM-like context. For this purpose, we used a newly constructed three-dimensional gel system designed to follow, in real time, the migration of individual leukocytes along chemotactic gradients in vitro. We found that TNF-alpha, which binds the ECM protein fibronectin and lacks adhesion- and migration-promoting effects of its own, can act as a proadhesive cytokine on T cells exposed to RANTES and SDF-1alpha. Furthermore, fibronectin-complexed TNF-alpha provided anchorage signals to the T cells as they moved directionally along chemoattractive gradients. This effect of TNF-alpha required an intact TNF-alpha receptor II subtype on the migrating T cells. The anchoring effect of TNF-alpha appears to be specific; IL-2, an integrin-activating proadhesive cytokine, does not transmit stoppage signals to T cell migration induced by RANTES. Thus, TNF-alpha present in the ECM at sites of inflammation may function to anchor T cells recruited to these sites by chemotactic signals. PMID:10946305

  2. Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein accelerates exchange/transfer of alpha-tocopherol between lipoproteins and cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kostner, G M; Oettl, K; Jauhiainen, M; Ehnholm, C; Esterbauer, H; Dieplinger, H

    1995-01-01

    alpha-Tocopherol (alpha-T), an important anti-oxidant of plasma lipoproteins and cell membranes, is secreted from liver together with very-low-density lipoproteins into the blood stream. Other serum lipoprotein classes gain alpha-T by exchange and transfer processes. We show here that the lipoprotein-free d > 1.22 g/ml fraction of human or pig serum increases the exchange rate of alpha-T by a factor of 2-4 as compared with spontaneous exchange/transfer. The alpha-T exchange/transfer (alpha-TET) activity was purified by multiple-step column chromatography. It gave a single band in PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 75 kDa, and was found to be identical with the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). PLTP catalysed alpha-T exchange between different lipoprotein classes, as well as the transfer of alpha-T from artificial liposomes to high-density lipoproteins. The alpha-TET activity measured with a newly developed assay in ten healthy people was 2.45 +/- 0.88 nmol.ml-1.h-1.alpha-TET activity was negatively correlated with plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = -0.75; P < 0.01). It is concluded that human PLTP catalyses exchange/transfer processes of alpha-T between lipid compartments. This factor may be of relevance in atherogenesis and tumour initiation and growth. Images Figure 2 PMID:7832785

  3. [Expressions of MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and their receptors CCR-1, CCR-2 in chronic myeloid leukemia cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Liang; Shen, Ti; Hui, Yu-Rong; Gu, Xi-Chun; Li, Rong-Sheng

    2006-06-01

    This study was aimed to explore the expression of MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and their receptors CCR-1, CCR-2 in bcr/abl fusion gene positive CML cells, and to study the effects of P210(bcr/abl) fusion protein tyrosine kinase on expression of MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and their receptors CCR-1, CCR-2 mRNAs in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. The expression levels of MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and their receptors CCR-1, CCR-2 mRNA were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in bcr/abl negative cells, bcr/abl positive cells, and P210(bcr/abl)-Rb-C-Box positive cells. The results showed that MIP-1alpha and CCR-1 mRNAs were expressed in bcr/abl negative cells, but not in positive cells. Both MCP-1 and CCR-2 mRNA cannot be detected in both bcr/abl positive and negative cells. After inhibiting P210(bcr/abl) tyrosine kinase activity by Rb-C-Box, expressions of MIP-1alpha and CCR-1 mRNAs were restored to normal (similar to P210(bcr/abl) negative cells). It is concluded that P210(bcr/abl) fusion protein inhibits the expression of MIP-1alpha and CCR-1 in chronic myeloid leukemia cells, but does not inhibit MCP-1 and CCR-2 mRNA expressions in these leukemia cells.

  4. [Expressions of MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and their receptors CCR-1, CCR-2 in chronic myeloid leukemia cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Liang; Shen, Ti; Hui, Yu-Rong; Gu, Xi-Chun; Li, Rong-Sheng

    2006-06-01

    This study was aimed to explore the expression of MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and their receptors CCR-1, CCR-2 in bcr/abl fusion gene positive CML cells, and to study the effects of P210(bcr/abl) fusion protein tyrosine kinase on expression of MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and their receptors CCR-1, CCR-2 mRNAs in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. The expression levels of MIP-1alpha, MCP-1 and their receptors CCR-1, CCR-2 mRNA were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in bcr/abl negative cells, bcr/abl positive cells, and P210(bcr/abl)-Rb-C-Box positive cells. The results showed that MIP-1alpha and CCR-1 mRNAs were expressed in bcr/abl negative cells, but not in positive cells. Both MCP-1 and CCR-2 mRNA cannot be detected in both bcr/abl positive and negative cells. After inhibiting P210(bcr/abl) tyrosine kinase activity by Rb-C-Box, expressions of MIP-1alpha and CCR-1 mRNAs were restored to normal (similar to P210(bcr/abl) negative cells). It is concluded that P210(bcr/abl) fusion protein inhibits the expression of MIP-1alpha and CCR-1 in chronic myeloid leukemia cells, but does not inhibit MCP-1 and CCR-2 mRNA expressions in these leukemia cells. PMID:16800914

  5. Parallel stimulation of ACTH, beta-LPH + beta-endorphin and alpha-MSH release by alpha-adrenergic agents in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Raymond, V; Lépine, J; Giguère, V; Lissitzky, J C; Côté, J; Labrie, F

    1981-06-01

    Characteristics of the alpha-adrenergic stimulation of ACTH, beta-endorphin + beta-LPH and alpha-MSH release were studied in rat anterior pituitary cells in primary culture. Parallel changes of ACTH, beta-endorphin + beta-LPH and alpha-MSh release were found under all stimulatory and inhibitory conditions by natural and synthetic catecholamine agonists and antagonists. (-)Epinephrine and (-)norepinephrine lead to a 8--10-fold stimulation of peptide release at ED50 values of 20 and 90 nM, respectively. The stereoselectivity of the alpha-adrenergic stimulatory action on peptide release is indicated by a 100-fold higher activity of (-)- than (+)norepinephrine while (-)epinephrine is 10 times more potent than the corresponding (+) stereoisomer. The involvement of a typical alpha-adrenergic mechanism in the control of release of ACTH, beta-endorphin and related peptides in rat anterior pituitary gland is indicated by the following order of potency of a series of catecholaminergic agents (ED50 values): (-)epinephrine (20 nM) greater than (-)norepinephrine (90 nm) greater than phenylephrine (400 nM) greater than isoproterenol (6000 nM). The stimulatory effect of (-)epinephrine or phenylephrine is completely reversed by low concentrations of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine while the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol has no effect up to 10 muM. Beside providing an easily accessible pure population of post-synaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors having potential applications as a model for other less accessible alpha-adrenergic brain systems, the present data suggest the possibility of the direct involvement of a catecholamine in the physiological control of ACTH secretion in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

  6. Genomic organization of the human T-cell receptor variable {alpha} (TCRAV) gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Ibberson, M.R.; Copier, J.P.; So, A.K.

    1995-07-20

    A long-range physical map of the human T-cell receptor variable {alpha} (TCRAV) locus was produced using 23 V{alpha} subgroup-specific probes. Linkage disequilibrium across the locus was also studied using polymorphic TCRAV markers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to map V{alpha} gene segments onto one SfiI fragment of 500 kb and two of 200 kb using DNA from peripheral blood neutrophils. PCR and conventional Southern techniques on Jurkat, CEM, and H9 T-cell lines were used to establish the 5{prime} to 3{prime} order of the gene segments and the relative positions of V{alpha} gene segments on the SfiI fragments. The linkage disequilibrium study used single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis to genotype 100 normal caucasoid subjects for TCRAV5S1, V6S1, V8S1, V17S1, and V21S1 polymorphisms. Strong linkage disequilibrium was detected between V5S1 and V8S1, in concordance with the physical map. This new information will be useful for future studies of genetic variation at the TCRAV locus, its role in the shaping of the TCR repertoire, and its possible contribution to autoimmune diseases. 46 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Inhibition of mucin glycosylation by aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, S.F.; Byrd, J.C.; Basbaum, C.; Kim, Y.S. )

    1989-11-15

    Specific inhibitors of the glycosylation of O-glycosidically linked glycoproteins have not previously been described. When tested for their effects on mucin glycosylation in a mucin-producing colon cancer cell line, LS174T, benzyl-, phenyl-, and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminide inhibited the formation of fully glycosylated mucin in a dose-dependent manner. Free aryl-oligosaccharides were found in the medium of treated cells labeled with ({sup 3}H)glucosamine, ({sup 3}H)galactose, ({sup 3}H)fucose, ({sup 3}H)mannosamine, or phenyl-alpha-(6-{sup 3}H) N-acetylgalactosamine. UDP-Gal:GalNAc-beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase was inhibited by aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides but not by a number of other aryl-glycosides. Treatment with these inhibitors also causes reversible morphologic changes including formation of intercellular cysts. Aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides can be useful for the structural and functional studies of mucin macromolecules and other O-linked glycoproteins.

  8. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori

    2008-08-29

    Interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- {gamma} and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by {alpha}-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of {alpha}-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of {alpha}-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation.

  9. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  10. Single-cell TCRseq: paired recovery of entire T-cell alpha and beta chain transcripts in T-cell receptors from single-cell RNAseq.

    PubMed

    Redmond, David; Poran, Asaf; Elemento, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the repertoire of the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains is critical to understanding adaptive immunity. Such characterization has many applications across such fields as vaccine development and response, clone-tracking in cancer, and immunotherapy. Here we present a new methodology called single-cell TCRseq (scTCRseq) for the identification and assembly of full-length rearranged V(D)J T-cell receptor sequences from paired-end single-cell RNA sequencing reads. The method allows accurate identification of the V(D)J rearrangements for each individual T-cell and has the novel ability to recover paired alpha and beta segments. Source code is available at https://github.com/ElementoLab/scTCRseq . PMID:27460926

  11. dl-. cap alpha. -tocopheryl succinate enhances the effect of. gamma. -irradiation on neuroblastoma cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sarri, A.; Prasad, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of dl-..cap alpha..-tocopheryl (vitamin E) succinate in modifying the radiation response of mouse neuroblastoma (NBP/sub 2/) and mouse fibroblast (L-cells) cells in culture was studied on the criterion of growth inhibition (due to cell death and inhibition of cell division). Results show that vitamin E succinate markedly enhanced the effect of /sub 60/CO-..gamma..-irradiation on NB cells, but it did not significantly modify the effect of irradiation on mouse fibroblasts. Sodium succinate plus ethanol (0.25% final concentration) did not modify the radiation response of NB cells or fibroblasts. Butylated hydroxyanisole, a lipid soluble antioxidant, also enhanced the effect of irradiation on NB cells, indicating that the effect of vitamin E in modifying the radiation response may be mediated, in part, by antioxidation mechanisms.

  12. Two-stage control of cell proliferation induced in rat liver by alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Hermann, R

    1977-01-01

    Determinants of the timing of DNA synthesis in rat liver were studied, using alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane as a tool for stimulation of cell proliferation. One determinant is the time of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane administration. The increase in DNA synthesis starts after a lag phase (prereplicative phase) of minimally 20 hr. Use of animals adapted to a controlled feeding and lighting schedule revealed a second determinant provided by food consumption. Initiation of DNA synthesis is suppressed by fasting or protein deprivation and occurs 5 to 8 hr after readministration of a protein-containing diet. The light-dark rhythm has no direct influence on the timing of DNA synthesis. Stimulation of hepatic DNA synthesis, therefore appears to require two different sequential signals. The first is provided by alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, and the second is provided by protein intake. In the absence of the second signal, committed cells are arrested at a critical point of the prereplicative phase and accumulate. Protein intake permits release from the block, and the accumulated cells enter the S period almost synchronously after completion of the remaining 5 to 8 hr of the prereplicative phase. These observations provide a means of synchronizing, in the living animal, a proliferating population of hepatocytes. In addition, they offer an explanation for the diurnal rhythmicity in the rate of hepatic cell proliferation. PMID:63327

  13. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  14. Surface expression of alpha 4 integrin by CD4 T cells is required for their entry into brain parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Cloned CD4 T cell lines that recognize the Ac1-16 peptide of myelin basic protein bound to I-Au were isolated and used to analyze the immunopathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T helper type 1 (Th1) clones induced disease, while Th2 clones did not. Using variants of a single cloned Th1 line, the surface expression of alpha 4 integrins (very late antigen 4 [VLA-4]) was identified as a major pathogenic factor. Encephalitogenic clones and nonencephalitogenic variants differ by 10-fold in their level of surface expression of alpha 4 integrin and in their ability to bind to endothelial cells and recombinant vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). The alpha 4 integrin-high, disease-inducing cloned Th1 T cells enter brain parenchyma in abundance, while alpha 4 integrin-low, nonencephalitogenic Th1 cells do not. Moreover, antibodies to alpha 4 integrin, its ligand VCAM-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 all influence the pathogenicity of this encephalitogenic clone in vivo. The importance of the expression of VLA-4 for encephalitogenicity is not unique to cloned T cell lines, as similar results were obtained using myelin basic protein-primed lymph node T cells. alpha 4 integrin levels did not affect antigen responsiveness or production of the Th1 cytokines interleukin 2, interferon gamma, and lymphotoxin/tumor necrosis factor beta; and antibodies against alpha 4 integrin did not block antigen recognition in vitro. Thus, we conclude that surface expression of alpha 4 integrin is important in CD4 T cell entry into brain parenchyma. A general conclusion of these studies is that alpha 4 integrins may be crucial in allowing activated effector T cells to leave blood and enter the brain and other tissues to clear infections. PMID:7678116

  15. Loss of expression of a differentiated function gene, steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase, as adrenocortical cells senescence in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, P J; Hancock, J P; Vo, T P; Nason, L M; Ryan, R F; McAllister, J M

    1987-01-01

    Senescence in cultured adrenocortical cells involves changes in expression of differentiated functions as well as changes in responses to mitogenic stimulation. Steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase (steroid 17 alpha-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) is an adrenal-specific enzyme, the expression of which is dependent on the presence of stimulators of cyclic AMP production, such as cholera toxin. Dot-blot hybridization of RNA from bovine adrenocortical cells that had been incubated with cholera toxin showed a marked decline in 17 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels as a function of population doubling level, closely paralleling the decline in induction of 17 alpha-hydroxylase enzyme activity. The lower levels of 17 alpha-hydroxylase induction did not result from a requirement for a longer time period for induction or from a specific defect in response to cholera toxin and were not caused by a general failure of enzyme induction in response to cyclic AMP. The decreased growth rate in older cells results from a general decline in response to several growth factors. However, the decline in 17 alpha-hydroxylase induction did not result from a loss of response of the cells to mitogens, since quiescent cells at a low population doubling level showed stimulation of 17 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA by cholera toxin to levels similar to those in nonquiescent cultures and added mitogens either had no effect on 17 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels or decreased them. There was, however, a specific posttranscriptional effect of insulin on 17 alpha-hydroxylase. The loss of 17 alpha-hydroxylase induction is unlikely to result from overgrowth of a minority cell type lacking the ability to induce 17 alpha-hydroxylase, because adrenocortical cell clones that had high levels of 17 alpha-hydroxylase induction gave rise to cells with lower levels of induction on subcloning. Thus, loss of 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity in adrenocortical cellular senescence results from a primary failure of accumulation of 17 alpha

  16. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, G M; Pandey, J P; Schmidt, M G; Arnaud, P; Goust, J M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease, which results from occupational exposure to particulate beryllium, is characterized by the development of lung granulomas and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) by pulmonary alveolar macrophages occurs in many chronic fibrotic lung diseases and is thought to contribute to the disease process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate cytokine production by human monocytic cells exposed to beryllium in vitro. The results indicated that such cells respond to beryllium ions in the presence of fluoride by accumulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for both tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. These findings suggest that inhaled beryllium may directly stimulate the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages in vitro. PMID:8629860

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha activates soluble guanylate cyclase in bovine glomerular mesangial cells via an L-arginine-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) causes vasodilatation by activating soluble guanylate cyclase, and glomerular mesangial cells respond to NO with elevations of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). We explored whether mesangial cells can be stimulated to produce NO and whether NO modulates mesangial cell function in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) raised mesangial cell cGMP levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (threshold dose 1 ng/ml, IC50 13.8 ng/ml, maximal response 100 ng/ml). TNF-alpha-induced increases in mesangial cGMP content were evident at 8 h and maximal at 18-24 h. The TNF-alpha-induced stimulation of mesangial cell cGMP production was abrogated by actinomycin D or cycloheximide suggesting dependence on new RNA or protein synthesis. Hemoglobin and methylene blue, both known to inhibit NO action, dramatically reduced TNF-alpha-induced mesangial cell cGMP production. Superoxide dismutase, known to potentiate NO action, augmented the TNF-alpha-induced effect. Ng-monomethyl-L- arginine (L-NMMA) decreased cGMP levels in TNF-alpha-treated, but not vehicle-treated mesangial cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 53 microM). L-arginine had no effect on cGMP levels in control or TNF-alpha-treated mesangial cells but reversed L-NMMA-induced inhibition. Interleukin 1 beta and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not interferon gamma, also increased mesangial cell cGMP content. Transforming growth factor beta 1 blunted the mesangial cell response to TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha-induced L-arginine-dependent increases in cGMP were also evident in bovine renal artery vascular smooth muscle cells, COS-1 cells, and 1502 human fibroblasts. These findings suggest that TNF-alpha induces expression in mesangial cell of an enzyme(s) involved in the formation of L-arginine-derived NO. Moreover, the data indicate that NO acts in an autocrine and paracrine fashion to activate mesangial cell soluble

  18. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-06-10

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  19. Overexpression of Reg3alpha increases cell growth and the levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 in insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; De Jesus, Kristine; Zhao, Hong; Takasawa, Shin; Shi, Bingyin; Srikant, Coimbatore B; Liu, Jun-Li

    2009-06-01

    Regenerating gene (Reg) family protein Reg3alpha is normally expressed in pancreatic acinar and endocrine cells. In order to explore its effect on islet beta-cell replication, insulinoma MIN6 cells were stably transfected with murine Reg3alpha cDNA. Determined using real-time PCR and Western blots, the levels of Reg3alpha mRNA and protein in Reg3alpha-transfected clones were increased 10- and 6-fold, respectively. Western blots also revealed that the protein was released into the culture medium, consistent with an endocrine effect. In MTT cell proliferation assay, Reg3alpha-overexpressing cells exhibited a 2-fold increase in the rate of cell growth. In order to investigate the intracellular mechanism, we studied cell cycle regulatory proteins. In Reg3alpha-expressing cells, we detected 2.2- and 2.5-fold increased levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4, respectively, which paralleled a 1.8-fold increase in the rate of Akt phosphorylation. It is established that beta-cell replication is associated with increased cyclin D1 and CDK4 levels; deficiency in CDK4 or cyclin D2 results in reduced beta-cell mass and diabetes. Our results suggest that Reg3alpha stimulates beta-cell replication, by activating Akt kinase and increasing the levels of cyclin D1/CDK4.

  20. Treatment of childhood cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with alpha-interferon plus PUVA.

    PubMed

    Tay, Y K; Weston, W L; Aeling, J L

    1996-01-01

    All forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are rare in childhood. We describe an 8-year-old boy with plaque-stage mycosis fungoides stage IIA whose cutaneous eruption had been present for 5 years. Histologic examination revealed the presence of a granulomatous infiltrate together with atypical lymphocytes within the dermis. The child had an excellent response to combination psoralen-UVA (PUVA) with interferon-alpha 2a treatment and is currently in remission.

  1. An alpha-crystallin protein cognate in germ cells of the moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Shirk, P D; Zimowska, G

    1997-02-01

    Previously we had reported the production of an antiserum to an antigen found primarily in germ cells of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Zimowska et al., 1991). The antigen, molecular weight 25,000 kDa, and a related protein, molecular weight 21,000 kDa, co-purified with the follicular epithelium yolk protein. Antisera to the two proteins were raised, and they both reacted with the same four small polypeptides, which had molecular weights of 20,000, 21,000, 25,000 and 28,000 kDa, that were present in the eggs throughout embryogenesis. A 30 amino acid sequence of an internal fragment of the 25,000 kDa molecular weight polypeptide showed sequence similarity with the alpha-crystallin A chain polypeptides from the lenses of vertebrate eyes and, to a lesser extent, with small heat shock proteins. Based on the sequence similarity with the alpha-crystallins, we suggest that this family of polypeptides from the germ cells of this moth be considered as cognates of the alpha-crystallins, and the 25,000 molecular weight polypeptide described here be given the designation ac25. Using immuno-gold labeling with antiserum to ac25, the alpha-crystallins were shown to be distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the oocyte and nurse cells, but not present within yolk spheres or other organelles of the oocyte or nurse cells. Immunofluorescent staining of males showed antigenic material in the sperm bundles within the testes. Oenocytes of the pupal and adult stages also contained cross-reactive material.

  2. Cell growth and alpha-amylase production characteristics of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Dercová, K; Augustín, J; Krajcová, D

    1992-01-01

    Growth, differential rate of alpha-amylase synthesis and production characteristics of Bacillus subtilis DP 1 (isolate from starch materials) in comparison with 10 Bacillus strains were examined in batch fermentation. The effect of the carbon and nitrogen source was evaluated with regard to cell growth and enzyme production. The pH optimum of enzyme activity was 6.5 and temperature optimum of 60 degrees C.

  3. HIF-1alpha Deficiency Attenuates the Cardiomyogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kudová, Jana; Procházková, Jiřina; Vašiček, Ondřej; Perečko, Tomáš; Sedláčková, Miroslava; Pešl, Martin; Pacherník, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac cell formation, cardiomyogenesis, is critically dependent on oxygen availability. It is known that hypoxia, a reduced oxygen level, modulates the in vitro differentiation of pluripotent cells into cardiomyocytes via hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent mechanisms. However, the direct impact of HIF-1α deficiency on the formation and maturation of cardiac-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) in vitro remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that HIF-1α deficiency significantly altered the quality and quantity of mESC-derived cardiomyocytes. It was accompanied with lower mRNA and protein levels of cardiac cell specific markers (myosin heavy chains 6 and 7) and with a decreasing percentage of myosin heavy chain α and β, and cardiac troponin T-positive cells. As to structural aspects of the differentiated cardiomyocytes, the localization of contractile proteins (cardiac troponin T, myosin heavy chain α and β) and the organization of myofibrils were also different. Simultaneously, HIF-1α deficiency was associated with a lower percentage of beating embryoid bodies. Interestingly, an observed alteration in the in vitro differentiation scheme of HIF-1α deficient cells was accompanied with significantly lower expression of the endodermal marker (hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha). These findings thus suggest that HIF-1α deficiency attenuates spontaneous cardiomyogenesis through the negative regulation of endoderm development in mESC differentiating in vitro. PMID:27355368

  4. A pathway for cell wall anchorage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, C F; Kurjan, J; Lipke, P N

    1994-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin is a cell wall-anchored adhesion glycoprotein. The previously identified 140-kDa form, which contains a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (D. Wojciechowicz, C.-F. Lu, J. Kurjan, and P. N. Lipke, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:2554-2563, 1993), and additional forms of 80, 150, 250 to 300, and > 300 kDa had the properties of intermediates in a transport and cell wall anchorage pathway. N glycosylation and additional modifications resulted in successive increases in size during transport. The 150- and 250- to 300-kDa forms were membrane associated and are likely to be intermediates between the 140-kDa form and a cell surface GPI-anchored form of > 300 kDa. A soluble form of > 300 kDa that lacked the GPI anchor had properties of a periplasmic intermediate between the plasma membrane form and the > 300-kDa cell wall-anchored form. These results constitute experimental support for the hypothesis that GPI anchors act to localize alpha-agglutinin to the plasma membrane and that cell wall anchorage involves release from the GPI anchor to produce a periplasmic intermediate followed by linkage to the cell wall. Images PMID:8007981

  5. Disruption by interferon-alpha of an autocrine interleukin-6 growth loop in IL-6-dependent U266 myeloma cells by homologous and heterologous down-regulation of the IL-6 receptor alpha- and beta-chains.

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, M; Brini, A T; Bosco, M C; Rubboli, F; Egawa, M; Zhao, J; Princler, G L; Kung, H F

    1994-01-01

    IL-6 is an autocrine growth factor for U266 myeloma cells and their growth is inhibited by IFN-alpha or IL-6 mAb. We asked, therefore, whether IFN-alpha-induced growth inhibition involved IL-6. IFN-alpha and mAb against IL-6, the IL-6R alpha-(gp80) or beta-chain (gp130) potently inhibited U266 cells. Remarkably, this effect occurred despite IFN-alpha-augmented secretion of endogenous IL-6. However, examining the IL-6R revealed that IFN-alpha drastically curtailed expression of the IL-6R alpha- and beta-chain. This effect occurred on two different levels (protein and mRNA) and by two different mechanisms (directly and indirectly through IL-6). First, IFN-alpha, but not IL-6, greatly decreased gp80 and, to a lesser extent, gp130 mRNA levels which resulted in a loss of IL-6 binding sites. Second, IFN-alpha-induced IL-6 predominantly down-regulated membrane-bound gp130. IFN-alpha-mediated decrease of gp80 levels was not detected on IL-6-independent myeloma (RPMI 8226) or myeloid cells (U937). We conclude that IFN-alpha inhibited IL-6-dependent myeloma cell growth by depriving U266 cells of an essential component of their autocrine growth loop, a functional IL-6R. Images PMID:7989587

  6. Alpha 7 subunit of nAChR regulates migration of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schraufstatter, Ingrid U; DiScipio, Richard G; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia K

    2009-01-01

    The efficient migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to diseased tissues is required for the fulfillment of their regenerative potential. Recruitment of circulating cells into the damaged tissues is regulated by a complex network, which includes the non-neural cholinergic system. We found that human MSCs (hMSCs) express nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha 7, beta 2 and beta 4. The receptor agonist nicotine caused calcium (Ca(++)) influx into hMSCs suggesting that the calcium ion channel alpha 7 homopolymer mediated this response. While high concentrations of nicotine (10(5)M) induced hMSC apoptosis, physiological concentrations (10(7)M) did not interfere with cell survival. At non-toxic concentrations, nicotine increased spontaneous migration of hMSCs, whereas chemotaxis of hMSCs toward C3a and bFGF in vitro and migration of intravenously infusion hMSCs into bone marrow and spleen in vivo were inhibited. The antagonist for the alpha 7 homopolymer, bungarotoxin, blocked the inhibitory effect of nicotine on chemotactic factor-induced migration of hMSCs. These findings reveal an involvement of the non-neural cholinergic system in regulation of hMSC migration.

  7. Alternative splicing of agrin regulates its binding to heparin alpha-dystroglycan, and the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, J J; Deyst, K A; Bowe, M A; Nastuk, M A; McKechnie, B A; Fallon, J R

    1996-01-01

    Agrin is a basal lamina molecule that directs key events in postsynaptic differentiation, most notably the aggregation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on the muscle cell surface. Agrin's AChR clustering activity is regulated by alternative mRNA splicing. Agrin splice forms having inserts at two sites (y and z) in the C-terminal region are highly active, but isoforms lacking these inserts are weakly active. The biochemical consequences of this alternative splicing are unknown. Here, the binding of four recombinant agrin isoforms to heparin, to alpha-dystroglycan (a component of an agrin receptor), and to myoblasts was tested. The presence of a four-amino acid insert at the y site is necessary and sufficient to confer heparin binding ability to agrin. Moreover, the binding of agrin to alpha-dystroglycan is inhibited by heparin when this insert is present. Agrin binding to the cell surface showed analogous properties: heparin inhibits the binding of only those agrin isoforms containing this four-amino acid insert. The results show that alternative splicing of agrin regulates its binding to heparin and suggest that agrin's interaction with alpha-dystroglycan may be modulated by cell surface glycosaminoglycans in an isoform-dependent manner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8693000

  8. CD90-positive cells, an additional cell population, produce laminin {alpha}2 upon transplantation to dy{sup 3k}/dy{sup 3k} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, So-ichiro Yamamoto, Yukiko; Segawa, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kenta; Nakajima, Mari; Sato, Masaki; Morikawa, Daisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Laminin {alpha}2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin {alpha}2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin {alpha}2 chain, and myogenic cells are thus proposed as a cell source for congenital muscular dystrophy therapy. However, we observed production of laminin {alpha}2 in non-myogenic cells of normal mice, and we could enrich these laminin {alpha}2-producing cells in CD90{sup +} cell fractions. Intriguingly, the number of CD90{sup +} cells increased dramatically during skeletal muscle regeneration in mice. This fraction did not include myogenic cells but exhibited a fibroblast-like phenotype. Moreover, these cells were resident in skeletal muscle, not derived from bone marrow. Finally, the production of laminin {alpha}2 in CD90{sup +} cells was not dependent on fusion with myogenic cells. Thus, CD90{sup +} cells are a newly identified additional cell fraction that increased during skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo and could be another cell source for therapy for lama2-deficient muscular dystrophy.

  9. Apoptosis and tumor cell death in response to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Oskar; Aits, Sonja; Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina

    2008-01-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a molecular complex derived from human milk that kills tumor cells by a process resembling programmed cell death. The complex consists of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, and both the protein and the fatty acid are required for cell death. HAMLET has broad antitumor activity in vitro, and its therapeutic effect has been confirmed in vivo in a human glioblastoma rat xenograft model, in patients with skin papillomas and in patients with bladder cancer. The mechanisms of tumor cell death remain unclear, however. Immediately after the encounter with tumor cells, HAMLET invades the cells and causes mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, phosphatidyl serine exposure, and a low caspase response. A fraction of the cells undergoes morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, but caspase inhibition does not rescue the cells and Bcl-2 overexpression or altered p53 status does not influence the sensitivity of tumor cells to HAMLET. HAMLET also creates a state of unfolded protein overload and activates 20S proteasomes, which contributes to cell death. In parallel, HAMLET translocates to tumor cell nuclei, where high-affinity interactions with histones cause chromatin disruption, loss of transcription, and nuclear condensation. The dying cells also show morphological changes compatible with macroautophagy, and recent studies indicate that macroautophagy is involved in the cell death response to HAMLET. The results suggest that HAMLET, like a hydra with many heads, may interact with several crucial cellular organelles, thereby activating several forms of cell death, in parallel. This complexity might underlie the rapid death response of tumor cells and the broad antitumor activity of HAMLET.

  10. Stratification of alpha ganglion cells and ON/OFF directionally selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIAN; LI, WEI; HOSHI, HIDEO; MILLS, STEPHEN L.; MASSEY, STEPHEN C.

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between cholinergic sensitivity and the level of stratification for ganglion cells was examined in the rabbit retina. As examples, we have used ON or OFF α ganglion cells and ON/OFF directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells. Nicotine, a cholinergic agonist, depolarized ON/OFF DS ganglion cells and greatly enhanced their firing rates but it had modest excitatory effects on ON or OFF α ganglion cells. As previously reported, we conclude that DS ganglion cells are the most sensitive to cholinergic drugs. Confocal imaging showed that ON/OFF DS ganglion cells ramify precisely at the level of the cholinergic amacrine cell dendrites, and co-fasciculate with the cholinergic matrix of starburst amacrine cells. However, neither ON or OFF α ganglion cells have more than a chance association with the cholinergic matrix. Z-axis reconstruction showed that OFF α ganglion cells stratify just below the cholinergic band in sublamina a while ON α ganglion cells stratify just below cholinergic b. The latter is at the same level as the terminals of calbindin bipolar cells. Thus, the calbindin bipolar cell appears to be a prime candidate to provide the bipolar cell input to ON α ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. We conclude that the precise level of stratification is correlated with the strength of cholinergic input. Alpha ganglion cells receive a weak cholinergic input and they are narrowly stratified just below the cholinergic bands. PMID:16212709

  11. Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and natural killer cell (NK) function using an integrative approach in late stage cancers.

    PubMed

    See, Darryl; Mason, Stephanie; Roshan, Ramesh

    2002-05-01

    Natural products may increase cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer Cells (NK) Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) while decreasing DNA damage in patients with late-stage cancer. Pilot studies have suggested that a combination of Nutraceuticals can raise NK cell function and TNF-alpha alpha activity and result in improved clinical outcomes in patients with late stage cancer. The objective of the study is to determine if Nutraceuticals can significantly raise NK function and TNF levels in patients with late stage cancer. After informed consent was obtained, 20 patients with stage IV, end-stage cancer were evaluated (one bladder, five breast, two prostate, one neuroblastoma, two non-small cell lung, three colon, 1 mesothelioma, two lymphoma, one ovarian, one gastric, one osteosarcoma). Transfer Factor Plus (TFP+, 3 tablets 3 times per day), IMUPlus (non denatured milk whey protein, 40 gm/day); Intravenous (50 to 100 gm/day) and oral (1-2 gm/day) ascorbic acid; Agaricus Blazeii Murill teas (10 gm/day); Immune Modulator Mix (a combination of vitamin, minerals, antioxidants and immune-enhancing natural products); nitrogenated soy extract (high levels of genistein and dadzein) and Andrographis Paniculata (500 mg twice, daily) were used. Baseline NK function by standard 4 h 51Cr release assay and TNF alpha and receptor levels were measured by ELISA from resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated adherent and non-adherent Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC). Total mercaptans and glutathione in plasma were taken and compared to levels measured 6 months later. Complete blood counts and chemistry panels were routinely monitored. As of a mean of 6 months, 16/20 patients were still alive. The 16 survivors had significantly higher NK function than baseline (p < .01 for each) and TNF-alpha levels in all four cell populations studied (p < .01 for each). Total mercaptans (p < .01) and TNF-alpha receptor levels were significantly reduced (p < .01). It was also observed

  12. Do HLA genes play a prominent role in determining T cell receptor V{alpha} segment usage in humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Gulwani-Akolkar, B.; Shi, B.; Akolkar, P.N.

    1995-04-15

    Previous studies in humans have demonstrated that HLA genes can profoundly influence the TCR V{beta} repertoire. To similarly assess the influence of HLA genes on the TCR V{alpha} segment repertoire, the V{alpha} repertoires of 12 individuals from three unrelated families were determined by quantitative PCR. Each family contained at least one pair of HLA-identical and -nonidentical siblings. Repertoire analysis was performed on purified CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} cells by using V{alpha}-specific primers. We were unable to demonstrate more similar V{alpha} repertoires between HLA-identical siblings than between HLA-nonidentical siblings. In contrast, when a similar analysis was performed on the same individuals for the V{beta} repertoire, HLA-identical siblings were found to have significantly more similar repertoires than HLA-nonidentical siblings. Furthermore, both the V{alpha} and V{beta} repertoires of monozygotic twins showed striking similarity. Despite our inability to shown an influence of HLA genes on the V{alpha} repertoire, we did observe a very strong skewing in terms of preferential expression on CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} cells of several V{alpha} segments, notably TCRAV1, -2, -5, -6, -7, -11, -12, and -13. These studies suggest that HLA genes play less of a role in determining V{alpha} segment usage than V{beta}. Nevertheless, the pronounced skewing of V{alpha} segment expression in the CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} populations suggests some role for HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} TCR repertoire. Furthermore, the striking similarity of V{alpha} repertoires of identical twins suggests a major role for non-HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} repertoire. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Human cord blood T-cell receptor alpha beta cell responses to protein antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast forms.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, M E; Kaufmann, S H

    1995-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis, prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated the response of naive cord blood T cells to P. brasiliensis lysates. Our results show: (1) P. brasiliensis stimulates T-cell expansion, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and differentiation into cytotoxic T cells; (2) T-cell stimulation depends on P. brasiliensis processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression; (3) the responsive T-cell population expresses alpha beta T-cell receptors (TCR) with different V beta gene products, CD4 and CD45RO; (4) the P. brasiliensis components involved in T-cell expansion primarily reside in a high molecular weight (100,000 MW) and a low molecular weight (< 1000 MW) protein fraction. These results indicate that protein antigens of P. brasiliensis stimulate cord blood CD4 alpha beta T cells, independent from in vivo presensitization, and thus question direct correlation of positive in vitro responses with protective immunity in vivo. PMID:7890308

  14. Alpha(v)beta5 integrins mediates Pseudomonas fluorescens interaction with A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Di Domenico, Marina; Paoletti, Iole; Fusco, Alessandra; De Gregorio, Vincenza; Cozza, Valentina; Rizzo, Antonietta; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Donnarumma, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of pathogenic bacteria with human cells is usually an essential step in the infection process. The bacterial invasion is stimulated by microbial binding to mammalian extracellular matrix proteins such as vitronectin, fibronectin or integrins. We have recently shown that some strains isolated from a clinical environment are able to grow at/or above 37°C. In particular, we demonstrated that P. fluorescens AF181 binds specifically to the surface of A549 human respiratory epithelial cells and that adhesiveness modulates the inflammatory response. In this study, the involvement of Alpha(v)Beta5 integrins and its respective natural ligand vitronectin (VN) in P. fluorescens AF181 adherence and invasion was examined. The host cell cytoskeleton and cellular tyrosine kinases seem to be solicited during the P. fluorescens-respiratory cell interaction; consequently, cytochalasin D and genistein decreased the bacterial adherence and internalization. Gene silencing of α(v), β5 integrins and vitronectin reduced P. fluorescens adherence and internalization to A549 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that Alpha(v)Beta5 integrins and their natural ligand VN are involved in P. fluorescens adherence and invasion in human epithelial cells.

