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Sample records for alpha-al2o3 spectroscopic evidence

  1. The structure of the alpha-Al2O3(0001) surface from low-energyelectron diffraction: Al termination and evidence for large thermalvibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, E.A.; Van Hove, M.A.; Walters, C.F.; McCarty, K.F.

    2000-05-05

    We have determined the surface structure of alpha-Al2O3(0001) using dynamical low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Sapphire surfaces were prepared in three different ways, and the diffraction results were analyzed using an exhaustive search of possible models. For all sample processing conditions, the clearly favored structure has a single Al layer termination and a large first interlayer contraction. In addition, we find that the surface atoms have unusually large vibrational amplitudes at room temperature, suggestive of an anharmonic vibrational mode.

  2. Thermoluminescence glow curves and optical stimulated luminescence of undoped alpha-Al2O3 crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C X; Tang, Q; Lin, L B; Luo, D L

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of thermoluminescence (TL) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) in undoped alpha-Al2O3 single crystals were studied. The TL glow curves of the crystal samples irradiated at various dose levels were measured by RisØ TL/OSL-DA-15B/C reader with U-340 or 7-59 filters at different heating rates. The glow peaks measured with U-340 at approximately 210 degrees C of the undoped alpha-Al2O3 can be well fitted by first-order kinetic equation whereas the glow peaks measured with 7-59 filters are a composite of two first-order glow peaks. It indicates that the TL glow curves are dependent upon the filter used in the reader that is related to the emission spectra of luminescence materials. The OSL were also measured and fitted by two exponential functions to get the luminescence intensities. The TL and OSL dose responses of the undoped alpha-Al2O3 crystal were obtained in the dose range of 0.12-248 Gy and fitted by the composite action dose-response function to get nonlinear characteristic parameters. The TL and OSL dose responses are linear-sublinear. PMID:16644982

  3. Oxygen diffusion in alpha-Al2O3. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Halloran, J. W.; Cooper, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen self diffusion coefficients were determined in single crystal alpha-Al2O3 using the gas exchange technique. The samples were semi-infinite slabs cut from five different boules with varying background impurities. The diffusion direction was parallel to the c-axis. The tracer profiles were determined by two techniques, single spectrum proton activation and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The SIMS proved to be a more useful tool. The determined diffusion coefficients, which were insensitive to impurity levels and oxygen partial pressure, could be described by D = .00151 exp (-572kJ/RT) sq m/s. The insensitivities are discussed in terms of point defect clustering. Two independent models are consistent with the findings, the first considers the clusters as immobile point defect traps which buffer changes in the defect chemistry. The second considers clusters to be mobile and oxygen diffusion to be intrinsic behavior, the mechanism for oxygen transport involving neutral clusters of Schottky quintuplets.

  4. Influence of gamma-irradiation sterilization on the structural defects of sapphire single crystals (alpha-Al(2)O(3)).

    PubMed

    Dubois, J C; Jardin, C; Exbrayat, P; Lissac, M; Treheux, D

    2001-01-01

    The influence of sterilization by gamma rays on the structure and the electrical behaviour of sapphire single crystal (alpha-Al(2)O(3)) was studied successively by thermoluminescence, by cathodoluminescence and by observation of the scanning electron microscope mirror effect. The mirror method allowed us to measure the capacity of an insulating material to trap electrons. The structural analysis of the alpha-Al(2)O(3) showed that there were oxygen vacancies, as well as chromium and titanium impurities. It was possible to demonstrate that these defects, especially the oxygen vacancies, are in a different state after a 30 kilogray irradiation. The valency state changes of these defects and the presence of trapped charges are accompanied by a deformation of the crystalline lattice which results in a modification of its electrical properties. At room temperature, the irradiated alpha-Al(2)O(3), unlike non irradiated alpha-Al(2)O(3), is capable of trapping electrons. It can be concluded that gamma-ray sterilization modifies the cohesive energy of alpha-Al(2)O(3), which could lead to mechanical changes (surface charge, friction, wear, fracture strength, em leader) in this material. PMID:11564909

  5. Effect of the theta-alpha-Al2O3 transformation on the oxidation behavior of beta-NiAl+Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.; Smialek, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal oxidation of NiAl+Zr has been performed over the temperature range of 800-1200 C and studied by TGA, XRD, and SEM. A discontinuous decrease in growth rate of two orders of magnitude was observed at 1000 C due to the formation of alpha-Al2O3 from theta-Al2O3. This transformation also resulted in a dramatic change in the surface morphology of the scales, as a whisker topography was changed into a weblike network of oxide ridges and radial transformation cracks. It is believed that the ridges are evidence for a short-circuit outward aluminum diffusion growth mechanism that has been documented in a number of O-18 tracer studies.

  6. Environmental gamma dosimetry with OSL of alpha-Al(2)O(3):C for in situ sediment measurements.

    PubMed

    Richter, D; Dombrowski, H; Neumaier, S; Guibert, P; Zink, A C

    2010-09-01

    The physical properties of alpha-Al(2)O(3):C are very similar to that of quartz, which make it an attractive dosimetric material for geological and archaeological dating applications. Storage experiments in an ultra-low-radiation underground environment (UDO at PTB) and gamma-ray spectrometry show that the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal of this material does neither suffer from a significant inherent background caused by traces of radionuclides (<6 microGy a(-1)) nor from fading. After having performed a simple calibration procedure, gamma dosimetry based on alpha-Al(2)O(3):C detectors, which were exposed in a brick block and a lead castle for different periods of time, provided concordant results with dose values derived from independent gamma-ray spectrometric measurements using high-purity germanium and NaI:Tl detectors. These investigations indirectly confirm both the absence of a significant inherent background and fading of the detector material. Small doses of a few micro gray accumulated in short exposure times to environmental radiation can be accurately measured, even when doses (i.e. transport dose) much larger than the actual environmental dose have to be subtracted. It is shown that the OSL signal caused by small transport doses can be easily and reproducibly reset even under difficult field conditions by illuminating the dosemeters with the blue light from Luxeon LEDs. Summarised, alpha-Al(2)O(3):C appears to be the material of choice for dosimetric dating applications of quartz or related materials, when analysed by using OSL. PMID:20534630

  7. Design of a finger ring extremity dosemeter based on OSL readout of alpha-Al2O3:C.

    PubMed

    Durham, J S; Zhang, X; Payne, F; Akselrod, M S

    2002-01-01

    A finger-ring dosemeter and reader has been designed that uses OSL readout of alpha-Al2O3:C (aluminium oxide). The use of aluminium oxide is important because it allows the sensitive element of the dosemeter to be a very thin layer that reduces the beta and gamma energy dependence to acceptable levels without compromising the required sensitivity for dose measurement. OSL readout allows the ring dosemeter to be interrogated with minimal disassembly. The ring dosemeter consists of three components: aluminium oxide powder for measurement of dose, an aluminium substrate that gives structure to the ring, and an aluminised Mylar cover to prevent the aluminium oxide from exposure to light. The thicknesses of the three components have been optimised for beta response using the Monte Carlo computer code FLUKA. A reader was also designed and developed that allows the dosemeter to be read after removing the Mylar. Future efforts are discussed. PMID:12382706

  8. Development of a personal dosimetry system based on optically stimulated luminescence of alpha-Al2O3:C for mixed radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Lee, K J

    2001-04-01

    To develop a personal optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry system for mixed radiation fields using alpha-Al2O3:C, a discriminating badge filter system was designed by taking advantage of its optically stimulable properties and energy dependencies. This was done by designing a multi-element badge system for powder layered alpha-Al2O3:C material and an optical reader system based on high-intensity blue light-emitting diode (LED). The design of the multielement OSL dosimeter badge system developed allows the measurement of a personal dose equivalent value Hp(d) in mixed radiation fields of beta and gamma. Dosimetric properties of the personal OSL dosimeter badge system investigated here were the dose response, energy response and multi-readability. Based on the computational simulations and experiments of the proposed dosimeter design, it was demonstrated that a multi-element dosimeter system with an OSL technology based on alpha-Al2O3:C is suitable to obtain personal dose equivalent information in mixed radiation fields. PMID:11225704

  9. Proactive control of the metal-ceramic interface behavior of thermal barrier coatings using an artificial alpha-Al2O 3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Feng

    The reliability and life of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in the hottest sections of advanced aircraft engines and power generation systems are largely dictated by: (1) the ability of a metallic bond coating to form an adherent thermally grown oxide (TGO) at the metal-ceramic interface and (2) the rate at which the TGO grows upon oxidation. It is postulated that a thin alpha-Al2O3 layer, if it could be directly deposited on a Ni-based alloy, will guide the alloy surface to form a TGO that is more tenacious and slower growing than what is attainable with state-of-the-art bond coatings. A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process was used to directly deposit an alpha-Al2O3 layer on the surface of a single crystal Ni-bases superalloy. The layer was 150 nm thick, and consisted of small columnar grains (˜100 to 200 nm) with alpha-Al2O 3 as the major phase with a minute amount of theta-Al2O 3. Within 0.5 h of oxidation at 1150°C, the resulting TGO formed on the alloy surface underwent significant lateral grain growth. Consequently, within this time scale, the columnar nature of the TGO became well established. After 50 h, a network of ridges was clearly observed on the TGO surface instead of equiaxed grains typically observed on uncoated alloy surface. Comparison of the TGO morphologies observed with and without the CVD-Al2O 3 layer suggested that the transient oxidation of the alloy surface was considerably reduced. The alloy coated with the CVD-Al2O 3 layer also produced a much more adherent and slow growing TGO in comparison to that formed on the uncoated alloy surface. The CVD-Al2O 3 layer also improved its spallation resistance. Without the CVD-Al 2O3 layer, more than 50% of the TGO spalled off the alloy surface after 500 h in oxidation with significant wrinkling of the TGO that remained on the alloy surface. In contrast, the TGO remained intact with the CVD-Al2O3 layer after the 500 h exposure. Furthermore, the CVD layer significantly reduced the degree of

  10. Characterization of the annealed (0001) surface of sapphire (alpha-Al2O3) and interaction with silver by reflection electron microscopy and scanning reflection electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ndubuisi, G C; Liu, J; Cowley, J M

    1992-02-15

    Annealed (0001) surfaces of single-crystal sapphire (alpha-Al2O3) rod have been studied in the electron microscope using reflection electron microscopy (REM), scanning reflection electron microscopy (SREM), and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Annealed surfaces of (0001) sapphire are vicinal and characterized by close-packed (0001)-oriented terraces separated by faceted multiple-height steps, with edges parallel to energetically preferred low-index directions (less than 1010 greater than and less than 1120 greater than). These structural features are not seen on cleaved surfaces or polished surfaces treated at temperatures less than 1,250 degrees C. Oxygen-annealing produces clean surfaces which prove useful for investigating the interaction of deposited metals with the (0001) sapphire. Both REM and SREM (with microdiffraction spots) techniques have been used to observe fine structure of flat Ag islands on the scale of 1-100 nm on the (0001)-oriented terraces as well as aggregations at the steps. A preliminary result on interaction with Cu is also included.

  11. Radiation damage induced by krypton ions in sintered alpha-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Dalmasso, C; Iacconi, P; Beauvy, M; Lapraz, D; Balan, E; Calas, G

    2006-01-01

    Alpha-alumina is a useful thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeter. The knowledge of its behaviour under irradiation is thus of primary importance. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the radiation damage produced by swift krypton ions using various experimental methods, namely TL, optical absorption, fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). After ion irradiation, the TL intensity is shown to decrease, whereas the optical absorption rises in the whole studied wavelength range. These two phenomena seem to be related to one another. Furthermore, optical absorption measurements highlight the appearance of new absorption bands probably owing to oxygen vacancies. Induced defects are also observed in the EPR spectra of irradiated pellets. They are likely related to electronic holes trapped on oxygen ions. The concentration of these defects increases with ion fluence and fluorescence measurements indicate that some pre-existing defects such as F2(2+) centres follow the same trend up to approximately 4.1 x 10(13) ions cm(-2).

  12. Oxygen-Permeable, Hydrophobic Membranes of Silanized alpha-Al2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Membranes made of silanized alumina have been prepared and tested as prototypes of derivatized ceramic membranes that are both highly permeable to oxygen and hydrophobic. Improved oxygen-permeable, hydrophobic membranes would be attractive for use in several technological disciplines, including supporting high-temperature aqueousphase oxidation in industrial production of chemicals, oxygenation of aqueous streams for bioreactors, and oxygenation of blood during open-heart surgery and in cases of extreme pulmonary dysfunction. In comparison with organic polymeric oxygen-permeable membranes now commercially available, the derivatized ceramic membranes are more chemically robust, are capable of withstanding higher temperatures, and exhibit higher oxygen-diffusion coefficients.

  13. Boundary migration and disappearance of voids in Alpha-Al2O3 at 2000 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M.; Fujita, H.

    1984-01-01

    A series of photographs taken with Osaka University's high temperature 3MV electron microscope of alpha-A1(z)O(3) at 2000 C is presented. The dynamic study shows grain boundary migration in progress and demonstrates that disappearance of voids is controlled by boundary migration.

  14. Dosimetric properties of alpha-Al(2)O(3):C exposed to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colyott, Leslie Edward

    Scope and method of study. The trapping states of Czochralski-grown α-Al2O3:C were studied using a variety of experimental techniques, including thermoluminescence (TL), phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) and optical absorption measurements. The focus was placed upon those states responsible for the dosimetric behavior of the α- Al2O3:C, following exposure to various forms of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Findings and conclusions. The most effective wavelengths for PTTL are in the short wavelength visible to UV range. The phototransfer processes are complex and appear to involve both electrons and holes. PTTL data suggest that the fading is due to the optical stimulation of charge from the traps into the delocalized bands. At short wavelengths the phototransfer of charge from deep traps into the dosimetry traps must be considered and, thus, the exact wavelength dependence is governed by the radiation and thermal history of the sample. The dose dependence of the TL peak suggests an overlap of several peaks resulting from an array of closely spaced energy levels. A dosimeter which measures the integrated ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure in air or in water was developed as an application of the PTTL properties of α- Al2O3:C. This dosimeter exploits the increased phototransfer efficiency of α- Al2O3:C to light in the UVB region of the spectrum to produce a near-linear dynamic range of over three decades of UVB exposure. TL and PTTL signals are analyzed, using an algorithm which assumes that a distribution of trapping levels are responsible for the observed TL signals. The signals are deconvolved into unique distribution signatures, which enable the discrimination between irradiations due to gamma/beta, alpha and neutrons. Experiments involving the high temperature anneal of α-Al2O3:C powder in an oxygen atmosphere suggest a diffusion of oxygen vacancies out of the crystal lattice under these conditions, resulting in a decrease in F- and F+- centers. TL resulting from exposure to ultraviolet light suggests a discrete distribution of trapping levels. Application of the deconvolution algorithm confirms this analysis.

  15. Spectroscopic evidence for Davydov-like solitons in acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Careri, G.; Buontempo, U.; Galluzzi, F.; Scott, A. C.; Gratton, E.; Shyamsunder, E.

    1984-10-01

    Detailed measurements of infrared absorption and Raman scattering on crystalline acetanilide [(CH3CONHC6H5)x] at low temperature show a new band close to the conventional amide I band. Equilibrium properties and spectroscopic data rule out explanations based on a conventional assignment, crystal defects, Fermi resonance, and upon frozen kinetics between two different subsystems. Thus we cannot account for this band using the concepts of conventional molecular spectroscopy, but a soliton model, similar to that proposed by Davydov for α-helix in protein, is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopic evidence for (NO)3 formation on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshida, H.; Okuyama, H.; Hatta, S.; Aruga, T.

    2016-08-01

    The formation of (NO)3 on Cu(111) was recently reported based on scanning tunneling microscopy observations [A. Shiotari et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 134705 (2014)]. We herein report studies into this system using electron energy loss spectroscopy and verify the above findings through vibrational analysis. For the surface covered with mixed isotopes of N16O and N18O, we observed four peaks corresponding to N-O stretching vibrations, which were ascribed to the four isotopic combinations of the trimer. Dynamic coupling within the trimer was evaluated from model calculations of the coupled oscillators. Furthermore, we observed hindered rotation and translation modes in the dipole scattering regime, suggesting that the molecular axis is tilted from the surface normal. These results provide spectroscopic support for the formation of (NO)3 on Cu(111).

  17. Vibrational spectroscopic evidence for (NO)3 formation on Cu(111).

    PubMed

    Koshida, H; Okuyama, H; Hatta, S; Aruga, T

    2016-08-01

    The formation of (NO)3 on Cu(111) was recently reported based on scanning tunneling microscopy observations [A. Shiotari et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 134705 (2014)]. We herein report studies into this system using electron energy loss spectroscopy and verify the above findings through vibrational analysis. For the surface covered with mixed isotopes of N(16)O and N(18)O, we observed four peaks corresponding to N-O stretching vibrations, which were ascribed to the four isotopic combinations of the trimer. Dynamic coupling within the trimer was evaluated from model calculations of the coupled oscillators. Furthermore, we observed hindered rotation and translation modes in the dipole scattering regime, suggesting that the molecular axis is tilted from the surface normal. These results provide spectroscopic support for the formation of (NO)3 on Cu(111). PMID:27497570

  18. Spectroscopic Characterization of Mineralogy Across Vesta: Evidence of Different Lithologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Sanotis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Filacchione, G.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Zambon, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Jaumann, R.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Nathues, A.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; Turrini, D.

    2012-01-01

    The average spectrum of Vesta, obtained by VIR in the range 0.25-5.1 microns, shows clear evidence of absorption bands due to pyroxenes and thermal emissions beyond 3.5 11m. Vesta shows considerable variability across its surface in terms of spectral reflectance and emission, band depths, bands widths and bands centers, reflecting a complex geological history. Vesta's average spectrum and inferred mineralogy resemble those of howardite meteorites. On a regional scale, significant deviations are seen: the south polar 500km Rheasilvia impact crater has a higher diogenitic component, and equatorial regions show a higher eucritic component. This lithologic distribution, with a concentration of Mg-pyroxenes in the Rheasilvia area, reinforces the hypothesis of a deeper diogenitic crust excavated by the impact that formed the Rheasilvia crater, and an upper eucritic crust, whose remnants are seen in the equatorial region. This scenario has implications for Vesta differentiation, consistent with magma ocean models. However, serial magmatism models could also have concentrated pyroxene cumulates in plutons emplaced within the lower crust,

  19. Spectroscopic evidence of α-methylbenzyl radical in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gi Woo; Ahn, Hyeon Geun; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2008-11-01

    We report the observation of the spectroscopic evidence of the α-methylbenzyl radical in a corona excited supersonic expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle for the first time. The precursors, toluene, ethylbenzene, and isopropylbenzene, seeded in a large amount of inert carrier gas helium, were electrically discharged to produce benzyl-type radicals as a result of the breaking off of a C-H or a C-C bond from the alkyl chain. The vibronic emission spectra, obtained in the visible region from the precursors, were compared to identify the species generated in the corona discharge of the precursors, from which we found the spectroscopic evidence of the α-methylbenzyl radical.

  20. Raman spectroscopic evidence of tissue restructuring in heat-induced tissue fusion.

    PubMed

    Su, Lei; Cloyd, Kristy L; Arya, Shobhit; Hedegaard, Martin A B; Steele, Joseph A M; Elson, Daniel S; Stevens, Molly M; Hanna, George B

    2014-09-01

    Heat-induced tissue fusion via radio-frequency (RF) energy has gained wide acceptance clinically and here we present the first optical-Raman-spectroscopy study on tissue fusion samples in vitro. This study provides direct insights into tissue constituent and structural changes on the molecular level, exposing spectroscopic evidence for the loss of distinct collagen fibre rich tissue layers as well as the denaturing and restructuring of collagen crosslinks post RF fusion. These findings open the door for more advanced optical feedback-control methods and characterization during heat-induced tissue fusion, which will lead to new clinical applications of this promising technology.

  1. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory--Part 1: Spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2014-12-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of trace evidence examination in forensic science. However, in Australia, the apparent need for soil examinations has diminished and with it the capability of forensic science laboratories to carry out soil examination has been eroded. In recent years, due to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations, interest in soil examinations has been renewed. Routine soil examinations conducted in a forensic science laboratory by trace evidence scientists can be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Spectroscopic techniques such as visible microspectrophotometry (MSP) and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are routinely used by trace evidence analysts for the colour and compositional analysis, respectively, of forensic items, including paints, fibres, inks and toners, tapes, adhesives and other miscellaneous examinations. This article presents an examination of the feasibility of using MSP and ATR-FTIR as a first step in the forensic comparison of soils with particular reference to Australian soil samples. This initial study demonstrates MSP and ATR-FTIR can effectively be used as a screening test for the discrimination of "forensic-sized" soil samples prior to submission for more detailed analyses by a soil expert. PMID:25205526

  2. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory--Part 1: Spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2014-12-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of trace evidence examination in forensic science. However, in Australia, the apparent need for soil examinations has diminished and with it the capability of forensic science laboratories to carry out soil examination has been eroded. In recent years, due to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations, interest in soil examinations has been renewed. Routine soil examinations conducted in a forensic science laboratory by trace evidence scientists can be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Spectroscopic techniques such as visible microspectrophotometry (MSP) and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are routinely used by trace evidence analysts for the colour and compositional analysis, respectively, of forensic items, including paints, fibres, inks and toners, tapes, adhesives and other miscellaneous examinations. This article presents an examination of the feasibility of using MSP and ATR-FTIR as a first step in the forensic comparison of soils with particular reference to Australian soil samples. This initial study demonstrates MSP and ATR-FTIR can effectively be used as a screening test for the discrimination of "forensic-sized" soil samples prior to submission for more detailed analyses by a soil expert.

  3. Petrographic, chemical and spectroscopic evidence for thermal metamorphism in carbonaceous chondrites I: CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonui, Eric; Zolensky, Mike; Hiroi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Tomoki; Lipschutz, Michael E.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Okudaira, Kyoko

    2014-02-01

    We present a comprehensive description of petrologic, chemical and spectroscopic features of thermally metamorphosed CI-like and CM (and CM-like) chondrites. Only two such CI chondrites have so far been discovered i.e. Y-86029 and Y-82162. Thermal metamorphism in these chondrites is apparent in their low contents of H2O, C and the most thermally labile trace elements, partial dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates and abundance of thermally decomposed Ca-Mg-Fe-Mn carbonates, which apparently resulted from heating of Mg-Fe carbonate precursors. The CM chondrites exhibit a wide range of aqueous and thermal alteration characteristics. This alteration was almost complete in Y-86720 and Y-86789, which also escaped alternating episodes of oxidation and sulfidization experienced by the others. Thermal metamorphism in the CM chondrites is apparent in loss of thermally labile trace elements and also in partial to almost complete dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates: heating was less uniform in them than in CI chondrites. This dehydration is also evident in strength and shapes of integrated intensities of the 3 μm bands except in PCA 91008, which experienced extensive terrestrial weathering. Tochilinite is absent in all but Y-793321 probably due to heating. Textural evidence for thermal metamorphism is conspicuous in blurring or integration/fusion of chondrules with matrix in the more extensively heated (⩾600 °C) CM chondrites like PCA 91008 and B-7904. TEM and XRD analyses reveal that phyllosilicate transformation to anhydrous phases proceeds via poorly crystalline, highly desiccated and disordered 'intermediate' phases in the least and moderately heated (400-600 °C) carbonaceous chondrites like WIS 91600, PCA 91008 and Y-86029. These findings are significant in that they confirm that these phases occur in meteorites as well as terrestrial samples. Thermal alteration in these meteorites can be used to identify other carbonaceous chondrites that were thermally

  4. Oligomerization in As (III) sulfide solutions: Theoretical constraints and spectroscopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helz, George R.; Tossell, John A.; Charnock, John M.; Pattrick, Richard A. D.; Vaughan, David J.; David Garner, C.

    1995-11-01

    Bond distances, vibrational frequencies, gas-phase energetics, and proton affinities for various thioarsenite molecules and ions are predicted from molecular orbital theory and used to interpret EXAFS and Raman spectra of dissolved thioarsenites in undersaturated, alkaline 1 M NaHS solutions. From MO predictions, Raman peaks at 325 and 412 cm - are assigned to AsS(SH) 2- and a peak at 382 cm - to AsS 2(SH) 2- At alkaline pH, As-S distances in dissolved thioarsenites are 2.21-2.23 Å and no statistically significant As-As interactions are recorded, consistent with predominance of the monomers, AsS(SH) 2- and AsS 2(SH ) 2-. Estimated proton affinities suggest that thioarsenites with a negative charge greater than 2 are unstable in water. In seeming contradiction to this spectroscopic evidence, a new analysis of published solubility studies reinforces previous inferences that the trimer, As 3S 4(SH) 2-, is the predominant thioarsenite in systems saturated with As 2S 3. Previously proposed dimeric species of the form, H xAs2S 4x- , are rejected based on predicted thermodynamic properties. Dimer plus tetramer combinations also are rejected. Estimated free energies for AsS (OH)(SH) - and AsS(SH) 2- are presented. We reconcile the spectroscopic and solubility evidence by showing that in undersaturated solutions monomers can become thermodynamically favored over oligomers. This pattern should be looked for in other sulfide systems as well. Sulfidic natural waters are in many cases undersaturated with respect to AS 2S 3 phases, so monomeric thioarsenites could be more important in nature than the trimers that have been characterized in saturated solutions. EXAFS spectra show that amorphous AS 2S 3 resembles orpiment in the first shell around As, but that higher shells are disordered. Disorder may be caused by occasional realgar-like, As-As bonds, consistent with the observation that amorphous AS 2S 3 is slightly S deficient.

