Science.gov

Sample records for alpha xn reactions

  1. Neutron-multiplicity distributions for (. cap alpha. ,xn. gamma. ) reactions with E/sub. cap alpha. / = 50--120 MeV and the pre-equilibrium neutron deexcitation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, K.; Shibata, T.; Ejiri, H.; Sakai, H.

    1983-08-01

    Pre-equilibrium and equilibrium deexcitation processes for (..cap alpha..,xn ..gamma..) reactions induced by 50--120 MeV ..cap alpha.. particles were studied. Reaction channels were identified by measuring rotational ..gamma.. rays characteristic of the reaction residues. The branching of the reaction channels gave neutron multiplicity distributions. Features characteristic of the pre-equilibrium process were seen in the reaction channels with small neutron multiplicity x. An exciton model calculation code was developed so as to incorporate both multiparticle emission at the fast pre-equilibrium stage and multiparticle p evaporation at the slow equilibrium stage. The calculation reproduced the neutron multiplicity distributions in the whole range of E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 50--120 MeV. The pre-equilibrium fractions and the entry lines from the pre-equilibrium stage to the equilibrium one were deduced. The pre-equilibrium fractions were found to be approximately 40--60 %, being rather independent of the individual reaction channel. The entry lines slowly increase from 25 to 35 MeV with increasing projectile energy.

  2. Determination of flux-weighted average cross-sections of natPb(γ,xn), 208Pb(γ,xn), and 209Bi(γ,xn) reactions using bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50-70 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Haladhara; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Zaman, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Woo Lee, Man; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    The flux-weighted average cross-sections of the natPb(γ, xn)198-204Pb reaction for the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50-70MeV were determined by activation and off-line γ -ray spectrometric technique, using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Korea. The relative cross-sections of the 208Pb(γ, xn)202-204Pb and 209Bi(γ, xn)203-206Bi reactions from our earlier work were updated to absolute values and compared with the present data. The photo-neutron cross-sections of natPb, 208Pb, and 209Bi were also calculated, as a function of the photon energy using the TALYS 1.6 code. The flux-weighted average cross-sections were obtained from the theoretical values of the TALYS 1.6 code, based on mono-energetic photons, and compared with the present experimental data. The values were found to be in good agreement with the present data for the 209Bi(γ, xn)203-206Bi, 208Pb(γ, xn)202-204Pb, and natPb(γ, xn)198-202Pb reactions. However, the present data for the natPb(γ, xn)203, 204Pb reactions were higher than the flux-weighted values obtained using the TALYS 1.6 code.

  3. Measurement of (n, xnγ) reaction cross sections in W isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Greg; Bacquias, Antoine; Borcea, Catalin; Capote, Roberto; Dessagne, Philippe; Drohé, Jean-Claude; Kawano, Toshihiko; Kerveno, Maëlle; Negret, Alexandru; Nyman, Markus; Olacel, Adina; Plompen, Arjan; Romain, Pascal; Scholtes, Pol; Rudolf, Gérard

    2017-09-01

    Evaluated nuclear data bases currently used for numerical simulation for the development of nuclear reactors still present large uncertainties. Their improvement is necessary, in particular through better reaction models and nuclear data. Among the reactions of interest, (n, xn) reactions are of great importance for the operation of a reactor as they modify the neutron spectrum, the neutron population, and produce radioactive species. Experimental data on (n, xnγ) reaction provide strong constraints on nuclear reaction mechanism theories. Tungsten isotopes - which are deformed like actinides but do not fission - are of interest to test the models. 182,184,186W(n, xnγ) cross sections are measured; results are compared with model calculations by TALYS, EMPIRE and CoH codes.

  4. Cross Sections for (gamma)-ray Production in the 191Ir (n,xn(gamma)) Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O; Devlin, M; Chadwick, M B; Talou, P; Becker, J A; Garrett, P E; Younes, W

    2005-01-11

    Discrete {gamma}-ray spectra have been measured for nuclei populated in {sup 191}Ir(n{sub 4}xn{gamma}) with x{<=}11, as a function of incident neutron energy using neutrons from the 'white' neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's WNR facility. The energy of the neutrons was determined using the time-of-flight technique. The data were taken using the GEANIE spectrometer. The cross sections for emission of 202 {gamma} rays of {sup 181-191}Ir were determined for neutron energies 0.2 MeV < E{sub n} < 300 MeV. Comparison with model calculations, using the GNASH reaction model, and with GEANIE results from the similar {sup 193}Ir(n{sub 4}xn{gamma}) reactions is made.

  5. Probing reaction dynamics with the {sup 196}Pt(n,xn{gamma}) reactions for x{le}15

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, L.A.; Becker, J.A.; Younes, W.; Archer, D.E.; Hauschild, K.; Nelson, R.O.; Wilburn, W.S. Drake, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    Discrete {gamma}-ray spectra have been measured as a function of incident neutron energy for nuclei produced in the {sup 196}Pt(n,xn{gamma}) reactions. Spectroscopy was done using the large-scale Compton suppressed Ge {gamma}-ray spectrometer GEANIE. The {open_quotes}white{close_quotes} source neutron beam was produced at the Los Alamos Neutron Science WNR facility. Reaction neutron energy was determined using the time-of-flight technique. Reaction-channel yields were inferred from the measured intensity sum of the 2{sub 1}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 1}{sup +} and the 2{sub 2}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 1}{sup +} transitions for the {sup 196}Pt(n,xn) reactions for x{le}15. Weisskopf-Ewing calculations (including precompound) done with the HMS-ALICE code correctly predict the bulk of the (n,xn) reaction products for low multiplicity. However, they do not accurately predict yield ratios of the different (n,xn) reactions for x{ge}9. In addition, there is no consistent experimental indication of charged-particle reaction channels (n,pxn) for incident neutron energies above 60 MeV where they are predicted to account for approximately 1/3 of the total reaction cross section. Several possible causes are discussed for these discrepancies. Finally, the region of E-J phase space populated in this reaction is probed for several of the strongest reaction channels through the observation of relative yields for different yrast and off-yrast states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. GRAPhEME: a setup to measure (n, xn γ) reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, Greg; Bacquias, A.; Capdevielle, O.; Dessagne, P.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Olacel, A.; Drohe, J.C.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Nyman, M.

    2015-07-01

    Most of nuclear reactor developments are using evaluated data base for numerical simulations. However, the considered databases present still large uncertainties and disagreements. To improve their level of precision, new measurements are needed, in particular for (n, xn) reactions, which are of great importance as they modify the neutron spectrum, the neutron population, and produce radioactive species. The IPHC group started an experimental program to measure (n, xn gamma) reaction cross sections using prompt gamma spectroscopy and neutron energy determination by time of flight. Measurements of (n, xn gamma) cross section have been performed for {sup 235,238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup nat,182,183,184,186}W, {sup nat}Zr. The experimental setup is installed at the neutron beam at GELINA (Geel, Belgium). The setup has recently been upgraded with the addition of a highly segmented 36 pixels planar HPGe detector. Significant efforts have been made to reduce radiation background and electromagnetic perturbations. The setup is equipped with a high rate digital acquisition system. The analysis of the segmented detector data requires a specific procedure to account for cross signals between pixels. An overall attention is paid to the precision of the measurement. The setup characteristic and the analysis procedure will be presented along with the acquisition and analysis challenges. Examples of results and their impact on models will be discussed. (authors)

  7. Lens-mode operation of a superconducting electron spectrometer in (HI, xn) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibédi, T.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Byrne, A. P.

    1990-09-01

    An electron spectrometer, consisting of a superconducting solenoidal magnet transporter and a Si(Li) detector, is described. The spectrometer has been used in lens mode, with an envelope baffle system and with the field swept under computer control. The efficiency obtained for the optimum energy at a given field is ˜ 5.9(5)%. Model calculations have been carried out to describe the transmission and efficiency of the swept lens, as well as the effect of the electron angular distribution on conversion-coefficient determinations. The performance of the spectrometer has been tested with radioactive sources and several in-beam experiments using (HI, xn) reactions.

  8. {sup 248}Cm({sup 22}Ne,xn){sup 270-x}Sg reaction and the decay properties of {sup 265}Sg reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Duellmann, Ch. E.; Tuerler, A.

    2008-06-15

    Recent studies of the hot fusion reaction {sup 248}Cm({sup 26}Mg,xn){sup 274-x}Hs have provided new nuclear decay data on {sup 265,266}Sg and confirmed the existence of an isomeric state in {sup 261}Rf. The results reported in [J. Dvorak et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 132503 (2008)] suggest that all decay chains observed in previous studies of the reaction {sup 248}Cm({sup 22}Ne,xn){sup 270-x}Sg, which were originally attributed to {sup 266}Sg, originated from {sup 265}Sg. Here, the decay properties of {sup 265}Sg are reevaluated. Indications for the existence of an isomeric state in {sup 265}Sg are found. The half-lives and main {alpha} particle energies of the two {sup 265}Sg states are 8.9 s/8.85 MeV and 16.2 s/8.70 MeV, respectively. Direct production of this isotope as an evaporation residue of a nuclear fusion reaction populates both states with similar intensity while {alpha} decay of {sup 269}Hs into {sup 265}Sg preferentially populates the longer-lived state, which in turn decays almost exclusively into the short-lived state in {sup 261}Rf. The cross section of the reaction {sup 248}Cm({sup 22}Ne,5n){sup 265}Sg is reanalyzed and found to be of the order of a few hundred pb, assuming that {alpha} decay is the only decay mode of {sup 265}Sg. A decay scheme that is consistent with the published data on {sup 265}Sg and {sup 261}Rf is proposed, which can serve as a working hypothesis in the design of new experiments dedicated to study the production and decay of these two isotopes.

  9. Comparison of reactions for the production of 258,257Db: 208Pb(51V,xn) and 209Bi(50Ti,xn)

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn M.; Nelson, Sarah L.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Dragojevic, Irena; Dullmann, Christoph E.; Ellison, Paul A.; Folden III, Charles M.; Garcia, Mitch A.; Stavsetra, Liv; Sudowe, Ralf; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Nitsche, Heino

    2008-09-29

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070+1100/-760 pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 +- 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660+450/-370 pb was measured at 22.0 +- 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the 209Bi(50Ti,n)258Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480+1750/-1370 pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 +- 1.6 MeV, in agreement with previous values [F. P. Hebberger, et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 12, 57 (2001)]. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier.

  10. (n,xnγ) cross sections on actinides versus reaction code calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerveno, Maëlle; Bacquias, Antoine; Belloni, Francesca; Borcea, Catalin; Capote, Roberto; Dessagne, Philippe; Dupuis, Marc; Henning, Greg; Hilaire, Stéphane; Kawano, Toshihiko; Nankov, Nicolas; Negret, Alexandru; Nyman, Markus; Party, Eliot; Plompen, Arjan; Romain, Pascal; Rouki, Charoula; Rudolf, Gérard; Stanoiu, Mihai

    2017-09-01

    The experimental setup GRAPhEME (GeRmanium array for Actinides PrEcise MEasurements) has been used at GELINA (EC-JRC, Geel, Belgium) to perform (n,xn γ) cross sections measurements. GRAPhEME has been especially designed to take into account the specific difficulties generated by the use of actinides samples. This work takes place in the context of new nuclear data measurements for nuclear reactor applications. Considering the very tight accuracy requested for new experimental data, special care has been paid to quantify as accurately as possible all the uncertainties from the instruments and the analysis procedure. From the precise (n,xn γ) cross sections produced with GRAPhEME, the use of model calculations is required to obtain (n,xn) cross sections. Beyond the measurements, extensive work on theoretical models is necessary to achieve a better evaluation of the (n,xn) processes. In this paper, we will discuss the final step of the 238U data analysis and present some recent results obtained on 232Th compared to TALYS modellings. A new measurement campaign on 233U has started recently, a first assessment of the recorded data will be presented.

  11. Inclusive measurement of (p,. pi. /sup -/xn) double charge exchange reactions on bismuth from threshold to 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Dombsky, M.; D'Auria, J.M.; Kelson, I.; Yavin, A.I.; Ward, T.E.; Clark, J.L.; Ruth, T.; Sheffer, G.

    1985-07-01

    The energy dependence of the total angle-integrated cross section for the production of astatine isotopes from (p,..pi../sup -/xn) double charge exchange reactions on bismuth (/sup 209/Bi) was measured from 120 to 800 MeV using activation and radiochemical techniques. Chemical yields were estimated by direct radioassaying of /sup 211/At activity in thin (approx.1 mg/cm/sup 2/), irradiated bismuth targets. Calculations of the contributions of secondary (two-step) reactions to these measured astatine yields were performed, based partially upon the observed /sup 211/At activity although even at the highest energies, the contribution to products lighter than /sup 207/At was negligible. These data for products with as many as seven neutrons removed from the doubly coherent product (/sup 210/At) display nearly Gaussian shapes for the mass distributions of the astatine residues, with the maximum occurring for about /sup 204/At. The most probable momentum transfer deduced from these distributions for the initial ..pi../sup -/ production step was 335 MeV/c. The observed excitation functions display a behavior similar to that observed for the yield of /sup 210/Po from a (p,..pi../sup 0/) reaction on /sup 209/Bi, but radically different from that observed for inclusive ..pi../sup -/ reactions on a heavy nucleus. These data are discussed in terms of recent theoretical approaches to negative pion production from bismuth. In addition, a simple, schematic model is developed to treat the rapidly decreasing percentage of the total inclusive ..pi../sup -/ emission which is observed for this double charge exchange reaction. This model reflects the opacity of a nucleus to a source of internal energetic protons.

  12. The equilibrium and preequilibrium neutron-emission spectra of some structural fusion materials for (n, xn) reactions up to 16 MeV energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, A.; Tel, E.; Aydin, A.

    2009-06-15

    In this study, neutron-emission spectra produced by (n, xn) reactions for some structural fusion materials as {sup 27}Al, {sup 51}V, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 55}Mn, and {sup 56}Fe have been investigated by a neutron beam up to 16 MeV. Multiple preequilibrium mean-free-path constant from internal transition and the preequilibrium and equilibrium level-density parameters have been investigated for some (n, xn) neutron-emission spectra calculated in this study. Preequilibrium neutron-emission spectra were calculated by using new-evaluated hybrid model and geometry-dependent hybrid model, full-exciton model, and cascade-exciton model. The reaction equilibrium component was calculated by Weisskopf-Ewing model. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other.

  13. Measurements and usage of cross sections of various (n,xn) threshold reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudoba, P.; Vrzalová, J.; Svoboda, O.; Krása, A.; Kugler, A.; Majerle, M.; Suchopár, M.; Wagner, V.

    2017-03-01

    Current trend in nuclear reactor physics is a transition from technologies using thermal neutrons to technologies utilizing fast neutrons. Unfortunately focus was put mainly on the thermal neutrons for a long time and lead to very good knowledge about this low energy region, but very scarce coverage of the high energy region. This means that there is a gap in the knowledge of excitation functions for higher energies. This gap spreads from 20 MeV up to 1 GeV and higher. This is exactly the energy region needed for description of advanced nuclear systems such as accelerator driven systems (ADS). Our group from Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) of the CAS is a member of an international collaboration Energy & Transmutation of Radioactive Waste (E&T RAW). This collaboration focuses on ADS for many years. In order to measure neutron field within ADS models it is necessary to know excitation functions of reactions used to monitor the neutron field. In many cases there are almost no experimental data for suitable reactions. Worse and quite common case is that there are no data at all. Therefore we are also focusing on measurements of these data in order to fill the databases as well as to allow further improvements of codes for nuclear data calculations.

  14. Lead 207, 208 (n, xn gamma) reactions for neutron energies up to 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlik, A.; Vonach, H.; Chadwick, M.B.; Haight, R.C.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.; Young, P.G.

    1994-07-01

    High-resolution {gamma}-ray spectra from the interaction of neutrons in the energy range from 3 to 200 MeV with {sup 207,208}Pb were measured with the white neutron source at the WNR facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. From these data, excitation functions for prominent {gamma} transitions in {sup 200,202,204,206,207,208}Pb were derived from threshold to 200 MeV incident neutron energy. These {gamma}-production cross sections represent formation cross sections for excited states of the residual nuclei. The results are compared with the predictions of nuclear reaction calculations based on the exciton model for precompound emission, the Hauser-Feshbach theory for compound nuclear decay, and coupled channels calculations to account for direct excitation of collective levels. Good agreement was obtained over the entire energy range covered in the experiment with reasonable model parameters. The results demonstrate that multiple preequilibrium emission has to be taken into account above about 40 MeV, and that the level density model of Ignatyuk should be used instead of the Gilbert-Cameron and back-shifted Fermi-gas models if excitation energies exceed about 30 MeV.

  15. Comparison of reactions for the production of {sup 258,257}Db: {sup 208}Pb({sup 51}V,xn) and {sup 209}Bi({sup 50}Ti,xn)

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, J. M.; Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Ellison, P. A.; Folden III, C. M.; Garcia, M. A.; Hoffman, D. C.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.

    2008-09-15

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 51}V,xn){sup 259-x}Db reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070{sub -760}{sup +1100} pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 {+-} 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660{sub -370}{sup +450} pb was measured at 22.0 {+-} 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the {sup 209}Bi({sup 50}Ti,n){sup 258}Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480{sub -1370}{sup +1730} pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 {+-} 1.6 MeV, in agreement with previous values [F. P. Hessberger et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 12, 57 (2001)]. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier.

  16. Neutron Emission Spectra of 104,105,106,108,110Pd Isotopes for (p,xn) Reactions at 21.6 MeV Proton Incident Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükuslu, H.; Kaplan, A.; Tel, E.; Aydin, A.; Yıldırım, G.

    2010-02-01

    Palladium, which is a rare and lustrous silvery-white color from precious metals, plays important role in fusion-fission reactions and different fields of nuclear technology. In addition, it is used for not only cold fusion experiments but also separation of hydrogen isotopes researches for fusion reactors. In this study, neutron-emission spectra produced by (p,xn) reactions for structural fusion material 104,105,106,108,110Pd isotopes have been investigated by a proton beam at 21.6 MeV. Moreover, multiple pre-equilibrium mean free paths constant from internal transition, and the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium level density parameters have been analyzed for some (p,xn) neutron-emission spectra calculated. New evaluated hybrid model and geometry dependent hybrid model, full exciton model and cascade exciton model were used to calculate the pre-equilibrium neutron-emission spectra. For the reaction equilibrium component, Weisskopf-Ewing model calculations were preferred. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other.

  17. Measurement of the activation cross section for the (p,xn) reactions in niobium with potential applications as monitor reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; Wilson, J. S.; Schueller, M. J.; McQuarrie, S. A.

    2008-08-01

    Excitation functions of the 93Nb(p,n) 93mMo, 93Nb(p,pn) 92mNb and 93Nb(p,αn) 89Zr nuclear reactions were measured up to 17.4 MeV by the conventional activation method using the stacked-foil technique. Stacks were irradiated at different incident energies on the TR19/9 cyclotron at the Edmonton PET Centre. The potential of the measured excitation functions for use as monitor reactions was evaluated and tested by measuring activity ratios at a different facility. Single Nb foils were irradiated at incident energies in the range from 12 to 19 MeV on the TR19/9 cyclotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Results are compared with the published data and with theoretical values as determined by the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE.

  18. Narrow lines from alpha-alpha reactions. [in Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1977-01-01

    Intensities and spectral shapes of the prompt gamma-ray lines of Li-7 at 0.431 MeV and Be-7 at 0.478 MeV and of the delayed 0.478-MeV line, all resulting from alpha-alpha reactions, are calculated using recent direct measurements of the cross sections for the alpha-alpha reactions. It is found that the intensities of these lines are comparable to that of the 4.44-MeV line of C-12, so that the investigated lines should be observable in large solar flares, provided their Doppler widths are not excessively large. An evaluation of the shapes of the prompt lines indicates that for an isotropic distribution of energetic alpha-particles, the two lines merge into a broad feature which essentially cannot be distinguished from the continuum. A situation in which the delayed 0.478-MeV line could be very narrow is considered.

  19. Heavy-ion reaction mechanisms studied with the spin spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Halbert, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data and statistical-model calculations for xn and ..cap alpha..xn products of the reaction /sup 20/Ne + /sup 146/Nd at 136 MeV are shown to be in generally good agreement, indicating that equilibrium processes are dominant. Preliminary results on the heavy-ion ejectiles from /sup 19/F + /sup 159/Tb are presented.

  20. Measurement of flux-weighted average cross-sections and isomeric yield ratios for 103Rh(γ,xn) reactions in the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 55 and 60 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakilur Rahman, Md.; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun; Naik, Haladhara; Nadeem, Muhammad; Thi Hien, Nguyen; Shahid, Muhammad; Yang, Sung-Chul; Cho, Young-Sik; Lee, Young-Ouk; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Woo Lee, Man; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Ro, Tae-Ik

    2016-07-01

    We measured the flux-weighted average cross-sections and the isomeric yield ratios of 99m, g, 100m, g, 101m, g, 102m, gRh in the 103Rh( γ, xn) reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 55 and 60MeV by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique, using the 100MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Korea. The flux-weighted average cross-sections were calculated by using the computer code TALYS 1.6 based on mono-energetic photons, and compared with the present experimental data. The flux-weighted average cross-sections of 103Rh( γ, xn) reactions in intermediate bremsstrahlung energies are the first time measurement and are found to increase from their threshold value to a particular value, where the other reaction channels open up. Thereafter, it decreases with bremsstrahlung energy due to its partition in different reaction channels. The isomeric yield ratios (IR) of 99m, g, 100m, g, 101m, g, 102m, gRh in the 103Rh( γ, xn) reactions from the present work were compared with the literature data in the 103Rh(d, x), 102-99Ru(p, x) , 103Rh( α, αn) , 103Rh( α, 2p3n) , 102Ru(3He, x), and 103Rh( γ, xn) reactions. It was found that the IR values of 102, 101, 100, 99Rh in all these reactions increase with the projectile energy, which indicates the role of excitation energy. At the same excitation energy, the IR values of 102, 101, 100, 99Rh are higher in the charged particle-induced reactions than in the photon-induced reaction, which indicates the role of input angular momentum.

  1. Alpha resonant scattering for astrophysical reaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Nakao, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kubano, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Kawabata, T.; Iwasa, N.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. G.

    2014-05-02

    Several alpha-induced astrophysical reactions have been studied at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), which is a low-energy RI beam separator at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. One of the methods to study them is the α resonant scattering using the thick-target method in inverse kinematics. Among the recent studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Be+α resonant scattering is discussed. Based on the result of the experiment, we evaluated the contributions of high-lying resonances for the {sup 7}Be(α,γ) reaction, and proposed a new cluster band in {sup 11}C.

  2. From γ emissions to (n,xn) cross sections of interest: The role of GAINS and GRAPhEME in nuclear reaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerveno, M.; Bacquias, A.; Borcea, C.; Dessagne, Ph.; Henning, G.; Mihailescu, L. C.; Negret, A.; Nyman, M.; Olacel, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rouki, C.; Rudolf, G.; Thiry, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    During the last 10 years, in the general context of nuclear energy applications and future reactors development, our collaboration has performed measurements of (n, x nγ cross sections to study (n, xn) reactions. Large sets of new and accurate experimental data have been produced on a variety of nuclei from 7Li to 238U. Comparisons with nuclear reaction code calculations have shown that the predictions of these exclusive cross sections are a real challenge for the theoretical codes. Indeed many processes are involved as evaporation, fission if fissionable nucleus, direct and pre-equilibrium reactions, etc. All these processes should be simultaneously well described by the models that using nuclear structure description for optical potential, level densities, decay scheme, etc. In this article, we review what we have learned since the last P(ND)2 workshop held in 2005 (A.J.M. Plompen, Proceedings of the Perspectives on Nuclear data for the Next Decade Workshop, Bruyères-le-Châtel, France, 26-28 September 2005, NEA Report N° 6121, p. 151) and highlight how we can further progress in this field in order to provide new, complete, accurate and relevant experimental data.

  3. Depth profile of production yields of natPb(p, xn) 206,205,204,203,202,201Bi nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila; Jung, Nam-Suk; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Arim; Bae, Oryun; Lee, Hee-Seock

    2016-11-01

    Experimental and simulation studies on the depth profiles of production yields of natPb(p, xn) 206,205,204,203,202,201Bi nuclear reactions were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed at the high-intensity proton linac facility (KOMAC) in Korea. The targets, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, were arranged in a stack consisting of natural Pb, Al, Au foils and Pb plates. The proton beam intensity was determined by activation analysis method using 27Al(p, 3p1n)24Na, 197Au(p, p1n)196Au, and 197Au(p, p3n)194Au monitor reactions and also by Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in the natPb activation foils and monitor foils were measured by HPGe spectroscopy system. Monte Carlo simulations were performed by FLUKA, PHITS/DCHAIN-SP, and MCNPX/FISPACT codes and the calculated data were compared with the experimental results. A satisfactory agreement was observed between the present experimental data and the simulations.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of SnO2-based 68Ge/68Ga generator made from 68Ge produced through (nat)Zn(α,xn) reaction.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata Saha; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Alam, Md Nayer; Madhusmita; Barua, Luna; Das, Malay Kanti

    2013-09-01

    (68)Ge was produced by (nat)Zn(α,xn)(68)Ge reaction and its production yield was 31.82 kBq/μAh (0.86 μCi/μAh) at the end of irradiation (EOI). A simple chromatographic method using a SnO2 column was employed to separate (68)Ge from the target material and the co-produced non-isotopic radioisotope impurities. (68)Ge retained in the column served as the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. Elution efficiency of the column was about 60%. First 2 ml of the eluate contained more than 95% of the elutable activity. Post-elution purification cum concentration was done with a small cation exchange resin column. The presence of the inactive tin ions in the (68)Ga eluate was determined by the ICP-OES technique and was found to be about 0.03 ppm. Radiochemical purity of the final (68)Ga preparation was more than 99.99% and it was found to be suitable for making complex with ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylene phosphonic acid) (EDTMP). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of flux-weight average cross-sections of natZn(γ,xn) reactions in the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50, 55, 60, and 65 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Naik, Haladhara; Kim, Kwangsoo; Cho, Young-Sik; Lee, Young-Ok; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Lee, Man-Woo

    2017-04-01

    The flux-weighted average cross-sections of (γ , xn) reactions on natZn induced by the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50, 55, 60, and 65 MeV have been determined by activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique, using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang, Korea. The theoretical photon-induced reaction cross-sections of natZn as a function of photon energy were taken from TENDL-2014 nuclear data library based on TALYS 1.6 program. The flux-weighted average cross-sections were obtained from the literature data and the theoretical values of TENDL-2014 based on mono-energetic photon. The flux-weighted reaction cross-sections from the present work and literature data at different bremsstrahlung end-point energies are in good agreement with the theoretical values. It was found that the individual natZn(γ , xn) reaction cross-sections increase sharply from reaction threshold to certain values where the next reaction channel opens. There after it remains constant for a while, where the next reaction channel increases. Then it decreases slowly with increase of bremsstrahlung end-point energy due to opening of different reaction channels.

  6. Theoretical analyses of (n,xn) reactions on sup 235 U, sup 238 U, sup 237 Np, and sup 239 Pu for ENDF/B-VI

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analyses were performed of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu between 0.01 and 20 MeV in order to calculate neutron emission cross sections and spectra for ENDF/B-VI evaluations. Coupled-channel optical model potentials were obtained for each target nucleus by fitting total, elastic, and inelastic scattering cross section data, as well as low-energy average resonance data. The resulting deformed optical model potentials were used to calculate direct (n,n{prime}) cross sections and transmission coefficients for use in Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory analyses. A fission model with multiple barrier representation, width fluctuation corrections, and preequilibrium corrections were included in the analyses. Direct cross sections for higher-lying vibrational states were calculated using DWBA theory, normalized using B(E{ell}) values determined from (d,d{prime}) and Coulomb excitation data, where available, and from systematics otherwise. Initial fission barrier parameters and transition state density enhancements appropriate to the compound systems involved were obtained from previous analyses, especially fits to charged-particle fission probability data. The parameters for the fission model were adjusted for each target system to obtain optimum agreement with direct (n,f) cross section measurements, taking account of the various multichance fission channels, that is, the different compound systems involved. The results from these analyses were used to calculate most of the neutron (n,n), (n,n{prime}), and (n,xn) cross section data in the ENDF/B/VI evaluations for the above nuclei, and all of the energy-angle correlated spectra. The deformed optical model and fission model parameterizations are described. Comparisons are given between the results of these analyses and the previous ENDF/B-V evaluations as well as with the available experimental data. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Direct Measurement of {sup 21}Na+{alpha} Stellar Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Binh, D. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kume, N.; Kato, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Tho, N. T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2010-08-12

    The measurement of the resonant alpha scattering and the {sup 21}Na({alpha}, p) reaction were performed for the first time in inverse kinematics with the thick target method using a {sup 21}Na radioisotope (RI) beam. This paper reports the current result of alpha scattering measurement and its astrophysics implication.

  8. Cross-Section Measurements for (n,xn) Reactions by In-Beam Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlik, A.; Baumann, P.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Borcea, C.; Mihailescu, L.C.; Jericha, E.; Raskinyte, I.; Jokic, S.; Lukic, S.; Meulders, J.P.; Nolte, R.; Plompen, A.J.M.

    2005-05-24

    The nuclear reactions 207Pb(n,2n)206Pb and 232Th(n,5n)228Th were studied by measuring prompt gamma-ray emission spectra from the interaction of neutrons with an enriched 207Pb sample and a natTh sample. For 207Pb the measurements were performed at the white neutron beam of the GELINA neutron source at IRMM Geel in the neutron energy range up to 20 MeV. The Th measurements were done at the quasi-monoenergetic 7Li(p,n)7Be neutron source at the Universite Catholique de Louvain for five peak neutron energies in the range 29 MeV to 42 MeV. The measurements were complemented by model calculations using the code system EMPIRE-II.

  9. Studies of alpha-induced astrophysical reactions at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.

    2010-08-12

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Using the RI beams at CRIB, many measurements on proton alpha resonance scatterings, ({alpha},p) reactions, and others were performed in recent years mainly for studying astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among them, the results on the {sup 7}Li+{alpha} resonance scatterings are presented.

  10. Stability and structure in [alpha]- and [beta]-keggin heteropolytungstates, [Xn+W12O40](8-n)-, X = p-block cation

    Treesearch

    Wade A. Neiwert; Jennifer J. Cowan; Kenneth I. Hardcastle; Craig L. Hill; Ira A. Weinstock

    2002-01-01

    [Beta]-[SiW12O40]4- (C3v symmetry) is sufficiently higher in energy than its [alpha]-isomer analogue that effectively complete conversion to [alpha]-[SiW12O40]4- (Td) is observed. By contrast, [beta]- and [alpha]-[AlW12O40]5- ([beta]- and [alpha]-1; C3v and Td, respectively) are sufficiently close in energy that both isomers are readily seen in 27Al NMR spectra of...

  11. Study of alpha one antitrypsin activity in lepra reaction.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S R; Dhole, T N; Jahagirdar, V L; Yemul, V L; Chawhan, R N

    1983-04-01

    In our earlier study (Yemul et, al, 1983) we have reported elevation of serum alpha one antitrypsin levels in patients of lepromatous leprosy and lepra reaction. In this study estimation of serum alpha one antitrypsin levels in fifty lepra reaction patients (8 of type 1 and 42 of type II) and fifty age and sex matched healthy controls is described. Alpha one antitrypsin levels were elevated in lepra reaction patients (type I--mean value of 332 mg% and S.D. +/- 118.8 and type II--mean value of 450 mg% and S.D. +/- 73.7) when compared with the healthy controls (mean value of 285 mg% and S.D. +/- 66.05). The increase in levels in type II lepra reaction patients was statistically significant. The results are discussed to correlate the increased levels of alpha one antitrypsin and the high bacterial load leading to the release of various proteases in type II lepra reaction.

  12. Non-resonant triple alpha reaction rate at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, T.; Tamii, A.; Aoi, N.; Fujita, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Miki, K.; Ogata, K.; Carter, J.; Donaldson, L.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Furuno, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kamimura, M.; Nemulodi, F.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Swarts, C.

    2014-05-02

    Our experimental goal is to study the non-resonant triple alpha reaction rate at low temperture (T < 10{sup 8} K). The {sup 13}C(p,d) reaction at 66 MeV has been used to probe the alpha-unbound continuum state in {sup 12}C just below the 2{sup nd} 0{sup +} state at 7.65 MeV. The transition strength to the continuum state is predicted to be sensitive to the non-resonant triple alpha reaction rate. The experiment has been performed at iThemba LABS. We report the present status of the experiment.

  13. Pauli-blocking effects in neutron-alpha reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M. |; Avrigeanu, V.; Antonov, A.N.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hodgson, P.E.; Stoitsov, M.V.

    1994-06-01

    We present a knockout model for direct (n,{alpha}) reactions in which the residual nucleus is left in a continuum excited state. The interaction of the neutron with a preformed alpha particle inside the nucleus is related to the free neutron-alpha scattering cross-section, with modifications to account for nuclear medium effects, including Fermi motion, Pauli-blocking, and barrier penetration. Phase space restrictions for the four nucleons of the alpha-particle after the knockout are imposed by a Pauli-blocking function. We apply this model, along with evaporation contributions, to analyze excitation functions of (n,{alpha} reactions on {sup 48}Ti, {sup 51}V, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 55}Mn, and {sup 59}Co. Good agreement is obtained between our calculations and experimental measurements. Values for the local Fermi energy in the region from where knockout occurs indicate a surface reaction.

  14. Benchmarking the External Surrogate Ratio Method using the (alpha,alpha' f) reaction at STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lesher, S R; Bernstein, L A; Ai, H; Beausang, C W; Bleuel, D; Burke, J T; Clark, R M; Fallon, P; Gibelin, J; Lee, I Y; Lyles, B F; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Wiedeking, M

    2008-01-09

    We measured the ratio of the fission probabilities of {sup 234}U* relative to {sup 236}U* formed via an ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) direct reactions using the STARS array at the 88-inch cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This ratio has a shape similar to the ratio of neutron capture probabilities from {sup 233}U(n; f) and {sup 235}U(n; f), indicating the alpha reactions likely formed a compound nucleus. This result indicates that the ratios of fission exit channel probabilities for two actinide nuclei populated via ({alpha}, {alpha}{prime}) can be used to determine an unknown fission cross section relative to a known one. The validity of the External Surrogate Ratio Method (ESRM) is tested and the results support the conclusions of Burke et al. [1].

  15. Benchmarking the External Surrogate Ratio Method using the ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}f) reaction at STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lesher, S. R.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D.; Burke, J. T.; Lyles, B. F.; Moody, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Ai, H.; Beausang, C. W.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Gibelin, J.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; McMahan, M. A.; Phair, L.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Wiedeking, M.

    2008-04-17

    We measured the ratio of the fission probabilities of {sup 234}U* relative to {sup 236}U* formed via an ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}) direct reactions using the STARS array at the 88-inch cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This ratio has a shape similar to the ratio of neutron capture probabilities from {sup 233}U(n,f) and {sup 235}U(n,f), indicating the alpha reactions likely formed a compound nucleus. This result indicates that the ratios of fission exit channel probabilities for two actinide nuclei populated via ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}) can be used to determine an unknown fission cross section relative to a known one. The validity of the External Surrogate Ratio Method (ESRM) is tested and the results support the conclusions of Burke et al. [1].

  16. Contribution from 3 alpha-Condensed States to the Triple-Alpha Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Kurokawa, Chie; Arai, Koji

    2010-06-01

    The alpha-condensed state in nuclear systems has been proposed by Tohsaki et al. and has given rise to interesting discussions. The Hoyle state of {sup 12}C has been studied as the most typical example of such an alpha-condensed state. A new resonant 0{sub 3}{sup +} state (E{sub r} = 1.66 MeV, GAMMA = 1.48 MeV) is predicted as an excited alpha-condensed state in addition to the second 0{sup +} state of the Hoyle state by calculations of the 3 alpha orthogonality condition model (3 alpha OCM) using the complex scaling method. Based on this result, the breakup strengths of the inversion reaction for sequential ({sup 8}Be+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) and direct (alpha+alpha+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) processes are calculated. It is discussed that a large reaction strength calculated recently by Ogata et al. in non-resonant energies is considered as a contribution from the excited 0{sub 3}{sup +} state.

  17. Enantioselective reactions of donor/acceptor carbenoids derived from alpha-aryl-alpha-diazoketones.

    PubMed

    Denton, Justin R; Davies, Huw M L

    2009-02-19

    The reaction of a variety of alpha-aryl-alpha-diazo ketones with activated olefins, catalyzed by the adamantyl glycine-derived dirhodium complex Rh(2)(S-PTAD)(4), generates cyclopropyl ketones with high diastereoselectivity (up to >95:5 dr) and enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). Intermolecular C-H functionalization of 1,4-cyclohexadiene by means of carbenoid-induced C-H insertion was also possible with this type of carbenoid.

  18. Plans for Studies of (alpha,n) Reactions Relevant to Astrophysics via Inverse Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, T.; Nagai, Y.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Baba, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Okazaki, F.

    1996-08-01

    (alpha,n) reactions in the keV energy region play important roles in astrophysical nucleosynthesis. In the primordial nucleosynthesis, it has been pointed out that a fluctuation of the baryon density distribution could be formed if the QCD phase transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadron gas occurred by first order. In that case the space was separated into the high density proton-rich zones and the low density neutron-rich ones, and in the neutron-rich zones nucleosynthesis could proceed beyond the mass gap at A = 8 via the reaction chains such as H-1(n,gamma)H-2(n,gamma)H-3(d,n)He-4(t,gamma)Li-7(n,gamma)Li-8(alpha,n)B- 11(n,ga mma)B-12(e(sup-)nu)C-12(n,gamma)C-13(n,gamma)C-14(n,gamma)C-15 ......, and so on. In the above nuclear reactions, the Li-8(alpha,n)B reaction plays quite a crucial role, because it can break through the mass gap at A = 8. (alpha,n) reactions of some light nuclei are also important as neutron sources for slow neutron capture process (s-process) of nucleosynthesis in stars. In low-mass and intermediate-mass (M < 10 Solar Mass) stars, neutrons are supposed to be supplied mainly by the C-13(alpha,n)O-16 reaction. On the other hand, the Ne-22(alpha,n)Mg-25 reaction is a candidate of the neutron source in massive stars with M > or = 10 Solar Mass. The contribution of the O-18(alpha,n)Ne-21 reaction to s-process in massive stars is still unknown. Since the temperatures of the above astrophysical sites correspond to the energy range of between a few ten and a few hundred keV, accurate data of the (alpha,n) reaction cross sections in the energy range are required for investigating nucleosynthesis. In order to measure these cross sections, not only direct (alpha,n) reactions but also inverse (n,alpha) reactions can be studied. In the following we would like to show experimental designs for studying several (alpha,n) reactions of astrophysical importance.

  19. Enantioselective Reactions of Configurationally Unstable alpha-Thiobenzyllithium Compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakamura; Nakagawa; Watanabe; Toru

    2000-01-01

    Too unstable for asymmetric deprotonation, alpha-sulfenyl carbanions can undergo asymmetric substitution reactions with high stereoselectivity [Eq. (1)]. The key to the asymmetric induction is the dynamic kinetic resolution of the complex formed between the organolithium compound and a chiral ligand, the most effective of which were bisoxazoline derivatives.

  20. Faddeev Three-body Calculation of Triple-Alpha Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Souichi

    2013-03-01

    The triple-alpha (3 α) process, in which three 4He nuclei are transformed into a 12C nucleus, is studied in terms of a three-alpha (3- α) model. The reaction rate of the process is calculated via an inverse process, 3- α photodisintegration of a 12C nucleus. Both of 3- α bound and -continuum states are calculated by a Faddeev method with accommodating the long range Coulomb interaction. Results of the 3 α reaction rate are about 103 times larger than a standard rate from the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE) at a low temperature ( T = 107 K), which means our results are remarkably smaller than recent three-body calculations by the method of continuum-discretized coupled-channel.

  1. Excitation functions of 125Te(p, xn)-reactions from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV with special reference to the production of 124I.

    PubMed

    Hohn, A; Nortier, F M; Scholten, B; van der Walt, T N; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2001-08-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 125Te(p, xn) (119,120m, 120g, 121,122,123,124,125)I were measured for the first time from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. Thin samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition of 98.3% enriched 125Te on Ti-backing. In addition to experimental studies, excitation functions were calculated by the modified hybrid model code ALICE-IPPE. The experimental and theoretical data generally showed good agreement. From the measured cross section data, integral yields of (123,124,125)I were calculated. The energy range Ep 21 --> 15 MeV appears to be very suitable for the production of the medically interesting radionuclide 124I (T(1/2) = 4.18 d; I(beta)+ = 25%). The thick target yield of 124I amounts to 81 MBq/microA h and the level of 125I-impurity to 0.9%. The 125Te(p,2n)124I reaction gives 124I yield about four times higher than the commonly used 124Te(p,n)124I and 124Te(d,2n)124I reactions. The proposed production energy range is too high for small cyclotrons but large quantities of 124I can be produced with medium-sized commercial machines.

  2. Excitation functions of 124Te(d,xn)124,125I reactions from threshold up to 14 MeV: comparative evaluation of nuclear routes for the production of 124I.

    PubMed

    Bastian, T H; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2001-09-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 124Te(d,xn)124-125I were measured from their respective thresholds up to 14.0 MeV via the stacked-foil technique. Thin samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition of 99.8% enriched 124Te on Ti-backing. The excitation function of the 124Te(d,n)125I reaction was measured for the first time. The present data for the 124Te(d,2n)124I reaction are by an order of magnitude higher than the literature experimental data but are in good agreement with the results of a hybrid model calculation. From the measured cross sections, integral yields of 124,125I were calculated. The energy range Ed = 14 --> 10 MeV appears to be the best compromise between 124I-yield and 1251-impurity. The calculated 124I-yield amounts to 17.5 MBq/microA h and the 125I-impurity to 1.7%. A critical evaluation of the three nuclear routes for the production of 124I, viz. 124Te(d,2n)-, 124Te(p,n)- and 125Te(p,2n)-processes, is given. The reaction studied in this work proved to be least suitable. The 124Te(p,n)-reaction gives 124I of the highest radionuclidic purity, and a small-sized cyclotron is adequate for production purposes. The 125Te(p,2n)-reaction is more suitable at a medium-sized cyclotron: the yield of 124I is four times higher than in the other two reactions but the level of 0.9% 125I-impurity is relatively high.

  3. Li production in alpha-alpha reactions. [relation to gamma ray observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The cross section for Li-7 production in alpha-alpha reactions is shown to be increased by about a factor of 2 due to the excitation levels of Li-7 and Be-7 at 478 keV and 431 keV, respectively. The cross section for Li-6 production, however, remains the same as calculated on the basis of the detailed balance principle. The lines at 478 keV and 431 keV may link Li-7 production to feasible gamma-ray observations.

  4. Li production in alpha-alpha reactions. [relation to gamma ray observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The cross section for Li-7 production in alpha-alpha reactions is shown to be increased by about a factor of 2 due to the excitation levels of Li-7 and Be-7 at 478 keV and 431 keV, respectively. The cross section for Li-6 production, however, remains the same as calculated on the basis of the detailed balance principle. The lines at 478 keV and 431 keV may link Li-7 production to feasible gamma-ray observations.

  5. Excitation functions of 120Te(d,xn)121,120m,gI reactions from threshold up to 13.5 MeV: comparative studies on the production of 120gI.

    PubMed

    Hohn, A; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2000-04-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 120Te(d,xn)121,120m,gI were measured for the first time from their respective thresholds up to 13.5 MeV. Thin samples prepared by electrolytic deposition of 99.0% enriched 120Te on Ti-backing were used. Integral yields of 121,120m,gI were calculated from the measured cross section data. A comparison of the 122Te(p,3n)-, 120Te(p,n)- and 120Te(d,2n)-processes for the production of 120gI is given. The 120Te(d,2n)-process is unsuitable for production purposes since the yield of 120gI is very low and the level of 121I impurity very high. The choice lies either on the 122Te(p,3n)- or the 120Te(p,n)-reaction and is governed by the available proton energy and the financial resources for procuring the enriched target material.

  6. Synthesis of rutherfordium isotopes in the 238U(26Mg, xn)264-xRf reaction and study of their decay properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn M; Gates, J.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dvorak, J.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Loveland, W.; Nelson, S.L.; Pang, G.K.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Turler, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2008-01-15

    Isotopes of rutherfordium (258-261Rf) were produced in irradiations of 238U targets with 26Mg beams. Excitation functions were measured for the 4n, 5n and 6n exit channels. Production of 261Rf in the 3n exit channel with a cross section of 28+92-26 pb was observed. Alpha decay of 258Rf was observed for the first time with an alpha-particle energy of 9.05+-0.03 MeV and an alpha/total decay branching ratio of 0.31+-0.11. In 259Rf, the electron capture/total decay branching ratio was measured to be 0.15+-0.04. The measured half-lives for 258Rf, 259Rf and 260Rf were 14.7+1.2-1.0 ms, 2.5+0.4-0.3 s and 22.2+3.0-2.4 ms, respectively, in agreement with literature data. The systematics of the alpha decay Q values and of the partial spontaneous fission half-lives were evaluated for even-even nuclides in the region of the N = 152, Z = 100 deformed shell. The influence of the N = 152 shell on the alpha decay Q values for rutherfordium was observed to be similar to that of the lighter elements (96<_ Z<_ 102). However, the N = 152 shell does not stabilize the rutherfordium isotopes against spontaneous fission, as it does in the lighter elements (96<_ Z<_102).

  7. Measurements and analysis of alpha-induced reactions of importance for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Messieres, Genevieve Escande

    2011-11-01

    Reactions during stellar helium burning are of primary importance for understanding nucleosynthesis. A detailed understanding of the critical reaction chain 4He(2alpha, gamma)12C( alpha, gamma)16O(alpha, gamma) 20Ne is necessary both because it is the primary energy source and because it determines the ratio of 12C to 16O produced, which in turn significantly effects subsequent nucleosynthesis. Also during Helium burning, the reactions 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg and 22Ne(alpha, gamma )26Mg are crucial in determining the amount of neutrons available for the astrophysical s-process. This thesis presents new experimental results concerning the 16O(alpha, gamma) 20Ne, 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg, and 22Ne(alpha, gamma)26Mg reaction rates. These results are then applied to the calculation of the associated stellar reaction rates in order to achieve better accuracy.

  8. Triple-{alpha} reaction rate constrained by stellar evolution models

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, Takuma; Hirschi, Raphael; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2012-11-12

    We investigate the quantitative constraint on the triple-{alpha} reaction rate based on stellar evolution theory, motivated by the recent significant revision of the rate proposed by nuclear physics calculations. Targeted stellar models were computed in order to investigate the impact of that rate in the mass range of 0.8{<=}M/M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }{<=}25 and in the metallicity range between Z= 0 and Z= 0.02. The revised rate has a significant impact on the evolution of low-and intermediate-mass stars, while its influence on the evolution of massive stars (M > 10M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }) is minimal. We find that employing the revised rate suppresses helium shell flashes on AGB phase for stars in the initial mass range 0.8{<=}M/M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }{<=}6, which is contradictory to what is observed. The absence of helium shell flashes is due to the weak temperature dependence of the revised triple-{alpha} reaction cross section at the temperature involved. In our models, it is suggested that the temperature dependence of the cross section should have at least {nu} > 10 at T = 1-1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}K where the cross section is proportional to T{sup {nu}}. We also derive the helium ignition curve to estimate the maximum cross section to retain the low-mass first red giants. The semi-analytically derived ignition curves suggest that the reaction rate should be less than {approx} 10{sup -29} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} mole{sup -2} at Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 7.8} K, which corresponds to about three orders of magnitude larger than that of the NACRE compilation.

  9. STELLAR EVOLUTION CONSTRAINTS ON THE TRIPLE-{alpha} REACTION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.; Hirschi, Raphael

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the quantitative constraint on the triple-{alpha} reaction rate based on stellar evolution theory, motivated by the recent significant revision of the rate proposed by nuclear physics calculations. Targeted stellar models were computed in order to investigate the impact of that rate in the mass range of 0.8 {<=} M/M{sub sun} {<=} 25 and in the metallicity range between Z = 0 and Z = 0.02. The revised rate has a significant impact on the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, while its influence on the evolution of massive stars (M {approx}> 10 M{sub sun}) is minimal. We find that employing the revised rate suppresses helium shell flashes on asymptotic giant branch phase for stars in the initial mass range 0.8 {<=} M/M{sub sun} {<=} 6, which is contradictory to what is observed. The absence of helium shell flashes is due to the weak temperature dependence of the revised triple-{alpha} reaction cross section at the temperature involved. In our models, it is suggested that the temperature dependence of the cross section should have at least {nu} > 10 at T = (1-1.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} K where the cross section is proportional to T {sup {nu}}. We also derive the helium ignition curve to estimate the maximum cross section to retain the low-mass first red giants. The semi-analytically derived ignition curves suggest that the reaction rate should be less than {approx}10{sup -29} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} mole{sup -2} at Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 7.8} K, which corresponds to about three orders of magnitude larger than that of the NACRE compilation. In an effort to compromise with the revised rates, we calculate and analyze models with enhanced CNO cycle reaction rates to increase the maximum luminosity of the first giant branch. However, it is impossible to reach the typical red giant branch tip luminosity even if all the reaction rates related to CNO cycles are enhanced by more than 10 orders of magnitude.

  10. Triple-alpha reaction rate studied with the Faddeev three-body formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Souichi

    2012-11-12

    The triple-alpha (3{alpha}) reaction, {sup 4}He+{sup 4}He+{sup 4}He{yields}{sup 12}C+{gamma}, which plays a significant role in the stellar evolution scenarios, is studied in terms of a three-alpha (3-{alpha}) model. The reaction rate of the process is calculated via an inverse process, 3-{alpha} photodisintegration of a {sup 12}C nucleus. Both of 3-{alpha} bound and-continuum states are calculated by a Faddeev method with accommodating the long range Coulomb interaction. With being adjusted to the empirical E2-strength for {sup 12}C(0{sub 2}{sup +}){yields}{sup 12}C(2{sub 1}{sup +}) transition, results of the 3{alpha} reaction rate <{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}> at higher temperature (T > 10{sup 8} K), where the reaction proceeds mainly through the {sup 8}Be and {sup 12}C(0{sub 2}{sup +}) resonant states, almost agree with those of the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE). On the other hand, calculated values of <{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}> are about 10{sup 3} times larger than the NACRE rate at a low temperature (T= 10{sup 7} K), which means our results are remarkably smaller than recent CDCC results.

  11. Experimental Study of the Cross Sections of {alpha}-Particle Induced Reactions on 209Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanne, A.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Szucs, Z.

    2005-05-24

    Alpha particle induced reactions for generation of 211At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E{alpha}=39 MeV. Excitation functions for the reactions 209Bi({alpha},2n)211At, 209Bi({alpha},3n)210At, 209Bi({alpha},x) 210Po obtained from direct alpha emission measurements and gamma spectra from decay products are compared with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross sections.

  12. Depth profiles of production yields of natPb(p, xn)206,205,204,203,202 Bi reactions using 100-MeV proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Jung, Nam-Suk; Oh, Joo-Hee; Lee, Arim; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Oryun; Lee, Hee-Seock

    2017-09-01

    In this study, results of the experimental study on the depth profiles of production yields of 206,205,204,203,202Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb target irradiated by a 100-MeV proton beam are presented. Irradiation was performed at proton linac facility (KOMAC) in Korea. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of natural Pb, Al, Au foils and Pb plates. The proton beam intensity was determined by activation analysis method using 27Al(p, 3p1n)24Na, 197Au(p, p1n)196Au, and 197Au(p, p3n)194Au monitor reactions and also using dosimetry method by a Gafchromic film. The production yields of produced Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb foils and monitor reactions were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Monte Carlo simulations were performed by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX codes and compared with the measurements in order to verify validity of physical models and nuclear data libraries in the Monte Carlo codes. A fairly good agreement was observed between the present experimental data and the simulations by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX. However, physical models and the nuclear data relevant to the end of range of protons in the codes need to be improved.

  13. Quantum three-body calculation of nonresonant triple-{alpha} reaction rate at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kan, Masataka; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2010-08-12

    Triple-{alpha} reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schroedinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. An accurate description of the {alpha}-{alpha} nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the first two {alpha}-particles and the third {alpha}-particle. Consequently, the{alpha}-{alpha} nonresonant continuum states give a markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than that reported in previous studies. We show that Nomoto's method for three-body nonresonant capture processes, which is adopted in the NACRE compilation and many other studies, is a crude approximation of the accurate quantum three-body model calculation. We find an increase in triple-{alpha} reaction rate by about 20 orders of magnitude around 10{sup 7} K compared with the rate of NACRE.

  14. Quantum three-body calculation of nonresonant triple-alpha reaction rate at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kan, Masataka; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2010-06-01

    Triple-alpha reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schroedinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. An accurate description of the alpha-alpha nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the first two alpha-particles and the third alpha-particle. Consequently, the alpha-alpha nonresonant continuum states give a markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than that reported in previous studies. We show that Nomoto's method for three-body nonresonant capture processes, which is adopted in the NACRE compilation and many other studies, is a crude approximation of the accurate quantum three-body model calculation. We find an increase in triple-alpha reaction rate by 26 orders of magnitude around 10{sup 7} K compared with the rate of NACRE.

  15. The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1 was a Fleet 1 trainer purchased by the Navy for evaluation. The purchase of several N2Y-1 aircraft followed, for use as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. The XN2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note the that vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA spin work.

  16. Alpha-induced reaction studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hu, J.; Kubono, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2012-11-12

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Studies on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, ({alpha}, p) reactions, and other types of measurements ({beta}-decay lifetimes etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests on astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Li+{alpha}/{sup 7}Be+{alpha} resonant scatterings are presented.

  17. Analysis of {alpha}-induced reactions on {sup 151}Eu below the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.

    2011-01-15

    Novel measurements of ({alpha},{gamma}) and ({alpha},n) reaction cross sections on the target nucleus {sup 151}Eu, close to the reaction thresholds, support the choice of recently proposed parameters of the {alpha}-particle optical model potential below the Coulomb barrier. A better understanding of the {alpha}-particle optical potential at these energies leads to a statistical model analysis of additional partial cross sections that were measured but not considered within a former model analysis. On this basis we have tentatively assigned a modified J{sup {pi}}=9{sup -} spin and parity to the 22.7-h isomer in {sup 154}Tb.

  18. Inhibitory effects of 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone on steroid hydroxylation reactions of guinea pig adrenal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, D Y; Kominami, S; Takemori, S

    1993-04-01

    Using guinea pig adrenal microsomes, we studied the inhibitory effects of 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone on steroid hydroxylation reactions catalyzed by cytochromes P-450. When 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was used as a substrate, 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone functioned as a competitive inhibitor on the C17-C20 bond cleavage reaction of P-450(17)alpha lyase. The inhibition constant, Ki was 1.37 mumol/L. 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone also competitively inhibited the conversion of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol by the action of P-450c21. The value of Ki was 1.73 mumol/L. When progesterone was used as a substrate, 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone inhibited neither the 21-hydroxylation of P-450c21, the C17-C20 bond cleavage, nor 17 alpha-hydroxylation of P-450(17)alpha lyase. Based on these results, we can deduce that the production of androstenedione from progesterone by the action of P-450(17)alpha lyase proceeds through a successive monooxygenase reaction.

  19. A new technique for measuring astrophysically important (alpha,p) reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, K. Y.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Smith, Michael Scott; Ahn, S.H.; Ayres, A.; Bey, A.; Jones, K. L.; Pittman, S. T.; Howard, M. E.; O'Malley, Patrick; KOZUB, RAYMOND L; Matos, M.; Moazen, Brian; Peters, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    Studying ({alpha},p) reactions of astrophysical interest with radioactive beams presents serious challenges because of the difficult nature of the target. We have developed a new approach for the measurement of ({alpha},p) reactions using heavy ion beams in inverse kinematics and have measured the {sup 4}He({sup 19}F,{sup 1}H){sup 22}Ne reaction as a demonstration. {sup 19}F beams were used at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) tandem accelerator in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to bombard a large scattering chamber filled with {sup 4}He gas. Recoiling protons from the reactions were detected by the large area annular silicon strip detector array (SIDAR). The {sup 19}F({alpha},p) and {sup 19}F({alpha},p') excitation functions were measured over the energy range of E{sub c.m.} {approx} 1-2.1 MeV, demonstrating the viability of the technique

  20. Reactions of. cap alpha. -oxides in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine and glycerine diphenyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, P.V.; Sveshnikova, N.F.; Ignatov, V.A.

    1987-11-20

    Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) is widely used as a catalyst for the condensation and hardening of compositions based on epoxide oligomer. To provide objective information about the reaction scheme and the kinetics of reactions in which epoxide oligomers participate we studied a model reaction system. The model epoxide oligomer selected was phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) and the ..cap alpha..,..gamma..-diphenyl ether of glycerine (GDPE). The reference substances in the differential thermal analysis were magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, and GDPE. Monitoring of the progress of the isothermal reaction was effected by determining the ..cap alpha..-oxide group mercurimetrically. The concentration of HMTA was determined iodometrically.

  1. Probable new type of reaction mechanism: Double. cap alpha. direct transfer process

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Shu-wei; Wu Guo-hua; Miao Rong-zhi; Han Fei

    1983-10-01

    It is assumed that /sup 8/Be consists of two ..cap alpha.. particles which are close to each other in configuration space. A spectroscopic density of /sup 8/Be cluster in the residue nuclei is then obtained, which is proportional to the square of the preformation probability of ..cap alpha.. particle at nuclear surface. Using the improved method of parametrization of EFR-DWBA overlap integral,/sup 1//sup en-dash//sup 2/ we calculate the double differential energy spectra and angular distributions of ..cap alpha.. particles for the reactions /sup 209/Bi (/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..) /sup 217/Fr and extract the preformation probability of ..cap alpha.. particle at the surface of /sup 217/Fr nuclei from fitting the experimental data. The agreement within the range of calculation error between the preformation probabilities extracted from transfer reactions and ..cap alpha.. decay suggests that the reaction /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..) /sup 217/Fr may be explained as a double ..cap alpha.. direct transfer process.

  2. Population of mixed-symmetry states via {alpha} transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.; Pietralla, N.

    2008-07-15

    Within the neutron-proton interacting boson model we study the population of mixed-symmetry states via {alpha} transfer processes. Closed expressions are deduced in the case of the limiting U{sub {pi}}{sub +{nu}}(5) and SU{sub {pi}}{sub +{nu}}(3). We find that the population of the lowest mixed-symmetry 2{sup +} state, vanishing along the N{sub {pi}}=N{sub {nu}} line, depends on the number of active bosons and is normally smaller than that of the lowest full symmetric 2{sup +} state. In particular, for deformed nuclei where the number of bosons is normally large, the relative population of the mixed-symmetry 2{sup +} state is of the order of a few percent. More favorable cases can be found near shell closures, as in the case of {alpha} transfer leading to {sup 140}Ba.

  3. Thick target measurement of the 40Ca(alpha,gamma)44Ti reaction rate

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, S A; Burke, J T; Scielzo, N D; Phair, L; Bleuel, D; Norman, E B; Grant, P G; Hurst, A M; Tumey, S; Brown, T A; Stoyer, M

    2009-02-06

    The thick-target yield for the {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction has been measured for E{sub beam} = 4.13, 4.54, and 5.36 MeV using both an activation measurement and online {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. The results of the two measurements agree. From the measured yield a reaction rate is deduced that is smaller than statistical model calculations. This implies a smaller {sup 44}Ti production in supernova compared to recently measured {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction rates.

  4. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  5. Trojan horse particle invariance studied with the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Kiss, G. G.; Li, C.; Tumino, A.

    2011-04-15

    The Trojan horse nucleus invariance for the binary reaction cross section extracted from the Trojan horse reaction was tested using the quasifree {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{alpha}{alpha})H and {sup 3}He({sup 7}Li,{alpha}{alpha}){sup 2}H reactions. The cross sections for the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He binary processes were extracted in the framework of the plane wave approximation. They are compared with direct behaviors as well as with cross sections extracted from previous indirect investigations of the same binary reactions using deuteron as the Trojan horse nucleus instead of {sup 3}He. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation which suggests the independence of the binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan horse nucleus, at least for the investigated cases.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha release during systemic reaction in cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Tillie-Leblond, I; Gosset, P; Janin, A; Dalenne, R; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B

    1994-02-01

    Primary cold urticaria (PCU) characterized by the association of urticaria, angioedema, and sometimes a shock-like reaction after cold exposure, is usually considered to be linked with histamine and prostaglandin D2 release by mast cells. To determine the involvement of cytokines, we studied the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the blood of the efferent vein after immersion of the hand in chilled water. Five patients with PCU were compared with a control population (three patients with nonphysical urticaria and three healthy subjects). Among patients with PCU who underwent the cold immersion test, two exhibited a shock-like reaction with a large urticarial plaque (patients 1 and 2), one had only a mild cutaneous reaction, and two had no reaction. Patient 1 was reevaluated after 6 months of treatment with H1 and H2 antihistamines: he did not respond to this challenge. All controls were strictly negative. Histamine was released within the first minute after the challenge in the three patients with PCU, but at a higher level for the two patients who had a systemic reaction. TNF-alpha was undetectable in the blood of the patient with only a mild cutaneous reaction, whereas TNF-alpha release was observed for the two patients with a systemic reaction, 2 and 6 minutes after the end of the cold immersion test. The two other patients and the control subjects released neither histamine nor TNF-alpha. In parallel, pathologic and immunohistochemical (with a rabbit anti-TNF-alpha antibody) studies were performed on skin biopsy specimens collected 10 minutes after ice-cube test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Excitation Functions for Complete Fusion and Transfer Reactions in the Interaction of 4He Nuclei with 197Au

    SciTech Connect

    Kulko, A. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Rassadov, D. N.; Skobelev, N. K.; Testov, D. A.

    2007-05-22

    Excitation functions have been measured for the fusion reaction 197Au({alpha}xn)201-xnTl with the evaporation of x neutrons (0{<=}x{<=}3) in the energy range 14-36 MeV. The induced-activation method was used for registration and identification of the reaction products. The experimental cross sections for the (1-3)-neutron evaporation residues are in good agreement with the results known from literature. For the radiation capture reaction 197Au({alpha},{gamma})201Tl, the upper limit was obtained essentially lower. The excitation functions for the measured reactions are compared with calculations in the frame of the statistical model, as well as with formerly measured similar data with a 6He beam.

  8. Isomeric cross-section ratio for the formation of 58Com,g in neutron, proton, deuteron, and alpha-particle induced reactions in the energy region up to 25 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudár, S.; Qaim, S. M.

    1996-06-01

    Excitation functions were determined for 58Fe(p,n)58Com, natFe(d,xn)58Com, 55Mn(α,n)58Com, and 59Co(n,2n)58Com reactions from the respective thresholds to 14.12 MeV in work with protons, 12.97 MeV with deuterons, 13 MeV with neutrons, and 25.52 MeV with alpha particles. The radioactivity of the activation product 58Com(T1/2=9.15 h) was determined by high resolution γ-ray and x-ray spectrometry. Using the present σm results and the (σm+σg) data reported earlier, the isomeric cross-section ratio σm/(σm+σg) was determined for each reaction. Statistical model calculations taking into account the precompound effects were performed for the above-mentioned four reactions as well as for the 58Ni(n,p)58Com,g process. A consistent set of model parameters was used. The isomeric cross-section ratio for the pair 58Com,g strongly depends on the level scheme and branching ratios of the known levels of 58Co. Different reactions produced different angular momentum distributions of the compound nucleus, resulting in different isomeric cross-section ratio at the same excitation of the compound nucleus. The ratio was found to be relatively high for target nuclei with high spin values.