  15. Monte-Carlo dosimetry on a realistic cell monolayer geometry exposed to alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberet, Ph; Vianna, F.; Karamitros, M.; Brun, T.; Gordillo, N.; Moretto, Ph; Incerti, S.; Seznec, H.

    2012-04-01

    The energy and specific energy absorbed in the main cell compartments (nucleus and cytoplasm) in typical radiobiology experiments are usually estimated by calculations as they are not accessible for a direct measurement. In most of the work, the cell geometry is modelled using the combination of simple mathematical volumes. We propose a method based on high resolution confocal imaging and ion beam analysis (IBA) in order to import realistic cell nuclei geometries in Monte-Carlo simulations and thus take into account the variety of different geometries encountered in a typical cell population. Seventy-six cell nuclei have been imaged using confocal microscopy and their chemical composition has been measured using IBA. A cellular phantom was created from these data using the ImageJ image analysis software and imported in the Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulation toolkit. Total energy and specific energy distributions in the 76 cell nuclei have been calculated for two types of irradiation protocols: a 3 MeV alpha particle microbeam used for targeted irradiation and a 239Pu alpha source used for large angle random irradiation. Qualitative images of the energy deposited along the particle tracks have been produced and show good agreement with images of DNA double strand break signalling proteins obtained experimentally. The methodology presented in this paper provides microdosimetric quantities calculated from realistic cellular volumes. It is based on open-source oriented software that is publicly available.

  16. Silibinin protects OTA-mediated TNF-alpha release from perfused rat livers and isolated rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Anati, Lauy; Essid, Ebtisam; Reinehr, Roland; Petzinger, Ernst

    2009-04-01

    We studied the inhibitory effect of silibinin on ochratoxin A (OTA) and LPS-mediated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) release and the leakage of cytotoxic markers glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), from isolated blood-free perfused rat livers, and from isolated pure rat Kupffer cells. In the recirculation perfusion model at the end point 90 min, 2.5 micromol/L OTA released 2600 pg/mL TNF-alpha without effects on liver vitality. LPS at 0.1 microg/mL induced 3000 pg TNF-alpha/mL with slight leakage of GLDH and LDH. Under similar experimental conditions, the addition of silibinin 10 min prior to OTA and LPS showed dose-dependent protection against OTA or LPS-induced hepatic TNF-alpha release. High-dose of silibinin (12.5 microg/mL) also completely restored GLDH and LDH levels in the perfusate. Pretreatment of isolated Kupffer cells with 0.02, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 microg silibinin/mL 30 min prior to OTA reduced OTA-induced TNF-alpha levels to 90, 70, 25, 25, and 25% at 4 h, respectively, and abrogated any TNF-alpha release at 24 h. Similarly, in the presence of silibinin LPS-induced TNF-alpha levels decreased at 4 h to 71, 57, 18, 22, and 18%, respectively. However, after 24 h of LPS exposition the protection by silibinin vanished and TNF-alpha partially recurred into the incubation medium under LPS. In summary, silibinin had hepatoprotective effects against OTA- or LPS-mediated TNF-alpha release and also reduced the cytotoxicity of both toxins. Isolated Kupffer cells were even more sensitive to the protective effect than perfused livers and responded to very low concentrations of silibinin with a strong inhibition of toxins-mediated TNF-alpha release. PMID:19156713

  17. Acetate-mediated growth inhibition in sterol 14alpha-demethylation-deficient cells of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, O; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungus thought to be viable in the presence of a deficiency in sterol 14alpha-demethylation. We showed in a strain of this species that the deficiency, caused either by a mutation or by an azole antifungal agent, made the cells susceptible to growth inhibition by acetate included in the culture medium. Studies with a mutant demonstrated that the inhibition was complete at a sodium acetate concentration of 0.24 M (20 g/liter) and was evident even at a pH of 8, the latter result indicating the involvement of acetate ions rather than the undissociated form of acetic acid. In fluconazole-treated cells, sterol profiles determined by thin-layer chromatography revealed that the minimum sterol 14alpha-demethylation-inhibitory concentrations (MDICs) of the drug, thought to be the most important parameter for clinical purposes, were practically identical in the media with and without 0.24 M acetate and were equivalent to the MIC in the acetate-supplemented medium. The acetate-mediated growth inhibition of azole-treated cells was confirmed with two additional strains of C. albicans and four different agents, suggesting the possibility of generalization. From these results, it was surmised that the acetate-containing medium may find use in azole susceptibility testing, for which there is currently no method capable of measuring MDICs directly for those fungi whose viability is not lost as a result of sterol 14alpha-demethylation deficiency. Additionally, the acetate-supplemented agar medium was found to be useful in detecting reversions from sterol 14alpha-demethylation deficiency to proficiency. PMID:9869573

  18. Enzymatic removal of alpha-galactosyl epitopes from porcine endothelial cells diminishes the cytotoxic effect of natural antibodies.

    PubMed

    LaVecchio, J A; Dunne, A D; Edge, A S

    1995-10-27

    Xenotransplantation of tissues between discordant species such as pig into human is not yet feasible due to the problem of hyperacute rejection. This rapid response to xenogeneic tissue is mediated by natural antibodies that react with antigens on the xenograft. A number of xenoantigens consist of carbohydrate residues, and a terminal galactose in alpha linkage has been shown to be involved in hyperacute rejection of pig-to-human xenografts. We show that alpha-linked galactose on porcine endothelial cells is a major epitope recognized by IgG and IgM antibodies present in monkey and human sera. Endothelial cells that had been treated with alpha-galactosidase did not react with fluorescein-labeled Griffonia simplicifolia I B4 (GS-IB4), a lectin that detects the alpha-galactosyl epitope on intact cells. The reactivity of both human and cynomolgus monkey serum with endothelial cells was decreased by 59% to 90% after treatment with coffee bean alpha-galactosidase. Using a colorimetric assay for cell viability, we show that natural antibodies present in the sera of cynomolgus monkey and humans are cytotoxic to porcine endothelial cells in the presence of exogenously added complement. When the terminal alpha-galactosy residues were removed by enzymatic digestion, the cytotoxic effect of natural antibodies on porcine endothelial cells was diminished by > 80%. Evaluation of the time course of reappearance of the alpha-galactosyl epitope at the cell surface revealed that 48 hr after alpha-galactosidase treatment, binding of GS-IB4 was diminished by 60%. These results suggest that glycosidase treatment of cells to be transplanted could prevent hyperacute rejection mediated by natural antibodies.

  19. TGF-beta enhances the integrin alpha2beta1-mediated attachment of mesenchymal stem cells to type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Warstat, Katrin; Meckbach, Diana; Weis-Klemm, Michaela; Hack, Anita; Klein, Gerd; de Zwart, Peter; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2010-05-01

    The heterodimeric integrins are important receptors for the attachment of cells to their extracellular matrix. Here, we studied the attachment of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to type I collagen (col-1), which is part of the extracellular matrix in bone, skin, and connective tissues. Furthermore, we examined how TGF-beta influences the integrin expression and attachment of MSC. Using flow cytometry, immunoblot, and RT-PCR, we report that MSC express several integrin subunits, including the alpha(2)beta(1) integrin (VLA-2, CD49b/CD29). TGF-beta increases the expression of integrin subunits alpha(2), alpha(6), and beta(1) in MSC, thereby enhancing the attachment of MSC to col-1. The TGF-beta-mediated up-regulation of the expression of the integrin subunits alpha(2) and alpha(6) is mainly mediated in MSC by Smad2.

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of oestrogen receptor alpha in the various cell categories of chick embryo ovary.

    PubMed

    Civinini, A; Chimenti, C; Gallo, V P

    2010-12-01

    The immunohistochemical (IHC) localization of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) was studied in the developing left ovary of 14.5-day-old chick embryos. The study was focused in particular on distinguishing in cortex and medulla the different cell categories that proved positive to the reaction, in order to gain further understanding of gonadal cell interactions during ovarian development. Immunostained cells were observed in both the cortex and medulla, but the reactivity for ERα was discontinuous, probably due to variable cell requirements. In the cortex, positivity was observed in cells of the ovarian surface epithelium, in germ cells and in prefollicular cells. In the medulla, positivity was found in the following cell categories: interstitial cells, poorly differentiated somatic cord cells, including those delimiting lacunae, germ cells and their accompanying cells of epithelial origin. Furthermore, the IHC results showed that the intracellular localization of the antigen was cytoplasmic, nuclear, or both. The significance of ERα presence and intracellular localization was discussed in relation and as supplementary to previous research by various Authors. In particular, as regards the unusual cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, a gradual shift of ERα localization from cytoplasmic to nuclear during the embryonic period is suggested.

  1. Alpha-toxin induces programmed cell death of human T cells, B cells, and monocytes during USA300 infection.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Tyler K; Pallister, Kyler B; DuMont, Ashley L; DeWald, Mark; Watkins, Robert L; Pallister, Erik Q; Malone, Cheryl; Griffith, Shannon; Horswill, Alexander R; Torres, Victor J; Voyich, Jovanka M

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines the influence of alpha-toxin (Hla) during USA300 infection of human leukocytes. Survival of an USA300 isogenic deletion mutant of hla (USA300Δhla) in human blood was comparable to the parental wild-type strain and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) plasma membrane permeability caused by USA300 did not require Hla. Flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following infection by USA300, USA300Δhla, and USA300Δhla transformed with a plasmid over-expressing Hla (USA300Δhla Comp) demonstrated this toxin plays a significant role inducing plasma membrane permeability of CD14(+), CD3(+), and CD19(+) PBMCs. Rapid plasma membrane permeability independent of Hla was observed for PMNs, CD14(+) and CD19(+) PBMCs following intoxication with USA300 supernatant while the majority of CD3(+) PBMC plasma membrane permeability induced by USA300 required Hla. Addition of recombinant Hla to USA300Δhla supernatant rescued CD3(+) and CD19(+) PBMC plasma membrane permeability generated by USA300 supernatant. An observed delay in plasma membrane permeability caused by Hla in conjunction with Annexin V binding and ApoBrdU Tunel assays examining PBMCs intoxicated with recombinant Hla or infected with USA300, USA300Δhla, USA300Δhla Comp, and USA300ΔsaeR/S suggest Hla induces programmed cell death of monocytes, B cells, and T cells that results in plasma membrane permeability. Together these findings underscore the importance of Hla during S. aureus infection of human tissue and specifically demonstrate Hla activity during USA300 infection triggers programmed cell death of human monocytes, T cells and B cells that leads to plasma membrane permeability.

  2. Localization of transforming growth factor alpha and its receptor in gastric mucosal cells. Implications for a regulatory role in acid secretion and mucosal renewal.

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, R D; Barnard, J A; McCutchen, C M; Cherner, J A; Coffey, R J

    1989-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) shares with epidermal growth factor (EGF) structural homology (35%), a common cell-surface membrane receptor (TGF alpha/EGF receptor), and a nearly identical spectrum of biological activity, including inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Herein, we report expression of TGF alpha mRNA in normal gastric mucosa of the adult guinea pig, rat, and dog. TGF alpha mRNA was also detected in matched surgically resected gastric mucosa and adjacent gastric carcinoma from 10 patients, and in gastric mucosa adjacent to a benign ulcer from an additional patient. TGF alpha protein was quantitated by radioimmunoassay and was present in tumor and adjacent mucosa. TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA was also detected in gastric mucosa from all species studied. Localization of TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA expression was examined in samples of unfractionated guinea pig gastric mucosa and from chief cell-enriched and parietal cell-enriched fractions. All samples exhibited TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor expression. The TGF alpha signal was greatest in the parietal cell fraction (5.8-fold increase), but was also enhanced in the chief cell fraction (1.9-fold increase) relative to the unfractionated gastric mucosa. Like TGF alpha expression, TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA expression was most intense in the parietal cell-enriched fraction (7.8-fold increase), but was also increased in the chief cell-enriched fraction (2.7-fold increase) relative to the unfractionated guinea pig gastric mucosa. We conclude that TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor genes are expressed in normal adult mammalian gastric mucosa. These findings, when interpreted in light of described actions of TGF alpha and EGF, provide evidence that local production of TGF alpha could play an important role in the regulation of acid secretion and mucosal renewal in the stomach. Images PMID:2760208

  3. Halogenated benzimidazole carboxamides target integrin alpha4 beta1 on T and B cell lymphomas3456

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Richard D.; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Lau, Edmond Y.; Andrei, Mirela; Solano, Danielle M.; Lightstone, Felice C.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Lam, Kit S.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Integrin alpha-4 beta-1 (alpha4 beta1, alpha(4)beta(1), α4β1) is an attractive but poorly understood target for selective diagnosis and treatment of T and B cell lymphomas. This report focuses on the rapid microwave preparation, structure-activity relationships and biological evaluation of medicinally pertinent benzimidazole heterocycles as integrin α4β1 antagonists. We documented tumor uptake of derivatives labelled with I-125 in xenograft murine models of B-cell lymphoma. Molecular homology models of integrin α4β1 predicted that docked halobenzimidazole carboxamides have the halogen atom in a suitable orientation for halogen-hydrogen bonding. The high affinity halogenated ligands identified offer attractive tools for medicinal and biological use, including fluoro and iodo derivatives with potential radiodiagnostic (18F) or radiotherapeutic (131I) applications, or chloro and bromo analogues that could provide structural insights into integrin-ligand interactions through photoaffinity, cross-linking/mass spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallographic studies. PMID:20530664

  4. Introduction of the human pro. cap alpha. 1(I) collagen gene into pro. cap alpha. 1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.

    1987-02-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of pro..cap alpha..2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse pro..cap alpha..2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human ..cap alpha..1 chains and one mouse ..cap alpha..2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both ..cap alpha..1(I) and ..cap alpha..2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the ..cap alpha..(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse ..cap alpha..1 and ..cap alpha..2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human ..cap alpha.. chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected pro..cap alpha..1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I.

  5. Introduction of the human pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene into pro alpha 1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Schnieke, A; Dziadek, M; Bateman, J; Mascara, T; Harbers, K; Gelinas, R; Jaenisch, R

    1987-01-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of pro alpha 2 mRNA are synthesized. We have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse pro alpha 1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse pro alpha 2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human alpha 1 chains and one mouse alpha 2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the alpha (I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human alpha chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow us to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected pro alpha 1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I. Images PMID:3468512

  6. Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-alpha activate the nuclear factor kappa B pathway in the human placental JEG-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lappas, M; Yee, K; Permezel, M; Rice, G E

    2006-01-01

    Up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and prostaglandins is a critical factor driving human term labour and inflammation-associated preterm labour. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is activated in response to a number of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim of this study was (i) to investigate if TNF-alpha and LPS activate the NF-kappaB pathway; and (ii) to use short interfering RNA (siRNA) against inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK)-beta to confirm the role of the NF-kappaB pathway in the regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in human placental JEG-3 cells. JEG-3 cells (3 independent experiments) were (i) incubated in the presence or absence of 10 microg/ml LPS or 20 ng/ml TNF-alpha, or (ii) transfected with 100 nM IKK-beta siRNA. Incubation of JEG-3 cells with LPS and TNF-alpha increased the expression of cytoplasmic IKK-beta and phosphorylated IkappaB-alpha, and nuclear NF-kappaB proteins p50 and p65. This was associated with a concurrent increase in COX-2 protein, and IL-6 and PGF2alpha release from JEG-3 cells. Treatment of cells with BAY 11-7082 at 50 microM significantly inhibited basal, LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB and COX-2 expression, and IL-6 and PGF2alpha release. Transfection of JEG-3 cells with IKK-beta siRNA significantly decreased IL-6 and PGF2alpha release. The data presented in this study demonstrate that pro-inflammatory mediators regulate the NF-kappaB transcription pathway in human JEG-3 cells, and the IKK-beta/NF-kappaB pathway is a regulator of inflammatory mediators in placental JEG-3 cells.

  7. Retinoic acid receptor alpha mediates growth inhibition by retinoids in rat pancreatic carcinoma DSL-6A/C1 cells.

    PubMed

    Brembeck, F H; Kaiser, A; Detjen, K; Hotz, H; Foitzik, T; Buhr, H J; Riecken, E O; Rosewicz, S

    1998-11-01

    During carcinogenesis, pancreatic acinar cells can dedifferentiate into ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. DSL-6A/C1 cells represent an in vitro model of this carcinogenic sequence. This study was designed to examine the effects of retinoids on cell growth in DSL-6A/C1 cells and to characterize further the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative actions of retinoids. Treatment of DSL-6A/C1 cells with retinoids results in a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, paralleled by a retinoid-mediated transactivation of a pTK::betaRAREx2-luciferase reporter construct transiently transfected into DSL-6A/C1 cells. Retinoid receptor expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using subtype-specific primers and demonstrated expression of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR-alpha), RAR-beta and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR-alpha). Using a panel of receptor subtype-specific agonists, the RAR-alpha specific agonist Ro 40-6055 was the most potent retinoid in terms of growth inhibition. Furthermore, all-trans-retinoic acid-mediated growth inhibition and transactivation was completely blocked by the RAR-alpha-specific antagonist Ro 41-5253. In summary, the RAR-alpha subtype predominantly mediates the antiproliferative effects of retinoids in DSL-6A/C1 cells. Furthermore, this cell system provides a feasible tool to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the growth inhibitory effects of retinoids in ductal pancreatic carcinoma cells derived from a primary acinar cell phenotype.

  8. Cell immobilization technique for the enhanced production of alpha-galactosidase by Streptomyces griseoloalbus.

    PubMed

    Anisha, G S; Prema, P

    2008-06-01

    Streptomyces griseoloalbus was immobilized in calcium alginate gel and the optimal immobilization parameters (concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride, initial biomass and curing time) for the enhanced production of alpha-galactosidase were determined. The immobilization was most effective with 3% sodium alginate and 0.1M calcium chloride. The optimal initial biomass for immobilization was approximately 2.2g (wet wt.). The alginate-entrapped cells were advantageous because there was a twofold increase in the enzyme yield (55 U/ml) compared to the highest yield obtained with free cells (23.6 U/ml). Moreover, with immobilized cells the maximum yield was reached after 72 h of incubation in batch fermentation under optimal conditions, whereas in the case of free cells the maximum enzyme yield was obtained only after 96 h of incubation. The alginate beads had good stability and also retained 75% ability of enzyme production even after eight cycles of repeated batch fermentation. It is significant that this is the first report on whole-cell immobilization for alpha-galactosidase production.

  9. Mutagenic effects of a single and an exact number of alpha particles in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hei, T. K.; Wu, L. J.; Liu, S. X.; Vannais, D.; Waldren, C. A.; Randers-Pehrson, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the main uncertainties in risk estimation for environmental radon exposure using lung cancer data from underground miners is the extrapolation from high- to low-dose exposure where multiple traversal is extremely rare. The biological effects of a single alpha particle are currently unknown. Using the recently available microbeam source at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at Columbia University, we examined the frequencies and molecular spectrum of S1- mutants induced in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells by either a single or an exact number of alpha particles. Exponentially growing cells were stained briefly with a nontoxic concentration of Hoechst dye for image analysis, and the location of individual cells was computer-monitored. The nucleus of each cell was irradiated with either 1,2,4, or 8 alpha particles at a linear energy transfer of 90 keV/microm consistent with the energy spectrum of domestic radon exposure. Although single-particle traversal was only slightly cytotoxic to A(L) cells (survival fraction approximately 0.82), it was highly mutagenic, and the induced mutant fraction averaged 110 mutants per 10(5) survivors. In addition, both toxicity and mutant induction were dose-dependent. Multiplex PCR analysis of mutant DNA showed that the proportion of mutants with multilocus deletions increased with the number of particle traversals. These data provide direct evidence that a single a particle traversing a nucleus will have a high probability of resulting in a mutation and highlight the need for radiation protection at low doses.

  10. Prostaglandin F{sub 2{alpha}} regulates cytokine responses of mast cells through the receptors for prostaglandin E

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Izumi; Hishinuma, Takanori; Suzuki, Kaori; Owada, Yuji; Kitanaka, Noriko; Kondo, Hisatake; Goto, Junichi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Ono, Masao

    2008-03-14

    There is an increasing body of evidence that prostanoids modulate mast cell functions and contribute to the development of allergic inflammation. The present study aimed to identify an undetermined function of prostaglandin (PG) F{sub 2{alpha}} in mast cell activation and the signaling mechanism involved in it. Simultaneous quantification of prostanoids by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry revealed the constitutive release of PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, thromboxane B{sub 2}, and 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} from bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Upon activation of BMMCs by lipopolysaccharide, the cytokine production in BMMCs was enhanced when the culture was supplemented with PGF{sub 2{alpha}}. However, F prostanoid receptor-a selective receptor for PGF{sub 2{alpha}}-was not detected in BMMCs. Further investigations performed using prostanoid receptor antagonists revealed an alternative mechanism wherein the receptors for PGE species-E prostanoid receptors-mediated the PGF{sub 2{alpha}} signal in BMMCs. The present study provides an insight into a novel function of PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, i.e., an autocrine accelerator for mast cell activation.

  11. Isolation of a taxol-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant that has an alteration in alpha-tubulin.

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, F; Abraham, I; Gottesman, M M

    1981-01-01

    Taxol is a plant alkaloid that has antimitotic activity and appears to stabilize microtubules [Schiff, P. B., Fant, J. & Horwitz, S. B. (1979) Nature (London) 277, 665-667]. Taxol-resistant cells were selected from a population of UV-mutagen-treated Chinese hamster ovary cells by a single-step procedure. These mutants have normal morphologies and growth rates but are 2- to 3-fold more resistant to the toxic effects of the drug than the wild-type parent. One out of 20 mutants screened by two-dimensional electrophoresis for chemical alterations in tubulin had an "extra" spot with a more acidic isoelectric point that alpha-tubulin. This extra spot was shown to be an electrophoretic variant alpha-tubulin by its copurification with tubulin in crude microtubule-containing preparations and by one-dimensional peptide mapping. The alpha-tubulin mutant was found to be temperature sensitive for growth, and this property was used as the basis for the selection of revertants. Seventeen temperature-resistant revertants of the alpha-tubulin mutant were selected for their ability to grow at 40 degrees C and three of these revertants were found to have simultaneously lost their taxol resistance and the electrophoretic variant alpha-tubulin. These results provide evidence that an alteration in alpha-tubulin can confer taxon resistance on a mammalian cell line and suggest that alpha-tubulin is essential for cell viability. Images PMID:6117076

  12. Interaction among mu-opioid receptors and alpha 2-adrenoceptors on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lameh, J; Eiger, S; Sadée, W

    1992-09-01

    The clonal human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH-SY5Y was previously shown to express mu-opioid and alpha 2-adrenoceptors which are both negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase. Because of the potential use of alpha 2-agonists in the treatment of narcotic dependence, we tested the interactions among he alpha 2-agonists, clonidine and norepinephrine, and morphine on AC in SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with retinoic acid resulting in partial neuronal differentiation greatly enhanced the cells' sensitivity towards adenylyl cyclase stimulation by prostaglandin E1, and its inhibition by morphine and alpha 2-agonists. Norepinephrine (EC50 = 69 nM) maximally inhibited prostaglandin E1-stimulated cAMP accumulation (by approximately 83%), and the alpha 2-agonist yohimbine reversed these effects. Clonidine (EC50 = 32 nM) was a partial agonist, with 50 to 60% maximal inhibition. The combined effects of morphine (maximum approximately 70% inhibition) and norepinephrine exceeded the effect of either agent alone, yielding more than 90% inhibition of prostaglandin E1-stimulated cAMP accumulation. As previously reported for morphine, only a partial tolerance was observed for adenylyl cyclase inhibition by norepinephrine. Further, no cross-tolerance was observed between clonidine and morphine. The combined results indicate that mu-opioid receptors and an alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtype are colocalized on the same cells in SH-SY5Y culture, which hence serves as a model to study opioid-alpha 2-adrenergic interactions.

  13. The mucosal T cell integrin alpha M290 beta 7 recognizes a ligand on mucosal epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K; Kilshaw, P J

    1993-07-01

    The integrin alpha M290 beta 7 is expressed at high levels on mucosal T cells, particularly on those within the epithelium of the gut. We now report that a mouse T cell hybridoma, MTC-1, with similar surface expression of this molecule, adhered strongly to cells of the mouse rectal carcinoma line CMT93 and that adhesion was blocked completely by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) M290. Other mAb to the alpha M290 or beta 7 subunits had little or no inhibitory effect. M290 also inhibited adhesion of the hybridoma to cells of the mouse lung carcinomas CTM64/61 and KLN205 but had little or no effect on adhesion to seven other mouse epithelial cell lines or to the human colon carcinoma line, HT29. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) isolated from the small intestine of BALB/c mice displayed potent T cell receptor-dependent cytotoxic effector function against CMT93 in the presence of low concentrations of Phytolacca americana lectin. This cytotoxic activity also was inhibited by the M290 mAb. Treatment of CMT93 cells with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma induced expression de novo of ICAM-1 and reduced the inhibitory effect of M290 in tests both for adhesion and cytotoxicity. In further experiments cytotoxic activity of IEL against the mastocytoma P815 was investigated. This target cell was considered not to possess a ligand for the integrin. In this case cytotoxic effector function was triggered by anti-CD3 mAb and, in contrast to results with CMT93, target cell lysis was increased in the presence of M290 and other antibodies to the integrin, suggesting a co-stimulatory effect. These results show that alpha M290 beta 7 recognizes a ligand on the surface of certain epithelial cell lines. Further, they provide the first clear indication that this integrin may play an important role in functional interactions between T cells and the mucosal epithelium.

  14. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces tumour necrosis factor-alpha in murine astrocyte cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, A; Rubio, N

    1993-01-01

    Cytokines have been postulated to exert an important modulatory and recruiting role in demyelination induced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in SJL/J mice. Using a cytolytic bioassay and ELISA, we have detected and quantified a cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in supernatants from astrocyte cultures infected in vitro with TMEV. TNF was detected only after TMEV-specific infection of astrocyte cultures (approximately 200-400 U/ml). In vitro TNF synthesis appeared in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was produced by both SJL/J (a strain susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelination) and BALB/c (a resistant strain) astrocytes. The precise nature of TNF activity was further assessed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and antibody neutralization. These results indicate an active role for astrocytes as accessory immune cells in our experimental model for multiple sclerosis. PMID:8478023

  15. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP+-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Janhom, Prachya; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP+-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MPP+-induced cell death were evaluated with a cell viability assay, staining for nuclear DNA morphology, flow cytometry for apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2, and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3. Concomitant treatment with alpha-mangostin attenuated the effect of MPP+ on cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Alpha-mangostin reduced ROS formation induced by MPP+. Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and expression of p53 were significantly lower in cells cocultured with alpha-mangostin and MPP+. The cotreated cells showed a significant decrease in activated caspase-3 compared with MPP+ treatment alone. Our data suggest that cytoprotection of alpha-mangostin against MPP+-induced apoptosis may be associated with the reduction of ROS production, modulating the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and suppression of caspase-3 activation. PMID:26357513

  16. Expression of amino- and carboxyl-terminal gamma- and alpha-tubulin mutants in cultured epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Leask, A; Stearns, T

    1998-01-30

    Three distinct tubulin proteins are essential for microtubule function: alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tubulin. After translation, alpha- and beta-tubulin proteins combine into a soluble, 7 S heterodimer that is multimerized to form the microtubule filament. Conversely, gamma-tubulin combines with several proteins into a soluble, 25 S multi-protein particle, the gammasome that is essential for nucleating microtubule filaments at the centrosome. The proteins that assist tubulins in executing their specific functions are largely unknown. As an initial approach to address this issue, we first decided to identify domains of mammalian alpha- and gamma-tubulin necessary for their function by creating mutant mammalian alpha- and gamma-tubulin (both deletion and hybrid mutants) and assaying their behavior in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary epithelial cells. First, we demonstrated that addition of a carboxyl-terminal epitope tag had no effect on the subcellular localization of either alpha- and gamma-tubulin. Second, we found that both the amino and carboxyl termini of gamma-tubulin were essential for its incorporation into the gammasome. Third, we found that the amino and carboxyl termini of alpha-tubulin were necessary for incorporation of the alpha-beta-tubulin heterodimer into the microtubule filament network. In general, alpha-tubulin sequences could not replace those of gamma-tubulin and vice versa. Taken together, these results suggest that the amino and carboxyl termini of alpha- and gamma-tubulin and perhaps regions throughout these proteins were necessary for their specific functions.

  17. A delta T-cell receptor deleting element transgenic reporter construct is rearranged in alpha beta but not gamma delta T-cell lineages.

    PubMed Central

    Shutter, J; Cain, J A; Ledbetter, S; Rogers, M D; Hockett, R D

    1995-01-01

    T cells can be divided into two groups on the basis of the expression of either alpha beta or gamma delta T-cell receptors (TCRs). Because the TCR delta chain locus lies within the larger TCR alpha chain locus, control of the utilization of these two receptors is important in T-cell development, specifically for determination of T-cell type: rearrangement of the alpha locus results in deletion of the delta coding segments and commitment to the alpha beta lineage. In the developing thymus, a relative site-specific recombination occurs by which the TCR delta chain gene segments are deleted. This deletion removes all D delta, J delta, and C delta genes and occurs on both alleles. This delta deletional mechanism is evolutionarily conserved between mice and humans. Transgenic mice which contain the human delta deleting elements and as much internal TCR delta chain coding sequence as possible without allowing the formation of a complete delta chain gene were developed. Several transgenic lines showing recombinations between deleting elements within the transgene were developed. These lines demonstrate that utilization of the delta deleting elements occurs in alpha beta T cells of the spleen and thymus. These recombinations are rare in the gamma delta population, indicating that the machinery for utilization of delta deleting elements is functional in alpha beta T cells but absent in gamma delta T cells. Furthermore, a discrete population of early thymocytes containing delta deleting element recombinations but not V alpha-to-J alpha rearrangements has been identified. These data are consistent with a model in which delta deletion contributes to the implementation of a signal by which the TCR alpha chain locus is rearranged and expressed and thus becomes an alpha beta T cell. PMID:8524269

  18. Dexamethasone protection from TNF-alpha-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells requires NF-kappaB and is independent from AKT

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Catalina; Mendoza-Milla, Criselda; Córdova, Emilio; Mejía, Salvador; Covarrubias, Luis; Ventura, José; Zentella, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Background The biochemical bases for hormone dependence in breast cancer have been recognized as an important element in tumor resistance, proliferation and metastasis. On this respect, dexamethasone (Dex) dependent protection against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death in the MCF-7 cell line has been demonstrated to be a useful model for the study of this type of cancer. Recently, cytoplasmic signaling induced by steroid receptors has been described, such as the activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways. We evaluated their possible participation in the Dex-dependent protection against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death. Results Cellular cultures of the MCF-7 cell line were exposed to either, TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha and Dex, and cell viability was evaluated. Next, negative dominants of PI3K and IkappaB-alpha, designed to block the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways, respectively, were transfected and selection and evaluation of several clones overexpressing the mutants were examined. Also, correlation with inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) expression was examined. Independent inhibition of these two pathways allowed us to test their participation in Dex-dependent protection against TNF-alpha-cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Expression of the PI3K dominant negative mutant did not alter the protection conferred by Dex against TNF-alpha mediated cell death. Contrariwise, clones expressing the IkappaB-alpha dominant negative mutant lost the Dex-conferred protection against TNF-alpha. In these clones degradation of c-IAP was accelerated, while that of XIAP was remained unaffected. Conclusion NF-kappaB, but not PI3K/Akt activation, is required for the Dex protective effect against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death, and correlates with lack of degradation of the anti-apoptotic protein c-IAP1. PMID:16504042

  19. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor. alpha. and interleukin 1. alpha. increase expression of c-abl protooncogene mRNA in cultured human marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, D.F. III; Nemunaitis, J.J.; Singer, J.W. )

    1989-09-01

    Analysis of protooncogene RNA expression in marrow stromal cells from long-term marrow culture demonstrated high levels of c-abl 5-, 6-, and 7-kilobase (kb) RNA transcripts. In experiments on three independently derived simian virus 40-transformed marrow stromal cell lines, the expression of these c-abl transcripts was further increased in response to recombinant tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (1,000 units/ml) and interleukin 1{alpha} (10 units/ml). Although lymphocyte-conditioned medium predominantly up-regulated the 5-kb transcript, interleukin 1{alpha} primarily affected the 6-kb transcript. The up-regulation of the 5-kb c-abl message correlated with up-regulation of the granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor transcript and down-regulation of procollagen I transcripts in transformed cells. These data suggest that c-abl plays roles in the regulation of extracellular matrix expression and in the regulation of hematopoietic growth factors by stromal cells.

  20. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J S; Weakland, L L; Weiland, D A; Farese, R V; West, L A

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to determine whether prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulates the production of "second messengers" derived from inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and increases intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in isolated bovine luteal cells. PGF2 alpha provoked rapid (10 sec) and sustained (up to 60 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (InsP, InsP2, and InsP3, respectively). InsP3 was formed more rapidly than InsP2 or InsP after PGF2 alpha treatment. In addition, PGF2 alpha increased inositol phospholipid turnover, as evidenced by increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol. LiCl (1-20 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to PGF2 alpha. Maximal increases in InsP3 occurred at 1 microM PGF2 alpha, with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 36 nM. The acute effects of PGF2 alpha on InsP3 levels were independent of reductions in extracellular calcium. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 also stimulated increases in inositol phosphate levels, albeit to a lesser extent. PGF2 alpha also induced rapid and concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i as measured by quin-2 fluorescence. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were maximal within 30 sec (approximately 2- to 3-fold), and [Ca2+]i remained elevated for 8-10 min. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were also independent of extracellular calcium. These findings demonstrate that the action of PGF2 alpha is coupled to the phospholipase C-InsP3 and diacylglycerol second messenger system in the corpus luteum. PMID:3035550

  1. Up-regulation of alpha1-microglobulin by hemoglobin and reactive oxygen species in hepatoma and blood cell lines.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Magnus G; Allhorn, Maria; Olofsson, Tor; Akerström, Bo

    2007-03-15

    alpha(1)-Microglobulin is a 26-kDa glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, secreted to the blood, and rapidly distributed to the extravascular compartment of all tissues. Recent results show that alpha(1)-microglobulin has heme-binding and heme-degrading properties and it has been suggested that the protein is involved in the defense against oxidation by heme and reactive oxygen species. In the present study the influence of hemoglobin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the cellular expression of alpha(1)-microglobulin was investigated. Oxy- and methemoglobin, free heme, and Fenton reaction-induced hydroxyl radicals induced a dose-dependent up-regulation of alpha(1)-microglobulin on both mRNA and protein levels in hepatoma cells and an increased secretion of alpha(1)-microglobulin. The up-regulation was reversed by the addition of catalase and ascorbate, and by reacting hemoglobin with cyanide which prevents redox reactions. Furthermore, the blood cell lines U937 and K562 expressed alpha(1)-microglobulin at low levels, and this expression increased up to 11-fold by the addition of hemoglobin. These results suggest that alpha(1)-microglobulin expression is induced by ROS, arising from redox reactions of hemoglobin or from other sources and are consistent with the hypothesis that alpha(1)-microglobulin participates in the defense against oxidation by hemoglobin, heme, and reactive oxygen species.

  2. TNF-alpha/cycloheximide-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells requires Rac1-regulated reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shi; Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2008-04-01

    Previously we have shown that both Rac1 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) are key proapoptotic molecules in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha/cycloheximide (CHX)-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, whereas the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in apoptosis is unclear. The present studies tested the hypothesis that Rac1-mediated ROS production is involved in TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. In this study, we showed that TNF-alpha/CHX-induced ROS production and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative stress increased apoptosis. Inhibition of Rac1 by a specific inhibitor NSC23766 prevented TNF-alpha-induced ROS production. The antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or rotenone (Rot), the mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitor, attenuated mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis. Rot also prevented JNK1/2 activation during apoptosis. Inhibition of Rac1 by expression of dominant negative Rac1 decreased TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Moreover, TNF-alpha-induced cytosolic ROS production was inhibited by Rac1 inhibition, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase), and NAC. In addition, DPI inhibited TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis as judged by morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, and JNK1/2 activation. Mitochondrial membrane potential change is Rac1 or cytosolic ROS dependent. Lastly, all ROS inhibitors inhibited caspase-3 activity. Thus these results indicate that TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis requires Rac1-dependent ROS production in intestinal epithelial cells.

  3. Paxillin binding to the alpha 4 integrin subunit stimulates LFA-1 (integrin alpha L beta 2)-dependent T cell migration by augmenting the activation of focal adhesion kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2.

    PubMed

    Rose, David M; Liu, Shouchun; Woodside, Darren G; Han, Jaewon; Schlaepfer, David D; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2003-06-15

    Engagement of very late Ag-4 (integrin alpha(4)beta(1)) by ligands such as VCAM-1 markedly stimulates leukocyte migration mediated by LFA-1 (integrin alpha(L)beta(2)). This form of integrin trans-regulation in T cells requires the binding of paxillin to the alpha(4) integrin cytoplasmic domain. This conclusion is based on the abolition of trans-regulation in Jurkat T cells by an alpha(4) mutation (alpha(4)(Y991A)) that disrupts paxillin binding. Furthermore, cellular expression of an alpha(4)-binding fragment of paxillin that blocks the alpha(4)-paxillin interaction, selectively blocked VCAM-1 stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent cell migration. The alpha(4)-paxillin association mediates trans-regulation by enhancing the activation of tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and/or proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2), based on two lines of evidence. First, disruption of the paxillin-binding site in the alpha(4) tail resulted in much less alpha(4)beta(1)-mediated phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Second, transfection with cDNAs encoding C-terminal fragments of Pyk2 and FAK, which block the function of the intact kinases, blocked alpha(4)beta(1) stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent migration. These results define a proximal protein-protein interaction of an integrin cytoplasmic domain required for trans-regulation between integrins, and establish that augmented activation of Pyk2 and/or FAK is an immediate signaling event required for the trans-regulation of integrin alpha(L)beta(2) by alpha(4)beta(1). PMID:12794117

  4. New pterocarpanquinones: synthesis, antineoplasic activity on cultured human malignant cell lines and TNF-alpha modulation in human PBMC cells.