  5. Non-invasive detection of superimposed latent fingerprints and inter-ridge trace evidence by infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rohit; Perlman, Rebecca Schwartz; Fernandez, Daniel C; Levin, Ira W; Bartick, Edward G

    2009-08-01

    Current latent print and trace evidence collecting technologies are usually invasive and can be destructive to the original deposits. We describe a non-invasive vibrational spectroscopic approach that yields latent fingerprints that are overlaid on top of one another or that may contain trace evidence that needs to be distinguished from the print. Because of the variation in the chemical composition distribution within the fingerprint, we demonstrate that linear unmixing applied to the spectral content of the data can be used to provide images that reveal superimposed fingerprints. In addition, we demonstrate that the chemical composition of the trace evidence located in the region of the print can potentially be identified by its infrared spectrum. Thus, trace evidence found at a crime scene that previously could not be directly related to an individual, now has the potential to be directly related by its presence in the individual-identifying fingerprints.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopic Evidence of Surface Speciation of Amino Acids on Titanium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Parikh, S. J.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    investigation of Glu and Asp interactions with the rutile surface using potentiometric titrations, adsorption experiments and FTIR spectroscopy. The spectroscopic evidence integrated with quantitative adsorption data and potentiometric titration data are used to describe the adsorption with surface complexation models. [1] Roddick-Lanzilotta A.D. and McQuillan A.J. (2000) J. Colloid & Interface Sci. 227, 48-54.

  7. Spectroscopic Evidence for Appearance of a New Decretion Disk Around IGR J06074+2205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.; Bondar, A.; Metlova, N.

    2012-08-01

    We report on a new episode of decretion disk formation in the IGR J06074+2205 system. Our spectroscopic data permit us to measure peak separation in the double-peaked H-alpha line as 408+/-55 km/s and hence to determine the disk radius as 1.6 star's radii. These findings permit us to predict possible new X-ray activity of IGR J06074+2205 in the nearest future.

  8. Search for evidence of C4N2 on Titan with new spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.; Fayt, A.; Nixon, C.; Jennings, D.; Anderson, C.; Bjoraker, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini has recorded spectra in the far and mid-infrared since 2004 with a spectral resolution of up to 0.5 cm-1. Mismatch between observed spectra and model spectra obtained from the available line lists has led us to study the spectroscopic parameters of HC3N, C4H2 and C2N2, the longest gas phase carbon chains observed so far on Titan. Band intensities, hot band intensities, and line lists were systematically verified by comparison with new laboratory spectra. Erroneous band intensities as well as an absence or shortage of hot band transitions in the line lists leading to model-data mismatches and inaccurate quantifications have been found. Improvement in the spectroscopic parameters has led to the detection of 13C isotopologues of HC3N [1] and C4H2 [2]. The study on C2N2 opens the way to the detection of 15N isotopologues whose abundances could give some clues to understand the origin and the evolution of Titan's atmosphere [3]. Also, the higher accuracy of spectroscopic data used to model CIRS spectra will facilitate the search for longer carbon chains on Titan such as HC5N, C6H2 and C4N2. Our recent measurements obtained at the SOLEIL synchrotron far infrared beam line of band intensities of C4N2 in the far and mid infrared domain have shown strong discrepancies with previous results [4]. Following the intensity measurements, a careful analysis of high resolution data has led to the first line lists for C4N2, which gives us the chance to determine precise abundance upper limits of this molecule in Titan's atmosphere.

  9. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on alkali borate glasses: evidence of mixed alkali effect.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, G; Kistaiah, P

    2009-03-19

    A lithium-potassium-borate glass system containing manganese and iron cations has been thoroughly investigated in order to obtain information about the mixed alkali effect and the structural role of both the manganese and iron in such glass hosts. Mixed alkali borate glasses of the (30 - x)Li(2)O - xK(2)O - 10CdO/ZnO - 59B(2)O(3) (x = 0, 10, 15, 20, and 30) doped with 1MnO(2)/1Fe(2)O(3) system were prepared by a melt quench technique. The amorphous phase of the prepared glass samples was confirmed from their X-ray diffraction. The spectroscopic properties of glass samples were studied using infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The density of all the prepared glasses was measured using Archimedes principle. Molar volumes were estimated from the density data. IR spectra of these glasses revealed a dramatic variation of three- and four-coordinated boron structures as a function of mixed alkali concentration. The vibrations due to Li-O, K-O, and MnO(4)/FeO(4) arrangements are consistent in all the compositions and show a nonlinear variation in the intensity with alkali content. Raman spectra of different alkali combinations with CdO and ZnO present drastic changes in the intensity of various Raman bands. The observation of disappearance and reappearance of IR and Raman bands as a function of various alkali concentrations is an important result pertaining to the mixed alkali effect in borate glasses. Acting as complementary spectroscopic techniques, both types of measurements, IR and Raman, revealed that the network structure of the studied glasses is mainly based on BO(3) and BO(4) units placed in different structural groups, the BO(3) units being dominant. The measured IR and Raman spectra of different glasses are used to clarify the optical properties of the present glasses correlating them with their structure and composition. PMID:19235995

  10. Evidences of long lived cages in functionalized polymers: Effects on chromophore dynamic and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Giacomo; Monti, Susanna; De Mitri, Nicola; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    molecules between the two zones and a significant modulation of the flexibility and mobility of the dye. Very similar trends were found for the same g (r) computed in the GS. For this latter state, the impact on the distribution of the values adopted by the δ1 dihedral angle, which defines the orientation of the naphthalene ring in relation to the carboxyl group (Figure 4), is evident in the right panel of Figure 1: in toluene solution there are two distinct peaks centered around 0° and ±180°, meaning that two planar conformations are equally probable. Instead, inside the polymer only the δ1≈0° conformer is populated, confirming that the initial orientation of this portion of the probe is preserved by the hindering action of the close polymer chains which prevent a complete rotation of the naphthoyloxy group. The same constraining was also found in the EES, though less evident because of a decreased flexibility of the δ1 torsion.In order to support this view, the effect on dye’s flexibility of the intermolecular interactions of the latter with the polymer bundle was checked and compared with the one due to the dye-solvent interactions established in toluene solution. This was accomplished through a mean field descriptor which was connected to the torsional degrees of freedom, as detailed in the Supporting Information. In this particular case it was interesting to examine the specific behavior of the δ1 dihedral angle. The resulting mean field W (δ1) in the polymer and in toluene solution, displayed in Figure 2, presents a marked difference between the two surrounding media with toluene leading to a nearly vanishing and flatter W(δ1). It is also worth noticing that the entanglement of the polymer around the dye creates a supplementary well, centered at about δ1 = 0, that constrains this angle to librate within a limited interval rather than exploring the complete range of values.Further proofs of the existence of a tight and stable cleft and its constraining

  11. Spectroscopic evidence for spin-polarized silicon atoms on Si(553)-Au

    SciTech Connect

    Snijders, Paul C; Johnson, P.S.; Guisinger, Nathan; Erwin, S. C.; Himpsel, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    The stepped Si(553)-Au surface undergoes a $1\\times3$ reconstruction at low temperature which has recently been interpreted theoretically as the $\\times3$ ordering of spin-polarized silicon atoms along a step edge in each surface unit cell. This predicted magnetic ground state has a clear spectroscopic signature---a silicon step-edge state at $0.5$ eV above the Fermi level---that arises from strong exchange splitting and hence would not occur without spin polarization. Here we report spatially resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy data for Si(553)-Au that reveal key differences in the unoccupied step-edge density of states between room temperature and $40$ K. At low temperature we find an unoccupied state at 0.55 eV above every third step-edge silicon atom, in excellent agreement with the spin-polarized ground state predicted theoretically.

  12. Search for evidence of Allene on Titan with new spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.; Manceron, L.; Kwabia-Tchana, F.; Nixon, C.

    2015-10-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on board Cassini has recorded spectra in the far and mid-infrared since 2004 with a spectral resolution of up to0.5 cm-1. Mismatch between observed and model spectra obtained from the available line lists has led us to study the spectroscopic parameters of HC3N, C4H 2 and C2 N2, the longest gas phase carbon chains observed so far on Titan. Fundamental and hot band intensities, as well as line lists were systematically verified by comparison with new laboratory spectra. Erroneous band intensities,as well as an absence or shortage of hot band transitions in the available line lists leading to model-data mismatches and inaccurate quantifications have been found.

  13. Spectroscopic Evidence for SN 2010ma Associated with GRB 101219B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparre, M.; Sollerman, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Goldoni, P.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Hammer, F.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kaper, L.; Leloudas, G.; Levan, A. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Schulze, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Watson, D. J.; Wiersema, K.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2011-07-01

    We report on the spectroscopic detection of supernova SN 2010ma associated with the long gamma-ray burst GRB 101219B. We observed the optical counterpart of the GRB on three nights with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. From weak absorption lines, we measure a redshift of z = 0.55. The first-epoch UV-near-infrared afterglow spectrum, taken 11.6 hr after the burst, is well fit by a power law consistent with the slope of the X-ray spectrum. The second- and third-epoch spectra (obtained 16.4 and 36.7 days after the burst), however, display clear bumps closely resembling those of the broad-lined type-Ic SN 1998bw if placed at z = 0.55. Apart from demonstrating that spectroscopic SN signatures can be observed for GRBs at these large distances, our discovery makes a step forward in establishing a general connection between GRBs and SNe. In fact, unlike most previous unambiguous GRB-associated SNe, GRB 101219B has a large gamma-ray energy (E iso = 4.2 × 1051 erg), a bright afterglow, and obeys the "Amati" relation, thus being fully consistent with the cosmological population of GRBs. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under program 086.A-0073(B). Also based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovacón Productiva (Argentina).

  14. Formation of spectral lines in a planetary atmosphere. II - Spectroscopic evidence for the structure of the visible Venus clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    We demonstrate in this article that there is spectroscopic evidence for the structure of the visible Venus cloud layers. From physically realistic models of the lower Venus atmosphere, we have shown that only observations of the phase variations of the CO2 bands in the Venus spectrum can provide the information for a unique identification of the structure of the cloud layers. It is proved that Venus cannot have a single dense cloud layer, but must have two scattering layers; a thin aerosol layer situated in the lower stratosphere, overlying a dense cloud deck. The aerosol plays an important role in the scattering of radiation, so that its identification provides an explanation of the reflecting layer-scattering model controversy for the interpretation of spectra formed in a cloudy planetary atmosphere.

  15. Studies on the inclusion behavior of 9-Aminoacridine into cyclodextrins: Spectroscopic and theoretical evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, C.; Vijay Solomon, R.; Venuvanalingam, P.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-02-01

    9-Aminoacridine (9-AA) is an important attractive pharmaceutical drug employed as chemotheraptic agent for wound dressings. However, 9-AA possesses limited solubility and rapid metabolic decomposition renders this potential drug to limit its applications. Here we propose cyclodextrins (CDs) as a drug carrier to improve the bioavailability, solubility of 9-AA. The interaction between 9-AA and CDs (α-CD and β-CD) has been studied using UV-Vis absorption, steady state time resolved fluorescence, 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The spectroscopic measurements show that 9-AA does not form stable complex with α-CD and also confirmed by DFT calculations. On the other hand, 9-AA forms inclusion complex with β-CD in a 1:1 stoichiometry ratio. Our DFT results suggest that 9-AA stabilizes inside the CD environment through hydrogen bonding that has unambiguously confirmed by AIM analysis. Thus our studies provide a useful insights in the development of Aminoacridine based drugs & its delivery through a suitable carrier like CDs.

  16. Spectroscopic Evidence for the Two C-H-Cleaving Intermediates of Aspergillus nidulans Isopenicillin N Synthase.

    PubMed

    Tamanaha, Esta; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Yisong; Chang, Wei-Chen; Barr, Eric W; Xing, Gang; St Clair, Jennifer; Ye, Shengfa; Neese, Frank; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten

    2016-07-20

    The enzyme isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) installs the β-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the penicillin core into the linear tripeptide l-δ-aminoadipoyl-l-Cys-d-Val (ACV) on the pathways to a number of important antibacterial drugs. A classic set of enzymological and crystallographic studies by Baldwin and co-workers established that this overall four-electron oxidation occurs by a sequence of two oxidative cyclizations, with the β-lactam ring being installed first and the thiazolidine ring second. Each phase requires cleavage of an aliphatic C-H bond of the substrate: the pro-S-CCys,β-H bond for closure of the β-lactam ring, and the CVal,β-H bond for installation of the thiazolidine ring. IPNS uses a mononuclear non-heme-iron(II) cofactor and dioxygen as cosubstrate to cleave these C-H bonds and direct the ring closures. Despite the intense scrutiny to which the enzyme has been subjected, the identities of the oxidized iron intermediates that cleave the C-H bonds have been addressed only computationally; no experimental insight into their geometric or electronic structures has been reported. In this work, we have employed a combination of transient-state-kinetic and spectroscopic methods, together with the specifically deuterium-labeled substrates, A[d2-C]V and AC[d8-V], to identify both C-H-cleaving intermediates. The results show that they are high-spin Fe(III)-superoxo and high-spin Fe(IV)-oxo complexes, respectively, in agreement with published mechanistic proposals derived computationally from Baldwin's founding work.

  17. Spectroscopic Evidence for the Two C-H-Cleaving Intermediates of Aspergillus nidulans Isopenicillin N Synthase.

    PubMed

    Tamanaha, Esta; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Yisong; Chang, Wei-Chen; Barr, Eric W; Xing, Gang; St Clair, Jennifer; Ye, Shengfa; Neese, Frank; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten

    2016-07-20

    The enzyme isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) installs the β-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the penicillin core into the linear tripeptide l-δ-aminoadipoyl-l-Cys-d-Val (ACV) on the pathways to a number of important antibacterial drugs. A classic set of enzymological and crystallographic studies by Baldwin and co-workers established that this overall four-electron oxidation occurs by a sequence of two oxidative cyclizations, with the β-lactam ring being installed first and the thiazolidine ring second. Each phase requires cleavage of an aliphatic C-H bond of the substrate: the pro-S-CCys,β-H bond for closure of the β-lactam ring, and the CVal,β-H bond for installation of the thiazolidine ring. IPNS uses a mononuclear non-heme-iron(II) cofactor and dioxygen as cosubstrate to cleave these C-H bonds and direct the ring closures. Despite the intense scrutiny to which the enzyme has been subjected, the identities of the oxidized iron intermediates that cleave the C-H bonds have been addressed only computationally; no experimental insight into their geometric or electronic structures has been reported. In this work, we have employed a combination of transient-state-kinetic and spectroscopic methods, together with the specifically deuterium-labeled substrates, A[d2-C]V and AC[d8-V], to identify both C-H-cleaving intermediates. The results show that they are high-spin Fe(III)-superoxo and high-spin Fe(IV)-oxo complexes, respectively, in agreement with published mechanistic proposals derived computationally from Baldwin's founding work. PMID:27193226

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic evidence for bacteria-enhanced dissolution of hornblende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, B. E.; Liermann, L. J.; Brantley, S. L.; Barnes, A.; Pantano, C. G.

    2000-04-01

    hornblende surface. Surface complexation is favored because of the extremely high association constants for siderophore + Fe(III). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data is therefore consistent with a model wherein enhanced Fe release by these bacteria or desferrioxamine B is caused by Fe-siderophore complexation at the silicate surface. Such complexation presumably weakens bonds between the Fe and the oxide lattice, causing enhanced Fe leaching and an Fe-depleted surface. Some leaching may also be due to LMWOA, although this is interpreted to be of secondary importance.

  19. FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR HIGH IONIZATION STATE AND LOW OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN Ly{alpha} EMITTERS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Takuya; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Lee, Janice C.

    2013-05-20

    We present results from Keck/NIRSPEC and Magellan/MMIRS follow-up spectroscopy of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.2 identified in our Subaru narrowband survey. We successfully detect H{alpha} emission from seven LAEs, and perform a detailed analysis of six LAEs free from active galactic nucleus activity, two out of which, CDFS-3865 and COSMOS-30679, have [O II] and [O III] line detections. They are the first [O II]-detected LAEs at high-z, and their [O III]/[O II] ratios and R23-indices provide the first simultaneous determinations of ionization parameter and oxygen abundance for LAEs. CDFS-3865 has a very high ionization parameter (q{sub ion}=2.5{sup +1.7}{sub -0.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1}) and a low oxygen abundance (12+ log (O/H)=7.84{sup +0.24}{sub -0.25}) in contrast with moderate values of other high-z galaxies such as Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). COSMOS-30679 also possesses a relatively high ionization parameter (q{sub ion}=8{sup +10}{sub -4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} cm s{sup -1}) and a low oxygen abundance (12+ log (O/H)=8.18{sup +0.28}{sub -0.28}). Both LAEs appear to fall below the mass-metallicity relation of z {approx} 2 LBGs. Similarly, a low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) < 8.4 is independently indicated for typical LAEs from a composite spectrum and the [N II]/H{alpha} index. Such high ionization parameters and low oxygen abundances can be found in local star-forming galaxies, but this extreme local population occupies only {approx}0.06% of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic galaxy sample with a number density {approx}100 times smaller than that of LAEs. With their high ionization parameters and low oxygen abundances, LAEs would represent an early stage of galaxy formation dominated by massive stars in compact star-forming regions. High-q{sub ion} galaxies like LAEs would produce ionizing photons efficiently with a high escape fraction achieved by density-bounded H II regions, which would significantly contribute to

  20. Evidence for CO in Jupiter's atmosphere from airborne spectroscopic observations at 5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    High-altitude (12.4 km) spectra of Jupiter recorded at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory are analyzed for the presence of CO absorption lines. A line-by-line comparison of Jupiter's spectrum with that of carbon monoxide is presented, as well as a correlation analysis that includes the influence of other gases present in Jupiter's atmosphere (CH4, NH3, H2O, PH3, and GeH4). The resulting evidence points strongly to the presence of carbon monoxide in Jupiter's atmosphere, thus strengthening Beer's evidence for it. Possible explanations for the existence and observability of Jovian CO, including convection from hotter, deeper layers or decomposition of organic molecules, are explored. A recent suggestion that the Jovian CO is restricted to stratospheric levels is not supported by the observations.

  1. Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters: Spectroscopic Evidences and the Horizontal Branch Second Parameter Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Raffaele

    2012-05-01

    A wealth of recent data indicate that globular clusters hosts multiple stellar populations. Spectroscopy allows a deep insight into their very early phases of formation. Also, they allow to clarify long standing issues like the second parameter affecting the morphology of the horizontal branch. We found that this is due to a combination of mainly two effects: variations in the age of individual clusters and the existence of populations with different He abundances within clusters. We discuss direct and indirect evidences for this.

  2. A surface complexation model for sulfate and selenate on iron oxides consistent with spectroscopic and theoretical molecular evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfate and selenate adsorption on iron oxides are important reactions in natural systems under a very wide range of pH values, ionic strengths, and electrolyte compositions. Under such conditions, spectroscopic and theoretical calculations have demonstrated the potential importance of a variety of surface species. Understanding the variations in the surface speciation of these oxyanions is fundamental to prediction of their partitioning between minerals and aqueous solutions. In the present study, published experimental spectroscopic and theoretical molecular evidence of the identity of sulfate/selenate surface species are integrated with a surface complexation model consistent with a wide variety of experimental adsorption, surface titration, and proton coadsorption data to define the surface speciation of sulfate and selenate on iron oxides under a wide range of conditions. The analysis was carried out with the extended triple layer model (ETLM) taking into account the electrostatics of water dipole desorption during ligand exchange reactions. On seven out of eight goethites studied, sulfate and selenate surface reactions can be represented by the formation of a monodentate-mononuclear inner-sphere and a bidentate-binuclear outer-sphere (or H-bonded) species according to >FeOH+H+AO42-=>FeOAO3-+HO and 2>FeOH+2H+AO42-=(>FeOH2+)2_AO42- respectively, where A stands for S or Se. The model predicted changes in the proportions of the species with pH, ionic strength and surface coverage consistent with independently derived experimental evidence from in situ Raman, ATR-FTIR and EXAFS studies. In contrast to goethite, the ETLM analysis of sulfate and selenate adsorption on hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) required an additional outer-sphere (or H-bonded) surface species represented by, >FeOH+2H+AO42-=>FeOH2+_HAO4- Equilibrium constants for sulfate and selenate adsorption based on site-occupancy standard states ( Kθ) for >FeOAO3- and (>FeOH2+)2_AO42- on HFO are systematically

  3. Spectroscopic Evidence for Strong Quantum Spin Fluctuations with Itinerant Character in YFe2Ge2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sirica, N.; Bondino, F.; Nappini, S.; Piz, I.; Poudel, L.; Christianson, Andrew D.; Mandrus, D.; Singh, David J; Mannella, Norman

    2015-03-04

    We report x-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of the electronic structure in the normal state of metallic YFe2Ge2. The data reveal evidence for large fluctuating spin moments on the Fe sites, as indicated by exchange multiplets appearing in the Fe 3s core-level photoemission spectra, even though the compound does not show magnetic order. The magnitude of the multiplet splitting is comparable to that observed in the normal state of the Fe-pnictide superconductors. This shows a connection between YFe2Ge2 and the Fe-based superconductors even though it contains neither pnictogens nor chalcogens. Finally, the implication is that the chemical range of compoundsmore » showing at least one of the characteristic magnetic signatures of the Fe-based superconductors is broader than previously thought.« less

  4. In Situ Molecular Spectroscopic Evidence for CO2 Intercalation into Montmorillonite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Loring, John S.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Thompson, Christopher J.; Miller, Quin RS; Martin, Paul F.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-04-25

    The interaction of anhydrous supercritical CO2 (scCO2) with both kaolinite and ~1W (i.e. close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 °C and 90 bar). The CO2 molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. We report the first direct evidence that the expansion of montmorillonite under scCO2 conditions is due to CO2 migration into the interlayer. Intercalated CO2 molecules are rotationally constrained and do not appear to react with waters to form bicarbonate or carbonic acid. In contrast, CO2 does not intercalate into kaolinite. The findings show that predicting the seal integrity of caprock will have complex dependence on clay mineralogy and hydration state.

  5. Spectroscopic evidence for a nonrigid—rigid transition in isotopically labelled (benzene) 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easter, David C.; Baronavski, A. P.; Hawley, Michael

    1993-04-01

    In a recent report by Easter, Khoury and Whetten, analysis of the ultraviolet (B 2u←A 1g(6 01)) REMPI spectroscopy of cold (C 6H 6) (C 6D 6) n-1 clusters, n = 12-20, yielded striking conclusions: observed C 6H 6 resonances derived almost exclusively from molecules in the cluster's interior site; and the 13-cluster is found to have only one dominant isomeric form, giving rise to a single prominent spectral feature. Here we report the evolution of the benzene- h6 transition in (C 6H 6) (C 6D 6) 12 as a function of distance (time) from the nozzle in the supersonic jet expansion, and present the first experimental evidence for a nonrigid—rigid transition in a single-size molecular cluster. Initially (benzene) 13 condenses in a nonrigid state and solidification into a well-defined configuration occurs during subsequent free jet expansion.

  6. Reigniting the Debate: First Spectroscopic Evidence for Stratospheres In Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather

    2015-12-01

    Hot Jupiters represent an extreme end of the exoplanet distribution: they orbit very close to their host stars, which subjects them to an intense heating from stellar radiation. An inverted temperature structure (i.e. a stratosphere) was an early observable prediction from atmospheric models of these planets, which demonstrated that high-temperature absorbers such as TiO and VO could reprocess incident UV/visible irradiation to heat the upper layers of the atmosphere.Evidence for such thermal inversions began with the first secondary eclipse measurements of transiting hot Jupiters taken with the IRAC camera on Spitzer, offering the chance to physical processe at work in the atmospheres of hot exoplanets. However, these efforts have been stymied by recent revelations of significant systematic biases and uncertainties buried within older Spitzer results, calling into question whether or not temperature inversions are actually present in hot Jupiters.We have recently published spectroscopy of secondary eclipses of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is one of the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters discovered to date and orbits a relatively inactive A star, making it an excellent candidate for eclipse spectroscopy at NIR wavelengths (1.1 - 1.7 µm). We find that a fit to combined data from HST, Spitzer and ground-based photometry can rule out models without a temperature inversion; additionally, we find that our measured spectrum displays excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO.This discovery re-opens the debate on the presence and origin of stratospheres in hot Jupiters, but it also confirms that the combination of HST spectroscopy and a robust analysis of Spitzer and ground-based photometry can conclusively detect thermally inverted atmospheres

  7. Spectroscopic evidence for a pseudogap in the normal state of underdoped high-Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.; Yokoya, T.; Campuzano, J. C.; Takahashi, T.; Randeria, M.; Norman, M. R.; Mochiku, T.; Kadowaki, K.; Giapintzakis, J.