  9. Imaginary time approach for reaction rate of triple-alpha process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabana, Kazuhiro; Akahori, Takahiko; Funaki, Yasuro

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new theoretical approach for the radiative capture reaction rate, which we call the imaginary-time theory. In the theory, inverse temperature is identified with the temperature. Since reaction rates can be calculated without solving any scattering problem in the theory, it is ideally suited for the triple-alpha process in which scattering problem of three charged particles has caused difficulties. Using the imaginary-time theory, we obtain the triple-alpha reaction rate in the quantum three-body model treating alpha particles as structureless point particles. The calculated rate is almost identical to the standard NACRE rate. We have also found that the reaction mechanism of the triple-alpha process changes at exactly the same temperatures as those in empirical theories. We may show that it is possible to derive an analytical formula close to that of the NACRE rate, if we introduce some assumptions in the three-body model. We demonstrate that, if we introduce a coupled-channel expansion with a truncation, reaction rate is substantially overestimated. This finding may help to explain the very different reaction rates obtained so far using different theoretical approaches.

  10. [Development of highly stereoselective reactions utilizing heteroatoms--asymmetric synthesis of alpha-substituted serines].

    PubMed

    Sano, S

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the efficient methods for diastereoselective and enantioselective syntheses of alpha-substituted serines. A newly designed bislactim ether, ethyl (5S)- or (5R)-3,6-diethoxy-2,5-dihydro-5-isopropyl-2-pyrazinecarboxylate, was treated with base or Lewis acid-tertiary amine to generate an enolate or enaminate (imine anion, metalloenamine). Alkylation or aldol-type reaction with the resultant enolate or enaminate proceeded in a highly diastereoselective manner to give the corresponding alkylated or aldol products, respectively. Reduction of these products with diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL) followed by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid afforded the desirable alpha-substituted serines. The enantioselective aldol-type reaction of an achiral bislactim ether, ethyl 3,6-diethoxy-2,5-dihydro-2-pyrazinecarboxylate, was also investigated by employing Sn(OSO2CF3)2-triethylamine in the presence of an external chiral ligand, (--)-sparteine. Not only a stoichiometric amount, but also a catalytic amount of (--)-sparteine promoted the highly enantioselective aldol-type reactions. Interestingly, the stereoselective outcome of the Sn(II)-mediated reaction differed from that of the Mg(II)-mediated one in the aldol-type reaction of the bislactim ethers with aliphatic aldehydes. On the other hand, chemoenzymatic synthesis of enantiomerically pure alpha-substituted serines must also be a convenient and useful procedure. Porcine liver esterase (PLE) or rabbit liver esterase (RLE) catalyzed hydrolysis of the pro-S ester group of diethyl alpha-alkyl-alpha-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)malonates to afford (R)-ethyl alpha-alkyl-alpha-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)malonates each in excellent enantiomeric excess. Enantiodivergent reductions of these acid esters readily proceeded to furnish both the corresponding enantiomeric alpha-substituted serines. Finally, the application of these methodologies mentioned above to a total synthesis of ISP-I (a potent immunosuppressive principle in

  11. Three-body calculation of triple-alpha reaction at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Souichi

    2011-09-01

    The reaction rate of the triple-alpha (3α) process at low temperatures, where resonant reaction is not dominant, is calculated through the inverse process, the photodisintegration of a 12C nucleus. For this, Schrödinger equations in a three-alpha (3-α) model of 12C are directly solved by a Faddeev method, which has been successfully applied to three-nucleon problem so far. The nuclear Hamiltonian consists of an α-α potential, which reproduces the 8Be resonance state, together with three-body potentials to reproduce 12C properties. Our results of the 3α reaction rate are about 103 times larger at low temperature (T = 107 K) than a standard rate from the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE), which means our results are remarkably smaller than recent results of quantum-mechanical three-body calculations by Ogata et al.

  12. Alpha-decay of light protactinium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Faestermann, T.; Gillitzer, A.; Hartel, K.; Henning, W.; Kienle, P.

    1987-12-10

    Light protactinium isotopes have been produced with /sup 204/Pb (/sup 19/F,xn) reactions. ..cap alpha..-activities with E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 9.90(5) MeV, T/sub 1/2/ = 53(10) ns and E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 9.65(5) MeV, T/sub 1/2/ = 0.78(16) ..mu..s could be attributed to the previously unobserved nuclei /sup 219/Pa and /sup 220/Pa with the help of excitation functions. The peak cross sections for the 4n and 3n evaporation channels are on the order of 10 ..mu..b. The decay energies as well as the halflives fit well into the systematics of these nuclei close to the magic neutron number N = 126. /sup 219/Pa is the shortest lived nuclide known with directly measured halflife.

  13. Reaction of. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. , omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols with phosphorus tribromide

    SciTech Connect

    Krolevets, A.A.; Ragulin, L.I.; Shevchenko, V.I.; Lyubimova, E.I.

    1986-08-20

    The authors investigate the bromination and phosphorylation of the title alkanol by phosphorus tribromide and determine the structure and composition of the resulting phosphorus and bromine compounds using IR and NMR spectroscopy with phosphorus 31, fluorine 19, and hydrogen 1. An extensive analysis of chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants is performed. The reaction of fluorine-containing trialkyl phosphites with sulfuric acid anhydride was found to lead to the formation of the corresponding fluorinated trialkyl phosphates in a quantitative yield.

  14. Lost alpha-particle diagnostics from a D-T plasma by using nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; Isobe, Mitsutaka

    2014-08-21

    Among various methods proposed for alpha-particles loss measurement, we studied on those by measuring gamma rays of three cases, from (1) nuclear reactions induced by alpha particles, (2) those from short-life-time activities and (3) those from long-life-time activities induced by alpha particles. The time evolution of local alpha flux may possibly be measured by using the {sup 9}Be (a, n) {sup 12}C reaction (1). Using the same system, but with a target set up close to the first wall, activation measurement on site right after turning-off the discharge is possible (2). Nuclear reaction, {sup 25}Mg (a, p) {sup 28}Al, that produce radioisotopes of short lifetime of 2.2 minutes in one of the best candidates. As to the activation to a long lifetime (3), it is predicted that the gamma ray yield from {sup 19}F (a, n) {sup 22}Na reaction is enough for the measurement at the reactor site.

  15. Synthesis of pyrroles by consecutive multicomponent reaction/[4 + 1] cycloaddition of alpha-iminonitriles with isocyanides.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Patrice; Masson, Géraldine; Zhu, Jieping

    2009-04-02

    [4 + 1] Cycloaddition of alpha,beta-unsaturated imidoyl cyanide (2-cyano-1-azadienes) with isocyanides in the presence of a catalytic amount of AlCl(3) afforded polysubstituted 2-amino-5-cyanopyrroles in good to excellent yields. In combination with the IBX/TBAB-mediated oxidative Strecker reaction, this important heterocycle is readily synthesized in two steps from simple starting materials.

  16. Zeolite-directed cascade reactions: cycliacyarylation versus decarboxyarylation of alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Stefan; Kumarraja, Mayilvasagam; Pale, Patrick; Sommer, Jean

    2007-09-27

    The interaction of alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic acids with benzene derivatives was investigated in H-zeolites and led to two distinct but competing processes, cycliacyarylation and decarboxyarylation. Interestingly, H-USY selectively induced the cycliacyarylation cascade reaction, whereas H-ZSM5 selectively promoted the decarboxyarylation cascade.

  17. R-matrix Analysis of the 10B(p,{alpha})7Be and 11B(p,{alpha})8Be Reactions at Stellar Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Trabelsi, A.; Belhout, A.; Fouka, M.; Messahel, L.; Ouichaoui, S.

    2006-04-26

    The available experimental astrophysical S(E) factor data for the 10B(p,{alpha}0.1)7Be and 11B(p,{alpha}0.1)8Be reactions have been analyzed over the C.M. proton energy ranges up to E = 1.00 MeV and 1.45 MeV, respectively, using the R-matrix theory. The extrapolated SBN(E) factor values for bare nuclei led to a stellar rate consistent with the most recent calculations in the case of the 11B(p,{alpha})8Be reaction, and to a 10B(p,{alpha})7Be rate significantly different from previously reported ones at the lowest stellar temperatures. The electron screening enhancement factors have also been extracted. Mainly results concerning the 10B(p,{alpha})7Be reaction are presented here.

  18. {alpha}-cluster states in {sup 38}Ar observed via the {sup 34}S({sup 7}Li,t{alpha}){sup 34}S reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, M.; Ohmura, M.; Harima, F.; Ogino, K.; Takimoto, K.; Ohkubo, S.

    2005-06-01

    To study the {alpha}-cluster states in the {sup 38}Ar nucleus, angular correlation functions between t and {alpha} in the {sup 34}S({sup 7}Li, t{alpha}){sup 38}Ar reaction have been measured. Seven states at 10.2, 10.8, 11.4, 12.2, 12.7, 14.3, and 15.0 MeV were newly observed.

  19. Study of the 30P({alpha},p){sup 33}S reaction using a gas-filled magnetic spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira, J. M.; Deibel, C. M.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Greene, J.; Jiang, C. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Ugalde, C.; Zinkann, G.; Marley, S. T.; Patel, N.; Paul, M.

    2010-08-04

    We have developed a technique using a gas-filled magnetic spectrograph which enables us to study ({alpha},p) transfer reactions of astrophysical interest in inverse kinematics and by means of the time-inverse reactions. We present preliminary experimental results of the reaction {sup 30}P({alpha},p){sup 33}S which confirm that the technique permits the study of these kinds of transfer reactions.

  20. Reactivity and enantioselectivity in the reactions of scalemic stereogenic alpha-(N-carbamoyl)alkylcuprates.

    PubMed

    Dieter, R Karl; Oba, Gabriel; Chandupatla, Kishan R; Topping, Chris M; Lu, Kai; Watson, Rhett T

    2004-04-30

    Stereogenic 2-(N-carbamoyl)pyrrolidinylcuprates prepared from scalemic (i.e., enantioenriched) N-Boc-2-lithiopyrrolidine and THF soluble CuCN.2LiCl react with vinyl iodides, vinyl triflates, beta-iodo-alpha,beta-enoates, propargyl mesylates, and allyl bromide to afford the substitution products with excellent enantioselectivity. Excellent enantiomeric ratios are obtained in the conjugate addition reactions with methyl vinyl ketone while low enantiomeric ratios can be achieved with acrylate esters using HMPA/TMSCl activation. Enantiomeric ratios vary with substrate substitution patterns and the observed enantioselectivities appear to be more a function of cuprate-electrophile reactivities than of the reaction type (e.g., substitution, conjugate addition). Low enantiomeric ratios are obtained with the alpha-(N-carbamoyl)benzylcuprates. The lithium-copper transmetalation and cuprate vinylation reactions proceed with retention of configuration.

  1. Excitation functions for complete-fusion and transfer reactions in {sup 4}He interaction with {sup 197}Au nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kulko, A. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Rassadov, D. N.; Skobelev, N. K.; Testov, D. A.

    2007-04-15

    Excitation functions are measured for the fusion reactions {sup 197}Au({sup 4}He, xn){sup 201-xn}Tl that are induced by alpha-particle interaction with gold nuclei in the energy range 14-36 MeV and in which x neutrons (0 {<=} x {<=} 3) are evaporated. The stack-activation technique was used to record and separate reaction products. Experimental data on the fusion reactions followed by evaporation of one to three neutrons agree with results of previous studies. For the radiative-capture reaction {sup 197}Au({sup 4}He,{gamma}){sup 201}Tl, the upper limit on the cross section proved to be much lower. The excitation functions for the reactions subjected to measurements are compared with the results of calculations based on the statistical model and with the results of an experiment performed previously in a {sup 6}He beam.

  2. Excitation functions for complete-fusion and transfer reactions in 4He interaction with 197Au nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulko, A. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Rassadov, D. N.; Skobelev, N. K.; Testov, D. A.

    2007-04-01

    Excitation functions are measured for the fusion reactions 197Au(4He, xn)201-xn Tl that are induced by alpha-particle interaction with gold nuclei in the energy range 14 36 MeV and in which x neutrons (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) are evaporated. The stack-activation technique was used to record and separate reaction products. Experimental data on the fusion reactions followed by evaporation of one to three neutrons agree with results of previous studies. For the radiative-capture reaction 197Au(4He,γ)201Tl, the upper limit on the cross section proved to be much lower. The excitation functions for the reactions subjected to measurements are compared with the results of calculations based on the statistical model and with the results of an experiment performed previously in a 6He beam.

  3. Suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction because of the deceleration of alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shmatov, M. L.

    2016-09-15

    It is shown that a rapid deceleration of alpha particles in matter of electron temperature up to 100 keV leads a strong suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction with the reproduction of fast protons in the α+{sup 11}B and n+{sup 10}B reactions. The statement that the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction with an acceleration of {sup 11}B nuclei because of elastic alpha-particle scattering manifests itself in experiments at the PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System) facility is analyzed.

  4. Reaction mechanism of the /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. )/sup 11/C reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Y.

    1982-11-01

    The mechanism of the reactions /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He, ..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C leading to the (3/2)/sup -/ ground state and (5/2)/sup -/ second excited state of /sup 11/C is studied using finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation with all one-step direct and exchange processes. By taking into account in detail the cluster structure of /sup 11/C and /sup 12/C, the transition to the (5/2)/sup -/ state which is a j forbidden direct process can be explained well by the exchange process.

  5. Investigation of the triple-alpha reaction in a full three-body approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Bich

    We have developed a new three-body method to compute the triple-alpha reaction rate at low temperatures where measurements are impossible and many numerical attempts have failed before. In this work, the triple-alpha is modeled as a three-body Borromean system in hyperspherical harmonics coordinates. In the low temperature region, the triple-alpha proceeds through a quadrupole transition from the 0+ continuum to the 2+1 bound state in 12C. The 2+1 bound state is obtained by solving a set of coupled channels equations in hyper-radius coordinates for negative energy with a boundary condition that requires the wavefunction to go to zero at large distances. The same approach can not be applied to the 0+ continuum state because it requires an exact boundary condition for the three charged particles. We therefore combine the R-matrix expansion, the R-matrix propagation method, and the screening technique in the hyperspherical harmonics basis to obtain a numerically stable three-body continuum wavefunction for the alpha + alpha + alpha system. We employ the Ali-Bodmer potential for the alpha-alpha interaction which reproduces the low energy phase shifts as well as the 0+ resonance of 8Be. We add a three-body force to fit experimental data. Both the 2+1 bound state and the 0+2 resonant state in 12C are well reproduced in our framework. We find a dominant triangle three-alpha configuration for the Hoyle resonance by studying the density distribution function. The resonant and non-resonant continuum states of 12C(0+) are obtained simultaneously, allowing us to include these two processes on the same footing. Long range Coulomb interactions show important effects especially in the low temperature regime. We also present a detailed convergence study of the triple-alpha reaction rate with respect to the screening radius and the size of the model space. The new rate agrees with the NACRE rate for temperatures greater than 0.07 GK, but a large enhancement at lower temperatures is

  6. Anionic four-electron donor-based palladacycles as catalysts for addition reactions of arylboronic acids with alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, aldehydes, and alpha-ketoesters.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Lu, Yong; Dong, Cheng-Guo; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2007-01-18

    Anionic four-electron donor-based palladacycle-catalyzed 1,4-additions of arylboronic acids with alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones and 1,2-additions of arylboronic acids with aldehydes and alpha-ketoesters are described. Our study demonstrated that palladacycles were highly efficient, practical catalysts for these addition reactions. The work described here not only opened a new paradigm for the application of palladacycles, but may also pave the road for other metalacycles as practically useful catalysts for such addition reactions including asymmetric ones. [reaction: see text].

  7. OH-initiated oxidation of monoterpenes: reaction of alpha-pinene.

    PubMed

    Librando, Vito; Tomaselli, Gaetano; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the reaction products of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, 3-carene and sabinene with OH radicals by FT-IR spectroscopy and by HPLC-MS-MS, to evaluate the secondary aerosol formation. All gas phase reaction products were quantified using reference compounds. As source of OH radicals were used H2O2 and CH3ONO. The experiments were performed at low terpene concentration (0.9-2.1 ppm) and at high terpene concentration (4.1-13.2 ppm), using H2O2 and CH3ONO as sources of OH radicals.

  8. Alpha'-hydroxyenones as mechanistic probes and scope-expanding surrogates for alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Pei-Chen; Rommel, Michael; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2009-06-24

    N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed reactions of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and a variety of electrophiles allow the facile preparation of a diverse array of annulation products including trisubstituted cyclopentenes, gamma-lactams, and bicyclic beta-lactams. The substrate scope of these reactions, however, is limited by the difficulties of preparing the starting alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. We now report that alpha'-hydroxyenones, which can be prepared in a single convenient step from aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes, can serve as efficient surrogates for enals in the annulation reactions. This protocol allows the facile preparation and use of substrates bearing nitrogen heterocycles. These reagents have also allowed us to demonstrate that, in contrast to other classes of aldehydes, the formation of the Breslow intermediate from enals and N-heterocyclic carbenes is irreversible under the reaction conditions.

  9. Crosschecking of alpha particle monitor reactions up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Szűcs, Z.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.; Saito, M.

    2017-04-01

    Selected reactions with well-defined excitation functions can be used to monitor the parameters of charged particle beams. The frequently used reactions for monitoring alpha particle beams are the 27Al(α,x)22,24Na, natTi(α,x)51Cr, natCu(α,x)66,67Ga and natCu(α,x)65Zn reactions. The excitation functions for these reactions were studied using the activation method and stacked target irradiation technique to crosscheck and to compare the above six reactions. Thin metallic foils with natural isotopic composition and well defined thickness were stacked together in sandwich targets and were irradiated at the AVF cyclotron of RIKEN with an alpha particle beam of 51.2 MeV. The activity of the target foils were assessed by using high-resolution gamma spectrometers of high purity Ge detectors. The data sets of the six processes were crosschecked with each other to provide consistent, cross-linked numerical cross section data.

  10. Study of the /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. )/sup 6/Li* reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, B.S.C.

    1980-01-01

    Differential cross sections for formation of the 5.37 MeV (J'' = 2/sup +/, T = 1) level in /sup 6/Li have been measured via the reaction /sup 7/Li(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 6/Li at incident /sup 3/He energies in the range 0.7 to 2.5 MeV and for angles in the range 20/sup 0/ less than or equal to theta (Lab) less than or equal to 160/sup 0/. Data for the g.s., 2.18 and 3.56 MeV excited states of /sup 6/Li were also obtained. The results for the g.s. and the first two excited states are in good agreement with previous measurements and show no clear resonance structure. The excitation function for the 5.37 MeV state, however, exhibits resonance structure at incident /sup 3/He energies of 1.45 and 2.15 MeV corresponding to formation of states in the compound nucleus, /sup 10/B, at 18.8 and 19.3 MeV excitation respectively. The experimental data were compared with the results of DWBA calculations using the computer code DWUCK4. Coincident events between the first emitted alpha particle and the decay alpha's or proton's were detected using a counter telescope in the reaction plane at several appropriately chosen angle pairs at an incident /sup 3/He energy of 2.15 MeV. Branching ratios for the allowed decay modes /sup 5/He + p and ..cap alpha.. + p + n, as well as the isospin forbidden decay into ..cap alpha.. + d, were deduced from the data.

  11. Improved information on the 7Li+p{yields}{alpha}+{alpha} reaction via the Trojan Horse Method applied to the 3He break-up

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Kroha, V.; Burjan, V.; Novac, J.; Vincour, J.; Fulop, S.; Somorjai, E.

    2006-04-26

    The astrophysically relevant 7Li+p{yields}{alpha}+{alpha} reaction was investigated via the THM by selecting the quasi-free contribution to the measured 3He+7Li{yields}{alpha}+{alpha}+d three-body process. This investigation is mainly aimed at testing the validity of the pole approximation in the THM against the bound structure of the Trojan-horse nucleus. The three-body experiment was performed at 33 MeV, corresponding to a 7Li-p relative energy ranging from 0.2 to 7 MeV. The quasi-free 7Li+p cross-section was compared with the free reaction cross-section as well as with indirect data from a previous THM experiment. The good agreement between data sets throughout the energy range investigated provided a very important validity test of the pole approximation for the THM.

  12. Ethanol oxidation: kinetics of the alpha-hydroxyethyl radical + O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel; Bozzelli, Joseph W; Liang, Long; Farrell, John T

    2009-08-06

    Bioethanol is currently a significant gasoline additive and the major blend component of flex-fuel formulations. Ethanol is a high-octane fuel component, and vehicles designed to take advantage of higher octane fuel blends could operate at higher compression ratios than traditional gasoline engines, leading to improved performance and tank-to-wheel efficiency. There are significant uncertainties, however, regarding the mechanism for ethanol autoignition, especially at lower temperatures such as in the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) regime. We have studied an important chemical process in the autoignition and oxidation of ethanol, reaction of the alpha-hydroxyethyl radical with O2(3P), using first principles computational chemistry, variational transition state theory, and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM)/master equation simulations. The alpha-hydroxyethyl + O2 association reaction is found to produce an activated alpha-hydroxy-ethylperoxy adduct with ca. 37 kcal mol(-1) of excess vibrational energy. This activated adduct predominantly proceeds to acetaldehyde + HO(2), with smaller quantities of the enol vinyl alcohol (ethenol), particularly at higher temperatures. The reaction to acetaldehyde + HO2 proceeds with such a low barrier that collision stabilization of C2O3H5 isomers is unimportant, even for high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. The short lifetimes of these radicals precludes the chain-branching addition of a second O2 molecule, responsible for NTC behavior in alkane autoignition. This result helps to explain why ignition delays for ethanol are longer than those for ethane, despite ethanol having a weaker C-C bond energy. Given its relative instability, it is also unlikely that the alpha-hydroxy-ethylperoxy radical acts as a major acetaldehyde sink in the atmosphere, as has been suggested.

  13. Study of the {sup 10}B(p,alpha){sup 7}Be Reaction through the Indirect Trojan Horse Method

    SciTech Connect

    Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Tudisco, S.; Del Santo, M. G.; Carlin, N.; Souza, F.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Kroha, V.; Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Li, C.

    2010-03-01

    The {sup 10}B(p,alpha){sup 7}Be reaction is the main responsible for {sup 10}B destruction in stellar interior. In such environments the process takes places mainly through a resonant state of the compound {sup 11}C nucleus. The {sup 10}B(p,alpha){sup 7}Be reaction has been studied by means of the Trojan Horse Method using the {sup 2}H({sup 10}B,alpha{sup 7}Be)n three-body reaction. The experiment was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania. The {sup 10}B(p,alpha){sup 7}Be reaction cross section has been extracted at low neutron momentum.

  14. Effects of a new 3-alpha reaction on the s-process in massive stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuch, Yukihiro; Ono, Masaomi; Matsuo, Yasuhide; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro

    2012-11-12

    Effect of a new 3-alpha reaction rate on the s-process during the evolution of a massive star of 25 solar mass is investigated for the first time, because the s-process in massive stars have been believed to be established with only minor change. We find that the s-process with use of the new rate during the core helium burning is very inefficient compared to the case with the previous 3-alpha rate. However, the difference of the overproduction is found to be largely compensated by the subsequent carbon burning. Since the s-process in massive stars has been attributed so far to the neutron irradiation during core helium burning, our finding reveals for the first time the importance of the carbon burning for the s-process during the evolution of massive stars.

  15. High-precision (p,t) reaction measurement to determine {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Fisker, J. L.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.

    2009-11-15

    x-ray bursts are identified as thermonuclear explosions in the outer atmosphere of accreting neutron stars. The thermonuclear runaway is fueled by the {alpha}p process that describes a sequence of ({alpha},p) reactions triggered by the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na breakout reaction from the hot CNO cycles. We studied the level structure of the compound nucleus {sup 22}Mg by measuring the {sup 24}Mg(p,t){sup 22}Mg reaction at the Grand Raiden spectrometer at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. A large number of {alpha}-unbound states was identified and precise excitation energies were determined. Based on shell model and {alpha}-cluster model calculations we predict the level parameters for determining the stellar reaction rate of {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na for a wide temperature range. x-ray burst simulations have been performed to study the impact of the reaction on the x-ray burst luminosity.

  16. First Experimental Measurement of the {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N Reaction at Astrophysical Energies

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Kiss, G.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Goldberg, V.; Tribble, R.; Coc, A.; Hammache, F.; Sereville, N. de; Tumino, A.

    2010-11-24

    The {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N and {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N reactions are of primary importance in several as-trophysical scenarios, including nucleosynthesis inside Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios in meteorite grains. They are also key reactions to understand exotic systems such as R-Coronae Borealis stars and novae. Thus, the measurement of their cross sections in the low energy region can be crucial to reduce the nuclear uncertainty on theoretical predictions, because the resonance parameters are poorly determined. The Trojan Horse Method, in its newly developed form particularly suited to investigate low-energy resonances, has been applied to the {sup 2}H({sup 18}O,{alpha}{sup 15}N)n and {sup 2}H({sup 17}O,{alpha}{sup 14}N)n reactions to deduce the {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N and {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N cross sections at low energies. Resonances in the {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N and {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N excitation functions have been studied and the resonance parameters deduced.

  17. Study of excitation functions of alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions on holmium for 167Tm production.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Király, B; Takács, S; Ignatyuk, A V

    2010-03-01

    (167)Tm is a candidate radioisotope for both nuclear medicine diagnostics and therapy due to its emitted Auger-electrons, low energy X- and gamma-rays. In the frame of a systematic study of excitation functions for production of medically relevant radioisotopes by charged particle induced reactions on rare earths, the (165)Ho(alpha,2n)(167)Tm reaction and the (165)Ho(alpha,n)(168)Tm, (165)Ho(alpha,3n)(166)Tm, (165)Ho(alpha,4n)(165)Tm side reactions were measured up to 40 MeV by the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured results were compared to the ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE-II theoretical curves. Thick target yields, impurity levels and specific activities were deduced and compared with the same parameters for other charged particle production routes of (167)Tm. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alpha capture reaction cross section measurements on Sb isotopes by activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkulu, Z.; Özkan, N.; Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Fülöp, Zs; Güray, R. T.; Gyürky, Gy; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Török, Zs; Yalçin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha induced reactions on natural and enriched antimony targets were investigated via the activation technique in the energy range from 9.74 MeV to 15.48 MeV, close to the upper end of the Gamow window at a temperature of 3 GK relevant to the γ-process. The experiments were carried out at the Institute for Nuclear Research, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki). 121Sb(α,γ)125I, 121Sb(α,n)124I and 123Sb(α,n)126I reactions were measured using a HPGe detector. In this work, the 121Sb(α,n)124 cross section results and the comparison with the theoretical predictions (obtained with standard settings of the statistical model codes NON-SMOKER and TALYS) were presented.

  19. Lifetime and g-factor measurements of excited states using Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara, Z. E. Torres, D. A.

    2016-07-07

    In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of {sup 106}Cd to study excited states of {sup 110}Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.

  20. Lifetime and g-factor measurements of excited states using Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Z. E.; Torres, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of 106Cd to study excited states of 110Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.

  1. Spectral algorithm modifications for (alpha,n) reactions on beryllium in the SOURCES computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shores, Erik Frederick

    Energy spectra calculations have been refined for the low energy (e.g. <2.5 MeV) neutron continuum produced in the alpha + Be reaction. As expected, new distributions shift neutrons to maxima <1 MeV, and support previous assertions that the continuum is the result of a sequential three-body decay process. Appropriate kinematic descriptions were added to the SOURCES computer code thus providing for the first time a simple algorithm to include a break up reaction. Difficulties associated with spectral calculations are discussed and three calculations are compared to experimental data for AmBe, PuBe, and PoBe neutron sources. This work represents a new tool to predict neutron energy spectra in the lower energy regime and, upon submission to the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center, the code distributor, will ultimately upgrade SOURCES from version 4C to 5A.

  2. Cluster states and container picture in light nuclei, and triple-alpha reaction rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Yasuro

    2015-04-01

    The excited states in 12C are investigated by using an extended version of the so- called Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke (THSR) wave function, where both the 3α condensate and 8Be + α cluster asymptotic configurations are included. We focus on the structures of the “Hoyle band” states, 2+2, and 4+2 states, which are recently observed above the Hoyle state, and of the 0+3 and 0+4 states, which are also quite recently identified in experiment. We show that the Hoyle band is not simply considered to be the 8Be(0+) + α rotation as suggested by previous cluster model calculations, nor to be a rotation of a rigid-body triangle-shaped object composed of the 3α particles. We also discuss the rate of the triple-alpha radiative capture reaction, applyng the imaginary-time method. Results of the triple-alpha reaction rate are consistent with NACRE rate for both high (≈ 109K) and low (≈ 107 K) temperatures. We show that the rate of the imaginary-time calculation in coupled-channels approach has a large enhancement for low temperatures if we truncate the number of channels.

  3. Solvent-Free Conversion of Alpha-Naphthaldehyde to 1-Naphthoic Acid and 1-Naphthalenemethanol: Application of the Cannizzaro Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteb, John J.; Gligorich, Keith M.; O'Reilly, Stacy A.; Richter, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    A mixture of potassium hydroxide and alpha-naphthaldehyde (1) are heated under solvent-free conditions to produce 1-naphthoic acid (2) and 1-naphthalenemethanol (3). The experiment offers several advantages over many existing exercises including the ease of reaction workup, shorter reaction time, relative environmental friendliness of the…

  4. Solvent-Free Conversion of Alpha-Naphthaldehyde to 1-Naphthoic Acid and 1-Naphthalenemethanol: Application of the Cannizzaro Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteb, John J.; Gligorich, Keith M.; O'Reilly, Stacy A.; Richter, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    A mixture of potassium hydroxide and alpha-naphthaldehyde (1) are heated under solvent-free conditions to produce 1-naphthoic acid (2) and 1-naphthalenemethanol (3). The experiment offers several advantages over many existing exercises including the ease of reaction workup, shorter reaction time, relative environmental friendliness of the…

  5. (n,xn) cross section measurements for Y-89 foils used as detectors for high energy neutron measurements in the deeply subcritical assembly "QUINTA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewicz, Marcin; Kilim, Stanisław; Strugalska-Gola, Elżbieta; Szuta, Marcin; Wojciechowski, Andrzej; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey; Prokofiev, Alexander; Passoth, Elke

    2017-09-01

    Study of the deep subcritical systems (QUINTA) using relativistic beams is performed within the project "Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes" (E&T - RAW). The experiment assembly was irradiated by deuteron/proton beam (Dubna NUCLOTRON). We calculated the neutron energy spectrum inside the whole assembly by using threshold energy (n,xn) reactions in yttrium (Y-89) foils. There are almost no experimental cross section data for those reactions. New Y-89(n,xn) cross section measurements were carried out at The Svedberg laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, Sweden in 2015. In this paper we present preliminary results of those experiments.

  6. In vitro fertilization and the effect of progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone on acrosome reaction of mouse epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kholkute, S K; Rodriquez, J; Dukelow, W R

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-OH-progesterone) at concentrations of 0.01-10 micrograms/ml, on the acrosome reaction and in vitro fertilizing ability of mouse epididymal spermatozoa. Cumulus masses containing oocytes were cultured in Brinster's medium, to which were added capacitated epididymal spermatozoa which had been incubated in medium with various concentrations of progesterone or 17 alpha-OH-progesterone for 90 min. IVF success rate was assessed 20-24 h following insemination. Progesterone was found to increase the fertilization rate at the 1 microgram/ml and 10 microgram/ml concentrations while lower concentrations had no effect. However, 17 alpha-OH-progesterone failed to show any effect on fertilizing ability. Incubation of epididymal spermatozoa in medium containing 1 microgram/ml and 10 micrograms/ml progesterone significantly increased the acrosome reaction as monitored by a chlortetracycline fluorescence assay. 17 alpha-OH-progesterone, however, failed to show any effect on the acrosome reaction. The results suggest direct effects of progesterone, but not of 17 alpha-OH-progesterone, on fertilization and the acrosome reaction of mouse spermatozoa.

  7. High-precision {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction to determine {sup 22}Mg({alpha},p){sup 25}Al reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Beard, M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.

    2011-08-15

    The rise time of stellar x-ray bursts is a signature of thermonuclear runaway processes in the atmosphere of neutron stars and is highly sensitive to a series of ({alpha},p) reactions via high-lying resonances in sd-shell nuclei. Lacking data for the relevant resonance levels, the stellar reaction rates have been calculated using statistical, Hauser-Feshbach models, assuming a high-level density. This assumption may not be correct in view of the selectivity of the ({alpha},p) reaction to natural parity states. We measured the {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction with a high-resolution spectrometer to identify resonance levels in {sup 26}Si above the {alpha}-emission threshold at 9.164 MeV excitation energy. These resonance levels are used to calculate the stellar reaction rate of the {sup 22}Mg({alpha},p){sup 25}Al reaction and to test the validity of the statistical assumption.

  8. Astrophysical reaction rate for the neutron-generator reaction 13C(alpha,n)16O in asymptotic giant branch stars.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E D; Rogachev, G V; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Baby, L T; Brown, S; Cluff, W T; Crisp, A M; Diffenderfer, E; Goldberg, V Z; Green, B W; Hinners, T; Hoffman, C R; Kemper, K W; Momotyuk, O; Peplowski, P; Pipidis, A; Reynolds, R; Roeder, B T

    2006-11-10

    The reaction 13C(alpha,n) is considered to be the main source of neutrons for the s process in asymptotic giant branch stars. At low energies, the cross section is dominated by the 1/2+ 6.356 MeV subthreshold resonance in (17)O whose contribution at stellar temperatures is uncertain by a factor of 10. In this work, we performed the most precise determination of the low-energy astrophysical S factor using the indirect asymptotic normalization (ANC) technique. The alpha-particle ANC for the subthreshold state has been measured using the sub-Coulomb alpha-transfer reaction ((6)Li,d). Using the determined ANC, we calculated S(0), which turns out to be an order of magnitude smaller than in the nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates.

  9. Synthesis of complex pyridine bases in the reaction of. cap alpha. ,omega-nitrileacetylenes with acetylene, catalyzed by cobalt complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Selimov, F.A.; Khafizov, V.R.

    1987-01-20

    It has been shown that ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes under the action of homogeneous cobalt-containing catalysts undergo transformations into pyridine derivatives. In order to expand the scope of this method for synthesis of complex pyridine bases, for investigation of the reactivity of nitrileacetylenes of various structure in the reaction of cooligomerization with acetylene, as well as for the introduction to these reactions of new types of ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes, containing in their molecules an oxygen atom, they studied the homo- and codimerization of ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes with acetylene under the action of a Co(2-ethyl hexanoate)/sub 2/-AIR/sub 3/ catalyst in a toluene solution. Cyclodimerization of acetylene with ..cap alpha..,omega-nitrileacetylenes, catalyzed by a Co(2-ethyl hexanoate)/sub 2/-AlEt/sub 3/ system gives new types of mono- and bicyclic pyridines.

  10. S(N)2 reaction of sulfur nucleophiles with hindered sulfamidates: enantioselective synthesis of alpha-methylisocysteine.

    PubMed

    Avenoza, Alberto; Busto, Jesús H; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Peregrina, Jesús M

    2006-02-17

    The work described here demonstrates that the five-membered cyclic alpha-methylisoserine-derived sulfamidate, (R)-1, behaves as an excellent chiral building block for the ring-opening reaction by S(N)2 attack with sulfur nucleophiles at the quaternary carbon. As a synthetic application of this methodology, and to show that this sulfamidate is a valuable starting material, the synthesis of two new alpha-methylisocysteine derivatives has been carried out to cover the lack of alpha- and beta-methylated amino acids that incorporate the cysteine or isocysteine skeleton. These compounds are two new alpha,alpha-disubstituted beta-amino acids (beta(2,2)-amino acids), and the synthetic routes involve nucleophilic ring opening followed by acid hydrolysis.

  11. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-01

    The cross sections of the 162Er(α,γ)166Yb and 162,164,166Er(α,n)165,167,169Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between Ec.m. = 11.21 MeV and Ec.m. = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T9 = 3 GK). The 162Er(α,n)165Yb, 164Er(α,n)167Yb and 166Er(α,n)169Yb reactions were studied between Ec.m. = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, Ec.m. = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and Ec.m. = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  12. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-02

    The cross sections of the {sup 162}Er(α,γ){sup 166}Yb and {sup 162,164,166}Er(α,n){sup 165,167,169}Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between E{sub c.m.} = 11.21 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T{sub 9} = 3 GK). The {sup 162}Er(α,n){sup 165}Yb, {sup 164}Er(α,n){sup 167}Yb and {sup 166}Er(α,n){sup 169}Yb reactions were studied between E{sub c.m.} = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, E{sub c.m.} = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  13. Theory of (3He,(alpha)) surrogate reactions for deformed uranium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, I; Escher, J E

    2006-11-08

    We present the one-step theory of neutron-pickup transfer reactions with {sup 3}He projectiles on {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. We find all the neutron eigenstates in a deformed potential, and use those in a given energy range for ({sup 3}He, {alpha}) DWBA pickup calculations to find the spin and parity distributions of the residual target nuclei. A simple smoothing convolution is used to take into account the spreading width of the single-neutron hole states into the more complicated compound nuclear states. We assume that the initial target is an even-even rotor, but can take into account spectator neutrons outside such a rotor by recombining their spin and parity at the end of the calculations.

  14. 40Ca(alpha, gamma)44Ti reaction in the energy regime of supernova nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nassar, H; Paul, M; Ahmad, I; Ben-Dov, Y; Caggiano, J; Ghelberg, S; Goriely, S; Greene, J P; Hass, M; Heger, A; Heinz, A; Henderson, D J; Janssens, R V F; Jiang, C L; Kashiv, Y; Nara Singh, B S; Ofan, A; Pardo, R C; Pennington, T; Rehm, K E; Savard, G; Scott, R; Vondrasek, R

    2006-02-03

    The 44Ti(t1/2=59 yr) nuclide, an important signature of supernova nucleosynthesis, has recently been observed as live radioactivity by gamma-ray astronomy from the Cas A remnant. We investigate in the laboratory the major 44Ti production reaction 40Ca(alpha, gamma)44Ti (Ec.m. approximately 0.6-1.2 MeV/u by direct off-line counting of 44Ti nuclei. The yield, significantly higher than inferred from previous experiments, is analyzed in terms of a statistical model using microscopic nuclear inputs. The associated stellar rate has important astrophysical consequences, increasing the calculated supernova 44Ti yield by a factor approximately 2 over previous estimates and bringing it closer to Cas A observations.

  15. 12C(alpha,gamma)16O: the key reaction in stellar nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kunz, R; Jaeger, M; Mayer, A; Hammer, J W; Staudt, G; Harissopulos, S; Paradellis, T

    2001-04-09

    The angular distributions of gamma rays from the 12C(alpha,gamma)16O reaction have been measured at 20 energy points in the energy range E(cm) = 0.95 to 2.8 MeV. The sensitivity of the present experiment compared to previous direct investigations was raised by 1-2 orders of magnitude, by using an array of highly efficient ( 100%) Ge detectors shielded actively with BGOs, as well as high beam currents of up to 500 microA that were provided by the Stuttgart Dynamitron accelerator. The S(E1) and S(E2) factors deduced from the gamma angular distributions have been extrapolated to the range of helium burning temperatures applying the R-matrix method, which yielded S(300)(E1) = (76+/-20) keV b and S(300)(E2) = (85+/-30) keV b.

  16. EEG alpha spindles and prolonged brake reaction times during auditory distraction in an on-road driving study.

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, Andreas; Treder, Matthias Sebastian; Simon, Michael; Willmann, Sven; Ewald, Arne; Buchner, Axel; Schrauf, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Driver distraction is responsible for a substantial number of traffic accidents. This paper describes the impact of an auditory secondary task on drivers' mental states during a primary driving task. N=20 participants performed the test procedure in a car following task with repeated forced braking on a non-public test track. Performance measures (provoked reaction time to brake lights) and brain activity (EEG alpha spindles) were analyzed to describe distracted drivers. Further, a classification approach was used to investigate whether alpha spindles can predict drivers' mental states. Results show that reaction times and alpha spindle rate increased with time-on-task. Moreover, brake reaction times and alpha spindle rate were significantly higher while driving with auditory secondary task opposed to driving only. In single-trial classification, a combination of spindle parameters yielded a median classification error of about 8% in discriminating the distracted from the alert driving. Reduced driving performance (i.e., prolonged brake reaction times) during increased cognitive load is assumed to be indicated by EEG alpha spindles, enabling the quantification of driver distraction in experiments on public roads without verbally assessing the drivers' mental states.

  17. Kinetic isotope effects of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating mono-oxygenase reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, K; Onami, T; Noguchi, M

    1998-01-01

    Many bioactive polypeptides or neuropeptides possess a C-terminal alpha-amide group as a critical determinant for their optimal bioactivities. The amide functions are introduced by the sequential actions of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating mono-oxygenase (PHM; EC 1.14.17.3) and peptidylamidoglycollate lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.2.5) from their glycine-extended precursors. In the present study we examined the kinetic isotope effects of the frog PHM reaction by competitive and non-competitive approaches. In the competitive approach we employed the double-label tracer method with D-Tyr-[U-14C]Val-Gly, D-Tyr-[3,4-3H]Val-[2,2-2H2]-Gly, and D-Tyr-Val-(R,S)[2-3H]Gly as substrates, and we determined the deuterium and tritium effects on Vmax/Km as 1.625+/-0.041 (mean+/-S. D.) and 2.71+/-0.16 (mean+/-S.D.), respectively. The intrinsic deuterium isotope effect (Dk) on the glycine hydroxylation reaction was estimated to be 6.5-10.0 (mean 8.1) by the method of Northrop [Northrop (1975) Biochemistry 14, 2644-2651]. In the non-competitive approach with N,N-dimethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine as a reductant, however, the deuterium effect on Vmax (DV) was approximately unity, although the deuterium effect on Vmax/Km (DV/K) was comparable to that obtained by the competitive approach. These results indicated that DV was completely masked by the presence of one or more steps much slower than the glycine hydroxylation step and that DV/K was diminished from Dk by a large forward commitment to catalysis. The addition of PAL, however, increased the apparent DV from 1.0 to 1.2, implying that the product release step was greatly accelerated by PAL. These results suggest that the product release is rate-limiting in the overall PHM reaction. The large Dk indicated that the glycine hydroxylation catalysed by PHM might proceed in a stepwise mechanism similar to that proposed for the dopamine beta-hydroxylase reaction [Miller and Klinman (1983) Biochemistry 22, 3091-3096]. PMID:9806894

  18. Reactions of the alkoxy radicals formed following OH-addition to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. C-C bond scission reactions.

    PubMed

    Dibble, T S

    2001-05-09

    The atmospheric degradation pathways of the atmospherically important terpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are studied using density functional theory. We employ the correlation functional of Lee, Yang, and Parr and the three-parameter HF exchange functional of Becke (B3LYP) together with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The C-C bond scission reactions of the beta-hydroxyalkoxy radicals that are formed after OH addition to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are investigated. Both of the alkoxy radicals formed from the alpha-pinene-OH adduct possess a single favored C-C scission pathway with an extremely low barrier (approximately 3 kcal/mol) leading to the formation of pinonaldehyde. Neither of these pathways produces formaldehyde, and preliminary computational results offer some support for suggestions that 1,5 or 1,6 H-shift (isomerization) reactions of alkoxy radicals contribute to formaldehyde production. In the case of the alkoxy radical formed following OH addition to the methylene group of beta-pinene, there exists two C-C scission reactions with nearly identical barrier heights (approximately 7.5 kcal/mol); one leads to known products (nopinone and formaldehyde) but the ultimate products of the competing reaction are unknown. The single C-C scission pathway of the other alkoxy radical from beta-pinene possesses a very low (approximately 4 kcal/mol) barrier. The kinetically favored C-C scission reactions of all four alkoxy radicals appear to be far faster than expected rates of reaction with O2. The rearrangement of the alpha-pinene-OH adduct, a key step in the proposed mechanism of formation of acetone from alpha-pinene, is determined to possess a barrier of 11.6 kcal/mol. This value is consistent with another computational result and is broadly consistent with the modest acetone yields observed in product yield studies.

  19. An easy stereoselective access to beta,gamma-aziridino alpha-amino ester derivatives via mannich reaction of benzophenone imines of glycine esters with N-sulfonyl alpha-chloroaldimines.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Loránd; Mangelinckx, Sven; Sillanpää, Reijo; Fülöp, Ferenc; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2007-09-14

    Mannich-type addition of benzophenone imine glycinates across newly synthesized N-(p-toluenesulfonyl) alpha-chloroaldimines afforded gamma-chloro-alpha,beta-diamino ester derivatives with moderate diastereoselectivity as separable mixtures of anti and syn diastereomers. The gamma-chloro-alpha,beta-diamino esters were efficiently cyclized under basic conditions to the corresponding beta,gamma-aziridino alpha-amino ester derivatives, representing a new class of conformationally constrained heterocyclic alpha,beta-diamino acid derivatives. The relative configuration of the aziridines was determined via X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanisms and intermediate transition states to explain the stereochemical outcome of the Mannich reaction with different substrates or under different conditions are proposed. The synthetic importance of the beta,gamma-aziridino alpha-amino ester derivatives is demonstrated by their conversion into the corresponding Boc-protected derivatives and ring opening reactions to alpha,beta-diamino esters and a gamma-amino alpha,beta-unsaturated amino ester.

  20. Complementary optical-potential analysis of {alpha}-particle elastic scattering and induced reactions at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M. Obreja, A.C.; Roman, F.L.; Avrigeanu, V.; Oertzen, W. von

    2009-07-15

    A previously derived semi-microscopic analysis based on the Double Folding Model, for {alpha}-particle elastic scattering on A{approx}100 nuclei at energies below 32 MeV, is extended to medium mass A{approx}50-120 nuclei and energies from {approx}13 to 50 MeV. The energy-dependent phenomenological imaginary part for this semi-microscopic optical model potential was obtained including the dispersive correction to the microscopic real potential, and used within a concurrent phenomenological analysis of the same data basis. A regional parameter set for low-energy {alpha}-particles entirely based on elastic scattering data analysis was also obtained for nuclei within the above mentioned mass and energy ranges. Then, an ultimate assessment of ({alpha},{gamma}), ({alpha},n), and ({alpha},p) reaction cross sections considered target nuclei from {sup 45}Sc to {sup 118}Sn and incident energies below {approx}12 MeV. The former diffuseness of the real part of optical potential as well as the surface imaginary potential depth have been found to be responsible for the actual difficulties in the description of these data, and modified in order to obtain an optical potential which describes equally well both the low-energy elastic scattering and induced reaction data for {alpha}-particles.

  1. Reaction of HO/sub 2//O/sub 2//sup -/ with. cap alpha. -tocopherol in ethanolic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The HO/sub 2/ perhydroxyl radical reacts with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol in 85% ethanol containing some H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, EDTA, and O/sub 2/. The resulting transient has a spectral maximum near 390 ..mu... The final product is mostly ..cap alpha..-tocopherylquinone. Best reproducibility for reaction of O/sub 2//sup -/ with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol was obtained in a deoxygenated reaction mixture of 26 +- 3 ..mu..M O/sub 2//sup -/, 0.0565M ..cap alpha..-tocopherol, 5..mu..M EDTA, and 0.005 M KOH in 85% EtOH; the upper limit for the reaction was 6.0 +- 3.0 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, indicating that for all practical purposes O/sub 2//sup -/ does not react at all with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Preliminary experiments with Trolox, a vitamin E model compound, indicates that it too reacts with HO/sub 2/ but not with O/sub 2//sup -/. Membrane-bound tocopherols in vivo may fulfil a dual antioxidant role. (DLC)

  2. Witnessing quantum discord in 2xN systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bylicka, Bogna; Chruscinski, Dariusz

    2010-06-15

    Bipartite states with vanishing quantum discord are necessarily separable and hence positive partial transpose (PPT). We show that 2xN states satisfy additional property: the positivity of their partial transposition is recognized with respect to the canonical factorization of the original density operator. We call such states strong PPT (SPPT). Therefore, we provide a natural witness for a quantum discord: if a 2xN state is not SPPT it must contain nonclassical correlations measured by quantum discord. It is an analog of the celebrated Peres-Horodecki criterion: if a state is not PPT it must be entangled.

  3. Alpha Resonances in {sup 13}C Excited by the {sup 9}Be ({sup 6}Li,d) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Souza, M. A.; Miyake, H.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Ukita, G. M.

    2010-05-21

    The {sup 9}Be({sup 6}Li,d){sup 13}C reaction was used to investigate alpha resonant states in {sup 13}C up to 13 MeV of excitation. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The resolution of 50 keV allowed for the separation of the resonant contributions to the known 7/2{sup -} at 10.753 MeV and (5/2{sup -}) at 10.818 MeV {sup 13}C states. The alpha resonance seen at the (3alpha+n) threshold was not previously reported. The experimental angular distributions are presented in comparison with DWBA predictions.

  4. Excitation functions of some (n,p) and (n,{alpha}) reactions from threshold to 16 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Doczi, R.; Buczko, C.M.; Csikai, J.; Semkova, V.; Fenyvesi, A.; Yamamuro, N.

    1998-06-01

    Precise cross sections were measured for the {sup 90}Zr(n,{alpha}){sup 87m}Sr, {sup 94}Zr(n,{alpha}){sup 91}Sr, {sup 92}Mo(n,{alpha}){sup 89m+g}Zr, {sup 45}Sc(n,{alpha}){sup 42}K, {sup 51}V(n,{alpha}){sup 48}Sc, {sup 59}Co(n,{alpha}){sup 56}Mn, {sup 93}Nb(n,{alpha}){sup 90m}Y, {sup 92}Mo(n,p){sup 92m}Nb, {sup 96}(n,p){sup 96}Nb, {sup 97}Mo(n,p){sup 97m+g}Nb, {sup 90}Zr(n,p){sup 90m}Y, {sup 91}Zr(n,p){sup 91m}Y, {sup 92}Zr(n,p){sup 92}Y, and {sup 60}Ni(n,p){sup 60m+g}Co reactions in the 7- to 14.7-MeV neutron energy range. Excitation functions were completed with a number of new differential data. Spectrum-averaged (n,{alpha}) and (n,p) cross sections were measured for the {sup 54}Fe(n,{alpha}){sup 51}Cr, {sup 68}Zn(n,{alpha}){sup 65}Ni, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na, {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58m+g}Co, {sup 64}Zn(n,p){sup 64}Cu, {sup 59}Co(n,p){sup 59}Fe, {sup 94}Zr(n,p){sup 94}Y, {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn, {sup 46}Ti(n,p){sup 46m+g}Sc, {sup 47}Ti(n,p){sup 47}Sc, {sup 48}Ti(n,p){sup 48}Sc, and {sup 62}Ni(n,{alpha}){sup 59}Fe reactions in addition to those aforementioned using a thick target Be(d,n) neutron field at E{sub d} = 9.72 MeV. Results were compared with the ENDF/B-VI, IRDF90, JENDL-3, BROND, JEF-2, CENDL-2, and ADL-3 data files and the SINCROS-II system for testing the validation of differential data and the nuclear model calculations.

  5. Comment on 'Low-energy cross sections in the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction'

    SciTech Connect

    Descouvemont, P.; Dufour, M.

    2010-02-15

    We show that the E1 and E2 S factors recommended by Katsuma [Phys. Rev. C 78, 034606 (2008)] do not include well-known constraints and that the model is inappropriate for the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction.

  6. Analyzing power of the {sup 40}Ca(p-vector,p{alpha}) reaction at 100 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Neveling, R.; Buthelezi, Z.; Foertsch, S. V.; Lawrie, J. J.; Steyn, G. F.; Smit, F. D.; Cowley, A. A.; Fujita, H.; Hillhouse, G. C.; Wyngaardt, S. M.; Botha, N. T.; Mudau, L.; Ntshangase, S. S.

    2008-03-15

    Analyzing powers have been measured for the {sup 40}Ca(p-vector,p{alpha}){sup 36}Ar reaction at an incident energy of 100 MeV for coplanar scattering angles corresponding to zero recoil momentum of the residual nucleus. Predictions based on the distorted wave impulse approximation fail to reproduce the data.

  7. Reaction of Water Vapor with alpha-Al203 and alpha-Fe203(0001) Surfaces: Synchrotron X-ray Photoemission Studies and Thermodynamic Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ping N.; Kendelewicz, Thomas; Brown, Gordon E.; Nelson, Eric J.; Chambers, Scott A. )

    1998-11-08

    X-ray photoemission experiments were carried out to study the reaction of water vapor with clean (0001) surfaces of single-crystal corundum (alpha-Al2O3) and single-crystal, thin-film hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) at constant reaction time (3 min) as a function of water vapor pressure[p(H2O)] and, in separate experiments, at longer reactions times(=30 min, with total exposure ranging from 1.8 L to 1.8 x 10 (10) L at constant p(H2)). A two-stage reaction was observed for each oxide surface, with dissociative chemisorption of water occurring mainly at defect sites below threshold pressures of {approx}1 Torr and {approx}10 (-4) Torr for the corundum and hematite (0001) surfaces, respectively. Extensive hydroxylation of these surfaces was found to occur above the respective threshold pressures. Longer exposures to water vapor below these threshold pressures did not result in increased hydroxylation; however, longer exposures above these threshold pressures resulted in increased hydroxylation, as expected. Th e threshold pressure of alpha-Al2O3 was accurately predicted using a simple equilibrium thermodynamic model for the conversion of corundum to gibbsite (Al(OH)3). In contrast, the measured threshold pressure for hematite is more than five orders of magnitude lower than the predicted threshold pressure for the conversion of hematite to FeOOH or Fe(OH)3. This difference between observation and prediction of hematite (0001) is not completely understood, but may be due to the presence of a passivating layer of Fe-hydroxide that reduces the surface energy of the hydroxylated hematite (0001).

  8. Use of Be(p,{alpha}) and Be(p,d) Reactions to Determine Be Content in Sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Franklyn, C. B.

    2011-12-13

    Since natural coloured sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) commands a high gem stone market price there is a need for a reliable method of identifying artificially coloured sapphire that has an inherently lower value. Diffusing beryllium into sapphire at high temperatures results in a coloured stone virtually indistinguishable from a natural one. Beryllium can occur naturally in sapphire but at levels of <1 ppma. Beryllium diffused sapphire typically contains >10 ppma, which is difficult to determine in a non destructive way. It is possible to utilize nuclear reaction analysis techniques to determine the beryllium content in a macroscopically non destructive way. Kinematically ideal reactions are Be(p,{alpha}) and Be(p,d) which, for Ep = 0.5 to 0.9 MeV, exhibit distinct reaction product signatures well separated from other proton induced reactions in aluminium or oxygen. Due to the lack of comprehensive cross section data for the Be(p,{alpha}) and Be(p,d) reactions in the energy range of interest, a series of measurements were made at the Van de Graaff accelerator facility at Necsa to create a new data base. A further outcome of these measurements was a deviation in reported values for the non-Rutherfordian proton back-scatter cross section. These new data bases, which extend to Ep = 2.6MeV, can now facilitate a procedure for determining beryllium content in sapphire.

  9. The 44Ti(alpha,p) reaction and its implication on the 44Ti yield in supernovae

    PubMed

    Sonzogni; Rehm; Ahmad; Borasi; Bowers; Brumwell; Caggiano; Davids; Greene; Harss; Heinz; Henderson; Janssens; Jiang; McMichael; Nolen; Pardo; Paul; Schiffer; Segel; Seweryniak; Siemssen; Truran; Uusitalo; Wiedenhover; Zabransky

    2000-02-21

    Cross sections for the 44Ti(alpha,p)47V reaction which significantly affects the yield of 44Ti in supernovae were measured in the energy range 5.7 MeVreaction rates are larger than the results from theoretical calculations by about a factor of 2. The implications of this increase in the reaction rate for the search of supernovae using space-based gamma detectors are discussed.

  10. Intramolecular condensation reactions of {alpha},{omega}-bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes. Formation of cyclic disilsesquioxanes

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; Myers, S.A.; Assink, R.A.; Small, J.H.; Greaves, J.; Shea, K.J.

    1996-09-04

    In this paper, we used mass spectrometry and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy to discover that the length of the alkylene-bridging groups had a pronounced effect on the competition between cyclization and polymerization of {alpha},{omega}-bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes and on the formation of polymeric gels. While the intramolecular reaction clearly slows gelation, the cyclic disilsesquioxanes are still tetrafunctional monomers theoretically capable of forming polymeric gels. If the ring structures, which bear a striking resemblence to carbohydrates, are preserved through the polymerization, the resulting poly(cyclic disilsesquioxane) gels may have structural similarities to branched or cross-linked carbohydrates, such as cellulose or chitosan. Under base-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization conditions, 3 and 4 (six- and seven-membered cyclic disilsesquioxanes, respectively) quickly reacted to give gels with significant ring opening as determined from the {sup 29}Si chemical shifts in solid-state (CP MAS) NMR spectra. However, gels prepared under acidic conditions reveal some or all of the cyclic disilsesquioxane functionality was preserved in the polymers. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Alpha adrenergic modulation on effects of norepinephrine transporter inhibitor reboxetine in five-choice serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Lin, Yu-Lung; Chuang, Chia-Hsin; Kao, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Shang-Tang; Tung, Che-Se

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of a norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine (RBX) on an attentional performance test. Adult SD rats trained with five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) were administered with RBX (0, 3.0 and 10 mg/kg) in the testing day. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist PRA and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist RX821002 were used to clarify the RBX effect. Results revealed that rat received RBX at 10 mg/kg had an increase in the percentage of the correct response and decreases in the numbers of premature response. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin (PRA) at 0.1 mg/kg reversed the RBX augmented correct responding rate. However, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist RX821002 at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg dose dependently reversed the RBX reduced impulsive responding. Our results suggested that RBX as a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor can be beneficial in both attentional accuracy and response control and alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors might be involved differently. PMID:19678962

  12. Pole approximation validation in the study of the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Kiss, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Li, C.; Tumino, A.

    2010-11-24

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) was applied to the {sup 3}He+{sup 6}Li interaction in order to investigate the quasi-free {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction. The experiment was performed at 17 MeV at the Cyclotron Institute of the Czech Academy of Science. The extracted {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He quasi-free cross-section was compared with the behavior of direct data. A good agreement between data sets shows up throughout the energy range investigated, providing a very important validity test of the pole approximation for the THM above the Coulomb barrier.

  13. Addition reaction of vinylic reagents, derived from alpha-chloroenones, to carbonyl compounds promoted by samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bernad, Pablo L; Huerta, Mónica; García-Granda, Santiago; Díaz, M Rosario

    2003-11-07

    A new samarium diiodide-promoted addition reaction of vinylsamarium reagents, derived from (Z)-alpha-chloro-alpha,beta-unsaturated phenones 1, to both ketones (in THF) and aldehydes (in acetonitrile) led to (Z)-2-(1-hydroxyalkyl)-2,3-unsaturated ketones in good yield. These transformations took place with total or very high inversion of the stereochemistry of the C-C double bond of the starting chloroenone, producing the Z diastereoisomer. A new methodology to prepare SmI(2) in acetonitrile by sonic treatment of 1,2-diiodoethane with Sm powder is also described. A mechanism to explain this transformation is proposed.

  14. Reactions of ozone with. alpha. -pinene and. beta. -pinene in air: Yields of gaseous and particulate products

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Izumi, K.; Fukuyama, T.; Akimoto, H. )

    1989-09-20

    Reactions of ozone with {alpha}-prinene and {beta}-pinene were studied for the purpose of obtaining the quantitative yields of gaseous and particulate products. Major gaseous products from {alpha}-pinene were CO, CO{sub 2}, HCHO, and aldehydes mainly composed of pinonaldehyde and nor-pinonaldehyde, while those from {beta}-pinene were CO{sub 2}, HCHO, and 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one. Average molar yields from {alpha}-pinene were CO; 9{plus minus}1%, CO{sub 2}; 30{plus minus}2%, HCHO; 22{plus minus}1%, and aldehydes; 51{plus minus}6%. Average molar yields from {beta}-pinene were CO{sub 2}; 27{plus minus}2%, HCHO; 76{plus minus}2%, and 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one; 40{plus minus}2%. Particulate products were found to include pinonaldehyde, nor-pinonaldehyde, pinonic acid, and nor-pinonic acid from {alpha}-pinene. The yields of the particulate aldehydes decreased with the reaction time, whereas the yields of the acids increased. This observation suggests the sequential oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. From {beta}-pinene, only 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one was identified as a particulate product. For {alpha}-pinene, most of the products are explainable in terms of the reaction mechanism similar to that for the cyclohexene/ozone reaction, whereas for {beta}-pinene the principal reaction path is that of the doubly substituted Criegee intermediate. The total yields of organic aerosols from both {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene were measured with their concentrations at a lower ppb level. The yields were found almost constant in a pinene concentration range from 10 up to 100 ppb, being 18.3{plus minus}1.1 and 13.8{plus minus}0.8% for {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene, respectively, which are much lower than the previously reported values. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  15. Measurement of cross sections for {alpha}-induced reactions on {sup 197}Au and thick-target yields for the ({alpha},{gamma}) process on {sup 64}Zn and {sup 63}Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M. S.; Smith, A. R.; Shugart, H. A.; Norman, E. B.

    2007-01-15

    We have measured the cross sections for the {sup 197}Au({alpha},{gamma}){sup 201}Tl and {sup 197}Au({alpha},2n){sup 199}Tl reactions in the 17.9- to 23.9-MeV energy range, and {sup 197}Au({alpha},n){sup 200}Tl reaction in the 13.4- to 23.9-MeV energy range using an activation technique. Thick-target yields for the {sup 64}Zn({alpha},{gamma}){sup 68}Ge (7- to 14-MeV) and {sup 63}Cu({alpha},{gamma}){sup 67}Ga (7-MeV) reactions were measured. For all measurements, natural elements were bombarded with He{sup +} beams from the 88 In. Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Irradiated samples were counted using a {gamma}-spectrometry system at LBNL's Low Background Facility. Measured {sup 197}Au({alpha},{gamma}){sup 201}Tl cross sections were compared with the NON-SMOKER theoretical values. The thick-target yields for the {sup 64}Zn({alpha},{gamma}){sup 68}Ge and {sup 63}Cu({alpha},{gamma}){sup 67}Ga reactions are also compared with the theoretical yield, calculated numerically using the energy dependent NON-SMOKER cross section data. In both cases, measured values are found to follow a trend of overlapping the predicted value near the alpha nucleus barrier height and fall below with a slowly widening difference between them in the sub-barrier energy points.