    PubMed

    Netto, Chaquip D; da Silva, Alcides J M; Salustiano, Eduardo J S; Bacelar, Thiago S; Riça, Ingred G; Cavalcante, Moises C M; Rumjanek, Vivian M; Costa, Paulo R R

    2010-02-15

    A new pterocarpanquinone (5a) was synthesized through a palladium catalyzed oxyarylation reaction and was transformed, through electrophilic substitution reaction, into derivatives 5b-d. These compounds showed to be active against human leukemic cell lines and human lung cancer cell lines. Even multidrug resistant cells were sensitive to 5a, which presented low toxicity toward peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cells and decreased the production of TNF-alpha by these cells. In the laboratory these pterocarpanquinones were reduced by sodium dithionite in the presence of thiophenol at physiological pH, as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoredutase-1 (NQO1) catalyzed two-electron reduction, and the resulting hydroquinone undergo structural rearrangements, leading to the formation of Michael acceptors, which were intercepted as adducts of thiophenol. These results suggest that these compounds could be activated by bioreduction. PMID:20117936

  5. Number and Brightness analysis of alpha-synuclein oligomerization and the associated mitochondrial morphology alterations in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Plotegher, N.; Gratton, E.; Bubacco, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha-synuclein oligomerization is associated to Parkinson's disease etiopathogenesis. The study of alpha-synuclein oligomerization properties in live cell and the definition of their effects on cellular viability are among fields expected to provide the knowledge required to unravel the mechanism(s) of toxicity that lead to the disease. Methods We used Number and Brightness method, which is a method based on fluorescence fluctuation analysis, to monitor alpha-synuclein tagged with EGFP aggregation in living SH-SY5Y cells. The presence of alpha-synuclein oligomers detected with this method was associated with intracellular structure conditions, evaluated by fluorescence confocal imaging. Results Cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein-EGFP present a heterogeneous ensemble of oligomers constituted by less than 10 monomers, when the protein approaches a threshold concentration value of about 90 nM in the cell cytoplasm. We show that the oligomeric species are partially sequestered by lysosomes and that the mitochondria morphology is altered in cells presenting oligomers, suggesting that these mitochondria may be dysfunctional. Conclusions We showed that alpha-synuclein overexpression in SH-SY5Y causes the formation of alpha-synuclein oligomeric species, whose presence is associated with mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagic-lysosomal pathway activation in live cells. General significance The unique capability provided by the Number and Brightness analysis to study alpha-synuclein oligomers distribution and properties, and the study their association to intracellular components in single live cells is important to forward our understanding of the molecular mechanisms Parkinson’s disease and it may be of general significance when applied to the study of other aggregating proteins in cellular models. PMID:24561157

  6. Increased messenger RNA levels of the antagonist thyroid hormone receptor erbA-alpha 2 and decreased levels of erbA-alpha 1 and erbA-beta 1 receptor messenger RNAs in neoplastic rodent cells.

    PubMed

    Too, C K; Guernsey, D L

    1992-04-15

    Nothern blot analysis of total RNA from the mouse C3H/10T1/2 cell line indicated that the erbA alpha gene transcribed three mRNA species of similar sizes (2.6, 5.5, 6.6 kilobases) as found in rodents. The 2.6-kilobase mRNA (erbA-alpha 2) was approximately 7- to 8-fold more abundant than either the 5.5- (erbA-alpha 1) or 6.6-kilobase species. The expression of the erbA-alpha 2 transcript increased 3- to 30-fold when "normal" mouse or rat cells were growth arrested by concluence. Triiodothyronine, at a concentration of 1 nM, had no effect on the levels of the erbA-alpha mRNA species in confluent cells nor on the levels of erbA-alpha 2 in proliferative normal or transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells. In log-phase growing cells there was a 2.5- to 5-fold increase in the relative expression of erbA-alpha 2 mRNA in transformed mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells, transformed cloned rat embryo fibroblasts (CREF), transformed rat embryo fibroblasts (REF), and a transformed temperature-sensitive rat mutant cell line (ts7E) when compared with their non-transformed counterparts. In contrast to the elevation of erbA-alpha 2 in transformed cells, erbA-alpha 1 and erbA-beta 1 mRNAs decreased in transformed mouse and rat cell lines. In conclusion, it is suggested that the increased levels of the erbA-alpha 2 transcript and the decreased levels of erbA-alpha 1 and erbA-beta 1 in neoplastic cells may account for the loss of thyroid hormone regulation of inducible pathways and decreased nuclear triiodothyronine binding as previously reported.

  7. Retinoic acid receptor alpha mediates growth inhibition by retinoids in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Nicke, B; Kaiser, A; Wiedenmann, B; Riecken, E O; Rosewicz, S

    1999-08-11

    Although retinoids have been suggested to inhibit chemically induced colon carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoid-mediated growth regulation in colon carcinoma cells are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the biological effects of retinoids on growth in HT29 colon carcinoma cells. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of HT29 cells resulted in a profound inhibition of anchorage-independent growth without biochemical or morphological evidence for induction of differentiation. Treatment with the selective RARalpha agonist Ro 40-6055 completely mimicked the effects of ATRA on growth and transactivation of a betaRAREx2-luciferase reporter construct, while RARbeta- and gamma-specific analogues were ineffective. Furthermore, ATRA-regulated growth and transactivation could be completely blocked by a RARalpha-selective receptor antagonist. Thus, ATRA potently inhibits anchorage-independent growth in HT29 cells and this effect is mainly if not exclusively mediated by the retinoic acid receptor alpha.

  8. Effect of human alpha A interferon on influenza virus replication in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, R M; Maroney, P A; Nayak, D P; Chambers, T M; Nilsen, T W

    1985-12-01

    To determine the molecular mechanism whereby interferon induces resistance to influenza virus, we began an investigation of influenza virus replication in MDBK cells treated with recombinant human alpha A interferon. Negative- and positive-strand virus-specific RNA accumulation was monitored by blot hybridization with cloned probes. Primary transcription (transcription of infecting viral negative strands by the virion-associated polymerase) was inhibited by interferon treatment of MDBK cells. At moderate levels of interferon treatment (10 U/ml), this inhibition was restricted to transcripts of polymerase genes, whereas at higher levels of interferon treatment (50 U/ml), accumulation of all primary transcripts was markedly inhibited. Secondary transcripts and viral negative strands did not accumulate to any significant extent in interferon-treated MDBK cells. These results suggest that interferon-induced mechanisms which inhibit influenza virus replication in MDBK cells act at the level of primary transcription.

  9. Cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding importin-{alpha}1

    SciTech Connect

    Kamikawa, Yasunao; Yasuhara, Noriko; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2011-08-15

    Importin-{alpha}1 belongs to a receptor family that recognizes classical nuclear localization signals. Encoded by Kpna2, this receptor subtype is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we identified a critical promoter region in Kpna2 and showed that the expression of this gene is differentially regulated in ES cells and NIH3T3 cells. Conserved CCAAT boxes are required for Kpna2 promoter activity in both ES and NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, deletion of the region from nucleotide position - 251 to - 179 bp resulted in a drastic reduction in Kpna2 transcriptional activity only in ES cells. This region contains Krueppel-like factor (Klf) binding sequences and is responsible for transactivation of the gene by Klf2 and Klf4. Accordingly, endogenous Kpna2 mRNA levels decreased in response to depletion of Klf2 and Klf4 in ES cells. Our results suggest that Klf2 and Klf4 function redundantly to drive high level of Kpna2 expression in ES cells. -- Research Highlights: {yields} We showed the cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of Kpna2 encoding importin-al. {yields} NF-Y binds the CCAAT boxes to activate Kpna2 transcription in NIH3T3 cells. {yields} Klf2 and Klf4 redundantly activate the expression of Kpna2 in ES cells.

  10. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the "stemness" markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  11. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the “stemness” markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  12. Tat-APE1/ref-1 protein inhibits TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun Jeong; Lee, Ji Young; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Lee, Sang Ki; Lee, Kwon Ho; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2008-03-28

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved both in DNA base excision repair and redox regulation. In this study we evaluated the protective role of Tat-mediated APE1/ref-1 transduction on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-activated endothelial activation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. To construct Tat-APE1/ref-1 fusion protein, human full length of APE1/ref-1 was fused with Tat-protein transduction domain. Purified Tat-APE1/ref-1 fusion protein efficiently transduced cultured endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and reached maximum expression at 1h after incubation. Transduced Tat-APE1/ref-1 showed inhibitory activity on the TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells. These results suggest Tat-APE1/ref-1 might be useful to reduce vascular endothelial activation or vascular inflammatory disorders.

  13. Doxazosin inhibits proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth-muscle cells independent of alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z W; Shi, X Y; Hoffman, B B

    1998-06-01

    Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs), stimulated by a variety of growth factors, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. We found unexpectedly that doxazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic-receptor antagonist, inhibits serum-stimulated proliferation of cultured human VSMCs. Subsequent experiments systematically investigated inhibitory effects of doxazosin on mitogenesis stimulated in VSMCs by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor, and G protein-coupled receptor agonists thrombin and angiotensin II. Doxazosin attenuated the stimulation of DNA synthesis for each of these ligands with median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) from 0.3 to 1 microM. PDGF-AB (1 nM) increased cell number; doxazosin inhibited this response by 70-80%. Prazosin, a related alpha1-receptor antagonist, had similar but less potent effects on inhibiting mitogenesis in these cells. Doxazosin and prazosin inhibited PDGF-AB-stimulated and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I)-stimulated migration of VSMCs by approximately 40-50%. These effects of doxazosin were likely unrelated to alpha1-receptor blockade because pretreatment of cells with phenoxybenzamine, an irreversible alpha1 antagonist, did not change the capacity of doxazosin to inhibit of PDGF-stimulated mitogenesis. Also, doxazosin inhibited PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis in NIH 3T3 cells, which do not express alpha1 receptors. These results suggest that doxazosin is a potent inhibitor of VSMC proliferation and migration through a mechanism unrelated to alpha1-receptor antagonism.

  14. Inhibition of laminin alpha 1-chain expression leads to alteration of basement membrane assembly and cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The expression of the constituent alpha 1 chain of laminin-1, a major component of basement membranes, is markedly regulated during development and differentiation. We have designed an antisense RNA strategy to analyze the direct involvement of the alpha 1 chain in laminin assembly, basement membrane formation, and cell differentiation. We report that the absence of alpha 1-chain expression, resulting from the stable transfection of the human colonic cancer Caco2 cells with an eukaryotic expression vector comprising a cDNA fragment of the alpha 1 chain inserted in an antisense orientation, led to (a) an incorrect secretion of the two other constituent chains of laminin-1, the beta 1/gamma 1 chains, (b) the lack of basement membrane assembly when Caco2-deficient cells were cultured on top of fibroblasts, assessed by the absence of collagen IV and nidogen deposition, and (c) changes in the structural polarity of cells accompanied by the inhibition of an apical digestive enzyme, sucrase-isomaltase. The results demonstrate that the alpha 1 chain is required for secretion of laminin-1 and for the assembly of basement membrane network. Furthermore, expression of the laminin alpha 1-chain gene may be a regulatory element in determining cell differentiation. PMID:8609173

  15. Dissecting the role of integrin subunits alpha 2 and beta 3 in rotavirus cell entry by RNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Isa, Pavel; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel Angel; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2009-11-01

    Several cell surface molecules have been implicated in rotavirus cell entry, however, their individual relevance during this process is unknown. In this work, the expression of integrins alpha2, beta2, and alpha v beta 3, the heat shock cognate protein 70, and of ganglioside GM1 in different cell lines of human and simian origin was correlated with the infectivity of four rotavirus strains. We observed that different combinations of receptor expression correlated with the infectivity of rotavirus strains, suggesting that the participation of several receptors is important for rotavirus infection. To characterize the relevance of integrins alpha2 and alpha v beta 3 in more detail, their expression was silenced using RNA interference. About 80% decrease in the cell content of integrins resulted in 15-30% decrease of infectivity of strains RRV and Wa when measured by a focus-forming assay, while there was no decrease of infectivity when measured by flow cytometry in integrin-deficient cells. Altogether these data suggest that integrins alpha2 and alpha v beta 3 do not play a major role in the rotavirus entry process.

  16. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  17. Down-regulation of the G-proteins Gq alpha and G11 alpha by transfected human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells is independent of receptor down-regulation.

    PubMed Central

    van de Westerlo, E; Yang, J; Logsdon, C; Williams, J A

    1995-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors show a 40-50% reduction in the immunoreactive G-proteins Gq alpha and G11 alpha when stimulated with the cholinergic agonist carbachol. This effect is seen after 9 h, is maximal after 24 h, and occurs over a range of carbachol concentrations that activate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in these cells. The effect is specific for Gq alpha family proteins as Gs alpha was slightly increased after carbachol treatment and G13 alpha was unchanged. Using a urea gel system, we were able to resolve Gq alpha and G11 alpha, both of which were down-regulated by carbachol. An M3 receptor mutant, with C-terminal threonines changed to alanines as described previously, binds ligand and activates phosphoinositide hydrolysis normally but is not down-regulated in response to carbachol. This receptor, however, induces Gq alpha/G11 alpha down-regulation similarly to wild-type M3 receptors, indicating that G-protein down-regulation is not directly coupled to receptor down-regulation. Thus down-regulation of Gq alpha and G11 alpha may contribute to heterologous desensitization particularly at longer times of agonist exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7654194

  18. The effect of interferon-{alpha} on the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaman, Anathea S.; Gravel, Caroline; Hashem, Anwar M.; Tocchi, Monika; Li Xuguang

    2011-06-01

    Interferon {alpha} (IFN{alpha}) is used to treat malignancies and chronic viral infections. It has been found to decrease the rate of drug metabolism by acting on cytochrome P450 enzymes, but no studies have investigated the consequences of IFN{alpha} treatment on the CYP3A4 isoform, responsible for the metabolism of a majority of drugs. In this study, we have examined the effect of IFN{alpha} on CYP3A4 catalytic activity and expression in human hepatoma cells. We found that IFN{alpha} inhibits CYP3A4 activity and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP3A4, independent of de novo protein synthesis. Pharmacologic inhibitors and a dominant-negative mutant expression plasmid were used to dissect the molecular pathway required for CYP3A4 suppression, revealing roles for Jak1 and Stat1 and eliminating the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinases. Treatment of hepatoma cells with IFN{alpha} did not affect the nuclear localization or relative abundance of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, suggesting that the suppression of CYP3A4 by IFN{alpha} does not result from inhibitory Sp3 out-competing Sp1. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IFN{alpha} down-regulates CYP3A4 expression largely through the JAK-STAT pathway. Since IFN{alpha} suppresses CYP3A4 expression, caution is warranted when IFN{alpha} is administered in combination with CYP3A4 substrates to avoid the occurrence of adverse drug interactions.

  19. Characterization of human NSCLC cell line with innate etoposide-resistance mediated by cytoplasmic localization of topoisomerase II alpha.

    PubMed

    de Lucio, Bautista; Manuel, Victor; Barrera-Rodríguez, Raul

    2005-11-01

    Topoisomerase (topo) II alpha is a target for many chemotherapeutic agents in clinical use. In tumor cells resistant to topo II poisons, there have been descriptions of quantitative and qualitative alterations involved in this enzyme. More recently, the cytoplasmic localization of topo II alpha has been described as a mechanism to confer drug resistance. Here, we report the characterization of a human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, INER-37, which shows an innate resistance to etoposide. In this cell line, etoposide resistance was directly associated with the expression of topo II alpha resident mainly in the cytoplasmic region. At the molecular level, INER-37 cells carry on a heterozygous gene deletion, transcribing two different topo II alpha mRNAs: 4.8 kb and 2.0 kb. The bigger 4.8 kb mRNA (missing 1.3 kb of 3' mRNA and including the untranslated region) is translated into a truncated cytoplasmic protein of approximately 160 kDa. The protein truncation affects at least 96 amino acids in the COOH-terminal region where the more proximal bipartite nuclear localization signal is located. The INER-37 cell line is the first cancer cell line reported with an innate mutation affecting the 3'-end region of the topo II alpha gene that confers a cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme and therefore an increased resistance to etoposide.

  20. Feasibility study on the use of polyallyldiglycol-carbonate cell dishes in TUNEL assay for alpha particle radiobiological experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. F.; Yum, E. H. W.; Wan, C. K.; Fong, W. F.; Yu, K. N.

    2007-08-01

    In the present work, we have studied the feasibility of a method based on polyallyldiglycol-carbonate (PADC) films to investigate the effects of alpha particles on HeLa cervix cancer cells. Thin PADC films with thickness of about 20 μm were prepared from commercially available CR-39 films by chemical etching to fabricate custom-made petri dishes for cell culture, which could accurately record alpha particle hit positions. A special method involving "base tracks" for aligning the images of cell nuclei and alpha particle hits has been proposed, so that alpha particle transversals of cell nuclei can be visually counted. Radiobiological experiments were carried out to induce DNA damages, with the TdT-mediated d UTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence method employed to detect DNA strand breaks. The staining results were investigated by flow cytometer. The preliminary results showed that more strand breaks occurred in cells hit by alpha particles with lower energies. Moreover, large TUNEL positive signals were obtained even with small percentages of cells irradiated and TUNEL signals were also obtained from non-targeted cells. These provided evidence for the bystander effect.

  1. Autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling is required for conidiogenous cell development in Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bo; Xu, Xiaojin; Chen, Guoqing; Zhang, Dandan; Tang, Mingzhi; Xu, Fei; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Conidiation patterning is evolutionarily complex and mechanism concerning conidiogenous cell differentiation remains largely unknown. Magnaporthe oryzae conidiates in a sympodial way and uses its conidia to infect host and disseminate blast disease. Arrestins are multifunctional proteins that modulate receptor down-regulation and scaffold components of intracellular trafficking routes. We here report an alpha-arrestin that regulates patterns of conidiation and contributes to pathogenicity in M. oryzae. We show that disruption of ARRDC1 generates mutants which produce conidia in an acropetal array and ARRDC1 significantly affects expression profile of CCA1, a virulence-related transcription factor required for conidiogenous cell differentiation. Although germ tubes normally develop appressoria, penetration peg formation is dramatically impaired and Δarrdc1 mutants are mostly nonpathogenic. Fluorescent analysis indicates that EGFP-ARRDC1 puncta are well colocalized with DsRed2-Atg8, and this distribution profile could not be altered in Δatg9 mutants, suggesting ARRDC1 enters into autophagic flux before autophagosome maturation. We propose that M. oryzae employs ARRDC1 to regulate specific receptors in response to conidiation-related signals for conidiogenous cell differentiation and utilize autophagosomes for desensitization of conidiogenous receptor, which transmits extracellular signal to the downstream elements of transcription factors. Our investigation extends novel significance of autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling to fungal parasites. PMID:27498554

  2. Targeted Cytoplasmic Irradiation with Alpha Particles Induces Mutations in Mammalian Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-Jun; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, An; Waldren, Charles A.; Geard, Charles R.; Yu, Zengliang; Hei, Tom K.

    1999-04-01

    Ever since x-rays were shown to induce mutation in Drosophila more than 70 years ago, prevailing dogma considered the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, such as mutations and carcinogenesis, as being due mostly to direct damage to the nucleus. Although there was indication that alpha particle traversal through cellular cytoplasm was innocuous, the full impact remained unknown. The availability of the microbeam at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility of Columbia University made it possible to target and irradiate the cytoplasm of individual cells in a highly localized spatial region. By using dual fluorochrome dyes (Hoechst and Nile Red) to locate nucleus and cellular cytoplasm, respectively, thereby avoiding inadvertent traversal of nuclei, we show here that cytoplasmic irradiation is mutagenic at the CD59 (S1) locus of human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells, while inflicting minimal cytotoxicity. The principal class of mutations induced are similar to those of spontaneous origin and are entirely different from those of nuclear irradiation. Furthermore, experiments with radical scavenger and inhibitor of intracellular glutathione indicated that the mutagenicity of cytoplasmic irradiation depends on generation of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that cytoplasm is an important target for genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly radon, the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. In addition, cytoplasmic traversal by alpha particles may be more dangerous than nuclear traversal, because the mutagenicity is accomplished by little or no killing of the target cells.

  3. Autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling is required for conidiogenous cell development in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Xu, Xiaojin; Chen, Guoqing; Zhang, Dandan; Tang, Mingzhi; Xu, Fei; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Conidiation patterning is evolutionarily complex and mechanism concerning conidiogenous cell differentiation remains largely unknown. Magnaporthe oryzae conidiates in a sympodial way and uses its conidia to infect host and disseminate blast disease. Arrestins are multifunctional proteins that modulate receptor down-regulation and scaffold components of intracellular trafficking routes. We here report an alpha-arrestin that regulates patterns of conidiation and contributes to pathogenicity in M. oryzae. We show that disruption of ARRDC1 generates mutants which produce conidia in an acropetal array and ARRDC1 significantly affects expression profile of CCA1, a virulence-related transcription factor required for conidiogenous cell differentiation. Although germ tubes normally develop appressoria, penetration peg formation is dramatically impaired and Δarrdc1 mutants are mostly nonpathogenic. Fluorescent analysis indicates that EGFP-ARRDC1 puncta are well colocalized with DsRed2-Atg8, and this distribution profile could not be altered in Δatg9 mutants, suggesting ARRDC1 enters into autophagic flux before autophagosome maturation. We propose that M. oryzae employs ARRDC1 to regulate specific receptors in response to conidiation-related signals for conidiogenous cell differentiation and utilize autophagosomes for desensitization of conidiogenous receptor, which transmits extracellular signal to the downstream elements of transcription factors. Our investigation extends novel significance of autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling to fungal parasites. PMID:27498554

  4. The alpha-foetoprotein proximal enhancer: localization, cell specificity and modulation by dexamethasone.

    PubMed Central

    Houart, C; Szpirer, J; Szpirer, C

    1990-01-01

    The enhancer element present in the 5' proximal region flanking the mouse alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) gene, active in AFP-producing hepatoma cells and inactive in non-producing hepatoma cells, was localized between positions -203 and -79. This enhancer segment contains a sequence resembling the steroid hormone response element. We demonstrated that this sequence is dispensable for the enhancer activity but mediates dose-dependent effects of dexamethasone on the enhancer activity: dexamethasone decreases the proximal enhancer activity at low concentrations but this inhibitory effect vanishes at high concentrations. Our results indicate that several transcriptional factors, one of which is absent in AFP-non-producing hepatoma cells, control the AFP proximal enhancer activity. Images PMID:1700853

  5. Characterization of (123)I-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine transport in rat lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Matte, Gilbert; Sangster, Shirley M; Acker, Matthew; Hudgins, Marlene; Too, Catherine K L

    2005-01-01

    (123)I-Iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine (IMT) transport into lymphomas has not been fully characterized. In rat Nb2-11C and Nb2-Sp lymphoma cell lines, linear uptake of (123)I-IMT occurred rapidly within 5-10 min. Eadie-Hoftee plots of (123)I-IMT uptake gave apparent Km's of 8.34+/-1.17 and 9.64+/-1.05 microM for Nb2-11C and Nb2-Sp cells, respectively, and involved the L and B(0,+) systems. In lymphoma-bearing rats, injected (123)I-IMT accumulated rapidly in the primary tumors but gave a low tumor-to-background ratio of 2:1. (123)I-IMT was transported rapidly into lymphoma cells both in vitro and in vivo, but low target-to-nontarget ratio may not make (123)I-IMT practical for scanning in vivo.

  6. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Lee, Youngae; Eun, Hee Chul Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-04-04

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 ({omega}-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Some reports have demonstrated that EPA inhibits NF-{kappa}B activation induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in various cells. However, its detailed mode of action is unclear. In this report, we investigated whether EPA inhibits the expression of TNF-{alpha}-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). TNF-{alpha} induced MMP-9 expression by NF-{kappa}B-dependent pathway. Pretreatment of EPA inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression and p65 phosphorylation. However, EPA could not affect I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and DNA binding activity of NF-{kappa}B. EPA inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced p65 phosphorylation through p38 and Akt inhibition and this inhibition was IKK{alpha}-dependent event. Taken together, we demonstrate that EPA inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of p38 and Akt activation.

  7. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  8. Teaching tactical combat casualty care using the TC3 sim game-based simulation: a study to measure training effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, Teresita M

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of games as instructional tools has been debated over the past several decades. This is due to the lack of empirical data to support such claims. The US ARMY developed a game-based simulation to support Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Training. The TC3 Game based Simulation is a first person game that allows a Soldier to play the role of a combat medic during an infantry squad mission in an urban environment. This research documents results from a training effectiveness evaluation conducted at the Department of Combat Medic Training (Ft Sam Houston) in an effort to explore the capability of the game based simulation as a potential tool to support the TCCC program of instruction. Reaction to training, as well as, acquisition of knowledge and transfer of skills were explored using Kirkpatrick's Model of Training Effectiveness Evaluation. Results from the evaluation are discussed.

  9. Teaching tactical combat casualty care using the TC3 sim game-based simulation: a study to measure training effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, Teresita M

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of games as instructional tools has been debated over the past several decades. This is due to the lack of empirical data to support such claims. The US ARMY developed a game-based simulation to support Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Training. The TC3 Game based Simulation is a first person game that allows a Soldier to play the role of a combat medic during an infantry squad mission in an urban environment. This research documents results from a training effectiveness evaluation conducted at the Department of Combat Medic Training (Ft Sam Houston) in an effort to explore the capability of the game based simulation as a potential tool to support the TCCC program of instruction. Reaction to training, as well as, acquisition of knowledge and transfer of skills were explored using Kirkpatrick's Model of Training Effectiveness Evaluation. Results from the evaluation are discussed. PMID:20543293

  10. Effect of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of macrophage activating factor.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takashi; Uematsu, Takashi; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) produced by human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (SGA) cells on the bioactivity of macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). High exo-alpha-NaGalase activity was detected in the SGA cell line HSG. HSG alpha-NaGalase had both exo- and endo-enzyme activities, cleaving the Gal-GalNAc and GalNAc residues linked to Thr/Ser but not releasing the [NeuAc2-6]GalNac residue. Furthermore, GcMAF enzymatically prepared from the Gc protein enhanced the superoxide-generation capacity and phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. However, GcMAF treated with purified alpha-NaGalase did not exhibit these effects. Thus, HSG possesses the capacity to produce larger quantities of alpha-NaGalase, which inactivates GcMAF produced from Gc protein, resulting in reduced phagocytic activity and superoxide-generation capacity of monocytes/macrophages. The present data strongly suggest that HSG alpha-NaGalase acts as an immunodeficiency factor in cancer patients. PMID:14767536

  11. Alpha-quartz-induced chemokine expression by rat lung epithelial cells: effects of in vivo and in vitro particle exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, K. E.; Howard, B. W.; Carter, J. M.; Asquith, T.; Johnston, C.; Detilleux, P.; Kunkel, S. L.; Isfort, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that can play a key role in leukocyte recruitment to sites of tissue injury or infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to alpha-quartz as well as other noxious particles increases chemokine gene expression in rat lung, although the cells responsible for chemokine expression and the mechanisms underlying this response have remained unclear. The present studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to alpha-quartz induced expression of mRNA for the chemokine macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in epithelial cells lining the terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts as well as macrophages and alveolar type II cells in the more distal lung. Treatment of rats with an anti-MIP-2 antiserum before alpha-quartz exposure markedly attenuated neutrophilic infiltration of the lungs demonstrating an important role for MIP-2 in alpha-quartz-induced pulmonary inflammation. In vitro exposure of primary cultures of rat alveolar type II cells or the rat alveolar type II cell line RLE-6TN to tumor necrosis factor-alpha, endotoxin, or alpha-quartz increased mRNA for MIP-2 as well as the structurally and functionally similar chemokine cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant but not the chemokine MIP-1 alpha. The alpha-quartz-induced increase in epithelial MIP-2 mRNA resulted, at least in part, from increased gene transcription and was associated with the release of active MIP-2 protein. Induction of RLE-6TN MIP-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant mRNA expression was not unique to alpha-quartz, being also increased by crocidolite asbestus fibers but not by titanium dioxide or MMVF-10 glass fibers. These findings indicate that epithelial cells contribute to chemokine expression in rat lung after exposure to alpha-quartz and potentially other noxious particles and suggest that alpha-quartz-activated MIP-2 expression in vivo results, at least in part, from a direct action of the particles on the lung epithelium. Images

  12. Structure-function studies of PANDER, an islet specific cytokine inducing cell death of insulin-secreting beta cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jichun; Gao, Zhiyong; Robert, Claudia E; Burkhardt, Brant R; Gaweska, Helena; Wagner, Amary; Wu, Jianmei; Greene, Scott R; Young, Robert A; Wolf, Bryan A

    2005-08-30

    PANDER (pancreatic derived factor, FAM3B) is a novel cytokine, present in insulin secretory granules, that induces apoptosis of alpha and beta cells of mouse, rat, and human islets in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and may be implicated in diabetes. PANDER has the predicted secondary structure of 4 alpha-helical bundles with an up-up-down-down topology, and two disulfide bonds. Eleven mutated PANDERs were constructed and expressed in beta-TC3 cells to identify the essential region of PANDER involved in beta-cell death. Beta-cell function was assessed by assays of cell viability and insulin secretion. Based on quantitative real-time RT-PCR all mutant PANDERs had similar mRNA expression levels in beta-TC3 cells. Immunoblotting showed that ten of eleven mutant PANDER proteins were synthesized and detected in beta-TC3 cells. A mutant PANDER with no signal peptide, however, was not expressed. Truncation of helix D alone caused a 40-50% decrease in PANDER's activity, while truncation of both helices C and D resulted in a 75% loss of activity. In contrast, truncation of the N-terminus of PANDER (helix A, the loop between helices A and B, and the first two cysteines) had no effect on PANDER-induced beta-cell death. The third and fourth cysteines of PANDER, C91 and C229, were shown to form one disulfide bond and be functionally important. Finally, the region between Cys91 and Phe152 constitutes the active part of PANDER, based on the demonstration that mutants with truncation of helix B or C caused decreased beta-cell death and did not inhibit insulin secretion, as compared to wild-type PANDER. Hence, helices B and C and the second disulfide bond of PANDER are essential for PANDER-induced beta-cell death.

  13. Increased frequency of CD4-8-T cells bearing T-cell receptor alpha beta chains in peripheral blood of atomic bomb survivors exposed to high doses.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Y; Kyoizumi, S; Hirai, Y; Fujita, S; Akiyama, M

    1994-07-01

    A rare T-cell subpopulation, CD4-8- alpha beta T cells, may be differentiated through a pathway (or pathways) different from the pathway(s) of conventional CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. In the present study, the frequencies of CD4-8-T cells in peripheral-blood alpha beta T cells in 409 atomic bomb survivors (160 estimated to have been exposed to 1.5 Gy or more and 249 controls) were determined to investigate late effects of radiation on the composition of human T-cell subpopulations. The frequency of CD4-8- alpha beta T-cell decreased significantly with the subject's age and was higher in females than males. A significant increase in the frequency was found in the survivors exposed to more than 1.5 Gy, suggesting that the previous radiation exposure altered differentiation and development of T cells.

  14. The pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha gene is testosterone and prolactin regulated in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Costello, L C; Liu, Y; Zou, J; Franklin, R B

    2000-02-01

    The prostate gland of humans and other animals has the unique function of accumulating and secreting extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The prostate secretory epithelial cells synthesize citrate which, due to a limiting mitochondrial (m-) aconitase, accumulates rather than being oxidized. Thus citrate is essentially an end product of metabolism in prostate. For continued net citrate production, a continual source of oxaloacetate (OAA) and acetyl CoA is required. Glucose via pyruvate oxidation provides the source of Acetyl CoA. In prostate cells, citrate production is regulated by testosterone and/or by prolactin. Both hormones selectively regulate the level and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha (E1a) in animal prostate cells; thereby regulating the availability of acetyl CoA for citrate synthesis. Studies were conducted to determine if testosterone and prolactin might regulate the expression of the E1a gene in prostate epithelial cells. Prolactin treatment of rat ventral and lateral prostate cells and human PC3 cells increased the levels of E1a mRNA and the rates of transcription of the E1a gene. Testosterone also increased the mRNA level and transcription of E1a in rat ventral prostate cells, and in PC3 cells transfected with androgen receptor. However, testosterone treatment resulted in a repression of E1a gene expression in lateral prostate cells. Evidence is presented which supports the view that prolactin regulation of E1a is mediated via PKC. The rapidity of the effects of both hormones is representative of an immediate-early gene response. To our knowledge this represents the first report in any mammalian cells that, in addition to its constitutive expression in all mammalian cells, the E1a gene is a hormonally-regulated gene in specifically targeted prostate epithelial cells. PMID:10711720

  15. Modulation of the expression of integrins on glial cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. A central role for TNF-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Previtali, S. C.; Archelos, J. J.; Hartung, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins comprise a group of adhesion receptors involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Evidence is accumulating that integrins expressed on mononuclear cells play a central role in the induction of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. The effects of integrins on glial cell behavior, myelination, and angiogenesis suggest that they may also have a role in resolving inflammation in the nervous system and in promoting tissue repair. We investigated the temporospatial expression of integrins in the rat central nervous system during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. A higher expression of alpha v- and beta 4-integrin subunits in astrocytes and alpha 2 integrin in oligodendrocytes was observed in active lesions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, in comparison with controls. Proinflammatory cytokines, primarily TNF-alpha, also enhanced alpha v, beta 4, and alpha 2 expression in purified glial cells ex vivo. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of some integrin subunits was modulated in the cerebral vasculature during inflammation. Our results suggest an active role for glial and vascular integrins in the regulation of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, opening an avenue for new potential immunotherapies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:9358769

  16. Trans-differentiation of prostatic stromal cells leads to decreased glycoprotein hormone alpha production.

    PubMed

    Rumpold, Holger; Mascher, Katarina; Untergasser, Gerold; Plas, Eugen; Hermann, Martin; Berger, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Age-related development of benign prostatic hyperplasia is an important health issue in developed countries. The histopathogenetic hallmark of this disease is the increase in relative and absolute numbers of smooth muscle cells (SMC). Glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPHalpha) is expressed in the human prostate, and, because of its structural similarities to other cystine knot growth factors, it has been considered to have growth regulatory functions of its own. Primary cell cultures allowing for selective cultivation of prostatic epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and SMC were established. Directed trans-differentiation and cellular homogeneity was pursued by confocal scanning laser microscopy with cell type-specific markers. GPHalpha production by these cells was assessed by immunofluorimetric assays. Its predominant source was young fibroblasts, whereas replicative senescent fibroblasts, SMC, and control fibroblasts from foreskin did not produce significant amounts. Functionally, GPHalpha reduced growth of stromal cells at concentrations of 10 and 100 nmol/liter as shown by cell viability assays. It is concluded that histogenetic reorganization over the adult lifetime, guided by endocrine factors like steroid hormones together with senescence of fibroblasts, leads to a decreased production of growth inhibitors, such as GPHalpha, favoring proliferation and the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  17. Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, H; Wilson, P F; Chen, D J; Thompson, L H; Bedford, J S; Little, J B

    2007-10-26

    We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a prominent bystander effect observed in V79 cells (Nagasawa et al., Radiat. Res. 164, 141-147, 2005). In the present study, we examined additional Chinese hamster cell lines deficient in the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3 as well as another essential HRR protein, Brca2. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in non-irradiated wild-type cell lines CHO, AA8 and V79 were 0.33 SCE/chromosome, whereas two Rad51C-deficient cell lines showed only 0.16 SCE/chromosome. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in cell lines defective in Rad51D, Xrcc2, Xrcc3, and Brca2 ranged from 0.23-0.33 SCE/chromosome, 0-30% lower than wild-type cells. SCEs were induced significantly 20-50% above spontaneous levels in wild-type cells exposed to a mean dose of 1.3 mGy of alpha particles (<1% of nuclei traversed by an alpha particle). However, induction of SCEs above spontaneous levels was minimal or absent after {alpha}-particle irradiation in all of the HRR-deficient cell lines. These data suggest that Brca2 and the Rad51 paralogs contribute to DNA damage repair processes induced in bystander cells (presumably oxidative damage repair in S-phase cells) following irradiation with very low doses of alpha particles.