    1996-07-01

    IT is well known that BCS mean-field theory is remarkably successful in describing conventional superconductors. A central concept of BCS theory is the energy gap in the electronic excitation spectrum below the superconducting transition temperature, Tc. The gap also serves as the order parameter: quite generally, long-range phase coherence and a non-zero gap go hand-in-hand1. But in underdoped high-Tc superconductors there is considerable evidence that a pseudogap (a suppression of spectral weight) is already formed in the normal state above Tc-first, from studies of the spin excitation spectrum2-5,24, which measure a 'spin gap', and later from a variety of other probes6-10. Here we present a study of underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), which directly measures the momentum-resolved electron excitation spectrum of the CuO2 planes. We find that a pseudogap with d-wave symmetry opens up in the normal state below a temperature T* > Tc, and develops into the d-wave superconducting gap once phase coherence is established below Tc.

  8. Spectroscopic and genetic evidence for two heme-Cu-containing oxidases in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Shapleigh, J P; Hill, J J; Alben, J O; Gennis, R B

    1992-01-01

    It has recently become evident that many bacterial respiratory oxidases are members of a superfamily that is related to the eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase. These oxidases catalyze the reduction of oxygen to water at a heme-copper binuclear center. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to examine the heme-copper-containing respiratory oxidases of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Ga. This technique monitors the stretching frequency of CO bound at the oxygen binding site and can be used to characterize the oxidases in situ with membrane preparations. Oxidases that have a heme-copper binuclear center are recognizable by FTIR spectroscopy because the bound CO moves from the heme iron to the nearby copper upon photolysis at low temperature, where it exhibits a diagnostic spectrum. The FTIR spectra indicate that the binuclear center of the R. sphaeroides aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase is remarkably similar to that of the bovine mitochondrial oxidase. Upon deletion of the ctaD gene, encoding subunit I of the aa3-type oxidase, substantial cytochrome c oxidase remains in the membranes of aerobically grown R. sphaeroides. This correlates with a second wild-type R. sphaeroides is grown photosynthetically, the chromatophore membranes lack the aa3-type oxidase but have this second heme-copper oxidase. Subunit I of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily contains the binuclear center. Amino acid sequence alignments show that this subunit is structurally very highly conserved among both eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. The polymerase chain reaction was used to show that the chromosome of R. sphaeroides contains at least one other gene that is a homolog of ctaD, the gene encoding subunit I of the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1313003

  9. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of OCS Trapped in Solid Parahydrogen: Indirect Evidence of Large Amplitude Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David T.

    2016-06-01

    provide indirect evidence of this delocalization. We are currently trying to model the effect of pH2 delocalization on the OCS vibrational frequency to compare with experiment and test this hypothesis. S. Grebenev, B. Sartakov, J.P. Toennies, A.F. Vilesov, Science 289, 1532-1535 (2000) J. Tang, Y. Xu, A.R.W. McKellar, W. Jäger, Science 297, 2030-2033 (2002)

  10. Evidences of long lived cages in functionalized polymers: Effects on chromophore dynamic and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Giacomo; Monti, Susanna; De Mitri, Nicola; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    molecules between the two zones and a significant modulation of the flexibility and mobility of the dye. Very similar trends were found for the same g (r) computed in the GS. For this latter state, the impact on the distribution of the values adopted by the δ1 dihedral angle, which defines the orientation of the naphthalene ring in relation to the carboxyl group (Figure 4), is evident in the right panel of Figure 1: in toluene solution there are two distinct peaks centered around 0° and ±180°, meaning that two planar conformations are equally probable. Instead, inside the polymer only the δ1≈0° conformer is populated, confirming that the initial orientation of this portion of the probe is preserved by the hindering action of the close polymer chains which prevent a complete rotation of the naphthoyloxy group. The same constraining was also found in the EES, though less evident because of a decreased flexibility of the δ1 torsion.In order to support this view, the effect on dye’s flexibility of the intermolecular interactions of the latter with the polymer bundle was checked and compared with the one due to the dye-solvent interactions established in toluene solution. This was accomplished through a mean field descriptor which was connected to the torsional degrees of freedom, as detailed in the Supporting Information. In this particular case it was interesting to examine the specific behavior of the δ1 dihedral angle. The resulting mean field W (δ1) in the polymer and in toluene solution, displayed in Figure 2, presents a marked difference between the two surrounding media with toluene leading to a nearly vanishing and flatter W(δ1). It is also worth noticing that the entanglement of the polymer around the dye creates a supplementary well, centered at about δ1 = 0, that constrains this angle to librate within a limited interval rather than exploring the complete range of values.Further proofs of the existence of a tight and stable cleft and its constraining

  11. Evidence for a spectroscopic direct detection of reflected light from 51 Pegasi b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J. H. C.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.; Faria, J. P.; Montalto, M.; Boisse, I.; Ehrenreich, D.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Melo, C.; Pepe, F.; Sousa, S. G.; Udry, S.; Cunha, D.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The detection of reflected light from an exoplanet is a difficult technical challenge at optical wavelengths. Even though this signal is expected to replicate the stellar signal, not only is it several orders of magnitude fainter, but it is also hidden among the stellar noise. Aims: We apply a variant of the cross-correlation technique to HARPS observations of 51 Peg to detect the reflected signal from planet 51 Peg b. Methods: Our method makes use of the cross-correlation function (CCF) of a binary mask with high-resolution spectra to amplify the minute planetary signal that is present in the spectra by a factor proportional to the number of spectral lines when performing the cross correlation. The resulting cross-correlation functions are then normalized by a stellar template to remove the stellar signal. Carefully selected sections of the resulting normalized CCFs are stacked to increase the planetary signal further. The recovered signal allows probing several of the planetary properties, including its real mass and albedo. Results: We detect evidence for the reflected signal from planet 51 Peg b at a significance of 3σnoise. The detection of the signal permits us to infer a real mass of 0.46+0.06-0.01 MJup (assuming a stellar mass of 1.04 MSun) for the planet and an orbital inclination of 80+10-19 degrees. The analysis of the data also allows us to infer a tentative value for the (radius-dependent) geometric albedo of the planet. The results suggest that 51Peg b may be an inflated hot Jupiter with a high albedo (e.g., an albedo of 0.5 yields a radius of 1.9 ± 0.3 RJup for a signal amplitude of 6.0 ± 0.4 × 10-5). Conclusions: We confirm that the method we perfected can be used to retrieve an exoplanet's reflected signal, even with current observing facilities. The advent of next generation of instruments (e.g. VLT-ESO/ESPRESSO) and observing facilities (e.g. a new generation of ELT telescopes) will yield new opportunities for this type of technique

  12. Mechanism of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate sorption on amorphous aluminum hydroxide: spectroscopic evidence for rapid surface precipitation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yupeng; Li, Wei; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-06-17

    Inositol hexakisphosphates are the most abundant organic phosphates (OPs) in most soils and sediments. Adsorption, desorption, and precipitation reactions at environmental interfaces govern the reactivity, speciation, mobility, and bioavailability of inositol hexakisphosphates in terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, surface complexation and precipitation reactions of inositol hexakisphosphates on soil minerals have not been well understood. Here we investigate the surface complexation-precipitation process and mechanism of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP, phytate) on amorphous aluminum hydroxide (AAH) using macroscopic sorption experiments and multiple spectroscopic tools. The AAH (16.01 μmol m(-2)) exhibits much higher sorption density than boehmite (0.73 μmol m(-2)) and α-Al2O3 (1.13 μmol m(-2)). Kinetics of IHP sorption and accompanying OH(-) release, as well as zeta potential measurements, indicate that IHP is initially adsorbed on AAH through inner-sphere complexation via ligand exchange, followed by AAH dissolution and ternary complex formation; last, the ternary complexes rapidly transform to surface precipitates and bulk phase analogous to aluminum phytate (Al-IHP). The pH level, reaction time, and initial IHP loading evidently affect the interaction of IHP on AAH. In situ ATR-FTIR and solid-state NMR spectra further demonstrate that IHP sorbs on AAH and transforms to surface precipitates analogous to Al-IHP, consistent with the results of XRD analysis. This study indicates that active metal oxides such as AAH strongly mediate the speciation and behavior of IHP via rapid surface complexation-precipitation reactions, thus controlling the mobility and bioavailability of inositol phosphates in the environment.

  13. Mechanism of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate sorption on amorphous aluminum hydroxide: spectroscopic evidence for rapid surface precipitation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yupeng; Li, Wei; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-06-17

    Inositol hexakisphosphates are the most abundant organic phosphates (OPs) in most soils and sediments. Adsorption, desorption, and precipitation reactions at environmental interfaces govern the reactivity, speciation, mobility, and bioavailability of inositol hexakisphosphates in terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, surface complexation and precipitation reactions of inositol hexakisphosphates on soil minerals have not been well understood. Here we investigate the surface complexation-precipitation process and mechanism of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP, phytate) on amorphous aluminum hydroxide (AAH) using macroscopic sorption experiments and multiple spectroscopic tools. The AAH (16.01 μmol m(-2)) exhibits much higher sorption density than boehmite (0.73 μmol m(-2)) and α-Al2O3 (1.13 μmol m(-2)). Kinetics of IHP sorption and accompanying OH(-) release, as well as zeta potential measurements, indicate that IHP is initially adsorbed on AAH through inner-sphere complexation via ligand exchange, followed by AAH dissolution and ternary complex formation; last, the ternary complexes rapidly transform to surface precipitates and bulk phase analogous to aluminum phytate (Al-IHP). The pH level, reaction time, and initial IHP loading evidently affect the interaction of IHP on AAH. In situ ATR-FTIR and solid-state NMR spectra further demonstrate that IHP sorbs on AAH and transforms to surface precipitates analogous to Al-IHP, consistent with the results of XRD analysis. This study indicates that active metal oxides such as AAH strongly mediate the speciation and behavior of IHP via rapid surface complexation-precipitation reactions, thus controlling the mobility and bioavailability of inositol phosphates in the environment. PMID:24871399

  14. A strenuous experimental journey searching for spectroscopic evidence of a bridging nickel–iron–hydride in [NiFe] hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Direct spectroscopic evidence for a hydride bridge in the Ni–R form of [NiFe] hydrogenase has been obtained using iron-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS). The Ni–H–Fe wag mode at 675 cm−1 is the first spectroscopic evidence for a bridging hydride in Ni–R as well as the first iron-hydride-related NRVS feature observed for a biological system. Although density function theory (DFT) calculation assisted the determination of the Ni–R structure, it did not predict the Ni–H–Fe wag mode at ∼675 cm−1 before NRVS. Instead, the observed Ni–H–Fe mode provided a critical reference for the DFT calculations. While the overall science about Ni–R is presented and discussed elsewhere, this article focuses on the long and strenuous experimental journey to search for and experimentally identify the Ni–H–Fe wag mode in a Ni–R sample. As a methodology, the results presented here will go beyond Ni–R and hydrogenase research and will also be of interest to other scientists who use synchrotron radiation for measuring dilute samples or weak spectroscopic features. PMID:26524296

  15. Spectroscopic Evidence of a Bidentate-Binding of Meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid on Silver Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Zaluzhna, Oksana; Brightful, Lyndsey; Allison, Thomas C.; Tong, Yu ye J.

    2011-06-14

    New insight into the metal–ligand binding interaction in meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) protected silver nanoclusters (NCs) is presented in this work. IR, Raman and 13C NMR spectroscopic characterizations and DFT calculations suggest that DMSA forms a bidentate binding, rather than the originally- proposed monodentate binding, via two sulfur atoms with the underlying Ag7 NC, which is in agreement with recent ab initio calculations.

  16. Spectroscopic evidence of a bidentate-binding of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaluzhna, Oksana; Brightful, Lyndsey; Allison, Thomas C.; Tong, YuYe J.

    2011-06-01

    New insight into the metal-ligand binding interaction in meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) protected silver nanoclusters (NCs) is presented in this work. IR, Raman and 13C NMR spectroscopic characterizations and DFT calculations suggest that DMSA forms a bidentate binding, rather than the originally-proposed monodentate binding, via two sulfur atoms with the underlying Ag7 NC, which is in agreement with recent ab initio calculations.

  17. A novel stabilisation model for ruthenium nanoparticles in imidazolium ionic liquids: in situ spectroscopic and labelling evidence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul S; Santini, Catherine C; Bouchu, Denis; Fenet, Bernard; Philippot, Karine; Chaudret, Bruno; Pádua, Agílio A H; Chauvin, Yves

    2010-04-28

    In situ labelling and spectroscopic experiments are used to explain the key points in the stabilisation of ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) generated in imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) by decomposition of (eta(4)-1,5-cyclooctadiene)(eta(6)-1,3,5-cyclooctatriene)ruthenium(0), Ru(COD)(COT), under dihydrogen. These are found to be: (1) the presence of hydrides at the RuNP surface and, (2) the confinement of RuNPs in the non-polar domains of the structured IL, induced by the rigid 3-D organisation. These results lead to a novel stabilisation model for NPs in ionic liquids. PMID:20379515

  18. Infrared Spectroscopic Evidences of Strong Electronic Correlations in (Sr1‑xLax)3Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Gihyeon; Song, S. J.; Hogan, T.; Wilson, S. D.; Moon, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on infrared spectroscopic studies of the electronic response of the (Sr1‑xLax)3Ir2O7 system. Our experiments revealed hallmarks of strong electronic correlations in the evolution of the electronic response across the filling-controlled insulator-metal transition. We observed a collapse of the Jeff = 1/2 Mott gap accompanying the transfer of the spectral weight from the high-energy region to the gap region with electron doping. The intraband conductivity at the metallic side of the transition was found to consist of coherent Drude-like and incoherent responses. The sum rule and the extended Drude model analyses further indicated a large mass enhancement. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the electronic correlations in the charge dynamics of the (Sr1‑xLax)3Ir2O7 system.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopic Evidences of Strong Electronic Correlations in (Sr1−xLax)3Ir2O7

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Gihyeon; Song, S. J.; Hogan, T.; Wilson, S. D.; Moon, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on infrared spectroscopic studies of the electronic response of the (Sr1−xLax)3Ir2O7 system. Our experiments revealed hallmarks of strong electronic correlations in the evolution of the electronic response across the filling-controlled insulator-metal transition. We observed a collapse of the Jeff = 1/2 Mott gap accompanying the transfer of the spectral weight from the high-energy region to the gap region with electron doping. The intraband conductivity at the metallic side of the transition was found to consist of coherent Drude-like and incoherent responses. The sum rule and the extended Drude model analyses further indicated a large mass enhancement. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the electronic correlations in the charge dynamics of the (Sr1−xLax)3Ir2O7 system. PMID:27599573

  20. Spectroscopic Quadrupole Moments in Sr,9896 : Evidence for Shape Coexistence in Neutron-Rich Strontium Isotopes at N =60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, E.; Zielińska, M.; Görgen, A.; Korten, W.; Péru, S.; Libert, J.; Goutte, H.; Hilaire, S.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Bruyneel, B.; Butler, P. A.; Butterworth, J.; Delahaye, P.; Dijon, A.; Doherty, D. T.; Ekström, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fransen, C.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Iwanicki, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Larsen, A. C.; Ljungvall, J.; Lutter, R.; Marley, P.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Pakarinen, J.; Petts, A.; Reiter, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Sotty, C.; Srebrny, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Tveten, G. M.; Van de Walle, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.; De Witte, H.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich Sr,9896 isotopes have been investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross sections. These results allow, for the first time, the drawing of definite conclusions about the shape coexistence of highly deformed prolate and spherical configurations. In particular, a very small mixing between the coexisting states is observed, contrary to other mass regions where strong mixing is present. Experimental results have been compared to beyond-mean-field calculations using the Gogny D1S interaction in a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian formalism, which reproduce the shape change at N =60 .

  1. Infrared Spectroscopic Evidences of Strong Electronic Correlations in (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Gihyeon; Song, S J; Hogan, T; Wilson, S D; Moon, S J

    2016-01-01

    We report on infrared spectroscopic studies of the electronic response of the (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 system. Our experiments revealed hallmarks of strong electronic correlations in the evolution of the electronic response across the filling-controlled insulator-metal transition. We observed a collapse of the Jeff = 1/2 Mott gap accompanying the transfer of the spectral weight from the high-energy region to the gap region with electron doping. The intraband conductivity at the metallic side of the transition was found to consist of coherent Drude-like and incoherent responses. The sum rule and the extended Drude model analyses further indicated a large mass enhancement. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the electronic correlations in the charge dynamics of the (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 system. PMID:27599573

  2. Measurement of the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment for the 2(1)+ state in 70Se: no evidence for oblate shape.

    PubMed

    Hurst, A M; Butler, P A; Jenkins, D G; Delahaye, P; Wenander, F; Ames, F; Barton, C J; Behrens, T; Bürger, A; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Czosnyka, T; Davinson, T; de Angelis, G; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Franchoo, S; Georgiev, G; Görgen, A; Herzberg, R-D; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Jones, G D; Kent, P; Köster, U; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Nespolo, M; Pantea, M; Paul, E S; Petri, M; Scheit, H; Sieber, T; Siem, S; Smith, J F; Steer, A; Stefanescu, I; Syed, N U H; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Wadsworth, R; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Zielińska, M

    2007-02-16

    Using a method whereby molecular and atomic ions are independently selected, an isobarically pure beam of 70Se ions was postaccelerated to an energy of 206 MeV using REX-ISOLDE. Coulomb-excitation yields for states in the beam and target nuclei were deduced by recording deexcitation gamma rays in the highly segmented MINIBALL gamma-ray spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a silicon detector. At these energies, the Coulomb-excitation yield for the first 2+ state is expected to be strongly sensitive to the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment through the nuclear reorientation effect. Experimental evidence is presented here for a prolate shape for the first 2+ state in 70Se, reopening the question over whether there are, as reported earlier, deformed oblate shapes near to the ground state in the light selenium isotopes.

  3. Interplay of electron correlations and localization in disordered β-tantalum films: Evidence from dc transport and spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    SciTech Connect

    Kovaleva, N. N.; Chvostova, D.; Dejneka, A.; Bagdinov, A. V.; Petrova, M. G.; Demikhov, E. I.; Pudonin, F. A.

    2015-02-02

    We report the dc transport (5 K ≲ T ≲ 380 K) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (0.8 eV ≤ hν ≤ 8.5 eV, T ≃ 300 K) study of β-Ta films prepared by rf sputtering deposition as a function of their thickness in the range 2.5 nm ≲ d ≲ 200 nm. The dc transport of the β-Ta films with a thickness d ≳ 25 nm is characterized by negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) caused by localization effects peculiar of highly disordered metals. Their dielectric function spectra display non-metallic-like behavior due to the presence of the pronounced band at 2 eV. We found that with increasing TCR absolute value, specifying elevated degree disorder, the optical spectral weight (SW) of free charge carriers decreases. The associated SW is recovered in the range of Mott-Hubbard transitions, indicating the mechanism of localization enhancement by electronic correlations in disordered metals.

  4. In-situ Spectroscopic Ellipsometry of the Cu Deposition Process from Supercritical Fluids: Evidence of an Abnormal Surface Layer Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takuya; Tamegai, Yukihiro; Ueno, Takahiro; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Jin, Lianhua; Kondoh, Eiichi

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we report in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of Cu deposition from supercritical carbon dioxide fluids. The motivations of this work were 1) to perform a detailed observation of Cu growth with precision optical metrology, 2) to study substrate dependence on Cu growth, particularly for Ru and TiN substrates in the present case, and 3) to demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of ellipsometry for diagnosing supercritical fluid processing. The Cu deposition was carried out through hydrogen reduction of a Cu β-diketonate precursor at 160-180 °C. During growth, a very large deviation of ellipsometric parameters (Ψ and Δ) from a single-layer model prediction was observed; this deviation was much larger than that expected from island formation which has been frequently reported in in-situ ellipsometric observation of the vapor growth of thin films. From model analyses, it was found that an abnormal dielectric layer having a high refractive index and a thickness of 10-50 nm is present on the growing Cu surface. The refractive index of this layer was (1.5-2) + (0.2-0.3)i and from this, we concluded that this layer is the condensed precursor. The condensed layer develops prior to Cu nucleation. As for the substrate dependence on Cu growth, both layers develop faster on Ru than on TiN. This corresponds to the fact that chemisorption occurs more easily on Ru. The deposition kinetics under the presence of the condensed layer are also discussed.

  5. Soluble guanylate cyclase is activated differently by excess NO and by YC-1: resonance Raman spectroscopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Derbyshire, Emily R; Soldatova, Alexandra V; Marletta, Michael A; Spiro, Thomas G

    2010-06-15

    Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity by nitric oxide (NO) involves two distinct steps. Low-level activation of sGC is achieved by the stoichiometric binding of NO (1-NO) to the heme cofactor, while much higher activation is achieved by the binding of additional NO (xsNO) at a non-heme site. Addition of the allosteric activator YC-1 to the 1-NO form leads to activity comparable to that of the xsNO state. In this study, the mechanisms of sGC activation were investigated using electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic methods. RR spectroscopy confirmed that the 1-NO form contains five-coordinate NO-heme and showed that the addition of NO to the 1-NO form has no significant effect on the spectrum. In contrast, addition of YC-1 to either the 1-NO or xsNO forms alters the RR spectrum significantly, indicating a protein-induced change in the heme geometry. This change in the heme geometry was also observed when BAY 41-2272 was added to the xsNO form. Bands assigned to bending and stretching motions of the vinyl and propionate substituents undergo changes in intensity in a pattern suggesting altered tilting of the pyrrole rings to which they are attached. In addition, the N-O stretching frequency increases, with no change in the Fe-NO stretching frequency, an effect modeled via DFT calculations as resulting from a small opening of the Fe-N-O angle. These spectral differences demonstrate different mechanisms of activation by synthetic activators, such as YC-1 and BAY 41-2272, and excess NO. PMID:20459051

  6. Spectroscopic evidence for a 5-coordinate oxygenic ligated high spin ferric heme moiety in the Neisseria meningitidis hemoglobin binding receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mokry, David Z.; Nadia-Albete, Angela; Johnson, Michael K.; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Lanzilotta, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Background For many pathogenic microorganisms, iron acquisition represents a significant stress during the colonization of a mammalian host. Heme is the single most abundant source of soluble iron in this environment. While the importance of iron assimilation for nearly all organisms is clear, the mechanisms by which heme is acquired and utilized by many bacterial pathogens, even those most commonly found at sites of infection, remain poorly understood. Methods An alternative protocol for the production and purification of the outer membrane hemoglobin receptor (HmbR) from the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis has facilitated a biophysical characterization of this outer membrane transporter by electronic absorption, circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, and resonance Raman techniques. Results HmbR co-purifies with 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme bound. The heme binding site accommodates exogenous imidazole as a sixth ligand, which results in a 6-coordinate, low-spin ferric species. Both the 5- and 6-coordinate complexes are reduced by sodium hydrosulfite. Four HmbR variants with a modest decrease in binding efficiency for heme have been identified (H87C, H280A, Y282A, and Y456C). These findings are consistent with an emerging paradigm wherein the ferric iron center of bound heme is coordinated by a tyrosine ligand. Conclusion In summary, this study provides the first spectroscopic characterization for any heme or iron transporter in Neisseria meningitidis, and suggests a coordination environment heretofore unobserved in a TonB-dependent hemin transporter. General Significance A detailed understanding of the nutrient acquisition pathways in common pathogens such as N. meningitidis provides a foundation for new antimicrobial strategies. PMID:24968987

  7. Direct spectroscopic evidence for phase competition between the pseudogap and superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A; He, Rui-Hua; Vishik, Inna M; Moritz, Brian; He, Yu; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Moore, Robert G; Lu, Donghui; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Sasagawa, Takao; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shinichi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Hussain, Zahid; Devereaux, Thomas P; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-01-01

    In the high-temperature (T(c)) cuprate superconductors, a growing body of evidence suggests that the pseudogap phase, existing below the pseudogap temperature T*, is characterized by some broken electronic symmetries distinct from those associated with superconductivity. In particular, recent scattering experiments have suggested that charge ordering competes with superconductivity. However, no direct link of an interplay between the two phases has been identified from the important low-energy excitations. Here, we report an antagonistic singularity at T(c) in the spectral weight of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) as compelling evidence for phase competition, which persists up to a high hole concentration p ~ 0.22. Comparison with theoretical calculations confirms that the singularity is a signature of competition between the order parameters for the pseudogap and superconductivity. The observation of the spectroscopic singularity at finite temperatures over a wide doping range provides new insights into the nature of the competitive interplay between the two orders and the complex phase diagram near the pseudogap critical point.