  16. [Determination of rate constants of gas-phase reactions of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with ozone].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z R; Hu, D

    2001-10-01

    alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are the most dominating species among natural terpenes. Terpenes are mainly emitted from forest trees, flowers and grass. In the lower troposphere terpenes can react fast with OH radical, ozone, NO3 radical and ground state oxygen atom. These reactions may contribute to the occurring of aerosols, peroxides (hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxide), carbon cycle (mainly CO), acid rain (organic acids, NO3- and SO4(2-), ozone and active radicals such as OH radical. Reactions with ozone occur both in the daytime and in the night. The study in this field in China began in the late 1980. The main work focus on the source emission and the experimental simulation has just started. It is most of our group's work. In this paper preliminary experimental simulation of the gas-phase reactions of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with ozone were carried out in the quartz chamber. The rate constants of these reactions were measured using long-path Fourier transform infra-red combined with relative rate constant method. And the rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene with ozone were determined as 2.83 x 10(17) cm3.molecule-1.s-1 and 1.48 x 10(17) cm3.molecule-1.s-1 at 1.0 x 10(5) Pa and 296 +/- 3 K. The results are quite similar to the data from Atkinson group. No cyclohexane was added to the reaction system during the measurement to restrain the formation of OH radical. The formation of OH radical could not be quantified, so that the effect of subsidiary reactions induced by OH radical has not been calculated. In the later simulation study and model this effect should be considered.

  17. Inhibition of radical reaction of apolipoprotein B-100 and alpha-tocopherol in human plasma by green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, R; Yaita, M; Tanaka, K; Hara, Y; Kojo, S

    2000-12-01

    (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), and Trolox inhibited the decreases of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) and alpha-tocopherol in a radical reaction of human plasma initiated by Cu(2+). The concentrations of EC, EGC, ECg, EGCg, and Trolox for 50% inhibition (IC50) of apoB fragmentation were 39.1, 42.2, 14.6, 21.3, and 36.2 microM, respectively. Similar IC50 values were observed for alpha-tocopherol consumption, indicating the close relationship between apoB fragmentation and alpha-tocopherol consumption. These results demonstrate that tea catechins serve as an effective antioxidant in plasma and that the gallate group has a strong antioxidative activity.

  18. Correlation between atopy and hypersensitivity reactions during therapy with three different TNF-alpha blocking agents in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Benucci, M; Manfredi, M; Saviola, G; Baiardi, P; Campi, P

    2009-01-01

    The use of TNF-alpha antagon-ists (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab) has changed the course of many rheumatic diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since their approval, some questions regarding their safety have been raised. Both acute and delayed reactions have been described. The aim of our work was to detect if there is a different incidence of hypersensitivity reactions - infusion reactions to infliximab or injection site reactions with etanercept or adalimumab - in atopic patients versus non- atopic patients. In 90 patients (82 females, 8 males) with rheumatoid arthritis we evaluated, during the first year of therapy with three different TNF-alpha blocking agents, total serum IgE (normal value <100 KU/L) (method ImmunoCAP PHADIA) and serum specific IgE performing a qualitative multi-allergen test for inhal-ant allergens (PHADIATOP, method ImmunoCAP PHADIA). In all patients we evaluated injection site reactions (ISR) to etanercept and adalimumab - erythema, edema and itching at the site of subcutaneous administration - and infusion reactions to infliximab - hypotension/hypertension, chest pain, dyspnea, laryngospasm, fever, urticaria angioedema. We obtained the following results: patients with high value of tot-al IgE were 15/90 (16.6 %), patients with total IgE in normal range were 75/90 (83.4.%), reactions in patients with high total IgE were 6.7% and in patients with normal total IgE were 18.7% (p=0.255 ns). As regards serum specific IgE, patients with specific IgE were 17/90 (18.8%) patients without specific IgE were 73/90 (81.2%), reactions in patients with specific IgE were 11.8% and in patients without specific IgE were 17.8% (p=0.547 ns). Also, when the data were divided for the three groups, the differences were not statistically significant. Adverse reactions to biological agents have been categorized into five types. In hypersensitivity reactions - the Beta type reactions - an immune mechanism is suspected. Our data showed that there was

  19. Differential cross section measurements for the 6Li(n,t)alpha reaction in the few MeV region

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, Matthew J; Taddeucci, Terence N; Hale, Gerald M; Haight, Robert C; O' Donnell, Johhn M

    2008-01-01

    New measured differential cross sections of tritons and alpha particles following the {sup 6}Li(n,t){alpha} reaction are reported for incident neutron energies between 0.2 and approximately 20 MeV. The neutrons were produced by spallation at the WNR facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science CEnter (LANSCE), with the incident neutron energy determined by the time-of-flight method. Four E-{Delta}E telescopes were used at eight laboratory angles. These data have been incorporated into a prior R-matrix fit for the compound {sup 7}Li system, and result in an (n,t) reaction cross section that is 4% to 10% higher than previous evaluations in the 1-3 MeV incident neutron energy region.

  20. Theoretical analysis of kinetic isotope effects on proton transfer reactions between substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes and substituted acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kin-Yiu; Richard, John P; Gao, Jiali

    2009-10-07

    Primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on a series of carboxylic acid-catalyzed protonation reactions of aryl-substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes (X-1) to form oxocarbenium ions have been computed using the second-order Kleinert variational perturbation theory (KP2) in the framework of Feynman path integrals (PI) along with the potential energy surface obtained at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Good agreement with the experimental data was obtained, demonstrating that this novel computational approach for computing KIEs of organic reactions is a viable alternative to the traditional method employing Bigeleisen equation and harmonic vibrational frequencies. Although tunneling makes relatively small contributions to the lowering of the free energy barriers for the carboxylic acid catalyzed protonation reaction, it is necessary to include tunneling contributions to obtain quantitative estimates of the KIEs. Consideration of anharmonicity can further improve the calculated KIEs for the protonation of substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes by chloroacetic acid, but for the reactions of the parent and 4-NO(2) substituted alpha-methoxystyrene with substituted carboxylic acids, the correction of anharmonicity overestimates the computed KIEs for strong acid catalysts. In agreement with experimental findings, the largest KIEs are found in nearly ergoneutral reactions, DeltaG(o) approximately 0, where the transition structures are nearly symmetric and the reaction barriers are relatively low. Furthermore, the optimized transition structures are strongly dependent on the free energy for the formation of the carbocation intermediate, that is, the driving force DeltaG(o), along with a good correlation of Hammond shift in the transition state structure.

  1. Alpha-induced reaction cross-section for Sm, U, Np targets: influence of hexadecapole deformation and deformed surface diffuseness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, S. A.; Dehghani, V.

    2017-06-01

    Alpha-induced reactions on 154Sm, 233,235,236,238U, and 237Np deformed nuclei are studied theoretically. The effects of hexadecapole deformation, deformed surface diffuseness parameter, and orientation on barrier height and position, fusion cross-section at any angle, and fusion cross-section have been investigated. Both hexadecapole deformation and deformed surface diffuseness can affect barrier characteristics and enhance fusion cross-section. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical calculations with quadrupole and hexadecapole deformation and deformed surface diffuseness were observed for the 4He+154Sm, 235U, 237Np reactions.

  2. Trojan Horse Method and RIBs: The {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction at astrophysical energies

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, H.; Teranishi, T.; Coc, A.; De Sereville, N.; Hammache, F.

    2012-11-12

    The abundance of {sup 18}F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy this isotope in novae. Among these latter processes, the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O is one of the main {sup 18}F destruction channels. We report here on the preliminary results of the first experiment that applies the Trojan Horse Method to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction. The experiment was performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of The Tokyo University.

  3. Measurement of the OXYGEN-17(PROTON, Alpha Particle) Nitrogen -14 Cross Section at Stellar Energies (proton Energies, Resonant Reaction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Jeffery Curtis

    The isotopic abundance ratio 16O/17O has been shown to be a good probe of mass flow and mixing in stars. This ratio is sensitive to the depth of convective mixing which occurs on the giant branch and to the amount of nonconvective mixing occurring on the main sequence. The interpretation of recent observations of this ratio in red giants is limited by a large uncertainty in the value of the 17O(p, alpha)14N reaction rate. This reaction rate is dominated at stellar energies by a resonance at E_{rm x} = 5673 keV in the compound nucleus 18 F, whose strength was previously uncertain. We have carried out a measurement of the ^ {17}O(p,alpha)^{14 }N cross section at proton energies of 75 keV and 65 keV. Thick, high-purity rm Ta_2O _5 targets enriched to 77% ^ {17}O were used in conjunction with beam currents of 0.45 mA and large-solid-angle detectors. The background for the experiment was measured using targets of natural isotopic composition. The resonance peak was observed in the data collected at 75 keV, and we determined the proton width of the 5673 keV state to be 22 +/- 4 neV. This implies a rate for the 17O(p,alpha)^ {14}N reaction that is ten times greater than the typical rates used previously in stellar models.

  4. Solid base-catalyzed reaction of nitriles with methanol to form. alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated nitriles 2. Surface base property and reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Hideki; Kato, Tatsuro; Kuwabra, Tetsu; Ueda, Wataru; Morikawa, Yutaka; Moro-Oka, Yoshihiko; Ikawa, Tsuneo )

    1990-11-01

    Solid acid and base properties of magnesium oxides activated by transition metal ions, M-MgO, which are effective catalysts for the reaction of nitriles with methanol to form corresponding {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated nitriles, were studied by temperature-programmed desorption of CO{sub 2} and the reaction of isopropyl alcohol, and the reaction mechanism was studied by isotopic tracer methods. The surface base property of magnesium oxide was modified by the addition of a metal ion; the addition of a metal ion with larger ionic radius than that of Mg{sup 2+} induces surface acid sites without any appreciable changes in the amount of surface base site. Active catalysts were formed in the latter case but not in the former case. It was thought that a surface acid property as well as a surface base property played an important role in the course of the reaction. Reaction of deuterium-substituted acetonitrile and methanol revealed that the exchange reaction between hydroxyl hydrogen of methanol and methyl hydrogen of acetonitrile took place readily under the conditions of acrylonitrile synthesis and the isotopic distribution in acetonitrile after the reaction was very close to that of isotopic equilibrium. No exchange reaction between methyl hydrogen of methanol and that of acetonitrile was observed. It was found, on the other hand, that the isotopic exchange reaction between methyl hydrogen of deuterated methanol and light methanol can occur under the same conditions. The reaction mechanism appears to be dehydrogenation of methanol to adsorbed formaldehyde which then reacts with the acetonitrile anion and, after dehydration, yields acrylonitrile.

  5. Radiochemical study of the medium energy pion double charge exchange reactions: /sup 209/Bi(pi/sup +/pi/sup -/)/sup 209-x/At

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Carrier-free radiochemical techniques have been used to measure cross sections for the double charge exchange reactions of the type /sup 209/Bi(pi/sup +/, pi/sup -/xn)/sup 209-x/At for 100, 180, and 300 MeV incident pions. The observed formation of astatine products with mass numbers ranging from 208 to 205 is interpreted as evidence of processes in which energy deposited in the initial double charge exchange interaction is subsequently dissipated through neutron evaporation. The excitation functions for these reactions are seen to rise rapidly with decreasing incident pion energy with the maximum results for this study at 100 MeV. The astatine production cross secions measured for these positive pion irradiations of thick bismuth targets must be corrected for secondary processes, particularly the pion induced production of fast alpha particles which can contribute to the total cross sections through reactions like /sup 209/Bi(alpha,xn)/sup 213-x/At. The importance of these secondary contributions was studied through a series of negative pion irradiations of bismuth in which secondary pathways furnish the only means of producing astatine. The failure of evaporation calculations to reproduce the astatine product mass yields observed in these secondary studies suggests that direct mechanisms for energetic complex particle formation are quite important. Values for the alpha decay branches of /sup 207/At, /sup 208/At, and /sup 209/At were determined through a study of the electron capture and alpha decay characteristics of chemically purified astatine fractions.

  6. Study of {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N reaction via the Trojan Horse Method for application to {sup 17}O nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; Gulino, M.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Coc, A.; Hammache, F.; Sereville, N. de; Kiss, G.

    2008-05-21

    Because of the still present uncertainties on its rate, the {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N is one of the most important reaction to be studied in order to get more information about the fate of {sup 17}O in different astrophysical scenarios. The preliminary study of the three-body reaction {sup 2}H({sup 17}O,{alpha}{sup 14}N)n is presented here as a first stage of the indirect study of this important {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N reaction through the Trojan Horse Method (THM)

  7. Human alpha rhythms during visual delayed choice reaction time tasks: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Babiloni, Fabio; Carducci, Filippo; Cincotti, Febo; Del Percio, Claudio; Della Penna, Stefania; Franciotti, Raffaella; Pignotti, Sandro; Pizzella, Vittorio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Sabatini, Elisabetta; Torquati, Kathya; Romani, Gian Luca

    2005-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) includes fast and comfortable recording procedures very suitable for the neurophysiological study of cognitive functions in aged people. In this exploratory MEG study in normal young adults, we tested whether very simple short-term memory (STM) demands induce visible changes in amplitude and latency of surface alpha rhythms. Two delayed response tasks were used. In the STM condition, a simple cue stimulus (one bit) was memorized along a brief delay period (3.5-5.5 s). In the control (no short-term memory; NSTM) condition, the cue stimulus remained available along the delay period. To make extremely simple the tasks, the explicit demand was visuospatial but the retention could be also based on phonological and somatomotor coding. Compared to the control condition, the amplitude of the alpha 1 (6-8 Hz) ERD decreased in the left hemisphere, whereas the amplitude of the alpha 2 (8-10 Hz) and alpha 3 (10-12 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) increased in right and left parietal areas, respectively. Furthermore, the latency of the alpha ERD peak was slightly but significantly (P < 0.05) later in STM compared to control condition. In conclusion, whole-head MEG technology and very simple STM demands revealed significant changes of human neuromagnetic alpha rhythms in normal young adults. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Near Fermi Energy reaction dynamics and clustering in alpha-conjugate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiguang; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Kim, E.-J.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Wuenschel, S.; Natowitz, J. B.; Zheng, H.; Blando, N.; Bonasera, A.; Giuliani, G.

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical study predicted that the self-organizing of alpha cluster is favored over deuteron below a critical density with moderate temperature, where the possible Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is expected to occur. However the experimental information about the alpha states at low density is scarce. It is natural to pursue experiments with α conjugate beams and advanced detection apparatus to explore the collective dynamics of alpha clustered systems at low density. Systematical experiments were carried out with 40Ca and 28Si beams at 10, 25, 35 MeV/u incident on 28Si, 12C, 40Ca and 180Ta targets, detected with the NIMROD-ISiS 4 Pi detector array. It is found that there is a strong neck-like emission, which consists mainly of alpha-like fragments. The characteristic of the α emission source is explored by shape analysis, multi-particle correlation and quantum fluctuation approaches. How these observables reveal the possible alpha BEC in low density and possible exotic toroidal and linear chain configurations made out of alpha clusters is discussed.

  9. Atmospheric fate of OH initiated oxidation of terpenes. Reaction mechanism of alpha-pinene degradation and secondary organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Librando, Vito; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2005-05-01

    This paper studies the reaction products of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, sabinene, 3-carene and limonene with OH radicals and of alpha-pinene with ozone using FT-IR spectroscopy for measuring gas phase products and HPLC-MS-MS to measure products in the aerosol phase. These techniques were used to investigate the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the terpenes. The gas phase reaction products were all quantified using reference compounds. At low terpene concentrations (0.9-2.1 ppm), the molar yields of gas phase reaction products were: HCHO 16-92%, HCOOH 10-54% (OH source: H2O2, 6-25 ppm); HCHO 127-148%, HCOOH 4-6% (OH source: CH3ONO, 5-8 ppm). At high terpene concentrations (4.1-13.2 ppm) the results were: HCHO 9-27%, HCOOH 15-23%, CH3(CO)CH3 0-14%, CH3COOH 0-5%, nopinone 24% (only from beta-pinene oxidation), limona ketone 61% (only from limonene oxidation), pinonaldehyde was identified during alpha-pinene degradation (OH source H2O2, 23-30 ppm); HCHO 76-183%, HCOOH 12-15%, CH3(CO)CH3 0-12%, nopinone 17% (from beta-pinene oxidation), limona ketone 48% (from limonene oxidation), pinonaldehyde was identified during alpha-pinene degradation (OH source CH3ONO, 14-16 ppm). Pinic acid, pinonic acid, limonic acid, limoninic acid, 3-caric acid, 3-caronic acid and sabinic acid were identified in the aerosol phase. On the basis of these results, we propose a formation mechanism for pinonic and pinic acid in the aerosol phase explaining how degradation products could influence SOA formation and growth in the troposphere.

  10. Photoelectrochemical etching of InxGa1-xN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. M.; Hsieh, J. T.; Ko, C. Y.; Hwang, H. L.; Hung, W. H.

    2000-06-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching of InxGa1-xN in the KOH solution under illumination of a Hg-arc lamp is studied. An indium oxide surface layer is formed during PEC etching, which slows down the etching rate. The PEC etch rate of InxGa1-xN is determined by dissolution of indium oxides into the solution. Increase of the solution temperature results in an increase of solubility of indium oxides and thus enhances the PEC etch rate. It is found that stirring the solution can accelerate indium oxides to dissolve into the solution and increase the etch rate. The thick indium oxide layer on the PEC-etched InxGa1-xN surface can be effectively removed by the treatment of using a hot 6N HCl solution. A post-treatment by using a 3.2 M KOH solution can provide a smooth sidewall on the PEC-etched surface for the potential application to laser cavity.

  11. Thermal stability and chemical bonding states of AlO xN y/Si gate stacks revealed by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, G.; Toyoda, S.; Shimogaki, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2010-12-01

    Annealing-temperature dependence of the thermal stability and chemical bonding states of AlO xN y/SiO 2/Si gate stacks grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using new chemistry was investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES). Results have confirmed the formation of the AlN and AlNO compounds in the as-deposited samples. Annealing the AlO xN y samples in N 2 ambient in 600-800 °C promotes the formation of SiO 2 component. Meanwhile, there is no formation of Al-O-Si and Al-Si binding states, suggesting no interdiffusion of Al with the Si substrate. A thermally induced reaction between Si and AlO xN y to form volatile SiO and Al 2O is suggested to be responsible for the full disappearance of the Al component that accompanies annealing at annealing temperature of 1000 °C. The released N due to the breakage of the Al-N bonding will react with the SiO 2 interfacial layer and lead to the formation of the Si 3-N-O/Si 2-N-O components at the top of Si substrate. These results indicate high temperature processing induced evolution of the interfacial chemistry and application range of AlO xN y/Si gate stacks in future CMOS devices.

  12. A rapid single-tube multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the seven most prevalent alpha-thalassemia deletions and alphaalphaalpha(anti 3.7) alpha-globin gene triplication.

    PubMed

    de Mare, Arjan; Groeneger, Antoinette Heijs-Oude; Schuurman, Sander; van den Bergh, Frank A T J M; Slomp, Jennichjen

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Globin gene triplications may exacerbate the alpha chain and beta chain imbalance in beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) and may compensate for the effect of alpha-globin gene deletion in alpha-thal. Identification of an alpha-globin gene triplication is, therefore, valuable in predicting the clinical phenotype of the thalassemias. To be able to detect alpha-globin gene triplications, we have modified an existing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the seven most prevalent alpha-globin gene deletions by incorporating two triplication-specific primers and concurrently substituting one of the original primers by a newly designed primer. This modified multiplex PCR assay was evaluated by performing the assay on archival DNA samples and on peripheral blood samples from 163 suspected thalassemia cases. It was found to function properly. Our assay thereby represents the first multiplex PCR assay that can detect both the seven most prevalent alpha-globin gene deletions and the alphaalphaalpha(anti 3.7) alpha-globin gene triplication in a single-tube reaction.

  13. [Determination of dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate and dl-alpha-tocopherol in foods by HPLC using post-column photochemical reaction].

    PubMed

    Terada, Hisaya; Tamura, Yukio

    2004-12-01

    A reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate and dl-alpha-tocopherol in foods was established by HPLC using post-column photochemical reaction with UV and fluorescence detection. For low-fat food such as fruit juice and vegetable sauce, the tocopherols were extracted with methanol containing 0.1% ascorbic acid and the extract solution was injected into the HPLC. For fatty foods such as butter and margarine, the tocopherols were extracted with a mixed solvent of acetonitrile-2-propanol (9:1) containing ascorbic acid. The extract was cleaned up using a Sep Pak plus C18 cartridge and the eluent from the cartridge was injected into the HPLC. The peaks corresponding to tocopherols on the chromatogram were confirmed by comparing their UV spectra with those of the standard mixture at lamp-on and lamp-off of the photochemical reactor. The recoveries of tocopherols from low-fat foods (orange juice and barbecue sauce) fortified at levels of 10 and 100 microg/kg each were 88.3 to 105.8% (RSD 0.5 to 6.0%) and those from the fatty foods (peanut butter and margarine) fortified at 100 microg/kg each were 57.1 to 88.3% (RSD 3.0 to 6.4%). The determination limits corresponded to 10 microg/kg of the tocopherols in the low-fat foods and 20 microg/kg in the fatty foods.

  14. Identification of mouse selenomethionine alpha,gamma-elimination enzyme: cystathionine gamma-lyase catalyzes its reaction to generate methylselenol.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Tomofumi; Motobayashi, Shinji; Ueno, Hitoshi; Nakamuro, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the seleno-L-methionine (L-SeMet) alpha,gamma-elimination enzyme that catalyzes L-SeMet to generate methylselenol (CH3SeH), a notable intermediate for the metabolism of selenium compounds, in mammalian tissues. The enzyme purified from ICR mouse liver was separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the specific band was subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis. In the peptide mass fingerprinting search, the mass numbers of 14 peptides produced by tryptic digestion of the enzyme were consistent with the theoretical mass numbers calculated from the amino acid sequence of murine cystathionine gamma-lyase (E.C. 4.4.1.1). The peptide sequence tags search was also performed to obtain the amino acid sequence data of five tryptic peptides. These peptides were significantly identical to the partial amino acid sequences of cystathionine gamma-lyase. This enzyme was clearly shown to catalyze the alpha,gamma-elimination reaction of L-cystathionine by the enzymological research. The Km value for the catalysis of L-cystathionine was 0.81 mM and Vmax was 0.0013 unit/mg protein. These results suggested that cystathionine gamma-lyase catalyzes L-SeMet to generate CH3SeH by its alpha,gamma-elimination reaction.

  15. Low-energy cross sections in the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuma, M.

    2008-09-15

    The low-energy {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction is analyzed with the potential model. The potentials are chosen from the deep potential describing the {alpha}-particle nuclear rainbow phenomena at high energies. Below E{sub c.m.}=1 MeV, the cross section is found to be dominated by the E2 transition to the ground state of {sup 16}O. No enhancement of the E1 component at low energies is predicted. The extrapolated astrophysical S-factors at E{sub c.m.}=0.3 MeV are S{sub E2}=150 keV b and S{sub E1}=3 keV b.

  16. Reaction of N-vinylic phosphazenes with alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Azatriene-mediated synthesis of dihydropyridines and pyridines derived from beta-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Francisco; Herran, Esther; Alonso, Concepción; Rubiales, Gloria; Lecea, Begoña; Ayerbe, Mirari; Cossío, Fernando P

    2006-08-04

    Aza-Wittig reaction of N-vinylic phosphazenes (1,2 addition), derived from diphenylmethylphosphine or derived from trimethylphosphine with alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, leads to the formation of 3-azatrienes through a [2 + 2]-cycloaddition-cycloreversion sequence. The presence of an alkyl substituent in position 3 of N-vinylic phosphazenes increases the steric interactions, and [4 + 2] periselectivity (1,4 addition) is observed. Reaction of azatrienes with alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes yields pyridines.

  17. Determining the transition-state structure for different SN2 reactions using experimental nucleophile carbon and secondary alpha-deuterium kinetic isotope effects and theory.

    PubMed

    Westaway, Kenneth C; Fang, Yao-ren; MacMillar, Susanna; Matsson, Olle; Poirier, Raymond A; Islam, Shahidul M

    2008-10-16

    Nucleophile (11)C/ (14)C [ k (11)/ k (14)] and secondary alpha-deuterium [( k H/ k D) alpha] kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured for the S N2 reactions between tetrabutylammonium cyanide and ethyl iodide, bromide, chloride, and tosylate in anhydrous DMSO at 20 degrees C to determine whether these isotope effects can be used to determine the structure of S N2 transition states. Interpreting the experimental KIEs in the usual fashion (i.e., that a smaller nucleophile KIE indicates the Nu-C alpha transition state bond is shorter and a smaller ( k H/ k D) alpha is found when the Nu-LG distance in the transition state is shorter) suggests that the transition state is tighter with a slightly shorter NC-C alpha bond and a much shorter C alpha-LG bond when the substrate has a poorer halogen leaving group. Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory support this conclusion. The results show that the experimental nucleophile (11)C/ (14)C KIEs can be used to determine transition-state structure in different reactions and that the usual method of interpreting these KIEs is correct. The magnitude of the experimental secondary alpha-deuterium KIE is related to the nucleophile-leaving group distance in the S N2 transition state ( R TS) for reactions with a halogen leaving group. Unfortunately, the calculated and experimental ( k H/ k D) alpha's change oppositely with leaving group ability. However, the calculated ( k H/ k D) alpha's duplicate both the trend in the KIE with leaving group ability and the magnitude of the ( k H/ k D) alpha's for the ethyl halide reactions when different scale factors are used for the high and the low energy vibrations. This suggests it is critical that different scaling factors for the low and high energy vibrations be used if one wishes to duplicate experimental ( k H/ k D) alpha's. Finally, neither the experimental nor the theoretical secondary alpha-deuterium KIEs for the ethyl tosylate reaction fit the trend found

  18. Side feeding patterns and nuclear lifetime determinations by the Doppler shift attenuation method in ({alpha},n{gamma}) reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mihai, C.; Filipescu, D.; Ivascu, M.; Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Cata-Danil, I.; Deleanu, D.; Ghita, D.; Glodariu, T.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Negret, A.; Pascu, S.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Suliman, G.; Zamfir, N. V.; Pasternak, A. A.; Lobach, Yu. N.

    2010-03-15

    {gamma} rays were measured at several angles in both singles and coincidence mode in the {sup 119}Sn({alpha},n{gamma}){sup 122}Te reaction at 15 MeV on a thick target. Lifetimes of excited states in {sup 122}Te were determined from a Monte Carlo Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM) analysis of the Doppler broadened lines shapes of {gamma} rays de-exciting the levels. A comparison of several deduced lifetimes with recent results obtained with the (n,n{sup '}) reaction allowed us to validate the choice of a parameter used to calculate the contribution of the side feeding times. The ingredients of the DSAM line-shape analysis (stopping power, description of instrumental line shapes, and side feeding evaluation) are presented in some detail. It is concluded that with proper treatment of side feeding, a DSAM line-shape analysis of peaks in singles or coincidence spectra obtained following the ({alpha},n{gamma}) reaction is able to provide rather accurate values for the lifetimes of levels with low and medium spins.

  19. Threshold states in 19Ne and the CNO breakout reaction 15O({alpha},{gamma})19Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W. P.; Goerres, J.; Daly, J.; Couder, M.; Couture, A.; Lee, H. Y.; Stech, E.; Strandberg, E.; Ugalde, C.; Wiescher, M.

    2006-03-13

    The 15O({alpha},{gamma})19Ne reaction is one of the most important breakout reactions for the hot CNO cycles. However, the relevant states in 19Ne at excitation energies of 4-5 MeV have not been well studied. The lifetimes of these states are not known and are only constrained by experimental upper/lower limits. In particular, the accurate knowledge of the {gamma}- and {alpha}- decay widths of the 4.03 MeV state of 19Ne is important, since the resonance strength of this level dominates the reaction rate for the astrophysically relevant temperatures T9 < 0.6. In this work, we employed an improved DSAM approach to obtain lifetime values of this and other states via 17O(3He,n - {gamma})19Ne. For the 4.03 MeV state, the measured excitation energy is 4034.5{+-}0.8 keV and the mean lifetime, measured here for the first time, is 13{sub -6}{sup +9} fs at the confidence level of 1{sigma} and 13{sub -9}{sup +16} fs at the confidence level of 2{sigma}. This result is in excellent agreement with the 9 fs prediction by Langanke, Wiescher, Fowler, and Goerres.

  20. Application of the BINS superheated drop detector spectrometer to the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) neutron energy spectrum determination

    SciTech Connect

    Di Fulvio, A.; Ciolini, R.; Mirzajani, N.; Romei, C.; D'Errico, F.; Bedogni, R.; Esposito, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Colautti, P.

    2013-07-18

    In the framework of TRASCO-BNCT project, a Bubble Interactive Neutron Spectrometer (BINS) device was applied to the characterization of the angle-and energy-differential neutron spectra generated by the {sup 9}Be(p,xn)reaction. The BINS spectrometer uses two superheated emulsion detectors, sequentially operated at different temperatures and thus provides a series of six sharp threshold responses, covering the 0.1-10 MeV neutron energy range. Spectrum unfolding of the data was performed by means of MAXED code. The obtained angle, energy-differential spectra were compared with those measured with a Bonner sphere spectrometer, a silicon telescope spectrometer and literature data.

  1. A gas-tight Cu K alpha x-ray transparent reaction chamber for high-temperature x-ray diffraction analyses of halide gas/solid reactions.

    PubMed

    Shian, Samuel; Sandhage, Kenneth H

    2009-11-01

    An externally heated, x-ray transparent reaction chamber has been developed to enable the dynamic high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) analysis of a gas/solid [TiF(4)(g)/SiO(2)(s)] reaction involving a halide gas reactant formed at elevated temperatures (up to 350 degrees C) from a condensed source (TiF(4) powder) sealed within the chamber. The reaction chamber possessed x-ray transparent windows comprised of a thin (13 microm) internal layer of Al foil and a thicker (125 microm) external Kapton film. After sealing the SiO(2) specimens (diatom frustules or Stober spheres) above TiF(4) powder within the reaction chamber, the chamber was heated to a temperature in the range of 160-350 degrees C to allow for internal generation of TiF(4)(g). The TiF(4)(g) underwent a metathetic reaction with the SiO(2) specimen to yield a TiOF(2)(s) product. HTXRD analysis, using Cu K alpha x rays passed through the Kapton/Al windows of the chamber, was used to track the extent of SiO(2) consumption and/or TiOF(2) formation with time. The Al foil inner layer of the windows protected the Kapton film from chemical attack by TiF(4)(g), whereas the thicker, more transparent Kapton film provided the mechanical strength needed to contain this gas. By selecting an appropriate combination of x-ray transparent materials to endow such composite windows with the required thermal, chemical, and mechanical performance, this inexpensive reaction chamber design may be applied to the HTXRD analyses of a variety of gas/solid reactions.

  2. Transition metal-catalyzed/mediated reaction of allenes with a nucleophilic functionality connected to the alpha-carbon atom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengming

    2003-09-01

    Allenes with a nucleophilic functionality connected to the alpha-carbon atom have been shown to be versatile building blocks for the syn-thesis of gamma-butenolides, gamma-lactams, gamma-iminolactones, vinylic epoxides, 4-amino-2-alkenols, 2-amino-3-alkenols, 2,5-dihydrofurans, furans, vinylic cyclopropanes, and cyclopentenes, depending on the nature of the nucleophilic centers. The reaction may proceed via the carbometalation-nucleophilic attack mechanism or nucleometallation-reductive elimination. The stereochemical outcomes by these two pathways are different.

  3. The role of nuclear reactions and {alpha}-particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, Josselin; Cherfils-Clerouin, Catherine

    2008-10-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the deceleration phase of inertial confinement capsules. The purpose is to obtain a zero-dimensional model that has the form of a closed system of ordinary differential equations for the main hydrodynamic quantities. The model takes into account the energy released by nuclear reactions, a nonlocal model for the {alpha}-particle energy deposition process, and radiation loss by electron bremsstrahlung. The asymptotic analysis is performed in the case of a strong temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity. We finally study the beginning of the expansion phase after stagnation to derive an ignition criterion.

  4. Measurement of the inelastic branch of the {sup 14}O({alpha},p){sup 17}F reaction: Implications for explosive burning in novae and x-ray bursters

    SciTech Connect

    He, J. J.; Woods, P. J.; Davinson, T.; Aliotta, M.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Buescher, J.; Neyskens, P.; Raabe, R.; Clement, E.; Delahaye, P.; Voulot, D.; Walle, J. van der; Wenander, F.; Hass, M.; Kumar, V.; Jenkins, D. G.; Robinson, A. P.; Warr, N.

    2009-10-15

    A measurement of the inelastic component of the key astrophysical resonance in the {sup 14}O({alpha},p){sup 17}F reaction for burning and breakout from hot carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycles is reported. The inelastic component is found to be comparable to the ground-state branch and will enhance the {sup 14}O({alpha},p){sup 17}F reaction rate. The current results for the reaction rate confirm that the {sup 14}O({alpha},p){sup 17}F reaction is unlikely to contribute substantially to burning and breakout from the CNO cycles under novae conditions. The reaction can, however, contribute strongly to the breakout from the hot CNO cycles under the more extreme conditions found in x-ray bursters.

  5. Theoretical cross section calculations of medical 13N and 18F radioisotope using alpha induced reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, F.; Karpuz, N.; ćetin, B.

    2017-02-01

    In medical physics, radionuclides are needed to diagnose functional disorders of organs and to diagnose and treat many diseases. Nuclear reactions are significant for the productions of radionuclides. It is important to analyze the cross sections for much different energy. In this study, reactional cross sections calculations on 13N, 18F radioisotopes are with TALYS 1.6 nuclear reaction simulation code. Cross sections calculated and experimental data taken from EXFOR library were compared

  6. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex haematology XN modular system.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Carol; Longair, Ian; Kumar, Punamar; Singh, Deepak; Machin, Samuel J

    2012-11-01

    The Sysmex XN haematology instrument performs automatic reflex testing, depending on sample results. A nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count is provided on all samples. The instrument has a smaller footprint (34%) than previous Sysmex XE analysers. An evaluation comparing all results to the Sysmex XE-2100 and manual microscopic differential and morphology (n=390) was performed followed by a workflow study of 1000 samples to compare speed of operation and number of blood films reviews required from both systems. The new features on the instrument are: (1) white cell and NRBC channel, all samples include the NRBC count; (2) white cell precursor channel: false positive flags for blasts, abnormal lymphocytes and atypical lymphocytes are reduced significantly without a statistical increase of false negatives; (3) low white cell count mode: suggested setting of <0.5×10(9)/l. An extended count is more precise and provides an accurate differential. Fluorescent platelet count is performed in a dedicated channel. If the red cell or platelet size histograms are abnormal or if the platelet count is low, then a fluorescent platelet count is automatically performed. Good correlation with the XE-2100 and manual differential was found and the improved results compared to the reference flow cytometric analysis for platelet counts, especially below 30×10(9)/l (XE-2100, R(2)=0.500; XN, R(2)=0.875). The XN showed reduced sample turnaround time of 10% and reduced number of blood films for examination, 49% less than the XE-2100 without loss of sensitivity with more precise and accurate results on low cell counts.

  7. Characterization of products formed in the reaction of ozone with alpha-pinene: case for organic peroxides.

    PubMed

    Venkatachari, Prasanna; Hopke, Philip K

    2008-08-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their subsequent induced pulmonary and systemic oxidative stress has been implicated as an important molecular mechanism of PM-mediated toxicity. However, recent work has shown that there is significant ROS associated with ambient PM. In order to understand the formation mechanisms as well as understand the potential health effects of particle-bound oxidative species, the alpha-pinene-O(3) oxidation chemical system was studied to elucidate the structures of reaction products using liquid chromatography-multiple stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)). The classes of compounds identified based on their multiple stage-MS fragmentation patterns, mechanistic considerations of alpha-pinene-O(3) oxidation, and general fragmentation rules, of the products from this reaction system were highly oxygenated species, predominantly containing hydroperoxide and peroxide functional groups. The oxidant species observed were clearly stable for the 1-3 h that elapsed during aerosol collection and analysis, and probably for much longer, thus rendering it possible for these species to bind onto particles forming fine particulate organic peroxides that concentrate on the particles and could deliver concentrated doses of ROS in vivo to tissue.

  8. Reactions of Ethylidene on a Model Chromia Surface: 1 1-Dichloroethane on Stoichiometric alpha-Cr2O3 (1012)

    SciTech Connect

    J Brooks; T Chen; D Mullins; D Cox

    2011-12-31

    The reaction of CH{sub 3}CHCl{sub 2} over the nearly-stoichiometric {alpha}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (10{sub {bar 1}} > 2) surface produces an ethylidene intermediate that yields primarily gas phase CH{sub 2}{double_bond}CH{sub 2} and surface chlorine adatoms; however, trace amounts of HC{triple_bond}CH, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 3}, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}CH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3} are also observed. A rate-limiting intramolecular isomerization (2,1-hydrogen shift) in the surface ethylidene species produces gas phase CH{sub 2}{double_bond}CH{sub 2}. The chlorine freed from the dissociation of CH{sub 3}CHCl{sub 2} binds at the five-coordinate surface Cr{sup 3+} sites on the stoichiometric surface, completing the octahedral coordination sphere, and inhibits the surface chemistry by simple site blocking. No surface carbon deposition is observed from the thermal reaction of 1,1-dichloroethane under the conditions of this study, demonstrating that the ethylidene intermediate is not a primary coke forming intermediate over (10{sub {bar 1}} > 2) facets of {alpha}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} under the conditions of this study.

  9. Acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa is mainly mediated by alpha1H T-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Son, W Y; Lee, J H; Lee, J H; Han, C T

    2000-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the possible role of T-type Ca(2+) channels on the acrosome reaction (AR) of human spermatozoa; and (ii) to determine the sub-type of T-type calcium channels involved in the AR. The AR was induced in vitro by mannose-bovine serum albumin (BSA). The inhibitory effects of mibefradil (T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker), NiCl(2), or nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) on the mannose-BSA induced AR were evaluated in capacitated human spermatozoa. The AR was sensitively inhibited by low micromolar concentrations of mibefradil (IC(50) = 1 micromol/l) in a dose-dependent manner. Low concentrations of Ni(2+) (IC(50) = 40 micromol/l) also inhibited the mannose-BSA induced AR. On the contrary, higher concentrations of nifedipine were required to block AR (IC(50) = 60 micromol/l). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify the sub-types of T-type channels present in human testes. Analysis of PCR products showed that only alpha1H subunits are expressed in testes. The expression of the alpha1H subunit may be tissue specific since its mRNA was not detected in the human ovary. The present study suggests that the AR of human spermatozoa is highly associated with T-type Ca(2+) channels and is mainly mediated by calcium influx through alpha1H T-type Ca(2+) channels.

  10. Kinetics of ozonation. 4. Reactions of ozone with. cap alpha. -tocopherol and oleate and linoleate esters in carbon tetrachloride and in aqueous micellar solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, D.H.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A.

    1986-10-15

    Vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol; ..cap alpha..-T) is known to protect animals against the deleterious effects of ozone in polluted air; one such effect is the ozone-initiated autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that occur in membranes. In order to assess the possibility of a direct reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T competing with the very fast ozone-PUFA reaction, we have measured the rates of reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. I CCl/sub 4/ as solvent, ..cap alpha..-T reacts with ozone with a rate constant of about 5500 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/; methyl oleate and methyl linoleate react 2 orders of magnitude faster. In aqueous micellar solutions the rate constants for ..cap alpha..-T and the fatty acids are more similar. The k for the ozone/..cap alpha..-T reaction is about 1 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ at pH 7, but decreases as the solution becomes more acidic; the k's for oleic acid and linoleic acid are ca. 1 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ and exhibit no significant pH dependence. Since the ratio of fatty acids to ..cap alpha..-T in membranes is typically at least 100-1000 to 1, we conclude that the direct reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T is unlikely. Thus, the protection that vitamin E provides to animals breathing ozone-containing air must result from vitamin E acting as a free radical scavenger. We have also detected the ..cap alpha..-tocopheroxyl radical as an intermediate from the reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T both in CCl/sub 4/ and aqueous micelles using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The authors suggest that the observation of this intermediate is consistent with an initial electron transfer from ..cap alpha..-T to ozone.

  11. Measurement of the 20 and 90 keV Resonances in the {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N Reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Irgaziev, B.; Coc, A.

    2008-10-10

    The {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction is of primary importance in several astrophysical scenarios, including fluorine nucleosynthesis inside asymptotic giant branch stars as well as oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios in meteorite grains. Thus the indirect measurement of the low energy region of the {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction has been performed to reduce the nuclear uncertainty on theoretical predictions. In particular the strength of the 20 and 90 keV resonances has been deduced and the change in the reaction rate evaluated.

  12. Measurement of the 20 and 90 keV resonances in the 18O(p,alpha)15N reaction via the Trojan horse method.

    PubMed

    La Cognata, M; Spitaleri, C; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Irgaziev, B; Tribble, R E; Banu, A; Cherubini, S; Coc, A; Crucillà, V; Goldberg, V Z; Gulino, M; Kiss, G G; Lamia, L; Mrazek, J; Pizzone, R G; Puglia, S M R; Rapisarda, G G; Romano, S; Sergi, M L; Tabacaru, G; Trache, L; Trzaska, W; Tumino, A

    2008-10-10

    The 18O(p,alpha)15N reaction is of primary importance in several astrophysical scenarios, including fluorine nucleosynthesis inside asymptotic giant branch stars as well as oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios in meteorite grains. Thus the indirect measurement of the low energy region of the 18O(p,alpha)15N reaction has been performed to reduce the nuclear uncertainty on theoretical predictions. In particular the strength of the 20 and 90 keV resonances has been deduced and the change in the reaction rate evaluated.

  13. Application of asymmetry depending empirical formulas for (p,n alpha) reaction cross-sections at 24.8 and 28.5 MeV incident energies.

    PubMed

    Tel, E; Aydin, E G; Aydin, A; Kaplan, A

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we have investigated the asymmetry term effect for the (p,n alpha) reaction cross-sections and we have obtained new coefficients for the (p,n alpha) reactions at 24.8 and 28.5 MeV energies. We have suggested empirical formulas including the new coefficients found by fitting two parameters for proton induced reactions. The coefficients were determined by least-squares fitting method. The obtained cross-section formulas with new coefficients have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  14. (n,p) and (n,alpha) measurements using LENZ instrument to improve reaction model prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye Young; Devlin, Matthew; Haight, Robert; Manning, Brett; Mosby, Shea

    2015-10-01

    Understanding neutron-induced charged particle reactions is of interest for nuclear astrophysics and applied nuclear energy. Often, direct measurements of these reactions are not feasible at neutron beam facilities due to the short half-lives of the targets and the reduced cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies given the large Coulomb barriers. Instead, the Hauser-Feshbach formalism is used to study this reaction mechanism for predicting cross sections. We have developed the LENZ (Low Energy n,z) instrument to measure the (n,p) and (n, α) reactions using a time-of-flight method for incident neutron energies from thermal to several tens of MeV at LANSCE. The LENZ has improved capabilities including a large solid angle, a low detection threshold, and good signal-to-background ratios using waveform digitizers. We have performed an in-beam commissioning measurement on 59Co(n, α/p) at En = 0.7 - 12 MeV. In this paper, we will discuss the results of the 59Co(n, α/p) measurements and present the status of the reaction studies on 16O(n, α) for nuclear energy applications and 77Se(n,p) for reaction mechanism studies. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy-Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  15. Xanthohumol, a main prenylated chalcone from hops, reduces liver damage and modulates oxidative reaction and apoptosis in hepatitis C virus infected Tupaia belangeri.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingbo; Li, Na; Li, Fang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Xi; Han, Qunying; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Cuiling; Liu, Zhengwen

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tupaia belangeri (Tupaia) represents an important model of HCV infection. Xanthohumol (XN), a major prenylated chalcone from hops, has various biological activities including hepatopreventive and anti-viral activities. In this study, Tupaias infected with HCV RNA positive serum were used to evaluate the effects of XN on liver damage, oxidative reaction, apoptosis and viral protein expression in liver tissues. The Tupaias inoculated with HCV positive serum had elevated serum aminotransferase levels and inflammation, especially hepatic steatosis, and HCV core protein expression in liver tissue. In the animals inoculated with HCV positive serum, XN significantly decreased aminotransferase levels, histological activity index, hepatic steatosis score and transforming growth factor β1 expression in liver tissue compared with the animals without XN intervention. XN reduced HCV core protein expression in liver tissue compared with those without XN intervention but the difference was not significant. XN significantly decreased malondialdehyde, potentiated superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced Bax expression, promoted Bcl-xL and inhibited caspase 3 activity in liver tissues compared with the animals without XN intervention. These results indicate that XN may effectively improve hepatic inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis induced by HCV in Tupaias primarily through inhibition of oxidative reaction and regulation of apoptosis and possible suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation. The anti-HCV potential of XN needs further investigation.

  16. Modeling of enzymatic reactions in vesicles: the case of alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Blocher, M; Walde, P; Dunn, I J

    1999-01-05

    The kinetic behavior of the alpha-chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of the two p-nitroanilide substrates succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Pro-L-Phe-p-nitroanilide (Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA) and benzoyl-L-Tyr-p-nitroanilide (Bz-Tyr-pNA) was modeled and simulated for two different systems, namely for an aqueous solution and for a vesicle system, which was composed of phospholipid vesicles containing entrapped alpha-chymotrypsin. In the case of the vesicles, the substrate was added to the bulk, exovesicular aqueous phase. The experimentally determined time-dependence of product (p-nitroaniline) formation was modeled by considering the kinetic behavior of the enzyme and-in the case of vesicles-the substrate permeability across the bilayer membrane. In aqueous solution-without vesicles-the kinetic constants kcat and KS (respectively KM) were determined from fitting the model to experimental data of batch product concentration-time curves. The results were in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained from initial velocity measurements. For the vesicle system, using the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), simulation showed that the substrate permeation across the bilayer was rate limiting. Using experimental data, we could obtain the substrate permeability coefficient for Bz-Tyr-pNA by parametric fitting as 2. 45 x 10(-7) cm/s. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Highly stereoselective intermolecular oxy-michael addition reaction to alpha,beta-unsaturated malonate esters.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, David J; Dixon, Darren J; Hernandez-Juan, Felix A

    2004-04-29

    [reaction: see text] The highly diastereoselective oxy-Michael addition of the "naked" anion of (6S)-methyl delta lactol to alkylidiene-, arylidene-, and heteroarylidenemalonate derivatives leading to the direct formation of THP-protected beta-hydroxy ester derivatives is described. Subsequent acid-mediated deprotection affords the enantioenriched aldol products in quantitative yields.

  18. Synthesis of 19-oxygenated 4beta,5beta-epoxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione as mechanistic and catalytic probes for aromatase reaction.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, M; Yoshimura, A

    2000-09-01

    4Beta,5beta-epoxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione (2), one of the natural substrates for aromatase, and its 19-oxygenated compounds 4 and 5 were synthesized as mechanistic and catalytic probes for the enzyme reaction. Treatment of 16alpha-bromoandrostenedione (13) or its 19-hydroxy analog 19 which was prepared from 3beta-hydroxy-19-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)androst-5-en-17-one (16) in three steps, with H2O2 and NaOH followed by controlled alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH in aqueous pyridine stereospecifically yielded 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-ol 15 or 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha,19-diol 22, respectively. Oxidation of 16beta-bromo-4beta,5beta-epoxy-19-ol 21 with pyridinium dichromate followed by controlled alkaline hydrolysis produced 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-hydroxy-19-al 24.

  19. Selectivity in the electron transfer catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of (R)-alpha-phellandrene and 4-methoxystyrene.

    PubMed

    Sevov, Christo S; Wiest, Olaf

    2008-10-17

    Electron transfer catalysis is an effective method for the acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions between two substrates of similar electron density. The dependence of the selectivity of the Diels-Alder reaction between (R)-alpha-phellandrene and 4-methoxystyrene catalyzed by photoinduced electron transfer with tris(4-methoxyphenyl) pyrylium tetrafluoroborate is studied. Despite the fact that the radical ions involved are highly reactive species, complete regioselectivity favoring attack on the more highly substituted double bond is observed. The endo/exo selectivity and the periselectivity between [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition is found to be solvent-dependent. Stereochemical analysis showed that the periselectivity is correlated with the facial selectivity, with attack trans to the isopropyl group leading to the [4 + 2] product and cis attack leading to the formation of the [2 + 2] product. A good correlation between the dielectric constant of the solvent and the endo/ exo ratio is found, but more polar solvents lead to lower periselectivity. The effect of reactant and catalyst concentrations is found to be smaller. These results are rationalized in the context of the relative stability of the ion-molecule complexes and the singly linked intermediate of the reaction.

  20. Reactions between a <111> screw dislocation and <100> interstitial dislocation loops in alpha-iron modelled at atomic-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Terentyev, Dmitry; Bacon, David J; Osetskiy, Yury N

    2010-03-01

    Interstitial dislocation loops with Burgers vector of <100> type are observed in {alpha}-iron irradiated by neutrons or heavy ions, and their population increases with increasing temperature. Their effect on motion of a 1/2<111> edge dislocation was reported earlier 1. Results are presented of a molecular dynamics study of interactions between a 1/2<111> screw dislocation and <100> loops in iron at temperature in the range 100 to 600 K. A variety of reaction mechanisms and outcomes are observed and classified in terms of the resulting dislocation configuration and the maximum stress required for the dislocation to break away. The highest obstacle resistance arises when the loop is absorbed to form a helical turn on the screw dislocation line, for the dislocation cannot glide away until the turn closes and a loop is released with the same Burgers vector as the line. Other than one situation found, in which no dislocation-loop reaction occurs, the weakest obstacle strength is found when the original <100> loop is restored at the end of the reaction. The important role of the cross-slip and the influence of model boundary conditions are emphasised and demonstrated by examples.

  1. Structural Basis on the Catalytic Reaction Mechanism of Novel 1,2-Alpha L-Fucosidase (AFCA) From Bifidobacterium Bifidum

    SciTech Connect

    Nagae, M.; Tsuchiya, A.; Katayama, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Wakatsuki, S.; Kato, R.

    2009-06-03

    1,2-alpha-L-fucosidase (AfcA), which hydrolyzes the glycosidic linkage of Fucalpha1-2Gal via an inverting mechanism, was recently isolated from Bifidobacterium bifidum and classified as the first member of the novel glycoside hydrolase family 95. To better understand the molecular mechanism of this enzyme, we determined the x-ray crystal structures of the AfcA catalytic (Fuc) domain in unliganded and complexed forms with deoxyfuconojirimycin (inhibitor), 2'-fucosyllactose (substrate), and L-fucose and lactose (products) at 1.12-2.10 A resolution. The AfcA Fuc domain is composed of four regions, an N-terminal beta region, a helical linker, an (alpha/alpha)6 helical barrel domain, and a C-terminal beta region, and this arrangement is similar to bacterial phosphorylases. In the complex structures, the ligands were buried in the central cavity of the helical barrel domain. Structural analyses in combination with mutational experiments revealed that the highly conserved Glu566 probably acts as a general acid catalyst. However, no carboxylic acid residue is found at the appropriate position for a general base catalyst. Instead, a water molecule stabilized by Asn423 in the substrate-bound complex is suitably located to perform a nucleophilic attack on the C1 atom of L-fucose moiety in 2'-fucosyllactose, and its location is nearly identical near the O1 atom of beta-L-fucose in the products-bound complex. Based on these data, we propose and discuss a novel catalytic reaction mechanism of AfcA.

  2. Reaction rate sensitivity of 44Ti production in massive stars and implications of a thick target yield measurement of 40Ca(alpha,gamma)44Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Sheets, S A; Burke, J T; Scielzo, N D; Rauscher, T; Norman, E B; Tumey, S; Brown, T A; Grant, P G; Hurst, A M; Phair, L; Stoyer, M A; Wooddy, T; Fisker, J L; Bleuel, D

    2010-02-16

    We evaluate two dominant nuclear reaction rates and their uncertainties that affect {sup 44}Ti production in explosive nucleosynthesis. Experimentally we develop thick-target yields for the {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction at E{sub {alpha}} = 4.13, 4.54, and 5.36 MeV using {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. At the highest beam energy, we also performed an activation measurement which agrees with the thick target result. From the measured yields a stellar reaction rate was developed that is smaller than current statistical-model calculations and recent experimental results, which would suggest lower {sup 44}Ti production in scenarios for the {alpha}-rich freeze out. Special attention has been paid to assessing realistic uncertainties of stellar reaction rates produced from a combination of experimental and theoretical cross sections. With such methods, we also develop a re-evaluation of the {sup 44}Ti({alpha},p){sup 47}V reaction rate. Using these two rates we carry out a sensitivity survey of {sup 44}Ti synthesis in eight expansions representing peak temperature and density conditions drawn from a suite of recent supernova explosion models. Our results suggest that the current uncertainty in these two reaction rates could lead to as large an uncertainty in {sup 44}Ti synthesis as that produced by different treatments of stellar physics.

  3. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  4. Characterization of radicals and high-molecular weight species from alpha-pinene/ozone reaction and ambient aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Jelica

    Secondary organic aerosol formed during oxidation of different volatile organic compounds is composed from a number of final and intermediate reaction products. The final products include compounds in both low and high molecular weight range called also oligomer species. These compounds can be highly volatile, as well as being semi- or low-volatility compounds. This study characterized intermediate reactive radical products formed from previously often studied alpha-pinene/ozone reaction. In order to passivate those radical species nitrone spin traps were used. 5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrrole-N-oxide (DMPO), and 5-dietoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) traps were able to successfully trap oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals produced from alpha-pinene/ozone reaction. Electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode with mass spectrometry (MS) detection was used to scan spectra of formed spin trap adducts and the tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) to elucidate its structures as well as structures of captured radicals. The same method was applied to analyze radical species present in ambient PM2.5 samples. Few carbon- (alkyl) and oxygen- (alkoxyl) centered radicals were captured with DMPO and DEPMPO traps. The second part of this study was focused on high molecular weight (high-MW) species formed from the same reaction (alpha-pinene/ozone), but found also in fine particulate matter fractions of ambient samples. LC/MS/MS analysis of dimer species from chamber study revealed fragments that can originate from peroxide structures. Proposed reaction for these peroxide dimer formation is self reaction of two peroxyl radicals, followed by the loss of oxygen molecule. These findings emphasize the role of peroxyl (ROO) radicals in formation of high-MW products and are in line with the high O:C ratio results reported in other studies. Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) extracts of three size fractions of the ambient aerosol, PM1--2.5, PM0.1--1, and PM<0

  5. Contribution from 3 α-Condensed States to the Triple-Alpha Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katō, Kiyoshi; Kurokawa, Chie; Arai, Koji

    2010-06-01

    The α-condensed state in nuclear systems has been proposed by Tohsaki et al. and has given rise to interesting discussions. The Hoyle state of 12C has been studied as the most typical example of such an α-condensed state. A new resonant 03+ state (Er = 1.66 MeV, Γ = 1.48 MeV) is predicted as an excited α-condensed state in addition to the second 0+ state of the Hoyle state by calculations of the 3 α orthogonality condition model (3 α OCM) using the complex scaling method. Based on this result, the breakup strengths of the inversion reaction for sequential (8Be+α-->12C+γ) and direct (α+α+α-->12C+γ) processes are calculated. It is discussed that a large reaction strength calculated recently by Ogata et al. in non-resonant energies is considered as a contribution from the excited 03+ state.

  6. Alpha-induced reactions on selenium between 11 and 15 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Slavkovská, Zuzana; Giesen, Ulrich; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Heiske, Annett; Reifarth, René; Schmidt, Stefan; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Thomas, Benedikt; Weigand, Mario

    2017-07-01

    The production of 77,79,85,85m Kr and 77Br via the reaction Se(α ,x) was investigated between {E}α =11 and 15 MeV using the activation technique. The irradiation of natural selenium targets on aluminum backings was conducted at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Germany. The spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products was performed using a high-purity germanium detector located at PTB and a low energy photon spectrometer detector at the Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany. Thick-target yields were determined. The corresponding energy-dependent production cross sections of 77,79,85,85m Kr and 77Br were calculated from the thick-target yields. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions using the TALYS-1.6 code was found.

  7. Investigation of excitation functions of alpha induced reactions on natXe: Production of the therapeutic radioisotope 131Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Király, B.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Sonck, M.; Kovalev, S. F.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2009-03-01

    Excitation functions were measured for alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural xenon leading to the formation of the radionuclides 129m(rel),129g,131m,131mg,133m,135m,137m,139cumBa and 129cum,130mg,132,134m,135m,136mg,138mgCs from the respective thresholds up to 40 MeV. No earlier experimental cross section data were found in the literature. The experimental data were compared to and analyzed with the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE. The feasibility of the production of the therapeutic radioisotope 131Cs by using gas target technology was investigated. Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production routes of 131Cs was given.

  8. Improved determination of the astrophysical S(0) factor of the {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}){sup 12}C reaction

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tribble, R. E.

    2009-07-15

    We present new improved R matrix fits of direct data and indirect Trojan Horse data for the {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}){sup 12}C reaction and provide a more accurate recommended value of S(0)=73.0{+-}5.0 MeV b from direct Redder data [A. Redder et al., Z. Phys. A 305, 325 (1982)] and S(0)=70.0{+-}13.5 MeV b from the Trojan Horse data [M. La Cognata et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 065804 (2007)]. We also analyze a recent fit by Barker [F. C. Barker, Phys. Rev. C 78, 044611 (2008)] and demonstrate that when all the uncertainties are taken into account, our results overlap with his. We also provide a fit of the Trojan Horse data that properly takes into account finite residual energy resolution of the data.

  9. Performance evaluation of the automated nucleated red blood cell enumeration on Sysmex XN analyser.

    PubMed

    Tantanate, C; Klinbua, C

    2015-06-01

    Presence of peripheral blood nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) is associated with pathological conditions and leads to the overestimation of white blood cell count in automated haematology analysers (HA). The authors evaluated NRBC enumeration by a new HA Sysmex XN (XN) to demonstrate the precision and comparability to manual count (MC) at the various NRBC values. Specimens with initially NRBC positive were included. For precision assessment, 8 levels of NRBCs were repeatedly analysed. For comparison study, 234 specimens were analysed by both XN and MC. For precision study, the percentage of coefficient of variation ranged from 14% to 45.6% and 1.2% to 4.4% for MC and XN, respectively. For comparison study between XN and MC, NRBCs ranged from 0% to 612.5%. Regression analysis demonstrated an r(2) of 0.98. The mean bias of 14.1% with 95% limits of agreement between -48.76% and 76.95% was found. The NRBC counts from XN appeared to be more in accordance with MC when the NRBCs were lower than 200% with the concordance rate of 94.2%. The automated NRBC enumeration by XN was precise and could replace the traditional MC, especially for the specimens with NRBCs lower than 200%. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diastereoselectivity in the Mukaiyama-Michael Reaction Employing alpha-Acyl beta,gamma-Unsaturated Phosphonates.

    PubMed

    Telan, Leila A.; Poon, Chi-Duen; Evans, Slayton A.

    1996-10-18

    The unique electronic and structural nature of the alpha-acylphosphonate functional group affords both dimeric and chelated complexes of diethyl crotonyl phosphonate (1; DECP) with stannic chloride (SnCl(4)). The dimeric complex, SnCl(4).(DECP)(2) (5) results from the coordination of two DECP molecules, ligated via the phosphoryl oxygens to the tin atom. The chelated complex, SnCl(4).(DECP) (6), is best represented with both phosphoryl and carbonyl oxygens coordinated to the metal center. Both metal ligated and chelated complexes have unique (13)C (31)P, and (119)Sn NMR spectra. In complex 5, the (13)C NMR resonances attributed to the carbonyl carbons were shifted upfield of free DECP. A monocoordinating Lewis acid, BF(3).OEt(2), produced a similar chemical shift trend in both the (13)C and (31)P NMR spectra of the BF(3).DECP complex. Essentially quantitative yields and moderate diastereomeric excesses favoring anti (or trans) diethyl 6-phenyl-4,5-dimethyl-6-(trimethylsilyloxy)-2-dihydropyranphosphonate (3) and diethyl 5-phenyl-3,4-dimethyl-1,5-dioxopentanephosphonate (4) were obtained from both chelated and dimeric SnCl(4).(DECP)(n) (n = 1, 2) when treated with either diastereomeric (Z)- or (E)-1-phenyl-1-(trimethylsilyloxy)-1-propene 2. Diethyl crotonylphosphonate (1), 3, and 4 were fully characterized.

  11. Participation of Two Carbonic Anhydrases of the Alpha Family in Photosynthetic Reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhurikova, E M; Ignatova, L K; Rudenko, N N; Mudrik, V A; Vetoshkina, D V; Ivanov, B N

    2016-10-01

    The expression of genes of two carbonic anhydrases (CA) belonging to the α-family, α-CA2 and α-CA4 (according to the nomenclature in N. Fabre et al. (2007) Plant Cell Environ., 30, 617-629), was studied in arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, var. Columbia) leaves. The expression of the At2g28210 gene coding α-CA2 decreased under increase in plant illumination, while the expression of the At4g20990 gene coding α-CA4 increased. Under conditions close to optimal for photosynthesis, in plants with gene At2g28210 knockout, the effective quantum yield of photosystem 2 and the light-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in leaves were lower than in wild type plants, while the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching of leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence and the rate of CO2 assimilation in leaves were higher. In plants with At4g20990 gene knockout, the same characteristics changed in opposite ways relative to wild type. Possible mechanisms of the participation of α-CA2 and α-CA4 in photosynthetic reactions are discussed, taking into account that protons can be either consumed or released in the reactions they catalyze.

  12. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis.

  13. Application of gas chromatography-cryocondensation-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the identification of gas phase reaction products from the alpha-pinene/ozone reaction.

    PubMed

    Schrader, W; Geiger, J; Hoffmann, T; Klockow, D; Korte, E H

    1999-12-24

    The gas phase reaction of alpha-pinene with the atmospheric oxidant ozone was investigated by using the capabilities of both gas chromatography-cryocondensation-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (GC-FT-IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for the identification of the reaction products formed. The reaction was carried out in a flow reaction chamber from where the compounds were sampled on Tenax-containing adsorption cartridges. The reaction mixture was injected onto the column after thermodesorption and analyzed using both GC-IR and GC-MS. Twenty compounds could be detected, including the reactant alpha-pinene and it's impurities tricyclene and camphene. Eleven compounds were identified by spectra comparison with either reference data or spectra obtained from commercial standards. Four compounds were tentatively identified from their IR and MS spectra, while from the remaining two compounds the nature of basic functional groups could be established.

  14. Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2012-03-01

    Production cross-sections of short-lived 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag → 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

  15. Human alpha-fetal protein immunoassay using fluorescence suppression with fluorescent-bead/antibody conjugate and enzymatic reaction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junhyoung; Shin, Yong-Beom; Lee, JaeJong; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-09-15

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple and rapid immunoassay using fluorescent microbeads and enzyme-substrate reactions to measure alpha-fetal protein (AFP) concentrations. We demonstrated the functionality of the fluorescent immunosensor using antibody-conjugated fluorescent latex beads (AB-FLBs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to catalyze a reaction, where the products would precipitate and suppress the fluorescence of AB-FLBs. First, the AB-FLBs were incubated with antigen, biotinylated antibodies (bABs), and streptavidin-HRP (SAv-HRP) to form a sandwich-type immunoreaction. The mixture was then filtered through a membrane to concentrate the beads on a small area. After washing to remove unbound bABs and SAv-HRP, a chromogenic HRP substrate and H2O2 were added to form precipitates on the FLB surface. The suppression of the fluorescence was measured with a fluorescent image analyzer system. Under optimized conditions, AFP could be measured at concentrations as low as 1 pg mL(-1) with a dynamic range up to 100 ng mL(-1).