  18. Structure and diversity of the T-cell receptor alpha chain in the Mexican axolotl.

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Dumay, A M; Aubet, G; Charlemagne, J

    1997-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate cDNA clones encoding putative T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha chains in an amphibian, the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Five TCRalpha-V chain-encoding segments were identified, each belonging to a separate family. The best identity scores for these axolotl TCRalpha-V segments were all provided by sequences belonging to the human TCRalpha-V1 family and the mouse TCRalpha-V3 and TCRalpha-V8 families. A total of 14 different TCRA-J segments were identified from 44 TCRA-V/TCRA-J regions sequenced, suggesting that a large repertoire of TCRA-J segments is a characteristic of most vertebrates. The structure of the axolotl CDR3 alpha chain loop is in good agreement with that of mammals, including a majority of small hydrophobic residues at position 92 and of charged, hydrophilic, or polar residues at positions 93 and 94, which are highly variable and correspond to the TCRA-V/J junction. This suggests that some positions of the axolotl CDR3 alpha chain loop are positively selected during T-cell differentiation, particularly around residue 93 that could be selected for its ability to makes contacts with major histocompatibility complex-associated antigenic peptides, as in mammals. The axolotl Calpha domain had the typical structure of mammalian and avian Calpha domains, including the charged residues in the TM segment that are thought to interact with other proteins in the membrane, as well as most of the residues forming the conserved antigen receptor transmembrane motif. PMID:9002443

  19. Transforming growth factor alpha treatment alters intracellular calcium levels in hair cells and protects them from ototoxic damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Staecker, H; Dazert, S; Malgrange, B; Lefebvre, P P; Ryan, A F; Van de Water, T R

    1997-07-01

    To determine if transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) pretreatment protects hair cells from aminoglycoside induced injury by modifying their intracellular calcium concentration, we assayed hair cell calcium levels in organ of Corti explants both before and after aminoglycoside (i.e. neomycin, 10(-3) M) exposure either with or without growth factor pretreatment. After TGF alpha (500 ng/ml) treatment, the intracellular calcium level of hair cells showed a five-fold increase as compared to the levels observed in the hair cells of control cultures. After ototoxin exposure, calcium levels in hair cells of control explants showed an increase relative to their baseline levels, while in the presence of growth factors pretreatment, hair cells showed a relative reduction in calcium levels. Pretreatment of organ of Corti explants afforded significant protection of hair cell stereocilia bundle morphology from ototoxic damage when compared to explants exposed to ototoxin alone. This study correlates a rise in hair cell calcium levels with the otoprotection of hair cells by TGF alpha in organ of Corti explants. PMID:9263032

  20. Induction of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in differentiated Caco-2 cells by the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine.

    PubMed

    Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Baykus, Hakan; Poortman, Jenneke; Garza, Cutberto; Kuiper, Harry; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2007-10-01

    Glycoalkaloids are naturally occurring toxins in potatoes, which at high levels may induce toxic effects in humans, mainly on the gastrointestinal tract by cell membrane disruption. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying glycoalkaloid toxicity, we examined the effects of alpha-chaconine on gene expression in the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line using DNA microarrays. Caco-2 cells were exposed for 6h to 10 microM alpha-chaconine in three independent experiments (randomized block design). The most prominent finding from our gene expression and pathway analyses was the upregulation of expression of several genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. This to some extent is in line with the literature-described mechanism of cell membrane disruption by glycoalkaloids. In addition, various growth factor signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated. This study is useful in understanding the mechanism(s) of alpha-chaconine toxicity, which may be extended to other potato glycoalkaloids more generally.

  1. Distinct localization and cell cycle dependence of COOH terminally tyrosinolated alpha-tubulin in the microtubules of Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    alpha-Tubulin can be posttranslationally modified in that its COOH- terminal amino acid residue, tyrosine, can be selectively removed and replaced again. This reaction cycle involves two enzymes, tubulin carboxypeptidase and tubulin tyrosine ligase. The functional significance of this unusual modification is unclear. The present study demonstrates that posttranslational tyrosinolation of alpha-tubulin does occur in the parasitic hemoflagellate Trypanosoma brucei brucei and that posttranslational tyrosinolation can be detected in both alpha- tubulin isoforms found in this organism. Trypanosomes contain a number of microtubular structures: the flagellar axoneme; the subpellicular layer of singlet microtubules which are closely associated with the cell membrane; the basal bodies; and a cytoplasmic pool of soluble tubulin. Tyrosinolated alpha-tubulin is present in all these populations. However, immunofluorescence studies demonstrate a distinct localization of tyrosinolated alpha-tubulin within individual microtubules and organelles. This localization is subject to a temporal modulation that correlates strongly with progress of a cell through the cell cycle. Our results indicate that the presence of tyrosinolated alpha-tubulin is a marker for newly formed microtubules. PMID:3546334

  2. G protein-coupled receptor 30 expression is up-regulated by EGF and TGF alpha in estrogen receptor alpha-positive cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vivacqua, Adele; Lappano, Rosamaria; De Marco, Paola; Sisci, Diego; Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca; Fuqua, Suzanne A W; Andò, Sebastiano; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)30 expression in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive endometrial, ovarian, and estrogen-sensitive, as well as tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and TGF alpha transactivate the GPR30 promoter and accordingly up-regulate GPR30 mRNA and protein levels only in endometrial and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. These effects exerted by EGF and TGF alpha were dependent on EGF receptor (EGFR) expression and activation and involved phosphorylation of the Tyr(1045) and Tyr(1173) EGFR sites. Using gene-silencing experiments and specific pharmacological inhibitors, we have ascertained that EGF and TGF alpha induce GPR30 expression through the EGFR/ERK transduction pathway, and the recruitment of c-fos to the activator protein-1 site located within GPR30 promoter sequence. Interestingly, we show that functional cross talk of GPR30 with both activated EGFR and ER alpha relies on a physical interaction among these receptors, further extending the potential of estrogen to trigger a complex stimulatory signaling network in hormone-sensitive tumors. Given that EGFR/HER2 overexpression is associated with tamoxifen resistance, our data may suggest that ligand-activated EGFR could contribute to the failure of tamoxifen therapy also by up-regulating GPR30, which in turn could facilitates the action of estrogen. In addition, important for resistance is the ability of tamoxifen to bind to and activate GPR30, the expression of which is up-regulated by EGFR activation. Our results emphasize the need for new endocrine agents able to block widespread actions of estrogen without exerting any stimulatory activity on transduction pathways shared by the steroid and growth factor-signaling networks.

  3. Purification and characterization of the glycoprotein hormone. cap alpha. -subunit-like material secreted by HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.S.; Rimerman, R.A.

    1988-08-23

    The protein secreted by HeLa cells that cross-reacts with antiserum developed against the ..cap alpha..-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been purified approximately 30,000-fold from concentrated culture medium by organic solvent fractionation followed by ion exchange, gel filtration, and lectin affinity chromatography. The final preparation had a specific activity (by RIA) of 6.8 x 10/sup 5/ ng of ..cap alpha../mg of protein and appeared homogeneous by electrophoresis on reducing/denaturing polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). Amino acid analysis indicated that HeLa-..cap alpha.. had a composition very similar to that of the urinary hCG ..cap alpha..-subunit. However, comparison of hCG-..cap alpha.. and HeLa-..cap alpha.. demonstrated that the tumor-associated subunit was not identical with its normal counterpart. The purified tumor protein had an apparent molecular weight greater than that of the urinary ..cap alpha..-subunit when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and this difference was even greater when a partially purified preparation was examined by an immunoblot technique (Western). Isoelectric focusing of the HeLa and hCG subunits demonstrated that the tumor protein had a lower pI. Immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis of ..cap alpha..-subunit from HeLa cultures labeled with (/sup 3/H)fucose indicated that the tumor subunit was fucosylated, whereas analysis of hCG-..cap alpha.. hydrosylates by HPLC confirmed previous reports that the placental subunit does not contain fucose. The results indicate that, regardless of whether or not a single ..cap alpha..-subunit gene is being expressed in both normal and neoplastic tissues, posttranslational modifications lead to a highly altered subunit in the tumor. The differences observed may be useful in diagnosing neoplastic vs hyperplastic conditions and may lend insight into the mechanism of ectopic hormone production by tumors.

  4. Regression of hepatocarcinoma cells using RNA aptamer specific to alpha-fetoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of RNA aptamer specific to AFP with high affinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific induction of HCC proliferation by AFP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient increase in oncogene expression by AFP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient inhibition of AFP-mediated HCC proliferation by the aptamer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient suppression of AFP-induced oncogene expression of by the aptamer. -- Abstract: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a cancer-associated fetal protein and has long been utilized as a serum fetal defect/tumor marker to monitor distress/disease progression. In addition, AFP is closely associated with the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, direct targeting of AFP has been recommended for a therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we developed and characterized an RNA aptamer that specifically bound to the alpha-fetoprotein using SELEX technology. The aptamer interacted with the AFP with a K{sub D} of {approx}33 nM. Importantly, the identified aptamer specifically and efficiently inhibited the AFP-mediated proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, the aptamer efficiently down-regulated AFP-induced expression of oncogenes in the cells. These results indicate that an AFP-specific RNA aptamer could be a useful therapeutic and diagnostic agent against AFP-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. PTH-related protein upregulates integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression and activates Akt in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Xiaoli; Falzon, Miriam . E-mail: mfalzon@utmb.edu

    2006-11-15

    Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma that metastasizes to bone. Tumor-produced parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a known stimulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, is a major mediator of the osteolytic process in breast cancer. We have previously shown that PTHrP increases breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and pro-invasive integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression. To determine the role of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 in these PTHrP-mediated effects, we utilized two strategies to modulate expression of the {alpha}6 and {beta}4 subunits in parental and PTHrP-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells: overexpression of {alpha}6{beta}4 by transfection with constructs encoding the {alpha}6 and {beta}4 subunits, and suppression of endogenous {alpha}6{beta}4 expression by transfection with siRNAs targeting these subunits. We now show that the effects of PTHrP are mediated via upregulation of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression. We also show that integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression is modulated at the mRNA level, indicating a transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanism of action for PTHrP. PTHrP expression also increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt, with a consequent increase in the levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The role of PTHrP in breast cancer growth and metastasis may thus be mediated via upregulation of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression and Akt activation, with consequent inactivation of GSK-3.

  6. Differences between normal and alpha-synuclein overexpressing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after Abeta(1-42) and NAC treatment.

    PubMed

    Hunya, Akos; Földi, István; Szegedi, Viktor; Soós, Katalin; Zarándi, Márta; Szabó, Antal; Zádori, Dénes; Penke, Botond; Datki, Zsolt L

    2008-03-28

    Alpha-synuclein (alphaSN) plays a major role in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Intracellular inclusions containing aggregated alphaSN have been reported in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's affected brains. Moreover, a proteolytic fragment of alphaSN, the so-called non-amyloid component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid (NAC) was found to be an integral part of Alzheimer's dementia related plaques. Despite the extensive research on this topic, the exact toxic mechanism of alphaSN remains elusive. We have taken the advantage of an alphaSN overexpressing SH-SY5Y cell line and investigated the effects of classical apoptotic factors (e.g. H(2)O(2), amphotericin B and ruthenium red) and aggregated disease-related peptides on cell viability compared to wild type neuroblastoma cells. It was found that alphaSN overexpressing cells are more sensitive to aggregated peptides treatment than normal expressing counterparts. In contrast, cells containing elevated amount of alphaSN were less vulnerable to classical apoptotic stressors than wild type cells. In addition, alphaSN overexpression is accompanied by altered phenotype, attenuated proliferation kinetics, increased neurite arborisation and decreased cell motility. Based on these results, the alphaSN overexpressing cell lines may represent a good and effective in vitro model for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. PMID:18355641

  7. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Granata, A; Nicoletti, R; Tinaglia, V; De Cecco, L; Pisanu, M E; Ricci, A; Podo, F; Canevari, S; Iorio, E; Bagnoli, M; Mezzanzanica, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aberrant choline metabolism has been proposed as a novel cancer hallmark. We recently showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha). Methods: To assess its biological relevance, ChoK-alpha expression was downmodulated by transient RNA interference in EOC in vitro models. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis and functional analysis was performed to identify the pathway/functions perturbed in ChoK-alpha-silenced cells, then validated by in vitro experiments. Results: In silenced cells, compared with control, we observed: (I) a significant reduction of both CHKA transcript and ChoK-alpha protein expression; (II) a dramatic, proportional drop in PCho content ranging from 60 to 71%, as revealed by 1H-magnetic spectroscopy analysis; (III) a 35–36% of cell growth inhibition, with no evidences of apoptosis or modification of the main cellular survival signalling pathways; (IV) 476 differentially expressed genes, including genes related to lipid metabolism. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified cellular functions related to cell death and cellular proliferation and movement as the most perturbed. Accordingly, CHKA-silenced cells displayed a significant delay in wound repair, a reduced migration and invasion capability were also observed. Furthermore, although CHKA silencing did not directly induce cell death, a significant increase of sensitivity to platinum, paclitaxel and doxorubicin was observed even in a drug-resistant context. Conclusion: We showed for the first time in EOC that CHKA downregulation significantly decreased the aggressive EOC cell behaviour also affecting cells' sensitivity to drug treatment. These observations open the way to further analysis for ChoK-alpha validation as a new EOC therapeutic target to be used alone or in combination with

  8. Integrin-Alpha IIb Identifies Murine Lymph Node Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Responsive to RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Olga G.; Chypre, Mélanie; Brouard, Nathalie; Rauber, Simon; Alloush, Farouk; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Bénézech, Cécile; Li, Zhi; Eckly, Anita; Coles, Mark C.; Rot, Antal; Yagita, Hideo; Léon, Catherine; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cupedo, Tom; Lanza, François; Mueller, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Microenvironment and activation signals likely imprint heterogeneity in the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) population. Particularly LECs of secondary lymphoid organs are exposed to different cell types and immune stimuli. However, our understanding of the nature of LEC activation signals and their cell source within the secondary lymphoid organ in the steady state remains incomplete. Here we show that integrin alpha 2b (ITGA2b), known to be carried by platelets, megakaryocytes and hematopoietic progenitors, is expressed by a lymph node subset of LECs, residing in medullary, cortical and subcapsular sinuses. In the subcapsular sinus, the floor but not the ceiling layer expresses the integrin, being excluded from ACKR4+ LECs but overlapping with MAdCAM-1 expression. ITGA2b expression increases in response to immunization, raising the possibility that heterogeneous ITGA2b levels reflect variation in exposure to activation signals. We show that alterations of the level of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), by overexpression, neutralization or deletion from stromal marginal reticular cells, affected the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. Lymph node LECs but not peripheral LECs express RANK. In addition, we found that lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling likewise regulated the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. These findings demonstrate that stromal reticular cells activate LECs via RANKL and support the action of hematopoietic cell-derived lymphotoxin. PMID:27010197

  9. Integrin-Alpha IIb Identifies Murine Lymph Node Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Responsive to RANKL.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Olga G; Chypre, Mélanie; Brouard, Nathalie; Rauber, Simon; Alloush, Farouk; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Bénézech, Cécile; Li, Zhi; Eckly, Anita; Coles, Mark C; Rot, Antal; Yagita, Hideo; Léon, Catherine; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cupedo, Tom; Lanza, François; Mueller, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Microenvironment and activation signals likely imprint heterogeneity in the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) population. Particularly LECs of secondary lymphoid organs are exposed to different cell types and immune stimuli. However, our understanding of the nature of LEC activation signals and their cell source within the secondary lymphoid organ in the steady state remains incomplete. Here we show that integrin alpha 2b (ITGA2b), known to be carried by platelets, megakaryocytes and hematopoietic progenitors, is expressed by a lymph node subset of LECs, residing in medullary, cortical and subcapsular sinuses. In the subcapsular sinus, the floor but not the ceiling layer expresses the integrin, being excluded from ACKR4+ LECs but overlapping with MAdCAM-1 expression. ITGA2b expression increases in response to immunization, raising the possibility that heterogeneous ITGA2b levels reflect variation in exposure to activation signals. We show that alterations of the level of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), by overexpression, neutralization or deletion from stromal marginal reticular cells, affected the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. Lymph node LECs but not peripheral LECs express RANK. In addition, we found that lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling likewise regulated the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. These findings demonstrate that stromal reticular cells activate LECs via RANKL and support the action of hematopoietic cell-derived lymphotoxin. PMID:27010197

  10. In vitro expression of the alpha-smooth muscle actin isoform by rat lung mesenchymal cells: regulation by culture condition and transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J J; Woodcock-Mitchell, J L; Perry, L; Zhao, J; Low, R B; Baldor, L; Absher, P M

    1993-07-01

    alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha SM actin)-containing cells recently have been demonstrated in intraalveolar lesions in both rat and human tissues following lung injury. In order to develop model systems for the study of such cells, we examined cultured lung cell lines for this phenotype. The adult rat lung fibroblast-like "RL" cell lines were found to express alpha SM actin mRNA and protein and to organize this actin into stress fiber-like structures. Immunocytochemical staining of subclones of the RL87 line demonstrated the presence in the cultures of at least four cell phenotypes, one that fails to express alpha SM actin and three distinct morphologic types that do express alpha SM actin. The proportion of cellular actin that is the alpha-isoform was modulated by the culture conditions. RL cells growing at low density expressed minimal alpha SM actin. On reaching confluent densities, however, alpha SM actin increased to at least 20% of the total actin content. This effect, combined with the observation that the most immunoreactive cells were those that displayed overlapping cell processes in culture, suggests that cell-cell contact may be involved in actin isoform regulation in these cells. Similar to the response of some smooth muscle cell lines, alpha SM actin expression in RL cells also was promoted by conditions, e.g., maintenance in low serum medium, which minimize cell division. alpha SM actin expression was modulated in RL cells by the growth factor transforming growth factor-beta. Addition of this cytokine to growing cells substantially elevated the proportion of alpha SM actin protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Inhibition of allograft rejection by anti-T-cell receptor-alpha beta monoclonal antibodies preserving resistance to bacterial infection.

    PubMed Central

    Eto, M; Yoshikai, Y; Nishimura, Y; Hiromatsu, K; Maeda, T; Nomoto, K; Kong, Y Y; Kubo, R T; Kumazawa, J; Nomoto, K

    1994-01-01

    Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been administered in clinical organ transplantation to reverse acute allograft rejection; however, severe immunodeficiency can result from such mAb treatment and cause an increased incidence of opportunistic infections. Therefore, new model systems are required in order to establish better methods for suppressing allograft rejection while preserving resistance to opportunistic infections. In this study, we compared the effects of the in vivo administration of anti-T-cell receptor-alpha beta (TcR alpha beta) mAb, H57-597, with those of anti-CD3 mAb, 145-2C11. Much to our surprise, the in vivo administration of anti-TcR alpha beta mAb prior to skin grafting led to a longer allograft survival than that of anti-CD3 mAb at any of the comparable dosages examined. In the lymphoid organs of mice treated with anti-TcR alpha beta mAb, TcR alpha beta-bearing cells were almost completely depleted, while TcR gamma delta-bearing cells remained at a relatively increased level on day 14 after anti-TcR alpha beta mAb treatment. The in vitro stimulation by anti-TcR gamma delta mAb clearly showed that such TcR gamma delta-bearing cells were functionally intact. Furthermore, the mice treated with anti-TcR alpha beta mAb, but not anti-CD3 mAb, were observed to be resistant to infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Finally, treatment with H57-597, but not with 145-2C11, led to a marked prolongation of skin allograft survival in the thymectomized mice. These results strongly suggest that anti-TcR alpha beta mAb, which partially preserved anti-bacterial resistance, may be more effective in preventing graft rejection than anti-CD3 mAb in the periphery, and indicate that anti-TcR alpha beta mAb may thus be potentially applicable for human transplantation. In addition, these results also indicate that the TcR gamma delta-bearing cells alone, at least in the absence of TcR alpha beta-bearing cells, do not contribute to allograft rejection in vivo. PMID

  12. Isorhamnetin Attenuates Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Lung Cell Injury by Inhibiting Alpha-Hemolysin Expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lanxiang; Li, Hongen; Wang, Laiying; Song, Zexin; Shi, Lei; Li, Wenhua; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, like other gram-positive pathogens, has evolved a large repertoire of virulence factors as a powerful weapon to subvert the host immune system, among which alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a secreted pore-forming cytotoxin, plays a preeminent role. We observed a concentration-dependent reduction in Hla production by S. aureus in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of isorhamnetin, a flavonoid from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L., which has little antibacterial activity. We further evaluate the effect of isorhamnetin on the transcription of the Hla-encoding gene hla and RNAIII, an effector molecule in the agr system. Isorhamnetin significantly down-regulated RNAIII expression and subsequently inhibited hla transcription. In a co-culture of S. aureus and lung cells, topical isorhamnetin treatment protected against S. aureus-induced cell injury. Isorhamnetin may represent a leading compound for the development of anti-virulence drugs against S. aureus infections. PMID:26643966

  13. Estrogen receptor alpha is cell cycle-regulated and regulates the cell cycle in a ligand-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    JavanMoghadam, Sonia; Weihua, Zhang; Hunt, Kelly K; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2016-06-17

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been implicated in several cell cycle regulatory events and is an important predictive marker of disease outcome in breast cancer patients. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism through which ERα influences proliferation in breast cancer cells. Our results show that ERα protein is cell cycle-regulated in human breast cancer cells and that the presence of 17-β-estradiol (E2) in the culture medium shortened the cell cycle significantly (by 4.5 hours, P < 0.05) compared with unliganded conditions. The alterations in cell cycle duration were observed in the S and G2/M phases, whereas the G1 phase was indistinguishable under liganded and unliganded conditions. In addition, ERα knockdown in MCF-7 cells accelerated mitotic exit, whereas transfection of ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells with exogenous ERα significantly shortened the S and G2/M phases (by 9.1 hours, P < 0.05) compared with parental cells. Finally, treatment of MCF-7 cells with antiestrogens revealed that tamoxifen yields a slower cell cycle progression through the S and G2/M phases than fulvestrant does, presumably because of the destabilizing effect of fulvestrant on ERα protein. Together, these results show that ERα modulates breast cancer cell proliferation by regulating events during the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle in a ligand-dependent fashion. These results provide the rationale for an effective treatment strategy that includes a cell cycle inhibitor in combination with a drug that lowers estrogen levels, such as an aromatase inhibitor, and an antiestrogen that does not result in the degradation of ERα, such as tamoxifen.

  14. Cell-associated alpha-amylases of butyrate-producing Firmicute bacteria from the human colon.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Alan G; Scott, Karen P; Martin, Jenny C; Rincon, Marco T; Flint, Harry J

    2006-11-01

    Selected butyrate-producing bacteria from the human colon that are related to Roseburia spp. and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a good ability to utilize a variety of starches for growth when compared with the Gram-negative amylolytic anaerobe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. A major cell-associated amylase of high molecular mass (140-210 kDa) was detected in each strain by SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis, and genes corresponding to these enzymes were analysed for two representative strains. Amy13B from But. fibrisolvens 16/4 is a multi-domain enzyme of 144.6 kDa that includes a family 13 glycoside hydrolase domain, and duplicated family 26 carbohydrate-binding modules. Amy13A (182.4 kDa), from Roseburia inulinivorans A2-194, also includes a family 13 domain, which is preceded by two repeat units of approximately 116 aa rich in aromatic residues, an isoamylase N-terminal domain, a pullulanase-associated domain, and an additional unidentified domain. Both Amy13A and Amy13B have N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal cell-wall sorting signals, including a modified LPXTG motif similar to that involved in interactions with the cell surface in other Gram-positive bacteria, a hydrophobic transmembrane segment, and a basic C terminus. The overexpressed family 13 domains showed an absolute requirement for Mg2+ or Ca2+ for activity, and functioned as 1,4-alpha-glucanohydrolases (alpha-amylases; EC 3.2.1.1). These major starch-degrading enzymes thus appear to be anchored to the cell wall in this important group of human gut bacteria.

  15. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  16. 17{alpha}-Estradiol arrests cell cycle progression at G{sub 2}/M and induces apoptotic cell death in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Do Youn; Park, Hae Sun; Kim, Jun Seok; Kim, Jong Sik; Park, Wan; Song, Bang Ho; Kim, Hee-Sook; Taub, Dennis; Kim, Young Ho

    2008-09-15

    A pharmacological dose (2.5-10 {mu}M) of 17{alpha}-estradiol (17{alpha}-E{sub 2}) exerted a cytotoxic effect on human leukemias Jurkat T and U937 cells, which was not suppressed by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Along with cytotoxicity in Jurkat T cells, several apoptotic events including mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9, -3, and -8, PARP degradation, and DNA fragmentation were induced. The cytotoxicity of 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} was not blocked by the anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB-4. While undergoing apoptosis, there was a remarkable accumulation of G{sub 2}/M cells with the upregulatoin of cdc2 kinase activity, which was reflected in the Thr56 phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Dephosphorylation at Tyr15 and phosphorylation at Thr161 of cdc2, and significant increase in the cyclin B1 level were underlying factors for the cdc2 kinase activation. Whereas the 17{alpha}-E{sub 2}-induced apoptosis was completely abrogated by overexpression of Bcl-2 or by pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, the accumulation of G{sub 2}/M cells significantly increased. The caspase-8 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk failed to influence 17{alpha}-E{sub 2}-mediated caspase-9 activation, but it markedly reduced caspase-3 activation and PARP degradation with the suppression of apoptosis, indicating the contribution of caspase-8; not as an upstream event of the mitochondrial cytochrome c release, but to caspase-3 activation. In the presence of hydroxyurea, which blocked the cell cycle progression at the G{sub 1}/S boundary, 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} failed to induce the G{sub 2}/M arrest as well as apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} toward Jurkat T cells is attributable to apoptosis mainly induced in G{sub 2}/M-arrested cells, in an ER-independent manner, via a mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway regulated by Bcl-2.

  17. Interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists and. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in rabbit ileal cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Homeidan, F.R.; Wicks, J.; Cusolito, S.; El-Sabban, M.E.; Sharp, G.W.G.; Donowitz, M.

    1986-03-05

    An interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists and the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor on active electrolyte transport was demonstrated in rabbit ileum. Clonidine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist, stimulated NaCl absorption apparently by Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonism since it inhibited /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ uptake across the basolateral membrane and decreased total ileal calcium content. This stimulation was inhibited by the Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists dl- and l-verapamil and cadmium but not by nifedipine. The binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine, a specific ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic antagonist, was studied on purified ileal cell membranes using a rapid filtration technique. dl-Verapamil and Cd/sup + +/ inhibited the specific binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine over the same concentration range in which they affected transport. In contrast, nifedipine had no effect on binding, just as it had no effect on clonidine-stimulated NaCl absorption. These data demonstrate that there is an interaction between Ca/sup + +/-channels and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors in ileal basolateral membranes. Some Ca/sup + +/-channel antagonists alter ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic binding to the receptor and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist binding leads to changes in Ca/sup + +/ entry. A close spatial relationship between the Ca/sup + +/-channel and the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor could explain the data.

  18. Interactions of interferon-alpha 2a with 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine in colorectal cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tevaearai, H T; Laurent, P L; Suardet, L; Eliason, J F; Givel, J C; Odartchenko, N

    1992-01-01

    The biological activity of 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd) depends upon intracellular enzymatic cleavage by pyrimidine phosphorylase to form 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Interferon-alpha 2a (IFN-alpha) effect was analysed alone and combined with 5-FU or 5'-dFUrd, on proliferation inhibition of eight human colorectal cancer cell lines. The toxicity of 5-FU was enhanced by IFN-alpha in only one line (SW-480). In contrast, interactive enhancement of IFN-alpha was observed with 5'-dFUrd in five lines (WiDr, HT-29, 513, SW-480 and Co-115). In each of the lines showing potentiation by IFN/5'dFUrd but not by IFN/5-FU, cytoplasmic pyrimidine phosphorylase activity was increased after 5 days' incubation with IFN-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. Two lines (LISP-1 and SW-620) showed no potentiation of either 5-FU or 5'-dFUrd toxicity by IFN-alpha, and no change in pyrimidine phosphorylase activity. Potentiation of 5'-dFUrd effect by IFN-alpha may thus be explained by an enhancement of its conversion to 5-FU through stimulation of pyrimidine phosphorylase activity. PMID:1534247

  19. Canarypox Virus-Induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells Is Mediated by Apoptotic Cell Death and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Ralf; Marovich, Mary; Mehlhop, Erin; Villamide, Loreley; Mahnke, Karsten; Cox, William I.; Isdell, Frank; Frankel, Sarah S.; Mascola, John R.; Steinman, Ralph M.; Pope, Melissa

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant avipox viruses are being widely evaluated as vaccines. To address how these viruses, which replicate poorly in mammalian cells, might be immunogenic, we studied how canarypox virus (ALVAC) interacts with primate antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). When human and rhesus macaque monocyte-derived DCs were exposed to recombinant ALVAC, immature DCs were most susceptible to infection. However, many of the infected cells underwent apoptotic cell death, and dying infected cells were engulfed by uninfected DCs. Furthermore, a subset of DCs matured in the ALVAC-exposed DC cultures. DC maturation coincided with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion and was significantly blocked in the presence of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Interestingly, inhibition of apoptosis with a caspase 3 inhibitor also reduced some of the maturation induced by exposure to ALVAC. This indicates that both TNF-α and the presence of primarily apoptotic cells contributed to DC maturation. Therefore, infection of immature primate DCs with ALVAC results in apoptotic death of infected cells, which can be internalized by noninfected DCs driving DC maturation in the presence of the TNF-α secreted concomitantly by exposed cells. This suggests an important mechanism that may influence the immunogenicity of avipox virus vectors. PMID:11070033

  20. Cell growth kinetics of the human cell line Colo-205 irradiated with photons and astatine-211 alpha-particles.

    PubMed

    Palm, S; Andersson, H; Bäck, T; Claesson, I; Delle, U; Hultborn, R; Jacobsson, L; Köpf, I; Lindegren, S

    2000-01-01

    Cell growth kinetics following Astatine-211 (211At, alpha-particle emitter) and photon irradiation were studied for the human colorectal cell line Colo-205. A growth assay using 96-well plates was chosen. The growth kinetics could be simulated by assuming certain fractions of cells with various proliferative capacities, i.e. from none up to 5 cell doublings, in addition to the defined survivors with remaining unlimited clonogenic capacity. No significant difference in cell growth characteristics was seen between 211At and photon irradiation. The cell doubling time, as calculated from the increment in optical density, was compared with the results from BrdU experiments in the early phases of growth (Tpot = 18.5 +/- 0.6 h for LDR (low dose rate) photon irradiated and 20.3 +/- 0.8 hours for sham-irradiated cells 40-45 hours post-irradiation) confirming the transient accelerated growth of irradiated cells. No statistically significant difference in growth was found between LDR, MDR (medium dose rate) and HDR (high dose rate) photon irradiation.

  1. Antiproliferative action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on MCF-7 breastcancer cells is associated with increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rozen, F; Zhang, J; Pollak, M

    1998-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in host response to neoplasia. TNF-alpha has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are potent mitogens involved in growth regulation of breast epithelial cells and are implicated in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Their bioactivity is strongly influenced by specific IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). We report that accumulation of IGFBP-3 in the conditioned media of MCF-7 cells is increased over control values in the presence of TNF-alpha. The increased IGFBP-3 accumulation induced by TNF-alpha is correlated with increased IGFBP-3 mRNA abundance. TNF-alpha also decreases IGF-I receptor levels in MCF-7 cells. Estradiol-stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation is associated with reduced IGFBP-3 accumulation, and we show that TNF-alpha attenuation of estradiol-stimulated proliferation is associated with increased IGFBP-3 accumulation. Finally, we demonstrate that an IGFBP-3 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide antagonizes TNF-alpha-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and TNF-alpha-induced IGFBP-3 accumulation. These data strongly suggest that IGFBP-3 plays a role in modulation of breast cancer cell proliferation by TNF-alpha.

  2. Disturbance of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Mediated Beta Interferon Signaling in Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Hanke, Brigitte; Zawatzky, Rainer; Soto, Ubaldo; van Riggelen, Jan; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we show that malignant human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cells lost their ability to synthesize endogenous beta interferon (IFN-β) upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) treatment. IFN-β transcription, however, was reinducible in nonmalignant HPV-positive cells, which was confirmed in functional protection assays against encephalomyocarditis virus or vesicular stomatitis virus infections. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against IFN-β blocked the antiviral effect, excluding the possibility that other IFN types were involved. Conversely, both malignant and immortalized cells could be protected against viral cytolysis when either IFN-β, IFN-α, or IFN-γ was added exogenously. This indicates that only the cross talk between TNF-α and the IFN-β pathways, and not IFN-α/β and IFN-γ signaling in general, is perturbed in cervical carcinoma cells. Notably, full virus protection was restricted exclusively to nonmalignant cells, indicating that the antiviral effect correlates with the growth-inhibitory and virus-suppressive properties of TNF-α. The IFN-regulatory factors IRF-1 and p48 (ISGF3γ) emerged as key regulatory molecules in the differential IFN-β response, since their transcription was either absent or only inefficiently enhanced in tumorigenic cells upon treatment with TNF-α. Inducibility of both genes, however, became reestablished in cervical carcinoma cells, which were complemented to nontumorigenicity after somatic cell hybridization. Complementation was paralleled by the entire reconstitution of cytokine-mediated IFN-β expression and the ability of TNF-α to exert an antiviral state. In contrast, under conditions where tumor suppression was not accomplished upon somatic cell hybridization, neither expression of IRF-1, p48, and IFN-β nor antiviral activity could be restored. PMID:11739693

  3. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Is Expressed in Germ Cells throughout the Murine Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lauren H.; Mathews, Juanita; Yamazaki, Yuki; Allsopp, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo, and germ line cells, are essential to ensure uncompromised development to adulthood as well as species propagation, respectively. Recently, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) has been shown to have important roles in embryonic stem cells; in particular, regulation of conversion to glycolytic metabolism and, as we have shown, maintenance of functional levels of telomerase. In the present study, we sought to assess whether Hif1α was also expressed in the primitive cells of the murine embryo. We observed expression of Hif1α in pre-implantation embryos, specifically the 2-cell stage, morula, and blastocyst. Robust Hif1α expression was also observed in male and female primordial germ cells. We subsequently assessed whether Hif1α was expressed in adult male and female germ cells. In the testis, Hif1α was robustly expressed in spermatogonial cells, in both juvenile (6-week old) and adult (3-month old) males. In the ovaries, Hif1α was expressed in mature oocytes from adult females, as assessed both in situ and in individual oocytes flushed from super-ovulated females. Analysis of Hif1α transcript levels indicates a mechanism of regulation during early development that involves stockpiling of Hif1α protein in mature oocytes, presumably to provide protection from hypoxic stress until the gene is re-activated at the blastocyst stage. Together, these observations show that Hif1α is expressed throughout the life-cycle, including both the male and female germ line, and point to an important role for Hif1α in early progenitor cells. PMID:27148974

  4. The adhesive and migratory effects of osteopontin are mediated via distinct cell surface integrins. Role of alpha v beta 3 in smooth muscle cell migration to osteopontin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, L; Skinner, M P; Raines, E W; Ross, R; Cheresh, D A; Schwartz, S M; Giachelli, C M

    1995-01-01

    Osteopontin is an arginine-glycine-aspartate containing acidic glycoprotein postulated to mediate adhesion, migration, and biomineralization in diverse tissues. The mechanisms explaining this multifunctionality are not well understood, although it is known that one osteopontin receptor is the alpha v beta 3 integrin. In this work, we studied human smooth muscle cells varying in alpha v beta 3 levels to identify additional osteopontin receptors. We report that, in addition to alpha v beta 3, both alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 1 are osteopontin receptors. Moreover, the presence or absence of alpha v beta 3 on the cell surface altered the adhesive and migratory responses of smooth muscle cells to osteopontin. Adhesion of alpha v beta 3-deficient cell populations to osteopontin was only half that of cells containing alpha v beta 3, and migration toward an osteopontin gradient in the Boyden chamber was dependent on cell surface alpha v beta 3. Although alpha v beta 3-deficient smooth muscle cells were unable to migrate to osteopontin, they did migrate significantly in response to vitronectin and fibronectin. These findings represent the first description of alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 1 as osteopontin receptors and suggest that, while adhesion to osteopontin is supported by integrins containing beta 1, beta 3, and beta 5, migration in response to osteopontin appears to depend on alpha v beta 3. Thus, interaction with distinct receptors is one mechanism by which osteopontin may initiate multiple functions. Images PMID:7532190

  5. A study of membrane protein defects and alpha hemoglobin chains of red blood cells in human beta thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rouyer-Fessard, P.; Garel, M.C.; Domenget, C.; Guetarni, D.; Bachir, D.; Colonna, P.; Beuzard, Y. )

    1989-11-15

    The soluble pool of alpha hemoglobin chains present in blood or bone marrow cells was measured with a new affinity method using a specific probe, beta A hemoglobin chain labeled with ({sup 3}H)N-ethylmaleimide. This pool of soluble alpha chains was 0.067 {plus minus} 0.017% of hemoglobin in blood of normal adult, 0.11 {plus minus} 0.03% in heterozygous beta thalassemia and ranged from 0.26 to 1.30% in homozygous beta thalassemia intermedia. This elevated pool of soluble alpha chains observed in human beta thalassemia intermedia decreased 33-fold from a value of 10% of total hemoglobin in bone marrow cells to 0.3% in the most dense red blood cells. The amount of insoluble alpha chains was measured by using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea and Triton X-100. In beta thalassemia intermedia the amount of insoluble alpha chains was correlated with the decreased spectrin content of red cell membrane and was associated with a decrease in ankyrin and with other abnormalities of the electrophoretic pattern of membrane proteins. The loss and topology of the reactive thiol groups of membrane proteins was determined by using ({sup 3}H)N-ethylmaleimide added to membrane ghosts prior to urea and Triton X-100 electrophoresis. Spectrin and ankyrin were the major proteins with the most important decrease of thiol groups.