  8. Direct spectroscopic evidence for phase competition between the pseudogap and superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A; He, Rui-Hua; Vishik, Inna M; Moritz, Brian; He, Yu; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Moore, Robert G; Lu, Donghui; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Sasagawa, Takao; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shinichi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Hussain, Zahid; Devereaux, Thomas P; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-01-01

    In the high-temperature (T(c)) cuprate superconductors, a growing body of evidence suggests that the pseudogap phase, existing below the pseudogap temperature T*, is characterized by some broken electronic symmetries distinct from those associated with superconductivity. In particular, recent scattering experiments have suggested that charge ordering competes with superconductivity. However, no direct link of an interplay between the two phases has been identified from the important low-energy excitations. Here, we report an antagonistic singularity at T(c) in the spectral weight of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) as compelling evidence for phase competition, which persists up to a high hole concentration p ~ 0.22. Comparison with theoretical calculations confirms that the singularity is a signature of competition between the order parameters for the pseudogap and superconductivity. The observation of the spectroscopic singularity at finite temperatures over a wide doping range provides new insights into the nature of the competitive interplay between the two orders and the complex phase diagram near the pseudogap critical point. PMID:25362356

  9. Spectroscopic mapping of the white horse alunite deposit, Marysvale volcanic field, Utah: Evidence of a magmatic component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, B.W.; Cunningham, C.G.; Breit, G.N.; Rye, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the replacement alunite deposits just north of the town of Marysvale, Utah, USA, were formed primarily by low-temperature (100??-170?? C), steam-heated processes near the early Miocene paleoground surface, immediately above convecting hydrothermal plumes. Pyrite-bearing propylitically altered rocks occur mainly beneath the steam-heated alunite and represent the sulfidized feeder zone of the H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids, the oxidation of which at higher levels led to the formation of the alunite. Maps of surface mineralogy at the White Horse deposit generated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used in conjunction with X-ray diffraction studies of field samples to test the accuracy and precision of AVIRIS-based mineral mapping of altered rocks and demonstrate the utility of spectroscopic mapping for ore deposit characterization. The mineral maps identified multiple core zones of alunite that grade laterally outward to kaolinite. Surrounding the core zones are dominantly propylitically altered rocks containing illite, montmorillonite, and chlorite, with minor pyrite, kaolinite, gypsum, and remnant potassium feldspar from the parent rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff. The AVIRIS mapping also identified fracture zones expressed by ridge-forming selvages of quartz + dickite + kaolinite that form a crude ring around the advanced argillic core zones. Laboratory analyses identified the aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals woodhouseite and svanbergite in one sample from these dickite-bearing argillic selvages. Reflectance spectroscopy determined that the outer edges of the selvages contain more dickite than do the medial regions. The quartz + dickite ?? kaolinite ?? APS-mineral selvages demonstrate that fracture control of replacement processes is more prevalent away from the advanced argillic core zones. Although not exposed at the White Horse deposit, pyrophyllite ?? ordered illite was identified

  10. Electrochemical and spectroscopic evidence on the one-electron reduction of U(VI) to U(V) on magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ke; Ilton, Eugene S.; Antonio, Mark R.; Li, Zhongrui; Cook, Peter J.; Becker, Udo

    2015-05-19

    Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) on mineral surfaces has been considered as a one-step two electron process. However, stabilized U(V), with no evidence of U(IV), found in recent studies indicates U(VI) can undergo a one electron reduction to U(V) without further progression to U(IV). We investigated the mechanisms of uranium reduction by reducing U(VI) electrochemically on a magnetite electrode at pH 3.4 . The one electron reduction of U(VI) was first confirmed using the cyclic voltammetry method. Formation of nano-size uranium precipitates on the surface of magnetite at reducing potentials and dissolution of the solids at oxidizing potentials were observed by in situ electrochemical AFM. XPS analysis of the magnetite electrodes polarized in uranium solutions at voltages from 0.1 ~ 0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) showed the presence of only U(V) and U(VI). The highest amount of U(V) relative to U(VI) was prepared at 0.7 V, where the longest average U–Oaxial distance of 2.05 ± 0.01 Å was evident in the same sample revealed by EXAFS analysis. The results demonstrate that the electrochemical reduction of U(VI) on magnetite only yields U(V), even at a potential of 0.9 V, which favors the one-electron reduction mechanism. U(V) did not disproportionate but stabilized on magnetite through precipitation of mixed-valence state U(VI)/U(V) solids.

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopic evidence for the complexation of Hg(II) by reduced sulfur in soil humic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, K.; Skyllberg, U.L.; Bleam, W.F.; Helmke, P.A.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A.

    1999-01-15

    Analysis of Hg(II) complexed by a soil humic acid (HA) using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed the importance of reduces sulfur functional groups (thiol (R-SH) and disulfide (R-SS-R)/disulfane (R-SSH)) in humic substances in the complexation of Hg(II). A two-coordinate binding environment with one oxygen atom and one sulfur atom at distances of 2.02 and 2.38 {angstrom}, respectively, was found in the first coordination shell of Hg(II) complexed by humic acid. Model calculations show that a second coordination sphere could contain one carbon atom and a second sulfur atom at 2.78 and 2.93 {angstrom}, respectively. This suggests that in addition to thiol S, disulfide/disulfane S may be involved with the complexation of Hg(II) in soil organic matter. The appearance of carbon atom in the second coordination shell suggests that one O-containing ligand such as carboxyl and phenol ligands rather than H{sub 2}O molecule is bound to the Hg(II). The involvement of oxygen ligand in addition to the reduced S ligands in the complexation of Hg(II) is due to the low density of reduced S ligands in humic substances. The XAS results from this experiment provided direct molecular level evidence for the preference of reduced S functional groups over oxygen ligands by Hg(II) in the complexation with humic substances.

  12. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chichao; Liu, Sha; Li, Ruizhi; Sun, Fusheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs) effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M) treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK) treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids. PMID:26752419

  13. Gas-Phase Folding of a Prototypical Protonated Pentapeptide: Spectroscopic Evidence for Formation of a Charge-Stabilized β-Hairpin.

    PubMed

    Burke, Nicole L; DeBlase, Andrew F; Redwine, James G; Hopkins, John R; McLuckey, Scott A; Zwier, Timothy S

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet and infrared-ultraviolet (IR-UV) double-resonance photofragment spectroscopy has been carried out in a tandem mass spectrometer to determine the three-dimensional structure of cryogenically cooled protonated C-terminally methyl esterified leucine enkephalin [YGGFL-OMe+H](+). By comparing the experimental IR spectrum of the dominant conformer with the predictions of DFT M05-2X/6-31+G(d) calculations, a backbone structure was assigned that is analogous to that previously assigned by our group for the unmodified peptide [ Burke, N.L.; et al. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2015 , 378 , 196 ], despite the loss of a C-terminal OH binding site that was thought to play an important role in its stabilization. Both structures are characterized by a type II' β-turn around Gly(3)-Phe(4) and a γ-turn around Gly(2), providing spectroscopic evidence for the formation of a β-hairpin hydrogen bonding pattern. Rather than disrupting the peptide backbone structure, the protonated N-terminus serves to stabilize the β-hairpin by positioning itself in a pocket above the turn where it can form H-bonds to the Gly(3) and C-terminus C═O groups. This β-hairpin type structure has been previously proposed as the biologically active conformation of leucine enkephalin and its methyl ester in the nonpolar cell membrane environment [ Naito, A.; Nishimura, K. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2004 , 4 , 135 - 143 ]. PMID:26853832

  14. The purple Codex Rossanensis: spectroscopic characterisation and first evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a sixth century manuscript.

    PubMed

    Bicchieri, Marina

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the measurements campaign started in June 2012 and ended in November 2013 on the invaluable purple Codex Rossanensis, sixth century, one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament. The tasks of the chemistry laboratory were to answer a variety of questions posed both by historians and restorers, concerning the materials used in a previous restoration, the composition of the pictorial palette and the different inks and to determine which colouring material had been applied to dye the parchment support. It was also requested to determine the state of preservation of the manuscript, as a result of its interactions with the environment in which the manuscript had been stored and the vicissitudes experienced during its life (fire, previous restoration, exhibition). The spectroscopic analyses performed by micro-Raman, micro-Fourier transform infrared and X-ray fluorescence allowed to fill a gap in the knowledge of the pictorial materials used in the Early Middle Ages. The pictorial palette, the inks, the dye applied to obtain the purple parchments, the support and the materials used in the previous restoration treatment executed in 1917-19 were fully characterised. Moreover, to the author's knowledge, the article shows the first experimental evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a sixth century-illuminated manuscript. The lake was characterised by Raman spectroscopy.

  15. The purple Codex Rossanensis: spectroscopic characterisation and first evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a sixth century manuscript.

    PubMed

    Bicchieri, Marina

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the measurements campaign started in June 2012 and ended in November 2013 on the invaluable purple Codex Rossanensis, sixth century, one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament. The tasks of the chemistry laboratory were to answer a variety of questions posed both by historians and restorers, concerning the materials used in a previous restoration, the composition of the pictorial palette and the different inks and to determine which colouring material had been applied to dye the parchment support. It was also requested to determine the state of preservation of the manuscript, as a result of its interactions with the environment in which the manuscript had been stored and the vicissitudes experienced during its life (fire, previous restoration, exhibition). The spectroscopic analyses performed by micro-Raman, micro-Fourier transform infrared and X-ray fluorescence allowed to fill a gap in the knowledge of the pictorial materials used in the Early Middle Ages. The pictorial palette, the inks, the dye applied to obtain the purple parchments, the support and the materials used in the previous restoration treatment executed in 1917-19 were fully characterised. Moreover, to the author's knowledge, the article shows the first experimental evidence of the use of the elderberry lake in a sixth century-illuminated manuscript. The lake was characterised by Raman spectroscopy. PMID:25056752

  16. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chichao; Liu, Sha; Li, Ruizhi; Sun, Fusheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs) effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M) treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK) treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids. PMID:26752419

  17. Spectroscopic evidence for an engineered, catalytically active Trp radical that creates the unique reactivity of lignin peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew T.; Doyle, Wendy A.; Dorlet, Pierre; Ivancich, Anabella

    2009-01-01

    The surface oxidation site (Trp-171) in lignin peroxidase (LiP) required for the reaction with veratryl alcohol a high-redox-potential (1.4 V) substrate, was engineered into Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) by introducing a Trp residue into a heme peroxidase that has similar protein fold but lacks this activity. To create the catalytic activity toward veratryl alcohol in CiP, it was necessary to reproduce the Trp site and its negatively charged microenvironment by means of a triple mutation. The resulting D179W+R258E+R272D variant was characterized by multifrequency EPR spectroscopy. The spectra unequivocally showed that a new Trp radical [g values of gx = 2.0035(5), gy = 2.0027(5), and gz = 2.0022(1)] was formed after the [Fe(IV)=O Por•+] intermediate, as a result of intramolecular electron transfer between Trp-179 and the porphyrin. Also, the EPR characterization crucially showed that [Fe(IV)=O Trp-179•] was the reactive intermediate with veratryl alcohol. Accordingly, our work shows that it is necessary to take into account the physicochemical properties of the radical, fine-tuned by the microenvironment, as well as those of the preceding [Fe(IV)=O Por•+] intermediate to engineer a catalytically competent Trp site for a given substrate. Manipulation of the microenvironment of the Trp-171 site in LiP allowed the detection by EPR spectroscopy of the Trp-171•, for which direct evidence has been missing so far. Our work also highlights the role of Trp residues as tunable redox-active cofactors for enzyme catalysis in the context of peroxidases with a unique reactivity toward recalcitrant substrates that require oxidation potentials not realized at the heme site. PMID:19805263

  18. Spectroscopic evidence for Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer at clay mineral edge and basal sites.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anke; Olson, Tyler L; Scherer, Michelle M

    2013-07-01

    Despite the importance of Fe redox cycling in clay minerals, the mechanism and location of electron transfer remain unclear. More specifically, there is some controversy whether electron transfer can occur through both basal and edge surfaces. Here we used Mössbauer spectroscopy combined with selective chemical extractions to study electron transfer from Fe(II) sorbed to basal planes and edge OH-groups of clay mineral NAu-1. Fe(II) sorbed predominantly to basal planes at pH values below 6.0 and to edge OH-groups at pH value 7.5. Significant electron transfer occurred from edge OH-group bound Fe(II) at pH 7.5, whereas electron transfer from basal plane-sorbed Fe(II) to structural Fe(III) in clay mineral NAu-1 at pH 4.0 and 6.0 occurred but to a much lower extent than from edge-bound Fe(II). Mössbauer hyperfine parameters for Fe(II)-reacted NAu-1 at pH 7.5 were consistent with structural Fe(II), whereas values found at pH 4.0 and 6.0 were indicative of binding environments similar to basal plane-sorbed Fe(II). Reference experiments with Fe-free synthetic montmorillonite SYn-1 provided supporting evidence for the assignment of the hyperfine parameters to Fe(II) bound to basal planes and edge OH-groups. Our findings demonstrate that electron transfer to structural Fe in clay minerals can occur from Fe(II) sorbed to both basal planes and edge OH-groups. These findings require us to reassess the mechanisms of abiotic and microbial Fe reduction in clay minerals as well as the importance of Fe-bearing clay minerals as a renewable source of redox equivalents in subsurface environments.

  19. Spectroscopic evidence for an engineered, catalytically active Trp radical that creates the unique reactivity of lignin peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew T; Doyle, Wendy A; Dorlet, Pierre; Ivancich, Anabella

    2009-09-22

    The surface oxidation site (Trp-171) in lignin peroxidase (LiP) required for the reaction with veratryl alcohol a high-redox-potential (1.4 V) substrate, was engineered into Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) by introducing a Trp residue into a heme peroxidase that has similar protein fold but lacks this activity. To create the catalytic activity toward veratryl alcohol in CiP, it was necessary to reproduce the Trp site and its negatively charged microenvironment by means of a triple mutation. The resulting D179W+R258E+R272D variant was characterized by multifrequency EPR spectroscopy. The spectra unequivocally showed that a new Trp radical [g values of g(x) = 2.0035(5), g(y) = 2.0027(5), and g(z) = 2.0022(1)] was formed after the [Fe(IV)=O Por(*+)] intermediate, as a result of intramolecular electron transfer between Trp-179 and the porphyrin. Also, the EPR characterization crucially showed that [Fe(IV)=O Trp-179(*)] was the reactive intermediate with veratryl alcohol. Accordingly, our work shows that it is necessary to take into account the physicochemical properties of the radical, fine-tuned by the microenvironment, as well as those of the preceding [Fe(IV)=O Por(*+)] intermediate to engineer a catalytically competent Trp site for a given substrate. Manipulation of the microenvironment of the Trp-171 site in LiP allowed the detection by EPR spectroscopy of the Trp-171(*), for which direct evidence has been missing so far. Our work also highlights the role of Trp residues as tunable redox-active cofactors for enzyme catalysis in the context of peroxidases with a unique reactivity toward recalcitrant substrates that require oxidation potentials not realized at the heme site.

  20. Predictive model for Pb(II) adsorption on soil minerals (oxides and low-crystalline aluminum silicate) consistent with spectroscopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usiyama, Tomoki; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    Mobility of Pb(II) in surface condition is governed by adsorption processes on soil minerals such as iron oxides and low-crystalline aluminum silicates. The adsorption effectiveness and the surface complex structures of Pb(II) vary sensitively with solution conditions such as pH, ionic strength, Pb(II) loading, and electrolyte anion type. This study was undertaken to construct a quantitative model for Pb(II) on soil minerals. It can predict the adsorption effectiveness and surface complex structures under any solution conditions using the extended triple layer model (ETLM). The Pb(II) adsorption data for goethite, hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), quartz, and low-crystalline aluminum silicate (LCAS) were analyzed with ETLM to retrieve the surface complexation reactions and these equilibrium constants. The adsorption data on goethite, HFO and quartz were referred from reports of earlier studies. Those data for LCAS were measured under a wide range of pH, ionic strength and Pb(II) loadings in NaNO3 and NaCl solutions. All adsorption data can be reasonably regressed using ETLM with the assumptions of inner sphere bidentate complexation and inner sphere monodentate ternary complexation with electrolyte anions, which are consistent with previously reported spectroscopic evidence. Predictions of surface speciation under widely various solution conditions using ETLM revealed that the inner sphere bidentate complex is the predominant species at neutral to high pH conditions. The inner sphere monodentate ternary complex becomes important at low pH, high surface Pb(II) coverage, and high electrolyte concentrations, of which the behavior is consistent with the spectroscopic observation. Comparisons of the obtained adsorption constants on goethite, HFO and quartz exhibited good linear relations between the reciprocals of dielectric constants of solids and adsorption constants. Those linear relations support predictions of the adsorption constants of all oxides based on Born

  1. Spectroscopic detection

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Hadidi, Kamal

    2003-01-01

    In embodiments, spectroscopic monitor monitors modulated light signals to detect low levels of contaminants and other compounds in the presence of background interference. The monitor uses a spectrometer that includes a transmissive modulator capable of causing different frequency ranges to move onto and off of the detector. The different ranges can include those with the desired signal and those selected to subtract background contributions from those with the desired signal. Embodiments of the system are particularly useful for monitoring metal concentrations in combustion effluent.

  2. Supergene destruction of a hydrothermal replacement alunite deposit at Big Rock Candy Mountain, Utah: Mineralogy, spectroscopic remote sensing, stable-isotope, and argon-age evidences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Rockwell, B.W.; Kunk, M.J.; Councell, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Big Rock Candy Mountain is a prominent center of variegated altered volcanic rocks in west-central Utah. It consists of the eroded remnants of a hypogene alunite deposit that, at ???21 Ma, replaced intermediate-composition lava flows. The alunite formed in steam-heated conditions above the upwelling limb of a convection cell that was one of at least six spaced at 3- to 4-km intervals around the margin of a monzonite stock. Big Rock Candy Mountain is horizontally zoned outward from an alunite core to respective kaolinite, dickite, and propylite envelopes. The altered rocks are also vertically zoned from a lower pyrite-propylite assemblage upward through assemblages successively dominated by hypogene alunite, jarosite, and hematite, to a flooded silica cap. This hydrothermal assemblage is undergoing natural destruction in a steep canyon downcut by the Sevier River in Marysvale Canyon. Integrated geological, mineralogical, spectroscopic remote sensing using AVIRIS data, Ar radiometric, and stable isotopic studies trace the hypogene origin and supergene destruction of the deposit and permit distinction of primary (hydrothermal) and secondary (weathering) processes. This destruction has led to the formation of widespread supergene gypsum in cross-cutting fractures and as surficial crusts, and to natrojarosite, that gives the mountain its buff coloration along ridges facing the canyon. A small spring, Lemonade Spring, with a pH of 2.6 and containing Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Cl, and SO4, also occurs near the bottom of the canyon. The 40Ar/39 Ar age (21.32??0.07 Ma) of the alunite is similar to that for other replacement alunites at Marysvale. However, the age spectrum contains evidence of a 6.6-Ma thermal event that can be related to the tectonic activity responsible for the uplift that led to the downcutting of Big Rock Candy Mountain by the Sevier River. This ???6.6 Ma event also is present in the age spectrum of supergene natrojarosite forming today, and probably dates

  3. Spectroscopic Study of Star-forming Galaxies in Filaments and the Field at z ~ 0.5: Evidence for Environmental Dependence of Electron Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Sobral, David; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Shivaei, Irene

    2015-12-01

    We study the physical properties of a spectroscopic sample of 28 star-forming galaxies in a large filamentary structure in the COSMOS field at z ˜ 0.53, with spectroscopic data taken with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, and compare them with a control sample of 30 field galaxies. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of a large galaxy filament (˜8 Mpc), along which five confirmed X-ray groups exist. We show that within the uncertainties, the ionization parameter, equivalent width (EW), EW versus specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relation, EW versus stellar mass relation, line-of-sight velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, and stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio are similar for filament and field star-forming galaxies. However, we show that, on average, filament star-forming galaxies are more metal enriched (˜0.1-0.15 dex), possibly owing to the inflow of the already-enriched intrafilamentary gas into filament galaxies. Moreover, we show that electron densities are significantly lower (a factor of ˜17) in filament star-forming systems compared to those in the field, possibly because of a longer star-formation timescale for filament star-forming galaxies. Our results highlight the potential pre-processing role of galaxy filaments and intermediate-density environments on the evolution of galaxies, which has been highly underestimated.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN FILAMENTS AND THE FIELD AT z ∼ 0.5: EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF ELECTRON DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Shivaei, Irene; Sobral, David; Nayyeri, Hooshang

    2015-12-01

    We study the physical properties of a spectroscopic sample of 28 star-forming galaxies in a large filamentary structure in the COSMOS field at z ∼ 0.53, with spectroscopic data taken with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, and compare them with a control sample of 30 field galaxies. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of a large galaxy filament (∼8 Mpc), along which five confirmed X-ray groups exist. We show that within the uncertainties, the ionization parameter, equivalent width (EW), EW versus specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relation, EW versus stellar mass relation, line-of-sight velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, and stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio are similar for filament and field star-forming galaxies. However, we show that, on average, filament star-forming galaxies are more metal enriched (∼0.1–0.15 dex), possibly owing to the inflow of the already-enriched intrafilamentary gas into filament galaxies. Moreover, we show that electron densities are significantly lower (a factor of ∼17) in filament star-forming systems compared to those in the field, possibly because of a longer star-formation timescale for filament star-forming galaxies. Our results highlight the potential pre-processing role of galaxy filaments and intermediate-density environments on the evolution of galaxies, which has been highly underestimated.

  5. Spectroscopic Study of Star-forming Galaxies in Filaments and the Field at z~0.5: Evidence for Environmental Dependence of Electron Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Sobral, David; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Shivaei, Irene

    2016-01-01

    We study the physical properties of a spectroscopic sample of 28 star-forming galaxies in a large filamentary structure in the COSMOS field at z~0.53, with spectroscopic data taken with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, and compare them with a control sample of 30 field galaxies. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of a large galaxy filament (~ 8 Mpc), along which five confirmed X-ray groups exist. We show that within the uncertainties, the ionization parameter, equivalent width (EW), EW versus specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relation, EW versus stellar mass relation, line-of-sight velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, and stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio are similar for filament and field star-forming galaxies. However, we show that on average, filament star-forming galaxies are more metal-enriched (~ 0.1-0.15 dex), possibly due to the inflow of the already enriched intrafilamentary gas into filament galaxies. Moreover, we show that electron densities are significantly lower (a factor of ~17) in filament star-forming systems compared to those in the field, possibly because of a longer star-formation timescale for filament star-forming galaxies. Our results highlight the potential pre-processing role of galaxy filaments and intermediate-density environments on the evolution of galaxies, which has been highly underestimated.

  6. Spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic evidence for electrostatic effects in 4-substituted cyclohexanone-derived hydrazones, imines, and corresponding salts.

    PubMed

    Dibble, David J; Ziller, Joseph W; Woerpel, K A

    2011-10-01

    The axial conformer of several 4-substituted cyclohexanone hydrazone salts was found to predominate in solution. Changes in the charge of the molecule and the polarity of the solvent led to changes in the conformational preference of each molecule that were consistent with electrostatic stabilization of the axial conformer. (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis was utilized to determine the structure of cyclohexanone-derived substrates by comparison to conformationally restricted trans-decalone derivatives and computational models. X-ray crystallography demonstrated that the axial configuration of a pendant benzyloxy group is the preferred conformation of an iminium ion in the solid state. The structure of a neutral hydrazone was also determined to favor the axial configuration for a pendant benzyloxy group in the solid state.

  7. Spectroscopic Quadrupole Moments in {96,98}Sr: Evidence for Shape Coexistence in Neutron-Rich Strontium Isotopes at N=60.

    PubMed

    Clément, E; Zielińska, M; Görgen, A; Korten, W; Péru, S; Libert, J; Goutte, H; Hilaire, S; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Delahaye, P; Dijon, A; Doherty, D T; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fransen, C; Georgiev, G; Gernhäuser, R; Hess, H; Iwanicki, J; Jenkins, D G; Larsen, A C; Ljungvall, J; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P J; Pakarinen, J; Petts, A; Reiter, P; Renstrøm, T; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Sotty, C; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van de Walle, J; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; De Witte, H; Wrzosek-Lipska, K

    2016-01-15

    Neutron-rich {96,98}Sr isotopes have been investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross sections. These results allow, for the first time, the drawing of definite conclusions about the shape coexistence of highly deformed prolate and spherical configurations. In particular, a very small mixing between the coexisting states is observed, contrary to other mass regions where strong mixing is present. Experimental results have been compared to beyond-mean-field calculations using the Gogny D1S interaction in a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian formalism, which reproduce the shape change at N=60.

  8. Spectroscopic Quadrupole Moments in {96,98}Sr: Evidence for Shape Coexistence in Neutron-Rich Strontium Isotopes at N=60.