  16. Measurement of excitation functions in alpha induced reactions on natCu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun; Zaman, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    The excitation functions of 66,67,68Ga, 62,63,65Zn, 61,64Cu, and 58,60Co radionuclides in the natCu(α, x) reaction were measured in the energy range from 15 to 42 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation method at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured results were compared with the literature data as well as the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 and TENDL-2014 libraries based on the TALYS-1.6 code. The integral yields for thick targets of the produced radionuclides were also determined from the measured excitation functions and the stopping power of natural copper.

  17. Production of medically useful bromine isotopes via alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Katharina; Scholten, Bernhard; Spahn, Ingo; Hermanne, Alex; Spellerberg, Stefan; Coenen, Heinz H.; Neumaier, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    The cross sections of α-particle induced reactions on arsenic leading to the formation of 76,77,78Br were measured from their respective thresholds up to 37 MeV. Thin sediments of elemental arsenic powder were irradiated together with Al degrader and Cu monitor foils using the established stacked-foil technique. For determination of the effective α-particle energies and of the effective beam current through the stacks the cross-section ratios of the monitor nuclides 67Ga/66Ga were used. This should help resolve discrepancies in existing literature data. Comparison of the data with the available excitation functions shows some slight energy shifts as well as some differences in curve shapes. The calculated thick target yields indicate, that 77Br can be produced in the energy range Eα = 25 → 17 MeV free of isotopic impurities in quantities sufficient for medical application.

  18. Influences of energization and nucleotide binding on the reaction of Lucifer Yellow vinyl sulfone with the alpha subunits of the chloroplast ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, K M; McCarty, R E

    2000-04-18

    The catalytic portion of the chloroplast ATP synthase (CF(1)) consists of five different polypeptides in the stoichiometry alpha(3)beta(3)gammadeltaepsilon and is structurally asymmetric. Asymmetry is readily apparent in the properties of the six nucleotide binding sites and the single-copy, smaller subunits. Asymmetry is also detected in the alpha subunits by the rapid and covalent binding of Lucifer Yellow vinyl sulfone (LY) to one of the three chemically identical alpha subunits. The binding of LY to a single alpha subunit has allowed the investigation of whether asymmetry in the alpha subunits is a permanent feature of CF(1). The development of an electrochemical proton gradient across illuminated thylakoid membranes and the preincubation of CF(1) in solution with Mg(2+)-ATP were found to alter the LY distribution such that multiple alpha subunits were labeled with LY. Illumination of thylakoid membranes doubled the extent of LY labeling, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements indicated that LY was bound to more than one alpha subunit. Since the change in LY distribution was inhibited by proton ionophores (uncouplers), alteration of alpha conformation by illumination is a result of the generation of a proton gradient. Preincubation of CF(1) in solution with Mg(2+)-ATP had no effect on the extent of LY labeling but resulted in multiple alpha subunits binding LY as determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements. Adenine nucleotides at substrate level concentrations inhibit the reaction of LY with the alpha subunits. No increase in LY labeling was observed when thylakoids were illuminated under conditions in which CF(1) was catalytically active.

  19. Implications of the Maillard reaction on bovine alpha-lactalbumin and its proteolysis during in vitro infant digestion.

    PubMed

    Joubran, Yousef; Moscovici, Alice; Portmann, Reto; Lesmes, Uri

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated the functionality and digestibility of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of alpha-lactalbumin (α-la), a major whey protein and component of infant formulas. The impact of different carbohydrates (glucose, galactose or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and heating duration was studied. SDS-PAGE, UV and color measurements monitored reaction extent, which varied between carbohydrates whereby galactose reacted more readily than glucose. Surface hydrophobicity and antioxidant capacity were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) higher following Maillard conjugation, with GOS-based MRPs elevating antioxidant capacity ∼50-fold compared to α-la. In addition, the digestive proteolysis of MRPs was evaluated using an infant in vitro gastro-duodenal model. SDS-PAGE analyses of digesta revealed Maillard conjugation generally increased α-la's susceptibility to proteolysis. Interestingly, GOS-based MRPs presented an optimization challenge, since heating for 12 h delayed proteolysis, while extended heating resulted in the highest susceptibility to proteolysis. Proteomic analyses further demonstrated the differences in enzymatic cleavage patterns and helped identify bioactive peptides rendered bioaccessible during the digestion of α-la or its MRPs. Bioinformatic mining of the proteomic data using PeptideRanker also gave rise to two potentially novel bioactive peptides, FQINNKIW and GINYWLAHKALCS. Finally, antioxidant capacity of luminal contents, measured by DPPH, revealed Maillard conjugation increased the antioxidant capacity of both gastric and duodenal digesta. Overall, this work draws a link between the Maillard reaction, digestive proteolysis and the bioaccessibility of bioactive peptides and antioxidant species in the infant alimentary canal. This could help rationally process infant formulas towards improved nutritional and extra-nutritional benefits.

  20. Direct measurement of the breakout reaction {sup 11}C({alpha},p){sup 14}N in explosive hydrogen-burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, S.; Kubono, S.; Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Binh, Dam N.; Hashimoto, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; He, J. J.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Teranishi, T.; Wanajo, S.

    2012-11-12

    We determined the {sup 11}C({alpha},p){sup 14}N reaction rate relevant to the nucleosynthesis in explosive hydrogen-burning stars. The measurement was performed by means of the thick target method in inverse kinematics with {sup 11}C RI beams. We derived the excitation functions for the ground-state transition and excited-state transitions using time-of-flight information for the first time. The present reaction rate is compared to the previous one.

  1. Direct measurement of the {sup 11}C({alpha},p){sup 14}N reaction at CRIB: A path from pp-chain to CNO

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, S.; Kubono, S.; Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Binh, D. N.; Hashimoto, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; He, J. J.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Teranishi, T.; Wanajo, S.

    2012-11-20

    We determined the total reaction rate of the {sup 11}C({alpha},p){sup 14}N reaction relevant to the nucleosynthesis in explosive hydrogen-burning stars. The measurement was performed by means of the thick target method in inverse kinematics with {sup 11}C RI beams. We performed the identification of the ground-state transition and excited-state transitions using time-of-flight information for the first time.

  2. Intramolecular condensation reactions of {alpha}, {omega}- bis(triethoxy-silyl)alkanes. Formation of cyclic disilsesquioxanes

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; Myers, S.A.; Assink, R.A.; Small, J.H.; Greaves, J.; Shea, K.J.

    1996-08-01

    Under acidic sol-gel polymerization conditions, 1,3-bis(triethoxysilyl)-propane (1) and 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)butane (2) were shown to preferentially form cyclic disilsesquioxanes 3 and 4 rather than the expected 1,3-propylene- and 1,4-butylene-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels. Formation of 3 and 4 is driven by a combination of an intramolecular cyclization to six and seven membered rings, and a pronounced reduction in reactivity under acidic conditions as a function of increasing degree of condensation. The ease with which these relatively unreactive cyclic monomers and dimers are formed (under acidic conditions) helps to explain the difficulties in forming gels from 1 and 2. The stability of cyclic disilsesquioxanes was confirmed withe the synthesis of 3 and 4 in gram quantities; the cyclic disilsesquioxanes react slowly to give tricyclic dimers containing a thermodynamically stable eight membered siloxane ring. Continued reactions were shown to perserve the cyclic structure, opening up the possibility of utilizing cyclic disilsesquioxanes as sol-gel monomers. Preliminary polymerization studies with these new, carbohydrate-like monomers revealed the formation of network poly(cyclic disilsesquioxanes) under acidic conditions and polymerization with ring-opening under basic conditions.

  3. Bicyclic Guanidine Catalyzed Asymmetric Tandem Isomerization Intramolecular-Diels-Alder Reaction: The First Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-alpha-Yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Jiang, Danfeng; Kee, Choon-Wee; Liu, Hongjun; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-02-04

    Hydroisoquinoline derivatives were prepared in moderate to good enantioselectivities via a bicyclic guanidine-catalyzed tandem isomerization intramolecular-Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of alkynes. With this synthetic method, the first enantioselective synthesis of (+)-alpha-yohimbine was completed in 9 steps from the IMDA products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Reich-Moore Parameterization of ({alpha},n) Reactions on Light Nuclei: Impact on a Neutron Source Calculation in an Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Babut, Richard; Bouland, Olivier; Fort, Eric

    2005-10-15

    Evaluated data are adjusted on experimental measurements using nuclear reaction models. Among these data, those concerning alpha-particle interactions on light nuclei are not well known, although crucial for neutron emission problems via ({alpha},n) processes in nuclear fuels (oxide, carbide, nitride). Examples of applications are reprocessing, packaging and storage of radioactive waste, and intrinsic neutron source term evaluation in critical and subcritical reactors (accelerator-driven systems). The goal is the modeling of ({alpha},n) reactions on oxygen isotopes to extract the resonance parameters. The SAMMY code, which relies on the Reich-Moore approximation of the R-matrix theory, is used. In the most recent version, the SAMMY code allows the study of the in- and outgoing charged-particle channels. An important validation of this new feature has been made. In addition, a manifest lack of experimental data for this type of reaction has been underlined. Finally, the impact of the new pointwise description of the ({alpha},n) reaction cross section on the energy distribution calculation of the intrinsic neutron source of an irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pin is shown and compared to the standard calculation, which uses average cross sections.

  5. Decellularization of bovine anterior cruciate ligament tissues minimizes immunogenic reactions to alpha-gal epitopes by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryu; Vavken, Patrick; Murray, Martha M

    2012-10-01

    Rupture of ACL is a common injury. While the current surgical treatments are effective, many patients still suffer from precocious osteoarthritis, and there is an increasing interest in bioengineering approaches to improve ACL repair. Bovine collagen is a material currently in use for tissue engineering of ligaments. The alpha-gal epitopes found on bovine cells are a source of immunogenic stimulus for human cells. In this study, we wished to determine if those epitopes could be removed sufficiently to mitigate an immunogenic response using either a decellularization protocol or decellularization followed by alpha-galactosidase treatment. Bovine ACLs were treated with Triton-X, sodium deoxycholate, ribonuclease, and deoxyribonuclease to remove cells. A subset of the decellularized tissues was further treated with alpha-galactosidase. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to untreated, decellularized, and alpha-galactosidase-treated tissues, and PBMC migration and IL-6 release were measured. PBMCs were significantly more attracted to untreated ACL compared to decellularized or alpha-galactosidase-treated tissue, but no difference was seen between the two treatment groups. PBMCs also released significantly more IL-6 when exposed to untreated tissue compared to decellularized ACL or alpha-galactosidase-treated ACL, but no difference was seen between the two treatment groups. Immunohistochemistry using anti-alpha-gal antibody detected the epitopes throughout the untreated ACL, but similar areas of reaction were not seen on decellularized or alpha-galactosidase-treated ACL. These results suggest that our decellularization protocol minimizes the immunogenic reactions of human PBMCs to bovine ACL tissue. Therefore, decellularized bovine ACL tissue may be a safe, effective biomaterial for ACL injury treatments.

  6. NEW DETERMINATION OF THE {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O REACTION RATE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN AGB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, B.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Y. J.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Bai, X. X.; Chen, Y. S.; Fan, Q. W.; Jin, S. J.; Li, E. T.; Li, Z. C.; Lian, G.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, X.; Shu, N. C.; Lugaro, M.; Buntain, J.; Pang, D. Y.; Karakas, A. I.; Shi, J. R. E-mail: guobing@ciae.ac.cn; and others

    2012-09-10

    We present a new measurement of the {alpha}-spectroscopic factor (S{sub {alpha}}) and the asymptotic normalization coefficient for the 6.356 MeV 1/2{sup +} subthreshold state of {sup 17}O through the {sup 13}C({sup 11}B, {sup 7}Li){sup 17}O transfer reaction and we determine the {alpha}-width of this state. This is believed to have a strong effect on the rate of the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction, the main neutron source for slow neutron captures (the s-process) in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Based on the new width we derive the astrophysical S-factor and the stellar rate of the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction. At a temperature of 100 MK, our rate is roughly two times larger than that by Caughlan and Fowler and two times smaller than that recommended by the NACRE compilation. We use the new rate and different rates available in the literature as input in simulations of AGB stars to study their influence on the abundances of selected s-process elements and isotopic ratios. There are no changes in the final results using the different rates for the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction when the {sup 13}C burns completely in radiative conditions. When the {sup 13}C burns in convective conditions, as in stars of initial mass lower than {approx}2 M{sub Sun} and in post-AGB stars, some changes are to be expected, e.g., of up to 25% for Pb in our models. These variations will have to be carefully analyzed when more accurate stellar mixing models and more precise observational constraints are available.

  7. THE RGB AND AGB STAR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN LIGHT OF THE RECENT {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N AND {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N REACTION-RATE DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.

    2013-02-20

    In recent years, the Trojan Horse Method (THM) has been used to investigate the low-energy cross sections of proton-induced reactions on A = 17 and A = 18 oxygen isotopes, overcoming extrapolation procedures and enhancement effects due to electron screening. In particular, the strengths of the 20 keV and 65 keV resonances in the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N and {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N reactions, respectively, have been extracted, as well as the contribution of the tail of the broad 656 keV resonance in the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction inside the Gamow window. The strength of the 65 keV resonance in the {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N reaction, measured by means of the THM, has been used to renormalize the corresponding resonance strength in the {sup 17}O + p radiative capture channel. As a result, more accurate reaction rates for the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N, {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N, and {sup 17}O(p, {gamma}){sup 18}F processes have been deduced, devoid of systematic errors due to extrapolation or the electron screening effect. Such rates have been introduced into state-of-the-art red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models for proton-capture nucleosynthesis coupled with extra-mixing episodes. The predicted abundances have been compared with isotopic compositions provided by geochemical analysis of presolar grains. As a result, an improved agreement is found between the models and the isotopic mix of oxide grains of AGB origins, whose composition is the signature of low-temperature proton-capture nucleosynthesis. The low {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N found in SiC grains cannot be explained by the revised nuclear reaction rates and remains a serious problem that has not been satisfactorily addressed.

  8. Structural effects on the beta-scission reaction of tertiary arylcarbinyloxyl radicals. The role of alpha-cyclopropyl and alpha-cyclobutyl groups.

    PubMed

    Bietti, Massimo; Gente, Giacomo; Salamone, Michela

    2005-08-19

    A product and time-resolved kinetic study on the reactivity of tertiary arylcarbinyloxyl radicals bearing alpha-cyclopropyl and alpha-cyclobutyl groups has been carried out. Both the 1-cyclopropyl-1-phenylethoxyl (1.) and alpha,alpha-dicyclopropylphenylmethoxyl (2.) radicals undergo beta-scission to give cyclopropyl phenyl ketone as the major or exclusive product with rate constants higher than that measured for the cumyloxyl radical. It is proposed that in the transition state for beta-scission of 1. and 2., formation of the C=O double bond is assisted by overlap with the C-C bonding orbitals of the cyclopropane ring. With tertiary arylcarbinyloxyl radicals bearing alpha-cyclobutyl groups such as the 1-cyclobutyl-1-phenylethoxyl (4.) and 1-cyclobutyl-1-phenylpropoxyl (5.) radicals, the fragmentation regioselectivity is essentially governed by the stability of the radical formed by beta-scission. Accordingly, 4. undergoes exclusive C-cyclobutyl bond cleavage to give acetophenone, whereas with 5., competition between C-cyclobutyl and C-ethyl bond cleavage, leading to propiophenone and cyclobutylphenyl ketone in a 2:1 ratio, is observed.

  9. Kinetic study of the aroxyl radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol in methanol solution: notable effect of the alkali and alkaline earth metal salts on the reaction rates.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Abe, Kouichi; Mukai, Kazuo

    2009-10-08

    A kinetic study of the aroxyl (ArO*) radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TocH) has been performed in the presence of six kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiI, LiClO(4), NaI, NaClO(4), KI, and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) in methanol solution, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The decay rate of the ArO* for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased linearly with increasing concentration of metal salts. The second-order rate constants (k(s)) for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased in the order of no metal salt < KI approximately NaClO(4) approximately NaI alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical were negligible in methanol solution, suggesting that the complex formation between the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical molecule and metal cations is hindered by the hydrogen bond between radical and methanol molecules. The results indicate that the hydrogen transfer reaction of alpha-TocH proceeds via an electron transfer intermediate from alpha-TocH to ArO* radicals followed by proton transfer. Both the coordinations of metal cations to the one-electron reduced anions of ArO* (ArO: (-)) and of counteranions to the one-electron oxidized cations of alpha-TocH (alpha-TocH(+)*) may stabilize the intermediate, resulting in the acceleration of electron transfer. On the other hand, the effect of metal salts on the rate of bimolecular self-reaction (2k(d)) of the alpha-Toc* radical was not observed. The result suggests that the hydrogen transfer reaction between two alpha

  10. Low-temperature sequential pulsed chemical vapor deposition of ternary B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N thin film alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Ali E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Kizir, Seda; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the authors have performed sequential pulsed chemical vapor deposition of ternary B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N alloys at a growth temperature of 450 °C. Triethylboron, triethylgallium, trimethylindium, and N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma have been utilized as boron, gallium, indium, and nitrogen precursors, respectively. The authors have studied the compositional dependence of structural, optical, and morphological properties of B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N ternary thin film alloys. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements showed that boron incorporation in wurtzite lattice of GaN and InN diminishes the crystallinity of B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N sample. Refractive index decreased from 2.24 to 1.65 as the B concentration of B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N increased from 35% to 88%. Similarly, refractive index of B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N changed from 1.98 to 1.74 for increase in B concentration value from 32% to 87%, respectively. Optical transmission band edge values of the B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N films shifted to lower wavelengths with increasing boron content, indicating the tunability of energy band gap with alloy composition. Atomic force microscopy measurements revealed an increase in surface roughness with boron concentration of B{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, while an opposite trend was observed for B{sub x}In{sub 1-x}N thin films.

  11. Prolonged paradoxical reaction to anti-tuberculous treatment after discontinuation of TNF-alpha- blocker therapy with adalimumab. Rare clinical documentation

    PubMed Central

    Husemann, Kim; Kohlhäufl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) antagonist has been a milestone in the treatment of many chronic inflammatory diseases. TNF antagonist can increase patients’ susceptibility to many different kinds of infections especially those requiring granuloma formations despite regular performance of Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We report 2 cases of patients who developed tuberculosis under treatment with adalimumab, which was discontinued after the diagnosis of tuberculosis. During the tuberculosis therapy they unexpectedly developed a prolonged paradoxical reaction. In both cases we were only able to manage the progress of the paradoxical reaction through high steroid doses. Patients undergoing therapy with TNF- alpha-blocker are prone to develop tuberculosis infection, which could in turn lead to severe prolonged paradoxical reaction during anti-tuberculous treatment. An increased steroid dose may be required and is sometimes necessary. PMID:28352675

  12. Organophosphate inhibitors: the reactions of bis(p-nitrophenyl) methyl phosphate with liver carboxylesterases and alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S E; Dudman, A P; De Jersey, J; Stoops, J K; Zerner, B

    1975-02-19

    Bis(p-nitrophenyl) methyl phosphate (BNMP) has been tested as a spectrophotometric titrant for a group of serine hydrolases. Bis(p-nitrophenyl) methyl phosphate reacts rapidly with liver carboxylesterases from chicken, sheep, and horse, and more slowly with alpha-chymotrypsin, releasing 2 mol of p-nitrophenol per active site titrated, and producing a phosphorylated enzyme very stable to dephosphorylation. However, pig liver carboxylesterase produces 2.2 mol of p-nitrophenol per active site titratedmreaction of pig and chicken liver carboxylesterases with bis(p-nitrophenyl) [3H]methyl [32P]phosphate clarified this differencemone molecule of the chicken enzyme reacts with one molecule of bis(p-nitrophenyl) methyl phosphate, releasing both p-nitrophenol residues, and resulting in an inhibited enzyme with one phosphorus atom and one methyl group covalently bound. Pig enzyme reacts rapidly, forming (presumably) methyl p-nitrophenyl phosphoryl-carboxylesterasemthis further reacts, concurrently producing methyl phosphoryl-carboxylesterase plus p-nitrophenol, or free enzyme plus methyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate, in the ratio of about 5 : 1 at pH 7.55. The free enzyme produced undergoes further reaction with bis(p-nitrophenyl) methyl phosphate until all the carboxylesterase is inhibited.

  13. THE FLUORINE DESTRUCTION IN STARS: FIRST EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE {sup 19}F(p, {alpha}{sub 0}){sup 16}O REACTION AT ASTROPHYSICAL ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Indelicato, I.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Aliotta, M.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Coc, A.

    2011-10-01

    The {sup 19}F(p, {alpha}){sup 16}O reaction is an important fluorine destruction channel in the proton-rich outer layers of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and it might also play a role in hydrogen-deficient post-AGB star nucleosynthesis. So far, available direct measurements do not reach the energy region of astrophysical interest (E {sub cm} {approx}< 300 keV), because of the hindrance effect of the Coulomb barrier. The Trojan Horse (TH) method was thus used to access this energy region, by extracting the quasi-free contribution to the {sup 2}H({sup 19}F, {alpha}{sup 16}O)n and the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He, {alpha}{sup 16}O)d reactions. The TH measurement of the {alpha}{sub 0} channel shows the presence of resonant structures not observed before, which cause an increase of the reaction rate at astrophysical temperatures up to a factor of 1.7, with potential consequences for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  14. Reactions of OH with. alpha. -pinene and. beta. -pinene in air: Estimate of global CO production from the atmosphere oxidation of terpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, Shiro; Izumi, Katsuyuki; Fukuyama, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hajime; Washida, Nobuaki )

    1991-01-20

    Reactions of OH with {alpha}-pinene and {beta}-pinene were studied for the purpose of obtaining the basic data to estimate the emission rate of CO from the photooxidation of terpenes in the atmosphere. In the presence of NO the main product was pinonaldehyde and 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one from {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene, respectively, and the yield was 56{plus minus}4 and 79{plus minus}8%, respectively. In the absence of NO the yield was remarkably lower, and the yield of organic aerosols was enhanced. For {alpha}-pinene 56 {plus minus} 3% was obtained as a yield of aerosols on the carbon number basis. Gross annual emission of CO from the reactions of OH with terpenes was estimated to be 22 Tg C/yr (50 Tg CO/yr) by regarding {alpha}-pinene as the representative of terpenes, on the basis of the annual emission rate of terpenes, estimated lifetime of pinenes in the atmosphere, the apparent rate constant for the intermediate to form CO, and the estimated yield of CO from the secondary oxidation of pinonaldehyde. The ultimate yield of CO from the tropospheric oxidation of terpenes (including both ozone and OH reactions) was estimated to be 20% on the carbon number basis, and the total annual emission of CO was evaluated to be 96 Tg C/yr (222 Tg CO/yr).

  15. Detection and haplotype differentiation of Southeast Asian alpha-thalassemia using polymerase chain reaction and a piezoelectric biosensor immobilized with a single oligonucleotide probe.

    PubMed

    Vattanaviboon, Phantip; Sangseekhiow, Kulphassorn; Winichagoon, Pranee; Promptmas, Chamras

    2008-05-01

    DNA-based diagnosis of alpha-thalassemias routinely relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis. Here, we developed a new procedure for the detection and haplotype differentiation of Southeast Asian (SEA) alpha-thalassemia using a 3-primer system for PCR coupling with a DNA-based piezoelectric biosensor. PCR products amplified from genomic DNA were differentiated directly by using a quartz crystal microbalance immobilized with a single oligonucleotide probe. The frequency changes after hybridization of the PCR products amplified from a representative sample of normal alpha-globin, SEA alpha-thalassemia heterozygote, and homozygote were 206+/-11, 256+/-5, and 307+/-3 Hz, respectively. The fabricated biosensor was evaluated through an examination of 18 blind specimens. It could accurately discriminate between normal and SEA alpha-thalassemic samples, which suggests that this biosensor system is a promising alternative technique to detect SEA alpha-thalassemia because of its specificity and less hazardous exposure as compared with conventional methods.

  16. Systematic description of the {sup 6}Li(n,n{sup '}){sup 6}Li{sup *}{yields}d+{alpha} reactions with the microscopic coupled-channels method

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Ichinkhorloo, D.; Kato, K.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Chiba, S.

    2011-06-15

    We investigate {sup 6}Li(n,n{sup '}){sup 6}Li{sup *}{yields}d+{alpha} reactions by using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method with the complex Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. In this study, the {sup 6}Li nucleus is described by a d+{alpha} cluster model. The calculated elastic cross sections for incident energies between 7.47 and 24.0 MeV are in good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, we show that the neutron spectra for {sup 6}Li breakup states measured at selected angular points and incident energies can be also reproduced systematically.

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy of free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Martin, R. W.; Kent, A. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments with group III nitrides present AlxGa1-xN based LEDs as realistic devices for new alternative deep ultra-violet light sources. Because there is a significant difference in the lattice parameters of GaN and AlN, AlxGa1-xN substrates would be preferable to either GaN or AlN for ultraviolet device applications. We have studied the growth of free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN bulk crystals by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Thick wurtzite AlxGa1-xN films were grown by PA-MBE on 2-in. GaAs (111)B substrates and were removed from the GaAs substrate after growth to provide free standing AlxGa1-xN samples. X-ray microanalysis measurements confirm that the AlN fraction is uniform across the wafer and mass spectroscopy measurements show that the composition is also uniform in depth. We have demonstrated that free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN wafers can be achieved by PA-MBE for a wide range of AlN fractions. In order to develop a commercially viable process for the growth of wurtzite AlxGa1-xN substrates, we have used a novel Riber plasma source and have demonstrated growth rates of GaN up to 1.8 μm/h on 2-in. diameter GaAs and sapphire wafers.

  18. The stem of sinomenium acutum inhibits mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from rat peritoneal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, H M; Moon, P D; Chae, H J; Kim, H R; Chung, J G; Kim, J J; Lee, E J

    2000-05-01

    The aqueous extract of Sinomenium acutum stem (SSAE) (0.1-1000 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited systemic anaphylactic reaction induced by compound 48/80 in mice. In particular, SSAE reduced compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic reaction with 50% at the dose of 1000 mg/kg. SSAE (100-1000 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited local anaphylactic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. When mice were pretreated with SSAE at a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1000 mg/kg, the plasma histamine levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. SSAE (1-1000 microg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from the rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. In addition, SSAE (0.1 microg/ml) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production. These results indicate that SSAE inhibits mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions and TNF-alpha production from mast cells.

  19. Measurement of natW(p,xn)177,178,179Re excitation function of natural tungsten by using a 100-MeV proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jungran; Lee, Jieun; Lee, Samyol

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the proton-induced excitation function for the natW(p,xn)177,178,179Re nuclear reaction has been measured in the energy region below 100 MeV by using the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator at the Korea Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex. The stacked foil activation technique was adopted in the present study. The gamma-rays generated from the proton-irradiated samples were measured by using a gamma-ray spectroscopy system with a HPGe detector. The 27Al(p,3p+n)24Na reaction was used as a monitor reaction for proton flux monitoring. The nuclear reactions of natW(p,xn)177,178,179Re were observed in the present study. The proton-induced excitation functions of natural tungsten were derived from the delayed gamma-ray yield of the produced nucleus. The present results were compared with the previous experimental excitation function data of Yu. E. Titarenko et al. [1].

  20. A compilation of information on the {sup 31}P(p,{alpha}){sup 28}Si reaction and properties of excited levels in the compound nucleus {sup 32}S

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents a survey of the literature, and provides a compilation of data contained therein, for the {sup 31}P(p,{alpha}){sup 28}Si reaction. Attention is paid here to resonance states in the compound-nuclear system {sup 32}S formed by {sup 31}P + p, with emphasis on the alpha-particle decay channels, {sup 28}Si + {alpha} which populate specific levels in {sup 28}Si. The energy region near the proton separation energy for {sup 32}S is especially important in this context for applications in nuclear astrophysics. Properties of the excited states in {sup 28}Si are also considered. Summaries of all the located references are provided and numerical data contained in them are compiled in EXFOR format where applicable.

  1. Measurement of the cross section for the reaction {sup 20}Ne(n,{alpha}){sup 17}O in the neutron-energy between 4 and 7 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khryachkov, V. A.; Bondarenko, I. P.; Kuzminov, B. D.; Semenova, N. N.; Sergachev, A. I.

    2012-04-15

    The cross section for the reaction {sup 20}Ne(n, {alpha}){sup 17}O was measured in the neutron-energy range 4-7 MeV. An ionization chamber equipped with a Frisch grid combined with a pulse-shape digitizer was used as a detector. Gaseous neon that served as a target on which the reaction being studied proceeded was added to the gas filling the ionization chamber. The partial cross sections for the {alpha}{sub 0}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, and {alpha}{sub 3} channels of the reaction {sup 20}Ne(n, {alpha}){sup 17}O were obtained for the first time.

  2. Comparison of the (p,xn) cross sections from /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th targets irradiated with 200-MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    We have measured absolute cross sections for (p,xn) reactions (x ranges from 0 to 8) from /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th targets irradiated with 200-MeV protons at the Brookhaven AGS Linac injector. Chemical yields were determined by using /sup 239/Np and /sup 233/Pa as tracers. Yield patterns obtained in this work can be compared to the experimental results and theoretical calculations from earlier work, and they are consistent within the framework of intranuclear cascade followed by neutron evaporation and fission competition.

  3. Experimental determination of the {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N and {sup 17}O(p,{gamma}){sup 18}F reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chafa, A.; Ouichaoui, S.; Tatischeff, V.; Coc, A.; Garrido, F.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Thibaud, J.-P.; Aguer, P.; Barhoumi, S.; Hernanz, M.; Jose, J.; Sereville, N. de

    2007-03-15

    The {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N and {sup 17}O(p,{gamma}){sup 18}F reactions are of major importance to hydrogen-burning nucleosynthesis in a number of different stellar sites. In particular, {sup 17}O and {sup 18}F nucleosynthesis in classical novae is strongly dependent on the thermonuclear rates of these two reactions. The previously estimated rate for {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N carries very large uncertainties in the temperature range of classical novae (T=0.01-0.4 GK), whereas a recent measurement has reduced the uncertainty of the {sup 17}O(p,{gamma}){sup 18}F rate. We report on the observation of a previously undiscovered resonance at E{sub c.m.}=183.3 keV in the {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N reaction, with a measured resonance strength {omega}{gamma}{sub p{alpha}}=(1.6{+-}0.2)x10{sup -3} eV. We studied in the same experiment the {sup 17}O(p,{gamma}){sup 18}F reaction by an activation method, and the resonance strength was found to amount to {omega}{gamma}{sub p{gamma}}=(2.2{+-}0.4)x10{sup -6} eV. The excitation energy of the corresponding level in {sup 18}F was determined to be 5789.8{+-}0.3 keV in a Doppler shift attenuation method measurement, which yielded a value of {tau}<2.6 fs for the level lifetime. The {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N and {sup 17}O(p,{gamma}){sup 18}F reaction rates were calculated using the measured resonance properties and reconsidering some previous analyses of the contributions of other levels or processes. The {sup 17}O(p,{alpha}){sup 14}N rate is now well established below T=1.5 GK, with uncertainties reduced by orders of magnitude in the temperature range T=0.1-0.4 GK. The uncertainty in the {sup 17}O(p,{gamma}){sup 18}F rate is somewhat larger because of remaining obscurities in the knowledge of the direct capture process. These new resonance properties have important consequences for {sup 17}O nucleosynthesis and {gamma}-ray emission of classical novae.

  4. Temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for the alpha-pinene reaction with ozone in the range between 243 K and 303 K.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Ralf; Saathoff, Harald; Brauers, Theo; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas F

    2009-04-07

    The absolute rate coefficient for the reaction of alpha-pinene with ozone was determined in the temperature range between 243 K and 303 K at atmospheric pressure. In total, 30 experiments were performed in the large (85 m3) temperature-controlled simulation chamber AIDA, where the concentrations of the reactants ozone and alpha-pinene were measured directly. An Arrhenius expression for the alpha-pinene + ozone reaction was derived with a pre-exponential factor of (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(-15) cm3 s(-1) and a temperature coefficient of (833 +/- 86) K. This rate coefficient is in good agreement (-5%) with the current IUPAC (IUPAC 2007) recommendation at 298 K. The IUPAC recommendation is significantly larger (+27%), around 243 K where the recommended values were extrapolated from higher temperatures. This finding is relevant for tropical regions where strong updrafts can rapidly transport reactive hydrocarbons like alpha-pinene from the boundary layer into the cold regions of the free troposphere.

  5. Interference effects between /sup 17/O states populated in the /sup 13/C(/sup 6/Li,d)/sup 17/O*. --> cap alpha. +/sup 13/C reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cardella, G.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Imme, G.; Pappalardo, G.; Raciti, G.; Rizzo, F.; Alamanos, N.; Berthier, B.; Saunier, N.

    1987-12-01

    An analysis of the /sup 13/C(/sup 6/Li,d..cap alpha..)/sup 13/C reaction in the collinear (theta/sub d/ = 0/sup 0/) and noncollinear (theta/sub d/ = 10/sup 0/,8/sup 0/) geometry is made for two peaks observed in the deuteron energy spectrum and corresponding to excitation energies of 16.1 and 13.6 MeV in the /sup 17/O nucleus. It is shown that the reaction proceeds via a direct alpha-transfer process which populates doublets of interfering /sup 17/O levels. Spins, weights, and parities of these levels are obtained by means of a least square procedure.

  6. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting-nanowire singlephoton detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize NbxTi1 xN in the high-superconducting-transitiontemperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.

  7. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N in the high-superconducting-transition temperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.

  8. Wurtzite Al xGa 1- xN bulk crystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Powell, R. E. L.; Akimov, A. V.; Luckert, F.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.; Kent, A. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the growth of wurtzite GaN and Al xGa 1- xN layers and bulk crystals by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). MBE is normally regarded as an epitaxial technique for the growth of very thin layers with monolayer control of their thickness. However, we have used the MBE technique for bulk crystal growth and have produced 2 in diameter wurtzite Al xGa 1- xN layers up to 10 μm in thickness. Undoped wurtzite Al xGa 1- xN films were grown on GaAs (1 1 1)B substrates by a plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) method and were removed from the GaAs substrate after the growth. The fact that free-standing ternary Al xGa 1- xN wafers can be grown is very significant for the potential future production of wurtzite Al xGa 1- xN substrates optimized for AlGaN-based device structures.

  9. EFFECT OF HIGH-ENERGY RESONANCES ON THE {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N REACTION RATE AT AGB AND POST-AGB RELEVANT TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    The {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction is of great importance in several astrophysical scenarios, as it influences the production of key isotopes such as {sup 19}F, {sup 18}O, and {sup 15}N. Fluorine is synthesized in the intershell region of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, together with s-elements, by {alpha} radiative capture on {sup 15}N, which in turn is produced in the {sup 18}O proton-induced destruction. Peculiar {sup 18}O abundances are observed in R-Coronae Borealis stars, having {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O {approx}< 1, hundreds of times smaller than the galactic value. Finally, there is no definite explanation of the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio in pre-solar grains formed in the outer layers of AGB stars. Again, such an isotopic ratio is influenced by the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction. In this work, a high accuracy {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction rate is proposed, based on the simultaneous fit of direct measurements and of the results of a new Trojan Horse experiment. Indeed, current determinations are uncertain because of the poor knowledge of the resonance parameters of key levels of {sup 19}F. In particular, we have focused on the study of the broad 660 keV 1/2{sup +} resonance corresponding to the 8.65 MeV level of {sup 19}F. Since {Gamma} {approx} 100-300 keV, it determines the low-energy tail of the resonant contribution to the cross section and dominates the cross section at higher energies. Here, we provide a reaction rate that is a factor of two larger above T {approx} 0.5 10{sup 9} K based on our new improved determination of its resonance parameters, which could strongly influence present-day astrophysical model predictions.

  10. Multichannel study of the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O and {sup 16}O(n,{gamma}){sup 17}O reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, M.; Descouvemont, P.

    2005-07-01

    The {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction is investigated in a microscopic two-cluster model with an effective interaction recently developed for transfer reactions. The wave functions are defined in the generator coordinate method. The basis includes all {sup 13}C+{alpha} and {sup 16}O+n channels with {sup 13}C and {sup 16}O described in the p shell. Particle-hole excitations in the sd shell are also taken into account in order to include the {sup 16}O(3{sup -})+n channel. The {sup 17}O spectroscopy is in good agreement with experiment. In particular, the width of the astrophysically relevant 1/2{sub 2}{sup +} state is well reproduced ({gamma}=121 keV as compared to the experimental value {gamma}=124{+-}12 keV). The calculation of the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O S factor shows the importance of the 3/2{sub 3}{sup +} resonance, and provides S(0.2 MeV)=2.1x10{sup 6} MeV b, slightly lower than the NACRE recommended value (2.5x10{sup 6} MeV b). The same model is applied to the {sup 16}O(n,{gamma}){sup 17}O radiative-capture reaction at thermal and astrophysical energies.

  11. Heck-type coupling vs. conjugate addition in phosphine-rhodium catalyzed reactions of aryl boronic acids with alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds: a systematic investigation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Gang; Guo, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyong; Huang, Wen; Tang, Jie

    2007-07-28

    The competition between Heck-type coupling and conjugate addition in phosphine-rhodium catalyzed reactions of aryl boronic acids with alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls has been systematically investigated in a toluene-H(2)O biphasic system. Aside from the intrinsic nature of rhodium and the enolization of carbonyls, the phosphine supporting ligand on rhodium, the ratio of aryl boronic acid to alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl and the pH value of the aqueous phase were found to affect the competition significantly. Highly selective rhodium-based catalyst systems have therefore been developed for both Heck-type coupling and conjugate addition by synergistically tuning the supporting ligand, the boronic acid to olefin ratio and other reaction conditions. Conjugate addition with selectivity >99% and Heck-type coupling with selectivity of up to 100%, 98% and 84% for acrylates, acrylamides and methyl vinyl ketone, respectively, could be achieved in the rhodium-catalyzed reactions of aryl boronic acids with alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls using the corresponding optimized rhodium-based catalyst systems.

  12. The fluorine destruction in stars: First experimental study of the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O reaction at astrophysical energies

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Indelicato, I.; Aliotta, M.; Burjan, V.; Cherubini, S.; Coc, A.; Gulino, M.; Hons, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; Kroha, V.; Lamia, L.; Mrazek, J.; Palmerini, S.; Piskor, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; and others

    2012-11-12

    The {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O reaction is an important fluorine destruction channel in the proton-rich outer layers of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and it might also play a role in hydrogendeficient post-AGB star nucleosynthesis. So far, available direct measurements do not reach the energy region of astrophysical interest (E{sub cm}{approx} 300 keV), because of the hindrance effect of the Coulomb barrier. The Trojan Horse (TH) method was thus used to access this energy region, by extracting the quasi-free contribution to the {sup 2}H({sup 19}F,{alpha}{sup 16}O)n reaction. The TH measurement of the {alpha}{sub 0} channel, which is the dominant one at such energies, shows the presence of resonant structures not observed before that cause an increase of the reaction rate at astrophysical temperatures up to a factor of 1.7, with potential important consequences for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  13. Experimental measurements of the 15O(alpha,gamma)19Ne reaction rate and the stability of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fisker, J; Tan, W; Goerres, J; Wiescher, M; Cooper, R

    2007-05-08

    Neutron stars in close binary star systems often accrete matter from their companion stars. Thermonuclear ignition of the accreted material in the atmosphere of the neutron star leads to a thermonuclear explosion which is observed as an X-ray burst occurring periodically between hours and days depending on the accretion rate. The ignition conditions are characterized by a sensitive interplay between the accretion rate of the fuel supply and its depletion rate by nuclear burning in the hot CNO cycle and the rp-process. For accretion rates close to stable burning the burst ignition therefore depends critically on the hot CNO breakout reaction {sup 15}O({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 19}Ne that regulates the flow between the hot CNO cycle and the rapid proton capture process. Until recently, the {sup 15}O({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 19}Ne reaction rate was not known experimentally and the theoretical estimates carried significant uncertainties. In this paper we perform a parameter study of the uncertainty of this reaction rate and determine the astrophysical consequences of the first measurement of this reaction rate. Our results corroborate earlier predictions and show that theoretically burning remains unstable up to accretion rates near the Eddington limit, in contrast to astronomical observations.

  14. Measurement of activation cross-sections for high-energy neutron-induced reactions of Bi and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Shahid, Muhammad; Lee, Manwoo

    2015-08-01

    The cross-sections for 209Bi(n, 4n)206Bi, 209Bi(n, 5n)205Bi, natPb(n, xn)204mPb, natPb(n, xn)203Pb, natPb(n, xn)202mPb,natPb(n, xn)201Pb, natPb(n, xn)200Pb, natPb(n, αxn)203Hg and natPb(n, p xn)202Tl reactions were determined at the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Korea in the neutron energy range of 15.2 to 37.2 MeV. The above cross-sections were obtained by using the activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The quasi-monoenergetic neutron used for the above reactions are based on the 9Be(p, n) reaction. Simulations of the spectral flux from the Be target were done using the MCNPX program. The cross-sections were estimated with the TALYS 1.6 code using the default parameter. The data from the present work and literature were compared with the data from the EAF-2010 and the TENDL-2013 libraries, and calculated values of TALYS 1.6 code. It shows that appropriate level density model, the γ-ray strength function, and the spin cut-off parameter are needed to obtain a good agreement between experimental data and theoretical values from TALYS 1.6 code.

  15. Sugar fragmentation in the maillard reaction cascade: formation of short-chain carboxylic acids by a new oxidative alpha-dicarbonyl cleavage pathway.

    PubMed

    Davídek, Tomas; Robert, Fabien; Devaud, Stéphanie; Vera, Francia Arce; Blank, Imre

    2006-09-06

    The formation of short-chain carboxylic acids was studied in Maillard model systems (90 degrees C, pH 6-10) with emphasis on the role of oxygen and water. The total amount of acetic acid formed did not depend on the reaction atmosphere. In the presence of labeled dioxygen or water (18O2, H2 17O), labeled oxygen was partially incorporated into acetic acid. Thermal treatment of 1-deoxy-d-erythro-2,3-hexodiulose (1) and 3-deoxy-d-erythro-hexos-2-ulose in the presence of 17O-enriched water under alkaline conditions led to acetic and formic acid, respectively, as indicated by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The suggested mechanism involves an oxidative alpha-dicarbonyl cleavage leading to an intermediary mixed acid anhydride that releases the acids, e.g., acetic and erythronic acid, from 1. Similarly, glyceric and lactic acids were formed from 1-deoxy-3,4-hexodiuloses, corroborated by complementary analytical techniques. This paper provides for the first time evidence for the direct formation of acids from C6-alpha-dicarbonyls by an oxidative mechanism and incorporation of a 17OH group into the carboxylic moiety. The experimental data obtained support the coexistence of at least two newly described reaction mechanisms leading to carboxylic acids, i.e., (i) a hydrolytic beta-dicarbonyl cleavage as a major pathway and (ii) an alternative minor pathway via oxidative alpha-dicarbonyl cleavage induced by oxidizing species.

  16. Structure-activity relationships of 2alpha-substituted androstenedione analogs as aromatase inhibitors and their aromatization reactions.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Handa, Wakako; Hasegawa, Chie; Takahashi, Madoka

    2005-12-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione (1a, AD) to estrone through three sequential oxygenations of the 19-methyl group. To gain insight into the spatial nature of the AD binding (active) site of aromatase in relation to the catalytic function of the enzyme, we tested for the ability of 2alpha-substituted (halogeno, alkyl, hydroxy, and alkoxy) ADs (1b-1i) to inhibit aromatase in human placental microsomes as well as their ability to serve as a substrate for the enzyme. All of the steroids inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner with the apparent K(i)'s ranging from 45 to 1150 nM. 2alpha-Halogeno (F, Cl, and Br) and 2alpha-alkyl (CH3 and CH2CH3) steroids 1b-1f were powerful to good inhibitors (Ki=45-171 nM) whereas steroids 1g-1i, having an oxygen function (hydroxy or alkoxy) at C-2alpha, were poor inhibitors (Ki=670-1150 nM). Aromatization of some of the steroids with placental microsomes was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating that the aromatization rate of the bromide 1d was about two-fold that of the natural substrate AD and that of 2alpha-methoxide 1h was similar to that of AD. Kinetic analysis of the aromatization of androgens revealed that a good substrate was not essentially a good inhibitor for aromatase.

  17. Nondeletional alpha-thalassemia: first description of alpha Hph alpha and alpha Nco alpha mutations in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ayala, S; Colomer, D; Aymerich, M; Pujades, A; Vives-Corrons, J L

    1996-07-01

    Several different deletions underlie the molecular basis of alpha-thalassemia. The most common alpha-thalassemia determinant in Spain is the rightward deletion (-alpha 3.7). To our knowledge, however, no cases of alpha-thalassemia due to nondeletional mutations have so far been described in this particular Mediterranean area. Here, we report the existence of nondeletional forms of alpha-thalassemia in ten Spanish families. The alpha 2-globin gene was characterized in ten unrelated patients and their relatives only when the presence of deletional alpha-thalassemia was ruled out. The alpha 2-globin gene analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction enzyme analysis or by allelespecific priming. This allowed the identification of a 5-base pair (bp) deletion at the donor site of IVS I (alpha Hph alpha) in 9 cases and the alpha 2 initiation codon mutation (alpha Nco alpha) in one case. Although these alpha 2-globin gene mutations are found in other mediterranean areas, our results demonstrate their presence in the Spanish population and suggest that the alpha Hph alpha/alpha alpha genotype is probably the most common nondeletional form of alpha-thalassemia in Spain.

  18. Resonances in (11)C observed in the (4)He((7)Be, alpha)(7)Be and (4)He((7)Be, p)(10)B reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Curtis, N.; Malcolm, J.; Munoz-Britton, T.; Price, D.; Wheldon, C.; Achouri, N. L.; Demaret, P.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Pain, Steven D; Brown, S.; Catford, W.; Harlin, Christopher W; Thomas, J. S.; Wilson, G.; Chipps, K.; Milin, M.; Raabe, R.; Soic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the {sup 4}He({sup 7}Be,{alpha}){sup 7}Be and {sup 4}He({sup 7}Be,p){sup 10}B reactions were performed using {sup 7}Be beam energies of 7.1 and 23 MeV and a helium-4 target, employing the thick target technique. Resonances were observed between E{sub x}({sup 11}C) = 8.6 to 13.8 MeV. An R-matrix analysis was performed to characterize the spins and partial widths. This analysis showed that the observed sequence of states was consistent with that found for {sup 7}Li + {alpha} resonant scattering populating resonances in {sup 11}B. A comparison of the proposed partial widths for decay with the Wigner limit indicates that several of the states are associated with cluster-like structures.

  19. Enantioselective alpha-arylation of aldehydes via organo-SOMO catalysis. An ortho-selective arylation reaction based on an open-shell pathway.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Jay C; Kong, Jongrock; Laforteza, Brian N; MacMillan, David W C

    2009-08-26

    The intramolecular alpha-arylation of aldehydes has been accomplished using singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) catalysis. Selective oxidation of chiral enamines (formed by the condensation of an aldehyde and a secondary amine catalyst) leads to the formation of a 3pi-electron radical species. These chiral SOMO-activated radical cations undergo enantioselective reaction with an array of pendent electron-rich aromatics and heterocycles thus efficiently providing cyclic alpha-aryl aldehyde products (10 examples: > or = 70% yield and > or = 90% ee). In accordance with our radical mechanism, when there is a choice between arylation at the ortho or para position of anisole substrates, we find that arylation proceeds selectively at the ortho position.

  20. Nuclear gamma rays from 720-MeV alpha-induced reactions on Al-27 and Si-28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, B. J.; Plendl, H. S.; Funsten, H. O.; Stronach, C. E.; Lind, V. G.

    1980-01-01

    Prompt gamma rays from the interaction of 720-MeV alpha particles with Al-27 and Si-28 were detected and analyzed to identify residual nuclei and to determine cross sections for production of specific levels. No gamma-ray transitions were detected from nuclei heavier than the target. From Doppler broadening, the momentum of the residual nuclei was estimated. The results are compared with previous results for 140- and 1600-MeV alphas on Al-27 and approximately 200-MeV positive or negative pions on Al-27 and Si-28 and fitted to a spallation-yield formula.

  1. Indirect study of the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction via the {sup 13}C({sup 7}Li,t){sup 17}O transfer reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegriti, M. G.; Hammache, F.; Roussel, P.; Audouin, L.; Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Vilmay, M.; Descouvemont, P.; Gaudefroy, L.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Stanoiu, M.

    2008-04-15

    The {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction is considered the main neutron source for the s process in low mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In the Gamow peak, the cross section sensitively depends on the 1/2{sup +} subthreshold state of {sup 17}O (E{sub x}=6.356 MeV). In this work, we determined the astrophysical S factor through an evaluation of the {alpha} spectroscopic factor and the corresponding asymptotic normalization factor (ANC) of the 6.356 MeV state using the transfer reaction {sup 13}C({sup 7}Li,t){sup 17}O at two different incident energies. Our result confirms that the contribution of the 1/2{sup +} state is dominant at astrophysical energies. Our reaction rate at T=0.09 GK is slightly lower than the value adopted in the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REaction rates (NACRE), but two times larger than the one obtained in a recent ANC measurement.

  2. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based deletion analysis of spontaneous, gamma ray- and alpha-induced hprt mutants of CHO-K1 cells.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J L; Rotmensch, J; Sun, J; An, J; Xu, Z; Yu, Y; Hsie, A W

    1994-11-01

    Independent Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell mutants at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) locus were isolated from untreated, 60Co gamma ray- and 212Bi alpha-exposed cells and the genetic changes underlying the mutation determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based exon deletion analysis. In the 71 spontaneous mutants analyzed, 77.5% of the clones showed no change in exon number or size, 15.5% showed a loss of a single exon, 4.2% showed a loss of 2-8 exons, and 2.8% showed loss of all nine hprt exons (total gene deletion). Exposure to 6 Gy of gamma rays, which reduced survival levels to 10%, produced a significantly different deletion spectrum that was shifted toward deletions with 45% of the 20 mutants analyzed showing a loss of a single exon and 30% showing a loss of all nine exons. Exposure to 2 Gy alpha radiation from 212Bi, a 220Rn daughter, a dose which also reduced survival levels to about 10%, resulted in a deletion spectrum similar to the gamma-ray spectrum in that more than 75% of the 49 mutants analyzed were deletions. The alpha spectrum, however, was significantly different from both the spontaneous and gamma spectra with 55.1% of the alpha mutants showing a loss of all nine exons, 10.2% showing loss of a single exon, and 14.3% showing loss of 2-8 exons. Thus, alpha-radiation appears to produce larger intragenic deletions than gamma radiation. The results suggest that intragenic deletion size should be considered when low- and high linear energy transfer (LET) mutation spectra are compared.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction-deletion analysis of spontaneous, gamma ray-, and alpha-induced hprt mutants of CHO-K1 cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. L.; Rotmensch, J.; Sun, J.; An, J.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Y.; Hsie, A. W.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Texas Medical Branch

    1994-01-01

    Independent Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell mutants at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) locus were isolated from untreated, {sup 60}Co {gamma} ray-and {sup 212}Bi {alpha}-exposed cells and the genetic changes underlying the mutation determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based exon deletion analysis. In the 71 spontaneous mutants analyzed, 77.5% of the clones showed no change in exon number or size, 15.5% showed a loss of a single exon, 4.2% showed a loss of 2-8 exons, and 2.8% showed loss of all nine hprt exons (total gene deletion). Exposure to 6 Gy of {gamma} rays, which reduced survival levels to 10%, produced a significantly different deletion spectrum that was shifted toward deletions with 45% of the 20 mutants analyzed showing a loss of a single exon and 30% showing a loss of all nine exons. Exposure to 2 Gy {alpha} radiation from 212Bi, a 220Rn daughter, a dose which also reduced survival levels to about 10%, resulted in a deletion spectrum similar to the {gamma}-ray spectrum in that more than 75% of the 49 mutants analyzed were deletions. The {alpha} spectrum, however, was significantly different from both the spontaneous and {gamma} spectra with 55.1% of the {alpha} mutants showing a loss of all nine exons, 10.2% showing loss of a single exon, and 14.3% showing loss of 2-8 exons. Thus, {alpha}-radiation appears to produce larger intragenic deletions than {gamma} radiation. The results suggest that intragenic deletion size should be considered when low- and high linear energy transfer (LET) mutation spectra are compared.

  4. Structural Studies of Geosmin Synthase, a Bifunctional Sesquiterpene Synthase with Alpha-Alpha Domain Architecture that Catalyzes a Unique Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Golda G.; Lombardi, Patrick M.; Pemberton, Travis A.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Cole, Kathryn E.; Köksal, Mustafa; Murphy, Frank V.; Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Chou, Wayne K.W.; Cane, David E.; Christianson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Geosmin synthase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScGS) catalyzes an unusual, metal-dependent terpenoid cyclization and fragmentation reaction sequence. Two distinct active sites are required for catalysis: the N-terminal domain catalyzes the ionization and cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to form germacradienol and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the protonation, cyclization, and fragmentation of germacradienol to form geosmin and acetone through a retro-Prins reaction. A unique αα domain architecture is predicted for ScGS based on amino acid sequence: each domain contains the metal-binding motifs typical of a class I terpenoid cyclase, and each domain requires Mg2+ for catalysis. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the unliganded N-terminal domain of ScGS and the structure of its complex with 3 Mg2+ ions and alendronate. These structures highlight conformational changes required for active site closure and catalysis. Although neither full-length ScGS nor constructs of the C-terminal domain could be crystallized, homology models of the C-terminal domain were constructed based on ~36% sequence identity with the N-terminal domain. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments yield low resolution molecular envelopes into which the N-terminal domain crystal structure and the C-terminal domain homology model were fit, suggesting possible αα domain architectures as frameworks for bifunctional catalysis. PMID:26598179

  5. High sensitivity boron quantification in bulk silicon using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, Marcos V.; Silva, Tiago F. da; Added, Nemitala; Rizutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Neira, John B.; Neto, Joao B. F.

    2013-05-06

    There is a great need to quantify sub-ppm levels of boron in bulk silicon. There are several methods to analyze B in Si: Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be reaction exhibits a quantification limit of some hundreds ppm of B in Si. Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis offers a detection limit of 5 to 10 at. ppm. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is the method of choice of the semiconductor industry for the analysis of B in Si. This work verifies the use of NRA to quantify B in Si, and the corresponding detection limits. Proton beam with 1.6 up to 2.6 MeV was used to obtain the cross-section of the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction at 170 Degree-Sign scattering angle. The results show good agreementwith literature indicating that the quantification of boron in silicon can be achieved at 100 ppm level (high sensitivity) at LAMFI-IFUSP with about 16% uncertainty. Increasing the detection solid angle and the collected beam charge, can reduce the detection limit to less than 100 ppm meeting present technological needs.

  6. Cross-sections of the reaction 232Th(p,3n)230Pa for production of 230U for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Alfred; Apostolidis, Christos; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Capote, Roberto; Gouder, Thomas; Simonelli, Federica; Sin, Mihaela; Abbas, Kamel

    2008-10-01

    (230)U/(226)Th is a promising novel alpha-emitter system for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer. The therapeutic nuclides can be produced by proton irradiation of natural (232)Th according to the reaction (232)Th(p,3n)(230)Pa, followed by subsequent beta decay of (230)Pa to (230)U. In this study, the experimental excitation function for the (232)Th(p,3n)(230)Pa reaction up to 34 MeV proton energy has been measured using the stacked-foil technique. The proton energies in the various foils were calculated with the SRIM 2003 code and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure the activities of the various radioisotopes produced. The measured cross-sections are in good agreement with selected literature values and with model calculations using the EMPIRE II code. The reaction (232)Th(p,3n)(230)Pa allows the production of carrier-free (230)U in clinically relevant levels.

  7. AN UPDATED {sup 6}Li(p, {alpha}){sup 3}He REACTION RATE AT ASTROPHYSICAL ENERGIES WITH THE TROJAN HORSE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A.; La Cognata, M.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Pappalardo, L.

    2013-05-01

    The lithium problem influencing primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis is one of the most interesting unsolved issues in astrophysics. {sup 6}Li is the most fragile of lithium's stable isotopes and is largely destroyed in most stars during the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. For these stars, the convective envelope easily reaches, at least at its bottom, the relatively low {sup 6}Li ignition temperature. Thus, gaining an understanding of {sup 6}Li depletion also gives hints about the extent of convective regions. For this reason, charged-particle-induced reactions in lithium have been the subject of several studies. Low-energy extrapolations of these studies provide information about both the zero-energy astrophysical S(E) factor and the electron screening potential, U{sub e} . Thanks to recent direct measurements, new estimates of the {sup 6}Li(p, {alpha}){sup 3}He bare-nucleus S(E) factor and the corresponding U{sub e} value have been obtained by applying the Trojan Horse method to the {sup 2}H({sup 6}Li, {alpha} {sup 3}He)n reaction in quasi-free kinematics. The calculated reaction rate covers the temperature window 0.01 to 2T{sub 9} and its impact on the surface lithium depletion in PMS models with different masses and metallicities has been evaluated in detail by adopting an updated version of the FRANEC evolutionary code.

  8. HPLC-MS determination of the oxidation products of the reaction between alpha- and beta-pinene and OH radicals.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, V; Coeckelberghs, H; Vanhees, I; De Boer, R; Compernolle, F; Vinckier, C

    2002-03-01

    Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons such as isoprene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene, are emitted by forests in very large quantities. To evaluate the role of alpha- and beta-pinene and their contribution to the global production of trace gases and especially aerosol precursors, a study of the oxidation mechanism of alpha- and beta-pinene with hydroxyl radicals must be conducted. The degradation products of both monoterpenes with hydroxyl radicals were identified and quantified in a fast-flow reactor. The products were collected on a liquid-nitrogen trap coated with a 2,4-DNPH solution to which two internal standards (benzaldehyde-2,4-DNPH and tolualdehyde-2,4-DNPH) had been added. The collection method was based on the in situ conversion of aldehyde and/or ketone compounds to their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives. The derivatives were analyzed by HPLC-MS using APCI(-). TIC chromatograms and mass spectral data for the various oxidation products are presented. For alpha-pinene, pinonaldehyde is the most important degradation product, with smaller amounts of acetone, formaldehyde, campholenealdehyde, and acetaldehyde. For beta-pinene, nopinone and formaldehyde are the most abundant products, of almost equal importance, whereas acetone and acetaldehyde are minor compounds.

  9. Development of a code system DEURACS for theoretical analysis and prediction of deuteron-induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Shinsuke; Kouno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Iwamoto, Osamu; Ye, Tao; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We have developed an integrated code system dedicated for theoretical analysis and prediction of deuteron-induced reactions, which is called DEUteron-induced Reaction Analysis Code System (DEURACS). DEURACS consists of several calculation codes based on theoretical models to describe respective reaction mechanisms and it was successfully applied to (d,xp) and (d,xn) reactions. In the present work, the analysis of (d,xn) reactions is extended to higher incident energy up to nearly 100 MeV and also DEURACS is applied to (d,xd) reactions at 80 and 100 MeV. The DEURACS calculations reproduce the experimental double-differential cross sections for the (d,xn) and (d,xd) reactions well.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 11 secreted by malignant breast epithelial cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation by selectively down-regulating CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: mechanism of desmoplastic reaction.

    PubMed

    Meng, L; Zhou, J; Sasano, H; Suzuki, T; Zeitoun, K M; Bulun, S E

    2001-03-01

    The dense layer of fibroblasts that accumulate around malignant breast epithelial cells (i.e., desmoplastic reaction) arises from the breast adipose tissue and provides structural and biochemical support for breast cancer. We report herein a number of epithelial-stromal interactions responsible for desmoplastic reaction in breast cancer using cultured 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts and human adipose fibroblasts, which can be activated with a mixture of hormones to differentiate to mature adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was inhibited by coculturing fibroblasts with various breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SSC202, SSC78, and SSC30) completely or by breast cancer cell conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner; on the other hand, adipocyte differentiation was not inhibited by coculturing with normal human primary mammary epithelial cell conditioned medium. This tumor effect was eliminated using neutralizing antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or interleukin (IL)-11. TNF-alpha and IL-11 levels were 2.5-3 times higher in T47D conditioned medium compared with control medium, and TNF-alpha transcripts were detectable in T47D but not in 3T3-L1 cells in culture, indicating that the malignant epithelial cell is the major site of cytokine production. This was confirmed in vivo in mastectomy specimens, where immunoreactive TNF-alpha and IL-11 were readily detectable in malignant epithelial cells but not in the majority of the surrounding fibroblasts. Adipocyte differentiation is mediated by the expression of a cascade of adipogenic transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)beta, C/EBPdelta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and C/EBPalpha. C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma are essential for this process. We demonstrated by Northern analysis that exposure of activated 3T3-L1 cells to T47D cell conditioned medium strikingly decreased the levels of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha transcripts and increased the levels of C

  11. Lifetime measurements by the Doppler-shift attenuation method in the {sup 115}Sn({alpha},n{gamma}){sup 118}Te reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mihai, C.; Pasternak, A. A.; Pascu, S.; Filipescu, D.; Ivascu, M.; Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, I.; Deleanu, D.; Ghita, D. G.; Glodariu, T.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Negret, A.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Suliman, G.; Zamfir, N. V.; Cata-Danil, G.

    2011-05-15

    {gamma} rays were measured at several angles in both singles and coincidence modes in the {sup 115}Sn({alpha},n{gamma}){sup 118}Te reaction at 15 MeV on a thick target. Multipolarities and mixing ratios were determined from the {gamma}-ray angular distribution analysis. Lifetimes of 11 low- and medium-spin excited states in {sup 118}Te were determined from a Monte Carlo Doppler-shift attenuation method analysis of the Doppler broadened line shapes of {gamma} rays deexciting the levels. The results are discussed in comparison with the predictions of the interacting boson model.

  12. The preparation of nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x photocatalyst coated on hollow glass microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifu, Chen; Xuqiang, Liu; Yunzhang, Liu; Gengyu, Cao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effective method for nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x photocatalyst coated on hollow glass microbeads is described, which uses titanium tetraisopropoxide [Ti( iso-OC 3H 7) 4] as the raw materials and gaseous ammonia as a heat treatment atmosphere. The effects of heat treatment temperature and time on the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2- xN x/beads are studied. The photocatalyst is characterized by the UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that when the TiO 2- xN x/beads is heated at 650 °C for 5 h, the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2- xN x/beads is the best. Compared with TiO 2, the photoabsorption wavelength range of nitrogen-doped TiO 2- xN x red shifts of about 60 nm, and the photoabsorption intensity increases as well. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2- xN x/beads is higher than that of the TiO 2/beads under visible light irradiation. The presence of nitrogen neither influences on the transformation of anatase to rutile, nor creates new crystal phases. When the TiO 2- xN x/beads is heated at 650 °C for 5 h, the amount of nitrogen-doped is 0.53 wt.% in the TiO 2- xN x. As the density of TiO 2- xN x/beads prepared is lower than 1.0 g/cm 3, it may float on water surface and use broader sunlight spectrum directly.