  6. Retinoic acid induced growth arrest of human breast carcinoma cells requires protein kinase C alpha expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y; Tighe, A P; Talmage, D A

    1997-09-01

    Retinoic acid inhibits proliferation of hormone-dependent, but not hormone-independent breast cancer cells. Retinoic acid-induced changes in cellular proliferation and differentiation are associated with disturbances in growth factor signaling and frequently with changes in protein kinase C expression. PKC delta, epsilon, and zeta are expressed in both hormone-dependent (T-47D) and hormone-independent (MDA-MB-231) cell lines. Retinoic acid arrested T-47D proliferation, induced PKC alpha expression and concomitantly repressed PKC zeta expression. The changes in PKC alpha and PKC zeta reflect retinoic acid-induced changes in mRNA. In contrast, retinoic acid had no effect on growth, or PKC expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Growth arrest and the induction of PKC alpha, but not the reduction in PKC zeta, resulted from selective activation of RAR alpha. In total, these results support an important role for PKC alpha in mediating the anti-proliferative action of retinoids on human breast carcinoma cells.

  7. Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threat of a terrorist-precipitated nuclear event places humans at danger for radiological exposures. Isotopes which emit alpha (α)-particle radiation pose the highest risk. Currently, gene expression signatures are being developed for radiation biodosimetry and triage with respect to ionizing photon radiation. This study was designed to determine if similar gene expression profiles are obtained after exposures involving α-particles. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to identify sensitive and robust gene-based biomarkers of α-particle radiation exposure. Cells were isolated from healthy individuals and were irradiated at doses ranging from 0-1.5 Gy. Microarray technology was employed to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to unirradiated cells 24 hours post-exposure. Statistical analysis identified modulated genes at each of the individual doses. Results Twenty-nine genes were common to all doses with expression levels ranging from 2-10 fold relative to control treatment group. This subset of genes was further assessed in independent complete white blood cell (WBC) populations exposed to either α-particles or X-rays using quantitative real-time PCR. This 29 gene panel was responsive in the α-particle exposed WBCs and was shown to exhibit differential fold-changes compared to X-irradiated cells, though no α-particle specific transcripts were identified. Conclusion Current gene panels for photon radiation may also be applicable for use in α-particle radiation biodosimetry. PMID:25017500

  8. SIP1/NHERF2 enhances estrogen receptor alpha transactivation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Morales, Ivan; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles C.; Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Trujillo-González, Isis; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; García-Zepeda, Eduardo; Méndez-Enríquez, Erika; Cervantes-Roldán, Rafael; Pérez-Sánchez, Víctor; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that possesses two activating domains designated AF-1 and AF-2 that mediate its transcriptional activity. The role of AF-2 is to recruit coregulator protein complexes capable of modifying chromatin condensation status. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for the ligand-independent AF-1 activity and for its synergistic functional interaction with AF-2 is unclear. In this study, we have identified the protein Na+/H+ Exchanger RegulatoryFactor 2 (NHERF2) as an ERα-associated coactivator that interacts predominantly with the AF-1 domain of the nuclear receptor. Overexpression of NHERF2 in breast cancer MCF7 cells produced an increase in ERα transactivation. Interestingly, the presence of SRC-1 in NHERF2 stably overexpressing MCF7 cells produced a synergistic increase in ERα activity. We show further that NHERF2 interacts with ERα and SRC-1 in the promoter region of ERα target genes. The binding of NHERF2 to ERα in MCF7 cells increased cell proliferation and the ability of MCF7 cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We analyzed the expression of NHERF2 in breast cancer tumors finding a 2- to 17-fold increase in its mRNA levels in 50% of the tumor samples compared to normal breast tissue. These results indicate that NHERF2 is a coactivator of ERα that may participate in the development of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors. PMID:24771346

  9. SIP1/NHERF2 enhances estrogen receptor alpha transactivation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Morales, Ivan; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles C; Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Trujillo-González, Isis; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; García-Zepeda, Eduardo; Méndez-Enríquez, Erika; Cervantes-Roldán, Rafael; Pérez-Sánchez, Víctor; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that possesses two activating domains designated AF-1 and AF-2 that mediate its transcriptional activity. The role of AF-2 is to recruit coregulator protein complexes capable of modifying chromatin condensation status. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for the ligand-independent AF-1 activity and for its synergistic functional interaction with AF-2 is unclear. In this study, we have identified the protein Na+/H+ Exchanger RegulatoryFactor 2 (NHERF2) as an ERα-associated coactivator that interacts predominantly with the AF-1 domain of the nuclear receptor. Overexpression of NHERF2 in breast cancer MCF7 cells produced an increase in ERα transactivation. Interestingly, the presence of SRC-1 in NHERF2 stably overexpressing MCF7 cells produced a synergistic increase in ERα activity. We show further that NHERF2 interacts with ERα and SRC-1 in the promoter region of ERα target genes. The binding of NHERF2 to ERα in MCF7 cells increased cell proliferation and the ability of MCF7 cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We analyzed the expression of NHERF2 in breast cancer tumors finding a 2- to 17-fold increase in its mRNA levels in 50% of the tumor samples compared to normal breast tissue. These results indicate that NHERF2 is a coactivator of ERα that may participate in the development of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors.

  10. SIP1/NHERF2 enhances estrogen receptor alpha transactivation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Morales, Ivan; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles C; Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Trujillo-González, Isis; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; García-Zepeda, Eduardo; Méndez-Enríquez, Erika; Cervantes-Roldán, Rafael; Pérez-Sánchez, Víctor; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that possesses two activating domains designated AF-1 and AF-2 that mediate its transcriptional activity. The role of AF-2 is to recruit coregulator protein complexes capable of modifying chromatin condensation status. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for the ligand-independent AF-1 activity and for its synergistic functional interaction with AF-2 is unclear. In this study, we have identified the protein Na+/H+ Exchanger RegulatoryFactor 2 (NHERF2) as an ERα-associated coactivator that interacts predominantly with the AF-1 domain of the nuclear receptor. Overexpression of NHERF2 in breast cancer MCF7 cells produced an increase in ERα transactivation. Interestingly, the presence of SRC-1 in NHERF2 stably overexpressing MCF7 cells produced a synergistic increase in ERα activity. We show further that NHERF2 interacts with ERα and SRC-1 in the promoter region of ERα target genes. The binding of NHERF2 to ERα in MCF7 cells increased cell proliferation and the ability of MCF7 cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We analyzed the expression of NHERF2 in breast cancer tumors finding a 2- to 17-fold increase in its mRNA levels in 50% of the tumor samples compared to normal breast tissue. These results indicate that NHERF2 is a coactivator of ERα that may participate in the development of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors. PMID:24771346

  11. Interaction of the human cytomegalovirus particle with the host cell induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Steven; Nicholl, Mary Jane; Sutherland, Jane S.; Preston, Chris M.

    2011-05-25

    The cellular protein hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) was induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv-HCMV) also elicited the effect, demonstrating that the response was provoked by interaction of the infecting virion with the cell and that viral gene expression was not required. Although induction of HIF-1{alpha} was initiated by an early event, accumulation of the protein was not detected until 9 hours post infection, with levels increasing thereafter. Infection with uv-HCMV resulted in increased abundance of HIF-1{alpha}-specific RNA, indicating stimulation of transcription. In addition, greater phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt was observed, and the activity of this enzyme was required for induction of HIF-1{alpha} to occur. HIF-1{alpha} controls the expression of many cellular gene products; therefore the findings reveal new ways in which interaction of the HCMV particle with the host cell may cause significant alterations to cellular physiology.

  12. Pro-gliogenic effect of IL-1alpha in the differentiation of embryonic neural precursor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Cacci, Emanuele; Ragazzoni, Ylenia; Minghetti, Luisa; Biagioni, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Inflammation is regarded as a main obstacle to brain regeneration. Major detrimental effects are attributed to microglial/macrophagic products, such as TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6. The role of cytokines of the IL-1 family, particularly of IL-1alpha, in the modulation of neural precursor cell (NPC) properties is less characterized. IL-1alpha is one of the most abundant cytokines released upon acute stimulation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide and is down-regulated upon chronic stimulation. As we recently demonstrated, acutely activated microglia reduces NPC survival, prevent neuronal differentiation and promote glial differentiation. Chronically activated microglia are instead permissive to NPC survival and neuronal differentiation, and less effective in promoting astrocytic differentiation. We thus investigated whether IL-1alpha could contribute to the effects of acutely activated microglia on NPC. We found that NPC express functional IL-1 receptors and that exposure to recombinant IL-1alpha strongly enhances NPC differentiation into astrocytes, without affecting cell viability and neuronal differentiation. In the same conditions, recombinant IL-1beta has pro-gliogenic effects at concentrations 10-fold higher than those found in activated microglial conditioned media. Interestingly, immunodepletion of IL-1alpha in activated microglial conditioned media fails to revert microglial pro-gliogenic action and slightly enhances neuronal differentiation, revealing that other microglial-derived factors contribute to the modulation of NPC properties. PMID:20236219

  13. Structure and binding kinetics of three different human CD1d-alpha-galactosylceramide-specific T cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Gadola, Stephan D; Koch, Michael; Marles-Wright, Jon; Lissin, Nikolai M; Shepherd, Dawn; Matulis, Gediminas; Harlos, Karl; Villiger, Peter M; Stuart, David I; Jakobsen, Bent K; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Jones, E Yvonne

    2006-03-20

    Invariant human TCR Valpha24-Jalpha18+/Vbeta11+ NKT cells (iNKT) are restricted by CD1d-alpha-glycosylceramides. We analyzed crystal structures and binding characteristics for an iNKT TCR plus two CD1d-alpha-GalCer-specific Vbeta11+ TCRs that use different TCR Valpha chains. The results were similar to those previously reported for MHC-peptide-specific TCRs, illustrating the versatility of the TCR platform. Docking TCR and CD1d-alpha-GalCer structures provided plausible insights into their interaction. The model supports a diagonal orientation of TCR on CD1d and suggests that complementarity determining region (CDR)3alpha, CDR3beta, and CDR1beta interact with ligands presented by CD1d, whereas CDR2beta binds to the CD1d alpha1 helix. This docking provides an explanation for the dominant usage of Vbeta11 and Vbeta8.2 chains by human and mouse iNKT cells, respectively, for recognition of CD1d-alpha-GalCer.

  14. Modulation of in vitro porcine natural killer cell activity by recombinant interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-2 and interleukin-4.

    PubMed Central

    Knoblock, K F; Canning, P C

    1992-01-01

    In order to understand better how cytokines modulate porcine lymphocyte-mediated natural cytotoxicity and to develop a rapid and reliable colorimetric assay to study that activity in young pigs, we studied inherent and cytokine induced in vitro natural killer (NK) activity. The cytokines we studied were human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-2, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Natural killer activity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), reported as per cent specific lysis (%SL), was determined by the colorimetric measurement of lactate dehydrogenase released from tumour cell targets, YAC-1 and K562. Inherent NK activity was low and remained relatively unchanged by alterations of assay length or effector cell concentration. Low NK activity was also observed in response to IL-4 and IFN-gamma. IL-2 and, to a lesser extent, IL-1 alpha induced significant NK activity with trends towards increasing %SL with increasing cytokine dose. Optimal IL-1 alpha- and IL-2-induced NK activity could be observed at 18 hr, with significant activity stimulated by IL-2 as early as 4 hr. IL-2-induced NK activity was sensitive to effector cell concentration; %SL decreased as the effector to target ratio decreased. IL-1 alpha- and IL-2-induced NK activities were decreased in the presence of IL-4. These results indicate porcine PBMC are sensitive to in vitro modulation by human recombinant IL-1 alpha, IL-2 and IL-4. The ability of IL-1 alpha and IL-2 to induce swine NK activity and the ability of IL-4 to inhibit that activity are similar to the actions of those cytokines in human NK systems. PMID:1634252

  15. Random length assortment of human and mouse T cell receptor for antigen alpha and beta chain CDR3.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G; Wu, T T

    1999-10-01

    In view of the recently determined three-dimensional structures of complexes formed by the T cell receptor for antigen (TCR), the processed peptide and the MHC class I molecule, it is expected that the combined configuration formed by the third complementarity determining regions (CDR3) of TCR alpha and beta chains will be very restricted in size and shape due to the limited length variations of the processed peptides. Thus, the combined TCR alpha and beta chain CDR3 lengths should have a fairly narrow distribution. This feature can be due to the selective association of long alpha chain CDR3 with short beta chain CDR3 and vice versa or due to random assortment of alpha and beta chain CDR3 of even narrower length distribution. Based on existing translated amino acid sequence data, it has been found that the latter mechanism is responsible.

  16. Isolation and characterization of phosphorylated oligosaccharides from alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase that are recognized by cell-surface receptors.

    PubMed

    von Figura, K; Klein, U

    1979-03-01

    Adsorptive endocytosis of lysosomal enzymes by fibroblasts and hepatocytes involves binding to cell surface receptors that recognize on lysosomal enzymes a phosphorylated carbohydrate, most likely a mannose 6-phosphate residue [Kaplan et al. (1977) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 2026-2030; Ullrich et al. (1978) Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 359, 1591-1598]. Loss of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase endocytosis after treatment with endoglucosaminidase H indicated that the recognition site of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase is located on N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of the high mannose type. Acidic oligosaccharides with an average molecular weight of 2200 were liberated from alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase by endoglucosaminidase H. These oligosaccharides were susceptible to degradation by alkaline phosphatase, alpha-mannosidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. At the non-reducing terminal these oligosaccharides bear phosphorylated mannose and/or N-acetylglucosamine residues. PMID:428391

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  18. Discharge patterns of Purkinje cells in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D M; Cogdell, B; Harvey, R J

    1979-01-01

    1. Micro-electrodes have been used to record from 119 Purkinje (P) cells in the paramedian lobule of the cerebellum in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. 2. The spontaneous discharge rate and degree of irregularity of the discharge varied very much from one cell to another; the over-all mean rate (about 25/sec) was a little lower than has been reported either for barbiturate anaesthetized or for decerebrate unanaesthetized preparations. 3. Following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve, most P cells responded with both simple spikes and a climbing fibre response. This initial response was usually succeeded by a prolonged period of silence (over-all mean duration 350 msec) before resumption of the tonic simple spike discharge. Similar response-silence sequences could also be evoked by mechanical stimulation such as a tap applied to the pads of the forepaw. 4. Electrical stimulation of the inferior olive evoked climbing fibre responses followed by a prolonged pause in the simple spike discharge of the cell. 5. In six individual preparations, recordings were made both from P cells of the paramedian lobule and from neurones of nucleus interpositus (to which the former project). Comparison of the responses of the two types of neurone to peripheral nerve and inferior olivary stimulation showed that the end of the pauses in P cell firing correlated well with the end of a prolonged period of facilitation of the interpositus neurones. 6. These results support the hypothesis advanced in an earlier report (Armstrong, Cogdell & Harvey, 1975) that the prolonged facilitatory responses of interpositus neurones are essentially disinhibitory responses resulting from reduction in the activity of overlying cells, and that responses of P cells and of interpositus neurones consist, in general, of modulations of activity which are mutually out of phase. PMID:480225

  19. Effects of MA 956 superalloy and alpha-alumina particles on some markers of human osteoblastic cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, A M; Martínez, M E; Martínez, P; Escudero, M L; Ruíz, J; Saldaña, L; Gómez-García, L; Fernández, L; del Valle, I; Munuera, L

    2001-01-01

    One of the problems associated with the modern biomaterials used in prostheses is osteolysis, which, although its exact origin is unknown, has been associated with wear particles. Osteoblasts seem to participate directly in this phenomenon. This paper investigates in vitro cellular response to the wear particles from the metal substrate and ceramic covering (alpha-alumina) of a new titanium yttrium aluminum alloy, MA 956, that has been proposed as a biomaterial because of its exceptional mechanical and electrochemical properties. The effect of different sizes (10 and 80 microm) of MA 956 and alpha-alumina particles on osteoblast function was studied in primary human bone cell cultures. Cells were harvested from trabecular bone fragments obtained during knee arthroplasty. Osteoblastic cell response to the particles was measured by assaying C-terminal type I procollagen (PICP), alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin secretion, with and without 1.25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulation, in the cell-conditioned medium. Both sizes of MA 956 and alpha-alumina particles decreased PICP secretion in nonstimulated osteoblastic cells, but this secretion was not affected in the cultures stimulated with 1.25(OH)(2)D(3). Only the 10 microm alpha-alumina particles inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity in 1.25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated and nonstimulated cultures. The rise in osteocalcin levels after 1.25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulation was lower in the presence of the 10 microm MA 956 particles than in the presence of alpha-alumina particles. Although both materials seem to have directly affected in vitro osteoblastic cell function, the increase in osteocalcin levels after 1.25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulation was lower after exposure to MA 956 particles than the increase observed after exposure to alpha-alumina particles. Therefore, it does not seem that osteocalcin stimulated bone resorption, suggesting that MA 956 would be less likely to provoke osteolysis. PMID:11077400

  20. Combination therapy of cutaneous T cell lymphoma with interferon alpha-2a and photochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stadler, R; Otte, H G

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of a combination treatment with interferon alpha-2a and photochemotherapy was investigated in 16 patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma. During the initial treatment, interferon alpha-2a was given subcutaneously at maximum dose of 9 million IU. Simultaneously, photo-chemotherapy with a maximum single dose of 3.0 J/cm2 was applied. After a complete or partial remission had been achieved, the dose of interferon was continued as permanent treatment at 3-9 million IU a week. Photochemotherapy was maintained twice a week for a minimum of 2 months and then stopped depending on the course of the disease. The combination treatment was well tolerated and all patients responded to the initial therapy. Three patients were withdrawn at an early stage of therapy, as they developed erythrodermia after photochemotherapy. The permanent treatment led to a complete remission in ten out of 13 patients and to a partial remission in three patients. During the follow-up period (now 10-40 months), therapy was stopped in four patients because of progression and in one patient because of newly diagnosed Hodgkin's disease. In another three patients, who developed local recurrences, a repetition of the initial treatment schedule was necessary to keep them in remission.

  1. Alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover and respiration of brown fat cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mohell, N.; Wallace, M.; Fain, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (in the presence of the beta-adrenergic antagonist alprenolol) stimulated respiration and incorporation of (/sup 3/H)glycerol and (/sup 32/P) P/sub i/ into phosphatidylinositol of hamster brown fat cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both responses were preferentially inhibited by prazosin as compared with yohimbine, indicating alpha 1 specificity. Uniquely, prazosin inhibition of phenylephrine-stimulated phosphatidylinositol metabolism had two components, since 30% of the response was inhibited by less than 1 nM prazosin, 10 nM gave no further inhibition, and 100 nM prazosin completely inhibited the response. The phosphatidylinositol response was still present in Ca/sup 2/+-free buffer, although reduced in magnitude. The concentration relationships of the effects of agonists and antagonists were compared with those of previous results of (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding and with phenylephrine potency to compete for binding. On the basis of these comparisons, it is suggested that the highly prazosin-sensitive part of the phosphatidylinositol response may be closely associated with receptor occupation.

  2. Minimal requirements for exocytosis. A study using PC 12 cells permeabilized with staphylococcal alpha-toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Bhakdi, S.; Gratzl, M.

    1985-10-15

    The membrane-permeabilizing effects of streptolysin O, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, and digitonin on cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells were studied. All three agents perturbed the plasma membrane, causing release of intracellular YWRb and uptake of trypan blue. In addition, streptolysin O and digitonin also damaged the membranes of secretory vesicles, including a parallel release of dopamine. In contrast, the effects of alpha-toxin appeared to be strictly confined to the plasma membrane, and no dopamine release was observed with this agent. The exocytotic machinery, however, remained intact and could be triggered by subsequent introduction of micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ into the medium. Dopamine release was entirely Ca2+ specific and occurred independent of the presence or absence of other cations or anions including K+ glutamate, K+ acetate, or Na+ chloride. Ca2+-induced exocytosis did not require the presence of Mg2+-ATP in the medium. The process was insensitive to pH alterations in the range pH 6.6-7.2, and appeared optimal at an osmolarity of 300 mosm/kg. Toxin permeabilization seems to be an excellent method for studying the minimal requirements for exocytosis.

  3. Integrin recognition of different cell-binding fragments of laminin (P1, E3, E8) and evidence that alpha 6 beta 1 but not alpha 6 beta 4 functions as a major receptor for fragment E8

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The involvement of integrins in mediating interaction of cells to well- characterized proteolytic fragments (P1, E3, and E8) of laminin was assessed by antibody blocking studies. Cell adhesion to fragment P1 was affected by mAbs against the integrin beta 1 and beta 3 subunits and furthermore could be prevented completely by a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Because the beta 3 antibody- sensitive cell lines expressed the vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3) at high levels, the involvement of this receptor in cell adhesion to P1 is strongly suggested. Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to E3 is of low affinity and was inhibited by antibodies against the integrin beta 1 subunit. In contrast, adhesion of some cell types to E3 was not or only partially sensitive to inhibition by anti-integrin subunit antibodies. Cell adhesion to E8 was blocked completed by integrin alpha 6 or beta 1 antibodies. The alpha 6-specific antibody did not inhibit cell adhesion to E3 or P1. Furthermore, the antibody only blocked adhesion to laminin of those cells that adhered exclusively to the E8 fragment. In addition, expression of alpha 6 beta 1 was closely correlated with the ability of cells to bind to the E8 fragment of laminin. These results indicate that the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin is a specific receptor for the E8 fragment of laminin. Many cell types expressed, instead of or in addition to alpha 6 beta 1 the recently described integrin alpha 6 beta 4. Although the ligand of alpha 6 beta 4 was not identified, it must be different from that of alpha 6 beta 1, because cells that express alpha 6 beta 4, but not alpha 6 beta 1, do not adhere to E8, and cell adhesion to E8 was specifically blocked by beta 1 specific antibodies. In conclusion, the data indicate that distinct integrin receptors belonging to the beta 1 or beta 3 subfamily are involved in adhesion of cells to the various laminin fragments. Adhesion to E3 may also be brought about by other receptor molecules

  4. The IL-6/sIL-6R treatment of a malignant melanoma cell line enhances susceptibility to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wagley, Yadav; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Seo, Han Geuk; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Kang, Keon Wook; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Oh, Jae-Wook . E-mail: ohjw@mail.chosun.ac.kr

    2007-03-23

    Melanoma is an intractable tumor that has shown very impressive and promising response to local administration of high dose recombinant TNF-{alpha} in combination with IFN-{gamma} in clinical studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-6/sIL-6R on TNF-{alpha}-resistant B16/F10.9 melanoma cells. A low dose of TNF-{alpha} or IL-6/sIL-6R had minimal affect on the cell growth. However, the highly active fusion protein of sIL-6R and IL-6 (IL6RIL6), covalently linked by a flexible peptide, sensitized TNF-{alpha}-resistant F10.9 melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Stimulation of the cells with IL6RIL6 plus TNF-{alpha} resulted in both the activation of caspase-3 and the reduction of bcl-2 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that IL6RIL6-upregulated TNF-R55 and TNF-R75 expression, suggesting an increase in TNF-{alpha} responsiveness by IL6RIL6 resulting from the induction of TNF receptors. Moreover, exposure of F10.9 cells to neutralizing antibody to TNF-R55 significantly inhibited IL6RIL6/TNF-{alpha}-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the IL6/sIL6R/gp130 system, which sensitizes TNF-{alpha}-resistant melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis, may provide a new target for immunotherapy.

  5. The use of transfected fibroblasts and transgenic mice establishes that stimulation of T cells by the Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen is mediated by E alpha.

    PubMed

    Cole, B C; David, C S; Lynch, D H; Kartchner, D R

    1990-01-15

    Mycoplasma arthritidis produces a soluble protein which is active for murine and human lymphocytes when presented by Ia-bearing accessory cells. By using fibroblasts transfected in vitro with various class II Ag, we demonstrated that presentation of the M. arthritidis mitogen (MAM) to T cells was mediated by E alpha-containing molecules. We also showed that splenocytes from transgenic mice expressing E alpha heterozygously (B10.TRG E alpha+) or homozygously (B10.E alpha TG +/+) underwent a similar proliferation in response to MAM as compared with the failure of control B10.TRG E alpha- splenocytes to respond to MAM. Although splenocytes from inbred C3H and CBA mice exhibited much higher proliferative responses to MAM than did those from B10.TRG.E alpha+ or B10.E alpha TG +/+ mice, flow cytometry showed similar levels of E alpha expression. Furthermore, gamma-irradiated splenocytes from B10.TRG E alpha + mice presented MAM to T hybridoma cells with a similar efficacy as did splenocytes from C3H mice. The lesser response to MAM of lymphocytes from the E alpha transgenic mice as compared with those from C3H and B10.K mice was likewise not due to differential expression of their V beta TCR. We conclude that presentation of MAM to T cells is accomplished by E alpha-containing molecules. The studies also suggest that the conserved, nonpolymorphic regions of class II molecules may play an important role in host immune response to microbial products.

  6. TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis is prevented by erythropoietin treatment on SH-SY5Y cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pregi, Nicolas Wenker, Shirley; Vittori, Daniela; Leiros, Claudia Perez; Nesse, Alcira

    2009-02-01

    The growth factor erythropoietin (Epo) has shown neuronal protective action in addition to its well known proerythroid activity. Furthermore, Epo has dealt with cellular inflammation by inhibiting the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 and TNF-{alpha}. The action of TNF can have both apoptotic and antiapoptotic consequences due to altered balance between different cell signalling pathways. This work has focused on the apoptotic effects of this cytokine and the potential protective action of Epo. The model we used was neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells cultured in the presence of 25 ng/ml TNF-{alpha} or pretreated with 25 U/ml Epo for 12 h before the addition of TNF-{alpha}. Apoptosis was evaluated by differential cell count after Hoechst staining, analysis of DNA ladder pattern, and measurement of caspase activity. Despite its ability to induce NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation, TNF-{alpha} induced cell death, which was found to be associated to upregulation of TNF Receptor 1 expression. On the other hand, cells activated by Epo became resistant to cell death. Prevention of death receptor upregulation and caspase activation may explain this antiapoptotic effect of Epo, which may be also favoured by the induction of a higher expression of protective factors, such as Bcl-2 and NF-{kappa}B, through mechanisms involving Jak/STAT and PI3K signalling pathways.

  7. Structure of the T-cell receptor in a Ti alpha beta, Ti gamma delta double positive T-cell line.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J; Geisler, C

    1993-02-01

    The multichain T-cell receptor is composed of at least six different polypeptide chains. The clonotypic Ti heterodimer (Ti alpha beta or Ti gamma delta) is non-covalently associated with the CD3 chains (CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta). The exact number of subunits constituting the T-cell receptor is still not known. It has been suggested that each T-cell receptor contains two Ti dimers. To gain insight into the structure of the T-cell receptor we constructed a Ti alpha beta, Ti gamma delta double positive T-cell line which contained four functional Ti chains (Ti alpha, beta, gamma, and delta). The data demonstrated an absence of Ti dimers containing mixtures of chains other than the typical Ti alpha beta and Ti gamma delta combinations. Furthermore, by co-modulation experiments we demonstrated that the Ti alpha beta and the Ti gamma delta dimers were not expressed in the same T-cell receptor. Our data indicate that the T-cell receptor does not contain two Ti dimers.

  8. Probing nuclear localization signal-importin alpha binding equilibria in living cells.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Serresi, Michela; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Beltram, Fabio

    2009-12-25

    The regulated process of protein import into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is mediated by specific nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that are recognized by protein-import receptors. In this study, we present fluorescence-based methods to quantitatively address the physicochemical details of NLS recognition by the receptor protein importin alpha (Impalpha) in living cells. First, by combining fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements and protein-concentration calibration, we quantitatively define nuclear import saturability and afford an affinity value for NLS-Impalpha binding. Second, by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we directly monitor the occurrence of NLS-Impalpha interaction and measure its effective dissociation constant (K(D)) in the actual cellular environment. Our kinetic and thermodynamic analyses independently indicate that the subsaturation of Impalpha with the expressed NLS cargo regulates nuclear import rates in living cells, in contrast to what can be predicted on the basis of available in vitro data. Finally, our experiments also provide evidence for the regulation of nuclear import mediated by the intrasteric importin beta-binding domain of Impalpha and yield the first estimate of its autoinhibition energy in living cells.

  9. [Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Affects U0126-Induced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT116)].

    PubMed

    Ljujic, M; Mijatovic, S; Bulatovic, M Z; Mojic, M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radojkovic, D; Topic, A

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an acute phase protein, is the principal circulatory anti-protease. This multifunctional protein is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. Although AAT was recognised as a potential tumour marker, its role in cancer biology remains unknown. Given that it has been demonstrated that AAT has an anti-apoptotic property against non-malignant cells, we aimed to investigate whether AAT affects apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116). The presence of AAT in the HCT116 cell culture antagonized cytotoxicity of blockers of MEK1/2, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as NF-κB. The dominantly recovered cell viability was observed in the co-treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. In addition, it was revealed that AAT almost completely abolished U0126-induced apoptosis through maintenance of the autophagy process. Our study revealed for the first time that the observed cyto-protection triggered by AAT was accompanied by sustained autophagy which opposed apoptosis. These results may contribute to understanding of the role of AAT in cancer development and evaluation of efficacy of cancer therapy.

  10. Wortmannin influences hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression and glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ling; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Tang, Na-Na; Zhang, Wei-Feng; He, Gui-Jun; Hao, Bo; Feng, Ya-Dong; Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT)-HIF-1α signaling pathway on glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells under hypoxia. METHODS: Esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13 were cultured under hypoxia environment, and the protein, mRNA and activity levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-II, phosphofructokinase 2 and lactate dehydrogenase-A were determined. Supernatant lactic acid concentrations were also detected. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was then inhibited with wortmannin, and the effects of hypoxia on the expression or activities of HIF-1α, associated glycolytic enzymes and lactic acid concentrations were observed. Esophageal carcinoma cells were then transfected with interference plasmid with HIF-1α-targeting siRNA to assess impact of the high expression of HIF-1α on glycolysis. RESULTS: HIF-1α is highly expressed in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines tested, and with decreasing levels of oxygen, the expression of HIF-1α and the associated glycolytic enzymes and the extracellular lactic acid concentration were enhanced in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13. In both normoxia and hypoxic conditions, the level of glycolytic enzymes and the secretion of lactic acid were both reduced by wortmannin. The expression and activities of glycolytic enzymes and the lactic acid concentration in cells were reduced by inhibiting HIF-1α, especially the decreasing level of glycolysis was significant under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION: The PI3K/AKT pathway and HIF-1α are both involved in the process of glycolysis in esophageal cancer cells. PMID:27239113

  11. Production of inositol trisphosphates upon. cap alpha. -adrenergic stimulation in BC3H-1 muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ambler, S.K.; Thompson, B.; Brown, J.H.; Taylor, P.

    1986-05-01

    Activation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors in BC3H-1 muscle cells rapidly mobilizes intracellular and results in a paradoxically slower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate. A possible explanation for this discrepancy may be provided by the recent findings of Irvine et al. of additional Ins P3 isomers besides the Ca/sup + +/-mobilizing isomer, Ins 1,4,5-P3. They have eluted and separated the inositol phosphates of BC3H-1 cells with an NH/sub 4//sup +/ x HCO/sub 2//sup -//H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ gradient on a Whatman Partisil 10SAX column using Hewlett-Packard HPLC. Commercial (/sup 3/H)Ins 1,4,5-P3 and (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates from carbachol-stimulated parotid glands were used as standards. Little or no Ins 1,3,4-P3 could be detected in control or phenylephrine-treated BC3H-1 cells. Ins 1,4,5-P3 followed the pattern of agonist stimulation observed previously. As a positive control, Ins P3 isomers were also measured in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Muscarinic stimulation of 1321N1 cells results in both the rapid accumulation of Ins P3 and Ca/sup + +/ mobilization. There is no detectable basal Ins 1,3,4-P3, but carbachol stimulates a rapid production of this compound in 1321N1 cells. Agonist activation also results in a rapid increase in Ins 1,4,5-P3 above basal values. These studies indicate that Ins 1,3,4-P3 does not contribute to the InsP3 signal in BC3H-1 cells and multiple mechanisms may exist for the coupling of receptors to PI turnover.

  12. Release of the lipid peroxidation marker 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha from isolated gill pavement cells.

    PubMed

    Spokas, Eric G; Harshman, Scott; Cohen, Glenn M; Jiang, Chen; Levine, Jaime M; Rodriguez, Ana R; Foglein, Jon; Spur, Bernd W

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxidative injury in gill pavement cells (GPCs) from fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) using F2-isoprostane (F2-iP) release as an index of lipid peroxidation. Cells were isolated from pooled gill tissue by collagenase treatment, mechanical sieving, and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Baseline levels of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2 alpha) were measured by incubating GPCs in physiological buffer (10(6) cells/ml) and enzyme immunoassay. After 60 min, the amount of immunoreactive 8-epi-PGF2 alpha (ir8-epi-PGF2 alpha) in control medium ranged from 1,374 to 5,515 pg/ml. Lead nitrate, 0.6 to 120 microM, did not influence ir8-epi-PGF2 alpha release, whereas FeCl3 stimulated release at 500 microM but not at 5 microM. Incubation medium was extracted for acidic lipids and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/electrospray ionization. A compound in the medium exhibited a retention time on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography nearly identical to that of synthetic 8-epi-PGF2 alpha The mass spectrum taken from the total ion chromatogram from 14.8 to 15.1 min contained a prominent ion at m/z 353, as expected for the molecular ion of 8-epi-PGF2 alpha. Similar results were obtained with tissue subjected to base hydrolysis. Mass spectra of extracted ion chromatograms obtained with gill extracts and authentic standard showed a close correspondence of fragment ions, providing definitive evidence for production and storage of F2-iPs by fish gills. In summary, F2-iP release occurs during lipid peroxidation injury to fish gill epithelium, and its measurement may facilitate aquatic toxicology studies of metallic and nonmetallic contaminants.

  13. [beta]-hexosaminidase isozymes from cells cotransfected with [alpha] and [beta] cDNA constructs: Analysis of the [alpha]-subunit missense mutation associated with the adult form of Tay-Sachs disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A.; Mahuran, D.J. )

    1993-08-01

    In vitro mutagenesis and transient expression in COS cells has been used to associate a missense mutation with a clinical or biochemical phenotype. Mutations affecting the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A ([alpha][beta]) (E.C.3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. Because hexosaminidase A is heterodimeric, analysis of [alpha]-chain mutations is not straightforward. The authors examine three approaches utilizing previously identified mutations affecting [alpha]-chain folding. These involve transfection of (1) the [alpha] cDNA alone; (2) a [beta] cDNA construct encoding a [beta]-subunit substituted at a position homologous to that of the [alpha]-subunit, and (3) both [alpha] and [beta] cDNAs. The latter two procedures amplified residual activity levels over that of patient samples, an effect not previously found with mutations affecting an [open quotes]active[close quotes] [alpha]Arg residue. This effect may help to discriminate between protein-folding and active-site mutations. The authors conclude that, with proper controls, the latter method of cotransfection can be used to evaluate the effects and perhaps to predict the clinical course of some [alpha]-chain mutations. Using this technique, they demonstrate that the adult-onset Tay-Sachs mutation, [alpha]Gly[yields]Ser[sup 269], does not directly affect [alpha][beta] dimerization but exerts an indirect effect on the dimer through destabilizing the folded [alpha]-subunit at physiological temperatures. Two other [alpha] mutations linked to more severe phenotypes appear to inhibit the initial folding of the subunit. 36 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Pancreatic acinar cells produce, release, and respond to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Role in regulating cell death and pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Gukovskaya, A S; Gukovsky, I; Zaninovic, V; Song, M; Sandoval, D; Gukovsky, S; Pandol, S J

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and receptors for TNFalpha are expressed in the exocrine pancreas, and whether pancreatic acinar cells release and respond to TNFalpha. Reverse transcription PCR, immunoprecipitation, and Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of TNFalpha and 55- and 75-kD TNFalpha receptors in pancreas from control rats, rats with experimental pancreatitis induced by supramaximal doses of cerulein, and in isolated pancreatic acini. Immunohistochemistry showed TNFalpha presence in pancreatic acinar cells. ELISA and bioassay measurements of TNFalpha indicated its release from pancreatic acinar cells during incubation in primary culture. Acinar cells responded to TNFalpha. TNFalpha potentiated NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus and stimulated apoptosis in isolated acini while not affecting LDH release. In vivo studies demonstrated that neutralization of TNFalpha with an antibody produced a mild improvement in the parameters of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. However, TNFalpha neutralization greatly inhibited apoptosis in a modification of the cerulein model of pancreatitis which is associated with a high percentage of apoptotic cell death. The results indicate that pancreatic acinar cells produce, release, and respond to TNFalpha. This cytokine regulates apoptosis in both isolated pancreatic acini and experimental pancreatitis. PMID:9312187

  15. MicroRNA Expression in Alpha and Beta Cells of Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Nancy; Rosero, Samuel; Piroso, Julieta; Ichii, Hirohito; Umland, Oliver; Zhijie, Jiang; Tsinoremas, Nicholas; Ricordi, Camillo; Inverardi, Luca; Domínguez-Bendala, Juan; Pastori, Ricardo L.