    PubMed

    Clément, E; Zielińska, M; Görgen, A; Korten, W; Péru, S; Libert, J; Goutte, H; Hilaire, S; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Delahaye, P; Dijon, A; Doherty, D T; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fransen, C; Georgiev, G; Gernhäuser, R; Hess, H; Iwanicki, J; Jenkins, D G; Larsen, A C; Ljungvall, J; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P J; Pakarinen, J; Petts, A; Reiter, P; Renstrøm, T; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Sotty, C; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van de Walle, J; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; De Witte, H; Wrzosek-Lipska, K

    2016-01-15

    Neutron-rich {96,98}Sr isotopes have been investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross sections. These results allow, for the first time, the drawing of definite conclusions about the shape coexistence of highly deformed prolate and spherical configurations. In particular, a very small mixing between the coexisting states is observed, contrary to other mass regions where strong mixing is present. Experimental results have been compared to beyond-mean-field calculations using the Gogny D1S interaction in a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian formalism, which reproduce the shape change at N=60. PMID:26824536

  9. Non-covalent interactions of nitrous oxide with aromatic compounds: Spectroscopic and computational evidence for the formation of 1:1 complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Qian; Gor, Gennady Y.; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2014-04-14

    We present the first study of intermolecular interactions between nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and three representative aromatic compounds (ACs): phenol, cresol, and toluene. The infrared spectroscopic experiments were performed in a Ne matrix and were supported by high-level quantum chemical calculations. Comparisons of the calculated and experimental vibrational spectra provide direct identification and characterization of the 1:1 N{sub 2}O-AC complexes. Our results show that N{sub 2}O is capable of forming non-covalently bonded complexes with ACs. Complex formation is dominated by dispersion forces, and the interaction energies are relatively low (about −3 kcal mol{sup −1}); however, the complexes are clearly detected by frequency shifts of the characteristic bands. These results suggest that N{sub 2}O can be bound to the amino-acid residues tyrosine or phenylalanine in the form of π complexes.

  10. Non-covalent interactions of nitrous oxide with aromatic compounds: Spectroscopic and computational evidence for the formation of 1:1 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Gor, Gennady Y.; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2014-04-01

    We present the first study of intermolecular interactions between nitrous oxide (N2O) and three representative aromatic compounds (ACs): phenol, cresol, and toluene. The infrared spectroscopic experiments were performed in a Ne matrix and were supported by high-level quantum chemical calculations. Comparisons of the calculated and experimental vibrational spectra provide direct identification and characterization of the 1:1 N2O-AC complexes. Our results show that N2O is capable of forming non-covalently bonded complexes with ACs. Complex formation is dominated by dispersion forces, and the interaction energies are relatively low (about -3 kcal mol-1); however, the complexes are clearly detected by frequency shifts of the characteristic bands. These results suggest that N2O can be bound to the amino-acid residues tyrosine or phenylalanine in the form of π complexes.

  11. Spectroscopic, Electrochemical and Computational Characterisation of Ru Species Involved in Catalytic Water Oxidation: Evidence for a [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)] Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Carla; Codolà, Zoel; Costas, Miquel; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2016-07-11

    A new family of ruthenium complexes based on the N-pentadentate ligand Py2 (Me) tacn (N-methyl-N',N''-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) has been synthesised and its catalytic activity has been studied in the water-oxidation (WO) reaction. We have used chemical oxidants (ceric ammonium nitrate and NaIO4 ) to generate the WO intermediates [Ru(II) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , [Ru(III) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](3+) , [Ru(III) (OH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) and [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , which have been characterised spectroscopically. Their relative redox and pH stability in water has been studied by using UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies, HRMS and spectroelectrochemistry. [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) has a long half-life (>48 h) in water. The catalytic cycle of WO has been elucidated by using kinetic, spectroscopic, (18) O-labelling and theoretical studies, and the conclusion is that the rate-determining step is a single-site water nucleophilic attack on a metal-oxo species. Moreover, [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is proposed to be the resting state under catalytic conditions. By monitoring Ce(IV) consumption, we found that the O2 evolution rate is redox-controlled and independent of the initial concentration of Ce(IV) . Based on these facts, we propose herein that [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is oxidised to [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) prior to attack by a water molecule to give [Ru(III) (OOH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) . Finally, it is shown that the difference in WO reactivity between the homologous iron and ruthenium [M(OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) (M=Ru, Fe) complexes is due to the difference in the redox stability of the key M(V) (O) intermediate. These results contribute to a better understanding of the WO mechanism and the differences between iron and ruthenium complexes in WO reactions.

  12. Spectroscopic, Electrochemical and Computational Characterisation of Ru Species Involved in Catalytic Water Oxidation: Evidence for a [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)] Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Carla; Codolà, Zoel; Costas, Miquel; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2016-07-11

    A new family of ruthenium complexes based on the N-pentadentate ligand Py2 (Me) tacn (N-methyl-N',N''-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) has been synthesised and its catalytic activity has been studied in the water-oxidation (WO) reaction. We have used chemical oxidants (ceric ammonium nitrate and NaIO4 ) to generate the WO intermediates [Ru(II) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , [Ru(III) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](3+) , [Ru(III) (OH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) and [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , which have been characterised spectroscopically. Their relative redox and pH stability in water has been studied by using UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies, HRMS and spectroelectrochemistry. [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) has a long half-life (>48 h) in water. The catalytic cycle of WO has been elucidated by using kinetic, spectroscopic, (18) O-labelling and theoretical studies, and the conclusion is that the rate-determining step is a single-site water nucleophilic attack on a metal-oxo species. Moreover, [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is proposed to be the resting state under catalytic conditions. By monitoring Ce(IV) consumption, we found that the O2 evolution rate is redox-controlled and independent of the initial concentration of Ce(IV) . Based on these facts, we propose herein that [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is oxidised to [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) prior to attack by a water molecule to give [Ru(III) (OOH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) . Finally, it is shown that the difference in WO reactivity between the homologous iron and ruthenium [M(OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) (M=Ru, Fe) complexes is due to the difference in the redox stability of the key M(V) (O) intermediate. These results contribute to a better understanding of the WO mechanism and the differences between iron and ruthenium complexes in WO reactions. PMID:27324949

  13. Scanning tunneling spectroscopic evidence for a magnetic field-revealed microscopic order in the high-TC superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, A. D.; Grinolds, M. S.; Teague, M. L.; Yeh, N.-C.; Tajima, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present spatially resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements of YBa2Cu3O7-δ as a function of magnetic field and at T<

  14. Spectroscopic evidence on improvement in complex formation of O2N2 aza-crown macrocyclic ligands with Cu(II) acetate upon incorporation with [60]Fullerene.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Bahram; Gholamnezhad, Parisa

    2016-12-01

    The present paper reports the spectroscopic investigations on the complexation of Cu(II) with two macrocyclic ligands bonded to [60]Fullerene (L1 and L2) measured in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent. On the basis of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy applying Jobs method of continuous variation, typical 1:1 stoichiometries were established for the complexes of Cu(II) with L1, and L2. DFT calculations suggested that superior HOMO distributions spread over the nitrogen-donor (as well as somehow oxygen- donor in L2) groups of L1 and L2 macrocycles were the key factor for the observed Kb value enhancement. Thermodynamic stabilities for these complexes have also been determined employing Benesi-Hildebrand equation and the results were compared in terms of their calculated binding constants (Kb). These measurements showed that L1 and L2 bound to these cations stronger than their parent free macrocyclic ligands 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, Kb values found for L2 complexes revealed that it could coordinate Cu(II) cation better than L1. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ∆H, and -ΔS) derived from Van't Hoff equation showed that L1 and L2 coordination of Cu(II) cation were occurred due to both enthalpic and entropic factors while the coordination of Cu(II) with their parent macrocyclic ligands 1 and 2 only enjoyed from only enthalpic advantages. PMID:27380303

  15. Preliminary evidence for white matter metabolite differences in marijuana dependent young men using 2D J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 4 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.; Jensen, J. Eric; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Sneider, Jennifer T.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic marijuana (MRJ) use is associated with altered cognition and mood state, altered brain metabolites, functional and structural brain changes. The objective of this study was to apply proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to compare proton metabolite levels in 15 young men with MRJ-dependence and 11 healthy non-using (NU) young men. Spectra were acquired at 4.0 Tesla using 2D J-resolved MRSI to resolve coupled resonances in J-space and to quantify the entire J-coupled spectral surface of metabolites from voxels containing basal ganglia and thalamus, temporal and parietal lobe, and occipital white and gray matter. This method permitted investigation of high-quality spectra for regression analyses to examine metabolites relative to tissue type. Distribution of myo-inositol (mI)/creatine (Cr) was altered in the MRJ group whereas the NU group exhibited higher mI/Cr in WM than GM, this pattern was not observed in MRJ subjects. Significant relationships observed between global mI/Cr and distribution in WM, and self-reported impulsivity and mood symptoms were also unique between MRJ and NU groups. These preliminary findings suggest that mI, and distribution of this glial metabolite in WM, is altered by MRJ use and is associated with behavioral and affective features reported by young MRJ-dependent men. PMID:21334181

  16. PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. INTRODUCTION AND ORBITS FOR TWO DETACHED SYSTEMS: EVIDENCE FOR A MASS DISCREPANCY?

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Penny, Laura R.; DeGioia-Eastwood, Kathleen; Gies, Douglas R. E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu E-mail: pennyl@cofc.edu E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu

    2012-04-01

    The stellar mass-luminosity relation is poorly constrained by observations for high-mass stars. We describe our program to find eclipsing massive binaries in the Magellanic Clouds using photometry of regions rich in massive stars, and our spectroscopic follow-up to obtain radial velocities and orbits. Our photometric campaign identified 48 early-type periodic variables, of which only 15 (31%) were found as part of the microlensing surveys. Spectroscopy is now complete for 17 of these systems, and in this paper we present analysis of the first two, LMC 172231 and ST2-28, simple detached systems of late-type O dwarfs of relatively modest masses. Our orbit analysis yields very precise masses ({approx}2%), and we use tomography to separate the components and determine effective temperatures by model fitting, necessary for determining accurate (0.05-0.07 dex) bolometric luminosities in combination with the light-curve analysis. Our approach allows more precise comparisons with evolutionary theory than previously possible. To our considerable surprise, we find a small, but significant, systematic discrepancy: all of the stars are slightly undermassive, by typically 11% (or overluminous by 0.2 dex) compared with that predicted by the evolutionary models. We examine our approach for systematic problems, but find no satisfactory explanation. The discrepancy is in the same sense as the long-discussed and elusive discrepancy between the masses measured from stellar atmosphere analysis with the stellar evolutionary models, and might suggest that either increased rotation or convective overshooting is needed in the models. Additional systems will be discussed in future papers of this series, and will hopefully confirm or refute this trend.

  17. Theoretical and spectroscopic evidence for coordination ability of 3,3'-benzylidenedi-4-hydroxycoumarin. New neodymium (III) complex and its cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Irena; Trendafilova, Natasha; Momekov, Georgi

    2005-02-01

    Theoretical and spectroscopic studies of 3,3'-benzylidenedi-4-hydroxycoumarin (bhc) have been performed. B3LYP/6-31G* calculations reproduced the experimental molecular structure of bhc and showed two O-H...O asymmetrical intramolecular hydrogen bonds with O...O distances 2.638 and 2.696 A. The calculated Fukui functions and Molecular Electrostatic Potential for bhc and its deprotonated form, bhc(2-), predicted that the most probable reactive sites for electrophilic attack and hydrogen bonds are the carbonyl oxygens, followed by the hydroxyl oxygens. The coordination ability of 3,3'-benzylidenedi-4-hydroxycoumarin has been proved in a complexation reaction with neodymium (III) ion. The new neodymium (III) complex of bhc was studied by elemental analyses, conductivity and other physical properties, mass spectra, (1)H, (13)C NMR, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy. The data obtained are in agreement with the metal:ligand ratio of 1:1, and the formula Nd(bhc(2-))(OH)(H(2)O), where bhc(2-)=C(25)H(14)O(6)(2-). The vibrational analysis of the neodymium (III) complex, free bhc, and its monomeric building block, 4-hydroxycoumarin, showed that in the Nd(III) complex the ligand coordinates to the metal ion through both deprotonated hydroxyl groups. The participation of both carbonyl groups in coordination to the metal ion was confirmed by the significant shift of nu(C=O) to lower wavenumber. The evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of the new Nd(III) complex on SKW-3 and HL-60/Dox cells revealed, that it is a potent cytotoxic agent and should be subset further to more detailed pharmacological and toxicological study.

  18. Evidence for the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and velocity reconstruction from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaan, Emmanuel; Ferraro, Simone; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Smith, Kendrick M.; Ho, Shirley; Aiola, Simone; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J. Richard; De Bernardis, Francesco; Calabrese, Erminia; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn; Hill, J. Colin; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renée; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Koopman, Brian; Kosowsky, Arthur; Li, Dale; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; Madhavacheril, Mathew; Maurin, Loïc; McMahon, Jeffrey John; Moodley, Kavilan; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Pappas, Christine G.; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Sehgal, Neelima; Sherwin, Blake D.; Sievers, Jonathan L.; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; van Engelen, Alexander; Wollack, Edward J.; ACTPol Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We use microwave temperature maps from two seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 146 GHz, together with the "Constant Mass" CMASS galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to measure the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect over the redshift range z =0.4 - 0.7 . We use galaxy positions and the continuity equation to obtain a reconstruction of the line-of-sight velocity field. We stack the microwave temperature at the location of each halo, weighted by the corresponding reconstructed velocity. We vary the size of the aperture photometry filter used, thus probing the free electron profile of these halos from within the virial radius out to three virial radii, on the scales relevant for investigating the missing baryons problem. The resulting best fit kSZ model is preferred over the no-kSZ hypothesis at 3.3 and 2.9 σ for two independent velocity reconstruction methods, using 25,537 galaxies over 660 square degrees. The data suggest that the baryon profile is shallower than the dark matter in the inner regions of the halos probed here, potentially due to energy injection from active galactic nucleus or supernovae. Thus, by constraining the gas profile on a wide range of scales, this technique will be useful for understanding the role of feedback in galaxy groups and clusters. The effect of foregrounds that are uncorrelated with the galaxy velocities is expected to be well below our signal, and residual thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich contamination is controlled by masking the most massive clusters. Finally, we discuss the systematics involved in converting our measurement of the kSZ amplitude into the mean free electron fraction of the halos in our sample.

  19. Computational, electrochemical, and spectroscopic studies of two mononuclear cobaloximes: the influence of an axial pyridine and solvent on the redox behaviour and evidence for pyridine coordination to cobalt(i) and cobalt(ii) metal centres.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Mark A W; Celestine, Michael J; Artis, Edward T; Joseph, Lorne S; Esquivel, Deisy L; Ledbetter, Abram J; Cropek, Donald M; Jarrett, William L; Bayse, Craig A; Brewer, Matthew I; Holder, Alvin A

    2016-06-21

    [Co(dmgBF2)2(H2O)2] (where dmgBF2 = difluoroboryldimethylglyoximato) was used to synthesize [Co(dmgBF2)2(H2O)(py)]·0.5(CH3)2CO (where py = pyridine) in acetone. The formulation of complex was confirmed by elemental analysis, high resolution MS, and various spectroscopic techniques. The complex [Co(dmgBF2)2(solv)(py)] (where solv = solvent) was readily formed in situ upon the addition of pyridine to complex . A spectrophotometric titration involving complex and pyridine proved the formation of such a species, with formation constants, log K = 5.5, 5.1, 5.0, 4.4, and 3.1 in 2-butanone, dichloromethane, acetone, 1,2-difluorobenzene/acetone (4 : 1, v/v), and acetonitrile, respectively, at 20 °C. In strongly coordinating solvents, such as acetonitrile, the lower magnitude of K along with cyclic voltammetry, NMR, and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements indicated extensive dissociation of the axial pyridine. In strongly coordinating solvents, [Co(dmgBF2)2(solv)(py)] can only be distinguished from [Co(dmgBF2)2(solv)2] upon addition of an excess of pyridine, however, in weakly coordinating solvents the distinctions were apparent without the need for excess pyridine. The coordination of pyridine to the cobalt(ii) centre diminished the peak current at the Epc value of the Co(I/0) redox couple, which was indicative of the relative position of the reaction equilibrium. Herein we report the first experimental and theoretical (59)Co NMR spectroscopic data for the formation of Co(i) species of reduced cobaloximes in the presence and absence of py (and its derivatives) in CD3CN. From spectroelectrochemical studies, it was found that pyridine coordination to a cobalt(i) metal centre is more favourable than coordination to a cobalt(ii) metal centre as evident by the larger formation constant, log K = 4.6 versus 3.1, respectively, in acetonitrile at 20 °C. The electrosynthesis of hydrogen by complexes and in various solvents demonstrated the dramatic effects of the axial

  20. Computational, electrochemical, and spectroscopic studies of two mononuclear cobaloximes: the influence of an axial pyridine and solvent on the redox behaviour and evidence for pyridine coordination to cobalt(i) and cobalt(ii) metal centres.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Mark A W; Celestine, Michael J; Artis, Edward T; Joseph, Lorne S; Esquivel, Deisy L; Ledbetter, Abram J; Cropek, Donald M; Jarrett, William L; Bayse, Craig A; Brewer, Matthew I; Holder, Alvin A

    2016-06-21

    [Co(dmgBF2)2(H2O)2] (where dmgBF2 = difluoroboryldimethylglyoximato) was used to synthesize [Co(dmgBF2)2(H2O)(py)]·0.5(CH3)2CO (where py = pyridine) in acetone. The formulation of complex was confirmed by elemental analysis, high resolution MS, and various spectroscopic techniques. The complex [Co(dmgBF2)2(solv)(py)] (where solv = solvent) was readily formed in situ upon the addition of pyridine to complex . A spectrophotometric titration involving complex and pyridine proved the formation of such a species, with formation constants, log K = 5.5, 5.1, 5.0, 4.4, and 3.1 in 2-butanone, dichloromethane, acetone, 1,2-difluorobenzene/acetone (4 : 1, v/v), and acetonitrile, respectively, at 20 °C. In strongly coordinating solvents, such as acetonitrile, the lower magnitude of K along with cyclic voltammetry, NMR, and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements indicated extensive dissociation of the axial pyridine. In strongly coordinating solvents, [Co(dmgBF2)2(solv)(py)] can only be distinguished from [Co(dmgBF2)2(solv)2] upon addition of an excess of pyridine, however, in weakly coordinating solvents the distinctions were apparent without the need for excess pyridine. The coordination of pyridine to the cobalt(ii) centre diminished the peak current at the Epc value of the Co(I/0) redox couple, which was indicative of the relative position of the reaction equilibrium. Herein we report the first experimental and theoretical (59)Co NMR spectroscopic data for the formation of Co(i) species of reduced cobaloximes in the presence and absence of py (and its derivatives) in CD3CN. From spectroelectrochemical studies, it was found that pyridine coordination to a cobalt(i) metal centre is more favourable than coordination to a cobalt(ii) metal centre as evident by the larger formation constant, log K = 4.6 versus 3.1, respectively, in acetonitrile at 20 °C. The electrosynthesis of hydrogen by complexes and in various solvents demonstrated the dramatic effects of the axial

  1. Direct Spectroscopic Evidence for Phase Competition between the Pseudogap and Superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A.; He, Rui-Hua; Vishik, Inna M.; Moritz, Brian; He, Yu; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Moore, Robert G.; Lu, Donghui; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Sasagawa, Takao; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuku; Uchida, Shinichi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Hussain, Zahid; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2014-11-02

    In the high-temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors, increasing evidence suggests that the pseudogap, existing below the pseudogap temperature T*, has a distinct broken electronic symmetry from that of superconductivity. Particularly, recent scattering experiments on the underdoped cuprates have suggested that a charge ordering competes with superconductivity. However, no direct link of this physics and the important low-energy excitations has been identified. We report an antagonistic singularity at Tc in the spectral weight of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ as a compelling evidence for phase competition, which persists up to a high hole concentration p ~ 0.22. Comparison with a theoretical calculation confirms that the singularity is a signature of competition between the order parameters for the pseudogap and superconductivity. Our observation of the spectroscopic singularity at finite temperatures over a wide doping range provides new insights into the nature of the competitive interplay between the two intertwined phases and the complex phase diagram near the pseudogap critical point.

  2. Spectroscopic Evidence for Strong Quantum Spin Fluctuations with Itinerant Character in YFe2Ge2

    SciTech Connect

    Sirica, N.; Bondino, F.; Nappini, S.; Piz, I.; Poudel, L.; Christianson, Andrew D.; Mandrus, D.; Singh, David J; Mannella, Norman

    2015-03-04

    We report x-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of the electronic structure in the normal state of metallic YFe2Ge2. The data reveal evidence for large fluctuating spin moments on the Fe sites, as indicated by exchange multiplets appearing in the Fe 3s core-level photoemission spectra, even though the compound does not show magnetic order. The magnitude of the multiplet splitting is comparable to that observed in the normal state of the Fe-pnictide superconductors. This shows a connection between YFe2Ge2 and the Fe-based superconductors even though it contains neither pnictogens nor chalcogens. Finally, the implication is that the chemical range of compounds showing at least one of the characteristic magnetic signatures of the Fe-based superconductors is broader than previously thought.

  3. Spectroscopic evidence for the coexistence of tetragonal and trigonal minima within the exited state adiabatic potential energy surfaces of hexachlorotellurate and -selenate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremers, C.; Degen, J.

    1998-11-01

    Coexistence of Jahn-Teller minima resulting from the coupling to different accepting modes within the adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) is not possible within the framework of linear vibronic coupling theory. For the lowest exited triplet state 3T1u of inorganic complexes with s2 electronic ground-state configuration, such a coexistence, due to quadratic coupling effects, is discussed. As a direct experimental evidence two vibronic progressions with different accepting modes in the emission spectra resulting from a single electronic state are observed in the emission spectra of the title compounds. The observation of vibronic finestructure in the emission spectra of [TeCl6]2- is reported for the first time.

  4. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the -Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CyTc3 From Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, D.Galonic; Barr, E.W.; Matthews, M.L.; Koch, G.M.; Yonce, J.R.; Walsh, C.T.; Bollinger, J.M., Jr.; Krebs, C.; Riggs-Gelasco, P.J.

    2009-06-01

    The complex of the mononuclear non-heme halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces, Fe(II), {alpha}-ketoglutarate, bromide, and the substrate l-2-aminobutyryl-S-CytC2 reacts with O{sub 2} to form a reaction intermediate. Variable-field, freeze-quench Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals this intermediate to be a mixture of two high-spin Fe(IV) complexes in an approximate 3.7/1 ratio. Freeze-quench Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides further insight into the structure of this intermediate. A short 1.62-{angstrom} interaction between the Fe and one of its ligands is attributed to the Fe(IV)-oxo group, and a 2.43-{angstrom} interaction is assigned to the Fe-Br interaction. A significantly longer Fe-Br separation (2.53 {angstrom}) is observed in the reactant complex, consistent with lower valency of the Fe in the reactant complex. This intermediate is the first example for a Br-Fe(IV)-oxo complex in a protein and provides evidence for a unifying mechanism for Fe(II) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and halogenases.

  5. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Galonic Fujimori,D.; Barr, E.; Matthews, M.; Koch, G.; Yonce, J.; Walsh, C.; Bollinger, J.; Krebs, C.; Riggs-Gelasco, P.

    2007-01-01

    The complex of the mononuclear non-heme halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces, Fe(II), {alpha}-ketoglutarate, bromide, and the substrate l-2-aminobutyryl-S-CytC2 reacts with O2 to form a reaction intermediate. Variable-field, freeze-quench Mossbauer spectroscopy reveals this intermediate to be a mixture of two high-spin Fe(IV) complexes in an approximate 3.7/1 ratio. Freeze-quench Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides further insight into the structure of this intermediate. A short 1.62-Angstroms interaction between the Fe and one of its ligands is attributed to the Fe(IV)-oxo group, and a 2.43-Angstroms interaction is assigned to the Fe-Br interaction. A significantly longer Fe-Br separation (2.53 Angstroms) is observed in the reactant complex, consistent with lower valency of the Fe in the reactant complex. This intermediate is the first example for a Br-Fe(IV)-oxo complex in a protein and provides evidence for a unifying mechanism for Fe(II) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and halogenases.

  6. Arsenic(III, V) adsorption on a goethite-based adsorbent in the presence of major co-existing ions: Modeling competitive adsorption consistent with spectroscopic and molecular evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Young, Thomas M.; Fukushi, Keisuke; Green, Peter G.; Darby, Jeannie L.