  13. A microdosimetric study of {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.K.C.; Sutton, M.; Evans, T.M.; Laster, B.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the most interesting cell survival experiment recently performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this experiment, the cells were first treated with a gadolinium (Gd) labeled tumor-seeking boronated porphyrin (Gd-BOPP) or with BOPP alone, and then irradiated with thermal neutrons. The resulting cell-survival curves indicate that the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions are very effective in cell killing. The death of a cell treated with Gd-BOPP was attributed to either the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reactions or the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions (or both). However, the quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell-survival fraction was not clear. This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the BNL experiment based on the measured experimental parameters, and the results clearly suggest a quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell survival fraction. The results also suggest new research in gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) which may lead to a more practical modality than the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating cancers.

  14. A microdosimetric study of {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.K.C.; Sutton, M.; Evans, T.M.; Laster, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the most interesting cell survival experiment recently performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this experiment, the cells were first treated with a gadolinium (Gd) labeled tumor-seeking boronated porphyrin (Gd-BOPP) or with BOPP alone, and then irradiated with thermal neutrons. The resulting cell survival curves indicate that the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions is very effective in cell killing. The death of a cell treated with GD-BOPP were attributed to either the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reactions or the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions (or both). However, the quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell survival fraction was not clear. This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the BNL experiment based on the measured experimental parameters, and the results clearly suggest a quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell survival fraction. The results also suggest new research in Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GDNCT) which may lead to a more practical modality than the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating cancers.

  15. [Study on the gas-phase reaction of alpha-pinene with ozone by LP-FTIR].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-rong; Hu, Di

    2004-07-01

    The gas-phase reaction of a-pinene with ozone was tailed by LP-FTIR under 1.0 x 10(5) Pa and (296 +/- 3)K. The spectra were analyzed and a preliminary predication of the possible products was made. Then the mechanism of this reaction was extrapolated according to the IR data.

  16. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric investigations of [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds--Probing intermediates formed in the course of the nonenzymatic browning reaction of l-ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Anke; Trage, Claudia; Schwarz, Helmut; Kroh, Lothar W.

    2007-05-01

    A new method is presented which allows the simultaneous detection of various [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds generated in the course of the nonenzymatic browning reaction initiated by thermal treatment of l-ascorbic acid, namely: glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 3-deoxy-l-pentosone, and l-threosoneE 3-Deoxy-l-threosone was successfully identified as a new C4-[alpha]-dicarbonyl structure for the first time in the degradation of Vitamin C by application of this non-chromatographic mass spectrometric approach. Moreover, a more detailed elucidation of the mechanistic scenario with respect to the oxidative and nonoxidative pathways is presented by using dehydro-l-ascorbic acid and 2,3-diketo-l-gulonic acid instead of l-ascorbic acid as a starting material. Furthermore, the postulated pathways are corroborated with the aid of 13C-isotopic labeling studies. The investigations were extended to baby food, and the successful detection of [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds characteristic for Vitamin C degradation proved the matrix tolerance of the introduced method.

  17. Putative implication of alpha-amylase loop 7 in the mechanism of substrate binding and reaction products release.

    PubMed

    André, G; Tran, V

    2004-10-05

    Alpha-amylases are widespread endo-enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of internal alpha-(1,4) glycosidic linkages of starch polymers. Molecular modeling of amylose-amylase interactions is a step toward enzymatic mechanism understanding and rational design of new enzymes. From the crystallographic complex of barley alpha-amylase AMY2-acarbose, the static aspects of amylose-amylase docking have been characterized with a model of maltododecaose (DP12) (G. André, A. Buléon, R. Haser, and V. Tran, Biopolymers 1999, Vol. 50, pp. 751-762; G. André and V. Tran, Special Publication no. 246 1999, The Royal Society of Chemistry, H. J. Gilbert, G. J. Davies, B. Henrissat, and B. Svensson, Eds., Cambridge, pp. 165-174). These studies, consistent with the experimental subsite mapping (K. Bak-Jensen, G. André, V. Tran, and B. Svensson, Journal of Biological Chemistry, to be published), propose a propagation scheme for an amylose chain in the active cleft of AMY2. The topographical overview of alpha-amylases identified loop 7 as a conserved segment flanking the active site. Since some crystallographic experiments suspected its high flexibility, its putative motion was explored through a robotic scheme, an alternate route to dynamics simulations that consume CPU time. The present article describes the characteristics of the flexibility of loop 7: location and motion in AMY2. A back-and-forth motion with a large amplitude of more than 0.6 nm was evaluated. This movement could be triggered by two hinge residues. It results in the loop flipping over the active site to enhance the docking of the native helical substrate through specific interactions, it positions the catalytic residues, it distorts the substrate towards its transition state geometry, and finally monitors the release of the products after hydrolysis. The residues involved in the process are now rational mutation points in the hands of molecular biologists.

  18. [Serum protein binding of fentanyl. The effect of postoperative acute phase reaction with elevated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and methodologic problems in determination by equilibrium dialysis].

    PubMed

    Wiesner, G; Taeger, K; Peter, K

    1996-04-01

    Numerous basic drugs are extensively bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Fentanyl, with a pKa value of 8.43, is also a basic drug. Protein binding studies have yielded contradictory results concerning binding of fentanyl to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. In this study we investigated time courses of serum protein concentrations and serum protein binding of fentanyl during postoperative acute phase reaction, assuming that an increase of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein is accompanied by an increase of serum protein binding, if fentanyl is extensively bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Fentanyl protein binding measurements using equilibrium dialysis can be affected by volume shifts and pH changes. Therefore, volume shifts from buffer to serum and the influence of various phosphate buffers on increasing pH due to loss of CO2 were also evaluated. METHODS. Thirteen patients with no history of renal or hepatic disease undergoing an operation with a significant acute phase reaction were studied. Preoperatively and on the first 3 postoperative days serum concentrations of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, total protein and apolipoprotein A and B were determined by rocket immunoeolectrophoresis, biuret method and laser nephelometry, respectively. Corresponding serum protein binding of fentanyl was measured by adding 40 ng of fentanyl to 1 ml serum followed by equilibrium dialysis at 37 degrees C for 4 h. A 0.167 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.27), which gave a final pH of 7.40, was used. Volume shifts from buffer to serum were measured. Fentanyl concentration in serum before dialysis (FS) was determined by gas chromatography, and fentanyl concentration in buffer after dialysis (FB) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Serum protein binding (SPB) was calculated by the formula: SPB = (FS - FB - FB*c)/(FS - FB) where c is a correction factor. Ten randomly selected patient sera were dialyzed against four phosphate buffers of different pH values and molarities, and the serum pH at the end of

  19. Measurement of the LITHIUM-8(DEUTERON, NEUTRON)BERYLLIUM-9 and LITHIUM-8(ALPHA, NEUTRON)BORON-11 Reaction Cross Sections at Astrophysical Energies by Radioactive Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corn, Philip Bennet

    A preliminary direct measurement of the ^8Li(d,n)^9Be cross section has been obtained by means of a radioactive beam facility used with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory FN van de Graaff accelerator. The cross section at a ^8Li energy of 13.3 MeV agrees plausibly with values estimated from data for the reverse reaction, ^9Be(n,d)^8Li, and for the related ^7Li(d,n) ^8Be reaction to within the large estimated experimental error. This result thus demonstrates the feasibility of the technique. In addition, a design for a similar radioactive beam measurement of the ^8Li(alpha,n) 11B reaction cross section is given. The two reactions figure prominently in network calculations for current inhomogeneous models of primordial nucleosynthesis in the early universe, and because of the short 838 millisecond half life of the radioactive ^8Li nuclide, their cross sections have not been measured directly before. The radioactive beam apparatus employs a 16.0 MeV ^7Li beam from the accelerator incident on a thin, deuterated polyethylene primary reaction target foil. A secondary beam containing ^8Li produced in the ^7 Li(d,p)^8Li reaction is concentrated by a spectrometer incorporating twin triplet magnetic quadrupole elements and an electrostatic dipole, and is focussed on a second deuterated polyethylene reaction target foil in which the reaction of interest takes place. Reaction products are identified and measured by means of a pair of surface barrier charged particle detector telescopes, and ^8Li flux is measured via a CaF_2 scintillator and photomultiplier tube at the rear of the detector chamber. Future efforts will use improved gas cell production and reaction targets and detector systems, and will focus in the near term on a definitive measurement of the ^8Li(d,n)^9 Be cross section at several energies. The experiments and apparatus described are part of a continuing program of studies of astrophysically interesting reactions on radioactive nuclides carried out with

  20. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section data for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y via proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced transmutations.

    PubMed

    Zaneb, H; Hussain, M; Amjad, N; Qaim, S M

    2016-06-01

    Proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced reactions on (87,88)Sr, (nat)Zr and (85)Rb targets were evaluated for the production of (87,88)Y. The literature data were compared with nuclear model calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The evaluated cross sections were generated; therefrom thick target yields of (87,88)Y were calculated. Analysis of radio-yttrium impurities and yield showed that the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y and (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reactions are the best routes for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y respectively. The calculated yield for the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y reaction is 104 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 14→2.7MeV. Similarly, the calculated yield for the (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reaction is 3.2 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 15→7MeV.

  1. Synthesis of the isotopes of elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Oganessian, Y T; Utyonkov, V K; Lobanov, Y V; Abdullin, F S; Polyakov, A N; Sagaidak, R N; Shirokovsky, I V; Tsyganov, Y S; Voinov, A A; Gulbekian, G G; Bogomolov, S L; Gikal, B N; Mezentsev, A N; Iliev, S; Subbotin, V G; Sukhov, A M; Subotic, K; Zagrebaev, V I; Vostokin, G K; Itkis, M G; Moody, K J; . Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, M A; Stoyer, N J; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Landrum, J H; Wild, J F; Lougheed, R W

    2006-01-31

    The decay properties of {sup 290}116 and {sup 291}116, and the dependence of their production cross sections on the excitation energies of the compound nucleus, {sup 293}116, have been measured in the {sup 245}Cm({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 293-x}116 reaction. These isotopes of element 116 are the decay daughters of element 118 isotopes, which are produced via the {sup 249}Cf+{sup 48}Ca reaction. They performed the element 118 experiment at two projectile energies, corresponding to {sup 297}118 compound nucleus excitation energies of E* = 29.2 {+-} 2.5 and 34.4 {+-} 2.3 MeV. During an irradiation with a total beam dose of 4.1 x 10{sup 19} {sup 48}Ca projectiles, three similar decay chains consisting of two or three consecutive {alpha} decays and terminated by a spontaneous fission (SF) with high total kinetic energy of about 230 MeV were observed. The three decay chains originated from the even-even isotope {sup 294}118 (E{sub {alpha}} = 11.65 {+-} 0.06 MeV, T{sub {alpha}} = 0.89{sub -0.31}{sup +1.07} ms) produced in the 3n-evaporation channel of the {sup 249}Cf+{sup 48}Ca reaction with a maximum cross section of 0.5{sub -0.3}{sup +1.6} pb.

  2. Low serum HDL-cholesterol is associated with raised tumor necrosis factor-alpha during ENL reactions.

    PubMed

    Memon, R A; Kifayet, A; Shahid, F; Lateef, A; Chiang, J; Hussain, R

    1997-03-01

    The concentrations of serum lipids and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were measured in leprosy patients across the spectrum of the disease and in erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) patients at the onset of the reaction and after the reaction had clinically subsided. Lepromatous/borderline lepromatous (LL/BL) patients had significantly higher serum triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol levels; there was no such change in the tuberculoid/borderline tuberculoid (TT/BT) patients. The household contacts (HC) of the LL/BL patients also had significantly lower serum HDL levels. ENL patients during the acute phase of the reaction had significantly lower total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol levels compared to the stable LL/BL patients, and these changes were reversible to pre-ENL levels after the reaction had subsided. Serum TNF levels were significantly higher in household contacts and in LL/BL patients but were not statistically different in TT/BT patients. Serum TNF levels were also significantly higher during the acute phase of ENL, and declined after the clinical remission of the reaction to levels comparable with those of LL/BL patients. There was a significant negative correlation between serum TNF and HDL-cholesterol levels during and after ENL reaction. However, there was no such correlation between TNF and total or LDL-cholesterol levels in ENL patients. Our results suggest that the changes in HDL-cholesterol metabolism are a specific part of the host response to lepromatous leprosy and to the ENL reaction and may be mediated by increased TNF production.

  3. Comparison of abnormal cell flagging of the hematology analyzers Sysmex XN and Sysmex XE-5000 in oncohematologic patients.

    PubMed

    Furundarena, J R; Sainz, M; Uranga, A; Cuevas, L; Lopez, I; Zubicaray, J; Bizjak, A; Robado, N; Araiz, M

    2017-02-01

    Hematology analyzers should optimize flagging while minimizing false-negative results and unnecessary microscopic reviews. We compared flagging performance of Sysmex XE-5000 and XN analyzers in oncohematologic patients. Differential counts were performed by Cellavision digital system (100 cells) and a hematologist (another 100 cells). First, we included 292 samples (86 with blasts): 28 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 88 acute myeloid leukemia, 91 myelodysplastic syndromes, 45 chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, and 40 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Sensitivity, specificity and efficiency to detect blasts were 59.3%, 88.3%, and 79.8% for XE-5000 analyzer and 70.9%, 91.3%, and 85.2% for the XN analyzer. Then, we included 111 lymphoid malignancies. In 55 CLL XE-5000 flagged for Abn Lympho/L_Blasts?, XN flagged for Abn Lympho?. In one-third of 19 samples with splenic marginal lymphoma, none of the analyzers flagged. In 5 Sézary syndrome cases, XE-5000 triggered the Abn Lympho/L_Blasts? flag while the flagging in XN was less consistent: Abn Lympho? Blasts? and Atypical Lympho?. In 5 hairy cell leukemias, both analyzers only flagged one sample. In 13 myelomas, XE-5000 generated Atypical Lympho? flag; XN triggered more variable flags. In other lymphoid malignancies, flags were variable. XN analyzer generates less samples with false basophilia. XN analyzer has improved blast detection in oncohematologic patients. Operators cannot rely on the blast flag alone but have to consider other flags and hemogram data. In lymphoproliferative disorders, XN analyzer yields less samples with pseudobasophilia. Both analyzers must improve flagging for hairy cell leukemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The value of the white precursor cell channel (WPC) on the Sysmex XN-1000 analyser in a specialist paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda S; Tailor, Hitesh; Liesner, Ri; Machin, Samuel J; Briggs, Carol J

    2015-02-01

    Historically, haematology analyser flags for abnormal white blood cells (WBCs) show good sensitivity but lower specificity, causing unnecessary blood film reviews. While the WBC differential channel on Sysmex XE and XN instruments reports a combined flag for blasts/abnormal lymphocytes, the new white precursor cell channel (WPC) on the XN series has been introduced to separate this into a specific flag for either cell type or, if no abnormality, remove the flag entirely. To compare the efficiency of abnormal WBC flags from the XN WPC to our existing analyser and determine whether WPC can reduce false positive flags and blood films required. Abnormal WBC flags from the Sysmex XE-5000 and XN-1000 were compared to manual differential and blood film morphology on 300 K2EDTA samples from infants and children. The XN WPC flag for blasts was more sensitive and specific than flags indicating blasts on the XE-5000, with a reduction in false positives from 64% (XE) to 36% (XN). Overall efficiency of the WPC flag for abnormal lymphocytes was 94% vs 79% on the XE. WPC reduced false positive flags for blasts and abnormal lymphocytes on neonatal samples by 50%. Automatic reflex analysis by WPC correctly removed a false positive flag from the white cell differential channel on 46% of samples. Total abnormal WBC flags from XN WPC were less (73) than the XE-5000 (92). XN WPC demonstrated superior efficiency of abnormal WBC flags on paediatric samples, compared to the XE-5000, with greater sensitivity and specificity of flagging, reducing blood films for review. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Radiative corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ reactions to all orders in. cap alpha. using the renormalization group

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Y.S.

    1983-01-01

    Renormalization group technique is used to improve the accuracy of the lowest order radiative corrections in QED. The exponentiation of infrared terms comes automatically. It also leads to exponentiation of the vertex functions. It predicts the existence of conversion of photons into pairs and the result agrees with the Kroll-Wada relation. Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg cancellation of mass singularities occurs to all order in ..cap alpha.. in leading log approximation in the final state if we sum over all the final states. Higher order corrections to the order ..cap alpha../sup 3/ asymmetry is shown to be small. The results are used to derive useful formulas for the radiative corrections to processes such as e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/..gamma.., e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. hadron continuum, e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. very narrow resonance such as phi, and e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. not very narrow resonance such as Z/sup 0/.

  6. Low-temperature growth of InxGa1-xN films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Shi, X. J.; Zhu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The low-temperature growth of InxGa1-xN films on quartz glass substrates utilizing radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is investigated. In the InxGa1-xN films prepared using an In-Ga alloy target, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) peaks corresponding to wurtzite structure were observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to study the extent of oxygen contamination and chemical states, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the distribution profiles of oxygen impurity in the as-grown InxGa1-xN thin films. XPS and SIMS analysis indicate that the entire thin films have oxide phases. However, no evidence of In2O3, Ga2O3, or indium oxynitride phases was shown in XRD studies. It may be predicted that the oxygen impurities formed amorphous oxide phases embedded in InxGa1-xN matrix. According to our findings, indium is a major phase in the InxGa1-xN thin films which suggests that a significant amount of indium remains un-reacted with N2. The optical transmittance spectra of the as-grown films show interference fringe patterns. The indium fraction x of the as-deposited InxGa1-xN thin films can be calculated out by the transmittance data.

  7. Significant elastic anisotropy in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi, Ferenc; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Rogstroem, Lina; Johansson, Mats P.; Oden, Magnus; Almer, Jonathan

    2010-12-06

    Strong compositional-dependent elastic properties have been observed theoretically and experimentally in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys. The elastic constant, C{sub 11}, changes by more than 50% depending on the Al-content. Increasing the Al-content weakens the average bond strength in the local octahedral arrangements resulting in a more compliant material. On the other hand, it enhances the directional (covalent) nature of the nearest neighbor bonds that results in greater elastic anisotropy and higher sound velocities. The strong dependence of the elastic properties on the Al-content offers new insight into the detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys.

  8. Physical properties and applications of InxGa1-xN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Gómez-Gómez, M.; Garro, N.; Martínez-Criado, G.; Cantarero, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2014-05-01

    We have successfully grown InxGa1-xN nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates. The alloy composition and crystal quality have been analyzed by Raman scattering, photoluminescence spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe techniques. InxGa1-xN is an one-mode alloy, where the different optical modes have an intermediate frequency of that of pure InN and GaN. The sample composition can be derived from the Raman data. On the other hand, by using the optical gap provided by the emission spectra, we conclude that the samples have a lower Ga content than that provided by the Raman analysis. X-ray fluorescence maps and photoluminescence measured in single nanowires help to explain this contradictory result.

  9. Band gap bowing and electron localization of (GaxIn1-x)N

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-09

    The band gap bowing and the electron localization ofGaxIn1-xN are calculated using both the local density approximation (LDA)and screened-exchange local density functional (sX-LDA) methods. Thecalculated sX-LDA band gaps are in good agreement with the experimentallyobserved values, with errors of -0.26 and 0.09 eV for bulk GaN and InN,respectively. The LDA band gap errors are 1.33 and 0.81 eV for GaN andInN, in order. In contrast to the gap itself, the band gap bowingparameter is found to be very similar in sX-LDA and LDA. We identify thelocalization of hole states in GaxIn1-xN alloys along In-N-In chains. Thepredicted localizationis stronger in sX-LDA.

  10. Data on photoneutron reactions from various experiments for 133Cs, 138Ba and 209Bi nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, V. V.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.

    2016-07-01

    Basic methods for determining cross sections for photoneutron partial reactions are examined. They are obtained directly in experiments with quasimonoeneregetic annihilation photons or from the cross section for the ( γ, xn) = ( γ, 1 n) + 2( γ, 2 n) + 3( γ, 3 n) +... neutron-yield reaction in experiments with bremsstrahlung photons by introducing corrections based on statistical nuclear-reaction theory. The difference in the conditions of these experiments, which leads to discrepancies between their results because of sizable systematic errors, is analyzed. Physical criteria are used to study the reliability of data on the photodisintegration of 133Cs, 138Ba, and 209Bi nuclei. The cross sections for partial and total reactions satisfying the reliability criteria are evaluated within the experimental-theoretical method ( σ eval( γ, in) = F i theor × σ expt( γ, xn)) on the basis of the experimental cross sections σ expt( γ, xn) and the results of the calculations within the combined model of photonuclear reactions.

  11. Structure and electronic properties of conducting, ternary TixTa1-xN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenoglou, G. M.; Lekka, Ch. E.; Koutsokeras, L. E.; Karras, G.; Kosmidis, C.; Evangelakis, G. A.; Patsalas, P.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the electronic structure and optical properties of conducting ternary transition metal nitrides consisting of metals of different groups of the periodic table of elements. For the study of the bonding, electronic structure, and optical properties of conducting TixTa1-xN film growth, optical spectroscopy and ab initio calculations were used. Despite the different valence electron configuration of the constituent elements, Ta(d3s2) and Ti(d2s2), we show that TiN and TaN are completely soluble due to the hybridization of the d and sp electrons of the metals and N, respectively, that stabilizes the ternary TixTa1-xN systems to the rocksalt structure. The optical properties of TixTa1-xN have been studied using spectroscopic methods and detailed electronic structure calculations, revealing that the plasma energy of the fully dense TixTa1-xN is varying between 7.8 and 9.45 eV. Additional optical absorption bands are manifested due to the N p →Ti/Ta d interband transition the t2g→eg transition due to splitting of the metals' d band, with the major exception of the Ti0.50Ta0.50N, where the eg unoccupied states are not manifested due to the local structure of the ternary system; this finding is observed for the first time and proves previous assignments of optical transitions in TaN.

  12. Measurements of cross sections and decay properties of the isotopes of elements 112, 114, and 116 produced in the fusion reactions {sup 233,238}U, {sup 242}Pu, and {sup 248}Cm+{sup 48}Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Utyonkov, V.K.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Polyakov, A.N.; Shirokovsky, I.V.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.; Gulbekian, G.G.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Gikal, B.N.; Mezentsev, A.N.; Iliev, S.; Subbotin, V.G.; Sukhov, A.M.; Voinov, A.A.; Buklanov, G.V.; Subotic, K.; Zagrebaev, V.I.; Itkis, M.G.; Patin, J.B.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the dependence of the production cross sections of the isotopes {sup 282,283}112 and {sup 286,287}114 on the excitation energy of the compound nuclei {sup 286}112 and {sup 290}114. The maximum cross section values of the xn-evaporation channels for the reaction {sup 238}U({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 286-x}112 were measured to be {sigma}{sub 3n}=2.5{sub -1.1}{sup +1.8} pb and {sigma}{sub 4n}=0.6{sub -0.5}{sup +1.6} pb; for the reaction {sup 242}Pu({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 290-x}114: {sigma}{sub 2n}{approx}0.5 pb, {sigma}{sub 3n}=3.6{sub -1.7}{sup +3.4} pb, and {sigma}{sub 4n}=4.5{sub -1.9}{sup +3.6} pb. In the reaction {sup 233}U({sup 48}Ca,2-4n){sup 277-279}112 at E*=34.9=2.2 MeV we measured an upper cross section limit of {sigma}{sub xn}{<=}0.6 pb. The observed shift of the excitation energy associated with the maximum sum evaporation residue cross section {sigma}{sub ER}(E*) to values significantly higher than that associated with the calculated Coulomb barrier can be caused by the orientation of the deformed target nucleus in the entrance channel of the reaction. An increase of {sigma}{sub ER} in the reactions of actinide targets with {sup 48}Ca is consistent with the expected increase of the survivability of the excited compound nucleus upon closer approach to the closed neutron shell N=184. In the present work we detected 33 decay chains arising in the decay of the known nuclei {sup 282}112, {sup 283}112, {sup 286}114, {sup 287}114, and {sup 288}114. In the decay of {sup 287}114({alpha}){yields}{sup 283}112({alpha}){yields}{sup 279}110(SF), in two cases out of 22, we observed decay chains of four and five sequential {alpha} transitions that end in spontaneous fission of {sup 271}Sg (T{sub {alpha}}{sub /SF}=2.4{sub -1.0}{sup +4.3} min) and {sup 267}Rf (T{sub SF}{approx}2.3 h), longer decay chains than reported previously. We observed the new nuclide {sup 292}116 (T{sub {alpha}}=18{sub -6}{sup +16} ms,E{sub {alpha}}=10.66{+-}0.07 MeV) in the irradiation of the

  13. Distribution of cations in wurtzitic InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: Consequences for energetics and quasiparticle electronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Luiz Cláudio; Schleife, André; Furthmüller, Jürgen; Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2012-03-01

    The ternary, isostructural, wurtzite-derived group-III mononitride alloys InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN are reexamined within a cluster expansion approach. Using density functional theory together with the AM05 exchange-correlation functional, the total energies and the optimized atomic geometries of all 22 clusters classes of the cluster expansion for each material system are calculated. The computationally demanding calculation of the corresponding quasiparticle electronic structures is achieved for all cluster classes by means of a recently developed scheme to approximately solve the quasiparticle equation based on the HSE06 hybrid functional and the G0W0 approach. Using two different alloy statistics, the configurational averages for the lattice parameters, the mixing enthalpies, and the bulk moduli are calculated. The composition-dependent electronic structures of the alloys are discussed based on configurationally averaged electronic states, band gaps, and densities of states. Ordered cluster arrangements are found to be energetically rather unfavorable, however, they possess the smallest energy gaps and, hence, contribute to light emission. The influence of the alloy statistics on the composition dependencies and the corresponding bowing parameters of the band gaps is found to be significant and should, hence, lead to different signatures in the optical-absorption or -emission spectra.

  14. Distribution of cations in wurtzitic InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: Consequences for energetics and quasiparticle electronic structures

    DOE PAGES

    de Carvalho, Luiz Cláudio; Schleife, André; Furthmüller, Jürgen; ...

    2012-03-27

    The ternary, isostructural, wurtzite-derived group-III mononitride alloys InxGa1-xN andInxAl1-xN are reexamined within a cluster expansion approach. Using density functional theory together with the AM05 exchange-correlation functional, the total energies and the optimized atomic geometries of all 22 clusters classes of the cluster expansion for each material system are calculated. The computationally demanding calculation of the corresponding quasiparticle electronic structures is achieved for all cluster classes by means of a recently developed scheme to approximately solve the quasiparticle equation based on the HSE06 hybrid functional and the G₀W₀ approach. Using two different alloy statistics, the configurational averages for the lattice parameters,more » the mixing enthalpies, and the bulk moduli are calculated. The composition-dependent electronic structures of the alloys are discussed based on configurationally averaged electronic states, band gaps, and densities of states. Ordered cluster arrangements are found to be energetically rather unfavorable, however, they possess the smallest energy gaps and, hence, contribute to light emission. The influence of the alloy statistics on the composition dependencies and the corresponding bowing parameters of the band gaps is found to be significant and should, hence, lead to different signatures in the optical-absorption or -emission spectra.« less

  15. [The role of paracetamol in transition reactions of alpha-nitrogen and oxidative stress in the liver].

    PubMed

    Polaniak, Renata; Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Birkner, Ewa; Karbowska, Dorota; Ochocki, Karol; Szkilnik, Ryszard

    2012-12-01

    Paracetamol (Acetaminophen, PC) is metabolized in liver to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinon-imine (NAPQI), that is in turn conjugated by glutathione S-transferase with glutathione. NAPQI inhibits the respiratory chain. It may cause a 90% decrease of ATP concentration in mitochondria of hepatocytes. The oxidation of paracetamol to quinine form can also generate free radicals. Both above mentioned processes, can injure the mitochondria and cells. There have not been found in accessible literature any data dealing with paracetamol influence on the process elimination of the alpha nitrogen in the liver. The ATP concentration decline may lead to disturbances in mitochondrial enzymes. There are discrepant data of the role of free radicals in the mechanism of toxic action of paracetamol.

  16. Local verification between the hematological analyzers Sysmex XN-series and XE-5000.

    PubMed

    Pérez, I; Redín, M E; Vives, A; Garrido, A; Urrechaga, E; Lacasta, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a verification of the hematology analyzer Sysmex XN-2000 by comparing with the previous XE-5000. This study assessed the precision and carryover on the XN-2000 and the systematic error between the both counters according to desirable biological variability criterion and a flag comparison study. Within-run precision and between-batch precision were measured according to the ICSH guidelines. A comparative study was performed analyzing two hundred and six samples of peripheral blood from patients. The statistical study was conducted using the Passing-Bablok and Bland-Altman analyses. The leucocyte flag comparison was made by measuring the efficiency rate. Between-batch precision was lower than that recommended by the biological variability criterion and manufacturer specifications. The comparison gave nonagreement results for neutrophil and basophil counts according to the criterion of biological variability. Erythroblasts and immature granulocytes showed nonagreement, but there is no available biological variation database for these parameters to compare with. Nevertheless, excellent absolute agreement was found for red blood cell parameters, and for platelet, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts. The global results obtained for the precision, comparability, and efficiency provide a satisfactory integration of the XN-2000 in the core laboratory routine and accomplish an optimal reliability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mechanical, Anisotropic, and Electronic Properties of XN (X = C, Si, Ge): Theoretical Investigations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhenyang; Liu, Xuhong; Yu, Xinhai; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dayun

    2017-08-08

    The structural, mechanical, elastic anisotropic, and electronic properties of Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) are investigated in this work using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof for solids (PBEsol) functional, and Ceperly and Alder, parameterized by Perdew and Zunger (CA-PZ) functional in the framework of density functional theory. The achieved results for the lattice parameters and band gap of Pbca-CN with the PBE functional in this research are in good accordance with other theoretical results. The band structures of Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) show that Pbca-SiN and Pbca-GeN are both direct band gap semiconductor materials with a band gap of 3.39 eV and 2.22 eV, respectively. Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) exhibits varying degrees of mechanical anisotropic properties with respect to the Poisson's ratio, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and universal anisotropic index. The (001) plane and (010) plane of Pbca-CN/SiN/GeN both exhibit greater elastic anisotropy in the bulk modulus and Young's modulus than the (100) plane.

  18. Phase degradation in BxGa1-xN films grown at low temperature by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Moseley, Michael W.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Lee, Stephen R.

    2017-04-01

    Using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, a comprehensive study of BxGa1-xN growth on GaN and AlN templates is described. BGaN growth at high-temperature and high-pressure results in rough surfaces and poor boron incorporation efficiency, while growth at low-temperature and low-pressure (750-900 °C and 20 Torr) using nitrogen carrier gas results in improved surface morphology and boron incorporation up to 7.4% as determined by nuclear reaction analysis. However, further structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray pole figures points to severe degradation of the high boron composition films, into a twinned cubic structure with a high density of stacking faults and little or no room temperature photoluminescence emission. Films with <1% triethylboron (TEB) flow show more intense, narrower x-ray diffraction peaks, near-band-edge photoluminescence emission at 362 nm, and primarily wurtzite-phase structure in the x-ray pole figures. For films with >1% TEB flow, the crystal structure becomes dominated by the cubic phase. Only when the TEB flow is zero (pure GaN), does the cubic phase entirely disappear from the x-ray pole figure, suggesting that under these growth conditions even very low boron compositions lead to mixed crystalline phases.

  19. Excitation function of the alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on enriched 116Cd, production of the theranostic isotope 117mSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.; Szűcs, Z.; Saito, M.

    2016-10-01

    117mSn is one of the radioisotopes can be beneficially produced through alpha particle irradiation. The targets were prepared by deposition of 116Cd metal onto high purity 12 μm thick Cu backing. The average deposited thickness was 21.9 μm. The beam energy was thoroughly measured by Time of Flight (TOF) methods and proved to be 51.2 MeV. For the experiment the well-established stacked foil technique was used. In addition to the Cd targets, Ti foils were also inserted into the stacks for energy and intensity monitoring. The Cu backings were also used for monitoring and as recoil catcher of the reaction products from the cadmium layer. The activities of the irradiated foils were measured with HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry and cross section values were determined. As a result excitation functions for the formation of 117mSn, 117m,gIn, 116mIn, 115mIn and 115m,gCd from enriched 116Cd were deduced and compared with the available literature data and with the results of the nuclear reaction model code calculations EMPIRE 3.2 and TALYS 1.8. Yield curves were also deduced for the measured nuclear reactions and compared with the literature.

  20. Kinetics of the Reaction of beta-Methoxy-alpha-nitrostilbene with Cyanamide in 50 DMSO-50 Water. Failure to Detect the S(N)V Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Claude F.; Leyes, Aquiles E.; Rappoport, Zvi

    1999-04-16

    A kinetic study of the reaction of beta-methoxy-alpha-nitrostilbene (1-OMe) with cyanamide (CNA) over a pH range from 8.5 to 12.4 shows that it is the anion (CNA(-), pK(a) = 11.38) rather than the neutral amine that is the reactive species. Attempts at monitoring the reaction with the neutral CNA at low pH were unsuccessful because of competing hydrolysis. It is shown that the nucleophilic reactivity of CNA is abnormally low, probably because of a resonance effect, and that the reactivity of CNA(-) is high, higher than that of strongly basic oxyanion because of relatively weak solvation. The high reactivity of both 1-OMe and CNA(-) appeared to constitute favorable conditions conducive to the detection of the S(N)V intermediate, as has been the case in the reactions of 1-OMe with thiolate ions, alkoxide ions, and some amines. However, no intermediate was observed. Reasons for this failure are discussed.

  1. Regulation of acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit variants in human myasthenia gravis. Quantification of steady-state levels of messenger RNA in muscle biopsy using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, T; Levasseur, P; Truffault, F; Cottin, C; Gaud, C; Berrih-Aknin, S

    1994-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the decrease in AChR levels at the neuromuscular junction, we investigated the regulation of AChR expression by analyzing mRNA of the two AChR alpha subunit isoforms (P3A+ and P3A-) in muscle samples from myasthenic patients relative to controls. We applied a quantitative method based on reverse transcription of total RNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using an internal standard we constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. An increased expression of mRNA coding for the alpha subunit of the AChR isoforms was observed in severely affected patients (P < 0.003 versus controls) but not in moderately affected patients, independently of the anti-AChR antibody titer. Study of mRNA precursor levels indicates a higher expression in severely affected patients compared to controls, suggesting an enhanced rate of transcription of the message coding for the alpha subunit isoforms in these patients. We have also reported that mRNA encoding both isoforms are expressed at an approximate 1:1 ratio in controls and in patients. We have thus identified a new biological parameter correlated with disease severity, and provide evidence of a compensatory mechanism to balance the loss of AChR in human myasthenia gravis, which is probably triggered only above a certain degree of AChR loss. Images PMID:8040257

  2. Morphological and structural evolution of alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods synthesized via an aqueous route through MnO{sub 4}{sup -}/Mn{sup 2+} reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Xiaobo; Feng Jiyun; Wang Huan; Ng, Ka Ming

    2010-04-15

    An aqueous route through MnO{sub 4}{sup -}/Mn{sup 2+} reaction under mild conditions was used to synthesize alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods. The morphological and structural evolution of alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods during their growth were tracked by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and BET analysis. The crystallization of alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods was found to proceed through three steps: (1) Amorphous or poorly ordered nuclei formed first. (2) Then hollow nanoshperes consisting of gamma-MnO{sub 2} nanorods formed via the Ostwald ripening process. (3) The hollow nanospheres broke down and the gamma-MnO{sub 2} nanorods finally transformed into the alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with increasing temperature or reaction time. The phase transformation from gamma-MnO{sub 2} to alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods was accomplished by a short-range rearrangement of MnO{sub 6} octahedra. In addition, the performance of the MnO{sub 2} materials as a catalyst was evaluated in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol, showing that their catalytic activities were mainly dependent on their BET surface areas. - Graphical abstract: alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were synthesized via an aqueous route through MnO{sub 4}{sup -}/Mn{sup 2+} reaction under mild conditions.

  3. Selectivity guidelines and a reductive elimination-based model for predicting the stereochemical course of conjugate addition reactions of organocuprates to gamma-alkoxy-alpha,beta-enoates.

    PubMed

    Kireev, Artem S; Manpadi, Madhuri; Kornienko, Alexander

    2006-03-31

    Current models used to predict the stereochemical outcome of organocopper conjugate addition processes focus on the nucleophilic addition step as stereochemistry-determining. Recent kinetic, NMR, kinetic isotope effect, and theoretical density functional studies strongly support the proposal that stereochemical preferences in these processes are dictated by the reductive elimination step, transforming Cu(III) to Cu(I) intermediates. A new model that considers various steric and stereoelectronic factors involved in the transition state of the reductive elimination step is proposed and then used to interpret the results of systematic studies of arylcuprate conjugate addition reactions with cis and trans gamma-alkoxy-alpha,beta-enoates. The results give rise to the following selectivity guidelines for this process. To achieve high anti-addition diastereoselectivities the use of trans esters with a bulky nonalkoxy substituent at the gamma-position is recommended. While stereoelectronics disfavor syn-addition, a judicious choice of properly sized gamma-substituents may lead to the predominant formation of syn-products, especially with cis enoates. However, high syn-selectivities may be achieved by using gamma-amino-alpha,beta-enoates.

  4. Astrophysical S(E) factor of the {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}){sup 12}C reaction at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A.; Tribble, R.; Fu, Changbo; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Schmidt, D.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2007-12-15

    The low-energy bare-nucleus cross section for {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}){sup 12}C is extracted by means of the Trojan horse method applied to the {sup 2}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{sup 12}C)n reaction at E{sub beam}=60 MeV. For the first time we applied the modified half-off-energy-shell resonant R-matrix method that takes into account off-energy-shell effects and initial- and final-state interactions. In particular it has been shown that inclusion of Coulomb {sup 15}N-d scattering and off-shell effects do not affect the determination of the astrophysical factor. Also the simple plane-wave approximation used in previous analyses is justified. The results extracted via the Trojan horse method are compared to direct data in the same energy region and show very good agreement in the energy interval 70-312 keV. These results confirm the extrapolations of the S factor reported in literature.

  5. Diagnosis of. alpha. sub 1 -antitrypsin deficiency by enzymatic amplification of human genomic DNA and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.R.; Graham, A.; Powell, S.; Gammack, A.; Riley, J.; Markham, A.F. ); Kalsheker, N. )

    1988-09-12

    The authors have compared sequencing of cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products and the direct sequencing of PCR products in the examination of individuals from six families affected with {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In families where paternity was in question they confirmed consanguinity by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of locus-specific minisatellite probes. They demonstrate that direct sequencing of PCR amplification products is the method of choice for the absolutely specific diagnosis of AAT deficiency and can distinguish normals, heterozygotes and homozygotes in a single, rapid and facile assay. Furthermore, they demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCR and a rapid DNA isolation procedure. They have also shown that two loci can be simultaneously amplified and that the PCR product from each locus can be independently examined by direct DNA sequencing.

  6. Measurement of the parity-violating triton emission asymmetry in the reaction {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H with polarized cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Vesna, V. A.; Shulgina, E. V.; Gledenov, Yu. M.; Sedyshev, P. V.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Petoukhov, A. K.; Soldner, T.; Zimmer, O.

    2008-03-15

    We describe measurements of the parity-violating (P-odd) triton emission asymmetry coefficient a{sub P-odd} in the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H reaction with polarized cold neutrons. Experiments were carried out at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Gatchina, Russia) and at the Institut Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France). We employed an ionisation chamber in a configuration allowing us to suppress the left-right asymmetry well below 10{sup -8}. An additional test for a false asymmetry due to eventual target impurities (''zero test'') resulted in a{sub 0-test}=(0.0{+-}0.5)x10{sup -8}. As final result of this series of experiments we obtained a{sub P-odd}=(-8.8{+-}2.1)x10{sup -8}.

  7. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method in multiple reaction monitoring mode to determine 17alpha-ethynylestradiol residues in cattle hair without previous digestion.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, S; Lolo, M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2007-11-14

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for determination of ethynylestradiol residues in cattle hair. Hair samples were pulverized with a cryogenic mill followed by a simple extraction with acetonitrile. A dansyl derivatization procedure to improve ethynylestradiol detection was used before the LC-MS/MS analysis in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using alpha-estradiol as an internal standard. The method was validated following the latest EU guidelines using blank hair samples spiked at 2 ng g(-1). The detection capability (CCbeta) was less than 2 ng g(-1), and the decision limit (CCalpha) was 1 ng g(-1). Incurred samples obtained 56 days after cow treatment with ethynylestradiol were analyzed, and the presence of ethynylestradiol in the hair was confirmed in all cases.

  8. Surface reaction rate and probability of ozone and alpha-terpineol on glass, polyvinyl chloride, and latex paint surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shi; Morrison, Glenn C

    2011-05-15

    Ozone can react homogeneously with unsaturated organic compounds in buildings to generate undesirable products. However, these reactions can also occur on indoor surfaces, especially for low-volatility organics. Conversion rates of ozone with α-terpineol, a representative low-volatility compound, were quantified on surfaces that mimic indoor substrates. Rates were measured for α-terpineol adsorbed to beads of glass, polyvinylchloride (PVC), and dry latex paint, in a plug flow reactor. A newly defined second-order surface reaction rate coefficient, k(2), was derived from the flow reactor model. The value of k(2) ranged from 0.68 × 10(-14) cm(4)s(-1)molecule(-1) for α-terpineol adsorbed to PVC to 3.17 × 10(-14) cm(4)s(-1)molecule(-1) for glass, but was insensitive to relative humidity. Further, k(2) is only weakly influenced by the adsorbed mass but instead appears to be more strongly related to the interfacial activity α-terpineol. The minimum reaction probability ranged from 3.79 × 10(-6) for glass at 20% RH to 6.75 × 10(-5) for PVC at 50% RH. The combination of high equilibrium surface coverage and high reactivity for α-terpineol suggests that surface conversion rates are fast enough to compete with or even overwhelm other removal mechanisms in buildings such as gas-phase conversion and air exchange.

  9. Novel 4{pi} Detection System for the Measurement of the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H Reaction Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Giorginis, Georgios; Bencardino, Raffaele

    2011-12-13

    A dedicated one-dimensional Time Projection Chamber (1D-TPC) was designed and produced at IRMM to determine the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H cross section in the 0.4-2.8 MeV energy range, aiming at 5% accuracy. The basic TPC components were a twin gridded ionisation chamber (GIC) with interwired electrodes and fast digitisation of the anode and cathode signals. The energy of both reaction products emitted from a thin {sup 6}LiF sample at the common TPC cathode was measured. A Kr(97%)CO{sub 2}(3%) mixture was used as the detector gas at a pressure up to 3.5 bar. A {sup 238}U sample mounted on the cathode of an ionisation chamber without grid was used as the neutron flux monitor. Special care was taken to reduce the experimental sources of uncertainty. The beam-monitor {sup 238}U sample was characterised at IRMM by low-geometry {alpha}-counting with an accuracy of 0.1%. A {sup 6}Li sample was produced at IRMM by vacuum evaporation of {sup 6}LiF onto transparent aluminium backing. The number of {sup 6}Li atoms will be measured via Thermal Neutron Depth Profiling with an expected accuracy of 2% with respect to an IRMM Standard Reference Material. First test measurements were performed using a monoenergetic neutron beam produced by the T(p,n){sup 3}He reaction at the IRMM 7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The experimental method and preliminary results are presented.

  10. (1R)-(+)-camphor and acetone derived alpha'-hydroxy enones in asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction: catalytic activation by Lewis and Brønsted acids, substrate scope, applications in syntheses, and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Patricia; García, Jesús M; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Herrero, Ada; Odriozola, José M; Oiarbide, Mikel; Palomo, Claudio; Razkin, Jesús

    2010-03-05

    The Diels-Alder reaction constitutes one of the most powerful and convergent C-C bond-forming transformations and continues to be the privileged route to access cyclohexene substructures, which are widespread within natural products and bioactive constituents. Over the recent years, asymmetric catalytic Diels-Alder methodologies have experienced a tremendous advance, but still inherently difficult diene-dienophile combinations prevail, such as those involving dienes less reactive than cyclopentadiene or dienophiles like beta-substituted acrylates and equivalents. Here the main features of alpha'-hydroxy enones as reaction partners of the Diels-Alder reaction are shown, with especial focus on their potentials and limitations in solving the above difficult cases. Alpha'-hydroxy enones are able to bind reversibly to both Lewis acids and Brønsted acids, forming 1,4-coordinated species that are shown to efficiently engage in these inherently difficult Diels-Alder reactions. On these bases, a convenient control of the reaction stereocontrol can be achieved using a camphor-derived chiral alpha'-hydroxy enone model (substrate-controlled asymmetric induction) and either Lewis acid or Brønsted acid catalysis. Complementing this approach, highly enantio- and diastereoselective Diels-Alder reactions can also be carried out by using simple achiral alpha'-hydroxy enones in combination with Evans' chiral Cu(II)-BOX complexes (catalyst-controlled asymmetric induction). Of importance, alpha'-hydroxy enones showed improved reactivity profiles and levels of stereoselectivity (endo/exo and facial selectivity) as compared with other prototypical dienophiles in the reactions involving dienes less reactive than cyclopentadiene. A rationale of some of these results is provided based on both kinetic experiments and quantum calculations. Thus, kinetic measurements of Brønsted acid promoted Diels-Alder reactions of alpha'-hydroxy enones show a first-order rate with respect to both enone

  11. A fluid response: Alpha-amylase reactions to acute laboratory stress are related to sample timing and saliva flow rate.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamás; van Lien, René; Willemsen, Gonneke; Proctor, Gordon; Efting, Marieke; Fülöp, Márta; Bárdos, György; Veerman, Enno C I; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-07-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is used as a sympathetic (SNS) stress marker, though its release is likely co-determined by SNS and parasympathetic (PNS) activation. The SNS and PNS show asynchronous changes during acute stressors, and sAA responses may thus vary with sample timing. Thirty-four participants underwent an eight-minute memory task (MT) and cold pressor task (CPT). Cardiovascular SNS (pre-ejection period, blood pressure) and PNS (heart rate variability) activity were monitored continuously. Unstimulated saliva was collected repeatedly during and after each laboratory stressor, and sAA concentration (U/ml) and secretion (U/minute) determined. Both stressors increased anxiety. The MT caused an immediate and continued cardiac SNS activation, but sAA concentration increased at task cessation only (+54%); i.e., when there was SNS-PNS co-activation. During the MT sAA secretion even decreased (-35%) in conjunction with flow rate and vagal tone. The CPT robustly increased blood pressure but not sAA. In summary, sAA fluctuations did not parallel changes in cardiac SNS activity or anxiety. sAA responses seem contingent on sample timing and flow rate, likely involving both SNS and PNS influences. Verification using other stressors and contexts seems warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reaction of germinal centers in the T-cell-independent response to the bacterial polysaccharide alpha(1-->6)dextran.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D; Wells, S M; Stall, A M; Kabat, E A

    1994-01-01

    Primary immunization of BALB/c mice with alpha(1-->6)dextran (DEX), a native bacterial polysaccharide, induces an unexpected pattern of splenic B-cell responses. After a peak of antibody-secreting B-cell response at day 4, deposition of dextran-anti-dextran immune complexes, as revealed by staining with both dextran and antibodies to dextran, occurs and persists in splenic follicles until at least the fourth week after immunization. Antigen-specific B cells appear and proliferate in such follicles, leading by day 11 to development of DEX-specific germinal centers as characterized by the presence of distinct regions of DEX+ peanut agglutinin-positive (PNA+) cells. At this time, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis also reveals the appearance of a distinct population of DEX+ PNA+ splenic B cells. In contrast, DEX+ PNA- cells, characterized by intense cytoplasmic staining, are present outside of splenic follicles, peak at day 4 to day 5, and persist until at least day 28. The frequency of these cells correlates with DEX-specific antibody-secreting cells, as detected by the ELISA-spot assay. Thus, in addition to the expected plasma cellular response, the typical T-cell-independent type II antigen, DEX, surprisingly also elicits the formation of antigen-specific germinal centers. These observations raise fundamental questions about the roles of germinal centers in T-cell-independent immune responses. Images PMID:7511812

  13. Syntheses of alpha-arbutin-alpha-glycosides and their inhibitory effects on human tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Kazuhisa; Nomura, Koji; Nishimura, Takahisa; Kiso, Taro; Sugimoto, Kenji; Kuriki, Takashi

    2005-03-01

    Alpha-arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor. We synthesized alpha-arbutin-alpha-glycosides by the transglycosylation reaction of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus macerans using alpha-arbutin and starch as acceptor and donor molecules, respectively. We isolated and characterized two major products from the reaction mixture. The structural analyses using 13C- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy proved that they were 4-hydroxyphenyl alpha-maltoside (alpha-Ab-alpha-G1) and 4-hydroxyphenyl alpha-maltotrioside (alpha-Ab-alpha-G2). Both alpha-Ab-alpha-G1 and alpha-Ab-alpha-G2 exhibited competitive-type inhibition on human tyrosinase as alpha-arbutin does. Their K(i) values were calculated to be 0.6 mM and 2.8 mM, respectively, which is slightly and significantly higher than that of alpha-arbutin (0.2 mM).

  14. Reaction of alpha-oxoketene-N,S-arylaminoacetals with Vilsmeier reagents: an efficient route to highly functionalized quinolines and their benzo/hetero-fused analogues.

    PubMed

    Mahata, P K; Venkatesh, C; Syam Kumar, U K; Ila, H; Junjappa, H

    2003-05-16

    A simple, highly efficient, and regioselective synthesis of functionalized quinolines through Vilsmeier cyclization of a variety of alpha-oxoketene-N,S-anilinoacetals has been reported. The cyclization is found to be facile with N,S-acetals bearing strongly activating groups on aniline, whereas yields of quinolines are moderate in other cases. The reaction could also be extended for the synthesis of substituted tricyclic benzo[h]quinoline, pyrido[2,3-h]quinoline, 4,7-diphenylphenanthroline, and tetracyclic quino[8,7-h]quinoline by performing a Vilsmeier reaction on N,S-acetals derived from 1-naphthylamine, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, respectively. A few of the newly synthesized quinolines are subjected to further transformation to afford 2-unsubstituted (Raney-Ni/Ethanol), quinoline-5,8-quinone (NBS/H(2)SO(4)), or 2-alkyl/aryl aminoquinolines through sequential m-CPBA oxidation to the corresponding (2-methylsulfonyl)quinoline followed by replacement with appropriate amines. Similarly, cycloannulation of a few 2-methylthio-3-benzoylquinolines with hydrazine hydrate under microwave irradiation afforded the corresponding substituted and fused pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinolines in excellent yields, whereas TBTH/AIBN-mediated cyclization of the corresponding 3-(2-bromobenzoyl)-2-methylthioquinolines yielded the corresponding benzothiopyrano-fused quinolines through radical translocation.

  15. Stereochemical course of hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by alpha-galactosidase from cold adaptable marine bacterium of genus Pseudoalteromonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakunina, Irina; Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasiliy; Slepchenko, Lyubov; Isakov, Vladimir; Rasskazov, Valeriy

    2014-10-01

    The recombinant α-galactosidase of the marine bacterium (α-PsGal) was synthesized with the use of the plasmid 40Gal, consisting of plasmid pET-40b (+) (Novagen) and the gene corresponding to the open reading frame of the mature α-galactosidase of marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, transformed into the E. coli Rosetta(DE3) cells. In order to understand the mechanism of action, the stereochemistry of hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl α-D-galactopyranoside (4-NPGP) by α-PsGal was measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The kinetics of formation of α- and β-anomer of galactose showed that α-anomer initially formed and accumulated, and then an appreciable amount of β-anomer appeared as a result of mutarotation. The data clearly show that the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-NPGP proceeds with the retention of anomeric configuration, probably, due to a double displacement mechanism of reaction.

  16. Stereochemistry of the allylation and crotylation reactions of alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxy aldehydes with allyl- and crotyltrifluorosilanes. Synthesis of anti,anti-dipropionate stereotriads and stereodivergent pathways for the reactions with 2,3-anti- and 2,3-syn-alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxy aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Chemler, Sherry R; Roush, William R

    2003-02-21

    A new method for the stereoselective synthesis of the anti,anti-dipropionate stereotriad via the reaction of alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxy aldehydes with (Z)-crotyltrifluorosilane (24) is described. These reactions were designed to occur through bicyclic transition states (e.g., 31) in which the silane reagent is covalently bound to the beta-hydroxyl group of the aldehyde and the crotyl group is transferred intramolecularly. This methodology was used to synthesize the C(7)-C(16) segment (58) of zincophorin, which contains a synthetically challenging all-anti stereopentad unit. Surprisingly, 2,3-anti- and 2,3-syn-alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxy aldehydes react in a stereodivergent manner with 24: 2,3-anti-beta-hydroxy aldehydes give the targeted anti,anti-dipropionate adducts with high selectivity, but the reactions of 2,3-syn-beta-hydroxy aldehydes are poorly selective. The stereodivergent behavior of 2,3-syn- vs 2,3-anti-alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxy aldehydes is also exhibited in their reactions with the allyl- (68) and (E)-crotyltrifluorosilanes (27). Competition experiments performed with beta-hydroxy aldehydes 37a (anti) and the corresponding p-methoxybenzyl (PMB) ether 48, and between aldehyde 39 (syn) and the PMB ether 90, established that the 2,3-anti-beta-hydroxy aldehydes react predominantly through bicyclic transition states while the 2,3-syn aldehydes react predominantly through conventional Zimmerman-Traxler transition states. NMR studies established that both the 2,3-syn and the 2,3-anti aldehydes form stable, pentavalent silicate intermediates (98 and 100) with PhSiF(3), but chelated structures 99 and 101 could not be detected. The activation energies for the competing bicyclic and conventional Zimmerman-Traxler transition states were calculated by using semiemperical methods (MNDO/d). These calculations indicate that the stereodivergent behavior of the 2,3-syn-beta-hydroxy aldehydes and the 2,3-anti-beta-hydroxy aldehydes is due to differences in nonbonded

  17. A review of the synthesis of reduced defect density InxGa1-xN for all indium compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, Evan A.; Vadiee, Ehsan; Fabien, Chloe A. M.; Moseley, Michael W.; Gunning, Brendan P.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Fischer, Alec M.; Wei, Yong O.; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2017-10-01

    A review of metal rich and nitrogen rich (N-rich), low-temperature grown InxGa1-xN is provided, focusing on two low-temperature approaches that have resulted in non-phase separated InxGa1-xN. The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) and N-rich, low temperature approaches to the reduction of defects in InxGa1-xN are described and are capable of growing InxGa1-xN throughout the miscibility gap. MME films remain smooth at all thicknesses but show device quality material primarily for x < 0.2 and x > 0.6. Low temperature, N-rich grown films show a critical thickness extend well beyond the theoretical values and results in slower relaxation through the 0.2 < x < 0.6 range most interesting for light emitters and solar cells. This reduced defect density results in improved optical emission, but due to increased roughening with increased thickness, low temperature, N-rich films are limited to thin layers. Future thick InxGa1-xN substrates are necessary to increase design freedom, as well as improve optoelectronic device performance. Initial results with films up to 800 nm are shown to display evidence of defect annihilation which could be promising for future thick optoelectronic templates and thick devices.

  18. Effects of optically active 1-(alpha-methylbenzyl)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea on reactions of mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Moreland, D E; Boots, M R

    1971-01-01

    Effects of the R- and S-isomers and racemate of 1-(alpha-methylbenzyl)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (MBPU) were measured on phosphorylation and electron transport in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) mitochondria and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts.In chloroplasts, S-MBPU inhibited basal and methylamine-uncoupled electron transport with ferricyanide as the oxidant, both photoreduction and coupled photophosphorylation with water as the electron donor and with ferricyanide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as oxidants, and cyclic photophosphorylation with phenazine methosulfate as the electron mediator under an argon gas phase. With ascorbate 2,6-dichloro-phenolindophenol as the electron donor, phosphorylation coupled to NADP reduction was inhibited, but the reduction of NADP was not inhibited. The R-isomer of MBPU, like the S-isomer, inhibited all of the photophosphorylation reactions studied. However, unlike the S-isomer, the R-isomer either did not inhibit or was a very weak inhibitor of all photoreduction reactions. The effects of the MBPUs on the chloroplast reactions can be explained by action at two different sites: an optically specific site near photosystem II and the oxygen evolution pathway, and a second optically nonspecific site associated with the generation of ATP.In mitochondria, both the R- and S-isomers stimulated state 4 respiration, inhibited state 3 respiration, and released oligomycin-inhibited respiration with malate, succinate, and NADH as substrates. Both enantiomers were equally active in all studies with malate and succinate as substrates. However, with NADH as substrate, R-MBPU was a stronger inhibitor of state 3 respiration and a weaker stimulator of state 4 respiration than S-MBPU.

  19. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  20. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-03

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  1. Reaction mechanisms in {sup 16}O+{sup 40}Ca at an incident energy of E({sup 16}O) =86 MeV through inclusive measurements of {alpha} and proton spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Chinmay; Adhikari, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Roy, S.; Behera, B. R.; Datta, S. K.

    2007-09-15

    The {alpha} and proton spectra from the {sup 16}O+{sup 40}Ca reaction is measured at E({sup 16}O) =86 MeV at several laboratory angles between 54 deg. and 138 deg. Analysis in terms of the statistical model for compound nuclear reactions show that an event-by-event calculation of the evaporation spectra removes discrepancy observed with standard calculations.

  2. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  3. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  4. MedXN: an open source medication extraction and normalization tool for clinical text

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Clark, Cheryl; Halgrim, Scott R; Murphy, Sean P; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    Objective We developed the Medication Extraction and Normalization (MedXN) system to extract comprehensive medication information and normalize it to the most appropriate RxNorm concept unique identifier (RxCUI) as specifically as possible. Methods Medication descriptions in clinical notes were decomposed into medication name and attributes, which were separately extracted using RxNorm dictionary lookup and regular expression. Then, each medication name and its attributes were combined together according to RxNorm convention to find the most appropriate RxNorm representation. To do this, we employed serialized hierarchical steps implemented in Apache's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We also performed synonym expansion, removed false medications, and employed inference rules to improve the medication extraction and normalization performance. Results An evaluation on test data of 397 medication mentions showed F-measures of 0.975 for medication name and over 0.90 for most attributes. The RxCUI assignment produced F-measures of 0.932 for medication name and 0.864 for full medication information. Most false negative RxCUI assignments in full medication information are due to human assumption of missing attributes and medication names in the gold standard. Conclusions The MedXN system (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ohnlp/files/MedXN/) was able to extract comprehensive medication information with high accuracy and demonstrated good normalization capability to RxCUI as long as explicit evidence existed. More sophisticated inference rules might result in further improvements to specific RxCUI assignments for incomplete medication descriptions. PMID:24637954

  5. The FLUORINE-17(PROTON, PHOTON)NEON-18 and Oxygen -14(ALPHA Particle, PROTON)FLUORINE-17 Reaction Rates and the Structure of NEON-18 (NEON-18, FLUORINE-17, Oxygen -14, Astrophysical Hydrogen Burning)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Kevin Insik

    1993-01-01

    The 14O(alpha,p) 17F and ^ {17}F(p,gamma)18Ne reactions play crucial roles in the advanced stages of astrophysical hydrogen burning. The ^{14 }O(alpha,p)^ {17}F(p,gamma) ^ {18}Ne(beta^+nu) 18F(p,alpha)^ {15}O reaction sequence can provide a path around the relatively slow positron decay of 14O in the HCNO cycle, while the similar reaction sequence, ^{14 }O(alpha ,p) 17F(p,gamma)^ {18}Ne(beta ^+nu) 18F(p,gamma)^ {19}Ne, can provide an alternate path from the HCNO cycle to the rp-process. The 17F(p,gamma)18Ne reaction rate could provide the principal source of 18O. Under some astrophysical conditions, the ^{14 }O(alpha,p)^ {17}F reaction is expected to compete with the 15O(alpha, gamma)19Ne reaction in providing a path through which nuclei involved in the HCNO cycle can be transformed into heavier nuclei with Z >= 10.. In order to better determine the rates of these two reactions, we measured the properties of the resonances in 18Ne; the excitation energies, the spins, and the partial and total widths of the relevant resonances. By comparing the previously observed states in 18Ne to the well-studied isospin mirror nucleus, ^{18 }O, it is clear that there are a number of missing levels in 18Ne in the region rm Ex > 4 MeV. These missing states in ^ {18}Ne could be important in determining the 17F(p, gamma)18rm Ne and 14O(alpha ,p)17F reaction rates. We have studied the ^{12 }C(12C,^6He)^{18 }Ne, 20rm Ne(p{,}t)18Ne, and 16O(^3He{, }n)18Ne reactions to measure new nuclear structure information of ^{18 }Ne. From our experiments, we have the following major results: (a) an evidence of the 3^+ <=vel at E_{rm x} = 4.56 MeV, (b) new levels at E_ {rm x} = 6.15 MeV, 7.12 MeV, 7.35 MeV, 7.62 MeV, 8.30 MeV, (8.45 MeV), 8.55 MeV, 8.94 MeV, and 9.58 MeV. (c) new J^pi assignments to the 5.11/5.15-MeV doublet and the 6.15-MeV state. Our discovery of the 3^+<=vel at an energy ~230 keV higher than calculated by Wiescher, Gorres, and Thielemann causes the contribution of the 17 F

  6. Composition dependent dynamics of biexciton localization in AlxGa1-xN mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Daisuke; Tayagaki, Takeshi; Yamada, Yoichi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2009-08-01

    We report the localization-dependent dynamics of biexcitons in AlxGa1-xN mixed crystals under exciton resonant excitation at low temperatures. After intense laser excitation, biexcitons rapidly localize into the band-tail states. The formation time of localized biexcitons becomes shorter with increasing Al composition. Both the inhomogeneous linewidth and the binding energy of biexcitons increase with the inhomogeneous linewidth of excitons. The biexciton binding energy is enhanced by the restriction of exciton motion to disordered potentials and the dynamics of stable biexcitons determines the optical spectrum in mixed crystals.

  7. Growth of low-density GaN quantum dots on Al xGa 1-xN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuła, K.; Bożek, R.; Surowiecka, K.; Stępniewski, R.; Wysmołek, A.; Baranowski, J. M.

    2006-04-01

    The growth of low-density GaN quantum dots on Al xGa 1-xN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using in situ etching of the Al xGa 1-xN surface in the presence of SiH 4, is reported. Subsequent growth stages have been verified by atomic force microscopy and micro-photoluminescence ( μPL). The low temperature μPL shows sharp emission lines originating from single quantum dots, without any artificial masks or mesa structures. This proves that the proposed growth technique offers unique possibility for detailed optical studies of energetic structure and recombination processes of single GaN/Al xGa 1-xN quantum dots.

  8. Dynamics of biexciton localization in AlxGa1-xN mixed crystals under exciton resonant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Daisuke; Tayagaki, Takeshi; Yamada, Yoichi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2008-05-01

    We report the localization dynamics of biexcitons in AlxGa1-xN mixed crystals under exciton resonant excitation at low temperatures. During a few tens of picoseconds just after intense laser excitation, the photoluminescence (PL) spectral shape obeys an inverse Maxwell Boltzmann distribution and free biexcitons dominate the PL spectrum. With a further increase in the delay time, the biexciton PL peak energy and edge energy shift to lower energies. These redshift behaviors in AlxGa1-xN mixed crystals are completely different from the behaviors of free biexcitons in GaN crystals. Our observations reveal the rapid transformation dynamics from free to localized biexcitons in band-tail states in AlxGa1-xN mixed crystals.