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in pancreatic development and adult β-cell physiology. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that each islet cell type has a specific pattern of miRNA expression. We sought to determine the profile of miRNA expression in α-and β-cells, the main components of pancreatic islets, because this analysis may lead to a better understanding of islet gene regulatory pathways. Highly enriched (>98%) subsets of human α-and β-cells were obtained by flow cytometric sorting after intracellular staining with c-peptide and glucagon antibody. The method of sorting based on intracellular staining is possible because miRNAs are stable after fixation. MiRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative high throughput PCR-based miRNA array platform screening. Most of the miRNAs were preferentially expressed in β-cells. From the total of 667 miRNAs screened, the Significant Analysis of Microarray identified 141 miRNAs, of which only 7 were expressed more in α-cells (α-miRNAs) and 134 were expressed more in β-cells (β-miRNAs). Bioinformatic analysis identified potential targets of β-miRNAs analyzing the Beta Cell Gene Atlas, described in the T1Dbase, the web platform, supporting the type 1 diabetes (T1D) community. cMaf, a transcription factor regulating glucagon expression expressed selectively in α-cells (TFα) is targeted by β-miRNAs; miR-200c, miR-125b and miR-182. Min6 cells treated with inhibitors of these miRNAs show an increased expression of cMaf RNA. Conversely, over expression of miR-200c, miR-125b or miR-182 in the mouse alpha cell line αTC6 decreases the level of cMAF mRNA and protein. MiR-200c also inhibits the expression of Zfpm2, a TFα that inhibits the PI3K signaling pathway, at both RNA and protein levels. In conclusion, we identified miRNAs differentially expressed in pancreatic α- and β-cells and their potential transcription factor targets that could add new insights into different aspects of islet

  16. Infection of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Protects Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  17. Purification of alpha-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus and application to cell permeabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, I.; Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Fuchs, G.; Gratzl, M.

    1987-07-01

    Crude alpha-toxin was produced by Staphylococcus aureus, strain Wood 46. The amount of exotoxin was monitored during growth and all subsequent purification steps by determination of its hemolytic activity against rabbit erythrocytes. The culture supernatant was treated with ammonium sulfate (75% saturation). The resulting precipitate was dialyzed and subjected to cation-exchange chromatography. The fractions containing the hemolytic activity were further purified by gel chromatography. The final product was enriched by a factor of 8.5 compared to the crude toxin. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the purified toxin exhibited one major band. It caused the release of /sup 86/Rb+ and ATP from rat insulinoma (RIN A2) as well as pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) in culture, indicating efficient permeabilization of their plasma membranes for small molecules.

  18. Pancreatic alpha-cells from female mice undergo morphofunctional changes during compensatory adaptations of the endocrine pancreas to diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Merino, Beatriz; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Lluesma, Mónica; Ñeco, Patricia; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Marroquí, Laura; García-Arévalo, Marta; Nadal, Angel; Quesada, Ivan

    2015-06-25

    Obesity is frequently associated with insulin resistance. To compensate for this situation and maintain normoglycaemia, pancreatic beta-cells undergo several morphofunctional adaptations, which result in insulin hypersecretion and hyperinsulinaemia. However, no information exists about pancreatic alpha-cells during this compensatory stage of obesity. Here, we studied alpha-cells in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. These animals exhibited hyperinsulinaemia and normoglycaemia compared with control animals in addition to hypoglucagonaemia. While the in vivo response of glucagon to hypoglycaemia was preserved in the obese mice, the suppression of glucagon secretion during hyperglycaemia was impaired. Additionally, in vitro glucagon release at low glucose levels and glucagon content in isolated islets were decreased, while alpha-cell exocytosis remained unchanged. Assessment of morphological parameters revealed that alpha-cell area was reduced in the pancreas of the obese mice in association with alpha-cell hypotrophy, increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. HFD feeding for 24 weeks led to significant deterioration in beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis. Under these conditions, the majority of alpha-cell changes were reversed and became comparable to controls. These findings indicate that pancreatic compensatory adaptations during obesity may also involve pancreatic alpha-cells. Additionally, defects in alpha-cell function during obesity may be implicated in progression to diabetes.

  19. Alpha-chaconine, a potato glycoalkaloid, induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells through caspase-3 activation and inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Paek, Seung-Hwan; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Lee, Kap-Rang; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2006-06-01

    Although alpha-chaconine, one of the two major potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids, have shown cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells, the exact mechanism of this action of alpha-chaconine is not completely understood. In this study, we found that alpha-chaconine induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by using flow cytometric analysis. We also found that caspase-3 activity and the active form of caspase-3 were increased 12 h after alpha-chaconine treatment. Caspase inhibitors, N-Ac-DEVD-CHO and Z-VAD-fmk, prevented alpha-chaconine-induced apoptosis, whereas alpha-chaconine-induced apoptosis was potentiated by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor. However, pretreatment of the cells with LY294002 and SB203580, inhibitors of PI3K and p38, respectively, BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Trolox had no effect on the alpha-chaconine-induced cell death. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK was reduced by the treatment with alpha-chaconine. Moreover, alpha-chaconine-induced caspase-3 activity was further increased by the pretreatment with PD98059. Thus, the results indicate that alpha-chaconine induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells through inhibition of ERK and, in turn, activation of caspase-3.

  20. Deletion of PI3K-p85alpha gene impairs lineage commitment, terminal maturation, cytokine generation and cytotoxicity of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, A; Samarakoon, A; Dai, X; Wen, R; Wang, D; Malarkannan, S

    2008-09-01

    Class IA phosphotidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of p85/p110 heterodimeric lipid kinases that are important in regulating signaling events in B and T cells. However, their role in natural killer (NK) cells is not understood. Here, using mice that lack the regulatory p85alpha subunit and its alternatively spliced variants p55alpha/p50alpha (collectively termed as p85alpha(-/-)), we defined the role of PI3K in NK cell development and function. p85alpha(-/-) mice had impaired lineage commitment leading to reduced NK cellularity in the bone marrow and liver. p85alpha(-/-) NK cells showed a defective Ly49 subset specification and a decreased expression of CD43. Lack of p85alpha severely reduced the NK-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells representing 'induced-self' and 'missing-self'. More importantly, NKG2D and NK1.1 receptor-mediated cytokine and chemokine generation was significantly compromised in p85alpha(-/-) NK cells. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role of p85alpha in the development, terminal maturation, cytokine/chemokine generation and tumor clearance of NK cells.

  1. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase splice variants in benign and malignant ovarian cell lines and tissue.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dorothea; Thomé, Marlene; Becker, Steffi; Cordes, Tim; Diedrich, Klaus; Friedrich, Michael; Thill, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Calcitriol is judged to have a positive effect on control of the immune system, cell growth and differentiation and therefore, the prevention of cancer genesis. The aim of this study was to detect any possible differences in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alphaOHase)-expression between benign and malignant ovarian tissue and cell lines. The analysis was conducted quantitatively, by means of nested "touchdown" PCR and Western blot, and qualitatively, with the use of real-time PCR and Western blot. The gene structure was sequenced. Compared to the benign cell line, the malignant cell lines showed a significantly higher expression of 1alphaOHase at the RNA level. A statistically lower expression of the 1alphaOHase protein was found in the malignant tissue. In the malignant cell lines and tissues, divergent bands were detected, which led to various splice variants on sequencing. Their increased expression in malignancy is possibly bound to the reduction of enzyme activity, which may lead to the genesis of ovarian cancer. In the future, preventive and therapeutic activities may result from these findings. PMID:19667158

  2. Stromal derived growth factor-1alpha as a beacon for stem cell homing in development and injury.

    PubMed

    Claps, Christopher M; Corcoran, Kelly E; Cho, Kyung Jin; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2005-10-01

    This review extrapolates the functions of SDF-1alpha and its receptor, CXCR4, as regulators of hematopoietic stem cells and discusses their potential roles in the development and regeneration of tissues. The discussion focuses on the repair of neural tissues while parallels are made with bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Overall, the organization links the basic biology of SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 to topics in medicine and show how any disease processes involving the SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 system could be central points in medicine. Discussions focused on potential therapies for SDF-1 and CXCR4 in clinical disorders. Breast and prostate cancers are selected as examples of solid tumors while leukemia is discussed as an example of hematological malignancies. Diffuse macular edema is discussed as potential therapy for a non-malignant disease.

  3. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee; Tai, Emily Kin Ki; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin . E-mail: chcho@cuhk.edu.hk

    2007-06-15

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of {beta}-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-{beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferation and adrenaline production. Expression of {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an {alpha}7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and D{beta}H expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on {alpha}7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and {beta}-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role {alpha}7-nAChR and {beta}-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer.

  4. A Stress-Induced Small RNA Modulates Alpha-Rhizobial Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Marta; Frage, Benjamin; Wright, Patrick R.; Becker, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms adjusting replication initiation and cell cycle progression in response to environmental conditions are crucial for microbial survival. Functional characterization of the trans-encoded small non-coding RNA (trans-sRNA) EcpR1 in the plant-symbiotic alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti revealed a role of this class of riboregulators in modulation of cell cycle regulation. EcpR1 is broadly conserved in at least five families of the Rhizobiales and is predicted to form a stable structure with two defined stem-loop domains. In S. meliloti, this trans-sRNA is encoded downstream of the divK-pleD operon. ecpR1 belongs to the stringent response regulon, and its expression was induced by various stress factors and in stationary phase. Induced EcpR1 overproduction led to cell elongation and increased DNA content, while deletion of ecpR1 resulted in reduced competitiveness. Computationally predicted EcpR1 targets were enriched with cell cycle-related mRNAs. Post-transcriptional repression of the cell cycle key regulatory genes gcrA and dnaA mediated by mRNA base-pairing with the strongly conserved loop 1 of EcpR1 was experimentally confirmed by two-plasmid differential gene expression assays and compensatory changes in sRNA and mRNA. Evidence is presented for EcpR1 promoting RNase E-dependent degradation of the dnaA mRNA. We propose that EcpR1 contributes to modulation of cell cycle regulation under detrimental conditions. PMID:25923724

  5. Promiscuous presentation and recognition of nucleosomal autoepitopes in lupus: role of autoimmune T cell receptor alpha chain.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Kaliyaperumal, A; Lu, L; Southwood, S; Sette, A; Michaels, M A; Datta, S K

    1998-02-01

    T cells specific for nucleosomal autoepitopes are selectively expanded in lupus mice and these Th cells drive autoimmune B cells to produce pathogenic antinuclear antibodies. We transfected the TCR-alpha and -beta chain genes of a representative, pathogenic autoantibody-inducing Th clone specific for the nucleosomal core histone peptide H471-94 into TCR-negative recipient cells. Although the autoimmune TCRs were originally derived from SNF1 (I-Ad/q) mice, the transfectants could recognize the nucleosomal autoepitope presented by APC-bearing I-A molecules of all haplotypes tested, as well as human DR molecules. Competition assays indicated that the autoepitopes bound to the MHC class II groove. Most remarkably, MHC-unrestricted recognition of the nucleosomal peptide epitope was conferred by the lupus TCR-alpha chain even when it paired with a TCR-beta chain of irrelevant specificity. Several other disease-relevant Th clones and splenic T cells of lupus mice had similar properties. The TCR-alpha chains of these murine lupus Th clones shared related motifs and charged residues in their CDRs, and similar motifs were apparent even in TCR-alpha chains of human lupus Th clones. The lupus TCR-alpha chains probably contact the nucleosomal peptide complexed with MHC with relatively high affinity/avidity to sustain TCR signaling, because CD4 coreceptor was not required for promiscuous recognition. Indeed, pathogenic autoantibody-inducing, CD4-negative, TCR-alphabeta+ Th cells are expanded in systemic lupus erythematosus. These results have implications regarding thymic selection and peripheral expansion of nucleosome-specific T cells in lupus. They also suggest that universally tolerogenic epitopes could be designed for therapy of lupus patients with diverse HLA alleles. We propose to designate nucleosomes and other antigens bearing universal epitopes "Pantigens" (for promiscuous antigens).

  6. Inhibition of MAP kinase promotes the recruitment of corepressor SMRT by tamoxifen-bound estrogen receptor alpha and potentiates tamoxifen action in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wei; Chen, Linfeng; Li, Juan; Yao, Zhi

    2010-05-28

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}), a ligand controlled transcription factor, plays an important role in breast cancer growth and endocrine therapy. Tamoxifen (TAM) antagonizes ER{alpha} activity and has been applied in breast cancer treatment. TAM-bound ER{alpha} associates with nuclear receptor-corepressors. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been elucidated to result in cross-talk between growth factor and ER{alpha} mediated signaling. We show that activated MAPK represses interaction of TAM-bound ER{alpha} with silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) and inhibits the recruitment of SMRT by ER{alpha} to certain estrogen target genes. Blockade of MAPK signaling cascade with MEK inhibitor U0126 promotes the interaction and subsequently inhibits ER{alpha} activity via enhanced recruitment of SMRT, leading to reduced expression of ER{alpha} target genes. The growth rate of MCF-7 cells was decelerated when treated with both TAM and U0126. Moreover, the growth of MCF-7 cells stably expressing SMRT showed a robust repression in the presence of TAM and U0126. These results suggest that activated MAPK signaling cascade attenuates antagonist-induced recruitment of SMRT to ER{alpha}, suggesting corepressor mediates inhibition of ER{alpha} transactivation and breast cancer cell growth by antagonist. Taken together, our finding indicates combination of antagonist and MAPK inhibitor could be a helpful approach for breast cancer therapy.

  7. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Driven Alpha Fetoprotein Expression to Promote Malignant Behaviors of Normal Liver Cells and Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingyue; Lu, Yan; Li, Wei; Guo, Junli; Dong, Xu; Lin, Bo; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), HBV-X protein(HBx) is able to induce expression of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in normal liver cells, and AFP harbors a function to promote malignant transformation of normal liver cells, but the role AFP playing in malignant behaviors of HCC cells is still unclear. Methods: Fifty-six liver tissue samples were collected from the clinical patients through hepatectomy(include normal liver tissues, HBV-related hepatitis liver tissues and HBV-related HCC tissues), and diagnosis of these tissues by pathology section, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by immunohisochemical staining and Western blotting; The proliferation of human normal liver cells line L-02 cells and human hepatoma cells line, HLE cells(non AFP-producing) were performed by MTT method; Repaired capacity of L-02 and HLE cells were compared by wound healing assay; Migration and invasion of these cells were analyzed by Transwell chamber assay; HBx expressed vectors(pcDNA3.1-HBx) were constructed and transfected into L-02 and HLE cells, effects of pcDNA3.1-HBx on the malignant behaviors were also detected by MTT, Transwell chamber assay and the expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by Western blotting. Results: we found that expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related HCC and lymph nodes metastasis tissues were significantly elevated compared with HBV-related HCC, non metastasis tissues and HBV-related hepatitis tissues; Expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related hepatitis tissues were significantly enhanced compared with normal liver tissues; The growth ratio, migratory and invasive ability, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 of the cells were outstanding promoted while L-02 and HLE cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-HBx vectors. The proliferation ratio, migration and invasion ability, and expression of Ras and CXCR4 were significantly inhibited while

  8. Overexpression of the alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase in MDCK cells increases influenza virus sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Matrosovich, Mikhail; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Carr, Jackie; Roberts, Noel A; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

    2003-08-01

    No reliable cell culture assay is currently available for monitoring human influenza virus sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI). This can be explained by the observation that because of a low concentration of sialyl-alpha2,6-galactose (Sia[alpha2,6]Gal)-containing virus receptors in conventional cell lines, replication of human virus isolates shows little dependency on viral neuraminidase. To test whether overexpression of Sia(alpha2,6)Gal moieties in cultured cells could make them suitable for testing human influenza virus sensitivity to NAI, we stably transfected MDCK cells with cDNA of human 2,6-sialyltransferase (SIAT1). Transfected cells expressed twofold-higher amounts of 6-linked sialic acids and twofold-lower amounts of 3-linked sialic acids than parent MDCK cells as judged by staining with Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis agglutinin, respectively. After transfection, binding of a clinical human influenza virus isolate was increased, whereas binding of its egg-adapted variant which preferentially bound 3-linked receptors was decreased. The sensitivity of human influenza A and B viruses to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate was substantially improved in the SIAT1-transfected cell line and was consistent with their sensitivity in neuraminidase enzyme assay and with the hemagglutinin (HA) receptor-binding phenotype. MDCK cells stably transfected with SIAT1 may therefore be a suitable system for testing influenza virus sensitivity to NAI. PMID:12857911

  9. Copper is taken up efficiently from albumin and alpha2-macroglobulin by cultured human cells by more than one mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Mizue; Ho, Yi-Hsuan; Grana, Anne; Nguyen, Linh; Alvarez, Arrissa; Jamil, Rita; Ackland, M Leigh; Michalczyk, Agnes; Hamer, Pia; Ramos, Danny; Kim, Stephen; Mercer, Julian F B; Linder, Maria C

    2008-09-01

    Ionic copper entering blood plasma binds tightly to albumin and the macroglobulin transcuprein. It then goes primarily to the liver and kidney except in lactation, where a large portion goes directly to the mammary gland. Little is known about how this copper is taken up from these plasma proteins. To examine this, the kinetics of uptake from purified human albumin and alpha(2)-macroglobulin, and the effects of inhibitors, were measured using human hepatic (HepG2) and mammary epithelial (PMC42) cell lines. At physiological concentrations (3-6 muM), both cell types took up copper from these proteins independently and at rates similar to each other and to those for Cu-dihistidine or Cu-nitrilotriacetate (NTA). Uptakes from alpha(2)-macroglobulin indicated a single saturable system in each cell type, but with different kinetics, and 65-80% inhibition by Ag(I) in HepG2 cells but not PMC42 cells. Uptake kinetics for Cu-albumin were more complex and also differed with cell type (as was the case for Cu-histidine and NTA), and there was little or no inhibition by Ag(I). High Fe(II) concentrations (100-500 microM) inhibited copper uptake from albumin by 20-30% in both cell types and that from alpha(2)-macroglobulin by 0-30%, and there was no inhibition of the latter by Mn(II) or Zn(II). We conclude that the proteins mainly responsible for the plasma-exchangeable copper pool deliver the metal to mammalian cells efficiently and by several different mechanisms. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin delivers it primarily to copper transporter 1 in hepatic cells but not mammary epithelial cells, and additional as-yet-unidentified copper transporters or systems for uptake from these proteins remain to be identified.

  10. The role of alpha-synuclein in melanin synthesis in melanoma and dopaminergic neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianhong; Zhu, Julie; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Jankovic, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The relatively high co-occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD) and melanoma has been established by a large number of epidemiological studies. However, a clear biological explanation for this finding is still lacking. Ultra-violet radiation (UVR)-induced skin melanin synthesis is a defense mechanism against UVR-induced damage relevant to the initiation of melanoma, whereas, increased neuromelanin (NM), the melanin synthesized in dopaminergic neurons, may enhance the susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury relevant to PD. SNCA is a PD-causing gene coding for alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn) that expresses not only in brain, but also in skin as well as in tumors, such as melanoma. The findings that α-Syn can interact with tyrosinase (TYR) and inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), both of which are enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin and dopamine (DA), led us to propose that α-Syn may participate in the regulation of melanin synthesis. In this study, by applying ultraviolet B (UVB) light, a physiologically relevant stimulus of melanogenesis, we detected melanin synthesis in A375 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and in SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic neuronal cells and determined effects of α-Syn on melanin synthesis. Our results showed that UVB light exposure increased melanin synthesis in all 4 cell lines. However, we found that α-Syn expression reduced UVB light-induced increase of melanin synthesis and that melanin content was lower when melanoma cells were expressed with α-Syn, indicating that α-Syn may have inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Different from melanoma cells, the melanin content was higher in α-Syn-over-expressed dopaminergic neuronal SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells, cellular models of PD, than that in non-α-Syn-expressed control cells. We concluded that α-Syn could be one of the points responsible for the positive association between PD and melanoma via its differential roles in melanin synthesis in melanoma

  11. Comparative analysis of nuclear estrogen receptor alpha and beta interactomes in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nassa, Giovanni; Tarallo, Roberta; Guzzi, Pietro H; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Cirillo, Francesca; Ravo, Maria; Nola, Ernesto; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A; Cannataro, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta; Weisz, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor alpha and beta (ER-α and -β) are members of the nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators with distinct roles in mediating estrogen dependent breast cancer cell growth and differentiation. Following activation by the hormone, these proteins undergo conformation changes and accumulate in the nucleus, where they bind to chromatin at regulatory sites as homo- and/or heterodimers and assemble in large multiprotein complexes. Although the two ERs share a conserved structure, they exert specific and distinct functional roles in normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells and other cell types. To investigate the molecular bases of such differences, we performed a comparative computational analysis of the nuclear interactomes of the two ER subtypes, exploiting two datasets of receptor interacting proteins identified in breast cancer cell nuclei by Tandem Affinity Purification for their ability to associate in vivo with ligand-activated ER-α and/or ER-β. These datasets comprise 498 proteins, of which only 70 are common to both ERs, suggesting that differences in the nature of the two ER interactomes are likely to sustain the distinct roles of the two receptor subtypes. Functional characterization of the two interactomes and their topological analysis, considering node degree and closeness of the networks, confirmed this possibility. Indeed, clustering and network dissection highlighted the presence of distinct and ER subtype-specific subnetworks endowed with defined functions. Altogether, these data provide new insights on the protein-protein interaction networks controlled by ER-α and -β that mediate their ability to transduce estrogen signaling in breast cancer cells. PMID:21173974

  12. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  13. BINDING OF STEROIDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS TO THE RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA EXPRESSED IN COS CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Binding of Steroids and Environmental Chemicals to the Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha Expressed in COS Cells.

    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray. Jr., Phillip C. Hartig and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology...

  14. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  15. Rapid response to 2'-deoxycoformycin in advanced hairy cell leukemia after failure of interferons alpha and gamma.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Ratain, M J; Westbrook, C; Golomb, H M

    1988-01-01

    A patient with advanced hairy cell leukemia initially had a short-lived minor response to interferon alpha therapy and failed to respond to interferon gamma. Subsequent treatment with 2'-deoxycoformycin (dCF) administered biweekly for 12 wk resulted in a complete hematological remission which has continued for 16 months without additional therapy. PMID:3128105

  16. alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) decreases cyclosporine a induced apoptosis in cultured human proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jo, S. K.; Lee, S. Y.; Han, S. Y.; Cha, D. R.; Cho, W. Y.; Kim, H. K.; Won, N. H.

    2001-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity has not been elucidated, but apoptosis is thought to play an important role in CsA induced tubular atrophy. Recently Fas-Fas ligand system mediated apoptosis has been frequently reported in many epithelial cells as well as in T lymphocytes. We investigated the ability of CsA to induce apoptosis in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells and also the effect of alpha-MSH on them. Fas, Fas ligand, and an intracellular adaptor protein, Fas-associating protein with death domain (FADD) expression, and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage were also studied. CsA induced apoptosis in cultured tubular epithelial cells demonstrated by increased number of TUNEL positive cells and it was accompanied by a significant increase in Fas mRNA and Fas ligand protein expressions. FADD and the cleavage product of PARP also increased, indicating the activation of caspase. In alpha-MSH co-treated cells, apoptosis markedly decreased with downregulation of Fas, Fas ligand and FADD expressions and also the cleavage product of PARP. In conclusion, these data suggest that tubular cell apoptosis mediated by Fas system may play a role in tubular atrophy in chronic CsA nephrotoxicity and pretreatment of alpha-MSH may have a some inhibitory effect on CsA induced tubular cell apoptosis. PMID:11641530

  17. Cell type-specific activation of metabolism reveals that beta-cell secretion suppresses glucagon release from alpha-cells in rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Rui; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Tamura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Yamada, Takahiro; Takei, Daisuke; Katagiri, Hideki; Endou, Hitoshi; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-02-01

    Abnormal glucagon secretion is often associated with diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanisms by which nutrients modulate glucagon secretion remain poorly understood. Paracrine modulation by beta- or delta-cells is among the postulated mechanisms. Herein we present further evidence of the paracrine mechanism. First, to activate cellular metabolism and thus hormone secretion in response to specific secretagogues, we engineered insulinoma INS-1E cells using an adenovirus-mediated expression system. Expression of the Na+-dependent dicarboxylate transporter (NaDC)-1 resulted in 2.5- to 4.6-fold (P < 0.01) increases in insulin secretion in response to various tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Similarly, expression of glycerol kinase (GlyK) increased insulin secretion 3.8- or 4.2-fold (P < 0.01) in response to glycerol or dihydroxyacetone, respectively. This cell engineering method was then modified, using the Cre-loxP switching system, to activate beta-cells and non-beta-cells separately in rat islets. NaDC-1 expression only in non-beta-cells, among which alpha-cells are predominant, caused an increase (by 1.8-fold, P < 0.05) in glucagon secretion in response to malate or succinate. However, the increase in glucagon release was prevented when NaDC-1 was expressed in whole islets, i.e., both beta-cells and non-beta-cells. Similarly, an increase in glucagon release with glycerol was observed when GlyK was expressed only in non-beta-cells but not when it was expressed in whole islets. Furthermore, dicarboxylates suppressed basal glucagon secretion by 30% (P < 0.05) when NaDC-1 was expressed only in beta-cells. These data demonstrate that glucagon secretion from rat alpha-cells depends on beta-cell activation and provide insights into the coordinated mechanisms underlying hormone secretion from pancreatic islets.

  18. Telmisartan increases lipoprotein lipase expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shi Nan; Liu, Min; Jing, Dan Qing; Mu, Yi Ming; Lu, Ju Ming; Pan, Chang Yu

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their hypotensive properties, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to exert clinical antidyslipidemic effects. The mechanism underlying these ARB lipid metabolic effects remains unclear. Some ARBs, for example, telmisartan, activate peroxisome proliferator-activated activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). We hypothesized that PPAR-gamma-activating ARBs might exert antidyslipidemic effects via PPAR-alpha. In this study, we assessed the effect of telmisartan on the expression of PPAR-alpha and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). PPAR-alpha expression was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot in HepG2 hepatocytes as well as differentiated C2C12 myocytes treated with increasing concentrations of telmisartan (0.1-10 μmol/L) for 48 h. Results showed that 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L telmisartan significantly increased the expression of PPAR-alpha mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells (p < 0.01). No effect was shown in differentiated C2C12 cells. Similarly, 1 µmol/L and 10 μmol/L telmisartan significantly increased the expression of LPL mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells (p < 0.01), and this increase was significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited by the PPAR-alpha-specific antagonist MK886. These results indicate that certain of the antidyslipidemic effects of telmisartan might be mediated via increased PPAR-alpha-dependent induction of LPL expression. PMID:24067162

  19. Prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha inhibit growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III with simultaneous stimulation of cyclic AMP production.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Chiba, T; Yamatani, T; Yamaguchi, A; Inui, T; Morishita, T; Kadowaki, S; Fujita, T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III were investigated. PGE2 as well as PGF2 alpha significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the growth of this gastric carcinoma cell line (PGE2 greater than PGF2 alpha). This inhibition of cell growth by the PGs was associated with the increase in cyclic AMP production (PGE2 greater than PGF2 alpha), whereas inositol-phospholipid turnover was not affected by either PGE2 or PGF2 alpha as assessed by the formation of 3H-inositol phosphates. Furthermore, the proliferation of these gastric carcinoma cells was also suppressed by the administration of forskolin as well as of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha inhibit the growth of cultured human gastric carcinoma cells KATO III via stimulation of cyclic AMP production. PMID:2536452

  20. Chemokine gene expression in the murine renal cell carcinoma, RENCA, following treatment in vivo with interferon-alpha and interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Sonouchi, K.; Hamilton, T. A.; Tannenbaum, C. S.; Tubbs, R. R.; Bukowski, R.; Finke, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of three chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) messenger (m)RNAs in the murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) from mice treated with a combination of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin-2 was examined and related to tumor infiltration by inflammatory leukocytes. Using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, mRNAs encoding the KC, JE, and IP-10 genes were all elevated in tumor tissue from mice treated systemically with IFN-alpha/interleukin-2 for 4 days. Similarly, the mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was also increased in tumors from treated as compared to control animals. The same tumors showed a significant increase in Mac-1+ leukocytes, which correlated well with the increase in chemokine and TNF-alpha gene expression. The renal cell carcinoma tumor itself may be responsible for the expression of chemokine genes in the tumor bed following cytokine therapy. Cultures of freshly explanted RENCA cells expressed significant levels of chemokine mRNAs when stimulated in vitro with IFN alpha, IFN gamma, and/or interleukin-2, demonstrating that this tumor cell has potential for expression of these genes in vivo. In contrast, TNF-alpha expression was not detected in cultured tumor cells. Thus TNF-alpha may be expressed by infiltrating monocytes following exposure to recombinant cytokine therapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8160774

  1. Alpha-chaconine-reduced metastasis involves a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway with downregulation of NF-kappaB in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chen, Pin-Shern; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Jeng, Ya-Fang; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2007-12-26

    Alpha-chaconine, isolated from Solanum tuberosum Linn., is a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts. Some reports demonstrated that alpha-chaconine had various anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of alpha-chaconine on lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis in vitro. We chose the highly metastatic A549 cells, which were treated with various concentrations of alpha-chaconine to clarify the potential of inhibiting A549 cells invasion and migration. Data showed that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell invasion/migration according to wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. Our results also showed that alpha-chaconine could inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt, whereas it did not affected phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and p38. In addition, alpha-chaconine significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and the binding ability of NF-kappaB. These results suggested that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell metastasis by a reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activities involving suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/NF-kappaB (PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Inhibiting metastasis by alpha-chaconine might offer a pivotal mechanism for its effective chemotherapeutic action.

  2. ER Alpha Rapid Signaling Is Required for Estrogen Induced Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing; Schnitzler, Gavin R.; Ueda, Kazutaka; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Diomede, Olga I.; Andrade, Tiffany; Karas, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs), which likely underlies its ability to accelerate re-endothelialization and reduce adverse remodeling after vascular injury. In previous studies, we have shown that the protective effects of E2 (the active endogenous form of estrogen) in vascular injury require the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). ERα transduces the effects of estrogen via a classical DNA binding, “genomic” signaling pathway and via a more recently-described “rapid” signaling pathway that is mediated by a subset of ERα localized to the cell membrane. However, which of these pathways mediates the effects of estrogen on endothelial cells is poorly understood. Here we identify a triple point mutant version of ERα (KRR ERα) that is specifically defective in rapid signaling, but is competent to regulate transcription through the “genomic” pathway. We find that in ECs expressing wild type ERα, E2 regulates many genes involved in cell migration and proliferation, promotes EC migration and proliferation, and also blocks the adhesion of monocytes to ECs. ECs expressing KRR mutant ERα, however, lack all of these responses. These observations establish KRR ERα as a novel tool that could greatly facilitate future studies into the vascular and non-vascular functions of ERα rapid signaling. Further, they support that rapid signaling through ERα is essential for many of the transcriptional and physiological responses of ECs to E2, and that ERα rapid signaling in ECs, in vivo, may be critical for the vasculoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen. PMID:27035664

  3. beta-Naphthoflavone protects from peritonitis by reducing TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Yao; Liou, Je-Wen; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Peng, Shih-Yi; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chu, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Zheng-Kai; Jiang, Shinn-Jong

    2015-12-01

    β-Naphthoflavone (β-NF), a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, has been shown to possess anti-oxidative properties. We investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of β-NF in human microvascular endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Pretreatment with β-NF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species, translocation of p67(phox), and TNF-α-induced monocyte binding and transmigration. In addition, β-NF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. The mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were reduced by β-NF, as was the infiltration of white blood cells, in a peritonitis model. The inhibition of adhesion molecules was associated with suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and Akt, and suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38. The translocation of Egr-1, a downstream transcription factor involved in the MEK-ERK signaling pathway, was suppressed by β-NF treatment. Our findings show that β-NF inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-kB and ERK1/2 activation and ROS generation, thereby suppressing the expression of adhesion molecules. This results in reduced adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes in vitro and prevents the infiltration of leukocytes in a peritonitis model. Our findings also suggest that β-NF might prevent TNF-α-induced inflammation.

  4. [Implication of integrin alpha5beta1 signal pathways in proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7/Dox human breast carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Kozlova, N I; Morozevich, G E; Ushakova, N A; Gevorkian, N M; Berman, A E

    2016-03-01

    In MCF-7/Dox human breast carcinoma cells, down-regulation of integrin alpha5beta1 and inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) markedly reduced rates of cell proliferation. Mitotic cycle analysis showed that alpha5beta1 down-regulation resulted in cell cycle arrest at the S phase, followed by a significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells (subG1 population). Inhibition of EGFR activity also caused cell cycle arrest at the S-phase but without any increase in the subG1 population. Down-regulation of alpha5beta1 and EGFR inhibition resulted in a significant decrease of cell content of the active (phosphorylated) forms of FAK and Erk protein kinases. The data obtained suggest that alpha5beta1 integrin is implicated in cell growth control via inhibition of apoptotic cell death and through EGFR activation. PMID:27420618

  5. The effects of HIF-1alpha on gene expression profiles of NCI-H446 human small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene targeted therapy refers to any therapy focused on one of the many biological features of the tumor. Such features are mediated by specific genes that are involved in tumor metastasis, recurrence, poor response to chemotherapy and others. Hypoxia is an important pathognomonic feature of many malignant tumors including SCLC (small cell lung cancer). HIF-1alpha, which is induced by hypoxia, is the most important regulatory factor of many specific genes that can influence the biological features of tumors. Methods In this study, we tried to elucidate the changes in gene expression profiles of SCLC NCI-H446 cells mediated by HIF-1alpha. According to different treatments of cells, three experimental pairwise comparisons were designed: hypoxia group vs. control group, Ad5-HIF-1alpha group vs. Ad5 group, and Ad5-siHIF-1 alpha group Vs Ad5 group. Results Results from the analysis of gene expression profiles indicated that there were 65 genes upregulated and 28 genes downregulated more than two-fold in all three experimental pairwise comparisons. These genes were involved in transport, signal-transduction, cell adhesion/motility, growth factor/cytokines, transcription, inflammatory response, metabolic process, in addition to others. SOCS1, IGFBP5, IL-6 and STAT3 were also upregulated at protein level. SOCS1 could significantly induce apoptosis and suppress growth of NCI-H446 cells but HIF-1alpha could induce growth and suppress apoptosis. Conclusions Through this research, we are trying to find novel functional genes that are mediated by HIF-1alpha and provide the theoretical basis for new therapeutic targets. HIF-1 alpha maybe upregulate the expression of SOCS1 through mediation of STAT3 and IL-6. In addition, SOCS1 could significantly induce apoptosis and suppress growth of NCI-H446 cells. This was contrary to HIF-1alpha and it indicated that there might be an antagonism effect between HIF-1alpha and SOCS1 on regulating growth and apoptosis of NCI-H446

  6. Recognition of the laminin E8 cell-binding site by an integrin possessing the alpha 6 subunit is essential for epithelial polarization in developing kidney tubules

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    It has been previously shown that A-chain and domain(E8)-specific antibodies to laminin that inhibit cell adhesion also interfere with the establishment of epithelial cell polarity during kidney tubule development (Klein, G., M. Langegger, R. Timpl, and P. Ekblom. 1988. Cell. 55:331-341). A monoclonal antibody specific for the integrin alpha 6 subunit, which selectively blocks cell binding to E8, was used to study the receptors involved. Immunofluorescence staining of embryonic kidneys and of organ cultures of metanephric mesenchyme demonstrated coappearance of the integrin alpha 6 subunit and the laminin A-chain in regions where nonpolarized mesenchymal cells convert into polarized epithelial cells. Both epitopes showed marked colocalization in basal areas of tubules, while an exclusive immunostaining for alpha 6 was observed in lateral and apical cell surfaces of the tubular epithelial cells. Organ culture studies demonstrated a consistent inhibition of kidney epithelium development by antibodies against the alpha 6 subunit. The data suggest that the recognition of E8 cell-binding site of laminin by a specific integrin is crucial for the formation of kidney tubule epithelium from undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. In some other cell types (endothelium, some ureter cells) an exclusive expression of alpha 6 with no apparent colocalization of laminin A-chain in the corresponding basement membrane was seen. Thus, in these cells, integrins possessing the alpha 6 subunit may bind to laminin isoforms that differ from those synthesized by developing tubules. PMID:2144001

  7. Bench-level characterization of a CMOS standard-cell D-latch using alpha-particle sensitive test circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Soli, G. A.; Buehler, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is described for predicting the SEU susceptibility of a standard-cell D-latch using an alpha-particle sensitive SRAM, SPICE critical charge simulation results, and alpha-particle interaction physics. Measurements were made on a 1.6-micron n-well CMOS 4-kb test SRAM irradiated with an Am-241 alpha-particle source. A collection depth of 6.09 micron was determined using these results and TRIM computer code. Using this collection depth and SPICE derived critical charge results on the latch design, an LET threshold of 34 MeV sq cm/mg was predicted. Heavy ion tests were then performed on the latch and an LET threshold of 41 MeV sq cm/mg was determined.