    2013-04-01

    Adsorption of the two oxyanions, arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), on a common goethite-based granular porous adsorbent is studied in the presence of major co-existing ions in groundwater (i.e., phosphate, silicic acid, sulfate, carbonate, magnesium, and calcium) and predicted using the extended triple layer model (ETLM), a dipole modified single-site triple layer surface complexation model consistent with spectroscopic and molecular evidence. Surface species of all ions were selected according to the previous ETLM studies and published experimental spectroscopic/theoretical molecular information. The adsorption equilibrium constants for all ions were determined using adsorption data obtained in single-solute systems. The adsorption equilibrium constants referenced to the site-occupancy standard state (indicated by Kθ) were compared with those for goethite in the literature if available. The values of these constants for the goethite-based adsorbent are found to be close to the values for goethite previously studied. These "constrained" adsorption equilibrium constants determined in single-solute systems were used in the ETLM to predict the competitive interactions of As(III, V) with the co-existing ions in binary-solute systems. The ETLM is capable of predicting As(III, V) adsorption in the presence of oxyanions (phosphate, silicic acid, sulfate, and carbonate). This study presents the first successful and systematic prediction of the competitive interactions of As(III, V) with these oxyanions using the ETLM. The ETLM prediction of surface (and aqueous) speciation also provides insights into the distinct adsorption behavior of As(III, V) in the presence of the oxyanions. Magnesium and calcium significantly enhanced As(V) adsorption at higher pH values, while they had little effect on As(III) adsorption. The enhanced adsorption of As(V), however, could not be predicted by the ETLM using the surface species proposed in previous ETLM studies. Further studies

  7. FT-IR Spectroscopic Evidence Of Phase Transition For NaA-ROH-Kerosine-H2O Microemulsion System Containing Nd3+ Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hua; Xu, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Nai; Wu, Jin-Guang; Xu, Guang-Xian

    1989-12-01

    In the previous investigation, the saponification of naphthenic acid extractant system has been proved to be a process of the formation of a microemulsion of 14/0 type, and its full extraction of rare earths is a process of destruction of the W/O microemulsion[1]. When NdCl3 is partially extracted with NaA (sodium naphthenate) secoctylalcohol-- kerosine-- water microemulsion system (ME), both the NdA3 and the NaA co-exist in the same organic phase. However,the formation mechanism of microemulsion containing neodymium has not been much studied. In this paper, 10 aliquots of fully saponificated extractants were equilibrated with various amounts of NdC13 solutions respectively, then ten organic phases with different extraction efficiencies of neodymium from 094 to 9094 were obtained. After extraction,the volume of neodymium containing organic phase increased by 5 to 4594, because of the transfer of water molecules. The appearance of these organic phase still remained clear and transparent. The average hydrodynamic radius of the drops were found to be 100-300 Angstrom by using light scattering techniques. The results give a direct evidence of the microemulsion formation in the organic phase. Their FT-IR spectra were measured with CaFa liquid cells utilizing a Nicolet 7199B FT-IR spectrometer. The presence of various amounts of water in the organic phases was clearly detected from the relative intensity changes of 1644 cm-I, which is assigned to the bending mode of 1110 molecules. Fig.1 shows the change of water contents to the percent extraction of neodymium. Comparsion with the FT-IR spectra, it is seen that the 1560 cm-1 peak of the full saponificated extractant is attributed to the asym. stretching vibration of COO''' group, it shifted to 1536 for 100% extration of Nd ions, indicating the formation of neodymium naphthenate (NdA ) from ionic sodium naphthenate. The sym. strethching vibration of COO''' located at 1406 cm-1, it shifted to 1408 cm in 45% Nd extration

  8. Petrographic, Chemical and Spectroscopic Data on Thermally Metamorphosed Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Hiroi, T.; Wang, M.-S.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    2002-03-01

    First comprehensive description of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in carbonaceous chondrites. Petrographic evidence has been checked against labile trace element temperatures. Spectroscopic data reveals the level of dehydration and possible relationship to primitive asteroids.

  9. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

  10. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.

    1998-11-17

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

  11. Spectroscopic evidence for the formation of singlet molecular oxygen (/sup 1/. delta. /sub g/O/sub 2/) upon irradiation of a solvent-oxygen (/sup 3/Sigma/sub g//sup -/O/sub 2/) cooperative absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Scurlock, R.D.; Ogilby, P.R.

    1988-01-20

    It is well-known that the presence of molecular oxygen (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/O/sub 2/) in a variety of organic solvents causes an often substantial red shift in the solvent absorption spectrum. This extra, broad absorption feature is reversibly removed by purging the solvent with nitrogen gas. Mulliken and Tsubomura assigned the oxygen-dependent absorption band to a transition from a ground state solvent-oxygen complex to a solvent-oxygen charge transfer (CT) state (sol/sup .+/O/sub 2//sup .-/). In addition to the broad Mulliken CT band, there are, often in the same spectral region, distinct singlet-triplet transitions (T/sub 1/ reverse arrow S/sub 0/) which are enhanced by molecular oxygen (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/O/sub 2/). Since both of these solvent-oxygen cooperative transitions may result in the formation of reactive oxygenating species, singlet molecular oxygen (/sup 1/..delta../sub g/O/sub 2/) and/or the superoxide ion (O/sub 2//sup .-/), it follows that recent studies have focused on unsaturated hydrocarbon oxygenation subsequent to the irradiation of the oxygen-induced absorption bands in both the solution phase and cryogenic (10 K) glasses. In these particular experiments, oxygenated products characteristic of both /sup 1/..delta../sub g/O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2//sub .-/ were obtained, although the systems studied appeared to involve the participation of one intermediate at the exclusion of the other. In this communication, the authors provide, for the first time, direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of /sup 1/..delta../sub g/O/sub 2/ following a solvent-oxygen (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/O/sub 2/) cooperative absorption. They have observed, in a time-resolved experiment, a near-IR luminescence subsequent to laser excitation of the oxygen-induced absorption bands of mesitylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, and benzene at 355 nm and 1,4-dioxane at 266 nm. They suggest that this signal is due to /sup 1/..delta../sub g/O/sub 2

  12. MAMA Spectroscopic Throughputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This activity sets new baseline post-SM4 sensitivity/throughput measurements for all the STIS/MAMA spectroscopic modes, and establishes if there changes with respect to perfomance prior to the LVPS failure. It also checks the NUV focus of STIS and its dependence on wavelength.

  13. Spectroscopic Low Coherence Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Aalders, Maurice C.; Hermann, Boris; Drexler, Wolfgang; Faber, Dirk J.

    Low-coherence interferometry (LCI) allows high-resolution volumetric imaging of tissue morphology and provides localized optical properties that can be related to the physiological status of tissue. This chapter discusses the combination of spatial and spectroscopic information by means of spectroscopic OCT (sOCT) and low-coherence spectroscopy (LCS). We describe the theory behind these modalities for the assessment of spatially resolved optical absorption and (back)scattering coefficient spectra. These spectra can be used for the highly localized quantification of chromophore concentrations and assessment of tissue organization on (sub)cellular scales. This leads to a wealth of potential clinical applications, ranging from neonatology for the determination of billibrubin concentrations, to oncology for the optical assessment of the aggressiveness of a cancerous lesion.

  14. Spectroscopic Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Historically, spectroscopic binary stars were binary systems whose nature was discovered by the changing DOPPLER EFFECT or shift of the spectral lines of one or both of the component stars. The observed Doppler shift is a combination of that produced by the constant RADIAL VELOCITY (i.e. line-of-sight velocity) of the center of mass of the whole system, and the variable shift resulting from the o...

  15. Spectroscopically Unlocking Exoplanet Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopy plays a critical role in a number of areas of exoplanet research. The first exoplanets were detected by precisely measuring Doppler shifts in high resolution (R ~ 100,000) stellar spectra, a technique that has become known as the Radial Velocity (RV) method. The RV method provides critical constraints on exoplanet masses, but is currently limited to some degree by robust line shape predictions. Beyond the RV method, spectroscopy plays a critical role in the characterization of exoplanets beyond their mass and radius. The Hubble Space Telescope has spectroscopically observed the atmospheres of exoplanets that transit their host stars as seen from Earth giving us key insights into atmospheric abundances of key atomic and molecular species as well as cloud optical properties. Similar spectroscopic characterization of exoplanet atmospheres will be carried out at higher resolution (R ~ 100-3000) and with broader wavelength coverage with the James Webb Space Telescope. Future missions such as WFIRST that seek to the pave the way toward the detection and characterization of potentially habitable planets will have the capability of directly measuring the spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and potentially surfaces. Our ability to plan for and interpret spectra from exoplanets relies heavily on the fidelity of the spectroscopic databases available and would greatly benefit from further laboratory and theoretical work aimed at optical properties of atomic, molecular, and cloud/haze species in the pressure and temperature regimes relevant to exoplanet atmospheres.

  16. Spectroscopic survey of LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongheng

    2014-07-01

    LAMOST is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope. LAMOST breaks through the bottleneck of the large scale spectroscopic survey observation with both large aperture (effective aperture of 3.6 - 4.9m) and wide field of view (5 degrees). It is an innovative active reflecting Schmidt configuration achieved by changing mirror surface continuously to achieve a series different reflecting Schmidt system in different moments. By using the parallel controllable fiber positioning technique, the focal surface of 1.75 meters in diameter accommodates 4000 optical fibers. Also, LAMOST has 16 spectrographs with 32 CCD cameras. LAMOST is the telescope of the highest spectrum acquiring rate. As a national large scientific project, LAMOST project was proposed formally in 1996. The construction was started in 2001 and completed in 2008. After commission period, LAMOST pilot survey was started in October 2011 and spectroscopic survey began in September 2012. From October 2011 to June 2013, LAMOST has obtained more than 2 million spectra of celestial objects. There are 1.7 million spectra of stars, in which the stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, metalicitiy and radial velocity) of more than 1 million stars was obtained. In the first period of spectroscopic survey of LAMOST, 5 million of stellar spectra will be obtained and will make substantial contribution to the study of the stellar astrophysics and the structure of the Galaxy, such as the spheroid substructure of the Galaxy, the galactic gravitational potential and the distribution of the dark matter in the Galaxy, the extremely metal poor stars and hypervelocity stars, the 3D extinction in the Galaxy, the structure of thin and thick disks of the Galaxy, and so on.

  17. Spectroscopic survey of LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongheng

    2015-08-01

    LAMOST is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope. LAMOST breaks through the bottleneck of the large scale spectroscopic survey observation with both large aperture (effective aperture of 3.6 - 4.9m) and wide field of view (5 degrees). It is an innovative active reflecting Schmidt configuration achieved by changing mirror surface continuously to achieve a series different reflecting Schmidt system in different moments. By using the parallel controllable fiber positioning technique, the focal surface of 1.75 meters in diameter accommodates 4000 optical fibers. Also, LAMOST has 16 spectrographs with 32 CCD cameras. LAMOST is the telescope of the highest spectrum acquiring rate.In the spectroscopic survey of LAMOST from October 2011 to June 2014, LAMOST has obtained more than 4.13 million spectra of celestial objects. There are 3.27 million spectra of stars, in which the stellar parameters of 2.16 million stars were obtained.In the five-year regular survey upto 2017, LAMOST will obtaine 5 million stellar spectra, which would make substantial contribution to the study of the stellar astrophysics and the structure of the Galaxy, such as the spheroid substructure of the Galaxy, the galactic gravitational potential and the distribution of the dark matter in the Galaxy, the extremely metal poor stars and hypervelocity stars, the 3D extinction in the Galaxy, the structure of thin and thick disks of the Galaxy, and so on.

  18. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging

  19. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Steven G.; Liang, Xing; Kennedy, Brendan F.; John, Renu; Sampson, David D.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We present an optical technique to image the frequency-dependent complex mechanical response of a viscoelastic sample. Three-dimensional hyperspectral data, comprising two-dimensional B-mode images and a third dimension corresponding to vibration frequency, were acquired from samples undergoing external mechanical excitation in the audio-frequency range. We describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal when vibration is applied to a sample and detail the processing and acquisition techniques used to extract the local complex mechanical response from three-dimensional data that, due to a wide range of vibration frequencies, possess a wide range of sample velocities. We demonstrate frequency-dependent contrast of the displacement amplitude and phase of a silicone phantom containing inclusions of higher stiffness. Measurements of an ex vivo tumor margin demonstrate distinct spectra between adipose and tumor regions, and images of displacement amplitude and phase demonstrated spatially-resolved contrast. Contrast was also observed in displacement amplitude and phase images of a rat muscle sample. These results represent the first demonstration of mechanical spectroscopy based on B-mode OCT imaging. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography (S-OCE) provides a high-resolution imaging capability for the detection of tissue pathologies that are characterized by a frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. PMID:21164898

  20. Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

    2000-11-01

    The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

  1. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Adie, Steven G; Liang, Xing; Kennedy, Brendan F; John, Renu; Sampson, David D; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    We present an optical technique to image the frequency-dependent complex mechanical response of a viscoelastic sample. Three-dimensional hyperspectral data, comprising two-dimensional B-mode images and a third dimension corresponding to vibration frequency, were acquired from samples undergoing external mechanical excitation in the audio-frequency range. We describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal when vibration is applied to a sample and detail the processing and acquisition techniques used to extract the local complex mechanical response from three-dimensional data that, due to a wide range of vibration frequencies, possess a wide range of sample velocities. We demonstrate frequency-dependent contrast of the displacement amplitude and phase of a silicone phantom containing inclusions of higher stiffness. Measurements of an ex vivo tumor margin demonstrate distinct spectra between adipose and tumor regions, and images of displacement amplitude and phase demonstrated spatially-resolved contrast. Contrast was also observed in displacement amplitude and phase images of a rat muscle sample. These results represent the first demonstration of mechanical spectroscopy based on B-mode OCT imaging. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography (S-OCE) provides a high-resolution imaging capability for the detection of tissue pathologies that are characterized by a frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. PMID:21164898

  2. Spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, S. T.; Hall, A.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, H.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Pietro, N.

    2014-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of four supernovae at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and the R300V grating (3500-8000 Ang; ~6 Ang resolution).

  3. Infrared Solar Spectroscopic Measurements of Free Tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Seasonal Variations and Evidence for Enhanced Emissions from the Southeast Asian Tropical Fires of 1997-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Stephen, T. M.; Pougatchev, N. S.; Fishman, J.; David, S. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Novelli, P. C.; Jones, N. B.

    1999-01-01

    High spectral resolution (0.003 per cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5N, 155.6W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4-16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first 2 years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4-16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32'N and 45'S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4-16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997- 1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.

  4. Stabilization of the second oxyanion intermediate by 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A synthase of the menaquinone pathway: spectroscopic evidence of the involvement of a conserved aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjiao; Jiang, Ming; Sun, Yueru; Guo, Zu-Feng; Guo, Zhihong

    2011-07-01

    1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A (DHNA-CoA) synthase, or MenB, catalyzes an intramolecular Claisen condensation involving two oxyanion intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway of menaquinone, an essential respiration electron transporter in many microorganisms. Here we report the finding that the DHNA-CoA product and its analogues bind and inhibit the synthase from Escherichia coli with significant ultraviolet--visible spectral changes, which are similar to the changes induced by deprotonation of the free inhibitors in a basic solution. Dissection of the structure--affinity relationships of the inhibitors identifies the hydroxyl groups at positions 1 (C1-OH) and 4 (C4-OH) of DHNA-CoA or their equivalents as the dominant and minor sites, respectively, for the enzyme--ligand interaction that polarizes or deprotonates the bound ligands to cause the observed spectral changes. In the meantime, spectroscopic studies with active site mutants indicate that C4-OH of the enzyme-bound DHNA-CoA interacts with conserved polar residues Arg-91, Tyr-97, and Tyr-258 likely through a hydrogen bonding network that also includes Ser-161. In addition, site-directed mutation of the conserved Asp-163 to alanine causes a complete loss of the ligand binding ability of the protein, suggesting that the Asp-163 side chain is most likely hydrogen-bonded to C1-OH of DHNA-CoA to provide the dominant polarizing effect. Moreover, this mutation also completely eliminates the enzyme activity, strongly supporting the possibility that the Asp-163 side chain provides a strong stabilizing hydrogen bond to the tetrahedral oxyanion, which takes a position similar to that of C1-OH of the enzyme-bound DHNA-CoA and is the second high-energy intermediate in the intracellular Claisen condensation reaction. Interestingly, both Arg-91 and Tyr-97 are located in a disordered loop forming part of the active site of all available DHNA-CoA synthase structures. Their involvement in the interaction with the small

  5. Infrared Solar Spectroscopic Measurements of Free Tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Seasonal Variations and Evidence for Enhanced Emissions from the Southeast Asian Fires of 1997-1998. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Stephen, T. M.; Pougatchev, N. S.; Fishman, J.; David, S. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Novelli, P. C.; Jones, N. B.; Connor, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    High spectral resolution (0.003/ cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5 deg N, 155.6 deg W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4 - 16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first two years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4 - 16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32 deg N and 45 deg S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4 - 16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during 3 the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997-1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.

  6. Spectroscopic observations of cool degenerate star candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintzen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations are reported for 23 Luyten Half-Second degenerate star candidates and for 13 Luyten-Palomar common proper-motion pairs containing possible degenerate star components. Twenty-five degenerate stars are identified, 20 of which lack previous spectroscopy. Most of these stars are cool - Luyten color class g or later. One star, LP 77-57, shows broad continuum depressions similar to those in LHS 1126, which Liebert and Dahn attributed to pressure-shifted C2. A second degenerate star, LHS 290, exhibits apparent strong Swan bands which are blueshifted about 75 A. Further observations, including polarimetry and photometry, are required to appraise the spectroscopic peculiarities of these stars. Finally, five cool, sharp-lined DA white dwarfs have been observed to detect lines of metals and to determine line strengths. None of these DAs show signs of Mg b or the G band, and four show no evidence of Ca II K. The attempt to detect Ca MI in the fifth star, G199-71, was inconclusive.

  7. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  8. Spectroscopic observations of HZ Herculis. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.; Grupsmith, G.; Mcmillan, R. S.; Vanden Bout, P. A.; Wootten, H. A.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results from an extensive series of spectroscopic observations of the HZ Her optical counterpart of the eclipsing, pulsating X-ray binary Her X-1. Spectrograms with a dispersion of 30 A/mm reveal a spectral type as late as F5 near minimum in the light curve with the G-band and metallic lines present. Narrow Fe lines show that HZ Her is not a rapid rotator. Low-dispersion (115 A/mm) spectra, obtained with 10-minute time resolution, reveal rapid (10-min) variations in the 4640 N III emission and in the 4471 He I absorbtion features. The H-beta absorption is variable in equivalent width, and shows evidence of being partially filled with emission.

  9. Spectroscopic study of sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanmae, Takeshi

    Optical emissions from sprites--large electric discharges in the mesosphere caused by intense lightning strokes--have been studied for decades. Studies have identified that sprite emissions are primarily composed of molecular band emissions of nitrogen and notably identified the near ultraviolet and blue emission from the N2+ First Negative system, which provided direct evidence of ionization in sprites. This implies that further evidence of the ionization may be provided by the visible and near infrared emission from the N2+ Meinel system, which is more accessible from ground-based platforms, though anticipated strong quenching in the mesosphere and below have made the presence of the emission somewhat controversial. To investigate the presence of the Meinel emission along the vertical extent of sprites, we made ground-based spectral observations in 2005. The observed spectra were mainly composed of the N2 First Positive system, and no or little indication of the Meinel bands were found. This study suggests that the quenching is indeed severe at sprite altitude, and it is difficult to study the ionization process in sprites via the Meinel emission. In addition, the data allowed us to investigate details of the First Positive emission from sprites. The observed First Positive spectra showed that the vibrational distribution of the upper state varies along the vertical extent of sprites, which is in agreement with previous reports, and furthermore this study indicates that the variation is associated with altitude, implying that collisional energy transfer processes play roles in exciting the First Positive emission, particularly at lower altitudes. Recent high-speed imaging observations have revealed the very dynamic nature of sprites: they develop within a few to 10 ms in forms of streamers and columnar glows. The underlying electron energies in these features have been inferred from their emissions in previous measurements, but they lacked either sufficient

  10. The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquinet-Husson, N.; Arie, E.; Ballard, J.; Barbe, A.; Bjoraker, G.; Bonnet, B.; Brown, L. R.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Champion, J. P.; Chedin, A.; Chursin, A.; Clerbaux, C.; Duxbury, G.; Flaud, J.-M.; Fourrie, N.; Fayt, A.; Graner, G.; Gamache, R.; Goldman, A.; Golovko, V.; Guelachvili, G.; Hartmann, J. M.; Hilico, J. C.; Hillman, J.; Lefevre, G.; Lellouch, E.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nemtchinov, V.; Newnham, D. A.; Nikitin, A.; Orphal, J.; Perrin, A.; Reuter, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Rosenmann, L.; Rothman, L. S.; Scott, N. A.; Selby, J.; Sinitsa, L. N.; Sirota, J. M.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, K. M.; Tyuterev, V. G.; Tipping, R. H.; Urban, S.; Varanasi, P.; Weber, M.

    1999-05-01

    The current version GEISA-97 of the computer-accessible database system GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmospheriques: Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information) is described. This catalogue contains 1,346,266 entries. These are the spectroscopic parameters required to describe adequately the individual spectral lines belonging to 42 molecules (96 isotopic species) and located between 0 and 22656 cm-1. The featured molecules are of interest in studies of the terrestrial as well as the other planetary atmospheres, especially those of the giant planets. GEISA-97 contains also a catalog of absorption cross-sections of molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons which exhibit unresolvable spectra. The modifications and improvements made to the earlier edition (GEISA-92) and the data management software are described.

  11. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; Vergo, Norma; Walter, Louis

    1987-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic research efforts are discussed. The development of a new instrumentation to permit advanced measurements in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, the development of a special library of well-characterized mineral and rock specimens for interpretation of remote sensing data, and cooperative measurements of the spectral signatures of analogues of materials that may be present on the surfaces of asteroids, planets or their Moons are discussed.

  12. Spectroscopic ellipsometry on lamellar gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antos, R.; Ohlidal, I.; Mistrik, J.; Murakami, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Pistora, J.; Horie, M.; Visnovsky, S.

    2005-05-01

    Deep lamellar diffraction gratings fabricated by etching a transparent quartz plate are studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to calculate the optical response of the gratings. Three parameters of the rectangular profile are determined by utilizing the least-square method. Detailed investigation of the spectral dependences demonstrates the uniqueness of the solution. Observing the spectral dependences of Wood anomalies suggests that even complicated profiles can be fitted with high authenticity.

  13. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  14. A photometrically and spectroscopically confirmed population of passive spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Dolley, Tim; Crossett, Jacob P.; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2016-10-01

    We have identified a population of passive spiral galaxies from photometry and integral field spectroscopy. We selected z < 0.035 spiral galaxies that have WISE colours consistent with little mid-infrared emission from warm dust. Matched aperture photometry of 51 spiral galaxies in ultraviolet, optical and mid-infrared show these galaxies have colours consistent with passive galaxies. Six galaxies form a spectroscopic pilot study and were observed using the Wide-Field Spectrograph to check for signs of nebular emission from star formation. We see no evidence of substantial nebular emission found in previous red spiral samples. These six galaxies possess absorption-line spectra with 4000 Å breaks consistent with an average luminosity-weighted age of 2.3 Gyr. Our photometric and integral field spectroscopic observations confirm the existence of a population of local passive spiral galaxies, implying that transformation into early-type morphologies is not required for the quenching of star formation.

  15. Spectroscopic and Visual Evidence of Perchlorate Deliquescence Under Martian Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakakos, George; Whiteway, James

    2015-04-01

    One of the key findings during the Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory landed Mars missions has been the detection of perchlorate, a highly deliquescent salt. Perchlorates are of great interest on Mars due to their high affinity for water vapour as well as their ability to greatly depress the freezing point of water when in solution. This has intriguing biological implications as resulting brines could potentially provide a habitable environment for living organisms. Additionally, it has been speculated that these salts may play a significant role in influencing the hydrological cycle on Mars. In order to experimentally study water exchange processes between the surface and atmosphere on Mars and assess the feasibility of a future landed detection tool, a stand-off Raman spectroscopy instrument and environmental simulation chamber have been developed at York University. A sample of magnesium perchlorate consistent with the size of patches found at the Phoenix site has been subjected to the low water vapour pressure and temperatures found at polar Martian latitudes. Results indicate that at a water vapour pressure of ~2 Pa (-54°C frost point temperature), Raman spectroscopy is able to detect the onset of brine formation and provide a relative estimate of the quantity of water taken up by the sample until complete deliquescence is reached. Significant uptake of water from the atmosphere is observed to occur prior to the frost point temperature being reached and on time scales relevant to the Martian diurnal cycle. This result suggests that perchlorates in the Martian regolith can contribute to the hydrological cycle, pre-emptively reducing the water vapour pressure before saturation is reached.

  16. Spectroscopic Evidence of Formation of Small Polarons in Doped Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Yutaka; Machida, Akihiko; Nakamura, Arao

    1998-03-01

    Temperature dependence of absorption spectra for thin films of doped manganites R_0.6Sr_0.4MnO_3, where R is rare-earth atom, has been investigated systematically changing averaged ionic radius < rA > of perovskite A-site. We have observed a specific absorption band at ~1.5eV due to optical excitations from small polarons (SP)(Machida et al.), submitted.. Spectral weight of the SP band increases with decreasing temperature and eventually disappears at the insulator-metal (IM) transition, indicating that SP in the paramagnetic state (T >= T_C) changes into bare electrons (or large polarons) in the ferromagnetic state due to the enhanced one-electron bandwidth W. We further derived important physical quantities, i.e., W, on-site exchange interaction J and binding energy Ep of SP, and discuss material dependence of stability of SP. This work was supported by a Grant-In-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sport and Culture and from PRESTO, Japan Scienece and Technology Corporation (JST), Japan.

  17. Spectroscopic evidence for interstellar ices in comet Hyakutake.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M; Bockelee-Morvan, D; Lis, D C; Matthews, H E; Biver, N; Crovisier, J; Davies, J K; Dent, W R; Gautier, D; Godfrey, P D; Keene, J; Lovell, A J; Owen, T C; Phillips, T G; Rauer, H; Schloerb, F P; Senay, M; Young, K

    1996-10-01

    Volatile compounds in comets are the most pristine materials surviving from the time of formation of the Solar System, and thus potentially provide information about conditions that prevailed in the primitive solar nebula. Moreover, comets may have supplied a substantial fraction of the volatiles on the terrestrial planets, perhaps including organic compounds that played a role in the origin of life on Earth. Here we report the detection of hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) in comet Hyakutake. The abundance of HNC relative to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is very similar to that observed in quiescent interstellar molecular clouds, and quite different from the equilibrium ratio expected in the outermost solar nebula, where comets are thought to form. Such a departure from equilibrium has long been considered a hallmark of gas-phase chemical processing in the interstellar medium, suggesting that interstellar gases have been incorporated into the comet's nucleus, perhaps as ices frozen onto interstellar grains. If this interpretation is correct, our results should provide constraints on the temperature of the solar nebula, and the subsequent chemical processes that occurred in the region where comets formed.