  9. Full and partial deuterium solvent isotope effect studies of alpha-thrombin-catalyzed reactions of natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daoning; Kovach, Ildiko M

    2005-03-23

    Proton inventory studies of the thrombin-catalyzed fibrinogen activation to fibrinopeptide A are most consistent with a two-proton bridge forming at the transition state probably between Ser195 OgammaH and His57 Nepsilon2 and His57 Ndelta1 and Asp102 COObeta- at the active site, with fractionation factors 0.66 +/- 0.03 under enzyme saturation with substrate and 0.64 +/- 0.03 at fibrinogen concentration at 0.2 Km, at pH 8.0, pD 8.6, and 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C. Strongly inverse solvent isotope effects (SIEs) result from inverse lag times and maximal slopes of blood clotting plots, which are also anion and cation dependent. The blood clot is much coarser in D2O, as indicated in clotting curves with 3-9 times shorter lag time and steeper slopes with respect to H2O. The finer the particles, the weaker the H-bonds interlocking the fibrin mesh and/or in water structure around fibrin. Proton inventories of inverse lag times and maximal slopes of blood clotting curves in buffers containing Na+ and Cl- ions give the best fit to an exponential dependence on deuterium content in the buffer and give fractionation factors 5.6 +/- 0.5 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 at pH 8.0 and 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The thrombin-catalyzed activation of protein C (PC) to APC is associated with inverse kinetic SIEs (KSIEs) of 0.75 +/- 0.09 and 1.02 +/- 0.06 in 0.3 M NaCl and 0.3 M choline chloride, respectively, at substrate concentrations = 0.2 Km. In comparison, thrombin-catalyzed hydrolysis of chromogenic substrates gives greater KSIEs (Enyedy, E. I.; Kovach. I. M J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 6017-6024) and more complex proton inventories than the ones reported here for the first time for natural substrates. The present study illuminates differences in the character of the rate-determining transition state for the initial phase of the two physiological reactions catalyzed by thrombin.

  10. Statistical theory of light nucleus reactions with 1p-shell light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaojun, Sun; Jingshang, Zhang

    2017-09-01

    The 1p-shell light elements (Li, Be, B, C, N, and O) had long been selected as the most important materials for improving neutron economy in thermal and fast fission reactors and in the design of accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources. A statistical theory of light nucleus reactions (STLN) is proposed to describe the double-differential cross sections for both neutron and light charged particle induced nuclear reactions with 1p-shell light nuclei. The dynamics of STLN is described by the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model, in which the angular momentum and parity conservations are strictly considered in equilibrium and pre-equilibrium processes. The Coulomb barriers of the incoming and outgoing charged particles, which significantly influence the open channels of the reaction, can be reasonably considered in incident channel and different outgoing channels. In kinematics, the recoiling effects in various emission processes are strictly taken into account. The analytical energy and angular spectra of the reaction products in sequential and simultaneous emission processes are obtained in terms of the new integral formula proposed in our recent paper. Taking 12C(n, xn), 9Be(n, xn), 16O(n, xn), and 9Be(p,xn) reactions as examples, we had calculated the double-differential cross sections of outgoing neutrons and compared with the experimental data. In addition, we had also calculated the partition and total kerma coefficients for 12C(n, xn) and 16O(n, xn) reactions, respectively. The existing experimental data can be remarkably well reproduced by STLN, which had been used to set up file-6 in CENDL database.

  11. Evidence for the formation of adducts and S-(carboxymethyl)cysteine on reaction of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds with thiol groups on amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jingmin; Davies, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    Nonenzymatic covalent adduction of glucose, or aldehydes derived from glucose or oxidation reactions, to proteins (glycation) has been proposed as a key factor in the vascular complications of diabetes. In conditions of chronic glucose elevation, alpha-dicarbonyl compounds, including glyoxal and methylglyoxal, are also present at elevated levels. These carbonyls react rapidly with nucleophilic groups on Lys and Arg side chains and the N-terminal amino group, to give poorly defined products, often called advanced glycation endproducts. These are present at elevated levels in tissue samples from people with diabetes and have been linked with disease development. As the thiol group of Cys is a powerful nucleophile, we hypothesized that adduction should occur rapidly and efficiently at Cys residues. It is shown here that Cys residues react with dicarbonyl compounds to give thiol-aldehyde adducts, which have been detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This process is accompanied by loss of the thiol group and formation of stable products. In the case of glyoxal, these reactions give S-(carboxymethyl)cysteine. The percentage conversion of thiol lost to product is substrate-dependent and < or = 32%. S-(Carboxymethyl)cysteine has been quantified by HPLC on thiol-containing, protected amino acids, peptides, and proteins, after exposure to glyoxal. The yield of this product has been shown to increase in a time- and dose-dependent manner with higher glyoxal concentrations and to also be formed on extended incubation of serum albumin with glucose. This novel, stable, advanced glycation endproduct is a potential marker of glycation.

  12. Group 6 heteroatom- and non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complexes. beta,beta'- and alpha,beta,beta'-annulation reactions of cyclic enamines.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Bernardo De La Rúa, Ramón; Santamaría, Javier; Rubio, Eduardo; Tomás, Miguel

    2003-02-19

    Cyclization reactions of group 6 Fischer carbene complexes with cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone enamines are described. Enamine 3a undergoes thermal alpha,beta,beta'-annulation with alkenylcarbene complexes 1 and 2 (THF, 60 degrees C), affording semibullvalenes 5. The metalate intermediates 6, resulting from beta,beta'-annulation of the enamines 3a and 4a, were quantitatively formed by running the reaction in hexane at room temperature. Acid-promoted demetalation of 6 afforded endo-2-bicyclo[3.2.1]octen-8-ones 7 and endo/exo-2-bicyclo[3.3.1]nonen-9-ones 8 (endo/exo = 5:1). Using (S)-methoxymethylpyrrolidine-derived enamines 3b and 4b,c allowed highly enantioenriched cycloadducts endo-(+)-7 as well as endo-(-)-8 and exo-(-)-8 to be accessed. The non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complex 10 was formed from complex 6 by Me(3)SiOTf-promoted elimination of the methoxy group, characterized by (13)C NMR, and transformed into the organic compounds 7, 7-d, and 11 as well as into bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-2,8-diones 14 and cycloheptanones 15. On the basis of this sequence, enantioenriched cycloheptanones (+)-15 were efficiently prepared in one pot from carbene complexes 2 and enamine 3b (51-55% yield, 91-96% ee). Extension of this work to simple Fischer carbene complexes 16 allowed an appropriate way to generate the nonstabilized pentacarbonyl[(phenyl(alkyl)carbene]tungsten complex 17 to be designed, for which the thermal and chemical behavior leading to compounds 18-21 is described.

  13. Usefulness of thresholds for smear review of neutropenic samples analyzed with a Sysmex XN-10 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Ronez, Emily; Geara, Carole; Coito, Sylvie; Jacqmin, Hugues; Cornet, Edouard; Troussard, Xavier; Chatelain, Bernard; Mullier, François

    2017-10-01

    Neutropenia is one of the main criteria for a blood smear review. The objective of this study was to compare the thresholds proposed by the international consensus group for hematology review (1.0 10(9)/L) and the French speaking Group for Cellular Haematology (1.5 10(9)/L) in terms of the number of useless smears. We collected 112,097 analyzed samples from four laboratories equipped with XN instruments (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) during early 2016. The only exclusion criterion was a leucocyte count below 0.5 10(9)/L. In the absence of abnormal cells and/or morphology suggesting haematological disease, samples were classified as 'negative for morphology' and the differential from the XN-10 was reported. These smear procedures were considered as uninformative. Some 2202 samples met the criterion for neutropenia (<1.5 10(9)/L) for slide review representing 1.96% of the total. These included 1031 with neutropenia alone and 1171 neutropenia plus other abnormalities. Of the 1031 with neutropenia alone, 886 had a neutrophil count between 1.0 10(9)/L and 1.5 10(9)/L. The smear was uninformative for all of these samples. In conclusion, microscopic examination of a blood smear provided very limited information in cases of neutropenia without other abnormalities.

  14. An experimentally validated panel of subfamily-specific oligonucleotide primers (V alpha 1-w29/V beta 1-w24) for the study of human T cell receptor variable V gene segment usage by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Genevée, C; Diu, A; Nierat, J; Caignard, A; Dietrich, P Y; Ferradini, L; Roman-Roman, S; Triebel, F; Hercend, T

    1992-05-01

    We report here the characterization of a series of T cell receptor (TcR) V alpha or V beta subfamily-specific oligonucleotide primers. Criteria that have guided the design of each oligonucleotide include appropriate thermodynamic parameters as well as differential base-pairing scores with related and unrelated target sequences. The specificity of the oligonucleotides for each V alpha or V beta subfamily was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on both a series of TcR encoding plasmid DNA and clonal T cell populations. Unexpected cross-reactivities were observed with plasmid cDNA sequences corresponding to unrelated subfamily gene segments. This led to the synthesis of additional series of oligonucleotides to obtain a relevant panel. A series of V alpha 1-w29/V beta 1-w24 TcR subfamily-specific oligonucleotides was eventually selected which generates little, if any, cross-reactivity. The use of C alpha or C beta primers for the amplification of internal positive control templates (i.e. C beta for the V alpha series and C alpha for the V beta series) has been tested in PCR performed with cDNA derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes; it was shown not to alter the amplification of the V subfamily-specific DNA fragments. This panel of oligonucleotides will be helpful in the study of TcRV gene segment usage and, thus, may lead to a better characterization of T cell responses in physiological and pathological situations.

  15. F-actin sequesters elongation factor 1alpha from interaction with aminoacyl-tRNA in a pH-dependent reaction

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The machinery of eukaryotic protein synthesis is found in association with the actin cytoskeleton. A major component of this translational apparatus, which is involved in the shuttling of aa-tRNA, is the actin- binding protein elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha). To investigate the consequences for translation of the interaction of EF-1alpha with F- actin, we have studied the effect of F-actin on the ability of EF- 1alpha to bind to aa-tRNA. We demonstrate that binding of EF-1alpha:GTP to aa-tRNA is not pH sensitive with a constant binding affinity of approximately 0.2 microM over the physiological range of pH. However, the sharp pH dependence of binding of EF-1alpha to F-actin is sufficient to shift the binding of EF-1alpha from F-actin to aa-tRNA as pH increases. The ability of EF-1alpha to bind either F-actin or aa- tRNA in competition binding experiments is also consistent with the observation that EF-1alpha's binding to F-actin and aa-tRNA is mutually exclusive. Two pH-sensitive actin-binding sequences in EF-1alpha are identified and are predicted to overlap with the aa-tRNA-binding sites. Our results suggest that pH-regulated recruitment and release of EF- 1alpha from actin filaments in vivo will supply a high local concentration of EF-1alpha to facilitate polypeptide elongation by the F-actin-associated translational apparatus. PMID:8922379

  16. Solvent-controlled diastereoselective synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives by a [3 + 2] cyclization reaction of alpha,beta-disubstituted (alkenyl)(methoxy)carbene complexes with methyl ketone lithium enolates.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Alonso, Jorge; Fañanás, Francisco J

    2003-03-05

    Reaction of alpha,beta-unsaturated methoxycarbene complexes 1 and 11 with methyl ketone lithium enolates 2 leads to the corresponding five-membered carbocyclic compounds 4 or diast-4 and 12. The influence of the solvent and/or cosolvent (PMDTA), which turned out to be crucial to direct the reaction to 4 or diast-4, is studied, and a tentative mechanism according to these facts is proposed. In addition, the reaction of carbene complex 1a with alkynyl methyl ketone lithium enolates can be directed to the formal [3 + 2] or [4 + 1] cyclization products by a slight variation of the reaction conditions. Finally, consecutive three-component coupling reactions with carbene complex 1a, lithium enolates 2, and aldehydes 18 to give, in a diastereoselective way, hydroxy carbonyl compounds 19 and tricyclic polyethers 20 are presented.

  17. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 185 Eunike, (17252) 2000 GJ127, and (152858) 1999 XN35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Lightcurves for three asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL; Warner 2011) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) in the period October 13 through December 5, 2012: 185 Eunike, (17252) 2000 GJ127, and (152858) 1999 XN35.

  18. Development of epitaxial AlxSc1-xN for artificially structured metal/semiconductor superlattice metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Sands, Timothy D.; Stach, Eric A.; Saha, Bivas; ...

    2015-02-01

    Epitaxial nitride rocksalt metal/semiconductor superlattices are emerging as a novel class of artificially structured materials that have generated significant interest in recent years for their potential application in plasmonic and thermoelectric devices. Though most nitride metals are rocksalt, nitride semiconductors in general have hexagonal crystal structure. We report rocksalt aluminum scandium nitride (Al,Sc)N alloys as the semiconducting component in epitaxial rocksalt metal/semiconductor superlattices. The AlxSc1-xN alloys when deposited directly on MgO substrates are stabilized in a homogeneous rocksalt (single) phase when x < 0.51. Employing 20 nm TiN as a seed layer on MgO substrates, the homogeneity range for stabilizingmore » the rocksalt phase has been extended to x < 0.82 for a 120 nm film. The rocksalt AlxSc1-xN alloys show moderate direct bandgap bowing with a bowing parameter, B = 1.41 ± 0.19 eV. The direct bandgap of metastable rocksalt AlN is extrapolated to be 4.70 ± 0.20 eV. The tunable lattice parameter, bandgap, dielectric permittivity, and electronic properties of rocksalt AlxSc1-xN alloys enable high quality epitaxial rocksalt metal/AlxSc1-xN superlattices with a wide range of accessible metamaterials properties.« less

  19. BetaQ114N and betaT110V Mutations Reveal a Critically Important Role of the Substrate alpha-Carboxylte Site in the Reaction Specificity of Tryptophan Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenstein,L.; Domratcheva, T.; Niks, D.; Ngo, H.; Seidel, R.; Dunn, M.; Schlichting, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the PLP-requiring {alpha}2{beta}2 tryptophan synthase complex, recognition of the substrate l-Ser at the {beta}-site includes a loop structure (residues {beta}110-115) extensively H-bonded to the substrate {alpha}-carboxylate. To investigate the relationship of this subsite to catalytic function and to the regulation of substrate channeling, two loop mutants were constructed: {beta}Thr110 {yields} Val, and {beta}Gln114 {yields} Asn. The {beta}T110V mutation greatly impairs both catalytic activity in the {beta}-reaction, and allosteric communication between the {alpha}- and {beta}-sites. The crystal structure of the {beta}T110V mutant shows that the modified l-Ser carboxylate subsite has altered protein interactions that impair {beta}-site catalysis and the communication of allosteric signals between the {alpha}- and {beta}-sites. Purified {beta}Q114N consists of two species of mutant protein, one with a reddish color ({lambda}max = 506 nm). The reddish species is unable to react with l-Ser. The second {beta}Q114N species displays significant catalytic activities; however, intermediates obtained on reaction with substrate l-Ser and substrate analogues exhibit perturbed UV/vis absorption spectra. Incubation with l-Ser results in the formation of an inactive species during the first 15 min with {lambda}max 320 nm, followed by a slower conversion over 24 h to the species with ?max = 506 nm. The 320 and 506 nm species originate from conversion of the {alpha}-aminoacrylate external aldimine to the internal aldimine and {alpha}-aminoacrylate, followed by the nucleophilic attack of {alpha}-aminoacrylate on C-4' of the internal aldimine to give a covalent adduct with PLP. Subsequent treatment with sodium hydroxide releases a modified coenzyme consisting of a vinylglyoxylic acid moiety linked through C-4' to the 4-position of the pyridine ring. We conclude that the shortening of the side chain accompanying the replacement of {beta}114-Gln by Asn relaxes the steric

  20. Structural and EPR characterisation of single electron and alkyl transfer products from reaction of dimethyl magnesium with bulky alpha-diimine ligands.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Philip J; Coxall, Robert A; Dick, Caroline M; Fabre, Sylvie; Parsons, Simon; Yellowlees, Lesley J

    2005-09-28

    Treatment of dimethylmagnesium with bulky alpha-diimine ligands provides either the biradical methyl-bridged complexes [(alpha-diimine-.)Mg+(mu-CH3)]2 via single electron transfer (SET), or the product of methyl transfer to an imine carbon atom depending upon conditions.

  1. Quantitation of mRNA levels of steroid 5alpha-reductase isozymes: A method that combines one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and separation by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús M; Ortega, Esperanza

    2004-02-01

    We developed an accurate, rapid, and modestly labor-intensive method to precisely quantitate mRNA species by one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This approach combines the high specificity of quantitative competitive PCR with the sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis (LIF-CE). Both cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification are performed with the same enzyme and site-specific primers, improving the efficiency of cDNA synthesis. The specific target mRNA and a mimic DNA fragment, used as a competitive internal standard, were coamplified in a single reaction in which the same primers are used. The 5' forward primers were end-labeled with 6-carboxy-fluorescein (6-FAM). The ratio of fluorescence intensity between amplified products of the target cDNA and the competitive DNA was determined quantitatively after separation by CE and fluorescence analysis. Using this method, we have been able to precisely quantify the mean amount of steroid 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) isozyme mRNA levels in ventral prostate of the rat, detecting 10-fold difference for 5alpha-R1 and 50-fold difference for 5alpha-R2, respectively, in comparison with our previously reported two-step method. Because the competitive RT-PCR presented in this paper enables a more efficient quantitative determination of mRNAs, low-level gene expression could be quantified.

  2. Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N epitaxial films with high magnetization

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert, G.; Kruse, C.; Figge, S.; Hommel, D.; Dobkowska, S.; Jakiela, R.; Stefanowicz, W.; Sawicki, M.; Li, Tian; Bonanni, A.; Reuther, H.; Grenzer, J.; Borany, J. von; Dietl, T.

    2012-07-09

    We report on the fabrication of pseudomorphic wurtzite Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N grown on GaN with Mn concentrations up to 10% using molecular beam epitaxy. According to Rutherford backscattering, the Mn ions are mainly at the Ga-substitutional positions, and they are homogeneously distributed according to depth-resolved Auger-electron spectroscopy and secondary-ion mass-spectroscopy measurements. A random Mn distribution is indicated by transmission electron microscopy, and no Mn-rich clusters are present for optimized growth conditions. A linear increase of the c-lattice parameter with increasing Mn concentration is found using x-ray diffraction. The ferromagnetic behavior is confirmed by superconducting quantum-interference measurements showing saturation magnetizations of up to 150 emu/cm{sup 3}.

  3. Origin of background electron concentration in InxGa1-xN alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Pantha, B. N.; Wang, H.; Khan, N.; ...

    2011-08-15

    The origin of high background electron concentration (n) in InxGa1-xN alloys has been investigated. A shallow donor was identified as having an energy level (ED1) that decreases with x (ED1 = 16 meV at x = 0 and ED1 = 0 eV at x ~ 0.5) and that crossover the conduction band at x ~ 0.5. This shallow donor is believed to be the most probable cause of high n in InGaN. This understanding is consistent with the fact that n increases sharply with an increase in x and becomes constant for x > 0.5. A continuous reduction in nmore » was obtained by increasing the V/III ratio during the epilayer growth, suggesting that nitrogen vacancy-related impurities are a potential cause of the shallow donors and high background electron concentration in InGaN« less

  4. Synthesis of a peroxime proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma agonist via stereocontrolled Williamson ether synthesis and stereospecific SN2 reaction of S-2-chloro propionic acid with phenoxides.

    PubMed

    Aikins, James A; Haurez, Michael; Rizzo, John R; Van Hoeck, Jean-Pierre; Brione, Willy; Kestemont, Jean-Paul; Stevens, Christophe; Lemair, Xavier; Stephenson, Gregory A; Marlot, Eric; Forst, Mindy; Houpis, Ioannis N

    2005-06-10

    The stereospecific synthesis of the PPAR alpha/gamma agonist 1 was accomplished via ethylation of the optically pure trihydroxy derivative 6, itself derived via an enzymatic resolution. The ethylation can be accomplished without epimerization only under strict control of the reaction conditions and the choice of base (sodium tert-amylate), temperature (-30 degrees C), order of addition, and solvent (DMF). The key diastereospecific SN2 reaction of the phenol 4 with S-2-chloropropionic acid is best achieved via the sodium phenoxide of 4 derived from Na0 as the reagent of choice. The structure elucidation and key purification protocols to achieve pharmaceutical purity will also be described.

  5. Cross sections for (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, <alpha>) reactions on osmium isotopes in the neutron energy range of 13.5-14.8 MeV.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liangyong; Yuan, Jilong; Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Yanbin; Kong, Xiangzhong; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li

    2008-10-01

    Cross sections for (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, alpha) reactions on the osmium isotopes were measured in the neutron energies 13.5-14.8 MeV by the activation technique with the monitor reaction (93)Nb(n, 2n)(92 m)Nb. Our measurements were carried out by gamma-detection using a coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Natural high-purity osmium powder (99.9%) was fabricated as the samples. The neutron energies were determined by the cross-section ratios for (93)Nb(n, 2n)(92 m)Nb and (90)Zr(n, 2n)(89 m+g)Zr reactions. The fast neutrons were produced by the T(d, n)(4)He reaction. The results obtained were compared with previous data.

  6. Isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY from different nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Sahid, M.; Yang, S.-C.; Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R.; Shin, S. G.; Cho, M.-H.; Goswami, A.; Song, T. Y.

    2014-07-01

    The independent isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY produced from the 93Nb( γ, α2n) and natZr( γ, p xn) reactions with the end-point bremsstrahlung energy of 45-70 MeV have been determined by an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang accelerator laboratory, Korea. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY were also determined from the natZr(p, αxn) and the 89Y(p,p2n) reactions with E P = 15-45 MeV as well as those from the 89Y( α, α2n) reaction with E α = 32-43 MeV using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Korea. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY from the present work in the 93Nb( γ, α2n), natZr( γ, p xn), natZr(p, αxn), 89Y(p,p2n), and 89Y( α, α2n) reactions were compared with those of the literature data in the 85Rb( α, 2n), the 86,87,88Sr(d, xn), 89Y(n,3n), and the 89Y( γ, 2n) reactions to examine the role of target, projectiles, and ejectiles through compound nucleus excitation energy and input angular momentum. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY in the above eleven reactions were also calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.4 and compared with the experimental data. The different behaviors between photon- and neutron-induced reactions and charged-particle-induced reactions are discussed from the viewpoint of compound and non-compound (pre-equilibrium) process.

  7. Synthesis of a precursor for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M.

    1984-03-01

    Starting from 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, the synthesis of a strategic precursor, C-9 (11) unsaturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide (9a), for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide has been achieved. The authors optimized the reaction conditions for catalytic reduction employing hydrogen and subsequent base hydrolysis followed by purification on Amberlite XAD-2 resin to obtain the saturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide.

  8. Acid-, base-, and lewis-acid-catalyzed heterolysis of methoxide from an alpha-hydroxy-beta-methoxy radical: models for reactions catalyzed by coenzyme B12-dependent diol dehydratase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Libin; Newcomb, Martin

    2005-11-11

    [Reaction: see text].A model for glycol radicals was employed in laser flash photolysis kinetic studies of catalysis of the fragmentation of a methoxy group adjacent to an alpha-hydroxy radical center. Photolysis of a phenylselenylmethylcyclopropane precursor gave a cyclopropylcarbinyl radical that rapidly ring opened to the target alpha-hydroxy-beta-methoxy radical (3). Heterolysis of the methoxy group in 3 gave an enolyl radical (4a) or an enol ether radical cation (4b), depending upon pH. Radicals 4 contain a 2,2-diphenylcyclopropane reporter group, and they rapidly opened to give UV-observable diphenylalkyl radicals as the final products. No heterolysis was observed for radical 3 under neutral conditions. In basic aqueous acetonitrile solutions, specific base catalysis of the heterolysis was observed; the pK(a) of radical 3 was determined to be 12.5 from kinetic titration plots, and the ketyl radical formed by deprotonation of 3 eliminated methoxide with a rate constant of 5 x 10(7) s(-1). In the presence of carboxylic acids in acetonitrile solutions, radical 3 eliminated methanol in a general acid-catalyzed reaction, and rate constants for protonation of the methoxy group in 3 by several acids were measured. Radical 3 also reacted by fragmentation of methoxide in Lewis-acid-catalyzed heterolysis reactions; ZnBr2, Sc(OTf)3, and BF3 were found to be efficient catalysts. Catalytic rate constants for the heterolysis reactions were in the range of 3 x 10(4) to 2 x 10(6) s(-1). The Lewis-acid-catalyzed heterolysis reactions are fast enough for kinetic competence in coenzyme B12 dependent enzyme-catalyzed reactions of glycols, and Lewis-acid-catalyzed cleavages of beta-ethers in radicals might be applied in synthetic reactions.

  9. Cross sections of the reaction {sup 231}Pa(d,3n){sup 230}U for the production of {sup 230}U/{sup 226}Th for targeted {alpha} therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Zielinska, B.; Apostolidis, C.; Lebeda, O.; Stursa, J.; Capote, R.; Sin, M.

    2009-11-15

    {sup 230}U and its daughter nuclide {sup 226}Th are novel therapeutic nuclides for application in targeted {alpha} therapy of cancer. We investigated the feasibility of producing {sup 230}U/{sup 226}Th via deuteron irradiation of {sup 231}Pa according to the reaction {sup 231}Pa(d,3n){sup 230}U. The experimental excitation function for a deuteron-induced reaction on {sup 231}Pa is reported for the first time. Cross sections were measured using thin targets of {sup 231}Pa prepared by electrodeposition and {sup 230}U yields were analysed using {alpha} spectrometry. Beam energies were calculated from measured beam orbits and compared with the values obtained via monitor reactions on aluminium foils using high-resolution {gamma} spectrometry and IAEA recommended cross sections. Beam intensities were determined using a beam current integrator. The experimental cross sections are in excellent agreement with model calculations allowing for deuteron breakup using the EMPIRE 3 code. According to thick-target yields calculated from the experimental excitation function, the reaction {sup 231}Pa(d,3n){sup 230}U allows the production of {sup 230}U/{sup 226}Th at moderate levels.

  10. Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjib S; Kawano, Toshihiko; Möller, Peter

    2008-12-05

    In our calculation of neutron star crust heating we include several key new model features. In earlier work electron capture (EC) only allowed neutron emission from the daughter ground state; here we calculate, in a deformed quasi-random-phase approximation (QRPA) model, EC decay rates to all states in the daughter that are allowed by Gamow-Teller selection rules and energetics. The subsequent branching ratios between the 1n,...,xn channels and the competing gamma decay are calculated in a Hauser-Feshbach model. In our multicomponent plasma model a single (EC, xn) reaction step can produce several neutron-deficient nuclei, each of which can further decay by (EC, xn). Hence, the neutron emission occurs more continuously with increasing depth as compared to that in a one-component plasma model.

  11. Measurement of the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}) reaction at E = 662 keV/u with a {sup 18}F radioactive beam

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Gehring, J.

    1995-08-01

    {sup 18}F is produced in stars during the so-called breakout from the hot CNO cycle and is important as one of the links connecting the HCNO cycle with the rp-process by producing {sup 19}Ne via the {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}) reaction. There is, however, a competing reaction {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O which leads back into the CNO cycle. The importance of {sup 18}F for producing {sup 19}Ne therefore depends strongly on the (p,{gamma}) to (p,{alpha}) cross sections ratio. We have begun to study the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction using a {sup 18}F beam. {sup 18}F, which is a well-studied PET isotope, is generated at the medical cyclotron of the University of Wisconsin. Aqueous [{sup 18}F] fluoride ions are produced via the {sup 18}O(p,n){sup 18}F reaction using a 30-{mu}A, 11.4-MeV proton beam bombarding a 95% enriched [{sup 18}O] water target and electroplated onto the end of a 3-mm diameter Al anode. After electroplating, the anodized Al is pressed into a copper cathode insert for the National Electrostatics Corporation SNICS ion source, transported to Argonne National Laboratory and installed in the ion source of the Tandem accelerator at ATLAS. With an activity at the end of the electroplating process of 530 mCi, the starting activity after 2 h, which is the time needed to transport and install the material in the SNICS source, was 250 mCi, corresponding to a total number of {sup 18}F atoms of 8.8 x 10{sup 13}.

  12. Magnetic and magneto-transport properties of Ga 1-xMn xN grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuelin; Chen, Zhitao; Wu, Jiejun; Pan, Yaobo; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhijian; Yu, Tongjun; Zhang, Guoyi

    2007-07-01

    The Ga 1-xMn xN epitaxial films were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with tricarbonyl (methycyclopentadienyl) manganese ((MCP) 2Mn) as dopant source. Magnetic measurements indicate that the films are n-type conductivity ( x=0.01), ferromagnetic ordering with Curie temperature above room temperature. The magnetic moment per Mn atom decreases when the Mn concentration changes from 0.01 to 0.03. Magneto-transport properties were performed in the temperature range of 2-300 K. The magneto-resistance (MR) changes from negative effect to positive effect with increasing temperature. The negative MR effect at low temperature is due to the reduction of the magnetic scattering of the Mn ions under the applied magnetic field. Furthermore, the zero-field-cooled (ZFC)/field-cooled (FC) and MR behavior at low temperature confirm that the ferromagnetism and paramagnetism coexist in Ga 1-xMn xN films.

  13. The changes in small metal cluster size with adsorption Be13Xn, X = H, O, S, Cl and F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Be-Be and Be-adsorbate distances are optimized for small Be13Xn clusters,s assuming only two independent degrees of freedom. Results for chemisorption into the three-fold hollows are quite similar to those found for small metal clusters on supports. It is predicted that Cl and F will have the same effect on the metal-metal bond lengths, and so will O and S.

  14. Structural and electronic properties of GaN nanowires with embedded InxGa1-xN nanodisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioseoglou, J.; Pavloudis, Th.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Karakostas, Th.; Latham, C. D.; Rayson, M. J.; Briddon, P. R.; Eickhoff, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the effects of various types of strain and indium concentration on the total energy and optoelectronic properties of GaN nanowires (NWs) with embedded InxGa1-xN nanodisks (NDs) are examined. In particular, the bi-axial, hydrostatic, and uniaxial strain states of the embedded InxGa1-xN NDs are investigated for multiple In concentrations. Density functional theory is employed to calculate the band structure of the NWs. The theoretical analysis finds that the supercell-size-dependent characteristics calculated for our 972-atom NW models are very close to the infinite supercell-size limit. It is established that the embedded InxGa1-xN NDs do not induce deep states in the band gap of the NWs. A bowing parameter of 1.82 eV is derived from our analysis in the quadratic Vegard's formula for the band gaps at the various In concentrations of the investigated InxGa1-xN NDs in GaN NW structures. It is concluded that up to ˜10% of In, the hydrostatic strain state is competitive with the bi-axial due to the radial absorption of the strain on the surfaces. Above this value, the dominant strain state is the bi-axial one. Thus, hydrostatic and bi-axial strain components coexist in the embedded NDs, and they are of different physical origin. The bi-axial strain comes from growth on lattice mismatched substrates, while the hydrostatic strain originates from the lateral relaxation of the surfaces.

  15. Chemically ordered Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys: Spontaneous formation of natural quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, M.; Lymperakis, L.; Neugebauer, J.; Northrup, J.E.; Kirste, L.; Leroux, M.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.; Strunk, H.P.

    2005-01-15

    We combine transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, and photoluminescence experiments with first-principles calculations to study the formation, thermodynamic stability, structural, and optical properties of chemically ordered Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys (0x}N alloys. The ordered alloys have unique properties: (i) the band gap is redshifted up to 110 meV with respect to the disordered alloy of the same composition and (ii) the band gap reduction is caused by localization of the band edge wave functions in the GaN layer. Ordered Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N thus can be seen as a natural quantum well structure where electrons and holes are localized and confined in monolayer GaN quantum wells.

  16. ECR-assisted MBE growth of In 1- xGa xN heteroepitaxial films on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yodo, Tokuo; Kitayama, Yasunari; Miyaki, Kazunari; Yona, Hiroaki; Harada, Yoshiyuki

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated characteristics of hexagonal- ( α-) In 1- xGa xN alloy films grown on Si(111) substrates with residual O impurities below 1% (estimated to be ˜ 0.5˜ 1%). The abnormally high incorporation efficiency of Ga atoms in In 1- xGa xN under the III-family-rich condition was suppressed under an N-rich condition: the surface morphology became mirror-like morphology without In or/and Ga droplets on the surface and the Ga composition (x) was well-controlled as a linear function of Ga beam flux pressure under the condition. Although the band-gap energies of α-In 1- xGa xN films agreed very well with the results of Y. Nanishi, Y. Saito and T. Yamaguchi [Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2003) 2549] in the high x-region of x≧0.7, they largely deflected from their data toward the higher energy side in the x-region of x<0.7. This large deflection is not explainable by phase separation, because phase separation becomes heavier particularly in the high x-region. We suspect the influence of residual O impurities at lower than 1% in the alloy films to be the cause of the large deflection.

  17. Role of biaxial strain and microscopic ordering for structural and electronic properties of InxGa1 -xN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying; Lee, Sangheon; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    The structural and electronic properties of InxGa1 -xN alloys are studied as a function of c -plane biaxial strain and In ordering by density functional theory with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional. A nonlinear variation of the c lattice parameter with In content is observed in biaxial strain and should be taken into account when deducing In content from interplanar distances. From compressive to tensile strain, the character of the top valence-band state changes, leading to a nonlinear variation of the band gap in InxGa1 -xN . Interestingly, the well-known bowing of the InxGa1 -xN band gap is largely removed for alloys grown strictly coherently on GaN, while the actual values for band gaps at x <0.33 are hardly affected by strain. Ordering plays a minor role for lattice constants but may induce changes of the band gap up to 0.15 eV.

  18. High accuracy {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction rate in the 8{center_dot}10{sup 6}-5{center_dot}10{sup 9} K temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Banu, A.; Goldberg, V.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Coc, A.

    2011-10-28

    The {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction is of great importance in several astrophysical scenarios, as it influences the production of key isotopes such as {sup 19}F, {sup 18}O and {sup 15}N. In this work, a high accuracy {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction rate is proposed, based on the simultaneous fit of direct measurements and of the results of a new Trojan Horse experiment. In particular, we have focused on the study of the broad 660 keV 1/2{sup +} resonance. Since {Gamma}{approx}100-300 keV, it strongly influences the nearly-zero-energy region of the cross section by means of the low-energy tail of the resonant contribution and dominates the cross section at higher energies. Here we provide a factor of 2 larger reaction rate above T{approx}0.5 10{sup 9} K based over our new improved determination of its resonance parameters.

  19. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  20. Relationship among circulating interferon, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 and serologic reaction against parasitic antigen in human hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Touil-Boukoffa, C; Sancéau, J; Tayebi, B; Wietzerbin, J

    1997-04-01

    Human hydatidosis is a parasitic disease vectored by the larval stage cestode Echinoccocus granulosus. It constitutes a major health problem in North Africa. We investigated the production of circulating interferon (IFN), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in Algerian patients with liver, lung, or ocular hydatidosis. In all, 101 serum samples from these patients with analyzed. Immunoreactivity and cytokine activities were undetectable in sera from ocular hydatidosis patients. However, we observed the presence of IFN (a mixture of IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN-gamma, range 32-500 U/ml), TNF-alpha (range 32-100 U/ml), and IL-6 (range 32-500 U/ml) in all patients who had liver or lung cysts or both and displayed immunoreactivity against parasitic antigen (antigen 5). After surgical removal of the cysts, serum cytokine levels declined rapidly and were undetectable at 30 days. IFN and IL-6 activity was undetectable in sera from two liver hydatidosis patients who relapsed and did not display any immune response against parasitic antigen. These results suggest that in liver and lung hydatidosis, cytokine production contributes to the host defense mechanism against the extracellular parasite.

  1. Asymmetric hydrogenation of alpha,beta-unsaturated phosphonates with Rh-BisP* and Rh-MiniPHOS catalysts: scope and mechanism of the reaction.

    PubMed

    Gridnev, Ilya D; Yasutake, Masaya; Imamoto, Tsuneo; Beletskaya, Irina P

    2004-04-13

    Optically active 1,2-bis(alkylmethylphosphino)ethanes and bis(alkylmethylphosphino)methanes are unique diphosphine ligands combining the simple molecular structure and P-stereogenic asymmetric environment. This work shows that these ligands exhibit excellent enantioselectivity in rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of alpha,beta-unsaturated phosphonic acid derivatives. The enantioselective hydrogenation mechanism elucidated by NMR study is also described.

  2. An efficient procedure based on a MW-assisted Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction for the synthesis of (Z)-3,3-trisubstituted-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Daniela; Baraglia, Anna Carnevale; Serra, Massimo; Azzolina, Ornella; Collina, Simona

    2010-08-27

    A microwave-assisted HWE olefination process of readily accessible aryl-alkyl ketones has been developed to provide a rapid access to (Z)-3,3-trisubstituted-alpha,beta-unsaturated methyl esters, key building blocks for the synthesis of biologically active compounds.

  3. Luminescence studies in InxGa1-xN epitaxial layers with different indium contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Tiong, K. K.; Lee, Y. C.; Hu, S. Y.; Lin, L. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Feng, Z. C.

    2013-08-01

    The optical properties of InxGa1-xN epitaxial layers (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.11, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.33) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The surface morphologies of InGaN samples are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The PL feature at 12 K has shown an increase in full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with increasing In content. An anomalous S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy exhibited by InGaN films with higher In content enabled the evaluation of the exciton localization energy. The broadened FWHM and S-shaped emission shift are attributed to larger compositional fluctuation due to compositional inhomogeneity of In. Additionally, the luminescence mechanism relating to the phase separation has to be considered for the much larger FWHM value and the pronounced S-shaped behavior for the InGaN samples with In content of 0.30 and 0.33.

  4. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  5. InxAl1-xN chiral nanorods mimicking the polarization features of scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, R.; Birch, J.; Hsiao, C.-L.; Sandström, P.; Arwin, H.; Järrendahl, K.

    2015-03-01

    The scarab beetle Cetonia aurata is known to reflect light with brilliant colors and a high degree of circular polarization. Both color and polarization effects originate from the beetles exoskeleton and have been attributed to a Bragg reflection of the incident light due to a twisted laminar structure. Our strategy for mimicking the optical properties of the Cetonia aurata was therefore to design and fabricate transparent, chiral films. A series of films with tailored transparent structures of helicoidal InxAl1-xN nanorods were grown on sapphire substrates using UHV magnetron sputtering. The value of x is tailored to gradually decrease from one side to the other in each nanorod normal to its growth direction. This introduces an in-plane anisotropy with different refractive indices in the direction of the gradient and perpendicular to it. By rotating the sample during film growth the in-plane optical axis will be rotated from bottom to top and thereby creating a chiral film. Based on Muellermatrix ellipsometry, optical modeling has been done suggesting that both the exoskeleton of Cetonia aurata and our artificial material can be modeled by an anisotropic film made up of a stack of thin layers, each one with its in-plane optical axis slightly rotated with respect to the previous layer. Simulations based on the optical modeling were used to investigate how pitch and thickness of the film together with the optical properties of the constitutive materials affects the width and spectral position of the Bragg reflection band.

  6. Fragmented red cells reference range (Sysmex XN(®) automated blood cell counter).

    PubMed

    Lesesve, Jean-François; Daigney, Amandine; Henry, Sylvain; Speyer, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Fragmented red cells (FRCs) is a new parameter automatedly determined by recent blood cell counters. Their count might be of interest because FRCs are supposed to reflect schistocytes counts measured on a stained peripheral blood smear observed under the microscope. But FRCs depend from the technical procedure used to detect them and thus reference ranges are device-dependent. The XN-9000(®) is one of the last model from Sysmex series. We aimed to establish reference range for FRCs, from 2389 controls. The mean ± SD was 0.32% ± 0.81, the median 0.02% (95% confidence interval ot the mean: 0.29-0.35%). We observed that the percentage of red blood cells with less than 17 pg of hemoglobin content (Hypo-He) was correlated to FRC increase, Hypo-He increase resulting in spurious FRCs majoration. FRCs reference range should be useful for: 1) laboratory staff in order to select which blood smears to check optically; 2) Sysmex company to set-up more optimal rules proposed with the counter (automated making of blood smear).

  7. Effect of the addition of diammonium citrate to alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix for the detection of phosphorylated peptide in phosphorylation reactions using cell and tissue lysates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Hun; Toita, Riki; Oishi, Jun; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2007-11-01

    The ionization of phosphorylated peptides is usually suppressed by non-phosphorylated peptides when alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) is used as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis. In the present study, we examined the effect of diammonium citrate addition to the CHCA matrix on the detection of phosphorylated peptides. Substrates for protein kinase C (PKC) and c-Src were synthesized and phosphorylated by reaction with cell and tissue lysate samples. The addition of diammonium citrate to the CHCA matrix increased the sensitivity for distinguishing phosphorylated peptides from background noise. However, the effect depended on substrate concentration.

  8. Cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams: A spectroscopic tool for neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottoni, S.; Leoni, S.; Fornal, B.; Raabe, R.; Rusek, K.; Benzoni, G.; Bracco, A.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Morales, A. I.; Bednarczyk, P.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Królas, W.; Maj, A.; Szpak, B.; Callens, M.; Bouma, J.; Elseviers, J.; De Witte, H.; Flavigny, F.; Orlandi, R.; Reiter, P.; Seidlitz, M.; Warr, N.; Siebeck, B.; Hellgartner, S.; Mücher, D.; Pakarinen, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Bauer, C.; Georgiev, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Balabanski, D.; Sferrazza, M.; Kowalska, M.; Rapisarda, E.; Voulot, D.; Lozano Benito, M.; Wenander, F.

    2015-08-01

    An exploratory experiment performed at REX-ISOLDE to investigate cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is presented. The aim of the experiment was to test the potential of cluster-transfer reactions at the Coulomb barrier as a mechanism to explore the structure of exotic neutron-rich nuclei. The reactions 7Li(98Rb,α xn ) and 7Li(98Rb,t xn ) were studied through particle-γ coincidence measurements, and the results are presented in terms of the observed excitation energies and spins. Moreover, the reaction mechanism is qualitatively discussed as a transfer of a clusterlike particle within a distorted-wave Born approximation framework. The results indicate that cluster-transfer reactions can be described well as a direct process and that they can be an efficient method to investigate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei at medium-high excitation energies and spins.

  9. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  10. Measurement of the -3 keV resonance in the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction and its influence on the synthesis of s-process nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Trippella, O.; Kiss, G. G.; Rogachev, G. V.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Avila, M.; Guardo, G. L.; Koshchiy, E.; Kuchera, A.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Santiago, D.; Sparta, R.; and others

    2012-11-20

    The {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction is the neutron source for the main component of the s-process, responsible of the production of most nuclei in the mass range 90 < A < 204. It is active inside the helium-burning shell in asymptotic giant branch stars, at temperatures < 10{sup 8} K, corresponding to an energy interval where the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O is effective of 140 - 230 keV. In this region, the astrophysical S(E)-factor is dominated by the -3 keV sub-threshold resonance due to the 6.356 MeV level in {sup 17}O, giving rise to a steep increase of the S-factor. Notwithstanding that it plays a crucial role in astrophysics, no direct measurements exist. Therefore, we have applied the Trojan Horse Method (THM) to the {sup 13}C({sup 6}Li,n{sup 16}O)d quasi-free reaction to achieve an experimental estimate of such contribution. For the first time, the ANC for the 6.356 MeV level has been deduced through the THM as well as the n-partial width, allowing to attain an unprecedented accuracy in the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O study. Though a larger ANC for the 6.356 MeV level is measured, our experimental S(E) factor agrees with the most recent extrapolation in the literature in the 140 - 230 keV energy interval, the accuracy being greatly enhanced thanks to this innovative approach.

  11. Cell Population Data and reflex testing rules of cell analysis in pleural and ascitic fluids using body fluid mode on Sysmex XN-9000.

    PubMed

    Buoro, Sabrina; Mecca, Tommaso; Azzarà, Giovanna; Seghezzi, Michela; Dominoni, Paola; Crippa, Alberto; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    Although optical microscopy (OM) remains the reference technique for analysis of ascitic (AF) and pleural (PF) fluids, novel hematological analyzers are equipped with modules for body fluid (BF) analysis. This study was aimed to analyze the performance of XN-BF module in Sysmex XN-9000, and to develop validation rules for automated cell counts in BFs. The evaluation of XN-BF module included assessment of carryover, Limit of Blank (LoB), Limit of Detection (LoD), Limit of Quantitation (LoQ), linearity, data comparison with OM, and development of rules for assisting the validation of automated analysis of BFs and activating reflex testing. The carryover was negligible. The LoB, LoD, LoQ and linearity were always excellent. The comparison with OM was characterized by Pearson's correlations ranging from r=0.50 to r=0.99 (p<0.001), modest bias and high diagnostic concordance (Area Under the Curve between 0.85 and 0.99). The use of instrument-specific cut-offs further increased diagnostic concordance. The implementation of reflex testing rules based on XN-BF data increased sensitivity and specificity of BFs classification to 0.98 and 0.95. Our results suggest that the XN-BF module on Sysmex-9000 may be a suitable alternative to OM for screening BF samples, especially when specific validation rules are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Band-edge exciton transitions in (Ga 1- xMn x)N diluted magnetic semiconductor films with above room temperature ferromagnetic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, H. C.; Kang, T. W.; Kim, T. W.; Cho, Y. H.

    2006-06-01

    (Ga 1- xMn x)N thin films grown on GaN buffer layers by using molecular beam epitaxy were investigated with the goal of producing diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with band-edge exciton transitions for applications in optomagnetic devices. The magnetization curve as a function of the magnetic field at 5 K indicated that ferromagnetism existed in the (Ga 1- xMn x)N thin films, and the magnetization curve as a function of the temperature showed that the ferromagnetic transition temperature of the (Ga 1- xMn x)N thin film was above room temperature. Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra showed that band-edge exciton transitions in (Ga 1- xMn x)N thin films appeared. These results indicate that the (Ga 1- xMn x)N DMSs with a magnetic single phase hold promise for potential applications in spin optoelectronic devices in the blue region of the spectrum.

  13. Sequential and selective hydrogenation of the C(alpha)-C(beta) and M-C(alpha) double bonds of an allenylidene ligand coordinated to osmium: new reaction patterns between an allenylidene complex and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Bolaño, Tamara; Castarlenas, Ricardo; Esteruelas, Miguel A; Oñate, Enrique

    2007-07-18

    Complex [OsH(=C=C=CPh2)(CH3CN)2(PiPr3)2]BF4 (1) reacts with primary and secondary alcohols to give the corresponding dehydrogenated alcohols and the hydride-carbene derivative [OsH(=CHCH=CPh2)(CH3CN)2(PiPr3)2]BF4 (2), as a result of hydrogen transfer reactions from the alcohols to the Calpha-Cbeta double bond of the allenylidene ligand of 1. The reactions with phenol and t-butanol, which do not contain any beta-hydrogen, afford the alkoxy-hydride-carbyne complexes [OsH(OR)(CCH=CPh2)(CH3CN)(PiPr3)2]BF4 (R = Ph (3), tBu (4)), as a consequence of the 1,3-addition of the O-H bond of the alcohols to the metallic center and the Cbeta atom of the allenylidene of 1. On the basis of the reactions of 1 with these tertiary alcohols, deuterium labeling experiments, and DFT calculations, the mechanism of the hydrogenation is proposed. In acetonitrile under reflux, the Os-C double bond of 2 undergoes hydrogenation to give 1,1-diphenylpropene and [Os{CH2CH(CH3)PiPr2(CH3CN)3(PiPr3)]BF4 (11), containing a metalated phosphine ligand. This reaction is a first-order process with activation parameters of DeltaH = 89.0 +/- 6.3 kJ mol-1 and DeltaS = -43.5 +/- 9.6 J mol-1 K-1. The X-ray structures of 2 and 3 are also reported.

  14. Massive free-space optical 1xN fiber switch using an adaptive membrane mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, Frederic; Peter, Yves-Alain; Herzig, Hans Peter; Daendliker, Rene

    2002-02-01

    We present a 1xN switch for single mode fiber optical communication systems, which is composed of an array of fibers, an achromatic lens, and an adaptive membrane mirror. The working principle of the optical switch is as follows: the center fiber of the array delivers the input signal, this signal is collimated by the lens, back reflected on the membrane mirror and refocused by the lens to an other fiber. The addressing of the receiving fiber is made by lateral displacement of the lens. However, using the achromatic lens under off-axis conditions introduces aberrations, which cause coupling losses to the receiving single-mode fibers. The deformable membrane mirror is used to adaptively correct these aberrations. The optimization of the coupling efficiency is made with the help of a genetic algorithm. For each position of the lens, the optimized voltages on the electrodes of the membrane mirror can be stored during the calibration procedure and afterwards recalled during operation of the switch. A demonstrator has been set up with a commercially available linear array of 32 single-mode fibers disposed in V-grooves, an achromatic lens mounted on a two-dimensional translation stage, and a membrane mirror made of silicon nitride coated with aluminum and electro-statically activated by thirty-seven electrodes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the aberration correction we used the first fiber in the array as input fiber and optimized the coupling efficiency to all the other fibers in the array. We obtained insertion losses of less than 3 dB and a cross talk below 30 dB. These results prove the feasibility to build a switch with a two-dimensional array of more than 1000 addressable fibers.

  15. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: Effect of the deciduoma reaction

    PubMed Central

    Clementi, Marisa A; Deis, Ricardo P; Telleria, Carlos M

    2004-01-01

    Background In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL), which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP), in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL), is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i) to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD), involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii) to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. Methods PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 ± 0.09 days (n = 14). Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP+D), PSP was extended to

  16. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: effect of the deciduoma reaction.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Marisa A; Deis, Ricardo P; Telleria, Carlos M

    2004-05-12

    In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL), which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP), in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL), is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i) to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD), involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii) to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 +/- 0.09 days (n = 14). Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP+D), PSP was extended to 18 +/- 2.2 days (n = 8

  17. STERIC EFFECTS IN ALPHA-OLEFIN REACTIVITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    successfully applied to alpha - olefins to correlate reaction rates with steric effects and to explain, in part, the difficulty of obtaining desirable polymers from these olefins ....Addition reactions to the double bond of a series of sterically-hindered alpha - olefins have been carried out. The kinetics of these reaction were...measured and the rates of reaction correlated with the steric effects present in the olefin . A theory known as "Newman’s rule of six" has been

  18. Evaluation of the Flagging Performance of the Hematology Analyzer Sysmex XN Series on the Basis of "Q Values".

    PubMed

    Kweon, Oh Joo; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hye Ryoun

    2017-08-31

    - In the XN series of hematology analyzers (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan), the probability of the presence of abnormal cells is indicated by flags based on Q values. - To evaluate the Q values performance of the Sysmex XN-20 modular analyzer. - The interinstrumental concordance, intrainstrumental precision, and diagnostic accuracy of Q values, with tested flags of "blasts/abnormal lymphocytes," "atypical lymphocytes," and "blasts," were investigated. - Absolute concordance rates in flagging between 2 analyzers ranged from 69.8% to 80.8%, and κ values ranged from 0.43 to 0.61. In samples with absolute related cell counts lower than 100/μL, the values ranged from 0.31 to 0.52. For intrainstrumental precision, standard deviations ranged from 4.8 to 23.9 for the blasts/abnormal lymphocytes, from 18.7 to 59.1 for the blasts, and from 11.0 to 23.0 for the atypical lymphocytes. Using a default Q value cutoff, diagnostic accuracy values based on the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were, respectively, 0.910, 90.9%, and 72.2% for blasts/abnormal lymphocytes; 0.927, 84.9%, and 89.8% for blasts; and 0.865, 74.4%, and 84.9% for atypical lymphocytes. The diagnostic accuracy of Q values was much lower in samples with absolute related cell counts lower than 100/μL than in those 100/μL or higher. - Q values of the Sysmex XN-20 analyzer were found to be imprecise and irreproducible, especially with samples containing a small number of pathologic cells. Adjustments in the Q value threshold may help in the detection of these cells.

  19. First-Principles Calculations for the Structural and Electronic Properties of ScxAl1-xN Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Rezek; Katircioğlu, Şenay

    2013-10-01

    The first-principles calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of Engel-Vosko-Perdew-Wang and modified exact exchange potential of Becke-Johnson have been introduced for the structural and electronic properties of the ScxAl1-xN alloys, respectively. The present lattice constants calculated for the ScAlN alloys and the end compounds (AlN and ScN) are found to be in very good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical ones. The stable ground state structures of the ScxAl1-xN alloys are determined to be wurtzite for the Sc concentration less than 0.403 and rock-salt for the higher Sc concentrations. The present electronic band structure calculations within Becke-Johnson scheme are found to be capable of providing energy band gaps of the AlN and ScN compounds very close to the ones of the available experiments and expensive calculations. According to the calculations of Becke-Johnson potential, the ScxAl1-xN alloys in the wurtzite and zinc-blende structures are direct band gap materials for the Sc concentrations in the ranges of (0.056 ≤ x ≤ 0.833) and (0.03125 ≤ x ≤ 0.0625, 0.375 ≤ x ≤ 0.96875), respectively. However, the ScAlN alloys in the rock-salt phase are determined to be direct band gap materials for total range of the Sc concentration considered in this work. While the energy gaps of the RS-AlScN alloys are found to be extending from near ultraviolet to near infrared with a large (negative) bowing, the ones of the WZ-AlScN and ZB-AlScN alloys are determined to be varying in a small energy range around near ultraviolet with a small (negative) bowing.

  20. Curved-lattice epitaxial growth of In(x)Al(1-x)N nanospirals with tailored chirality.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ching-Lien; Magnusson, Roger; Palisaitis, Justinas; Sandström, Per; Persson, Per O Å; Valyukh, Sergiy; Hultman, Lars; Järrendahl, Kenneth; Birch, Jens

    2015-01-14

    Chirality, tailored by external morphology and internal composition, has been realized by controlled curved-lattice epitaxial growth of In(x)Al(1-x)N nanospirals. The curved morphology of the spiral segments is a result of a lateral compositional gradient while maintaining a preferred crystallographic growth direction, implying a lateral gradient in optical properties. Individual nanospirals show an asymmetric core-shell structure with curved basal planes. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the tailored chirality is manifested in the polarization state of light reflected off the nanospirals.

  1. Temperature-controlled epitaxy of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys and their band gap bowing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S. T.; Wang, X. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhang, Y. W.; Feng, L.; Huang, C. C.; Xu, F. J.; Tang, N.; Shen, B.; Sang, L. W.; Sumiya, M.

    2011-12-01

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) have been grown on GaN/sapphire templates by molecular beam epitaxy. Growth temperature controlled epitaxy was proposed to modulate the In composition so that each In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layer was grown at a temperature as high as possible and thus their crystalline quality was improved. The bandgap energies of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys have been precisely evaluated by optical transmission spectroscopy, where the effect of residual strain and electron concentration (the Burstein-Moss effect) on the bandgap energy shift has been considered. Finally, a bowing parameter of {approx}1.9 {+-} 0.1 eV has been obtained by the well fitting In-composition dependent bandgap energy.

  2. New investigations of the 10B(p,{\\alpha }_{0})7Be reaction at bombarding energies between 0.6 and 1 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, I.; Dell'Aquila, D.; Conte, F.; Francalanza, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; La Torre, R.; Spadaccini, G.; Spitaleri, C.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-08-01

    We measured the 10B(p,{α }0)7Be reaction in the bombarding energy domain of 0.6-1.0 MeV, a region where very few data (with large uncertainties) have been reported in the literature. Despite the experimental difficulties, due to the unfavourable reaction kinematics and the presence of contaminants in the 10B target, we were able to measure excitation functions at both forward and backward angles thanks to the use of the inverse absorber technique. The obtained angular distributions show a continuous shape evolution, testifying to the contributions of several resonant states in the 11C compound nucleus. An R-matrix analysis of some reaction and scattering channels allows us to refine the spectroscopy of 11C excited states.

  3. Thick target neutron yields and spectra from the Li(d,xn) reaction at 35 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.L.; Mann, F.M.; Watson, J.W.; Brady, F.P.; Ullmann, J.L.; Romero, J.L.; Castaneda, C.M.; Zanelli, C.I.; Wyckoff, W.G.

    1980-05-01

    Measurements were performed using a 35 MeV deuteron beam from the isochronous cyclotron at the University of California at Davis. Data were obtained using the time-of-flight technique with an NE213 liquid scintillator. One set of measurements was used to observe the neutron spectrum from approx. 1 MeV to approx. 50 MeV, the maximum kinematically allowed energy. Observation angles were from 0/sup 0/ to 150/sup 0/ with emphasis on forward angles. Spectral data below approx. 1.5 MeV had poor accuracy. It was felt that a significant fraction of the neutron yield might lie at still lower energies, therefore a second set of measurements was performed to investigate the spectra to as low an energy as possible. Additional measurements were performed with a target enriched in the isotope /sup 6/Li replacing the natural lithium target used in previous measurements. The main advantage of a /sup 6/Li target is that the maximum kinematically allowed neutron energy is only about 38 MeV, hence reducing shielding requirements. The experiments, preliminary results, and future needs will be described.

  4. Influence of Alpha-Beams with Energy of 30 MeV on Wave Propagation in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Artamonov, D. N.; Priselkova, A. B.; Spassky, A. V.; Trukhanov, K. A.

    2007-11-26

    The generation of leading centers was observed in an oscillatory reaction of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky type under the action of collimated radiation with high linear energy transfer. Threshold values of the absorbed dose for the generation and complete quenching of autowaves were estimated. For modeling the effect of hard ionizing radiation on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, we proposed a modified radicalator model taking into account the interaction of reactants with {sup {center_dot}}OH radical, which is produced in the course of irradiation as a result of the radiolysis of water.

  5. Alpha Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions such as high blood pressure and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Find out more about this class of medication. ... these conditions: High blood pressure Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia) Though alpha blockers are commonly used to treat ...

  6. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  7. Lattice damage and compositional changes in Xe ion irradiated InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32-1.0) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Limin; Jiang, Weilin; Dissanayake, Amila C.; Peng, Jinxin; Ai, Wensi; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Tieshan; Shutthanandan, V.

    2016-06-27

    Lattice disorder and compositional changes in InxGa1-xN (x=0.32, 0.47, 0.7, 0.8 and 1.0) films on GaN/Al2O3 substrates, induced by room-temperature irradiation of 5 MeV Xe ions, have been investigated using both Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under ion-channeling conditions and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show that for a fluence of 3E13 cm-2, the relative level of lattice disorder in InxGa1-xN increases monotonically from 59% to 90% with increasing indium concentration x from 0.32 to 0.7; a further increase in x up to 1.0 leads to little increase in the disorder level. In contrast to Ga-rich InxGa1-xN (x=0.32 and 0.47), significant volume swelling of up to ~25% accompanied with oxidation in In-rich InxGa1-xN (x=0.7, 0.8 and 1.0) is observed. In addition, irradiation-induced atomic mixing occurs at the interface of In-rich InxGa1-xN and GaN. The results from this study indicate an extreme susceptibility of the high In-content InxGa1-xN to heavy-ion irradiation, and suggest that cautions must be exercised in applying ion-implantation techniques to these materials at room temperature. Further studies of the irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures are warranted.

  8. Lattice damage and compositional changes in Xe ion irradiated InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32-1.0) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Limin; Jiang, Weilin; Dissanayake, Amila; Peng, Jinxin; Ai, Wensi; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Tieshan; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam

    2016-06-01

    Lattice disorder and compositional changes in InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32, 0.47, 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0) films on GaN/Al2O3 substrates, induced by room-temperature irradiation of 5 MeV Xe ions, have been investigated using both Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under ion-channeling conditions and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show that for a fluence of 3 × 1013 cm-2, the relative level of lattice disorder in InxGa1-xN increases monotonically from 59% to 90% with increasing indium concentration x from 0.32 to 0.7; a further increase in x up to 1.0 leads to little increase in the disorder level. In contrast to Ga-rich InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32 and 0.47), significant volume swelling of up to ˜25% accompanied with oxidation in In-rich InxGa1-xN (x = 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0) is observed. In addition, irradiation-induced atomic mixing occurs at the interface of In-rich InxGa1-xN and GaN. The results from this study indicate an extreme susceptibility of the high In-content InxGa1-xN to heavy-ion irradiation, and suggest that cautions must be exercised in applying ion-implantation techniques to these materials at room temperature. Further studies of the irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures are warranted.

  9. Influence of the Al distribution on the structure, elastic properties, and phase stability of supersaturated Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N

    SciTech Connect

    Mayrhofer, P. H.; Music, D.; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N films and/or their alloys are employed in many industrial applications due to their excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Synthesized by plasma-assisted vapor deposition, Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is reported to crystallize in the cubic NaCl (c) structure for AlN mole fractions below 0.4-0.91, whereas at larger Al contents the hexagonal ZnS-wurtzite (w) structure is observed. Here we use ab initio calculations to analyze the effect of composition and Al distribution on the metal sublattice on phase stability, structure, and elastic properties of c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N and w-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N. We show that the phase stability of supersaturated c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N not only depends on the chemical composition but also on the Al distribution of the metal sublattice. An increase of the metastable solubility limit of AlN in c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N from 0.64 to 0.74 is obtained by decreasing the number of Ti-Al bonds. This can be understood by considering the Al distribution induced changes of the electronic structure, bond energy, and configurational entropy. This may in part explain the large variation of the metastable solubility limit reported in the literature.

  10. Nucleophilic reactions at a vinylic center. XX. Base-catalyzed rearrangement of aryl /beta/,/beta/-dibromovinyl sulfones to Z-aryl /alpha/,/beta/-dibromovinyl sulfones

    SciTech Connect

    Shainyan, B.A.; Mirskova, A.N.

    1988-07-10

    A series of aryl /beta/,/beta/-dibromovinyl sulfones XC/sub 6/H/sub 4/SO/sub 2/CH=CBr/sub 2/ were synthesized, and their rearrangement to Z-aryl /alpha/,/beta/-dibromovinyl sulfones XC/sub 6/H/sub 4/SO/sub 2/CBr=CHBr by the action of KF /times/ 18-crown-6 in benzene was studied. The rearrangement rate increases with increase in the concentration of the base (F/sup /minus//) and with increase in the electron-withdrawing character of the substituent X (p-OMe < p-Me < H < p-Cl < m-NO/sub 2/) and does not depend on the temperature.

  11. High pressure stability analysis and chemical bonding of Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N alloy: A first principle study

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Mamta; Gupta, Dinesh C. E-mail: mamta-physics@yahoo.co.in

    2016-05-23

    First-principles pseudo-potential calculations have been performed to analyze the stability of Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N alloy under high pressures. The first order phase transition from B1 to B2 phase has been observed in this alloy at high pressure. The variation of lattice parameter with the change in concentration of Zr atom in Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N is also reported in both the phases. The calculations for density of states have been performed to understand the alloying effects on chemical bonding of Ti-Zr-N alloy.

  12. Hybrid perovskite resulting from the solid-state reaction between the organic cations and perovskite layers of alpha1-(Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2)PbI(4).

    PubMed

    Sourisseau, Sebastien; Louvain, Nicolas; Bi, Wenhua; Mercier, Nicolas; Rondeau, David; Buzaré, Jean-Yves; Legein, Christophe

    2007-07-23

    The alpha1-(Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2)PbI(4) hybrid perovskite undergoes a solid-state transformation, that is, the reaction between the organic cations and the perovskite layers to give the new hybrid perovskite (Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2-x)(I-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(x)PbBr(x)I(4-x), based on mixed halide inorganic layers. This transformation has been followed by a conventional powder X-ray diffraction system equipped with a super speed detector, and both solid-state (13)C NMR and ESI/MS measurements have been adopted in the estimation of the rate of halide substitution. The first reaction step leads to the special composition of x approximately 1 (A phase), while the complete substitution is not achieved even at elevated temperature (x(max) approximately 1.85 (B phase)). This unprecedented solid-state reaction between organic and inorganic components of a hybrid perovskite can be considered as a completely new strategy to achieve interesting hybrid perovskites.