  8. Immuno-electron microscopical localisation of alpha-actinin and actin in microvilli of prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, N; Aumüller, G

    1988-01-01

    The localisation of alpha-actinin and actin was investigated immunocytochemically in microvilli of rat ventral prostatic epithelial cells fixed by a solution containing 1.25% glutaraldehyde and 1% paraformaldehyde. Both proteins were localised in the microvilli by immunoperoxidase labelling of semithin or ultrathin sections. Almost the whole microvillous core region was labelled by antibodies for actin. Most of the label for alpha-actinin was confined to the region close to the plasma membrane along the length of the microvilli. In addition, positive staining was found at the microvillous tip and weak staining at a small area in the core. These results suggest a role of alpha-actinin in the stabilisation of actin filaments in these regions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3076168

  9. Etomidate, propofol and the neurosteroid THDOC increase the GABA efficacy of recombinant alpha4beta3delta and alpha4beta3 GABA A receptors expressed in HEK cells.

    PubMed

    Meera, Pratap; Olsen, Richard W; Otis, Thomas S; Wallner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    General anesthetics, once thought to exert their effects through non-specific membrane effects, have highly specific ion channel targets that can silence neuronal populations in the nervous system, thereby causing unconsciousness and immobility, characteristic of general anesthesia. Inhibitory GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs), particularly highly GABA-sensitive extrasynaptic receptor subtypes that give rise to sustained inhibitory currents, are uniquely sensitive to GABA(A)R-active anesthetics. A prominent population of extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs is made up of alpha4, beta2 or beta3, and delta subunits. Considering the demonstrated importance of GABA receptor beta3 subunits for in vivo anesthetic effects of etomidate and propofol, we decided to investigate the effects of GABA anesthetics on "extrasynaptic" alpha4beta3delta and also binary alpha4beta3 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Consistent with previous work on similar receptor subtypes we show that maximal GABA currents through "extrasynaptic" alpha4beta3delta receptors, receptors defined by sensitivity to EtOH (30mM) and the beta-carboline beta-CCE (1microM), are enhanced by the GABA(A)R-active anesthetics etomidate, propofol, and the neurosteroid anesthetic THDOC. Furthermore, we show that receptors formed by alpha4beta3 subunits alone also show high GABA sensitivity and that saturating GABA responses of alpha4beta3 receptors are increased to the same extent by etomidate, propofol, and THDOC as are alpha4beta3delta receptors. Therefore, both alpha4beta3 and alpha4beta3delta receptors show low GABA efficacy, and GABA is also a partial agonist on certain binary alphabeta receptor subtypes. Increasing GABA efficacy on alpha4/6beta3delta and alpha4beta3 receptors is likely to make an important contribution to the anesthetic effects of etomidate, propofol and the neurosteroid THDOC.

  10. Stimulation-dependent recruitment of cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha to EA.hy.926 endothelial cell membranes leads to calcium-independent association.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Seema; Smith, Jennifer; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Walker, John

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha (cPLA2-alpha) is a calcium-activated enzyme involved in agonist-induced arachidonic acid release. In endothelial cells, free arachidonic acid is predominantly converted into prostacyclin, a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet activation. As the rate-limiting step in prostacyclin production is the generation of free arachidonic acid by cPLA2-alpha, this enzyme has become an attractive pharmacological target and the focus of many studies. Following stimulation with calcium-mobilizing agonists, cPLA2-alpha translocates to intracellular phospholipid membranes via its C2 domain. In this study, the calcium-induced association of cPLA2-alpha with EA.hy.926 endothelial cell membranes was investigated. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence studies showed that following stimulation with histamine, thrombin or the calcium ionophore A23187, cPLA2-alpha relocated to intracellular membranes. Treatment of A23187-stimulated cells with EGTA or BAPTA-AM demonstrated that a substantial pool of cPLA2-alpha remained associated with membrane fractions in a calcium-independent manner. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy studies revealed that cells stimulated for periods of greater than 10 min showed a high proportion of calcium-independent membrane-associated cPLA2-alpha. Calcium-independent membrane association of cPLA2-alpha was not due to hydrophobic or cytoskeletal interactions. Finally, the recombinant C2 domain of cPLA2-alpha exhibited calcium-independent membrane binding to membranes isolated from A23187-stimulated cells but not those isolated from nonstimulated cells. These findings suggest that novel mechanisms involving accessory proteins at the target membrane play a role in the regulation of cPLA2-alpha. Such regulatory associations could enable the cell to discriminate between the varying levels of cytosolic calcium induced by different stimuli.

  11. Hypoxia reduces constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human proximal renal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuan; Kimura, Hideki . E-mail: hkimura@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Hirota, Kiichi; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Yoshida, Haruyoshi

    2005-10-07

    Chronic hypoxia has been reported to be associated with macrophage infiltration in progressive forms of kidney disease. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of hypoxia on constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal renal tubular cells (HPTECs). Hypoxia reduced constitutive MCP-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent fashion for up to 48 h. Hypoxia also inhibited MCP-1 up-regulation by TNF-{alpha}. Treatment with actinomycin D showed that hypoxic down-regulation of MCP-1 expression resulted mainly from a decrease in the transcription but not the mRNA stability. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that treatment with hypoxia or an iron chelator, desferrioxamine, induced nuclear accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in HPTECs. Desferrioxamine mimicked hypoxia in the reduction of MCP-1 expression. However, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HIF-1{alpha} did not abolish the hypoxia-induced reduction of MCP-1 expression in HPTECs. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important negative regulator of monocyte chemotaxis to the renal inflamed interstitium, by reducing MCP-1 expression partly via hypoxia-activated signals other than the HIF-1 pathway.

  12. Alpha1-adrenoceptors trigger the snake venom production cycle in secretory cells by activating phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kerchove, Celine M; Luna, Milene S A; Zablith, Mariana B; Lazari, Maria F M; Smaili, Soraya S; Yamanouye, Norma

    2008-08-01

    Loss of venom from the venom gland after biting or manual extraction leads to morphological changes in venom secreting cells and the start of a cycle of production of new venom. We have previously shown that stimulation of both alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in the secretory cells of the venom gland is essential for the onset of the venom production cycle in Bothrops jararaca. We investigated the signaling pathway by which the alpha-adrenoceptor initiates the venom production cycle. Our results show that the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype is present in venom gland of the snake. In quiescent cells, stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor with phenylephrine increased the total inositol phosphate concentration, and this effect was blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Phenylephrine mobilized Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive stores and increased protein kinase C activity. In addition, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation increased the activity of ERK 1/2, partially via protein kinase C. Using RT-PCR approach we obtained a partial sequence of a snake alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (260 bp) with higher identity with alpha(1D) and alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors from different species. These results suggest that alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in the venom secreting cells are probably coupled to a G(q) protein and trigger the venom production cycle by activating the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and ERK signaling pathway.

  13. Interferon-gamma but not TNF alpha promotes neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of murine adult neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Galaxy; Goldshmit, Yona; Turnley, Ann M

    2004-05-01

    Neural trauma, such as traumatic brain injury or stroke, results in a vigorous inflammatory response at and near the site of injury, with cytokine production by endogenous glial cells and invading immune cells. Little is known of the effect that these cytokines have on neural stem cell function. Here we examine the effects of two inflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), on adult neural stem cells. Neural stem cells grown in the presence of either cytokine failed to generate neurospheres. Cytotoxicity assays showed that TNF alpha but not IFN gamma was toxic to the neural stem cells under proliferative conditions. Under differentiating conditions, neither cytokine was toxic; however, IFN gamma enhanced neuronal differentiation, rapidly increasing beta III-tubulin positive cell numbers 3-4 fold and inhibiting astrocyte generation. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth and the number of neurites per neuron was enhanced in cells differentiated in the presence of IFN gamma. Therefore, both inflammatory cytokines examined have substantial, but different effects on neural stem cell function and suggests that regulation of the inflammatory environment following brain injury may influence the ability of neural stem cells to repair the damage. PMID:15081598

  14. Molecular mimicry in Lyme arthritis demonstrated at the single cell level: LFA-1 alpha L is a partial agonist for outer surface protein A-reactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Trollmo, C; Meyer, A L; Steere, A C; Hafler, D A; Huber, B T

    2001-04-15

    Antibiotic treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease that follows infection with Borrelia burgdorferi (BB:). A marked Ab and T cell response to BB: outer surface protein A (OspA) often develops during prolonged episodes of arthritis. Furthermore, cross-reaction between the bacterial OspA and human LFA-1alpha(L) at the T cell level and the inability to detect BB: in the joint implicate an autoimmune mechanism. To analyze the nature of response to OspA and LFA-1alpha(L), we used OspA-specific T cell hybrids from DR4 transgenic mice, as well as cloned human cells specific for OspA(165-184), the immunodominant epitope, from five DRB1*0401(+) patients, using OspA-MHC class II tetramers. Although OspA(165-184) stimulated nearly all OspA-specific human T cell clones tested to proliferate and secrete IFN-gamma and IL-13, LFA-1alpha(L326-345) stimulated approximately 10% of these clones to proliferate and a greater percentage to secrete IL-13. Assays with LFA- or OspA-DR4 monomers revealed that higher concentrations of LFA-DR4 were needed to stimulate dual-reactive T cell hybrids. Our analysis at the clonal level demonstrates that human LFA-1alpha(L326-345) behaves as a partial agonist, perhaps playing a role in perpetuating symptoms of arthritis.

  15. Functional properties of homomeric, human alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in the SH-EP1 human epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingke; Kuo, Yen-Ping; George, Andrew A; Peng, Jian-Hong; Purandare, Madhuri Singh; Schroeder, Katherine M; Lukas, Ronald J; Wu, Jie

    2003-06-01

    alpha 7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha 7-nAChRs) are broadly distributed in the central nervous system, where they play important roles in chemical and electrical signaling, and perhaps in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal death/survival. To help elucidate their normal and pathophysiological roles, we have heterologously expressed human alpha 7-nAChR in transfected SH-EP1 human epithelial cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate expression of human alpha 7 subunits as messenger RNA. Patch-clamp recordings exploiting a novel strategy to prevent functional rundown of whole-cell peak current responses to repeated acute challenges with nicotinic agonists show successful expression of functional alpha 7-nAChR that mediate inward currents characterized by rapid phases of activation and inactivation. Concentration-response curves show that nicotine, acetylcholine, and choline are efficacious agonists at human alpha 7-nAChRs. Current-voltage relationships show inward rectification for agonist-induced currents. Human alpha 7-nAChRs exhibit some sensitivity to alpha 7-nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin (Bgt) or methyllycaconitine (MLA) when applied coincidentally with agonist, but much higher affinity block occurs when cells and alpha 7-nAChRs are pre-exposed to antagonists for 2 min before challenge with agonist. Both Bgt and MLA are competitive inhibitors of alpha 7-nAChR function. Whole-cell current peak amplitudes and half-times for inactivation of alpha 7-nAChR functional responses to nicotine are dramatically reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggestive of high Ca2+ permeability of the alpha 7-nAChR channel. Thus, heterologously expressed human alpha 7-nAChR in mammalian cells have properties of native alpha 7-nAChR or of alpha 7-nAChR heterologously expressed in other systems and serve as excellent models for studies of molecular bases of alpha 7-n

  16. Laminin alpha 5, a major transcript of normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells, is differentially expressed in developing and adult liver.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, T; Medina, J L; Bade, E G

    1997-11-25

    The laminin family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins plays a major role in cell migration and differentiation and in tumor cell invasion. As previously shown, the laminin deposited by normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells in their extracellular matrix (ECM) and into their ECM migration tracks does not contain a typical (EHS-like) alpha 1 heavy chain. By RT-PCR screening we have now identified two alpha chains among a total of five additional laminin chains produced by these cells. Three of the newly identified chains were not previously known for the rat. Their sequences have been deposited in the EMBL nucleotide sequence data bank. The alpha 5 chain now identified is expressed at comparably high levels by both the normal and the malignant liver epithelial cells. The chain is also expressed in fetal liver together with the alpha 2 and beta 2 chains, but it is only vestigially expressed in the mature organ as shown by RT-PCR. These results suggest for alpha 5 a role in development and production of the chain by only a small subset of cells in adult liver. At the level of detection used, no changes were observed in regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy. In addition to the alpha 5 chain, the cultured cells express the beta 1 and beta 2 light chains, indicating the expression of more than one laminin isoform by the same cell line. The expression of the alpha 5 chain and of the other new non-EHS isoform chains was also analyzed in various tissues. The malignant liver epithelial cells, but not their nontumorigenic parental cells, also express, in addition to the alpha 5 chain the alpha 2 chain, which is expressed at high level by the NBT II bladder carcinoma cell line, suggesting a relationship with malignancy. PMID:9417868

  17. Enhanced homologous recombination is induced by alpha-particle radiation in somatic cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Po; Liu, Ping; Wu, Yuejin

    Almost 9 percent of cosmic rays which strike the earth's atmosphere are alpha particles. As one of the ionizing radiations (IR), its biological effects have been widely studied. However, the plant genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation was not largely known. In this research, the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic for GUS recombination substrate was used to evaluate the genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation (3.3MeV). The pronounced effects of systemic exposure to alpha-particle radiation on the somatic homologous recombination frequency (HRF) were found at different doses. The 10Gy dose of radiation induced the maximal HRF which was 1.9-fold higher than the control. The local radiation of alpha-particle (10Gy) on root also resulted in a 2.5-fold increase of somatic HRF in non-radiated aerial plant, indicating that the signal(s) of genomic instability was transferred to non-radiated parts and initiated their genomic instability. Concurrent treatment of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana with alpha-particle and DMSO(ROS scavenger) both in systemic and local radiation signifi- cantly suppressed the somatic HR, indicating that the free radicals produced by alpha-particle radiation took part in the production of signal of genomic instability rather than the signal transfer. Key words: alpha-particle radiation, somatic homologous recombination, genomic instability

  18. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates the expression of BMP-4 mRNA but inhibits chondrogenesis in mouse clonal chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, M; Akiyama, H; Ito, H; Shigeno, C; Nakamura, T

    2000-05-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha causes the degradation of articular cartilage in arthritis via direct actions on chondrocytes. However, it remains unknown whether TNF-alpha affects chondrogenesis in chondroprogenitors. In the present study, we assessed the effects of TNF-alpha in vitro on chondrogenesis using mouse clonal chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5. TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) stimulated [3H] thymidine incorporation in undifferentiated ATDC5 cells, and suppressed cartilaginous nodule formation and the accumulation of cartilage-specific proteoglycan. We recently showed that undifferentiated ATDC5 cells express BMP-4 and that exogenously administered BMP-4 promotes chondrogenesis in these cells. Interestingly, TNF-alpha up-regulated the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in undifferentiated ATDC5 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners. However, exogenously administered BMP-4 was not capable of reversing the inhibitory action of TNF-alpha on chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells. These results indicate that TNF-alpha stimulates both cell proliferation and BMP-4 expression but inhibits chondrogenesis in chondroprogenitor-like ATDC5 cells. PMID:10857772

  19. Knockdown of {alpha}II spectrin in normal human cells by siRNA leads to chromosomal instability and decreased DNA interstrand cross-link repair

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Laura W.; Zhang Pan; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Lefferts, Joel A.; Lambert, Muriel W.

    2009-04-03

    Nonerythroid {alpha}-spectrin ({alpha}IISp) is a structural protein involved in repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and is deficient in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which are defective in ability to repair cross-links. In order to further demonstrate the importance of the role that {alpha}IISp plays in normal human cells and in the repair defect in FA, {alpha}IISp was knocked down in normal cells using siRNA. Depletion of {alpha}IISp in normal cells by siRNA resulted in chromosomal instability and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents. An increased number of chromosomal aberrations were observed and, following treatment with a DNA interstrand cross-linking agent, mitomycin C, cells showed decreased cell growth and survival and decreased formation of damage-induced {alpha}IISp and XPF nuclear foci. Thus depletion of {alpha}IISp in normal cells leads to a number of defects observed in FA cells, such as chromosome instability and a deficiency in cross-link repair.

  20. Effect of alpha-interferon, 17 beta-estradiol, and tamoxifen on estrogen receptor concentration and cell cycle kinetics of MCF 7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bezwoda, W R; Meyer, K

    1990-09-01

    The interaction of alpha-interferon, 17 beta-estradiol, and tamoxifen on estrogen receptor content, growth fraction, proliferative rate, and total protein synthesis of MCF 7 cells was investigated under culture conditions (minus phenol red and at low concentrations of "stripped" fetal calf serum) allowing for direct stimulation of proliferation by estrogens. Exposure to estradiol alone resulted in a decrease of estrogen receptor content as measured by immunoassay, an increase of the proportion of cells in S phase, and increases in cell proliferation as well as total protein synthesis. alpha-Interferon treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest with reduced proliferation, an increase of estrogen receptor content, but a decrease in the rate of total protein synthesis. Pretreatment with alpha-interferon inhibited the estrogen induced stimulation of cell growth as well as the associated decrease of estrogen receptor content. Tamoxifen treatment resulted in decreased cell proliferation and decrease of estrogen receptor content and of total protein synthesis. These results suggest that the estrogen receptor concentration of MCF 7 cells is growth fraction related. Pretreatment with alpha-interferon enhanced the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on cell proliferation while preventing the tamoxifen induced reduction of estrogen receptor content. The synergistic effect of alpha-interferon and tamoxifen are most marked following 72 h pretreatment with interferon, when the maximum interferon induced increase of estrogen receptor concentration is evident. The mechanism is thus due probably to an increase of cellular receptor as a ligand for tamoxifen binding and suggests a possible role for the clinical use of interferons combined with tamoxifen.

  1. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Sariyer, Rahsan; Otte, Jessica; Gordon, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs). We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF). SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen. Methods and Results Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral

  2. High-affinity ouabain binding by yeast cells expressing Na+, K(+)-ATPase alpha subunits and the gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase beta subunit.

    PubMed

    Eakle, K A; Kim, K S; Kabalin, M A; Farley, R A

    1992-04-01

    Recently, a beta subunit for the rat gastric H+,K(+)-ATPase (HK beta), which is structurally similar to the beta subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase, has been cloned and characterized. Using heterologous expression in yeast, we have tested the specificity of beta subunit assembly with different isoforms of the alpha subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase. Coexpression in yeast cells of the HK beta with both the sheep alpha 1 subunit and the rat alpha 3 subunit isoforms of Na+, K(+)-ATPase (alpha 1 and alpha 3, respectively) leads to the appearance of high-affinity ouabain-binding sites in yeast membranes. These ouabain-binding sites (alpha 1 plus HK beta, alpha 3 plus HK beta) have a high affinity for ouabain (Kd, 5-10 nM) and are expressed at levels similar to those formed with the rat beta 1 subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase (beta 1) (alpha 1 plus beta 1 or alpha 3 plus beta 1). Potassium acts as a specific antagonist of ouabain binding by alpha 1 plus HK beta and alpha 3 plus HK beta just like sodium pumps formed with beta 1. Sodium pumps formed with the HK beta, however, show quantitative differences in their affinity for ouabain and in the antagonism of K+ for ouabain binding. These data suggest that the structure of the beta subunit may play a role in sodium pump function. PMID:1313569

  3. Targeted inhibition of tumour cell growth by a bispecific single-chain toxin containing an antibody domain and TGF alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, M.; Wels, W.

    1996-01-01

    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2 has been observed in a variety of human tumours, making these receptors promising targets for directed tumour therapy. Since many tumour cells express both ErbB-2 and EGFR and these receptors synergise in cellular transformation, therapeutic reagents simultaneously binding to ErbB-2 and EGFR might offer advantages for tumour therapy. We have previously described the potent anti-tumoral activity of a bispecific antibody toxin that contains ErbB-2- and EGFR-specific single-chain Fv (scFv) domains. Here we report the construction and functional characterisation of a novel bispecific recombinant toxin, scFv(FRP5)-TGF alpha-ETA. The fusion protein consists of the antigen-binding domain of the ErbB-2-specific MAb, FRP5, and the natural EGFR ligand, TGF alpha, inserted at different positions in truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A. ScFv(FRP5)-TGF alpha-ETA protein displayed binding to EGFR and ErbB-2, thereby inducing activation of the receptors, which was dependent on the cellular context and the level of EGFR and ErbB-2 expression. The bispecific molecule was cytotoxic in vitro for tumour cells expressing various levels of the target receptors. In vivo scFv(FRP5)-TGF alpha-ETA potently inhibited the growth of established A431 tumour xenografts in nude mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:8826849

  4. Alpha4beta1 integrin and erythropoietin mediate temporally distinct steps in erythropoiesis: integrins in red cell development.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Shawdee; Vogelezang, Mariette G; Hynes, Richard O; Griffith, Linda G; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-06-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for the terminal proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Fibronectin is an important part of the erythroid niche, but its precise role in erythropoiesis is unknown. By culturing fetal liver erythroid progenitors, we show that fibronectin and Epo regulate erythroid proliferation in temporally distinct steps: an early Epo-dependent phase is followed by a fibronectin-dependent phase. In each phase, Epo and fibronectin promote expansion by preventing apoptosis partly through bcl-xL. We show that alpha(4), alpha(5), and beta(1) are the principal integrins expressed on erythroid progenitors; their down-regulation during erythropoiesis parallels the loss of cell adhesion to fibronectin. Culturing erythroid progenitors on recombinant fibronectin fragments revealed that only substrates that engage alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin support normal proliferation. Collectively, these data suggest a two-phase model for growth factor and extracellular matrix regulation of erythropoiesis, with an early Epo-dependent, integrin-independent phase followed by an Epo-independent, alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin-dependent phase.

  5. Co-expression of alpha(1,3)galactosyltransferase and Bacillus thuringiensis PIPLC enhances hyperacute rejection of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hellrung, Daniel J; Kisselev, Serguei; Link, Charles J

    2007-01-01

    The use of alpha(1,3)galactosyltransferase (alphaGT) as a method of inducing hyperacute rejection of tumors has been gaining interest recently. However, the approach is based in part on the sensitivity of each tumor line to the effects of complement lysis. Tumors expressing complement resistance factors such as membrane cofactor (CD46), decay accelerating factor (CD55) and protectin (CD59) have been shown to be more resistant to complement mediated lysis. Anchored to the membrane by a glycosylphosphoinositol moiety (GPI-anchored), CD55 and CD59 can be cleaved by Bacillus thuringiensis phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC). Complement resistant A549 human lung carcinoma cells were engineered to express both the murine alphaGT gene and the B. thuringiensis PIPLC gene to alleviate complement resistance and enhance alphagal-mediated cancer killing. The PIPLC native signal sequence was replaced with the human epidermal growth factor signal sequence, EGFssPIPLC, to induce secretion from A549. Expression of EGFssPIPLC resulted in complete removal of CD55 and CD59 while sparing the non-GPI-anchored CD46. Results demonstrated that A549 cells transduced with two recombinant retroviral vectors carrying the alphaGT and EGFssPIPLC genes expressed high levels of alphagal epitope and exhibited a 5-fold increase in sensitivity to anti-alphagal mediated complement lysis.

  6. Ultrastructural antibody localization of alpha2-macroglobulin in membrane-limited vesicles in cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Willingham, M C; Yamada, S S; Pastan, I

    1978-01-01

    We have been developing a procedure for localizing intracellular antigens in cultured cells, by using peroxidase-labeled antibodies, that allows good morphologic preservation. Although useful, our previous technique did not preserve the morphology of membranes, and the location of the peroxidase reaction product was difficult to establish. In this paper, we report major improvements on the basic technique that markedly enhance the quality of localization and of morphology. Saponin is used to permeabilize membranes without destroying their morphology. The amount of reaction product is enhanced with a peroxidase-antiperoxidase label. The clarity of morphologic detail and contrast of reaction product density are increased by using postsectioning staining with the osmium/thiocarbohydrazide/osmium and uranyl acetate/lead citrate procedures. We have applied this technique to the ultrastructural localization of alpha2-macroglobulin and demonstrated that it is localized in membrane-limited vesicles. We have also used this method to improve the preservation of structures for localization by fluorescence microscopy. Images PMID:81488

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Activates PKC-Alpha to Invade Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M’hamed; Yan, Denise; Liu, Xue Z.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a group of complex inflammatory disorders affecting the middle ear which can be acute or chronic. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a form of chronic OM characterized by tympanic membrane perforation and discharge. Despite the significant impact of CSOM on human population, it is still an understudied and unexplored research area. CSOM is a leading cause of hearing loss and life-threatening central nervous system complications. Bacterial exposure especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause of CSOM. Our previous studies have demonstrated that P. aeruginosa invades human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). However, molecular mechanisms leading to bacterial invasion of HMEECs are not known. The aim of this study is to characterize the role of PKC pathway in the ability of P. aeruginosa to colonize HMEECs. We observed that otopathogenic P. aeruginosa activates the PKC pathway, specifically phosphorylation of PKC-alpha (PKC-α) in HMEECs. The ability of otopathogenic P. aeruginosa to phosphorylate PKC-α depends on bacterial OprF expression. The activation of PKC-α was associated with actin condensation. Blocking the PKC pathway attenuated the ability of bacteria to invade HMEECs and subsequent actin condensation. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the host PKC-α pathway is involved in invasion of HMEECs by P. aeruginosa and subsequently to cause OM. Characterizing the role of the host signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of CSOM will provide novel avenues to design effective treatment modalities against the disease. PMID:26973629

  8. Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Inhibits Dendritic Cell Activation and Attenuates Nephritis in a Mouse Model of Lupus.

    PubMed

    Elshikha, Ahmed S; Lu, Yuanqing; Chen, Mong-Jen; Akbar, Mohammad; Zeumer, Leilani; Ritter, Andrea; Elghamry, Hanaa; Mahdi, Mahmoud A; Morel, Laurence; Song, Sihong

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with a worldwide distribution and considerable mortality and morbidity. Although the pathogenesis of this disease remains elusive, over-reactive dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the disease development. It has been shown that human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT) has protective effects in type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis mouse models. In the present study, we tested the effect of AAT on DC differentiation and functions, as well as its protective effect in a lupus-prone mouse model. We showed that hAAT treatment significantly inhibited LPS (TLR4 agonist) and CpG (TLR9 agonist) -induced bone-marrow (BM)-derived conventional and plasmacytoid DC (cDC and pDC) activation and reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines including IFN-I, TNF-α and IL-1β. In MRL/lpr mice, hAAT treatment significantly reduced BM-derived DC differentiation, serum autoantibody levels, and importantly attenuated renal pathology. Our results for the first time demonstrate that hAAT inhibits DC activation and function, and it also attenuates autoimmunity and renal damage in the MRL/lpr lupus model. These results imply that hAAT has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of SLE in humans. PMID:27232337

  9. Langerhans cells require signals from both tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta for migration.

    PubMed Central

    Cumberbatch, M; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I

    1997-01-01

    The induction phase of contact sensitization is associated with the movement of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) from the skin and their migration, via afferent lymphatics, to draining lymph nodes where they accumulate as immunostimulatory dendritic cells (DC). It has been demonstrated previously that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) provides an important signal for LC migration and that in the absence of this cytokine, movement of LC from the epidermis to regional lymph nodes is inhibited. Recent evidence indicates that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), a cytokine produced in murine epidermis exclusively by LC, may also play a role in LC migration. The purpose of the investigations described here was to clarify, using relevant neutralizing anti-cytokine antibodies, the contributions made by TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta to the migration of LC from the epidermis. It was found that like anti-TNF-alpha, anti-IL-1 beta administered systemically to mice (by intraperitoneal injection), prior to skin sensitization with the contact allergen oxazolone, resulted in a marked inhibition of DC accumulation in draining lymph nodes. It was shown also that anti-IL-1 beta inhibited TNF-alpha-induced LC migration and DC accumulation and that; in similar fashion, the stimulation of LC migration and DC accumulation induced by IL-1 beta was compromised by prior treatment with anti-TNF-alpha. Based upon these data it is proposed that the stimulation of LC migration in response to skin sensitization requires the receipt by LC of two independent signals, one provided by TNF-alpha and the other by IL-1 beta. Morphological analyses of LC in epidermal sheets prepared from animals exposed to these cytokines with or without prior systemic treatment with anti-cytokine antibody suggested that the changes induced in LC by TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta may include the altered expression of adhesion molecules and acquisition of the ability to interact with and pass through the basement membrane. Images

  10. Rescue of type I collagen-deficient phenotype by retroviral-vector-mediated transfer of human pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene into Mov-13 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, A; Mulligan, R; Jaenisch, R

    1987-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone corresponding to the human pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene was isolated and inserted into a retrovirus vector. Cell lines were obtained which produced recombinant viruses transducing the collagen cDNA (HUC virus). To test whether the transduced cDNA was functional, Mov-13 mouse cells were infected with the virus. These cells do not produce any type I collagen due to an insertional mutation of the pro alpha 1(I) gene which blocks transcription. While normal amounts of pro alpha 2(I) RNA were synthesized, no alpha 2(I) collagen chains were detectable in the mutant Mov-13 cells. Infection with HUC virus, however, resulted in the production of stable type I collagen, which was secreted into the medium. Analysis of pepsin-resistant proteins indicated that interspecies heterotrimers consisting of human alpha 1(I) and mouse alpha 2(I) collagen chains were secreted by the infected Mov-13 cells. Our results show that pro alpha (I) collagen chains from species as distant as human and mouse can associate to form stable type I collagen. The availability of a retrovirus vector transducing a functional pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene combined with the Mov-13 mutant system should enable us to study the effect of specific mutations on the synthesis, assembly, and function of type I collagen, not only in tissue culture but also in the animal. Images PMID:3599181

  11. Alpha-synuclein up-regulation and aggregation during MPP+-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells: intermediacy of transferrin receptor iron and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kalivendi, Shasi V; Cunningham, Sonya; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Joseph, Joy; Hillard, Cecilia J; Kalyanaraman, B

    2004-04-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is a neurotoxin that causes Parkinson's disease in experimental animals and humans. Despite the fact that intracellular iron was shown to be crucial for MPP(+)-induced apoptotic cell death, the molecular mechanisms for the iron requirement remain unclear. We investigated the role of transferrin receptor (TfR) and iron in modulating the expression of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) in MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Results show that MPP(+) inhibits mitochondrial complex-1 and aconitase activities leading to enhanced H(2)O(2) generation, TfR expression and alpha-syn expression/aggregation. Pretreatment with cell-permeable iron chelators, TfR antibody (that inhibits TfR-mediated iron uptake), or transfection with glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) enzyme inhibits intracellular oxidant generation, alpha-syn expression/aggregation, and apoptotic signaling as measured by caspase-3 activation. Cells overexpressing alpha-syn exacerbated MPP(+) toxicity, whereas antisense alpha-syn treatment totally abrogated MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells without affecting oxidant generation. The increased cytotoxic effects of alpha-syn in MPP(+)-treated cells were attributed to inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase and proteasomal function. We conclude that MPP(+)-induced iron signaling is responsible for intracellular oxidant generation, alpha-syn expression, proteasomal dysfunction, and apoptosis. Relevance to Parkinson's disease is discussed. PMID:14742448

  12. Influence of cell position relative to planar alpha-particle sources on survival and preneoplastic transformation of primary rat tracheal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Terzaghi-Howe, M.; Turner, J.E.; Ford, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    Rat tracheal epithelial cells exposed directly on planar {sup 210}Po sources exhibited exponential cell killing; however, no significant increase in induction of preneoplastic transformation was observed over a range of {alpha}-particle fluences (0.017-0.050 {mu}m{sup {minus}2}). In contrast, up to 10-fold increases in frequencies of preneoplastic transformants, above control levels, were observed after exposure of rat tracheal epithelial cells to similar {alpha}-particle fluences on {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am sources. Two alternative hypotheses are evaluated as an explanation for this apparent difference in the biological effect of {alpha} particles emitted from different sources: (a) possible interactions between effects produced by {alpha} particles and by low-energy photons, which occur with {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am but not with {sup 210}Po; and (b) the influence of spatial relationships between exposed cells and the surface of the planar source. The data suggest that the cell-to-source spatial relationships affect both survival and transformation markedly. 29 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Embryonic stem cells lacking a functional inhibitory G-protein subunit (alpha i2) produced by gene targeting of both alleles.

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, R M; Zubiaur, M; Neer, E J; Seidman, J G

    1991-01-01

    The alpha i2 subunit of the inhibitory heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins is highly conserved in mammals and is expressed in all cell types, but its exact function is not yet defined. We have investigated the role of this protein by producing embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking a functional alpha i2 gene. These alpha i2-null cell lines regulate adenylyl cyclase and grow and differentiate in vitro the same as wild-type ES cells. Homologous recombination was used to sequentially inactivate both copies of the alpha i2 gene. The first allele was inactivated by insertion of a neomycin-resistance gene. We modified the hygromycin B-resistance gene for improved expression in ES cells and used this gene to inactivate the remaining normal allele. The techniques used should be generally applicable to other genes whether or not they are expressed in ES cells. Images PMID:1908087

  14. Alpha 1 beta 1 integrin on neural crest cells recognizes some laminin substrata in a Ca(2+)-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Neural crest cells migrate along pathways containing laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules. In the present study, we functionally and biochemically identify an alpha 1 beta 1 integrin heterodimer which bears the HNK-1 epitope on neural crest cells. Using a quantitative cell adhesion assay, we find that this heterodimer mediates attachment to laminin substrata prepared in the presence of Ca2+. Interestingly, neural crest cells bind to laminin-Ca2+ substrata in the presence or absence of divalent cations in the cell attachment medium. In contrast, the attachment of neural crest cells to laminin substrata prepared in the presence of EDTA, heparin, Mg2+, or Mn2+ requires divalent cations. Interactions with these laminin substrata are mediated by a different integrin heterodimer, since antibodies against beta 1 but not alpha 1 integrins inhibit neural crest cell attachment. Thus, the type of laminin substratum appears to dictate the choice of laminin receptor used by neural crest cells. The laminin conformation is determined by the ratio of laminin to Ca2+, though incorporation of heparin during substratum polymerization alters the conformation even in the presence of Ca2+. Once polymerized, the substratum appears stable, not being altered by soaking in either EDTA or divalent cations. Our findings demonstrate: (a) that the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin can bind to some forms of laminin in the absence of soluble divalent cations; (b) that substratum preparation conditions alter the conformation of laminin such that plating laminin in the presence of Ca2+ and/or heparin modulates its configuration; and (c) that neural crest cells utilize different integrins to recognize different laminin conformations. PMID:1280273

  15. Structure of the rabbit alphas1- and beta-casein gene cluster, assignment to chromosome 15 and expression of the alphas1-casein gene in HC11 cells.

    PubMed

    Pauloin, Alain; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Piumi, François; Hayes, Hélène; Fontaine, Marie Louise; Chanat, Eric; Chardon, Patrick; Devinoy, Eve

    2002-01-23

    Several casein (CSN) genes (CSN1, 2, 10 and alphas2-CSN) have been described and shown to be clustered in mouse, man and cattle. These genes are expressed simultaneously in the mammary gland during lactation, but they are silent in most mammary cell lines, even in the presence of lactogenic hormones. However, it has been shown that the CSN2 gene, and this gene only, can be induced in certain mammary cell lines, such as HC11. In the present paper, we describe three overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones which harbor both the rabbit CSN1 and CSN2 genes. These two genes are in a convergent orientation, separated by an intergenic region of 15 kb. DNA from one of the CSN/BAC clones was used as a probe for in situ hybridization to show that the CSN1 and CSN2 gene cluster is located on chromosome 15 band q23 and not on chromosome 12 as had been previously reported. Each of the three CSN/BAC DNAs was transfected into HC11 cells. In the presence of lactogenic hormones, the rabbit CSN1 gene was clearly expressed from all three CSN/BAC DNAs, whereas the rabbit CSN2 gene, which at the most possesses a 1 kb upstream region in one of the CSN/BAC DNAs, was not expressed at detectable levels on Northern blots. The transfected HC11 cells now express both rabbit CSN1 and mouse CSN2 genes. These transfected cells will be used as a model to study the role of CSN1 in milk protein secretion.

  16. Protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha regulates cell detachment and cell death profiles induced by nitric oxide donors in the A431 human carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo E; Batista, Wagner L; Curcio, Marli F; Moraes, Miriam S; Borges, Roberta Eller; Nascimento, Patrícia A; Travassos, Luiz R; Monteiro, Hugo P

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTPα) expression in the cell death profile of the A431 human carcinoma cell line that was induced by cytotoxic concentrations of the nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3,3-bis-(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene (NOC-18). Both NO donors promoted extensive cell detachment in A431 parental cells as compared to the detachment observed for A431 cells that ectopically expressed PTPα (A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells). The NO-induced cell death characteristics for both cell lines were examined. After incubation for 10 hours with 2.0 mM SNP, attached or detached A431 cells underwent apoptosis. Cells were highly positive for Annexin-V, featured increased cleavage of procaspase-8, activation of downstream caspase-3, and activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1). In contrast, exposure of A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells to 2.0 mM SNP produced an increase in the release of lactate dehydrogenase and enhanced incorporation of propidium iodide. In addition, A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells showed partial inhibition of the activities of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP-1 upon detachment and cell death induced by SNP treatment. Results indicate that necrotic cell damage was induced, characterized by cellular swelling and lysis. We conclude from these results that PTPα regulates the A431 tumor cell death profile mediated by NO donors. Expression of PTPα or its absence may determine the occurrence of NO-induced cell death with necrotic or apoptotic features, respectively.