  18. Spectroscopic signature for ferroelectric ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Marek J.; Gług, Maciej; Boczar, Marek; Boda, Łukasz

    2014-09-01

    Various forms of ice exist within our galaxy. Particularly intriguing type of ice - ‘ferroelectric ice' was discovered experimentally and is stable in temperatures below 72 K. This form of ice can generate enormous electric fields and can play an important role in planetary formation. In this letter we present Car-Parrinello simulation of infrared spectra of ferroelectric ice and compare them with spectra of hexagonal ice. Librational region of the spectra can be treated as spectroscopic signature of ice XI and can be of help to identify ferroelectric ice in the Universe.

  19. Spectroscopic Survey of Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, J.

    This program will obtain far-UV spectra of cool stars that span a broad range of spectral type and luminosity class. It is our intention to obtain these spectra early in the FUSE program and to provide the spectra quickly to the user community in order to guide potential guest investigators in designing their observing programs. The specific science objectives include: (1) studying transition region dynamics (winds and downflows), (2) modeling the thermal structure of transition regions, (3) measuring electron densities, (4) search for low temperature coronae, (5) studying molecular excitation and fluorescence processes, and (6) inferring how the transition regions of spectroscopic binary systems differ from those of single stars.

  20. The far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, A.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific objectives and performance characteristics of a new astronomy mission referred to as the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer, or FUSE are being defined by a team involving people experienced instrumental requirements that best meet the scientific needs. The team is intended to have a lifetime of about one year, ending with the submission of a report to NASA which could be used as the basis for an engineering design study. The principal objective of FUSE is to obtain astronomical spectra at wavelengths shorter than is possible with the Space Telescope.

  1. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, R. J.; Hounsell, R. A.; Downing, S.; Pan, Y.-C.; Scolnic, D.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with the Goodman spectrograph (wavelength range 3100 - 7100) on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope.

  2. Spectroscopic Engineering in the Submillimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Frank C.

    2013-06-01

    The field of high-resolution spectroscopy, as represented by the community that supports this meeting, has continued to grow and prosper, in no small part because the field has continued to evolve. Much of this evolution could fall under the rubric, Spectroscopic Engineering. This is especially true in the submillimeter where spectroscopists have taken on much broader roles in fields that have grown out of submillimeter spectroscopy. With specific examples from spectroscopic remote and point sensing, astronomy and atmospheric science, imaging, and process control, opportunities and paths forward for will be considered. Emphasis will be placed on the underlying physics that drives the optimization of applications. Since this is Columbus, at least one complex Hamiltonian will be shown. We will also discuss: What are the opportunities for young people entering the field and how might they be optimized? Is spectroscopy as a tool, less noble than spectroscopy as a science? Is what we do really physics (or even chemistry)? Where does what we do fit into the structure of academia, government, and industry?

  3. Spectroscopic imaging in electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J; Colliex, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, multiple signals can be simultaneously collected, including the transmitted and scattered electron signals (bright field and annular dark field or Z-contrast images), along with spectroscopic signals such as inelastically scattered electrons and emitted photons. In the last few years, the successful development of aberration correctors for the electron microscope has transformed the field of electron microscopy, opening up new possibilities for correlating structure to functionality. Aberration correction not only allows for enhanced structural resolution with incident probes into the sub-angstrom range, but can also provide greater probe currents to facilitate mapping of intrinsically weak spectroscopic signals at the nanoscale or even the atomic level. In this issue of MRS Bulletin, we illustrate the power of the new generation of electron microscopes with a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. We show the mapping of elemental distributions at atomic resolution and also the mapping of electronic and optical properties at unprecedented spatial resolution, with applications ranging from graphene to plasmonic nanostructures, and oxide interfaces to biology.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURES RELATED TO A SUNQUAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S. A.; Harra, L. K.; Green, L. M.; Zharkov, S.

    2015-10-10

    The presence of flare-related acoustic emission (sunquakes (SQs)) in some flares, and only in specific locations within the flaring environment, represents a severe challenge to our current understanding of flare energy transport processes. In an attempt to contribute to understanding the origins of SQs we present a comparison of new spectral observations from Hinode’s EUV imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of the chromosphere, transition region, and corona above an SQ, and compare them to the spectra observed in a part of the flaring region with no acoustic signature. Evidence for the SQ is determined using both time–distance and acoustic holography methods, and we find that unlike many previous SQ detections, the signal is rather dispersed, but that the time–distance and 6 and 7 mHz sources converge at the same spatial location. We also see some evidence for different evolution at different frequencies, with an earlier peak at 7 mHz than at 6 mHz. Using EIS and IRIS spectroscopic measurements we find that in this location, at the time of the 7 mHz peak the spectral emission is significantly more intense, shows larger velocity shifts and substantially broader profiles than in the location with no SQ, and there is a good correlation between blueshifted, hot coronal, hard X-ray (HXR), and redshifted chromospheric emission, consistent with the idea of a strong downward motion driven by rapid heating by nonthermal electrons and the formation of chromospheric shocks. Exploiting the diagnostic potential of the Mg ii triplet lines, we also find evidence for a single large temperature increase deep in the atmosphere, which is consistent with this scenario. The time of the 6 mHz and time–distance peak signal coincides with a secondary peak in the energy release process, but in this case we find no evidence of HXR emission in the quake location, instead finding very broad spectral lines, strongly shifted to the red

  5. Spectroscopic Signatures Related to a Sunquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S. A.; Harra, L. K.; Zharkov, S.; Green, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    The presence of flare-related acoustic emission (sunquakes (SQs)) in some flares, and only in specific locations within the flaring environment, represents a severe challenge to our current understanding of flare energy transport processes. In an attempt to contribute to understanding the origins of SQs we present a comparison of new spectral observations from Hinode’s EUV imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of the chromosphere, transition region, and corona above an SQ, and compare them to the spectra observed in a part of the flaring region with no acoustic signature. Evidence for the SQ is determined using both time-distance and acoustic holography methods, and we find that unlike many previous SQ detections, the signal is rather dispersed, but that the time-distance and 6 and 7 mHz sources converge at the same spatial location. We also see some evidence for different evolution at different frequencies, with an earlier peak at 7 mHz than at 6 mHz. Using EIS and IRIS spectroscopic measurements we find that in this location, at the time of the 7 mHz peak the spectral emission is significantly more intense, shows larger velocity shifts and substantially broader profiles than in the location with no SQ, and there is a good correlation between blueshifted, hot coronal, hard X-ray (HXR), and redshifted chromospheric emission, consistent with the idea of a strong downward motion driven by rapid heating by nonthermal electrons and the formation of chromospheric shocks. Exploiting the diagnostic potential of the Mg ii triplet lines, we also find evidence for a single large temperature increase deep in the atmosphere, which is consistent with this scenario. The time of the 6 mHz and time-distance peak signal coincides with a secondary peak in the energy release process, but in this case we find no evidence of HXR emission in the quake location, instead finding very broad spectral lines, strongly shifted to the red, indicating

  6. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, Molly S.; Tumlinson, Jason; Fox, Andrew; Aloisi, Alessandra; Ayres, Thomas R.; Danforth, Charles; Fleming, Scott W.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Keeney, Brian A.; Oliveira, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    With no future space ultraviolet instruments currently planned, the data from the UV spectrographs aboard the Hubble Space Telescope have a legacy value beyond their initial science goals. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive will provide to the community new science-grade combined spectra for all publicly available data obtained by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These data will be packaged into "smart archives" according to target type and scientific themes to facilitate the construction of archival samples for common science uses. A new "quick look" capability will make the data easy for users to quickly access, assess the quality of, and download for archival science starting in Cycle 24, with the first generation of these products for the FUV modes of COS available online via MAST in early 2016.

  7. Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2004-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

  8. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  9. SDSS spectroscopic survey of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Schlegel, D.; Uomoto, A.; Bond, N.; Beers, T.; Allende Prieto, C.; Wilhelm, R.; Lee, Y.Sun; Sivarani, T.; Juric, M.; Lupton, R.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LBL, Berkeley /Johns Hopkins U. /Princeton U. /Michigan State U. /Texas U. /Texas Tech. /UC, Santa Cruz /Fermilab /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Drexel U.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. They discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity from SDSS spectra, describe correlations between kinematics and metallicity, and study their variation as a function of the position in the Galaxy. They show that stellar parameter estimates by Beers et al. show a good correlation with the position of a star in the g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram, thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for photometric parameter estimation methods. Using Beers et al. parameters, they find that the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way stars at a few kpc from the galactic plane is bimodal with a local minimum at [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] {approx} -1.3. The median metallicity for the low-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] < =1.3 subsample is nearly independent of Galactic cylindrical coordinates R and z, while it decreases with z for the high-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] > -1.3 sample. they also find that the low-metallicity sample has {approx} 2.5 times larger velocity dispersion and that it does not rotate (at the {approx} 10 km/s level), while the rotational velocity of the high-metallicity sample decreases smoothly with the height above the galactic plane.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of fluoroquinolones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, U.; Szeghalmi, A.; Schmitt, M.; Kiefer, W.; Popp, J.; Holzgrabe, U.

    2005-05-01

    Quinolones are important gyrase inhibitors. Even though they are used as active agents in many antibiotics, the detailed mechanism of action on a molecular level is so far not known. It is of greatest interest to shed light on this drug-target interaction to provide useful information in the fight against growing resistances and obtain new insights for the development of new powerful drugs. To reach this goal, on a first step it is essential to understand the structural characteristics of the drugs and the effects that are caused by the environment in detail. In this work we report on Raman spectroscopical investigations of a variety of gyrase inhibitors (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sarafloxacin and moxifloxacin) by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with various excitation wavelengths, both in the off-resonance region (532, 633, 830 and 1064 nm) and in the resonance region (resonance Raman spectroscopy at 244, 257 and 275 nm). Furthermore DFT calculations were performed to assign the vibrational modes, as well as for an identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. The effect of small changes in the drug environment was studied by adding successively small amounts of water until physiological low concentrations of the drugs in aqueous solution were obtained. At these low concentrations resonance Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful and sensitive technique. Supplementary information was obtained from IR and UV/vis spectroscopy.

  11. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounsell, R. A.; Miller, J. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR 4-m telescope. Targets were supplied by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST).

  12. Spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-15bp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.; Bode, M. F.; Copperwheat, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report spectroscopic observations of the optical transient ASASSN-15bp (ATel #6981) taken on 2015 January 25.31 UT using the FRODOSpec spectrograph (Barnsley et al. 2012) on the Liverpool Telescope (Steele et al. 2004).

  13. Asiago spectroscopic classification of SN 2016gdt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochner, P.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Pastorello, A.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Terreran, G.

    2016-09-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of SN2016gdt in IC1407. The target was supplied by the Italian Supernovae Search Project (ISSP).

  14. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  15. An archival search for UV spectroscopic variability of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Louis, N.; Willis, Alan J.; Smith, L. J.

    1988-06-01

    In order to assess the ubiquity of stellar wind variability in Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, spectroscopic variability for all galactic WR stars observed more than once at high resolution with IUE, excluding the well known spectroscopic binaries, was studied. This involved dearchiving, reducing on Starlink, and examining every HIRES WR image secured to date, embracing 15 stars and 111 spectra. A survey of the SWP spectra available is presented. Evidence of significant P Cygni profile variability is found in WR 22 (=HD 92740) and WR 137 (=HD 192641), but not in the other stars in the sample.

  16. A new look at the space motions of the white dwarf spectroscopic subgroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Fritz, Matthew L.; Sion, Edward M.

    The authors have computed the vector components of the space motions, u, v, w, and the total motion, V, with the assumption of a null radial velocity vector, for over 600 degenerate stars broken down by spectroscopic subgroup as follows: 420 DA stars, 53 DB stars, 26 DQ stars, 88 DC stars, 24 DZ stars, and 13 magnetics (DH, DX, DAH, DAP, etc,). With the exception of the magnetic degenerates and carbon band (DQ) degenerates, they find little evidence to suggest kinematical differences among the spectroscopic subgroups. Implications are briefly discussed.

  17. Spectroscopic indicators of life on other planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, James F.

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have now identified over 300 extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars. Most of these planets have been found by using ground-based instruments to measure Doppler shifts in the spectrum of the parent star. For stars similar to our Sun, this method is unable to find planets as small as Earth. Within the next two (three?) decades, however, NASA hopes to launch space-based telescopes that will be able to search directly for extrasolar planets. NASA's planned Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions, will look for Earth-like planets around nearby stars and, if they exist, provide spectroscopic information on their atmospheres. TPF-C will be a coronagraph that operates in the visible/near-IR. A variant of this idea, called TPF-O, would replace the internal coronagraph with a free-flying occulting disk. TPF-I is envisioned as a free-flying interferometer operating in the thermal-IR. On a planet like modern Earth, TPF-C or TPF--O should be able to see absorption bands of O2, H2O, and possibly O3. TPF-I would be able to see CO2, H2O, and O3. Both O2 and O3 are considered to be good indicators of life for planets orbiting within the liquid water habitable zone of their parent star. Even better evidence for life would be the simultaneous observation of O2 (or O3) and a reduced gas such as CH4 or N2O. That may not be possible with a first-generation TPF instrument but should ultimately be possible in the more distant future.

  18. Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 108 Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data (Web, free access)   This handbook provides a selection of the most important and frequently used atomic spectroscopic data. The compilation includes data for the neutral and singly-ionized atoms of all elements hydrogen through einsteinium (Z = 1-99). The wavelengths, intensities, and spectrum assignments are given for each element, and the data for the approximately 12,000 lines of all elements are also collected into a single table.

  19. Spectroscopic Observations of Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, C. J.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we describe the spectroscopic and infrared properties of a sample of 25 merging galaxy pairs, selected from the catalog of Arp & Madore, and we compare them with those observed in a similar sample of interacting galaxies (Donzelli & Pastoriza). It is noted that mergers as well as interacting systems comprise a wide range of spectral types, going from those corresponding to well-evolved stellar populations (older than 200 Myr) to those that show clear signatures of H II regions with stellar populations younger than 8 Myr. However, merger galaxies show on average more excited spectra than interacting pairs, which could be attributed to lower gas metallicity. From the emission lines we also found that merging systems show on average higher (about a factor of 2) star formation rates than interacting galaxies. Classical diagnostic diagrams show that only three of 50 of the galaxies (6%) present some form of nuclear activity: two Seyfert galaxies and one LINER. However, through a detailed analysis of the pure emission-line spectra, we conclude that this fraction may raise up to 23% of the mergers if we consider that some galaxies host a low-luminosity active nucleus surrounded by strong star-forming regions. This latter assumption is also supported by the infrared colors of the galaxies. Regarding to the total infrared luminosities, the merging galaxies show on average an IR luminosity, log(Lir)=10.7, lower than that of interacting systems, log(Lir)=10.9. We find that only three mergers of the sample (12%) can be classified as luminous infrared galaxies, while this fraction increases to 24% in the interacting sample. Based on observations made at CASLEO. Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  20. Radial velocity curve of the spectroscopic binary HD 25639 (ADS 2984A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorda, S. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of the reduction of our observations for the spectroscopic binary ADS 2984A (B0 II-B0 III), which along with its visual component ADS 2984B (SZ Cam) are the brightest members of the open star cluster NGC 1502. The spectroscopic data were obtained with a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph ( R = 15 000) at the 1.2-m telescope of the Astronomical Observatory of the Ural Federal University. The period of ADS 2984A ( P orb = 57.24 ± 0.05 days) has been found for the first time. This spectroscopic binary is shown to belong to the SB1 type. We have determined the parameters of the radial velocity curve for the visible spectroscopic component, V 0 = -5.5 ± 1.2 km s-1 and K = 41.5 ± 1.7 km s-1. The lower mass limit for the invisible spectroscopic component has been estimated to be 5M_⊙. Evidence for the presence of a stellar wind outflowing from the surface of this blue giant is presented.

  1. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  2. Optical Spectroscopic Monitoring of Parachute Yarn Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, D.R.; Garcia, M.J.; Simpson, R.L.; Behr, V.L.; Whinery, L.D.; Peng, L.W.

    1999-04-01

    Optical spectroscopic techniques were evaluated as nondestructive monitors of the aging of parachutes in nuclear weapons. We analyzed thermally aged samples of nylon and Kevlar webbing by photoluminescence spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy. Infrared analysis was also performed to help understand the degradation mechanisms of the polymer materials in the webbing. The photoluminescence and reflection spectra were analyzed by chemometric data treatment techniques to see if aged-induced changes in the spectra correlated to changes in measured tensile strength. A correlation was found between the shapes of the photoluminescent bands and the measured tensile strengths. Photoluminescent spectra can be used to predict the tensile strengths of nylon and Kevlar webbing with sufficient accuracy to categorize the webbing sample as above rated tensile strength, marginal or below rated tensile strength. The instrumentation required to perform the optical spectroscopic measurement can be made rugged, compact and portable. Thus, optical spectroscopic techniques offer a means for nondestructive field monitoring of parachutes in the enduring stockpile/

  3. The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of Galactic massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Langer, N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.

    2014-10-01

    The distribution of stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram narrates their evolutionary history and directly assesses their properties. Placing stars in this diagram however requires the knowledge of their distances and interstellar extinctions, which are often poorly known for Galactic stars. The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (sHRD) tells similar evolutionary tales, but is independent of distance and extinction measurements. Based on spectroscopically derived effective temperatures and gravities of almost 600 stars, we derive for the first time the observational distribution of Galactic massive stars in the sHRD. While biases and statistical limitations in the data prevent detailed quantitative conclusions at this time, we see several clear qualitative trends. By comparing the observational sHRD with different state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary predictions, we conclude that convective core overshooting may be mass-dependent and, at high mass (≳15 M⊙), stronger than previously thought. Furthermore, we find evidence for an empirical upper limit in the sHRD for stars with Teff between 10 000 and 32 000 K and, a strikingly large number of objects below this line. This over-density may be due to inflation expanding envelopes in massive main-sequence stars near the Eddington limit. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Measurements of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federman, S. R.; Sheffer, Yaron; Lambert, David L.; Smith, V. V.

    2005-02-01

    The source of fluorine is not well understood, although core-collapse supernovae, Wolf-Rayet stars, and asymptotic giant branch stars have been suggested. A search for evidence of the ν-process during Type II supernovae is presented. Absorption from interstellar F I is seen in spectra of HD 208440 and HD 209339A acquired with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. In order to extract the column density for F I from the line at 954 Å, absorption from H2 has to be modeled and then removed. Our analysis indicates that for H2 column densities less than about 3×1020 cm-2, the amount of F I can be determined from λ954. For these two sight lines, there is no clear indication for enhanced F abundances resulting from the ν-process in a region shaped by past supernovae. Based on observations made with the NASA/CNES/CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), which is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS 5-32985.

  5. Spectroscopic characterizations of organic/inorganic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govani, Jayesh R.

    2009-12-01

    contribution, too. The photoluminescence spectra of the crystal with inhibitor indicate the presence of chlorophyll, and hence, confirm the presence of Mg. This study provides evidence of Mg- and Zn-related inhibition of urinary calculi formation with the addition of RAL herbal extract, contributing, from the spectroscopic point of view, to an intricate subject. Our present investigation might serve as an important source of information on this tantalizing and multifaceted problem, which is not yet completely understood. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Spectroscopic distances of 28 nearby star candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahreiß, H.; Meusinger, H.; Scholz, R.-D.; Stecklum, B.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: Twenty eight hitherto neglected candidates for the Catalogue of Nearby Stars (CNS) were investigated to verify their classification and to improve their distance estimates. All targets had at least a preliminary status of being nearby dwarf stars based on their large proper motions and relatively faint magnitudes. Better photometric and/or spectroscopic distances were required for selecting stars for further trigonometric parallax measurements. Methods: Low-resolution spectra were obtained with NASPEC at the Tautenburg 2 m telescope and with CAFOS at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope. The spectral types of M-type stars were determined by direct comparison of the target's spectra with those of comparison stars of known spectral types observed with the same instrument. The classification of earlier types was performed based on comparison with published spectral libraries. Results: For most of the target stars reliable spectral types could be determined and in combination with 2MASS photometry new improved distance estimates became available. The majority were classified as M dwarfs including 11 stars within 25 pc. The fainter component of LDS 1365, previously thought to form a nearby common proper motion pair, is according to our results an unrelated high-velocity background star. For several other nearby common proper motion pairs our distance estimates of the fainter components are in good agreement with Hipparcos distances of the brighter components. The three stars in our sample that were previously thought to be white dwarfs (GJ 2091, GJ 2094, GJ 2098) turned out to be more distant high-velocity F- to K-type (sub)dwarfs. For the star with the largest tangential velocity (GJ 2091; v_ tan>500 km s-1) we have additional evidence for its probable Galactic halo membership from a measured large radial velocity of 266 ± 25 km s-1 and from its UBV photometry indicating a low metallicity. Based on observations with the 2 m telescope of the Thüringer Landessternwarte

  7. Spectroscopic measurements of solar wind generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Withbroe, G. L.; Zapata, C. A.; Noci, G.

    1983-01-01

    Spectroscopically observable quantities are described which are sensitive to the primary plasma parameters of the solar wind's source region. The method is discussed in which those observable quantities are used as constraints in the construction of empirical models of various coronal structures. Simulated observations are used to examine the fractional contributions to observed spectral intensities from coronal structures of interest which co-exist with other coronal structures along simulated lines-of-sight. The sensitivity of spectroscopic observables to the physical parameters within each of those structures is discussed.

  8. Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe.

    PubMed

    Suslick, Kenneth S; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Flannigan, David J; Hopkins, Stephen D; Xu, Hangxun

    2011-07-01

    We review recent work on the use of sonoluminescence (SL) to probe spectroscopically the conditions created during cavitation, both in clouds of collapsing bubbles (multibubble sonoluminescence, (MBSL)) and in single bubble events. The effective MBSL temperature can be controlled by the vapor pressure of the liquid or the thermal conductivity of the dissolved gas over a range from ∼1600 to ∼9000K. The effective pressure during MBSL is ∼300bar, based on atomic line shifts. Given nanosecond emission times, this means that cooling rates are >10(12)K/s. In sulfuric and phosphoric acid, the low volatility and high solubility of any sonolysis products make bubble collapse more efficient and evidence for an optically opaque plasma core is found. PMID:21247788

  9. Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe.

    PubMed

    Suslick, Kenneth S; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Flannigan, David J; Hopkins, Stephen D; Xu, Hangxun

    2011-07-01

    We review recent work on the use of sonoluminescence (SL) to probe spectroscopically the conditions created during cavitation, both in clouds of collapsing bubbles (multibubble sonoluminescence, (MBSL)) and in single bubble events. The effective MBSL temperature can be controlled by the vapor pressure of the liquid or the thermal conductivity of the dissolved gas over a range from ∼1600 to ∼9000K. The effective pressure during MBSL is ∼300bar, based on atomic line shifts. Given nanosecond emission times, this means that cooling rates are >10(12)K/s. In sulfuric and phosphoric acid, the low volatility and high solubility of any sonolysis products make bubble collapse more efficient and evidence for an optically opaque plasma core is found.

  10. Raman spectroscopic study of "The Malatesta": a Renaissance painting?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J

    2015-02-25

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research.

  11. Raman spectroscopic study of a genetically altered kidney cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Joel; Garcia, Francisco; Centeno, Silvia P.; Joshi, N. V.

    2008-02-01

    A Raman spectroscopic investigation of a genetically altered Human Embryonic Kidney Cell (HEK293) along with a pathologically normal cell has been carried out by a conventional method. The genetic alteration was carried out with a standard protocol by using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP). Raman spectra show that there are dramatic differences between the spectrum obtained from a genetically altered cell and that obtained from a pathologically normal cell. The former shows three broad bands; meanwhile the latter shows several sharp peaks corresponding to the ring vibrational modes of Phen, GFP and DNA. The present analysis provides an indication that the force field near Phen located at 64, 65 and 66 was altered during the genetic transformation. The Raman spectrum could be a direct experimental evidence for substantial modifications triggered due to the expression of specific genes.

  12. Raman spectroscopic study of "The Malatesta": a Renaissance painting?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J

    2015-02-25

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research. PMID:25194320

  13. Localized and Spectroscopic Orbitals: Squirrel Ears on Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, R. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Reexamines the electronic structure of water considering divergent views. Discusses several aspects of molecular orbital theory using spectroscopic molecular orbitals and localized molecular orbitals. Gives examples for determining lowest energy spectroscopic orbitals. (ML)

  14. Asiago spectroscopic classification of SN 2016fmt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbeni, V.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic observation of AT 2016fmt discovered by Fabrizio Ciabattari of the Italian Supernova Search Project (ISSP) in NGC 606, who reports a discovery magnitude of 17.8 on UT 2016-08-28 02:52:48.