  13. Characterization of Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings with selective IR reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Godinho, V.; Philippon, D.; Rojas, T.C.; Fernandez, A.; Novikova, N.N.; Yakovlev, V.A.; Vinogradov, E.A.

    2010-08-15

    Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The obtained different stoichiometries give rise to different optical properties as the films change from metallic to dielectric. In this work the IR reflectivity of these coatings is investigated taking into account different application fields for IR selective Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N thin films. Low Al content coatings present high reflectivity, high absorptance and low thermal emittance. High Al compositions give raise to coatings with high absorptance and high thermal emittance. The composition of the coatings was evaluated combining electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a columnar structure. Reflectance spectra for the visible and infrared spectral ranges were used to obtain the solar absorptance and thermal emittance values, used to calculate the equilibrium temperature of the coatings. The thermal stability in air from 300 to 600 C was also evaluated. (author)

  14. Spectroscopic analysis of the NIR emission in Tm implanted AlxGa1-xN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, J.; Fialho, M.; Esteves, T. C.; Santos, N. F.; Ben Sedrine, N.; Rino, L.; Neves, A. J.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Monteiro, T.

    2016-08-01

    AlxGa1-xN samples, with different AlN molar fractions, x = 0, 0.15, 0.77, and 1, grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were implanted with Tm ions. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that after thermal annealing all the samples exhibit intraionic Tm3+ luminescence. In samples with x > 0, the low temperature emission is dominated by the lines that appear in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region, corresponding to the overlapped 1G4 → 3H5 and 3H4 → 3H6 multiplet transitions. A detailed spectroscopic analysis of NIR emission of the thulium implanted and annealed AlxGa1-xN layers is presented by using temperature dependent steady-state PL, room temperature PL excitation, and time resolved PL. The results indicate that the excitonic features sensitive to the alloy disorder are involved in the excitation population processes of the Tm3+ luminescence and the highest thermal stability for the NIR emission occurs for the AlN:Tm sample.

  15. Microstructure and dielectric properties of piezoelectric magnetron sputtered w-ScxAl1-xN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zukauskaite, Agne; Wingqvist, Gunilla; Palisaitis, Justinas; Jensen, Jens; Persson, Per; Matloub, Ramin; Muralt, Paul; Kim, Yunseok; Birch, Jens; Hultman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric wurtzite ScxAl1 xN (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) thin films were epitaxially grown by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from elemental Sc and Al targets. Al2O3(0001) wafers with TiN(111) seed and electrode layers were used as substrates. X-ray diffraction shows that an increase in the Sc content results in the degradation of the crystalline quality. Samples grown at 400 C possess true dielectric behavior with quite low dielectric losses and the leakage current is negligible. For ScAlN samples grown at 800 C, the crystal structure is poor and leakage current is high. Transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping shows a mass separation into ScN-rich and AlN-rich domains for x 0.2 when substrate temperature is increased from 400 to 800 C. The piezoelectric response of epitaxial ScxAl1 xN films measured by piezoresponse force microscopy and double beam interferometry shows up to 180% increase by the addition of Sc up to x = 0.2 independent of substrate temperature, in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions based on density-functional theory.

  16. Role of electronic excitations and nuclear collisions for color center creation in AlxGa1-xN semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisy, F.; Grygiel, C.; Ribet, A.; Sall, M.; Balanzat, E.; Monnet, I.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, AlxGa1-xN (x = 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.65; 0.7; 0.8; 1) wurtzite epilayers, grown on c-plane sapphire substrates, have been irradiated with Swift Heavy Ions at GANIL facility. Modifications induced by irradiation are characterized with in-situ optical absorption spectroscopy at 15 K. Spectra of these irradiated alloys exhibit optical absorption band formation, related to new energy levels in their bandgaps, whose positions only depend on the composition of the layer. However, these absorption bands are not observed in the AlxGa1-xN with Al molar fraction less than 0.3, likely because the energy level of the corresponding defect is located above the conduction band. Moreover, using different irradiation conditions, a coupled effect between nuclear collisions and electronic excitations for these color center creation have been investigated. A synergy between these two phenomena has been shown and appears to be independent of the composition of the alloy.

  17. Products of the reaction between alpha- or gamma-tocopherol and nitrogen oxides analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yoshiko; Matsumoto, Yohta; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2004-05-21

    The reaction products of alpha- or gamma-tocopherol with nitric oxide in the presence of molecular oxygen were isolated and characterized. The consumption of tocopherols and the formation of the major products were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by a gradient elution method. The quantitative analysis of these compounds with UV-Vis detectors, however, was interfered by several minor products having similar UV spectra and retention times as those of the major ones. In order to establish a quantitative analytical method for the products, we investigated other detection methods, and found that atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), LC-MS was a more selective and better analytical method for these compounds.

  18. Higher reactivity of apolipoprotein B-100 and alpha-tocopherol compared to sialic acid moiety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in radical reaction.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Nao; Nariyama, Yoko; Hashimoto, Ryoko; Kojo, Shosuke

    2003-09-01

    Radical reaction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key step in atherogenesis and causes both a decrease in the sialic acid moiety and modification of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB). Although apoB modification (cross-link and fragmentation) increases in atherosclerosis, the change in apoB-bound sialic acid in atherosclerosis is controversial. To elucidate the physiological implications of desialylation of LDL by radical reaction, the reactivity of sialic acid of LDL was compared with that of apoB, which underwent facile fragmentation in radical reactions. ApoB was determined by immunoblot analysis with anti-apoB antiserum, and the sialic acid moiety was measured by blot analysis with a biotin-bound lectin [biotin-SSA from Japanese elderberry (Sambucus sieboldiana)] specific to sialic acid. When human LDL was oxidized with Cu(2+) at 37 degrees C, apoB and apoB-attached sialic acid decreased simultaneously. Comparison of the staining bands with anti-apoB and with biotin-SSA shows that sialic acid moieties still remain on fragmented apoB proteins, indicating that the decrease in sialic acid is much slower than that of apoB fragmentation. In addition, human plasma was oxidized with 400 microM of Cu(2+) at 37 degrees C. Similar analysis indicates that the decrease in sialic acid attached to apoB also results from the fragmentation of apoB. This study indicates that the fragmentation of apoB proceeds at a much faster rate than the decrease in sialic acid content when a free radical reaction is induced in isolated LDL as well as in plasma LDL exposed to Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress. On the basis of these results, the modification of apoB is much more sensitive than the decrease in sialic acid as an indicator of oxidative stress.

  19. Alpha-particle clustering in excited alpha-conjugate nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borderie, B.; Raduta, Ad R.; Ademard, G.; Rivet, M. F.; De Filippo, E.; Geraci, E.; Le Neindre, N.; Alba, R.; Amorini, F.; Cardella, G.; Chatterjee, M.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Lombardo, I.; Lopez, O.; Maiolino, C.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    The nuclear reaction 40Ca+12C at 25 MeV per nucleon incident energy was used to produce excited alpha-conjugate fragments from projectile fragmentation mechanism. From a careful selection provided by a complete detection and from comparisons with models of sequential and simultaneous decays, evidence in favor of α-particle clustering from excited light alpha-conjugate nuclei is reported.

  20. Expression of type IV collagen alpha 3 and alpha 4 chain mRNA in X-linked Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, K; Yoskikawa, N; Iijima, K; Nakamura, H

    1996-06-01

    X-Linked Alport syndrome is caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene encoding the Type IV collagen alpha 5 chain (alpha 5(IV)). The authors' recent immunohistochemical study demonstrated abnormal expression of alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV), as well as of alpha 5(IV), in patients with this syndrome, and a correlation between abnormal alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) expression and severity of the disease. The mechanism linking alpha 5(IV) mutations with abnormal alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) expression is unknown. To examine alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) mRNA expression in renal cortical tissues of patients with X-linked Alport syndrome, a nonradioisotopic, semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (alpha 3(IV) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha 4(IV), and GAPDH coamplification) was performed. There were no significant differences among severely affected male (N = 3), mildly affected male (N = 2), and female (N = 1) X-linked Alport patients and control subjects (N = 2) with respect to alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) mRNA expression in renal cortical tissue. These findings indicate that alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) transcription is not turned off in X-linked Alport syndrome and suggest that abnormal expression of alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) proteins in this syndrome may be the result of failure of incorporation of alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) into the glomerular basement membrane.

  1. Experimental Cross Sections for Reactions of Heavy Ions and 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U, and 248Cm Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Patin, Joshua Barnes

    2002-01-01

    The study of the reactions between heavy ions and 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U, and 248Cm Cm targets was performed to look at the differences between the cross sections of hot and cold fusion reactions. Experimental cross sections were compared with predictions from statistical computer codes to evaluate the effectiveness of the computer code in predicting production cross sections. Hot fusion reactions were studied with the MG system, catcher foil techniques and the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). 3n- and 4n-exit channel production cross sections were obtained for the 238U(18O,xn)256-xFm, 238U(22Ne,xn)260-xNo, and 248Cm(15N,xn)263-xLr reactions and are similar to previous experimental results. The experimental cross sections were accurately modeled by the predictions of the HIVAP code using the Reisdorf and Schaedel parameters and are consistent with the existing systematics of 4n exit channel reaction products. Cold fusion reactions were examined using the BGS. The 48Pb(238Ca,xn)256-xNo, 208Pb(50Ti,xn)258-xRf, 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb, 50Bi(238Ti,xn)259-xDb, and 209Bi(51V,xn)260-xSg reactions were studied. The experimental production cross sections are in agreement with the results observed in previous experiments. It was necessary to slightly alter the Reisdorf and Schaedel parameters for use in the HIVAP code in order to more accurately model the experimental data. The cold fusion experimental results are in agreement with current 1n- and 2n-exit channel systematics.

  2. Relationship of superficial scald development and alpha-farnesene oxidation to reactions of diphenylamine and diphenylamine derivatives in Cv. Granny Smith apple peel.

    PubMed

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Fellman, John K

    2005-10-19

    Cv. Granny Smith apple fruit, treated at harvest with aqueous emulsions containing diphenylamine (DPA) and DPA derivatives, were evaluated for the peel disorder superficial scald (scald) after 6 months of cold storage at 1 degrees C plus 0 or 7 days at 20 degrees C. Metabolism of these derivatives and alpha-farnesene oxidation were also evaluated after 6 months. Derivatives substituted at the para position prevented scald, but scald developed on fruit treated with derivatives substituted in the amino, ortho, or meta positions. The extent of scald control was also dependent on the chemical nature of the functional group used to derivatize DPA. Hydroxylation of DPA and DPA derivatives during storage was not associated with scald control. Methoxylated DPA derivatives produced during storage resulted from O-methylation of C-hydroxylated derivatives rather than C-methoxylation of DPA. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine provided partial scald control, possibly resulting from its degradation to DPA, indicating that the amino hydrogen of DPA may be crucial for scald control. Results suggest that functional group position and chemical properties both contribute to the efficacy of DPA derivatives for scald control.

  3. Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Chahid, Karim; Laglaoui, Amin; Zantar, Said; Ennabili, Abdeslam

    2015-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD.

  4. New approach to description of (d,xn) spectra at energies below 50 MeV in Monte Carlo simulation by intra-nuclear cascade code with Distorted Wave Born Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Niita, K.; Boudard, A.; Cugnon, J.; David, J.-C.; Leray, S.; Mancusi, D.

    2014-08-01

    A new approach to describing neutron spectra of deuteron-induced reactions in the Monte Carlo simulation for particle transport has been developed by combining the Intra-Nuclear Cascade of Liège (INCL) and the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) calculation. We incorporated this combined method into the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and applied it to estimate (d,xn) spectra on natLi, 9Be, and natC targets at incident energies ranging from 10 to 40 MeV. Double differential cross sections obtained by INCL and DWBA successfully reproduced broad peaks and discrete peaks, respectively, at the same energies as those observed in experimental data. Furthermore, an excellent agreement was observed between experimental data and PHITS-derived results using the combined method in thick target neutron yields over a wide range of neutron emission angles in the reactions. We also applied the new method to estimate (d,xp) spectra in the reactions, and discussed the validity for the proton emission spectra.

  5. Chemical modification of hydroxynitrile lyase by selective reaction of an essential cysteine-SH group with alpha, beta-unsaturated propiophenones as pseudo-substrates.

    PubMed

    Jaenicke, L; Preun, J

    1984-01-16

    3-Oxo-3-phenylpropyne and 3-oxo-3-phenylpropene were synthesized as active-site-directed irreversible inhibitors of the bitter almond hydroxynitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10), an FAD-protein. The substrate and competitors (e.g. benzoate) decrease the rate of the inhibitor-mediated deactivation of the enzyme. By excess addition of either one of the two inhibitors, the deactivation process is shown to be pseudo-first order. The reaction with equimolar amounts of 3-oxo-3-phenylpropyne with the enzyme is accompanied by a shift in the ultraviolet spectrum of the inhibitor, allowing direct measurement of the enzyme-inactivation process. The spectral change has second-order kinetics. Incubation with 3-oxo-3-[p-3H]phenylpropyne or 3-oxo-3-[1-14C]phenylpropene shows a one-to-one stoichiometry for the inhibitory-enzyme reaction. Dissociation of the 3-oxo-3[p-3H]phenylpropyne-inactivated holoenzyme with acid ammonium sulfate yields a labeled apoenzyme; the inhibitor does not react with free or enzyme-bound FAD. After boranate reduction and exhaustive hydrolysis of the 3-oxo-3-[1-14C]phenylpropene-inactivated enzyme, a labeled cysteine derivative was isolated which was identified by chromatographic and mass spectroscopic comparison with synthetic references as L-2-amino-4-thia-DL-7-hydroxy-7-phenylhepatanoic acid, the reduced, linear addition product of the inhibitor to a cysteine-SH group.

  6. Aluminum incorporation in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N films studied by x-ray absorption near-edge structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gago, R.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Endrino, J. L.; Jimenez, I.; Shevchenko, N.

    2009-06-01

    The local bonding structure of titanium aluminum nitride (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) films grown by dc magnetron cosputtering with different AlN molar fractions (x) has been studied by x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) recorded in total electron yield mode. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) shows the formation of a ternary solid solution with cubic structure (c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) that shrinks with the incorporation of Al and that, above a solubility limit of xapprox0.7, segregation of w-AlN and c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N phases occurs. The Al incorporation in the cubic structure and lattice shrinkage can also be observed using XANES spectral features. However, contrary to GIXRD, direct evidence of w-AlN formation is not observed, suggesting a dominance and surface enrichment of cubic environments. For x>0.7, XANES shows the formation of Ti-Al bonds, which could be related to the segregation of w-AlN. This study shows the relevance of local-order information to assess the atomic structure of Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N solutions.

  7. Analysis of Vegard's law for lattice matching InxAl1-xN to GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Young, Erin C.; Laurent, Matthew A.; Li, Youli; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.

    2017-10-01

    Coherent InxAl1-xN (x = 0.15 to x = 0.28) films were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on GaN templates to investigate if the films obey Vegard's Law by comparing the film stress-thickness product from wafer curvature before and after InxAl1-xN deposition. The In composition and film thickness were verified using atom probe tomography and high resolution X-ray diffraction, respectively. Ex-situ curvature measurements were performed to analyze the curvature before and after the InxAl1-xN deposition. At ∼In0.18Al0.82N, no change in curvature was observed following InAlN deposition; confirming that films of this composition are latticed matched to GaN, obeying Vegard's law. The relaxed a0- and c0- lattice parameters of InxAl1-xN were experimentally determined and in agreement with lattice parameters predicted by Vegard's law.

  8. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer in assessment of the white blood cell count differential in pediatric specimens.

    PubMed

    Becker, P-H; Fenneteau, O; Da Costa, L

    2016-02-01

    The automated XN-1000 hematology analyzer enables to perform a blood cell count and a leukocyte differential. When abnormal cells were detected, a flag was generated by the analyzer and a manual microscopic examination of the corresponding blood film was performed. We compared the white blood cell differentials provided by the automated hematology analyzer XN-1000 in a pediatric population (n = 765) with those obtained through microscopic examination by cytologists and those obtained using a previous version of this analyzer, the XE-2100. Leukocytes count as well as flags sensitivity and specificity was analyzed. The leukocytes count provided by the analyzer is in good accordance with the differential obtained by manual count in children older than 3 months. The sensitivity for blast detection is 99% and the detection of reactive cells is 63%. The flag specificity remains low (<35%) for blood samples collected from infants between 8 days and 2 years of age, but increases up to 67% thereafter. The results obtained with the XN-1000 analyzer show an improvement in comparison with those obtained with the XE-2100 analyzer. The automated WBC differential provided by the XN-1000 analyzer in the pediatric setting is accurate, but a meticulous microscopic examination of blood smears remains necessary for infants up to 3 months of age to validate the analyzer flags. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mechanical properties of AlxGa1-xN films with high Al composition grown on AlN/sapphire templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F. J.; Shen, B.; Wang, M. J.; Xu, J.; Lu, L.; Miao, Z. L.; Yang, Z. J.; Qin, Z. X.; Zhang, G. Y.; Lin, B.; Bai, S. L.

    2007-08-01

    Mechanical properties of AlxGa1-xN thin films with high Al composition (0.33⩽x⩽1) grown on AlN/sapphire templates have been investigated by means of the nanoindentation technique. It is found that Young's modulus E of the films increases with increasing Al composition. In addition, it is also found that the occurrence of the clear and sudden displacement discontinuity ("pop-in") in the plastic deformation (PD) process is dependent on Al composition in AlxGa1-xN films. The higher Al composition results in less occurrence of the pop-in in the PD process of the films. With increasing Al composition, it is believed that the increase of the bond strength and the decrease of the lattice mismatch between AlxGa1-xN films and AlN/sapphire templates result in greater resistance to the formation of dislocations, which is responsible for the pop-in behavior in AlxGa1-xN films.

  10. Synthesis of alpha-phosphorylated alpha,beta-unsaturated imines and their selective reduction to vinylogous and saturated alpha-aminophosphonates.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Aparicio, Domitila

    2007-03-30

    An efficient synthesis of alpha,beta-unsaturated imines derived from alpha-aminophosphonates is achieved through aza-Wittig reaction of P-trimethyl phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketophosphonates. Selective 1,2-reduction of such 1-azadienes affords beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-aminophosphonates, phosphorylated analogs of vinylglycines, which are hydrogenated to yield saturated alpha-aminophosphonate derivatives.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction of 2-kb cyanobacterial gene and human anti-alpha1-chymotrypsin gene from genomic DNA on the In-Check single-use microfabricated silicon chip.

    PubMed

    Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Frosini, Andrea; Caramenti, Giancarlo; De Fazio, Marco; Ferrara, Francesco; Zocco, Anna; Fischetti, Alessandra; Palmieri, Michele; De Bellis, Gianluca

    2006-06-15

    The microfabricated chip is a promising format for automating and miniaturizing the multiple steps of genotyping. We tested an innovative silicon biochip (In-Check Lab-on-Chip; STMicroelectronics, Agrate Brianza, Italy) designed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of complex biological samples. The chip is mounted on a 1x3-in(2). plastic slide that provides the necessary mechanical, thermal, electrical, and fluidic connections. A temperature control system drives the chip to the desired temperatures, and a graphical user interface allows experimenters to define cycling conditions and monitor reactions in real time. During thermal cycling, we recorded a cooling rate of 3.2 degrees C/s and a heating rate of 11 degrees C/s. The temperature maintained at each thermal plateau was within 0.13 degrees C of the programmed temperature at three sensors. From 0.5 ng/microl genomic DNA, the In-Check device successfully amplified the 2060-bp cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene and the 330-bp human anti-alpha(1)-chymotrypsin gene. The shortest PCR protocol that produced an amplicon by capillary electrophoresis comprised 30 cycles and was 22.5 min long. These thermal cycling characteristics suggest that the In-Check device will permit future development of a genotyping lab-on-a-chip device, yielding results in a short time from a limited amount of biological starting material.

  12. Investigation of activation cross section data of alpha particle induced nuclear reaction on molybdenum up to 40 MeV: Review of production routes of medically relevant 97,103Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Ignatyuk, A.

    2017-05-01

    The main goals of this investigations were to expand and consolidate reliable activation cross-section data for the natMo(α,x) reactions in connection with production of medically relevant 97,103Ru and the use of the natMo(α,x)97Ru reaction for monitoring beam parameters. The excitation functions for formation of the gamma-emitting radionuclides 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 93mTc, 93gTc(m+), 94mTc, 94gTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, 96gTc(m+), 99mTc, 93mMo, 99Mo(cum), 90Nb(m+) and 88Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha-particle energy by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. Data of our earlier similar experiments were re-evaluated and resulted in corrections on the reported results. Our experimental data were compared with critically analyzed literature data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE 3.1 (Rivoli) and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011 and TENDL-2015 on-line libraries). Nuclear data for different production routes of 97Ru and 103Ru are compiled and reviewed.

  13. Alpha fetoprotein

    MedlinePlus

    ... the liver Liver cancer Malignant teratoma Recovery from hepatitis Problems during pregnancy Alternative Names Fetal alpha globulin; AFP Images Blood ... JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 11. Read More ... cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Malignant teratoma of the ...

  14. Excitation Functions for Complete Fusion and Transfer Reactions in the Interaction of 4He Nuclei with 197Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulko, A. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Rassadov, D. N.; Skobelev, N. K.; Testov, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for the fusion reaction 197Au(αxn)201-xnTl with the evaporation of x neutrons (0⩽x⩽3) in the energy range 14-36 MeV. The induced-activation method was used for registration and identification of the reaction products. The experimental cross sections for the (1-3)-neutron evaporation residues are in good agreement with the results known from literature. For the radiation capture reaction 197Au(α,γ)201Tl, the upper limit was obtained essentially lower. The excitation functions for the measured reactions are compared with calculations in the frame of the statistical model, as well as with formerly measured similar data with a 6He beam.

  15. Glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK) is a quencher of alpha,beta-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal: a comparison with carnosine. insights into the mechanism of reaction by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, 1H NMR, and computational techniques.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Giangiacomo; Artali, Roberto; Regazzoni, Luca; Panigati, Monica; Facino, Roberto Maffei

    2007-09-01

    Histidine-containing oligopeptides are currently studied as detoxifying agents against cytotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes (prototype: 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, HNE), electrophilic end products formed by decomposition of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, associated with severe pathologies such as diabetes, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neurodegenerative diseases. This study evaluated the quenching reaction against HNE of the endogenous tripeptide l-glycyl- l-histidyl- l-lysine (GHK), an oligopeptide discovered to be a growth-modulating factor and also a strong activator of wound healing. We first evaluated the HNE consumption (50 microM, HPLC-UVDAD method) in the presence of GHK (1 mM) in physiomimetic conditions (phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) and confirmed GHK/HNE adduct formation by mass spectrometric analysis (ESI-MS/MS) and (1)H NMR analyses. These results indicated that GHK was an effective quencher of HNE, although significantly less potent than the reference compound carnosine, and that HNE modulation by GHK can contribute to the satisfactory outcome of the wound-healing process. In the second part of the study, we investigated the quenching reaction between GHK and HNE, in parallel to carnosine, using (1)H NMR and computational analyses. At a mechanistic level, this explained the different reactivity of the two peptides: (i) The greater stability of the macrocyclic intermediate HNE/carnosine was compared to HNE/GHK. (ii) GHK in solution has a quasi-folded conformation due to the interaction of four intramolecular hydrogen bonds, three of which need to be broken for the transition state to form (energy barrier, approximately 20 kcal/mol). By contrast, carnosine, with an extended conformation and only one hydrogen bond, requires less energy to reach the transition state ( approximately 7 kcal/mol). (iii) The different stereoelectronic features of the transition state lead to the intramolecular Michael reaction, that is, the favorable superimposition of

  16. Microscopic time-dependent description of alpha-cluster transfer and incomplete fusion in reactions with 12C and 16O near Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarin, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation has been numerically solved for the α-cluster wave function the in reaction 12C+51V at the energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. The α-target potential included an imaginary part as in the optical model. The α-cluster mean field of the shell model for 12C and 16O nuclei based on the results of Feynman’s integrals method is proposed. The evolution of the α-cluster probability density was calculated for the complete and incomplete fusion as well as transfer channels. The calculated cross sections show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data for (12C,α) and (12C,2α) transfer channels.

  17. Analogs of the giant dipole and spin-dipole resonances in {sup 4}He and in {alpha} clusters of {sup 6,7}Li studied by the {sup 4}He,{sup 6,7}Li({sup 7}Li,{sup 7}Be{gamma}) reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, S.; Matsumoto, E.; Fushimi, K.; Hayami, R.; Kawasuso, H.; Yasuda, K.; Yamagata, T.; Akimune, H.; Ikemizu, H.; Asaji, S.; Ishida, T.; Kudoh, T.; Sagara, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Kawase, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Oota, T.; Yosoi, M.; Greenfield, M. B.

    2008-07-15

    We studied analogs of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) and spin-dipole resonance (SDR) in {sup 4}He and in the {alpha} clusters of {sup 6,7}Li via the ({sup 7}Li,{sup 7}Be{gamma}) reactions on {sup 4}He, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 7}Li at an incident energy of 455 MeV and at a scattering angle of 0 deg. by measuring spin-nonflip and spin-flip spectra. The reaction Q-values for the analogs of the GDR and SDR in the {alpha} clusters of {sup 6,7}Li were found to be more negative than those in {sup 4}He by 2.0{+-}0.5 MeV. The ratios of the cross section for the analog of the GDR to that for the analog of the SDR in {sup 4}He and in the {alpha} clusters of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li were found to be the same within errors, 0.5{+-}0.1. The cross sections for the analogs of the GDR as well as those for the analogs of the SDR in the {alpha} clusters of {sup 6,7}Li were 0.6{approx}0.8 times smaller than those in {sup 4}He. These results suggest that excitations of {alpha} clusters embedded in nuclei are suppressed as compared with excitations of free {alpha} particles.

  18. Growth of free-standing bulk wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers by molecular beam epitaxy using a highly efficient RF plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Staddon, C. R.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The recent development of group III nitrides allows researchers world-wide to consider AlGaN based light emitting diodes as a possible new alternative deep ultra-violet light source for surface decontamination and water purification. In this paper we will describe our recent results on plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) growth of free-standing wurtzite AlxGa1-xN bulk crystals using the latest model of Riber's highly efficient nitrogen RF plasma source. We have achieved AlGaN growth rates up to 3 μm/h. Wurtzite AlxGa1-xN layers with thicknesses up to 100 μm were successfully grown by PA-MBE on 2-inch and 3-inch GaAs (111)B substrates. After growth the GaAs was subsequently removed using a chemical etch to achieve free-standing AlxGa1-xN wafers. Free-standing bulk AlxGa1-xN wafers with thicknesses in the range 30-100 μm may be used as substrates for further growth of AlxGa1-xN-based structures and devices. High Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-STEM) and Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED) were employed for detailed structural analysis of AlGaN/GaAs (111)B interface and allowed us to determine the N-polarity of AlGaN layers grown on GaAs (111)B substrates. The novel, high efficiency RF plasma source allowed us to achieve free-standing AlxGa1-xN layers in a single day's growth, making this a commercially viable process.

  19. Validation of the body fluid module on the new Sysmex XN-1000 for counting blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chérina; Brouwer, Rob; Lindemans, Jan; de Jonge, Robert

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the body fluid (BF) module on the new Sysmex XN-1000 for counting blood cells. One hundred and eighty-seven BF samples [73 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 48 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 46 ascites, and 20 pleural fluid] were used for method comparison between the XN-1000 and manual microscopy (Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and stained cytospin slides) for counting red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) (differential). Good agreement was found for counting WBCs (y=1.06x+0.09, n=67, R2=0.96) and mononuclear cells (MNs) (y=1.04x-0.01, n=40, R2=0.93) in CSF. However, the XN-1000 systematically counted more polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) (y=1.48x+0.18, n=40, R2=0.99) compared to manual microscopy. Excellent correlation for RBCs >1×109/L (y=0.99x+116.56, n=26, R2=0.99) in CSF was found. For other fluids (CAPD, ascites and pleural fluid) excellent agreement was found for counting WBCs (y=1.06x+0.26, n=109, R2=0.98), MNs (y=1.06x-0.41, n=93, R2=0.96), PMNs (y=1.06x+0.81, n=93, R2=0.98) and RBCs (y=1.04x+110.04, n=43, R2=0.98). By using BF XN-check, the lower limit of quantitation (LLoQ) for WBC was defined at 5×106/L. Linearity was excellent for both the WBCs (R2=0.99) and RBCs (R2=0.99) and carry-over never exceeded 0.05%. The BF module on the XN-1000 is a suitable tool for fast and accurate quantification of WBC (differential) and RBC counts in CSF and other BFs in a diagnostic setting.

  20. Possibilities of synthesis of unknown isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z > 108 in asymmetric actinide-based complete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Juhee; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2016-10-01

    The possibilities of production of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z = 109-114 in various asymmetric hot fusion reactions are studied for the first time. The excitation functions of the formation of these isotopes in the xn evaporation channels are predicted and the optimal conditions for the synthesis are proposed. The products of the suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of the heaviest nuclei obtained in cold and hot complete fusion reactions.

  1. Luminescence and superradiance in electron-beam-excited Al{sub x}Ga{1-sub x}N

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhan, P. A.; Gugin, P. P.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.; Malin, T. V.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Osinnykh, I. V.; Solomonov, V. I.; Spirina, A. V.

    2014-09-21

    Luminescence and superradiance characteristics of 0.5–1.2-μm thick Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates were studied under excitation of the films with low-energy (<20 keV) and high-energy (170 keV) electron beams. In both cases, the luminescence spectra looked quite similarly; they exhibited a band-edge luminescence with x-dependent wavelength ranging from 365 nm to 310 nm and a broadband emission taking over the whole visible spectral region. Superradiance within the broad band was obtained by pumping the samples with powerful an electron beam in the form of an open-discharge-generated filament.

  2. Barrier height of Pt-InxGa1-xN (0<=x<=0.5) nanowire Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Banerjee, Animesh; Zhang, Meng; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2011-05-01

    The barrier height of Schottky diodes made on InxGa1-xN nanowires have been determined from capacitance-voltage measurements. The nanowires were grown undoped on n-type (001) silicon substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The length, diameter and density of the nanowires are ˜1 μm, 20 nm, and 1×1011 cm-2. The Schottky contact was made on the top surface of the nanowires with Pt after planarizing with parylene. The measured barrier height ΦB varies from 1.4 eV (GaN) to 0.44 eV (In0.5Ga0.5N) and agrees well with the ideal barrier heights in the Schottky limit.

  3. Half metallic ferromagnetism in alkaline-earth metal nitrides XN (X=Ca, Sr and Ba): A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, R. Rajeswara; Priyanga, G. Sudha; Cinthia, A. Jemmy; Murugan, A.; Meenaatci, A. T. Asvini; Iyakutti, K.

    2013-11-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical and magnetic properties of 3 alkaline-earth metal nitrides (XN: X=Ca, Sr, and Ba) are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation code. At ambient pressure all the 3 nitrides are stable in the ferromagnetic state with a cubic NaCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metallic ferromagnets at normal pressure. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from NaCl (B1) to CsCl (B2) phase is observed in CaN, SrN and BaN. On further increasing the pressure, a half metallic to metallic transition is also observed in these nitrides. Ferromagnetism is quenched in all the 3 nitrides at high pressures.

  4. Tuning of superconductivity by Ni substitution into noncentrosymmetric ThC o1 -xN ixC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, T. W.; Cigarroa, O. V.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Machado, A. J. S.; Fisk, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The recently discovered noncentrosymmetric superconductor ThCoC2 was observed to show unusual superconducting behavior with a critical temperature of Tc=2.65 K . Here we investigate the effect of nickel substitution on the superconducting state in ThC o1 -xN ixC2 . Magnetization, resistivity, and heat capacity measurements demonstrate Ni substitution has a dramatic effect with critical temperature increased up to Tc=12.1 K for x =0.4 Ni concentration, which is a rather high transition temperature for a noncentrosymmetric superconductor. In addition, the unusual superconducting characteristics observed in pure ThCoC2 appear to be suppressed or tuned with Ni substitution towards a more conventional fully gapped superconductor.

  5. Involvement of metals in enzymatic and nonenzymatic decomposition of C-terminal alpha-hydroxyglycine to amide: an implication for the catalytic role of enzyme-bound zinc in the peptidylamidoglycolate lyase reaction.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenichi; Harada, Saori; Higashimoto, Yuichiro; Shimokawa, Chizu; Sato, Hideaki; Sugishima, Masakazu; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Noguchi, Masato

    2009-02-24

    The peptide C-terminal amide group essential for the full biological activity of many peptide hormones is produced by consecutive actions of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidylamidoglycolate lyase (PAL); PHM catalyzes the hydroxylation of C-terminal glycine, and PAL decomposes the peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine to an amidated peptide and glyoxylate. PAL contains 1 mol of zinc, but its role, catalytic or structural, has not yet been clarified. In this study, we found that a series of transition metals, Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Cd(2+), catalyze the nonenzymatic decomposition of the hydroxyglycine intermediate in a concentration-dependent manner. The second-order rate constant of the metal catalysis increased with elevation of pH, indicating that the hydrated metal acts as a general base. Extensive removal of the enzyme-bound metals remarkably diminished the PAL activity; k(cat) of the metal-depleted enzyme retaining 0.1 mol of zinc decreased to 3.2 s(-1) from 25.7 s(-1) of the wild-type enzyme. Among a series of divalent metals tested, Zn(2+), Co(2+), and Cd(2+) could fully restore the PAL activity of the metal-depleted enzyme. Especially, Zn substitution reproduced the steady-state parameters of the wild-type enzyme. On the other hand, Co and Cd substitution largely altered the kinetic parameters; the k(cat) increased 3- and 5-fold and the K(m) for the substrate increased 2.5- and 4-fold, respectively. These observations support that the enzyme-bound zinc plays a catalytic role, rather than a structural role, in the PAL reaction through the action of zinc-bound water as a general base.

  6. Performance evaluation of the white cell precursor channel on the Sysmex XN hematology analyzer in HIV specimens.

    PubMed

    Schapkaitz, Elise; Khoza, Phoyisile

    2017-09-26

    Automated hematology analyzers generate white blood cell (WBC) suspect flags to indicate smears requiring manual review. In a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient population with a high frequency of abnormal specimens, the usefulness of these flags depends on their sensitivity and specificity. The white cell precursor (WPC) channel on the Sysmex XN-9000 analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) has recently been introduced in order to distinguish immature cells such as blasts and abnormal lymphocytes. The efficiency of the flags generated by WPC reflex testing was compared to the white cell differential (WDF) on the Sysmex XN-9000 in 400 routine HIV samples. A flag was generated by the WDF channel in 346 (86.50%) samples. Addition of the WPC to the WDF resulted in a 20.99% reduction in the smear review rate. WPC analysis correctly identified the initial WDF flag in 59 (60.82%) samples with 'blasts?' or 'abnormal lympho?' flags. WPC showed an excellent sensitivity of 100%. However, the specificity remained poor. On investigation, samples with chronic infection/inflammation (35.00%) and lymphopenia (63.25%) were associated with a high false positive rate of 76.32% and 55.56%, respectively. WPC analysis removed 45 (51.72%) coexisting 'atypical lympho?' false positive WDF flags. The 'atypical lympho?' flag showed an increased sensitivity and specificity of 88.46% and 74.67%, respectively. White cell precursor reflex testing showed improved flagging efficiency for the 'atypical lympho?' flag, which was a good indicator of reactive lymphocytes during chronic infection/inflammation. Nevertheless, the false positive rate for 'abnormal lympho/blasts?' was high in the presence of lymphopenia and infection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Performance evaluation of platelet counting by novel fluorescent dye staining in the XN-series automated hematology analyzers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuzo; Tanaka, Yumiko; Gondo, Kazumi; Maruki, Yoshiko; Kondo, Tamiaki; Asai, Satomi; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Miyachi, Hayato

    2014-09-01

    Conventional automated hematology analyzers have limitations in platelet measurements such as poor accuracy and precision in the low count range and interference by nonplatelet particles. In order to improve it, the newly developed XN-Series automated hematology analyzers (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) have been installed with a new dedicated channel for platelet analysis (PLT-F), which is based on a fluorescence flow cytometry method with uses of a novel fluorescent dye specifically staining platelets. We evaluated the basic performance of this new PLT-F channel. Basic performance of the PLT-F channel in within-run reproducibility and assay linearity was studied using standard methods. Correlation was studied between PLT-F and a conventional automated hematology analyzer (XE-2100) and immunoplatelet analysis using anti-CD61 monoclonal antibody (Cell-Dyn Sapphire; Abbott Laboratories). The assay interference by nonplatelet particles such as fragmented red and white blood cells was evaluated by using clinical samples, respectively, from burn injury and acute leukemia. Basic performance of the PLT-F platelet counting was satisfactory in within-run reproducibility, linearity and correlation with the conventional analyzer. The correlation was satisfactory also with the immunoplatelet analysis, even for samples from a patient with burn injury, and those with white blood cell fragments displayed, platelet abnormal flag and low platelet counts (<50 × 10(9)/l). The platelet counting performance of the PLT-F channel of the XN Series had improved accuracy and precision in the low range and in abnormal samples, avoiding the interference by nonplatelet particles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Thermoelectric and piezoelectric properties of the predicted AlxIn1-xN composites based on ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yee Hui Robin; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng; Tuh, Moi Hua; Goh, Eong Sheng

    2017-09-20

    Theoretical investigations of the thermoelectric and piezoelectric characteristics in the AlxIn1-xN system have been carried out based on a first principles approach in combination with the semi-classical Boltzmann transport concept and density functional perturbation theory. Based on our previous work, herein, the study specimens Al5InN6, Al6In2N8, Al4In2N6, Al3In3N6, Al2In4N6, and AlIn7N8 have been predicted to be stable phases. These novel phases intrinsically exhibit moderate positive Seebeck curves (199.1-284.6 μV K(-1)) and a ZT close to unity that varies marginally over a broad temperature range of 200-800 K, demonstrating the sign of good bipolar effect tolerance. Addition of heftier elements, such as In, results in lower thermal conductivity, which in turn generates a high power factor (0.019-0.345 W m(-1) K(-2)) in these alloys. While hole doping enhances the peak Seebeck coefficient of each phase, the electrical conductivity has been greatly compromised, resulting in a lower power factor. These composites also exhibit large piezoelectric constants, in which their respective largest piezoelectric tensor is several orders higher than that of quartz. The decomposition process shows that In and N are the main contributors of the internal piezoelectric term. Overall results indicate that AlxIn1-xN show bright prospects in thermoelectric and piezoelectric applications.

  9. Enzymatic synthesis of a selective inhibitor for alpha-glucosidases: alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Su; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Lee, Hee-Seob; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Wan; Zhang, Ran; Withers, Stephen G; Kim, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sung-Joon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2008-07-09

    Here, we describe the enzymatic synthesis of novel inhibitors using acarviosine-glucose as a donor and 3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen (alphaGP) as an acceptor. Maltogenic amylase from Thermus sp. (ThMA) catalyzed the transglycosylation of the acarviosine moiety to alphaGP. The two major reaction products were isolated using chromatographies. Structural analyses revealed that acarviosine was transferred to either C-7 or C-9 of the alphaGP, which correspond to C-4 and C-6 of glucose. Both inhibited rat intestine alpha-glucosidase competitively but displayed a mixed-type inhibition mode against human pancreatic alpha-amylase. The alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->7)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen showed weaker inhibition potency than acarbose against both alpha-glycosidases. In contrast, the alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen exhibited a 3.0-fold improved inhibition potency against rat intestine alpha-glucosidase with 0.3-fold inhibition potency against human pancreatic alpha-amylase relative to acarbose. In conclusion, alpha-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-alpha-D-glucopyranosylpropen is a novel alpha-glucosidase-selective inhibitor with 10-fold enhanced selectivity toward alpha-glucosidase over alpha-amylase relative to acarbose, and it could be applied as a potent hypoglycemic agent.

  10. GaN Epitaxial Layer Grown with Conductive Al(x)Ga(1-x)N Buffer Layer on SiC Substrate Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    So, Byeongchan; Lee, Kyungbae; Lee, Kyungjae; Heo, Cheon; Pyeon, Jaedo; Ko, Kwangse; Jang, Jongjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated GaN epitaxial layer growth with a conductive Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer on n-type 4H-SiC by high-temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (HT-MOCVD). The Al composition of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer was varied from 0% to 100%. In terms of the crystal quality of the GaN layer, 79% Al was the optimal composition of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer in our experiment. A vertical conductive structure was fabricated to measure the current voltage (I-V) characteristics as a function of Al composition, and the I-V curves showed that the resistance increased with increasing Al concentration of the Al(x)Ga(1-x)N buffer layer.

  11. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-11-23

    This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

  12. Unified studies of structure and reactions in light unstable nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    The generalized two-center cluster model (GTCM), which can treat covalent, ionic and atomic configurations in general systems with two inert cores plus valence nucleons, is formulated in the basis of the microscopic cluster model. In this model, the covalent configurations constructed by the molecular orbital (MO) method and the atomic (or ionic) configuration obtained by the valence bonding (VB) method can be described in a consistent manner. GTCM is applied to the light neutron-rich system, 10,12Be = α + α + XN (X = 2,4), and the unified studies of the structural changes and the reaction problem are performed. In the structure study, the calculated energy levels are characterized in terms of the chemical bonding like structures, such as the covalent MO or ionic VB structures. The chemical bonding structures changes from level to level within a small energy interval. In the unbound region, the structure problem with the total system of α + α + XN and the reaction problem, induced by the collision of an asymptotic VB state of α+6,8He, are combined by GTCM. The properties of unbound resonant states are discussed in a close connection to the reaction mechanism, and some enhancement factors originated from the properties of the intrinsic states are predicted in the reaction observables. The unified calculation of the structures and the reactions is applied to the Coulomb shift problem in the mirror system, such the 10Be and 10C nuclei. The Coulomb displacement energy of the mirror systems are discussed.

  13. Data on photoneutron reactions from various experiments for {sup 133}Cs, {sup 138}Ba and {sup 209}Bi nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Varlamov, V. V. Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.

    2016-07-15

    Basic methods for determining cross sections for photoneutron partial reactions are examined. They are obtained directly in experiments with quasimonoeneregetic annihilation photons or from the cross section for the (γ, xn) = (γ, 1n) + 2(γ, 2n) + 3(γ, 3n) +... neutron-yield reaction in experiments with bremsstrahlung photons by introducing corrections based on statistical nuclear-reaction theory. The difference in the conditions of these experiments, which leads to discrepancies between their results because of sizable systematic errors, is analyzed. Physical criteria are used to study the reliability of data on the photodisintegration of {sup 133}Cs, {sup 138}Ba, and {sup 209}Bi nuclei. The cross sections for partial and total reactions satisfying the reliability criteria are evaluated within the experimental–theoretical method (σ{sup eval}(γ, in) = F{sub i}{sup theor} × σ{sup expt}(γ, xn)) on the basis of the experimental cross sections σ{sup expt}(γ, xn) and the results of the calculations within the combined model of photonuclear reactions.

  14. Determination of the Al Composition of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N Thin Films By Means Of EDX and XRD Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, S. S.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, H. Abu

    2010-07-07

    In this paper, the determinations of Al composition x of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N(0{<=}x{<=}1) thin films by means of the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are reported. Through these non-destructive and contactless techniques, a large probed area of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N samples can be selected. Consequently, the uncertainty due to the inhomogeneity of the Al composition can be avoided. For EDX measurements, the Al composition is calculated based on the weight percent of the Al and Ga elements, while that in the XRD measurements is based on lattice constant c and Vegard's law. The results from these two independent techniques are in good agreement with each other.

  15. Conducting transition metal nitride thin films with tailored cell sizes: The case of {delta}-Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}N

    SciTech Connect

    Koutsokeras, L. E.; Abadias, G.; Lekka, Ch. E.; Matenoglou, G. M.; Anagnostopoulos, D. F.; Patsalas, P.; Evangelakis, G. A.

    2008-07-07

    We present results on the stability and tailoring of the cell size of conducting {delta}-Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}N obtained by film growth and ab initio calculations. Despite the limited solubility of Ta in Ti, we show that TiN and TaN are soluble due to the hybrization of the d and sp electrons of the metal and N, respectively, that stabilizes the ternary system to the rocksalt structure. The stress-free cell sizes follow the Vegard's rule; nevertheless, process-dependent stresses expand the cell size of the as-grown films. The electronic properties of {delta}-Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}N films ({rho}=180 {omega} cm) are similar to those of TiN and TaN.

  16. Structural characterization of zincblende Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001) GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, M.W.; Han, Y.; Brown, P.D.; Novikov, S.V.; Edmonds, K.W.; Campion, R.P.; Gallagher, B.L.; Foxon, C.T.

    2005-07-18

    Zincblende p-type Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N epilayers, grown with and without AlN/GaN buffer layers using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on (001) oriented GaAs substrates, have been investigated using a variety of complementary transmission electron microscopy techniques. The epilayers were found to contain a high anisotropic density of stacking faults and microtwins. MnAs inclusions were identified at the Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N/(001)GaAs interface extending into the substrate. The use of AlN/GaN buffer layers was found to inhibit the formation of these inclusions.

  17. Growth and oxidization stability of cubic Zr{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}N solid solution thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Höglund, C.; Alling, B.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Birch, J.; Hall-Wilton, R.

    2015-05-21

    We report Zr{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}N thin films deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. We show a solid solubility of the highly neutron absorbing GdN into ZrN along the whole compositional range, which is in excellent agreement with our recent predictions by first-principles calculations. An oxidization study in air shows that Zr{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}N with x reaching from 1 to close to 0 fully oxidizes, but that the oxidization is slowed down by an increased amount of ZrN or stopped by applying a capping layer of ZrN. The crystalline quality of Zr{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}N films increases with substrate temperatures increasing from 100 °C to 900 °C.

  18. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Growth and Characteristics of Epitaxial AlxGa1-xN by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Li-Wei; Chen, Yao; Xu, Pei-Qiang; Ding, Guo-Jian; Peng, Ming-Zeng; Jia, Hai-Qiang; Zhou, Jun-Ming; Chen, Hong

    2009-06-01

    AlxGa1-xN epilayers with a wide Al composition range (0.2 <= x <= 0.68) were grown on AlN/sapphire templates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (LP-MOCVD). X-ray diffraction results reveal that both the (0002) and (10bar 15) full widths at half-maximum (FWHM) of the AlxGa1-xN epilayer decrease with increasing Al composition due to the smaller lattice mismatch to the AlN template. However, the surface morphology becomes rougher with increasing Al composition due to the weak migration ability of Al atoms. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra show pronounced near band edge (NBE) emission and the NBE FWHM becomes broader with increasing Al composition mainly caused by alloy disorder. Meanwhile, possible causes of the low energy peaks in the PL spectra are discussed.

  19. Bulk lattice parameter and band gap of cubic InXGa1-XN (001) alloys on MgO (100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compeán García, V. D.; Orozco Hinostroza, I. E.; Escobosa Echavarría, A.; López Luna, E.; Rodríguez, A. G.; Vidal, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    InxGa1-xN (001) ternary alloys were grown on GaN/MgO (100) substrates in a plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy system. We determined the in-plane [001] and in-growth [110] lattice parameters, as well as the bulk lattice parameter of the alloys for different In concentrations by high resolution X-ray diffraction. The In concentration was determined assuming Vegard's law for the alloy lattice parameter. The optical energy gap of InxGa1-xN has been determined by transmittance measurements from absorption edges for several In concentrations. Our results show that the alloys have a direct band gap for all In concentrations and a bowing parameter b=1.84.

  20. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn3+xNi1-xN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Wu, Hui; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Qingzhen; Wang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn3+xNi1-xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn3+xNi1-xN from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  1. Cloning and targeted mutations of G alpha 7 and G alpha 8, two developmentally regulated G protein alpha-subunit genes in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L; Gaskins, C; Zhou, K; Firtel, R A; Devreotes, P N

    1994-01-01

    GTP-binding protein (G protein)-mediated signal transduction pathways play essential roles during the aggregation and differentiation process of Dictyostelium. In addition to the five known G protein alpha-subunit genes, we recently identified three novel alpha-subunit genes, G alpha 6, G alpha 7, and G alpha 8, using the polymerase chain reaction technique. We present here a more complete analysis of G alpha 7 and G alpha 8. The cDNAs of these two genes were cloned, and their complete nucleotide sequences were determined. Sequence analyses indicate that G alpha 8 possesses some unusual features. It lacks the "TCATDT" motif, a sequence of amino acids highly conserved among G alpha subunits, and has an additional 50 amino acids at its C-terminus consisting of long stretches of asparagine. Moreover, G alpha 8 is unusually resistant to protease digestion, which may indicate a slow GTP hydrolysis rate. The possible functions of these alpha-subunits were assessed by generating mutants lacking G alpha 7 or G alpha 8 by gene targeting through homologous recombination and by overexpressing G alpha 7 or G alpha 8 protein. Overexpression of G alpha 7 resulted in abnormal morphogenesis starting at the slug stage, whereas analysis of the other strains failed to reveal any obvious growth or developmental defects under either normal or stressful conditions. The implications of these results are discussed. Images PMID:7949425

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus XN108, an ST239-MRSA-SCCmec III Strain with Intermediate Vancomycin Resistance Isolated in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Xu, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Wenchang; Hu, Qiwen; Shang, Weilong; Hu, Xiaomei

    2014-01-01

    ST239-MRSA-SCCmec III (ST239, sequence type 239; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; SCCmec III, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type III) is the most predominant clone of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus in mainland China. We report here the complete genome sequence of XN108, the first vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain isolated from a steam-burned patient with a wound infection. PMID:25059856

  3. Bandgap measurements and the peculiar splitting of E2H phonon modes of InxAl1-xN nanowires grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Prabaswara, Aditya; Yang, Yang; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-07-01

    The dislocation free InxAl1-xN nanowires (NWs) are grown on Si(111) by nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy in the temperature regime of 490 °C-610 °C yielding In composition ranges over 0.50 ≤ x ≤ 0.17. We study the optical properties of these NWs by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopies since they possesses minimal strain with reduced defects comparative to the planar films. The optical bandgap measurements of InxAl1-xN NWs are demonstrated by SE where the absorption edges of the NW samples are evaluated irrespective of substrate transparency. A systematic Stoke shift of 0.04-0.27 eV with increasing x was observed when comparing the micro-photoluminescence spectra with the Tauc plot derived from SE. The micro-Raman spectra in the NWs with x = 0.5 showed two-mode behavior for A1(LO) phonons and single mode behavior for E2H phonons. As for x = 0.17, i.e., high Al content, we observed a peculiar E2H phonon mode splitting. Further, we observe composition dependent frequency shifts. The 77 to 600 K micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements show that both AlN- and InN-like modes of A1(LO) and E2H phonons in InxAl1-xN NWs are redshifted with increasing temperature, similar to that of the binary III group nitride semiconductors. These studies of the optical properties of the technologically important InxAl1-xN nanowires will path the way towards lasers and light-emitting diodes in the wavelength of the ultra-violet and visible range.

  4. Negative anisotropic magnetoresistance resulting from minority spin transport in NixFe4-xN (x = 1 and 3) epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Fumiya; Kabara, Kazuki; Ito, Keita; Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Suemasu, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We grew 50 nm-thick NixFe4-xN (x = 1 and 3) epitaxial films on a SrTiO3(001) single-crystal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and measured their anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) ratios rAMR in the temperature range of 5-300 K with current directions set along either NixFe4-xN [100] or [110]. A negative rAMR was obtained up to 200 K or higher. Their magnitude | rAMR | increased with decreasing temperature. From the negative AMR effect and the negative spin-polarization of density of states for NixFe4-xN at the Fermi level, it can be stated that the minority spin transport is dominant in NixFe4-xN, similar to Fe4N and Co3FeN. The rAMR depends on the current direction that arises from the current direction dependence of s-d scattering. In the case of Ni3FeN, the rAMR decreased to nearly zero at 260 K. This temperature agreed well with the Curie temperature determined from the temperature dependence of magnetization. The AMR curves were reproduced well by using both cos2ϕ and cos4ϕ components below 100 K, whereas a cos2ϕ component was enough to fit those obtained above 100 K. It is assumed that the tetragonal crystal field was enhanced at low temperatures (<100 K) similar to Fe4N (<50 K).

  5. Free polaron energy levels in AlyGa1-yN/AlxGa1-xN triangle quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hong Yu; Zhao, Feng Qi

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a variational method is used to examine the problems relevant to the free polaron energy spectrum in a wurtzite AlyGa1-yN/AlxGa1-xN triangle quantum well structure. The numerical calculations for the ground state energy, transition energy and polaron energy shifts as the functions of well-width d and composition x are carried out by considering the anisotropies of the parameters, such as the optical phonon frequency, dielectric constant and electron effective mass, as well as their observed changes with coordinate z in this system. The research results show that the polaron energy shift caused by the electron-optical phonon interaction is large, and leads to an obvious energy decrease in the AlyGa1-yN/AlxGa1-xN triangular quantum well structure. The contribution of the confined phonon is found to increase with the increasing of the well-width and composition x, while that of the half space phonon is observed to decrease with the increasing of the well-width and composition x. The total contribution of the phonon increases with the increasing composition x, while a minimum is found to occur to the total contribution of the phonon during the decreasing process with the well-width. As the d increases, the free polaron energies and transition energies decrease. Meanwhile, with the increasing of the composition x, the energy and transition energy are found to be increased. In the AlyGa1-yN/AlxGa1-xN triangular quantum well structure, the trends of the free polaron energy, transition energy and polaron energy shifts with the well-width and composition x are found to be similar to those in the GaN/AlxGa1-xN square quantum well structure. However, the corresponding values in the triangular quantum well structure are obviously greater than those in the square quantum well structure.

  6. High-Throughput Investigation of a Lead-Free AlN-Based Piezoelectric Material, (Mg,Hf)xAl1-xN.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung H; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Van Minh, Le; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2017-06-12

    We conducted a high-throughput investigation of the fundamental properties of (Mg,Hf)xAl1-xN thin films (0 < x < 0.24) aiming for developing high-performance AlN-based piezoelectric materials. For the high-throughput investigation, we prepared composition-gradient (Mg,Hf)xAl1-xN films grown on a Si(100) substrate at 600 °C by cosputtering AlN and MgHf targets. To measure the properties of the various compositions at different positions within a single sample, we used characterization techniques with spatial resolution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) with a beam spot diameter of 1.0 mm verified that Mg and Hf had substituted into the Al sites and caused an elongation of the c-axis of AlN from 5.00 Å for x = 0 to 5.11 Å for x = 0.24. In addition, the uniaxial crystal orientation and high crystallinity required for piezoelectric materials to be used as application devices were confirmed. The piezoelectric response microscope indicated that this c-axis elongation increased the piezoelectric coefficient almost linearly from 1.48 pm/V for x = 0 to 5.19 pm/V for x = 0.24. The dielectric constants of (Mg,Hf)xAl1-xN were investigated using parallel plate capacitor structures with ∼0.07 mm(2) electrodes and showed a slight increase by substitution. These results verified that (Mg,Hf)xAl1-xN is a promising material for piezoelectric-based application devices, especially for vibrational energy harvesters.

  7. M5-brane defect and quantum Hall effect in AdS{sub 4}xN(1,1)/N=3 superconformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi

    2011-05-15

    We study the d=11 gravity dual AdS{sub 4}xN(1,1) of the d=3 N=3 flavored Chern-Simons-matter theory. In the dual gravity side, we analyze the M5-brane filling AdS{sub 3} inside AdS{sub 4} and derive the quantized Hall conductivity of the dual gauge theory. In the gauge theory side, this M5-brane intersects the gauge theory at the codimension-one defect.

  8. Computational Replication of the Primary Isotope Dependence of Secondary Kinetic Isotope Effects in Solution Hydride-Transfer Reactions: Supporting the Isotopically Different Tunneling Ready State Conformations.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani-Molayousefi, Mortaza; Kashefolgheta, Sadra; Eilers, James E; Lu, Yun

    2016-06-30

    We recently reported a study of the steric effect on the 1° isotope dependence of 2° KIEs for several hydride-transfer reactions in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 6653). The unusual 2° KIEs decrease as the 1° isotope changes from H to D, and more in the sterically hindered systems. These were explained in terms of a more crowded tunneling ready state (TRS) conformation in D-tunneling, which has a shorter donor-acceptor distance (DAD) than in H-tunneling. To examine the isotopic DAD difference explanation, in this paper, following an activated motion-assisted H-tunneling model that requires a shorter DAD in a heavier isotope transfer process, we computed the 2° KIEs at various H/D positions at different DADs (2.9 Å to 3.5 Å) for the hydride-transfer reactions from 2-propanol to the xanthylium and thioxanthylium ions (Xn(+) and TXn(+)) and their 9-phenyl substituted derivatives (Ph(T)Xn(+)). The calculated 2° KIEs match the experiments and the calculated DAD effect on the 2° KIEs fits the observed 1° isotope effect on the 2° KIEs. These support the motion-assisted H-tunneling model and the isotopically different TRS conformations. Furthermore, it was found that the TRS of the sterically hindered Ph(T)Xn(+) system does not possess a longer DAD than that of the (T)Xn(+) system. This predicts a no larger 1° KIE in the former system than in the latter. The observed 1° KIE order is, however, contrary to the prediction. This implicates the stronger DAD-compression vibrations coupled to the bulky Ph(T)Xn(+) reaction coordinate.

  9. Evaluation of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer for cell count and screening of malignant cells of serous cavity effusion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiyi; Yu, Qian; Xie, Lixia; Chen, Baode; Zhang, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the years, with the advancement in hematology analyzer technology, the use of fluid analysis method has seen a drastic increase in clinical examinations. Cell counting and classification in independent body fluid analysis method are conducted by semiconductor laser flow cytometry and nucleic acid fluorescence staining techniques. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer in cell counting and to screen malignant cells with serous cavity effusion. Specimens (N = 206) with serous cavity effusion from our hospital were included in this study. Manual and instrumental methods for cell counting, nucleated cell classification, and high-fluorescent cells (HFC) were used in this study. The correlation between RBC, nucleated cell count (NUC), the percentages of polymorphonuclear cell (PMN%), and mononuclear cells (MN%) was statistically analyzed using manual and instrumental methods. The regression equations of RBC, NUC, PMN%, and MN% in the manual and instrumental methods were RBC y = 0.88x + 426.4; NUC y = 0.85x + 33.4; PMN% y = 0.91x + 4.2; and MN% y = 0.91x + 5.1. Correlation coefficient R2 was 0.99, 0.98, 0.90, and 0.90 (P < .001). ROC curve analysis showed that when the cut-off value of HFC% was 4.4% and HFC# was 24.5/μL, area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence interval were 0.707, 0.792, 0.558, 0.637–0.777; 0.708, 0.753, 0.550, 0.635–0.780, respectively. XN-1000 hematology analyzer body fluid method can accurately and rapidly count cell and nucleated cell classification with serous cavity effusion. HFC can indicate the possible existence of malignant cells; however, further investigations are required to validate its efficacy. PMID:28682907

  10. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan Jeoung; Lee, Bo Ra; Kim, Mi Jeong; Han, Min Young; Cho, Young Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-05-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies.

  11. Shape-controlled synthesis of one-dimensional AlxGa1-xN nanotower arrays: structural characteristics and growth mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Ji, Xiaohong; Lu, Zhenya; Shen, Yanhua; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2014-02-01

    Tower-like AlxGa1-xN nanostructures with flat tops/sharp tips have been synthesized by catalyst-template-free chemical vapour deposition. Structural and morphological properties have been systematically investigated by x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that typical tower-like nanostructures exhibit quasi-hexagonal nanocolumns stacking in layer-by-layer behaviour. The morphology of AlxGa1-xN nanotowers is strongly dependent on the evaporation temperature of precursors. A high evaporation temperature of precursors would induce the formation of a nanotower with large diameter and a flat top, and a low evaporation temperature of precursors would lead to the formation of a nanotower with small diameter and a sharp tip. The formation of AlxGa1-xN nanotowers has been proposed to be two-dimensional growth of hexagonal nanocolumns and one-dimensional stacking in the direction perpendicular to the previous nucleated section due to the existence of an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. Raman scattering analysis reveals the hexagonal behaviour of tower-like nanostructures. The obtained nanotowers might have potential applications as functional blocks in future nanodevices.

  12. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Han, Min-Young; Cho, Young-Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies. PMID:26915613

  13. Stress controlled pulsed direct current co-sputtered Al{sub 1−x}Sc{sub x}N as piezoelectric phase for micromechanical sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtner, Simon; Reimer, Tim; Chemnitz, Steffen; Wagner, Bernhard; Lofink, Fabian

    2015-11-01

    Scandium alloyed aluminum nitride (Al{sub 1−x}Sc{sub x}N) thin films were fabricated by reactive pulsed direct current co-sputtering of separate scandium and aluminum targets with x ≤ 0.37. A significant improvement of the clamped transversal piezoelectric response to strain e{sub 31,f} from −1.28 C/m{sup 2} to −3.01 C/m{sup 2} was recorded, while dielectric constant and loss angle remain low. Further, the built-in stress level of Al{sub 1−x}Sc{sub x}N was found to be tuneable by varying pressure, Ar/N{sub 2} ratio, and Sc content. The thus resulting enhancement of the expectable signal to noise ratio by a factor of 2.1 and the ability to control built-in stress make the integration of Al{sub 1−x}Sc{sub x}N as the piezoelectric phase of micro-electro-mechanical system sensor applications highly attractive.

  14. Point defects introduced by InN alloying into In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, A.; Tsutsui, T.; Watanabe, T.; Kimura, S.; Zhang, Y.; Lozac'h, M.; Sang, L. W.; Sumiya, M.; Ishibashi, S.

    2013-03-28

    Native defects in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x = 0.06-0.14) grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition were studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation as a function of incident positron energy for In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N showed that vacancy-type defects were introduced with increasing InN composition, and the major defect species was identified as complexes between a cation vacancy and a nitrogen vacancy. The concentration of the divacancy, however, was found to be suppressed by Mg doping. The momentum distribution of electrons at the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN interface was close to that in defect-free GaN or In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, which was attributed to localization of positrons at the interface due to the built-in electric field, and to suppression of positron trapping by vacancy-type defects. We have also shown that the diffusion property of positrons is sensitive to an electric field near the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN interface.

  15. Efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters. Regioselective preparation of alpha-dehydroamino acids, vinylglycines, and alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Aparicio, Domitila

    2006-09-29

    An efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters is achieved through an aza-Wittig reaction of phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketoesters. Regioselective 1,2-reduction of these functionalized 1-azadienes affords vinylglycine derivatives, while conjugative 1,4-reduction gives alpha-dehydroamino acid compounds. Reduction of both the carbon-carbon and the imine-carbon-nitrogen double bonds leads to the formation of alpha-amino acid derivatives.