  17. Genome Sequencing and Transposon Mutagenesis of Burkholderia seminalis TC3.4.2R3 Identify Genes Contributing to Suppression of Orchid Necrosis Caused by B. gladioli.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Welington L; Creason, Allison L; Mano, Emy T; Camargo-Neves, Aline A; Minami, Sonia N; Chang, Jeff H; Loper, Joyce E

    2016-06-01

    From a screen of 36 plant-associated strains of Burkholderia spp., we identified 24 strains that suppressed leaf and pseudobulb necrosis of orchid caused by B. gladioli. To gain insights into the mechanisms of disease suppression, we generated a draft genome sequence from one suppressive strain, TC3.4.2R3. The genome is an estimated 7.67 megabases in size, with three replicons, two chromosomes, and the plasmid pC3. Using a combination of multilocus sequence analysis and phylogenomics, we identified TC3.4.2R3 as B. seminalis, a species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex that includes opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains. We generated and screened a library of 3,840 transposon mutants of strain TC3.4.2R3 on orchid leaves to identify genes contributing to plant disease suppression. Twelve mutants deficient in suppression of leaf necrosis were selected and the transposon insertions were mapped to eight loci. One gene is in a wcb cluster that is related to synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide, a key determinant in bacterial-host interactions in other systems, and the other seven are highly conserved among Burkholderia spp. The fundamental information developed in this study will serve as a resource for future research aiming to identify mechanisms contributing to biological control. PMID:26959838

  18. Genome Sequencing and Transposon Mutagenesis of Burkholderia seminalis TC3.4.2R3 Identify Genes Contributing to Suppression of Orchid Necrosis Caused by B. gladioli.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Welington L; Creason, Allison L; Mano, Emy T; Camargo-Neves, Aline A; Minami, Sonia N; Chang, Jeff H; Loper, Joyce E

    2016-06-01

    From a screen of 36 plant-associated strains of Burkholderia spp., we identified 24 strains that suppressed leaf and pseudobulb necrosis of orchid caused by B. gladioli. To gain insights into the mechanisms of disease suppression, we generated a draft genome sequence from one suppressive strain, TC3.4.2R3. The genome is an estimated 7.67 megabases in size, with three replicons, two chromosomes, and the plasmid pC3. Using a combination of multilocus sequence analysis and phylogenomics, we identified TC3.4.2R3 as B. seminalis, a species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex that includes opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains. We generated and screened a library of 3,840 transposon mutants of strain TC3.4.2R3 on orchid leaves to identify genes contributing to plant disease suppression. Twelve mutants deficient in suppression of leaf necrosis were selected and the transposon insertions were mapped to eight loci. One gene is in a wcb cluster that is related to synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide, a key determinant in bacterial-host interactions in other systems, and the other seven are highly conserved among Burkholderia spp. The fundamental information developed in this study will serve as a resource for future research aiming to identify mechanisms contributing to biological control.

  19. Transcriptional and Secretomic Profiling of Epidermal Cells Exposed to Alpha Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Greene, Hillary Boulay; Wilkins, Ruth C

    2012-01-01

    Alpha (α)-particle emitters are probable isotopes to be used in a terrorist attack. The development of biological assessment tools to identify those who have handled these difficult to detect materials would be an asset to our current forensic capacity. In this study, for the purposes of biomarker discovery, human keratinocytes were exposed to α-particle and X-radiation (0.98 Gy/h at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 Gy) and assessed for differential gene and protein expression using microarray and Bio-Plex technology, respectively. Secretomic analysis of supernatants showed expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13 and PDGF-bb) to be exclusively affected in α-particle exposed cells. The highest dose of α-particle radiation modulated a total of 67 transcripts (fold change>|1.5|, (False discovery rate) FDR<0.05) in exposed cells. Several genes which responded with high expression levels (>2 fold) included KIF20A, NEFM, C7orf10, HIST1H2BD, BMP6, and HIST1H2AC. Among the high expressing genes, five (CCNB2, BUB1, NEK2, CDC20, AURKA) were also differentially expressed at the medium (1.0 Gy) dose however, these genes were unmodulated following exposure to X-irradiation. Networks of these genes clustered around tumor protein-53 and transforming growth factor-beta signaling. This study has identified some potential gene /protein responses and networks that may be validated further to confirm their specificity and potential to be signature biomarkers of α-particle exposure. PMID:23002402

  20. BKCa channel regulates calcium oscillations induced by alpha-2-macroglobulin in human myometrial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wakle-Prabagaran, Monali; Lorca, Ramón A; Ma, Xiaofeng; Stamnes, Susan J; Amazu, Chinwendu; Hsiao, Jordy J; Karch, Celeste M; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Wright, Michael E; England, Sarah K

    2016-04-19

    The large-conductance, voltage-gated, calcium (Ca(2+))-activated potassium channel (BKCa) plays an important role in regulating Ca(2+)signaling and is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy. We used immunopurification and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that interact with BKCain myometrium samples from term pregnant (≥37 wk gestation) women. From this screen, we identified alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M). We then used immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblot and the proximity ligation assay to confirm the interaction between BKCaand both α2M and its receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), in cultured primary human myometrial smooth muscle cells (hMSMCs). Single-channel electrophysiological recordings in the cell-attached configuration demonstrated that activated α2M (α2M*) increased the open probability of BKCain an oscillatory pattern in hMSMCs. Furthermore, α2M* caused intracellular levels of Ca(2+)to oscillate in oxytocin-primed hMSMCs. The initiation of oscillations required an interaction between α2M* and LRP1. By using Ca(2+)-free medium and inhibitors of various Ca(2+)signaling pathways, we demonstrated that the oscillations required entry of extracellular Ca(2+)through store-operated Ca(2+)channels. Finally, we found that the specific BKCablocker paxilline inhibited the oscillations, whereas the channel opener NS11021 increased the rate of these oscillations. These data demonstrate that α2M* and LRP1 modulate the BKCachannel in human myometrium and that BKCaand its immunomodulatory interacting partners regulate Ca(2+)dynamics in hMSMCs during pregnancy. PMID:27044074

  1. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  2. Proliferative and antiproliferative effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell lines derived from cervical and ovarian malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch, D.G.; Massad, L.S.; Kao, M.S.; Collins, J.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Four human cell lines derived from cervical carcinomas (ME-180, SiHa, HT-3, and MS751) and three human cell lines derived from ovarian carcinomas (SK-OV-3, Caov-3, and NIH:OVCAR-3) were analyzed in vitro to determine the effect of recombinant interferon-gamma and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth and survival. The effects of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and both interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth were measured after 24 and 72 hours of incubation by the incorporation of chromium 51. The results of this analysis showed that all seven cell lines were resistant to the antiproliferative action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, that the growth of most cell lines was inhibited by interferon-gamma by 72 hours of incubation, and that after 72 hours of incubation all cell lines demonstrated a synergistic antiproliferative response to the combination of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, the effects of these cytokines on cell growth were found to differ among cell lines and varied with the concentration and the duration of incubation. The growth of one cell line (Caov-3) was stimulated by both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. These results suggest that the clinical effects of these cytokines on the growth of gynecologic cancers may be more complex than previously supposed.

  3. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Gene amplification and microsatellite alteration are useful markers of genomic instability in tumor and transformed cell lines. It has been suggested that genomic instability contributes to the progression of tumorigenesis by accumulating genetic changes. In this study, amplification of the carbamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydro-orotase (CAD) gene in transformed and tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by either alpha particles or (56)Fe ions was assessed by measuring resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA). In addition, alterations of microsatellite loci located on chromosomes 3p and 18q were analyzed in a series of primary and secondary tumor cell lines generated in nude mice. The frequency of PALA-resistant colonies was 1-3 x 10(-3) in tumor cell lines, 5-8 x 10(-5) in transformed cells prior to inoculation into nude mice, and less than 10(-7) in control BEP2D cells. Microsatellite alterations were detected in all 11 tumor cell lines examined at the following loci: D18S34, D18S363, D18S877, D3S1038 and D3S1607. No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions.

  4. Transforming growth factor-alpha abrogates glucocorticoid-stimulated tight junction formation and growth suppression in rat mammary epithelial tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Buse, P; Woo, P L; Alexander, D B; Cha, H H; Reza, A; Sirota, N D; Firestone, G L

    1995-03-24

    The glucocorticoid and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) regulation of growth and cell-cell contact was investigated in the Con8 mammary epithelial tumor cell line derived from a 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene-induced rat mammary adenocarcinoma. In Con8 cell monolayers cultured on permeable filter supports, the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, coordinately suppressed [3H]thymidine incorporation, stimulated monolayer transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and decreased the paracellular leakage of [3H]inulin or [14C]mannitol across the monolayer. These processes dose dependently correlated with glucocorticoid receptor occupancy and function. Constitutive production of TGF-alpha in transfected cells or exogenous treatment with TGF-alpha prevented the glucocorticoid growth suppression response and disrupted tight junction formation without affecting glucocorticoid responsiveness. Treatment with hydroxyurea or araC demonstrated that de novo DNA synthesis is not a requirement for the growth factor disruption of tight junctions. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the ZO-1 tight junction protein is localized exclusively at the cell periphery in dexamethasone-treated cells and that TGF-alpha caused-ZO-1 to relocalize from the cell periphery back to a cytoplasmic compartment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glucocorticoids can coordinately regulate growth inhibition and cell-cell contact of mammary tumor cells and that TGF-alpha, can override both effects of glucocorticoids. These results have uncovered a novel functional "cross-talk" between glucocorticoids and TGF-alpha which potentially regulates the proliferation and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells.

  5. Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan induces nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha production in a macrophage cell line: down regulation by taurine chloramine.

    PubMed Central

    Schuller-Levis, G B; Levis, W R; Ammazzalorso, M; Nosrati, A; Park, E

    1994-01-01

    Avirulent mycobacterium H37Ra lipoarabinomannan (LAM) elicited nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha in a dose-dependent manner in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. H37Ra LAM and recombinant gamma interferon were highly synergistic for NO production. The production of NO and the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated by H37Ra LAM plus recombinant gamma interferon in RAW 264.7 cells are inhibited by taurine chloramine. PMID:7927739

  6. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on retinal ganglion cell survival in an optic nerve crush model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruixing; Wang, Yanling; Pu, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether alpha lipoic acid (ALA) promotes the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC) injury and to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of ALA in the retina in this ONC injury model. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180–220 g) were subjected to ONC injury surgery. ALA (63 mg/kg) was injected intravenously 1 day before or after the ONC injury. Animals were euthanized after 10 days, and the number of ganglion cells positive for RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (Rbpms), which is an RGC marker, were counted on the whole mount retinas. In addition, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting were performed to examine the localization and levels of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5) in the retinas in all experimental groups. To determine whether the EPO/EPOR signaling pathway was involved in the ALA antioxidant pathway, the rats were subjected to ruxolitinib (INCB018424, 0.25 mg/kg, bid, intraperitoneal, i.p.) treatment after the animals were injected intravenously with ALA 1 day before ONC injury. Results The average number of Rbpms-positive cells/mm2 in the control group (sham-operated group), the ONC group, the ALA-ONC group, and the ONC-ALA group retinas was 2219±28, 418±8, 848±22, and 613±18/mm2, respectively. The ALA-ONC and ONC-ALA groups showed a statistically significantly increased RGC survival rate compared to the ONC group. There were statistical differences in the RGC survival rates between the ALA-ONC (39%) and ONC-ALA groups (28%; p<0.05). Immunofluorescent labeling showed that EPOR and NT4/5 expression was significant in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL). At the same time, western blot analysis revealed that ALA induced upregulation of EPOR protein and NT4/5 protein expression in the retina after ONC injury. However, INCB018424 reversed the protective effects of ALA on the ONC retinas. Conclusions ALA has

  7. alpha-Factor-mediatd modification of a 32P-labeled protein by MATa cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, D B; McAlister, L

    1981-03-10

    Addition of the polypeptide mating pheromone alpha-factor to haploid MATa cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in the modification of a 32P-labeled protein (P17) with an apparent Mr of 17,000 to a form having an apparent Mr of 17,500 (P17). 32P associated with both P17 and P17 exhibits an unusually rapid rate of turnover. The conversion of P17 to P17 precedes the appearance of morphologically abnormal cells and, in contrast to other responses elicited by this pheromone, this change in apparent molecular weight does not require protein synthesis. Upon removal of alpha-factor, the P17/P17 ratio returns to pretreatment levels. PMID:7007388

  8. Interaction of alpha T3-1 cells with lactotropes and somatotropes of normal pituitary in vitro.

    PubMed

    Andries, M; Vande Vijver, V; Tilemans, D; Bert, C; Denef, C

    1995-03-01

    A pituitary cell population of 14-day-old female rats, containing lactotropes and somatotropes but deprived of gonadotropes, was prepared by unit gravity sedimentation through a serum albumin gradient and allowed to reaggregate either as such or after mixing this population with cells of the gonadotropic alpha T3-1 cell line. In a perifusion system gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) had no effect on prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) release in the former aggregates but stimulated PRL release in the latter. In the alpha T3-1 cell-containing aggregates GnRH showed a biphasic effect on GH release: inhibition during exposure to GnRH followed by a rebound secretion upon removal of the peptide. The aggregation capacity of alpha T3-1 cells with the normal pituitary cells was demonstrated by using an alpha T3-1 cell clone stably transfected with the reporter gene beta-galactosidase. Perifusion of the gonadotrope-deprived aggregates with medium conditioned by alpha T3-1 cell provoked a rapid stimulation of PRL release and a biphasic effect on GH release. Medium conditioned by the corticotropic cell line AtT20 also stimulated PRL release but had no concomitant effect on GH release. Medium conditioned by alpha T3-1 cells, when added for 40 h to aggregates of 14-day-old rat pituitary, provoked an increase in the number of 3H-thymidine (3H-T)-labelled lactotropes and a decreased in the number of 3H-T-labelled somatotropes. The conditioned medium was concentrated on Sep-Pak C18 and ultrafiltrated through an Amicon membrane with 3-kD molecular weight cut-off and the retained molecules separated by reversed-phase HPLC. The material stimulating 3H-T labelling of lactotropes eluted from the column with a different retention time than material inhibiting 3H-T labelling of somatotropes, suggesting that the effect on lactotropes is mediated by (a) molecule(s) different from that affecting somatotropes. The effects of alpha T3-1 cells and their secretion products on lactotropes

  9. The MODY1 gene for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha and a feedback loop control COUP-TFII expression in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Perilhou, Anaïs; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Zhang, Pili; Kharroubi, Ilham; Wang, Haiyan; Fauveau, Véronique; Scott, Donald K; Wollheim, Claes B; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille

    2008-07-01

    Pancreatic islet beta cell differentiation and function are dependent upon a group of transcription factors that maintain the expression of key genes and suppress others. Knockout mice with the heterozygous deletion of the gene for chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) or the complete disruption of the gene for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) in pancreatic beta cells have similar insulin secretion defects, leading us to hypothesize that there is transcriptional cross talk between these two nuclear receptors. Here, we demonstrate specific HNF4alpha activation of a reporter plasmid containing the COUP-TFII gene promoter region in transfected pancreatic beta cells. The stable association of the endogenous HNF4alpha with a region of the COUP-TFII gene promoter that contains a direct repeat 1 (DR-1) binding site was revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Mutation experiments showed that this DR-1 site is essential for HNF4alpha transactivation of COUP-TFII. The dominant negative suppression of HNF4alpha function decreased endogenous COUP-TFII expression, and the specific inactivation of COUP-TFII by small interfering RNA caused HNF4alpha mRNA levels in 832/13 INS-1 cells to decrease. This positive regulation of HNF4alpha by COUP-TFII was confirmed by the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of human COUP-TFII (hCOUP-TFII), which increased HNF4alpha mRNA levels in 832/13 INS-1 cells and in mouse pancreatic islets. Finally, hCOUP-TFII overexpression showed that there is direct COUP-TFII autorepression, as COUP-TFII occupies the proximal DR-1 binding site of its own gene in vivo. Therefore, COUP-TFII may contribute to the control of insulin secretion through the complex HNF4alpha/maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1 (MODY1) transcription factor network operating in beta cells. PMID:18474611

  10. Interleukin-1 alpha produced by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I-infected T cells induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuko; Ishikawa, Chie; Tamaki, Kazumi; Senba, Masachika; Fujita, Jiro; Mori, Naoki

    2011-12-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-related pulmonary disease, which involves overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in lung epithelial cells, was investigated. The supernatant of HTLV-I-infected Tax(+) MT-2 and C5/MJ cells induced ICAM-1 expression on A549 cells, a human tumour cell line with the properties of alveolar epithelial cells. Neutralization of ICAM-1 partially inhibited HTLV-I-infected T-cell adhesion to A549 cells. Analysis of the ICAM-1 promoter showed that the nuclear factor-kappa B-binding site was important for supernatant-induced ICAM-1 expression. Induction of interleukin (IL)-1 alpha (IL-1α) expression in MT-2 and C5/MJ cells was observed compared with uninfected controls and HTLV-I-infected Tax-negative cell lines. The significance of IL-1α as a soluble messenger was supported by blocking the biological activities of MT-2 supernatant with an IL-1α-neutralizing mAb. Moreover, Tax and IL-1α expression was demonstrated in the bronchoalveolar lavage cells of patients with HTLV-I-related pulmonary disease. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ICAM-1 and IL-1α expression in lung epithelial cells and lymphocytes of patients with HTLV-I-related pulmonary diseases, and in a transgenic mouse model of Tax expression. These results suggest that IL-1α produced by HTLV-I-infected Tax(+) T cells is crucial for ICAM-1 expression in lung epithelial cells and subsequent adhesion of lymphocytes in HTLV-I-related pulmonary diseases.

  11. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nintasen, Rungrat; Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S.; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa; Turner, Neil A.; Porter, Karen E.

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However there

  12. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Hu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Long-Sen; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Wang, Jeh-Jeng

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell

  13. [Long-term complete response of multiple lung metastases from renal cell carcinoma induced by combination therapy with interferon alpha and UFT: a case report].

    PubMed

    Terachi, T; Okada, Y; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O

    1993-04-01

    We report a case of long-term complete response of multiple lung metastases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by the combination therapy with interferon alpha (IFN alpha) and UFT. A 38 year-old man having left RCC with lung metastases underwent radical left nephrectomy and extended lymph node dissection, the pathological stage being pT2N2. Although metastatic lung tumors increased in size and number against intravenously admitted interferon gamma (IFN gamma) therapy after the surgery, they completely disappeared following the subsequent combination therapy with intramuscularly admitted interferon alpha (IFN alpha) and oral intake of UFT in about 2 years. The patient has been disease-free for 5 years after cessation of the treatment. Combination therapy with IFN alpha and UFT might be more effective on metastases of RCC than single use of IFN alpha or IFN gamma.

  14. Origin and history of ureilitic material in the solar system: The view from asteroid 2008 TC3 and the Almahata Sitta meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Hartmann, William K.; O'Brien, David P.; Weidenschilling, Stuart J.; Wilson, Lionel; Michel, Patrick; Jutzi, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Asteroid 2008 TC3 (approximately 4 m diameter) was tracked and studied in space for approximately 19 h before it impacted Earth's atmosphere, shattering at 44-36 km altitude. The recovered samples (>680 individual rocks) comprise the meteorite Almahata Sitta (AhS). Approximately 50-70% of these are ureilites (ultramafic achondrites). The rest are chondrites, mainly enstatite, ordinary, and Rumuruti types. The goal of this work is to understand how fragments of so many different types of parent bodies became mixed in the same asteroid. Almahata Sitta has been classified as a polymict ureilite with an anomalously high component of foreign clasts. However, we calculate that the mass of fallen material was ≤0.1% of the pre-atmospheric mass of the asteroid. Based on published data for the reflectance spectrum of the asteroid and laboratory spectra of the samples, we infer that the lost material was mostly ureilitic. Therefore, 2008 TC3 probably contained only a few percent nonureilitic materials, similar to other polymict ureilites except less well consolidated. From available data for the AhS meteorite fragments, we conclude that 2008 TC3 samples essentially the same range of types of ureilitic and nonureilitic materials as other polymict ureilites. We therefore suggest that the immediate parent of 2008 TC3 was the immediate parent of all ureilitic material sampled on Earth. We trace critical stages in the evolution of that material through solar system history. Based on various types of new modeling and re-evaluation of published data, we propose the following scenario. (1) The ureilite parent body (UPB) accreted 0.5-0.6 Ma after formation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI), beyond the ice line (outer asteroid belt). Differentiation began approximately 1 Ma after CAI. (2) The UPB was catastrophically disrupted by a major impact approximately 5 Ma after CAI, with selective subsets of the fragments reassembling into daughter bodies. (3) Either the UPB (before

  15. Alpha-beta T cells provide protection against lethal encephalitis in the murine model of VEEV infection

    SciTech Connect

    Paessler, Slobodan Yun, Nadezhda E.; Judy, Barbara M.; Dziuba, Natallia; Zacks, Michele A.; Grund, Anna H.; Frolov, Ilya; Campbell, Gerald A.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estes, D. Mark

    2007-10-25

    We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidate in mice with selective immunodeficiencies. This vaccine candidate was highly attenuated in mice with deficiencies in the B and T cell compartments, as well as in mice with deficient gamma-interferon responsiveness. However, the level of protection varied among the strains tested. Wild type mice were protected against lethal VEEV challenge. In contrast, alpha/beta ({alpha}{beta}) TCR-deficient mice developed lethal encephalitis following VEEV challenge, while mice deficient in gamma/delta ({gamma}{delta}) T cells were protected. Surprisingly, the vaccine potency was diminished by 50% in animals lacking interferon-gamma receptor alpha chain (R1)-chain and a minority of vaccinated immunoglobulin heavy chain-deficient ({mu}MT) mice survived challenge, which suggests that neutralizing antibody may not be absolutely required for protection. Prolonged replication of encephalitic VEEV in the brain of pre-immunized mice is not lethal and adoptive transfer experiments indicate that CD3{sup +} T cells are required for protection.

  16. 12S-lipoxygenase protein associates with {alpha}-actin fibers in human umbilical artery vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weisinger, Gary . E-mail: gary_w@tasmc.health.gov.il; Limor, Rona; Marcus-Perlman, Yonit; Knoll, Esther; Kohen, Fortune; Schinder, Vera; Firer, Michael; Stern, Naftali

    2007-05-11

    The current study sets out to characterize the intracellular localization of the platelet-type 12S-lipoxygenase (12-LO), an enzyme involved in angiotensin-II induced signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Immunohistochemical analysis of VSMC in vitro or human umbilical arteries in vivo showed a clear cytoplasmic localization. On immunogold electron microscopy, 12-LO was found primarily associated with cytoplasmic VSMC muscle fibrils. Upon angiotensin-II treatment of cultured VSMC, immunoprecipitated 12-LO was found bound to {alpha}-actin, a component of the cytoplasmic myofilaments. 12-LO/{alpha}-actin binding was blocked by VSMC pretreatment with the 12-LO inhibitors, baicalien or esculetine and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Moreover, the binding of 12-LO to {alpha}-actin was not associated with 12-LO serine or tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest a previously unrecognized angiotensin-II dependent protein interaction in VSMC through which 12-LO protein may be trafficked, for yet undiscovered purposes towards the much more abundantly expressed cytoskeletal protein {alpha}-actin.

  17. Subcutaneous administration of interleukin 2 and interferon-alpha-2b in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed Central

    Facendola, G.; Locatelli, M. C.; Pizzocaro, G.; Piva, L.; Pegoraro, C.; Pallavicini, E. B.; Signaroldi, A.; Meregalli, M.; Lombardi, F.; Beretta, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested that the combination of subcutaneous recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and interferon alpha (rIFN-alpha) is especially promising in advanced renal cell carcinoma. We assessed the safety, activity and toxicity of home therapy with these two agents in 50 patients. Each treatment cycle consisted of a 2 day pulse phase, with 9 x 10(6) IU m-2 of rIL-2 being given subcutaneously every 12 h, followed by a 6 week maintenance phase during which rIL-2 1.8 x 10(6) IU m-2 was administered subcutaneously every 12 h on days 1-5 and rIFN-alpha 2b 5 x 10(6) IU m-2 once a day on days 1, 3 and 5. Objective responses (CR+PR) occurred in 9/50 (18%) patients, six of whom (12%) achieved a complete response. Disease stabilisation was observed in 17 cases (34%) and 18 patients progressed during therapy. In the other six cases, treatment was interrupted early for toxicity or patient refusal. One patient died of myocardial infarction during the second cycle. The overall median survival was 12 months. Home therapy with subcutaneous rIL-2 + rIFN-alpha 2b proved to be active, feasible and moderately toxic, but serious adverse events can sometimes occur. PMID:8519672

  18. Gray platelet syndrome. Demonstration of alpha granule membranes that can fuse with the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, J P; George, J N; Bainton, D F; Nurden, A T; Caen, J P; McEver, R P

    1987-01-01

    Platelets from patients with the gray platelet syndrome have decreased recognizable alpha granules and are markedly deficient in some alpha-granule secretory proteins. Using immunocytochemical techniques with antibodies to an alpha-granule membrane protein, GMP-140, we identified the membranes of intracellular vesicles in gray platelets as alpha-granule membranes. Gray platelets contained normal amounts of GMP-140 as measured by electroimmunoassay. The activation of gray platelets with thrombin caused GMP-140 to be redistributed to the plasma membrane surface, as in normal platelets. In agreement with previous studies, an endogenously synthesized secretory protein, platelet factor 4, was undetectable in gray platelets. However, the alpha-granule proteins albumin and IgG, which are thought to be derived from endocytosis of plasma proteins into megakaryocytes, were present in substantial quantities and were secreted efficiently from gray platelets. Therefore, the fundamental defect in the gray platelet syndrome may be in the targeting of endogenously synthesized secretory proteins to developing alpha granules in megakaryocytes. Images PMID:2443536

  19. Neutrophil killing of human umbilical vein endothelial cells is oxygen radical-mediated and enhanced by TNF-. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Dame, M.K.; Varani, J.; Weinberg, J.M.; Ward, P.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells are sensitive to killing by activated human neutrophils. Killing is inhibited in the presence of catalase and deferoxamine mesylate but not soybean trypsin inhibitor. Reagent hydrogen peroxide can substitute for activated neutrophils in producing endothelial cell injury. These data suggest that lethal injury is due to the production of oxygen radicals by activated neutrophils. In these respects, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells are similar to rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells in that pretreatment with TNF-{alpha} increases sensitivity to injury by activated neutrophils. In part, the increased endothelial cell sensitivity to killing by neutrophils may be due to up-regulation of surface adhesion molecules. However, it was observed that cells passaged more than two times in culture did not demonstrate increased killing after treatment with TNF-{alpha} while up-regulation of neutrophil adhesion could be detected through several additional passages. Although the human umbilical vein endothelial cells are qualitatively similar to rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells in their sensitivity to killing, they are quantitatively much more resistant. What accounts for the relative resistance of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells is not fully understood. In the rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, killing is known to be dependent on an intraendothelial source of iron. Pre-treatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 8-hydroxyquinoline-bound iron increased their sensitivity to oxidant injury. These data suggest that the availability of iron within the human umbilical vein endothelial cells may be a limiting factor in sensitivity to oxygen radical-mediated injury.

  20. Differential role of p38 in IL-1alpha induction of MMP-9 and MMP-13 in an established liver myofibroblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Miau, Luo-Hwa; Chen, Chien-Hung; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Yang, Pei-Ming; Sheu, Jin-Chuan

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in the regulation of the expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in many mesenchymal cell types, but its role in liver myofibroblasts (MFs) has not been elucidated. A myofibroblast-like cell line, MG2, was derived from an isolate of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). These cells expressed desmin, vimentin, smooth muscle alpha-actin, and fibulin-2. Using a recombinant IL-1alpha at 5 ng/ml, it was shown that IL-1alpha would upregulate, while IL-1Ra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, would down-regulate the expression of IL-1alpha mRNA in MG2 cells, indicating the presence of an autostimulatory loop of IL-1alpha in these cells. Besides, a paracrine source of IL-1 may be produced from Kupffer cells, as we showed primarily cultured Kupffer cells responded much more remarkably than MG2 cells to lipopolysaccharide stimuli to produce both IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. Recombinant IL-1alpha upregulated the expression of both MMP-9 and -13, and the induction of MMP-13 but not MMP-9 could be inhibited by SB203580, an inhibitor of p38. Similarly, in primarily cultured human liver MFs, upregulation of MMP-1 by IL-1alpha was also shown to be inhibited by SB203580. All of these data suggested that, during liver inflammation, IL-1 produced by an autocrine model from MFs or by a paracrine model from Kupffer cells might play a crucial role in the remodeling of liver fibrosis through an either p38-dependent or p38-independent pathway to regulate the expression of various MMPs by liver MFs.

  1. Production of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human T-cell clones expressing different forms of the gamma delta receptor.

    PubMed

    Christmas, S E; Meager, A

    1990-12-01

    Panels of human T-cell clones bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor (TcR) were obtained from peripheral blood and decidual tissue and maintained in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). TcR V gamma and V delta gene expression was determined in 40 TcR delta 1+ clones using the gamma delta T-cell subset markers Ti gamma A and delta TCS1, in conjunction with Southern blot analysis using TcR J gamma and J delta probes. gamma delta T-cell clones, together with control alpha beta T-cell clones derived from the same lymphocyte populations, were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) tested using specific ELISA. Many clones representative of the major peripheral V gamma 9/V delta 2J1 subset produced high amounts of both cytokines and mean levels were not significantly different from those produced by alpha beta T-cell clones. Panels of clones expressing V gamma 9 and V delta 2J1 produced significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha than clones not expressing V delta 2J1 and those expressing V delta 1J1. There was no relationship between levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha produced by individual gamma delta T-cell clones and also no relationship between their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity and levels of either cytokine. There was a significant tendency for gamma delta T-cell clones to produce more TNF-alpha than IFN-gamma in comparison to alpha beta T-cell clones. The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of the reported differences in distribution in vivo of V delta 1J1+ and V delta 2J1+ cells.

  2. Secretion of bioactive interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha proteins from primary cultured human fetal membrane chorion cells infected with influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Uchide, N; Suzuki, A; Ohyama, K; Bessho, T; Toyoda, H

    2006-01-01

    Influenza virus infection during pregnancy is implicated in one of the causes of premature delivery, abortion and stillbirth. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha produced by fetal membranes, are postulated to facilitate premature delivery. We investigated the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-alpha from primary cultured human fetal membrane chorion and amnion cells infected with influenza virus at protein and bioactivity levels in order to understand the pathology of premature delivery during influenza virus infection. Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha proteins were significantly increased in culture supernatants of chorion cells by influenza virus infection. Culture supernatants of the virus-infected chorion cells stimulated the proliferation of IL-6-sensitive 7-TD-1 cells and induced the cytolysis of TNF-alpha-sensitive L929 cells, both activities of which were inhibited by the addition of respective antibody, whereas no such phenomena were observed in amnion cells. The results demonstrated that only chorion cells secreted significant amounts of bioactive IL-6 and TNF-alpha proteins responding to influenza virus infection. The present study suggests a possibility that the secretion of bioactive IL-6 and TNF-alpha proteins from fetal membrane chorion cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of premature delivery during influenza virus infection. PMID:16122792

  3. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  4. Propanil inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by reducing nuclear levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappab in the macrophage cell line ic-21.

    PubMed

    Frost, L L; Neeley, Y X; Schafer, R; Gibson, L F; Barnett, J B

    2001-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an essential proinflammatory cytokine whose production is normally stimulated by bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during an infection. Macrophages stimulated with LPS in vitro produce several cytokines, including TNF-alpha. LPS-stimulated primary mouse macrophages produced less TNF-alpha protein and message after treatment with the herbicide propanil (Xie et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 145, 184-191, 1997). Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) tightly regulates TNF-alpha transcription. Therefore, as a step toward understanding the mechanism of the effect of propanil on TNF-alpha transcription, IC-21 cells were transfected with a TNF-alpha promoter-luciferase construct, and the effect of propanil on luciferase activity was measured. Cells transfected with promoter constructs containing a kappaB site showed decreased luciferase activity relative to controls after propanil treatment. These observations implicated NF-kappaB binding as an intracellular target of propanil. Further studies demonstrated a marked reduction in the nuclear levels of the stimulatory p65 subunit of NF-kappaB after propanil treatment, as measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. The p50 subunit of NF-kappaB was not found to be reduced after propanil exposure by Western blot. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays showed decreased DNA binding of both p65/p50 heterodimers and p50/p50 homodimers to the kappaB3 site of the TNF-alpha promoter of propanil-treated cells. The marked reduction in nuclear p65/p50 NF-kappaB levels and diminished binding to the TNF-alpha promoter in propanil-treated cells are consistent with reduced TNF-alpha levels induced by LPS. PMID:11312646

  5. Mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} identified in MODY3 and MODY5 downregulate DPP-IV gene expression in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Ning; Adachi, Tetsuya; Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Takeda, Jun; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Ishihara, Akihiko; Yasuda, Koichiro; Tsuda, Kinsuke . E-mail: jinkan@tom.life.h.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-04

    Dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a well-documented drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF)-1{alpha} and HNF-1{beta}, known as the causal genes of MODY3 and MODY5, respectively, have been reported to be involved in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression. But, it is not completely clear (i) that they play roles in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression, and (ii) whether DPP-IV gene activity is changed by mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} in MODY3 and MODY5. To explore these questions, we investigated transactivation effects of wild HNF-1{alpha} and 13 mutant HNF-1{alpha}, as well as wild HNF-1{beta} and 2 mutant HNF-1{beta}, on DPP-IV promoter luciferase gene in Caco-2 cells by means of a transient experiment. Both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} significantly transactivated DPP-IV promoter, but mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} exhibited low transactivation activity. Moreover, to study whether mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} change endogenous DPP-IV enzyme activity, we produced four stable cell lines from Caco-2 cells, in which wild HNF-1{alpha} or wild HNF-1{beta}, or else respective dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC or dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{beta}R177X, was stably expressed. We found that DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly increased in wild HNF-1{alpha} cells and wild HNF-1{beta} cells, whereas they decreased in HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC cells and HNF-1{beta}R177X cells, compared with DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} have a stimulatory effect on DPP-IV gene expression, but that mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} attenuate the stimulatory effect.

  6. Profound defects in pancreatic beta-cell function in mice with combined heterozygous mutations in Pdx-1, Hnf-1alpha, and Hnf-3beta.

    PubMed

    Shih, David Q; Heimesaat, Markus; Kuwajima, Satoru; Stein, Roland; Wright, Christopher V E; Stoffel, Markus

    2002-03-19

    Defects in pancreatic beta-cell function contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, a polygenic disease that is characterized by insulin resistance and compromised insulin secretion. Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) -1alpha, -3beta, -4alpha, and Pdx-1 contribute in the complex transcriptional circuits within the pancreas that are involved in beta-cell development and function. In mice, a heterozygous mutation in Pdx-1 alone, but not Hnf-1alpha(+/-), Hnf-3beta(+/-), or Hnf-4alpha(+/-), causes impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mice. To investigate the possible functional relationships between these transcription factors on beta-cell activity in vivo, we generated mice with the following combined heterozygous mutations: Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-1alpha(+/-), Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-3beta(+/-), Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-4alpha(+/-), Hnf-1alpha(+/-)/Hnf-4alpha(+/-), and Hnf-3beta(+/-)/Hnf-4alpha(+/-). The greatest loss in function was in combined heterozygous null alleles of Pdx-1 and Hnf-1alpha (Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-1alpha(+/-)), or Pdx-1 and Hnf-3beta (Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-3beta(+/-)). Both double mutants develop progressively impaired glucose tolerance and acquire a compromised first- and second-phase insulin secretion profile in response to glucose compared with Pdx-1(+/-) mice alone. The loss in beta-cell function in Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-3beta(+/-) mice was associated with decreased expression of Nkx-6.1, glucokinase (Gck), aldolase B (aldo-B), and insulin, whereas Nkx2.2, Nkx-6.1, Glut-2, Gck, aldo-B, the liver isoform of pyruvate kinase, and insulin expression was reduced in Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-1alpha(+/-) mice. The islet cell architecture was also abnormal in Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-3beta(+/-) and Pdx-1(+/-)/Hnf-1alpha(+/-) mice, with glucagon-expressing cells scattered throughout the islet, a defect that may be connected to decreased E-cadherin expression. Our data suggest that functional interactions between key islet regulatory factors play an important role in maintaining islet architecture and

  7. Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Estrogen Metabolic Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Shouman, Samia; El-Merzebany, Mahmoud; Kilic, Gokhan; Veenstra, Timothy; Saeed, Muhammad; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion; Patel, Deepa; Salama, Salama

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been linked to breast cancer development. Estrogen metabolic pathway is also involved in breast carcinogenesis and DNA adducts formation. In this study we investigated the effect of TNF-α on the estrogen metabolic pathway in MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line. Capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for analysis of estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts levels respectively. Reporter gene assay, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes. TNF-α significantly increased the total EM and decreased the estrone (E1) / 17-β estradiol (E2) ratio. Moreover, it altered the expression of genes and enzymes involved in E2 activation and deactivation pathways e.g. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In addition, there were increased levels of some catechol estrogens e.g. 4-hydroxy-estrone (4-OHE1) and 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) with decreased levels of methylated catechols e.g. 2-methoxy estradiol (2-MeOE2). DNA adducts especially 4-OHE1-[2]-1-N3 Adenine was significantly increased. TNF-α directs the estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic products in MCF-7. This may implicate a new possible explanation for inflammation associated breast cancer. PMID:22866165

  8. Glucocorticoids induce the expression of CD8 alpha chains on concanavalin A-activated rat CD4+ T cells: induction is inhibited by rat recombinant interleukin 4

    PubMed Central