  16. [Interferon alpha-2b modified with polyethylene glycol].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingxin; Zhai, Yanqin; Lei, Jiandu; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2008-09-01

    In order to obtain a more stable PEGylated interferon alpha-2b, and prolong its half life, interferon alpha-2b (IFN alpha-2b) was modified with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol propionaldehyde (mPEG-ALD) 20000. It was found that the optimized reaction condition for the maximum bioactivity and highest PEGylation degree of the mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was as follows: in 20 mmol/L, pH 6.5, citric acid and sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, the concentration of IFN alpha-2b was 4 mg/mL, and the molar ratio of PEG/IFN alpha-2b was 8:1, and the reaction time was 20 h at 4 degrees C. Under the optimized reaction condition, the mono PEGylation degree reached to 55%. Ion exchange chromatography was used to separate and purify mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b from the reaction mixture. The purity of mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was higher than 97% characterized by HPLC. The bioactivity of the mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was 13.4% of the native IFN alpha-2b, while its half life in SD rat is much longer than the native IFN alpha-2b. The mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b is also stable in aqueous.

  17. A Comparison of Mindray BC-6800, Sysmex XN-2000, and Beckman Coulter LH750 Automated Hematology Analyzers: A Pediatric Study.

    PubMed

    Ciepiela, Olga; Kotuła, Iwona; Kierat, Szymon; Sieczkowska, Sandra; Podsiadłowska, Anna; Jenczelewska, Anna; Księżarczyk, Karolina; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-11-01

    Modern automated laboratory hematology analyzers allow the measurement of over 30 different hematological parameters useful in the diagnostic and clinical interpretation of patient symptoms. They use different methods to measure the same parameters. Thus, a comparison of complete blood count made by Mindray BC-6800, Sysmex XN-2000 and Beckman Coulter LH750 was performed. A comparison of results obtained by automated analysis of 807 anticoagulated blood samples from children and 125 manual microscopic differentiations were performed. This comparative study included white blood cell count, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte indices, as well as platelet count. The present study showed a poor level of agreement between white blood cell enumeration and differentiation of the three automated hematology analyzers under comparison. A very good agreement was found when comparing manual blood smear and automated granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes differentiation. Red blood cell evaluation showed better agreement than white blood cells between the studied analyzers. To conclude, studied instruments did not ensure satisfactory interchangeability and did not facilitate a substitution of one analyzer by another. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Optical and structural properties of Eu-implanted In{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N

    SciTech Connect

    Roqan, I. S.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Martin, R. W.; Trager-Cowan, C.; Matias, V.; Vantomme, A.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Watson, I. M.

    2009-10-15

    Off-axis implantation of 80 keV Eu ions into epitaxial c-plane InAlN/GaN bilayers confines rare-earth (RE) doping largely to the InAlN layer. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction show good correlations between the Eu{sup 3+} emission linewidth and key structural parameters of In{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N films on GaN in the composition range near lattice matching (xapprox0.17). In contrast to GaN:Eu, selectively excited photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation spectra reveal the presence of a single dominant optical center in InAlN. Eu{sup 3+} emission from In{sub 0.13}Al{sub 0.87}N:Eu also shows significantly less thermal quenching than GaN:Eu. InAlN films are therefore superior to GaN for RE optical doping.

  19. Temperature-dependent elastic properties of Ti{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}N alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shulumba, Nina; Hellman, Olle; Rogström, Lina; Raza, Zamaan; Tasnádi, Ferenc; Odén, Magnus; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2015-12-07

    Ti{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}N is a technologically important alloy that undergoes a process of high temperature age-hardening that is strongly influenced by its elastic properties. We have performed first principles calculations of the elastic constants and anisotropy using the symmetry imposed force constant temperature dependent effective potential method, which include lattice vibrations and therefore the effects of temperature, including thermal expansion and intrinsic anharmonicity. These are compared with in situ high temperature x-ray diffraction measurements of the lattice parameter. We show that anharmonic effects are crucial to the recovery of finite temperature elasticity. The effects of thermal expansion and intrinsic anharmonicity on the elastic constants are of the same order, and cannot be considered separately. Furthermore, the effect of thermal expansion on elastic constants is such that the volume change induced by zero point motion has a significant effect. For TiAlN, the elastic constants soften non-uniformly with temperature: C{sub 11} decreases substantially when the temperature increases for all compositions, resulting in an increased anisotropy. These findings suggest that an increased Al content and annealing at higher temperatures will result in a harder alloy.

  20. Band-gap Engineering in Sputter Deposited Amorphous/Microcrystalline Sc(x)Ga(1-x)N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Mark E.; Kordesch, Martin E.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Reactive sputtering was used to grow thin films of Sc(x)Ga(1-x)N with scandium concentrations of 20%-70% on quartz substrates at temperatures of 300-675 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the films showed either weak or no structure, suggesting the films are amorphous or microcrystalline. Optical absorption spectra were taken of each sample and the optical band gap was determined. The band gap varied linearly with increasing Ga concentration between 2.0 and 3.5 eV. Ellipsometry was used to confirm the band gap measurements and provide optical constants in the range 250-1200 nm. ScN and GaN have different crystal structures (rocksalt and wurzite, respectively), and thus may form a heterogeneous mixture as opposed to an alloy. Since the XRD data were inconclusive, bilayers of ScN/GaN were grown and optical absorption spectra taken. A fundamental difference in the spectra between the bilayer films and alloy films was seen, suggesting the films are alloys, not heterogeneous mixtures.

  1. Clinical significance of cell population data (CPD) on Sysmex XN-9000 in septic patients with our without liver impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seghezzi, Michela; Vavassori, Mauro; Dominoni, Paola; Apassiti Esposito, Sara; Manenti, Barbara; Mecca, Tommaso; Marchesi, Gianmariano; Castellucci, Enrico; Azzarà, Giovanna; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the clinical significance of cell population data (CPD) parameters obtained on Sysmex XN-9000 in septic patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and stratified according to liver function. Methods The study population consisted in 84 patients, 44 of whom did not develop sepsis (NS), whereas the remaining 40 developed sepsis (SE) (n=24) or septic shock (SS) (n=16). Two hundred ostensibly healthy blood donors [healthy subjects (HS)], undergoing routine blood testing before a regular blood donation, were studied. Results Except for neutrophils and lymphocytes cell size (NE-FCS and LY-Z), all other CPD values were significantly different in ICU patients compared to HS. Neutrophils and monocytes fluorescence intensity (NE-SFL and MO-X) values were significantly higher in SS compared to sepsis and not develop sepsis patients. The value of many parameters was also different according to liver function. Overall, MO-X and neutrophils fluorescence intensity (NE-SFL) exhibited the best performance for diagnosing sepsis in all patients (AUC, 0.75 and 0.72), as well as in those with (AUC, 0.95 and 0.89) or without (AUC, 0.72 for both) liver impairment. These parameters were also significantly correlated with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Conclusions This study suggested that some novel CPD parameters (namely NE-SFL and MO-X) may provide useful information for diagnosis and management of sepsis. PMID:27942509

  2. Electrical characteristics of AlxGa1-xN Schottky diodes prepared by a two-step surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motayed, Abhishek; Sharma, Ashok; Jones, Kenneth A.; Derenge, Michael A.; Iliadis, Agis A.; Mohammad, S. Noor

    2004-09-01

    Near-ideal Schottky barrier contacts to n-type Al0.22Ga0.78N have been developed by a two-step surface treatment technique. Plasma etching of the AlxGa1-xN surface prior to Schottky metal deposition, combined with sequential chemical treatment of the etched surface, holds promise for developing high quality low-leakage Schottky contacts for low noise applications and for recessed gate high electron mobility transistors. In this work, the effect of postetch chemical treatment of the n-type Al0.22Ga0.78N surface on the performance of the Ni /Au based Schottky contact has been investigated. Three different types of chemical treatment: viz, reactive ion etching, reactive ion etching plus dipping in hot aqua regia, and reactive ion etching plus dipping in hot KOH, are studied. Detailed current-voltage studies of three different surface treated diodes and a comparison with as-deposited diodes reveal significant improvement in the diode characteristics. The latter surface treatment yields Ni /Au Schottky diodes with very low reverse leakage currents, breakdown voltages greater than 44V, and an ideality factor as low as 1.14.

  3. Optical investigation of semi-polar (11-22) AlxGa1-xN with high Al composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Wang, L.; Jiu, L.; Bruckbauer, J.; Gong, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Bai, J.; Martin, R. W.; Wang, T.

    2017-02-01

    Exciton localization generally disturbs uniform population inversion, leading to an increase in the threshold current for lasing. High Al content AlGaN is required for the fabrication of deep ultra-violet (DUV) laser diodes (LDs), and this also generates exciton localization. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and room temperature cathodoluminescence measurements have been performed on high quality semi-polar (11-22) AlxGa1-xN alloys with high Al composition ranging from 0.37 to 0.56 in order to systematically study the optical properties (in particular, exciton localization) of both the near-band-edge emission and the basal-plane stacking faults related emission, demonstrating different behaviours. Further comparison with the exciton localization of their c-plane counterparts has been performed, exhibiting that the exciton localization in semi-polar (11-22) AlGaN is much smaller than that in c-plane AlGaN. As a consequence, semi-polar (11-22) AlGaN demonstrates a greater potential than its c-plane counterpart in terms of the growth of DUV LDs.

  4. Impact of implantation geometry and fluence on structural properties of AlxGa1-xN implanted with thulium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialho, M.; Magalhães, S.; Chauvat, M. P.; Ruterana, P.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.

    2016-10-01

    AlxGa1-xN (x = 0.15 and 0.77) films, grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy, were implanted with 300 keV Tm ions. Implantation damage accumulation is investigated with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry/channeling (RBS/C), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD). Distinct damage behavior for samples with different AlN contents was found. Surface nanocrystallization occurs for samples with x = 0.15, similar to implantation effects observed in GaN. Samples with x = 0.77 approach the behavior of AlN. In particular, surface nanocrystallization is suppressed and the depth range of the stacking fault network, typical for implanted III-nitrides, is decreased. The crystalline quality of the sample with x = 0.15 was investigated to compare random and channeled implantation, showing less concentration of damage but with a higher range for channeled implantation. Surprisingly, the strain field caused by the implantation reaches much deeper into the sample than the defect profiles measured by RBS/C and TEM. This is attributed to the fact that XRD is much more sensitive to low defect densities caused by ions which are channeled to deep regions of the sample.

  5. Electronic and optical properties of TaO1-xN1+x-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aqtash, Nabil; Apostol, Florin; Mei, Wai-Ning; Sabirianov, Renat F.

    2013-02-01

    TaON is considered as a potential candidate as a visible-light responsive photocatalyst. We report the results of ab initio studies of electronic structure of TaON-based alloys. Specifically, we show that the position of conduction and valence band can be modified by varying the oxygen and nitrogen concentrations in TaO1-xN1+x. We find that the band gap decreases monotonically with the increase of N/O ratio. The band gap energy is decreased in monoclinic TaON from near 2.3 eV to just over 1.7 eV (i.e., by 35%) when N/O ratio is increased from 3/5 to 5/3. Our calculations show that the band gap reduces in a series of experimentally fabricated alloys ZrTa3O5N3→TaON→YTa7O7N8. The band gap reduction is mostly associated with the change in the position of the valence band due to the hybridization of N 2p states, while the conduction band consisting mostly of Ta 5d-states is not sensitive to N content. The calculated optical absorption spectra show reduction in the optical band gap with increasing N/O ratio.

  6. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum which the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical implementation strategies for specific wheel configurations are also considered.

  7. [Synthesis and acceptor properties of 11-[(9'-anthracenyl)methoxy]undecyl phosphate and P1-{11-[(9'-anthracenyl)methoxy]undecyl}-P2-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate in the enzymic reactions catalyzed by galactosylphosphotransferase and mannosyltransferase from Salmonella newport].

    PubMed

    Vinnikova, A N; Utkina, N S; Danilov, L L; Torgov, V I; Druzhinina, T N; Veselovskiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent 11-[(9'-anthracenyl)methoxy]undecyl phosphate and P1-{11-[(9'-anthracenyl)methoxy]undecyl}-P2-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate were chemically synthesized for the first time. The ability of the first compound to serve as substrate-acceptor ofgalactosyl phosphate residue and the second compound of mannosyl residue in enzymic reactions catalyzed by galactosylphosphotransferase and mannosyltransferase from Salmonella newport membrane preparation was demonstrated.

  8. Understanding band alignments in semiconductor heterostructures: Composition dependence and type-I-type-II transition of natural band offsets in nonpolar zinc-blende AlxGa1 -xN /AlyGa1 -yN composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landmann, M.; Rauls, E.; Schmidt, W. G.

    2017-04-01

    The composition dependence of the natural band alignment at nonpolar AlxGa1 -xN /AlyGa1 -yN heterojunctions is investigated via hybrid functional based density functional theory. Accurate band-gap data are provided using Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) type hybrid functionals with a composition dependent exact-exchange contribution. The unstrained band alignment between zincblende (zb) AlxGa1 -xN semiconductor alloys is studied within the entire ternary composition range utilizing the Branch-point technique to align the energy levels related to the bulklike direct Γv→Γc and indirect, pseudodirect, respectively, Γv→Xc type transitions in zb-AlxGa1 -xN . While the zb-GaN/AlxGa1 -xN band edges consistently show a type-I alignment, the relative position of fundamental band edges changes to a type-II alignment in the Al-rich composition ranges of zb-AlxGa1 -xN /AlN and zb-AlxGa1 -xN /AlyGa1 -yN systems. The presence of a direct-indirect band-gap transition at xc=0.63 in zb-AlxGa1 -xN semiconductor alloys gives rise to a notably different composition dependence of band discontinuities in the direct and indirect energy-gap ranges. Below the critical direct-indirect Al/Ga-crossover concentration, the band offsets show a close to linear dependence on the alloy composition. In contrast, notable bowing characteristics of all band discontinuities are observed above the critical crossover composition.

  9. A study of non-elastic reaction rates for the ADS materials in the environment of spallation neutrons produced by 1.6 GeV d-beam.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Chitra; Adam, J; Kumar, V; Katovsky, K; Majerle, M; Solnyshkin, A A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M

    2012-07-01

    For the design and modeling of Accelerator Driven sub-critical System (ADS) a detailed study of response of ADS materials to the spallation neutrons is required. For this purpose reaction rates of different reactions like (n, xn) and (n, xnyp) in 209Bi, natMo, 56Fe, natNi, 55Mn, natTi and natCo materials are determined in an experiment conducted at Nuclotron of JINR, Dubna, using 1.6 GeV d-beam in the 'Energy+Transmutation' set-up. Reaction rates of various (n, xn) and (n, xnyp) reactions are studied in these samples. Results of reaction rates deduced from all the gamma peaks observed in case of 209Bi (n, xn) reactions with x=3-9, natMo (n, γ), (n, 3n), (n, 6n), 56Fe (n, p), (n, p2n), (n, p4n), natNi (n, 2n), (n, 3n), (n, p), (n, d), (n, t), 55Mn (n, γ), (n, 2n), (n, 4n), natTi (n, p), (n, d), (n, t) and natCo (n, γ), (n, xn) reactions with x=2-5 along with (n, p), (n, 2p2n), (n, 2p4n) and (n, 2p6n) are presented. The measured reaction rates for all the elements show good consistency for all the reaction channels and all observed Eγ's of the product nucleus. For all the above mentioned reactions, both experimental as well as theoretical spectrum average cross-sections (σsp.av.cs) are deduced and compared. A close agreement is found between the experimental σsp.av.cs and theoretical σsp.av.cs values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of alkali-cationized BocN-carbo-alpha,beta- and -beta,alpha-peptides: Differentiation of positional isomers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Nagi; Srikanth, R; Srinivas, R; Sharma, V U M; Sharma, G V M; Nagendar, P

    2006-01-01

    Dissociation pathways of a series of alkali-cationized hybrid peptides, viz., Boc-alpha,beta- and -beta,alpha-carbopeptides, synthesized from C-linked carbo-beta3-amino acids [Caa (S)] and alpha-alanine (L-Ala), have been investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The positional isomers (six pairs) of the cationized alpha,beta- and beta,alpha-peptides can be differentiated by the collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of their [M + Cat-Boc + H]+ ions which give characteristic series of alkali-cationized C- (x(n)+, y(n)+, z(n)+) and N-terminal (a(n)+, b(n)+, c(n)+) ions. Another noteworthy difference is cationized beta,alpha-peptides eliminate a molecule of ammonia whereas this pathway is absent for alpha,beta-peptides. This is useful for identifying the presence of a beta-amino acid at the N-terminus. The CID spectra of [M + Cat-Boc + H]+ ions of these peptide acids show abundant rearrangement [b(n) + 17 + Cat]+ (n = 1 to n-1) ions which is diagnostic for distinguishing between alpha- and beta-amino acid at the C-terminus. MS(n) experiments of [b(n) + Li-H]+ ions from these hybrid peptides showed the loss of CO and 72 u giving rise to [a(n) + Li-H]+ and cationized nitrile product ions which render support to earlier proposals that b(n)+ or [b(n) + Cat-H]+ ions have protonated or cationized oxazolinone structures, respectively.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTION MODELING FOR RIA ISOL TARGET DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    S. MASHNIK; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Los Alamos scientists are collaborating with researchers at Argonne and Oak Ridge on the development of improved nuclear reaction physics for modeling radionuclide production in ISOL targets. This is being done in the context of the MCNPX simulation code, which is a merger of MCNP and the LAHET intranuclear cascade code, and simulates both nuclear reaction cross sections and radiation transport in the target. The CINDER code is also used to calculate the time-dependent nuclear decays for estimating induced radioactivities. They give an overview of the reaction physics improvements they are addressing, including intranuclear cascade (INC) physics, where recent high-quality inverse-kinematics residue data from GSI have led to INC spallation and fission model improvements; and preequilibrium reactions important in modeling (p,xn) and (p,xnyp) cross sections for the production of nuclides far from stability.

  12. Mass spectrometric study of three-body ion-molecule clustering reactions of CpHq+ ions with N2 or CH4 in N2-CH4 mixtures.

    PubMed

    Speller, C V; Vacher, J R; Duc, E; Fitaire, M

    1995-01-01

    Thermochemical data for several ion-molecule clustering of hydrocarbon ions with N2 or CH4 were obtained from clustering equilibria studies in gas mixtures irradiated by alpha-particles. High-pressure mass spectrometry was used to determine the enthalpy and entropy changes of clustering (delta H0 and delta S0, respectively) for the reactions X+(N2)n-1 + 2N2 <==> X(+)(N2)n + N2 with X = CH5, n = 1-2; X = C2H5, n = 1-4; and X = C3H7, n = 1. For X = CH5, the values (delta H0; delta S0) are found to be (-6.8 kcal mol-1; -19.7 cal mol-1 K-1) for n = 1, and (-5.3 kcal mol-1; -15.9 cal mol-1 K-1) for n = 2. For X = C2H5, (delta H0; delta S0) = (-6.9 kcal mol-1; -18.2 cal mol-1 K-1), for n = 1, and (-4.6 kcal mol-1; -20.8 cal mol-1 K-1) for n = 2. From the equilibrium measurements at 129 K, estimates of the thermochemical values could be obtained for n = 3-4. The results obtained for the free energy, delta G0, were -1.4 kcal mol-1 for n = 3, and -1.1 kcal mol-1 for n = 4. For X = C3H7 we found delta G0 = -0.7 kcal mol-1 at 213 K. The association reactions X+ + 2CH4 <==> X+(CH4) + CH4 with X = CH5, C2H5, C2H7, and C3H7 were also studied, resulting in free energy values at 206 K of -3.1, -1.9, -0.5 and -1.3 kcal mol-1, respectively. The results for CH5, C2H5 and C3H7 are compared with previously reported measurements.

  13. Evaluation of micromechanical properties of buckled SiO xN y-loaded membranes by combining the Twyman-Green interferometry with nanoindentation and point-wise deflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józwik, Michal; Gorecki, Christophe; Sabac, Andrei; Delobelle, Patrick; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2004-05-01

    In view of applications in MOEMS technology, an interferometric technique has been developed for determination of micromechanical properties of PECVD-deposited SiO xN y thin films. By combining the Twyman-Green interferometry with nanoindentation technique, an original "point-wise" deflection method is proposed, particularly appropriated to measure the residual stress in the case of silicon membranes compressively prestressed by SiO xN y deposition. For such SiO xN y membranes, operating at the first mode of buckling, the nonindentation permits the extraction of Young's modulus and interferometry measures the out-of-plan displacements, respectively. The proposed point-wise deflection technique combines both the interferometric and Young's modulus data, giving the access to the distribution of residual stress versus the optical quality of SiO xN y films. The residual stress is monitored as a function of the refractive index of SiO xN y, establishing the relationship between the optical and micromechanical properties of deposited thin films. High measuring accuracy and resolution have been demonstrated, allowing measurements to be used to enhance PECVD process control

  14. Total synthesis of (+/-)-8alpha-hydroxystreptazolone.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Izumi; Mukai, Chisato

    2002-11-28

    [reaction: see text] The intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction of 2-oxazolone derivatives with a suitable pentynyl appendage exclusively gave the corresponding 4-hydroxy-6-substituted-9-oxa-1-azatricyclo[6.2.1.0(5,11)]undec-5-en-7,10-diones. Based on this newly developed Pauson-Khand reaction of 2-oxazolone-alkyne derivatives, the first total synthesis of (+/-)-8alpha-hydroxystreptazolone was accomplished in a highly stereoselective manner.

  15. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex(®) XP-300 in an oncology setting: evaluation and comparison of hematological parameters with the Sysmex(®) XN-3000.

    PubMed

    van Dievoet, M A; Louagie, H; Ghys, T

    2016-10-01

    The Sysmex XP-300(®) (XP-300) is a new, fully automated hematology analyzer, designed to generate complete blood counts (CBC) with 3-part differential. In our study, the XP-300 was evaluated as a point-of-care (POC) analyzer in an oncology setting. In which blood samples from patients with different pathologies and treatments, affecting hematopoiesis, were analyzed. Performance was evaluated according to the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) guidelines and CLSI protocol H20-A2 . Beside precision, linearity and carry-over, a comparison study with the Sysmex(®) XN-3000 (XN-3000) and a manual reference leukocyte differential was performed. Flagging performance was also evaluated. XP-300 showed excellent precision and linearity results. For within- and between-run precision, the criteria, according to Ricos et al. , were met for all parameters tested, except for platelets in the low level. Less than or equal to 0.5% carry-over was seen for all parameters tested. Comparison studies showed an acceptable correlation with both XN-3000 and the manual reference leukocyte count. A suboptimal flagging performance was demonstrated. In the context of diagnosing cytopenia due to myelosuppressing agents or leukocytosis due to infection, the XP-300 showed good analytical performance. However, in the thrombocytopenic range, precision was suboptimal. In follow-up of hematological malignancies with the occurrence of abnormal cells, we advise verification with a more advanced analyzer or with microscopic review, although further studies with a higher prevalence of abnormal cells are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Attempt to produce element 120 in the 244Pu + 58Fe reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Oganessian, Y T; Utyonkov, V K; Lobanov, Y V; Abdullin, F S; Polyakov, A N; Sagaidak, R N; Shorokovsky, I V; Tsyganov, Y S; Voinov, A A; Mezentsev, A N; Subbotin, V G; Sukhov, A M; Subotic, K; Zagrebaev, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Henderson, R A; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M; Landrum, J H; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, M A; Stoyer, N J; Wilk, P A

    2008-10-24

    An experiment aimed at the synthesis of isotopes of element 120 has been performed using the {sup 244}Pu({sup 58}Fe,xn){sup 302-x} 120 reaction. No decay chains consistent with fusion-evaporation reaction products were observed during an irradiation with a beam dose of 7.1 x 10{sup 18} 330-MeV {sup 58}Fe projectiles. The sensitivity of the experiment corresponds to a cross section of 0.4 pb for the detection of one decay.

  17. High-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Cr- and Mn-Implanted Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)N

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-23

    films of AlxGa1-xN that display ferromagnetism. Although recent advances in ion-implantation doping of group-III nitrides with Cr and Mn are making...annealed from 675 to 775 oC at AFIT in an Oxy -Gon furnace using the rapid thermal annealing method in an N2 environment for 5 min to anneal out the...layer). After implantation, the samples were annealed in an Oxy -Gon annealing furnace at temperatures between 650 and 775 oC for 5 min. Before

  18. Catalytic Mechanism of Human Alpha-galactosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme {alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-GAL, also known as {alpha}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {alpha}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {alpha}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {alpha}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {alpha}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {alpha}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{alpha}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {alpha}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.

  19. Lattice damage and compositional changes in Xe ion irradiated In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x = 0.32−1.0) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Limin Peng, Jinxin; Ai, Wensi; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Tieshan; Jiang, Weilin; Dissanayake, Amila; Zhu, Zihua; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam

    2016-06-28

    Lattice disorder and compositional changes in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x = 0.32, 0.47, 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0) films on GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates, induced by room-temperature irradiation of 5 MeV Xe ions, have been investigated using both Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under ion-channeling conditions and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show that for a fluence of 3 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, the relative level of lattice disorder in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N increases monotonically from 59% to 90% with increasing indium concentration x from 0.32 to 0.7; a further increase in x up to 1.0 leads to little increase in the disorder level. In contrast to Ga-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x = 0.32 and 0.47), significant volume swelling of up to ∼25% accompanied with oxidation in In-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x = 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0) is observed. In addition, irradiation-induced atomic mixing occurs at the interface of In-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and GaN. The results from this study indicate an extreme susceptibility of the high In-content In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N to heavy-ion irradiation, and suggest that cautions must be exercised in applying ion-implantation techniques to these materials at room temperature. Further studies of the irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures are warranted.

  20. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  1. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-06-03

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  2. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Incorporation of Mn in AlxGa1 -xN probed by x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, high-resolution microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovezzi, Mauro; Schlögelhofer, Wolfgang; Devillers, Thibaut; Szwacki, Nevill Gonzalez; Li, Tian; Adhikari, Rajdeep; Glatzel, Pieter; Bonanni, Alberta

    2015-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques, complemented by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy methods and density functional theory calculations, are employed to investigate the effect of Mn in AlxGa1 -xN :Mn samples with an Al content up to 100%. The atomic and electronic structure of Mn is established together with its local environment and valence state. A dilute alloy without precipitation is obtained for AlxGa1 -xN :Mn with Al concentrations up to 82%, and the surfactant role of Mn in the epitaxial process is confirmed.

  4. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  5. The murine alpha B-crystallin/small heat shock protein enhancer: identification of alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2, alpha BE-3, and MRF control elements.

    PubMed

    Gopal-Srivastava, R; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-11-01

    The murine alpha B-crystallin gene (a member of the small heat shock protein family) is expressed constitutively at high levels in the lens and at lower levels in many other tissues, including skeletal muscle. We have previously used the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter fused to the human growth hormone gene to identify an alpha B-crystallin enhancer at positions -427 to -259 that has high activity in muscle and low activity in lens cell lines. In the study reported here, we performed DNase I footprinting, transfection, mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments using the murine C2C12 muscle and alpha TN4-1 lens cell lines and the rabbit N/N1003A lens cell line to identify sequences responsible for activity of this enhancer. Enhancer activity in both the muscle and lens cells was dependent on novel elements called alpha BE-1 (-407 to -397), alpha BE-2 (-360 to -327), and alpha BE-3 (-317 to -306). These elements were also weakly occupied by nuclear proteins in L929 cells, which appear to express the alpha B-crystallin gene at a very low level (detectable only by the polymerase chain reaction). A fourth element containing a consensus muscle regulatory factor-binding site called MRF (-300 to -288) was occupied and used only by the C2C12 muscle cells. Cotransfection in NIH 3T3 cells and antibody-gel shift experiments using C2C12 nuclear extracts indicated that MyoD, myogen, or a similar member of this family can activate the alpha B-crystallin enhancer by interaction with the MRF site. Taken together, we conclude that the alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2, and alpha BE-3 elements are shared by both lens and muscle cells, but the MRF element is used only in muscle cells, providing the first example of a muscle-specific control element in a crystallin gene.

  6. On the microstructure of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers grown on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, Roland; Einfeldt, Sven; Chierchia, Rosa; Hommel, Detlef; Reitmeier, Zachary J.; Davis, Robert F.; Liu, Quincy K.K.

    2005-04-15

    The microstructural as well as the compositional evolution of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x{approx}0.15) layers grown on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were analyzed by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The epitaxial growth was followed from the early nucleation stage on the substrate to the development of a thick bulk-like film. Phase separation was observed during the early stage of growth; that is, islands of two different shapes formed whose Al mole fractions were about 0.035 and 0.18, respectively. The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N coalesced at a film thickness of about 100 nm with the domains of varying Al content being fully coherent. Such domains were not only found at the film/substrate interface but also further away from the interface. They were arranged in layers that were shifted laterally against each other; that is, Al-deficient domains formed on top of Al-rich domains and vice versa. Increasing the film thickness to more than 100 nm finally led to a homogeneous Al distribution. Finite-element simulations were performed to calculate the strain distribution in these inhomogeneous systems. They allowed the experimental results to be explained by an interplay of strain minimization in the epitaxial film and growth kinetics.

  7. Influence of carbon content and nitrogen vacancies on the bonding structure and mechanical performance of graphite-like BC{sub x}N thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Caretti, Ignacio; Jimenez, Ignacio

    2012-09-15

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was used to investigate two sets of graphite-like BC{sub x}N thin films with similar B:C:N ratios but different amounts of nitrogen vacancies, which become oxygen-filled in the surface-most region. The two sets of samples were grown on Si (100) at room temperature by ion beam assisted deposition using two different ion/atom ratios. Nitrogen vacancy defects were detected in the B1s XANES spectra due to an oxygen decoration mechanism taking place at the film surface, which is correctly described by a core-level shift model. Analysis of the O1s XANES spectra showed two different types of oxygen incorporation in the samples under study. The tribomechanical properties of the BC{sub x}N samples were tested by the pin-on-disk technique, revealing the substantial role played by both the carbon intake in the hexagonal BCN planes and the concentration of nitrogen vacancies generated during the growth.

  8. SQUID measurements of MnxSc(1-x)N and Fe0.1Sc0.9N Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Han-Jong; Constantin, Costel; Wang, Kangkang; Chinchore, Abhijit; Smith, Arthur; Markert, John

    2009-03-01

    We report SQUID magnetic measurements on N-rich and N-poor MnxSc(1-x)N and Fe0.1Sc0.9N films grown on ScN(001)/MgO(001) substrates by radio frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Ferromagnetism is present in both the Mn doped (x ranging from 3 to 15%) and the Fe doped ScN samples. Measurements on N-poor Mn0.03Sc0.97N and Mn0.15Sc0.85N (x=15%) show Curie temperatures of 383 K and 361 K, respectively. The Fe0.1Sc0.9N film shows a Curie temperature above 350 K as well. Further studies will be required to determine the origin of the ferromagnetism and the Curie temperature of the remaining MnxSc(1-x)N films. This work is supported by: Seton Hall: University Research Council; Ohio University: DOE-BES Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46317 and NSF Grant No. 0730257; and UT Austin: NSF Grant Nos. DMR-0605828 and DGE-0549417, Welch Foundation Grant No. F-1191.

  9. Spin-glass-like behavior and negative thermal expansion in antiperovskite Mn{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}N compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Lei; Wang, Cong Sun, Ying; Colin, Claire V.; Chu, Lihua

    2015-06-07

    The Cu-doping effect on the lattice and magnetic properties in Mn{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}N (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) was extensively investigated. We observed that the Cu-doping at the Ni site complicated the magnetic ground states, which induced the competition of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions. Spin-glass-like behavior, arising from possible site-randomness and competing interactions of magnetism, was observed in compounds with x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, and typically discussed by means of the measurement of ac magnetic susceptibility for x = 0.7. The negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior, due to the magnetic ordering transition, was observed in Mn{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}N compounds using variable temperature x-ray diffraction. It reveals that the introduction of Cu effectively broadens the temperature range displaying negative thermal expansion. The relationship between the local lattice distortion and the competing magnetic ground states might play an important role in broadening the NTE temperature range in this antiperovskite compound.

  10. Spectroscopic analysis of the NIR emission in Tm implanted Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, J. Esteves, T. C.; Santos, N. F.; Ben Sedrine, N.; Rino, L.; Neves, A. J.; Monteiro, T.; Fialho, M.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.

    2016-08-28

    Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N samples, with different AlN molar fractions, x = 0, 0.15, 0.77, and 1, grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were implanted with Tm ions. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that after thermal annealing all the samples exhibit intraionic Tm{sup 3+} luminescence. In samples with x > 0, the low temperature emission is dominated by the lines that appear in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region, corresponding to the overlapped {sup 1}G{sub 4} → {sup 3}H{sub 5} and {sup 3}H{sub 4} → {sup 3}H{sub 6} multiplet transitions. A detailed spectroscopic analysis of NIR emission of the thulium implanted and annealed Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers is presented by using temperature dependent steady-state PL, room temperature PL excitation, and time resolved PL. The results indicate that the excitonic features sensitive to the alloy disorder are involved in the excitation population processes of the Tm{sup 3+} luminescence and the highest thermal stability for the NIR emission occurs for the AlN:Tm sample.

  11. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism for CoxFe4-xN (x = 0, 3, 4) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Keita; Sanai, Tatsunori; Yasutomi, Yoko; Zhu, Siyuan; Toko, Kaoru; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Kimura, Akio; Suemasu, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated orbital (morb) and spin magnetic moments (mspin) of CoxFe4-xN (x = 0, 3, 4) epitaxial thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and discussed the dependence of these values on x. Site-averaged mspin value of Fe atoms was deduced to be 1.91 μB per atom, and that of Co atoms to be 1.47 μB per atom in Co3FeN at 300 K. These values are close to 1.87 μB per Fe atom in Fe4N and 1.43 μB per Co atom in Co4N, respectively. This result implies that the Fe and Co atoms in the Co3FeN films were located both at corner and face-centered sites in the anti-perovskite lattice. Spin magnetic moments per unit cell were decreased linearly with increasing x in CoxFe4-xN. This tendency is in good agreement with theory predicted by the first-principle calculation.

  12. Microstructure and dielectric properties of piezoelectric magnetron sputtered w-Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zukauskaite, Agne; Wingqvist, Gunilla; Palisaitis, Justinas; Jensen, Jens; Persson, Per O. A.; Birch, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Matloub, Ramin; Muralt, Paul; Kim, Yunseok

    2012-05-01

    Piezoelectric wurtzite Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) thin films were epitaxially grown by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from elemental Sc and Al targets. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) wafers with TiN(111) seed and electrode layers were used as substrates. X-ray diffraction shows that an increase in the Sc content results in the degradation of the crystalline quality. Samples grown at 400 deg. C possess true dielectric behavior with quite low dielectric losses and the leakage current is negligible. For ScAlN samples grown at 800 deg. C, the crystal structure is poor and leakage current is high. Transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping shows a mass separation into ScN-rich and AlN-rich domains for x {>=} 0.2 when substrate temperature is increased from 400 to 800 deg. C. The piezoelectric response of epitaxial Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N films measured by piezoresponse force microscopy and double beam interferometry shows up to 180% increase by the addition of Sc up to x = 0.2 independent of substrate temperature, in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions based on density-functional theory.

  13. An assessment of the evaporation and condensation phenomena of lithium during the operation of a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source.

    PubMed

    Knaster, J; Kanemura, T; Kondo, K

    2016-12-01

    The flowing lithium target of a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source must evacuate the deuteron beam power and generate in a stable manner a flux of neutrons with a broad peak at 14 MeV capable to cause similar phenomena as would undergo the structural materials of plasma facing components of a DEMO like reactors. Whereas the physics of the beam-target interaction are understood and the stability of the lithium screen flowing at the nominal conditions of IFMIF (25 mm thick screen with +/-1 mm surface amplitudes flowing at 15 m/s and 523 K) has been demonstrated, a conclusive assessment of the evaporation and condensation of lithium during operation was missing. First attempts to determine evaporation rates started by Hertz in 1882 and have since been subject of continuous efforts driven by its practical importance; however intense surface evaporation is essentially a non-equilibrium process with its inherent theoretical difficulties. Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir (HKL) equation with Schrage's 'accommodation factor' η = 1.66 provide excellent agreement with experiments for weak evaporation under certain conditions, which are present during a Li(d,xn) facility operation. An assessment of the impact under the known operational conditions for IFMIF (574 K and 10(-3)Pa on the free surface), with the sticking probability of 1 inherent to a hot lithium gas contained in room temperature steel walls, is carried out. An explanation of the main physical concepts to adequately place needed assumptions is included.

  14. Detection of malignant cells in serous body fluids by counting high-fluorescent cells on the Sysmex XN-2000 hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Labaere, D; Boeckx, N; Geerts, I; Moens, M; Van den Driessche, M

    2015-10-01

    The body fluid mode of the Sysmex XN-2000 hematology analyzer differentiates cells into mononuclear and polymorphonuclear white blood cells (WBC) and high-fluorescent cells (HFC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the HFC count for detecting malignant cells in serous body fluids. Two-hundred and thirty serous fluids were analyzed on the Sysmex XN body fluid mode. HFC were measured as relative count (HFC/100 WBC) and absolute count (HFC/μL). All samples were microscopically screened on cytospin slides for the presence of malignant cells. Malignant cells were found by microscopic examination in 49 of 230 samples (21.3%). Malignant samples contained significantly higher percentages (10.2 vs. 2.6/100 WBC) and absolute numbers (65 vs. 10/μL) of HFC than nonmalignant samples (P < 0.001). Areas under the ROC curve for relative and absolute HFC count were 0.69 and 0.77, respectively. A cutoff level of ≥17 HFC/μL showed the best performance to predict malignancy, with 88% sensitivity and 61% specificity. As serous body fluids will be more analyzed on automated analyzers in the future, HFC count can be a useful tool to select samples for microscopic review. Microscopic evaluation should be performed if HFC values are above a certain threshold (e.g. ≥17 HFC/μL) or in case of clinical suspicion of malignancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003715.htm Alpha-1 antitrypsin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure ...

  16. Structures and stabilities of group 13 adducts [(NHC)(EX3)] and [(NHC)2(E2X(n))] (E=B to In; X=H, Cl; n=4, 2, 0; NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) and the search for hydrogen storage systems: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Nicole; Stasch, Andreas; Jones, Cameron; Frenking, Gernot

    2011-11-25

    Quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory at the BP86/TZVPP level and ab initio calculations at the SCS-MP2/TZVPP level have been carried out for the group 13 complexes [(NHC)(EX(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(n))] (E=B to In; X=H, Cl; n=4, 2, 0; NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene). The monodentate Lewis acids EX(3) and the bidentate Lewis acids E(2) X(n) bind N-heterocyclic carbenes rather strongly in donor-acceptor complexes [(NHC)(EX(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(n))]. The equilibrium structures of the bidentate complexes depend on the electronic reference state of E(2)X(n), which may vary for different atoms E and X. All complexes [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(4))] possess C(s) symmetry in which the NHC ligands bind in a trans conformation to the group 13 atoms E. The complexes [(NHC)(2)(E(2)H(2))] with E=B, Al, Ga have also C(s) symmetry with a trans arrangement of the NHC ligands and a planar CE(H)E(H)C moiety that has a E=E π bond. In contrast, the indium complex [(NHC)(2)(In(2) H(2))] has C(i) symmetry with pyramidal-coordinated In atoms in which the hydrogen atoms are twisted above and below the CInInC plane. The latter C(i) form is calculated for all chloride systems [(NHC)(2)(E(2)Cl(2))], but the boron complex [(NHC)(2)(B(2)Cl(2))] deviates only slightly from C(s) symmetry. The B(2) fragment in the linear coordinated complex [(NHC)(2)(B(2))] has a highly excited (3)(1)Σ(g)(-) reference state, which gives an effective B≡B triple bond with a very short interatomic distance. The heavier homologues [(NHC)(2)(E(2))] (E=Al to In) exhibit a anti-periplanar arrangement of the NHC ligands in which the E(2) fragments have a (1)(1) Δ(g) reference state and an E=E double bond. The calculated energies suggest that the dihydrogen release from the complexes [(NHC)(EH(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)H(n))] becomes energetically more favourable when atom E becomes heavier. The indium complexes should therefore be the best candidates of the investigated series for hydrogen-storage systems

  17. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  18. The Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, N.; Andresen, G.; Bertsche, W.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Chartier, M.; Fajans, J.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-03-01

    ALPHA is a new experiment at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The short term goal of ALPHA is trapping of cold antihydrogen, with the long term goal of conducting precise spectroscopic comparisons of hydrogen and antihydrogen. Here we present the current status of ALPHA and the physics considerations and results leading to its design as well as recent progress towards trapping.

  19. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  20. Reaction of (13S)-13-iodo-6beta-methoxy-3alpha,5-cyclo-13,14-seco-5alpha-androstane-14,17-dione with hydroxylamine and its application to the synthesis of new 13,14-seco steroids.

    PubMed

    Khripach, Vladimir A; Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Kuchto, Anna I; Fando, Galina P; Zhiburtovich, Yuliya Y; Lyakhov, Alexander S; Govorova, Alla A; Groen, Marinus B; van der Louw, Jaap; de Groot, Aede

    2004-07-01

    The synthesis of 13,14-seco steroids starting from easily available (13S)-13-iodo-6beta-methoxy-3alpha,5-cyclo-13,14-seco-5alpha-androsta-14,17-dione is described. The C-17 ketone was converted regioselectively into its oxime with simultaneous stereoselective deiodination at C-13. The remaining C-14 carbonyl group was then reduced stereoselectively with Ca(BH4)2. The configurations at the relevant stereocenters of the thus obtained hydroxy oxime were determined by X-ray analysis. Successful regeneration of the C-17 carbonyl group was achieved by treatment of the corresponding oxime acetate with TiCl3.

  1. New data on ({gamma}, n), ({gamma}, 2n), and ({gamma}, 3n) partial photoneutron reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Varlamov, V. V. Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.; Stepanov, M. E.

    2013-11-15

    Systematic discrepancies between the results of various experiments devoted to determining cross sections for total and partial photoneutron reactions are analyzed by using objective criteria of reliability of data in terms of the transitional photoneutron-multiplicity function F{sub i} = {sigma}({gamma}, in)/{sigma}({gamma}, xn), whose values for i = 1, 2, 3, ... cannot exceed by definition 1.00, 0.50, 0.33, ..., respectively. It was found that the majority of experimental data on the cross sections obtained for ({gamma}, n), ({gamma}, 2n), and ({gamma}, 3n) reactions with the aid of methods of photoneutron multiplicity sorting do not meet objective criteria (in particular, F{sub 2} > 0.50 for a vast body of data). New data on the cross sections for partial reactions on {sup 181}Ta and {sup 208}Pb nuclei were obtained within a new experimental-theoretical method that was proposed for the evaluation of cross sections for partial reactions and in which the experimental neutron yield cross section {sigma}{sup expt}({gamma}, xn) = {sigma}({gamma}, n) + 2{sigma}({gamma}, 2n) + 3{sigma}({gamma}, 3n) + ..., which is free from problems associated with determining neutron multiplicities, is used simultaneously with the functions F{sub i}{sup theor} calculated within a combined model of photonuclear reactions.

  2. Alpha Backgrounds in the SNO ^3He Proportional Counter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonehill, Laura

    2006-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently deployed an array of proportional counters known as Neutral Current Detectors (NCDs) to detect thermalized neutrons via the ^3He(n,p)^3H reaction. The primary physics background to the neutron-capture signal is alpha particle emission from uranium- and thorium-chain decays in the NCD walls. The expected capture rate of neutrons from the neutral-current neutrino reaction on deuterium is three per day and the intrinsic alpha background rate is approximately 250 alphas per day. Fewer than 10% of these alphas fall into the energy range where neutron-capture signals occur, and a substantial number of these can be eliminated by pulse-shape analysis. This talk will focus on measurements of the alpha backgrounds in the NCDs and the extent to which these alphas contaminate the neutron-capture signal region.

  3. [Prenatal gene diagnosis of alpha-thalassemias].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Li, Q; Wu, Y

    1998-03-01

    To study the value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in prenatal diagnosis of alpha thalassemias. Amniotic fluid prenatal gene diagnosis with polymerase chain reaction was carried out on eleven fetuses whose parents are both heterozygotes with alpha-globin gene deficiency. A DNA fragment of 224bp in the production means normal alpha-globin gene sequence, while a 630bp fragment indicated the alpha-globin gene deficiency. Both 224bp and 630bp fragments in the same sample means heterozygote. Three of the 11 fetuses (one pregnancy was twin) were with normal alpha-globin gene sequence, while 4 were homozygotes and the other 4 were heterozygotes. For the 3 fetuses with ascitic fluid under ultrasound examination, 2 were homozygotes and the other one was heterozygote by gene diagnosis. Two of the 4 homozygotes from induced abortion were typical Bart's syndrome, one was edema in the whole body and the other one with short limbs and abdominal hernia. The method of PCR in prenatal diagnoses for detection of alpha-thalassemias is simple, accurate and rapid.

  4. Kinetic study of the quenching reaction of singlet oxygen by common synthetic antioxidants (tert-butylhydroxyanisol, tert-di-butylhydroxytoluene, and tert-butylhydroquinone) as compared with alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji In; Lee, Jun Hyun; Choi, Dong Seong; Won, Bo Mi; Jung, Mun Yhung; Park, Jiyong

    2009-06-01

    Effects of synthetic phenolic antioxidants (BHA, BHT, and TBHQ) on the methylene blue (MB) sensitized photooxidation of linoleic acid as compared with that of alpha-tocopherol have been studied. Their antioxidative mechanism was studied by both ESR spectroscopy in a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidone (TMPD)-methylene blue (MB) system and spectroscopic analysis of rubrene oxidation induced by a chemical source of singlet oxygen. Total singlet oxygen quenching rate constants (k(ox-Q)+k(q)) were determined using a steady state kinetic equation. TBHQ showed the strongest protective activity against the MB sensitized photooxidation of linoleic acid, followed by BHA and BHT. TBHQ (1 x 10(-3) M) exhibited 86.5% and 71.4% inhibition of peroxide and conjugated diene formations, respectively, in linoleic acid photooxidation after 60-min light illumination. The protective activity of TBHQ against the photosensitized oxidation of linoleic acid was almost comparable to that of alpha-tocopherol. The data obtained from ESR and rubrene oxidation studies clearly showed the strong singlet oxygen quenching ability of TBHQ. The k(ox-Q)+k(q) of BHA, BHT, and TBHQ were determined to be 3.37 x 10(7), 4.26 x 10(6), and 1.67 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The k(ox-Q)+k(q) of TBHQ was within the same order of magnitude of that of alpha-tocopherol, a known efficient singlet oxygen quencher. There was a high negative correlation (r(2) = -0.991) between log (k(ox-Q)+k(q)) and reported oxidation potentials for the synthetic antioxidants, indicating their charge-transfer mechanism for singlet oxygen quenching. This is the 1st report on the kinetic study on k(ox-Q)+k(q) of TBHQ in methanol as compared with other commonly used commercial synthetic antioxidants and alpha-tocopherol.

  5. Effect of nitrogen flow rate on structural, morphological and optical properties of In-rich InxAl1-xN thin films grown by plasma-assisted dual source reactive evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, M.; Ganesh, V.; Goh, B. T.; Dee, C. F.; Mohmad, A. R.; Rahman, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    In-rich InxAl1-xN thin films were deposited on quartz substrate at various nitrogen flow rates by plasma-assisted dual source reactive evaporation technique. The elemental composition, surface morphology, structural and optical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. XPS results revealed that the indium composition (x) of the InxAl1-xN films increases from 0.90 to 0.97 as the nitrogen flow rate is increased from 40 to 100 sccm, respectively. FESEM images of the surface and cross-sectional microstructure of the InxAl1-xN films showed that by increasing the N2 flow rate, the grown particles are highly agglomerated. Raman and XRD results indicated that by increasing nitrogen flow rate the In-rich InxAl1-xN films tend to turn into amorphous state. It was found that band gap energy of the films are in the range of 0.90-1.17 eV which is desirable for the application of full spectra solar cells.

  6. Effect of substitution of nitrogen ions to red-emitting Sr 3B 2O 6-3/2 xN x:Eu 2+ oxy-nitride phosphor for the application to white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoon Jung, Sang; Seok Kang, Dong; Young Jeon, Duk

    2011-07-01

    The luminescence properties of orange-red-emitting Eu 2+ activated Sr 3B 2O 6-3/2 xN x were optimized for application to blue/near UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Sr 3B 2O 6-3/2 xN x:Eu 2+ phosphor showed broad orange-red emission peaking at 600-650 nm under blue and n-UV excitations of 450 and 360 nm, respectively; the emission peak of phosphor was affected by nitrogen ion substitution. Boron nitride raw materials affect luminescence properties of phosphor; a small amount of BN reacts as a flux for synthesis of Sr 3B 2O 6 and a large amount of BN helps Sr 3B 2O 6-3/2 xN x:Eu 2+ phosphor to have longer-wavelength emission peak. A 447 nm-emitting blue LED-pumped white LED with a mixture of Sr 3B 2O 6-3/2 xN x:Eu 2+ ( x=1) and Ba 2SiO 4:Eu 2+ green-emitting phosphor was fabricated; it is observed that it showed color coordinates of (0.3648, 0.3605) and CRI value of 96.

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of the plasma generated during the deposition of AlxGa1-xN films by pulsed laser co-ablation of Al and GaAs targets in electron cyclotron resonance nitrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Peipei; Cai, Hua; Li, Yanli; Yang, Xu; You, Qinghu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2015-06-01

    A nitrogen-aluminum-gallium-arsenic plasma is formed by pulsed laser co-ablation of an Al target and a GaAs target in electron cyclotron resonance discharge-generated nitrogen plasma for AlxGa1-xN film deposition. The formed plasma was characterized by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy measurements and the process of AlxGa1-xN deposition was discussed. The plasma contains excited species originally present in the working N2 gas and energetic species ablated from the targets, and its emission is abundant in the emission bands of diatomic nitrogen molecules and molecular ions and the emission lines of monoatomic aluminum, gallium, and arsenic atoms and atomic ions. The temporal and spatial features of the plasma emission reveal that the nitrogen species in the electron cyclotron resonance nitrogen plasma experience additional excitations due to the expanding ablation plumes, and the ablated species are excited frequently when traveling with the expanding plumes in the nitrogen plasma, making the formed plasma very reactive, which is very important in the process of AlxGa1-xN film deposition. The deposited film was evaluated for composition analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and structure characterization by x-ray diffraction. The AlxGa1-xN film is slightly nitrogen rich with an aluminum content x of about 0.6 and featured with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with preferred c-axis orientation.

  8. Structure/function studies of dogfish alpha-crystallin, comparison with bovine alpha-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Ghahghaei, A; Rekas, A; Carver, J A; Augusteyn, R C

    2009-11-20

    alpha-Crystallin is the major protein of the mammalian lens where it contributes to the refractive properties needed for vision and possibly to the stability of the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of alpha-crystallin have changed during the course of evolution. Dogfish alpha-crystallin, which appeared over 420 million years ago, has been contrasted with bovine alpha-crystallin, which emerged around 160 million years later, by comparing their sizes, the microenvironments of their cysteine and tryptophan residues, their chaperone-like activities and the flexibility of their COOH-terminal extensions. Dogfish alpha-crystallin consists of alphaA- and alphaB-polypeptides, in a 1:5 ratio, and has a molecular mass of around 400 kDa. By contrast, the bovine protein is around 600-800 kDa in mass and has a 3:1 subunit ratio. Cysteine residues in the proteins were equally accessible to reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Quenching of fluorescence with acrylamide indicated tryptophan residues in the two proteins were in similar environments. The chaperone activity of dogfish alpha-crystallin was comparable to that of bovine alpha-crystallin in preventing the heat-induced precipitation of beta(L)-crystallin but the dogfish protein was three times more effective at preventing insulin precipitation after reduction at 37 C. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies showed that the last 17 amino acids of the dogfish alphaB polypeptide (V162-K178) have great conformational flexibility, are highly exposed to solvent and adopt little ordered conformation. This is comparable to, but slightly longer in length, than the COOH-terminal extension observed in mammalian alpha-crystallins. The structure and properties of alpha-crystallin have changed relatively little during the evolutionary period from the emergence of sharks and mammals.

  9. First-principles study of the structural and elastic properties of Cr{sub 2}AlX (X=N, C) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Shouxin; Wei Dongqing; Hu Haiquan; Feng Wenxia; Gong Zizheng

    2012-07-15

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of Cr{sub 2}AlX, with X=N, C, have been investigated at the density functional theory level by applying a plane-wave pseudopotential approach. The band structure and density of states reveal the metallic features of Cr{sub 2}AlX. The total and projected density of states indicate that the bonding is achieved through a hybridization of Cr 3d states with Al and X-atom p states. The Cr 3d-X2p bonds are lower in energy and are stiffer than Cr 3d-Al 3p bonds. The charge density distributions indicate that there exist soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds, which might be responsible for their hardness. The elastic constants were obtained in the pressure range 0-100 GPa, and satisfy the stability conditions for hexagonal crystal, which indicates that these two compounds are stable in the pressure regime studied. By analyzing bulk modulus to shear modulus ratio and Cauchy pressure, Cr{sub 2}AlC is predicted to be brittleness and Cr{sub 2}AlN is ductile. The Debye temperature was obtained from the average sound velocity. - Graphical abstract: The heterogeneity of chemical bonds in Cr{sub 2}AlX (X=N, C) is observed: soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds might be contributed to their hardness. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr 3d-X2p (X=N, C) bonds are lower in energy and stiffer than Cr 3d-Al 3p bonds for Cr{sub 2}AlX. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of Cr{sub 2}AlX might be ascribed to soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The predicted brittleness of Cr{sub 2}AlC and ductility of Cr{sub 2}AlN originated from their novel structure.

  10. Identification of Dictyostelium G alpha genes expressed during multicellular development.

    PubMed Central

    Hadwiger, J A; Wilkie, T M; Strathmann, M; Firtel, R A

    1991-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-mediated signal transduction constitutes a common mechanism by which cells receive and respond to a diverse set of environmental signals. Many of the signals involved in the developmental life cycle of the slime mold Dictyostelium have been postulated to be transduced by such pathways and, in some cases, these pathways have been demonstrated to be dependent on specific G proteins. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we have identified two additional Dictyostelium G alpha genes, G alpha 4 and G alpha 5, that are developmentally regulated. Transcripts from both of these genes are primarily expressed during the multicellular stages of development, suggesting possible roles in cell differentiation or morphogenesis. The entire G alpha 4 gene was sequenced and found to encode a protein consisting of 345 amino acids. The G alpha 4 subunit is homologous to other previously identified G alpha subunits, including the Dictyostelium G alpha 1 (43% identity) and G alpha 2 (41% identity) subunits. However, the G alpha 4 subunit contains some unusual sequence divergences in residues highly conserved among most eukaryotic G alpha subunits, suggesting that G alpha 4 may be a member of another class of G alpha subunits. Images PMID:1910174

  11. Synthesis of aromatic (E)- or (Z)-alpha,beta-unsaturated amides with total or very high selectivity from alpha,beta-epoxyamides and samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bardales, Eva

    2003-11-28

    Highly stereoselective synthesis of aromatic alpha,beta-unsaturated amides was achieved by treatment of aromatic alpha,beta-epoxyamides with samarium diiodide. The starting compounds 1 and 3 are easily prepared by the reaction of enolates derived from alpha-chloroamides with carbonyl compounds at -78 degrees C. A mechanism to explain this transformation is proposed.

  12. General, robust, and stereocomplementary preparation of alpha,beta-disubstituted alpha,beta-unsaturated esters.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Hidefumi; Nishikado, Hiroshi; Ueno, Kanako; Tanabe, Yoo

    2009-10-01

    An (E)- and (Z)-stereocomplementary preparative method for alpha,beta-disubstituted alpha,beta-unsaturated esters is performed via three general and robust reaction sequences: (i) Ti-Claisen condensation (formylation) of esters to give alpha-formyl esters (12 examples, 60-99%), (ii) (E)- and (Z)-stereocomplementary enol p-toluenesulfonylation (tosylation) using TsCl-N-methylimidazole (NMI)-Et(3)N and LiOH (24 examples, 82-99%), and (iii) stereoretentive Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling (18 examples, 64-96%).

  13. Intentional anisotropic strain relaxation in (112{sup ¯}2) oriented Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N one-dimensionally lattice matched to GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Buß, E. R. Rossow, U.; Bremers, H.; Hangleiter, A.; Meisch, T.; Caliebe, M.; Scholz, F.

    2014-09-22

    We report on (112{sup ¯}2) oriented Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N grown by low pressure metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on (112{sup ¯}2) GaN templates on patterned r-plane sapphire. The indium incorporation efficiency as well as the growth rate of (112{sup ¯}2) oriented layers are similar to c-plane oriented Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N layers. Deposition of thick Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N layers does not lead to additional roughening like in case of c-plane oriented Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N. Independent of the thickness, the degree of relaxation of layers lattice matched in m-direction is in the range of 33%–45% in [112{sup ¯}3{sup ¯}]-direction. Associated with the relaxation in [112{sup ¯}3{sup ¯}]-direction, there is a tilt of the Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N layers around the [11{sup ¯}00] axis due to slip of threading dislocations on the basal (0001)-plane. Relaxation in m-direction is not observable for layers lattice matched in [112{sup ¯}3{sup ¯}] direction. The possibility to adjust the lattice parameter of AlInN in [112{sup ¯}3{sup ¯}] direction without changing the lattice parameter in m-direction by anisotropic strain relaxation opens up opportunities for subsequent growth of optically active structures. One possibility is to form relaxed buffer layers for GaInN quantum well structures.

  14. Producing a compound Nucleus via Inelastic Scattering: The 90Zr(alpha,alpha')90Zr* Case

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2008-05-23

    In a Surrogate reaction a compound nucleus is produced via a direct reaction (pickup, stripping, or inelastic scattering). For a proper application of the Surrogate approach it is necessary to predict the resulting angular momentum and parity distribution in the compound nucleus. A model for determining these distributions is developed for the case of inelastic alpha scattering off a spherical nucleus. The focus is on obtaining a first, simple description of the direct-reaction process that produces the compound nucleus and on providing the basis for a more complete treatment of the problem. The approximations employed in the present description are discussed and the extensions required for a more rigorous treatment of the problem are outlined. To illustrate the formalism, an application to {sup 90}Zr({alpha},{alpha}{prime}){sup 90}Zr* is presented.

  15. Cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams: A spectroscopic tool for neutron-rich nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Bottoni, S.; Leoni, S.; Fornal, B.; ...

    2015-08-27

    An exploratory experiment performed at REX-ISOLDE to investigate cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is presented. The aim of the experiment was to test the potential of cluster-transfer reactions at the Coulomb barrier as a mechanism to explore the structure of exotic neutron-rich nuclei. The reactions 7Li(98Rb,αxn) and 7Li(98Rb,txn) were studied through particle-γ coincidence measurements, and the results are presented in terms of the observed excitation energies and spins. Moreover, the reaction mechanism is qualitatively discussed as a transfer of a clusterlike particle within a distorted-wave Born approximation framework. The results indicate that cluster-transfer reactions can be describedmore » well as a direct process and that they can be an efficient method to investigate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei at medium-high excitation energies and spins.« less

  16. Activation cross-sections of longer lived radioisotopes of proton induced nuclear reactions on terbium up to 65MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Ignatyuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Experimental cross sections are presented for the (159)Tb(p,xn)(153,155,157,159)Dy, (152,153,155,156m2,m1,g,158)Tb and (153,151)Gd nuclear reactions up to 65MeV. The experimental results are compared with the recently reported experimental data and with the results of the nuclear reaction codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS as reported in the TENDL-2015 on-line library. Integral thick-target yields are also derived for the reaction products used in practical applications and production routes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of radionuclides created by sup 181 Ta(. gamma. ,xn yp) reactions for bremsstrahlung photons produced by 150-MeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A. ); Dickens, J.K. )

    1991-12-01

    Ten radionuclides, including isomers, from {sup 172}Ta to {sup 180}Ta and {sup 180m}Hf were produced by photon interactions with a sample of elemental tantalum and measured by counting photons using a high-resolution detection system. Relative yields of these radionuclides were obtained. In addition, precision half lives were obtained for {sup 175,176,180}Ta and {sup 180m}Hf. Those obtained for the three Ta isotopes agree with previously reported values. For {sup 180m}Hf, the present measurements resulted in a half life determination of 6.05{plus minus}0.06 hr, or about 10% longer than the currently adopted value for this half life.

  18. Study of radionuclides created by {sup 181}Ta({gamma},xn yp) reactions for bremsstrahlung photons produced by 150-MeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.; Dickens, J.K.

    1991-12-01

    Ten radionuclides, including isomers, from {sup 172}Ta to {sup 180}Ta and {sup 180m}Hf were produced by photon interactions with a sample of elemental tantalum and measured by counting photons using a high-resolution detection system. Relative yields of these radionuclides were obtained. In addition, precision half lives were obtained for {sup 175,176,180}Ta and {sup 180m}Hf. Those obtained for the three Ta isotopes agree with previously reported values. For {sup 180m}Hf, the present measurements resulted in a half life determination of 6.05{plus_minus}0.06 hr, or about 10% longer than the currently adopted value for this half life.

  19. Method for determining fast-alpha-particle confinement in tokamak plasmas using resonant nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, F.E.; Zweben, S.J.; Medley, S.S.

    1986-03-01

    The resonant nuclear reactions D(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 6/Li, /sup 6/Li(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 10/B, and /sup 7/Li(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 11/B are examined as diagnostics of fast-alpha-particle confinement in tokamak plasmas. Gamma rays from these resonant reactions with energies from 2.1 MeV to 9.2 MeV may be used to infer the alpha-particle population between energies of 0.4 MeV and 2.6 MeV. The ratio of these alpha-burnup reactions to the reactions T(D,..gamma..)/sup 5/He and /sup 3/He(D,..gamma..)/sup 5/Li provides a technique for the measurement of alpha confinement.

  20. Recent results of measurements of the {sup 14}N(n,p){sup 14}C, {sup 35}Cl(n,p){sup 35}S, {sup 36}Cl(n,p){sup 36}S, and {sup 36}Cl(n,{alpha}){sup 33}P reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gledenov, Y.M.; Salatski, V.I.; Sedyshev, P.V.; Sedysheva, M.V.; Koehler, P.E.; Vesna, V.A.; Okunev, I.S.

    1995-02-05

    Experiments are reported for measuring the cross section of the {sup 14}N(n,p){sup 14}C reaction over the neutron energy range from thermal energy to 150 keV at the IBR-30 pulsed booster at JNR, Dubna and the WWR-M reactor at INR, Kiev. The reaction cross section values were found for the thermal energy and for the neutron energies of 24 keV, 54 keV, 144 keV. The {sup 36}Cl(n,p){sup 36}S cross section was measured for the neutron energies from thermal energy to approximately 800 keV at the neutron source of LANSCE, Los Alamos. The contributions of the {sup 36}Cl(n,p){sup 36}S and {sup 36}Cl(n,{alpha}){sup 33}P reactions to resonances at 0.9 keV and 1.3 keV were identified. Also, at the WWR-M reactor of PINR, Gatchina, preliminary measurements of the {sup 36}Cl(n,p){sup 36}S cross section at the thermal neutron energy were conducted. The {sup 35}Cl(n,p){sup 35}S reaction cross section was measured at the IBR-30 pulsed booster. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.