  15. Asiago spectroscopic classification of two SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; OAPd, M. Turatto (INAF

    2016-09-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of two transients. The targets are supplied by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNOvae (ASAS-SN) and the TNS (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il).

  16. Spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler effect.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, S; Tabosa, J W R; Failache, H; Lezama, A

    2006-09-15

    We report on the first spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler shift associated with light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The effect is evidenced as the broadening of a Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency coherence resonance on Rb vapor when the two incident Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams have opposite topological charges. The observations closely agree with theoretical predictions.

  17. Spectroscopic study in Z-pinch discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Garamoon, A.A.; Saudy, A.H.; Shark, W.

    1995-12-31

    The temporal variation of the emitted line intensity has been investigated, and thus an important information about the dynamic ionization stages in the Z-pinch discharge has been studied. Also the electron temperature Te, has been deduced by using a spectroscopic technique.

  18. An Improved Diffraction Grating Spectroscope Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherzer, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with standard diffraction grating experiments involving a diffraction grating, a straight meter stick, and a slit. Describes the use of a new spectroscope to overcome these problems using a curved scale to simplify calculations and help students obtain results from simple and straightforward measurements, thus giving…

  19. Spectroscopic mode identification in gamma Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rylvia Pollard, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury has been successfully identifying frequencies and pulsation modes in many gamma Doradus stars using hundreds of precise, high resolution spectroscopic observations. This paper describes some of these frequency and mode identifications and the emerging patterns of the programme.

  20. Are your spectroscopic data being used?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Iouli E.; Potterbusch, Megan R.; Bouquin, Daina; Erdmann, Christopher C.; Wilzewski, Jonas S.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    2016-09-01

    The issue of availability of data and their presentation in spectroscopic publications is discussed. Different current practices are critically reviewed from the point of view of potential users, government policies, and merit of success of the authors. Indeed, properly providing the data benefits not only users but also the authors of the spectroscopic research. We will show that this increases citations to the spectroscopy papers and visibility of the research groups. Examples based on the statistical analyses of the articles published in the Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy will be shown. We will discuss different methods including supplementary materials to the Journals, public-curated databases and also new tools that can be utilized by spectroscopists.

  1. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  2. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  3. Spectroscopic Survey of Circumstellar Disks in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Olguin, Lorenzo; Briceno, Cesar

    2013-07-01

    As a second stage of a project focused on characterizing candidate stars bearing a circumstellar disk in Orion, we present a spectroscopic follow-up of a set of about 170 bright stars. The present set of stars was selected by their optical (UBVRI) and infrared behavior in different color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. Observations were carried out at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional located at the Sierra San Pedro Martir in B.C., Mexico and at the Observatorio Guillermo Haro in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. Low-resolution spectra were obtained for all candidates in the sample. Using the SPTCLASS code, we have obtained spectral types and equivalent widths of the Li I 6707 and Halpha lines for each one of the stars. This project is a cornerstone of a large scale survey aimed to obtain stellar parameters in a homogeneous way using spectroscopic data. This work was partially supported by UNAM-PAPIIT grant IN-109311.

  4. Data Acquisition System for Instructional Spectroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, C. B. S. B.; Hetem, A.

    2014-10-01

    This article aims to present the software for data acquisition developed in scientific initiation program - IC, for use in the design of a spectrometer built by students. The program was built in C++, a language in wide use today. The origin of spectra used is a simplified model of rustic spectroscope. This equipment basically consists of a box that does not allow light to enter, except through a slit made in the side of it, a diffraction media and a camera for data acquisition. After the image acquisition, one executes the data processing, followed by the usual steps of reduction and analysis of this type of tool. We have implemented a method for calibrating the spectroscope, through which one can compare the incidence of the photons with characteristic of each monochromatic wave. The final result is a one-dimensional spectrum that can be subsequently analyzed.

  5. The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Laurence S.; Gordon, Iouli E.; Barbe, Alain; Benner, D. Chris; Bernath, Peter F.; Birk, Manfred; Boudon, V.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Champion, J.-P.; Chance, Kelly V.; Coudert, L. H.; Sung, K.; Toth, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the 2008 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. The new edition is the first official public release since the 2004 edition, although a number of crucial updates had been made available online since 2004. The HITRAN compilation consists of several components that serve as input for radiative-transfer calculation codes: individual line parameters for the microwave through visible spectra of molecules in the gas phase; absorption cross-sections for molecules having dense spectral features, i.e., spectra in which the individual lines are not resolved; individual line parameters and absorption cross sections for bands in the ultra-violet; refractive indices of aerosols, tables and files of general properties associated with the database; and database management software. The line-by-line portion of the database contains spectroscopic parameters for forty-two molecules including many of their isotopologues.

  6. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  7. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of MIL03346

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Pieters, C. M.; Hiroi, T.; Lane, M. D.; Marchand, G. J.

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies of the SNC meteorites continue to be of great interest because they provide the only "ground truth" available for ongoing Mossbauer, thermal emittance, MidIR, nearIR, and visible spectral analysis of the martian surface. We present here results of an integrated series of measurements made on the same split of MIL03346, in order to expand our understanding of the properties of these materials and to relate them to other SNCs.

  8. Spectroscopic classification of Gaia16alf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onori, F.; Fraser, M.; Jonker, P.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Blagorodnova, N.; Mattila, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of Gaia16alf, from medium resolution (R~1000; 330-990nm) spectra taken with the William Herschel Telescope + ISIS + R300B/R158R on the night of 2016 April 19. The spectrum is consistent with that of a Type Ia SN a few days before maximum light at a redshift of z=0.094.

  9. Asiago spectroscopic classification of SN 2016eob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochner, P.; Tomasella, G. Terreran L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Turatto, M.; Yang, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of SN 2016eob. The transient was discovered by Leonini et al. 2016, TNS Astronomical Transient Report No. 3994, Italian Supernovae Search Project (ISSP), on UT 2016-08-03.11 in the galaxy UGC00005 (2 other supernovae exploded in this host: SN 2000da, SN 2003lq).

  10. Flux measurements using the BATSE spectroscopic detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    Among the Compton Gama-Ray Observatory instruments, the BATSE Spectroscopic Detectors (SD) have the distinction of being able to detect photons of energies less than about 20 keV. This is an interesting energy range for the examination of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's). In fact, Sco X-1, the prototype LMXB, is easily seen even in the raw BATSE spectroscopic data. The all-sky coverage afforded by these detectors offers a unique opportunity to monitor this source over time periods never before possible. The aim of this investigation was to test a number of ways in which both continous and discrete flux measurements can be obtained using the BATSE spectroscopic datasets. A instrumental description of a SD can be found in the Compton Workshop of Apr. 1989, this report will deal only with methods which can be used to analyze its datasets. Many of the items discussed below, particularly in regard to the earth occultation technique, have been developed, refined, and applied by the BATSE team to the reduction of BATSE LAD data. Code written as part of this project utilizes portions of that work. The following discussions will first address issues related to the reduction of SD datasets using the earth occultation technique. It will then discuss methods for the recovery of the flux history of strong sources while they are above the earth's limb. The report will conclude with recommended reduction procedures.

  11. The STIS CCD Spectroscopic Line Spread Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T.; Lindler, D.; Tennant, D.; Bowers, C.; Grady, C.; Hill, R. S.; Malumuth, E.

    2002-01-01

    We characterize the spectroscopic line spread functions of the spectroscopic CCD modes for high contrast objects. Our long range goal is to develop tools that accurately extract spectroscopic information of faint, point or extended sources in the vicinity of bright, point sources at separations approaching the realizable angular limits of HST with STIS. Diffracted and scattered light due to the HST optics, and scattered light effects within the STIS are addressed. Filter fringing, CCD fringing, window reflections, and scattering within the detector and other effects are noted. We have obtained spectra of several reference stars, used for flux calibration or for coronagraphic standards, that have spectral distributions ranging from very red to very blue. Spectra of each star were recorded with the star in the aperture and with the star blocked by either the F1 or F2 fiducial. Plots of the detected starlight along the spatial axis of the aperture are provided for four stars. With the star in the aperture, the line spread function is quite noticeable. Placing the star behind one of the fiducials cuts the scattered light and the diffracted light, is detectable even out to 1OOOOA. When the star is placed behind either fiducial, the scattered and diffracted light components, at three arcseconds displacement from the star, are below lop6 the peak of the star at wavelengths below 6000A; at the same angular distance, scattered light does contaminate the background longward of 6000A up to a level of 10(exp -5).

  12. LIBS spectroscopic classification relative to compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Steven T.; Jacobs, Eddie; Furxhi, Orges

    2011-05-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) utilizes a diversity of standard spectroscopic techniques for classification of materials present in the sample. Pre-excitation processing sometimes limits the analyte to a short list of candidates. Prior art demonstrates that sparsity is present in the data. This is sometimes characterized as identification by components. Traditionally, spectroscopic identification has been accomplished by an expert reader in a manner typical for MRI images in the medicine. In an effort to automate this process, more recent art has emphasized the use of customized variations to standard classification algorithms. In addition, formal mathematical proofs for compressive sensing have been advanced. Recently the University of Memphis has been contracted by the Spectroscopic Materials Identification Center to advance and characterize the sensor research and development related to LIBS. Applications include portable standoff sensing for improvised explosive device detection and related law enforcement and military applications. Reduction of the mass, power consumption and other portability parameters is seen as dependent on classification choices for a LIBS system. This paper presents results for the comparison of standard LIBS classification techniques to those implied by Compressive Sensing mathematics. Optimization results and implications for portable LIBS design are presented.

  13. The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, L. S.; Gordon, I. E.; Babikov, Y.; Barbe, A.; Chris Benner, D.; Bernath, P. F.; Birk, M.; Bizzocchi, L.; Boudon, V.; Brown, L. R.; Campargue, A.; Chance, K.; Cohen, E. A.; Coudert, L. H.; Devi, V. M.; Drouin, B. J.; Fayt, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Gamache, R. R.; Harrison, J. J.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Hill, C.; Hodges, J. T.; Jacquemart, D.; Jolly, A.; Lamouroux, J.; Le Roy, R. J.; Li, G.; Long, D. A.; Lyulin, O. M.; Mackie, C. J.; Massie, S. T.; Mikhailenko, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nikitin, A. V.; Orphal, J.; Perevalov, V.; Perrin, A.; Polovtseva, E. R.; Richard, C.; Smith, M. A. H.; Starikova, E.; Sung, K.; Tashkun, S.; Tennyson, J.; Toon, G. C.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Wagner, G.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the status of the 2012 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic compilation. The new edition replaces the previous HITRAN edition of 2008 and its updates during the intervening years. The HITRAN molecular absorption compilation is comprised of six major components structured into folders that are freely accessible on the internet. These folders consist of the traditional line-by-line spectroscopic parameters required for high-resolution radiative-transfer codes, infrared absorption cross-sections for molecules not yet amenable to representation in a line-by-line form, ultraviolet spectroscopic parameters, aerosol indices of refraction, collision-induced absorption data, and general tables such as partition sums that apply globally to the data. The new HITRAN is greatly extended in terms of accuracy, spectral coverage, additional absorption phenomena, and validity. Molecules and isotopologues have been added that address the issues of atmospheres beyond the Earth. Also discussed is a new initiative that casts HITRAN into a relational database format that offers many advantages over the long-standing sequential text-based structure that has existed since the initial release of HITRAN in the early 1970s.

  14. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaugher, Brenna; Bebek, Chris

    2014-07-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar spectroscopic redshift survey. The DESI instrument consists of a new wide-field (3.2 deg. linear field of view) corrector plus a multi-object spectrometer with up to 5000 robotically positioned optical fibers and will be installed at prime focus on the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. The fibers feed 10 three-arm spectrographs producing spectra that cover a wavelength range from 360-980 nm and have resolution of 2000-5500 depending on the wavelength. The DESI instrument is designed for a 14,000 sq. deg. multi-year survey of targets that trace the evolution of dark energy out to redshift 3.5 using the redshifts of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), emission line galaxies (ELGs) and quasars. DESI is the successor to the successful Stage-III BOSS spectroscopic redshift survey and complements imaging surveys such as the Stage-III Dark Energy Survey (DES, currently operating) and the Stage-IV Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST, planned start early in the next decade).

  15. Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

    2009-06-01

    There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 μm thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435±5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the

  16. Panspermia: Evidence from Astronomy to Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, J.; Wallis, D. H.

    The theory of cometary panspermia is reviewed in relation to evidence from astronomy, biology, and recent studies of meteorites. The spectroscopic signatures in interstellar material within our galaxy and in external galaxies that have been known for many years most plausibly represent evidence for the detritus of life existing on a cosmic scale. Such spectral features discovered in galaxies of high redshift points to life arising at a very early stage in the history of the Universe. Evidence of fossils of microscopic life forms in meteorites that have been discussed over several decades, and augmented recently with new data, reaffirms the case for cometary panspermia.

  17. Panspermia: Evidence from Astronomy to Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, J.; Wallis, D. H.

    2013-05-01

    The theory of cometary panspermia is reviewed in relation to evidence from astronomy, biology and recent studies of meteorites. The spectroscopic signatures in interstellar material within our galaxy and in external galaxies that have been known for many years most plausibly represent evidence for the detritus of life existing on a cosmic scale. Such spectral features discovered in galaxies of high redshift points to life arising at a very early stage in the history of the Universe. Evidence of fossils of microscopic life forms in meteorites that have been discussed over several decades, and augmented recently with new data, reaffirms the case for cometary panspermia.

  18. THE APOKASC CATALOG: AN ASTEROSEISMIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC JOINT SURVEY OF TARGETS IN THE KEPLER FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Epstein, Courtney; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Chaplin, William J.; Hekker, Saskia; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Stello, Dennis; Mészáros, Sz.; García, Rafael A.; Beck, Paul; Mathur, Savita; García Pérez, Ana; Girardi, Léo; Basu, Sarbani; Shetrone, Matthew; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present the first APOKASC catalog of spectroscopic and asteroseismic properties of 1916 red giants observed in the Kepler fields. The spectroscopic parameters provided from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment project are complemented with asteroseismic surface gravities, masses, radii, and mean densities determined by members of the Kepler Asteroseismology Science Consortium. We assess both random and systematic sources of error and include a discussion of sample selection for giants in the Kepler fields. Total uncertainties in the main catalog properties are of the order of 80 K in T {sub eff}, 0.06 dex in [M/H], 0.014 dex in log g, and 12% and 5% in mass and radius, respectively; these reflect a combination of systematic and random errors. Asteroseismic surface gravities are substantially more precise and accurate than spectroscopic ones, and we find good agreement between their mean values and the calibrated spectroscopic surface gravities. There are, however, systematic underlying trends with T {sub eff} and log g. Our effective temperature scale is between 0 and 200 K cooler than that expected from the infrared flux method, depending on the adopted extinction map, which provides evidence for a lower value on average than that inferred for the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). We find a reasonable correspondence between the photometric KIC and spectroscopic APOKASC metallicity scales, with increased dispersion in KIC metallicities as the absolute metal abundance decreases, and offsets in T {sub eff} and log g consistent with those derived in the literature. We present mean fitting relations between APOKASC and KIC observables and discuss future prospects, strengths, and limitations of the catalog data.

  19. The APOKASC Catalog: An Asteroseismic and Spectroscopic Joint Survey of Targets in the Kepler Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Epstein, Courtney; Hekker, Saskia; Mészáros, Sz.; Chaplin, William J.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; García, Rafael A.; Holtzman, Jon; Mathur, Savita; García Pérez, Ana; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Girardi, Léo; Basu, Sarbani; Shetrone, Matthew; Stello, Dennis; Allende Prieto, Carlos; An, Deokkeun; Beck, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bloemen, Steven; Bovy, Jo; Cunha, Katia; De Ridder, Joris; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Gilliland, Ronald; Harding, Paul; Hearty, Fred R.; Huber, Daniel; Ivans, Inese; Kallinger, Thomas; Majewski, Steven R.; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Miglio, Andrea; Mosser, Benoit; Muna, Demitri; Nidever, David L.; Schneider, Donald P.; Serenelli, Aldo; Smith, Verne V.; Tayar, Jamie; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail

    2014-12-01

    We present the first APOKASC catalog of spectroscopic and asteroseismic properties of 1916 red giants observed in the Kepler fields. The spectroscopic parameters provided from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment project are complemented with asteroseismic surface gravities, masses, radii, and mean densities determined by members of the Kepler Asteroseismology Science Consortium. We assess both random and systematic sources of error and include a discussion of sample selection for giants in the Kepler fields. Total uncertainties in the main catalog properties are of the order of 80 K in T eff, 0.06 dex in [M/H], 0.014 dex in log g, and 12% and 5% in mass and radius, respectively; these reflect a combination of systematic and random errors. Asteroseismic surface gravities are substantially more precise and accurate than spectroscopic ones, and we find good agreement between their mean values and the calibrated spectroscopic surface gravities. There are, however, systematic underlying trends with T eff and log g. Our effective temperature scale is between 0 and 200 K cooler than that expected from the infrared flux method, depending on the adopted extinction map, which provides evidence for a lower value on average than that inferred for the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). We find a reasonable correspondence between the photometric KIC and spectroscopic APOKASC metallicity scales, with increased dispersion in KIC metallicities as the absolute metal abundance decreases, and offsets in T eff and log g consistent with those derived in the literature. We present mean fitting relations between APOKASC and KIC observables and discuss future prospects, strengths, and limitations of the catalog data.

  20. Spectroscopic investigations of a field emission generated radiative zone: Mass spectroscopic measurements. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterauer, J.

    1981-10-01

    In view of the application of liquid metal field ion sources as electric thrustors for space propulsion, the basic physical features of the field ionization mechanism were analyzed experimentally. An ultrahigh vacuum test chamber and a liquid metal ion source were built. Diagnostic methods, e.g., basic measurements of the emission characteristics, probe measurements of the ion current distribution, mass spectroscopic measurements of the particles emitted from the ion source, and spectroscopic measurements of the visible radiation accompanying field ionization, were developed. Experimental data which can be transferred to prototype field ion thrusters are presented, but experimental facilities limit conclusions regarding theoretical aspects of field ionization.

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of matrix isolated transient species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Christopher J.

    Part I describes the electronic spectra of various actinide containing compounds isolated in solid Ar using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The IR spectra for many of the same molecules were also recorded to aid in the identification of the fluorescing species in the LIF spectra. LIF spectra of UO2 isolated in solid Ar were recorded to investigate the interactions between actinide compounds and the rare gas matrix host. At the time of the experiments, it had been proposed that for UO2 and CUO, the interactions between the actinide containing molecule and Ar were strong enough to reorder the low-lying electronic states of the molecule. The experiments presented here showed no evidence of a reordering of low-lying electronic states based on comparison of the matrix spectra with theoretical predictions and gas phase spectra. An attempt to observe fluorescence from higher order uranium oxides was undertaken. A matrix was made by ablating U metal in a 1.0% O2/Ar mixture. UO3 was a probable molecule formed in the experiment. And, while absorptions belonging to UO3 were observed in IR spectra, LIF from the same matrix provided evidence that another molecule was fluorescing. Two different vibrational frequencies observed in the U-O symmetric stretching region were indicative of at least two low-lying electronic states in fluorescing molecule. UO3 is a closed shell molecule, and it is unlikely that it has any low-lying electronic states. Instead, the fluorescence was attributed to the open shell species (UO2)+(O2) -. LIF and IR spectra of thermally vaporized UCl4 isolated in solid Ar were recorded. UCl4 contains U(IV), which is the most stable oxidation state other than U(VI). Before these experiments, no fluorescence had been recorded that could be attributed to UCl4. Based on the observed vibrational frequencies in the fluorescence bands and the lifetime of the fluorescence, it was determine that there was at least two different fluorescing species. The

  2. Multimodal Spectroscopic Study of Amyloid Fibril Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    VandenAkker, Corianne C; Schleeger, Michael; Bruinen, Anne L; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Velikov, Krassimir P; Heeren, Ron M A; Deckert, Volker; Bonn, Mischa; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid fibrils are a large class of self-assembled protein aggregates that are formed from unstructured peptides and unfolded proteins. The fibrils are characterized by a universal β-sheet core stabilized by hydrogen bonds, but the molecular structure of the peptide subunits exposed on the fibril surface is variable. Here we show that multimodal spectroscopy using a range of bulk- and surface-sensitive techniques provides a powerful way to dissect variations in the molecular structure of polymorphic amyloid fibrils. As a model system, we use fibrils formed by the milk protein β-lactoglobulin, whose morphology can be tuned by varying the protein concentration during formation. We investigate the differences in the molecular structure and composition between long, straight fibrils versus short, wormlike fibrils. We show using mass spectrometry that the peptide composition of the two fibril types is similar. The overall molecular structure of the fibrils probed with various bulk-sensitive spectroscopic techniques shows a dominant contribution of the β-sheet core but no difference in structure between straight and wormlike fibrils. However, when probing specifically the surface of the fibrils with nanometer resolution using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), we find that both fibril types exhibit a heterogeneous surface structure with mainly unordered or α-helical structures and that the surface of long, straight fibrils contains markedly more β-sheet structure than the surface of short, wormlike fibrils. This finding is consistent with previous surface-specific vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopic results ( VandenAkker et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 2011 , 133 , 18030 - 18033 , DOI: 10.1021/ja206513r ). In conclusion, only advanced vibrational spectroscopic techniques sensitive to surface structure such as TERS and VSFG are able to reveal the difference in structure that underlies the distinct morphology and rigidity of different amyloid

  3. THIRTY NEW LOW-MASS SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Hebb, Leslie; Cameron, Andrew C.; Liu, Michael C.; Neill Reid, I. E-mail: Andrew.Cameron@st-and.ac.u E-mail: mliu@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-06-20

    As part of our search for young M dwarfs within 25 pc, we acquired high-resolution spectra of 185 low-mass stars compiled by the NStars project that have strong X-ray emission. By cross-correlating these spectra with radial velocity standard stars, we are sensitive to finding multi-lined spectroscopic binaries. We find a low-mass spectroscopic binary fraction of 16% consisting of 27 SB2s, 2 SB3s, and 1 SB4, increasing the number of known low-mass spectroscopic binaries (SBs) by 50% and proving that strong X-ray emission is an extremely efficient way to find M-dwarf SBs. WASP photometry of 23 of these systems revealed two low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBs), bringing the count of known M-dwarf EBs to 15. BD-22 5866, the ESB4, was fully described in 2008 by Shkolnik et al. and CCDM J04404+3127 B consists of two mid-M stars orbiting each other every 2.048 days. WASP also provided rotation periods for 12 systems, and in the cases where the synchronization time scales are short, we used P{sub rot} to determine the true orbital parameters. For those with no P{sub rot}, we used differential radial velocities to set upper limits on orbital periods and semimajor axes. More than half of our sample has near-equal-mass components (q > 0.8). This is expected since our sample is biased toward tight orbits where saturated X-ray emission is due to tidal spin-up rather than stellar youth. Increasing the samples of M-dwarf SBs and EBs is extremely valuable in setting constraints on current theories of stellar multiplicity and evolution scenarios for low-mass multiple systems.

  4. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, A. M.; Driver, S. P.; Brough, S.; Owers, M. S.; Bauer, A. E.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Cluver, M. E.; Colless, M.; Foster, C.; Lara-López, M. A.; Roseboom, I.; Sharp, R.; Steele, O.; Thomas, D.; Baldry, I. K.; Brown, M. J. I.; Liske, J.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Bamford, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Loveday, J.; Meyer, M.; Peacock, J. A.; Tuffs, R.; Agius, N.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrae, E.; Cameron, E.; Cole, S.; Ching, J. H. Y.; Christodoulou, L.; Conselice, C.; Croom, S.; Cross, N. J. G.; De Propris, R.; Delhaize, J.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Ellis, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Graham, Alister W.; Grootes, M. W.; Häußler, B.; Heymans, C.; Hill, D.; Hoyle, B.; Hudson, M.; Jarvis, M.; Johansson, J.; Jones, D. H.; van Kampen, E.; Kelvin, L.; Kuijken, K.; López-Sánchez, Á.; Maddox, S.; Madore, B.; Maraston, C.; McNaught-Roberts, T.; Nichol, R. C.; Oliver, S.; Parkinson, H.; Penny, S.; Phillipps, S.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Ponman, T.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Proctor, R.; Sadler, E. M.; Sansom, A. E.; Seibert, M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Sutherland, W.; Taylor, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Vázquez-Mata, J. A.; Warren, S.; Wijesinghe, D. B.; Wild, V.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-04-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey is a multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic survey, using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope to obtain spectra for up to ˜300 000 galaxies over 280 deg2, to a limiting magnitude of rpet < 19.8 mag. The target galaxies are distributed over 0 < z ≲ 0.5 with a median redshift of z ≈ 0.2, although the redshift distribution includes a small number of systems, primarily quasars, at higher redshifts, up to and beyond z = 1. The redshift accuracy ranges from σv ≈ 50 km s-1 to σv ≈ 100 km s-1 depending on the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum. Here we describe the GAMA spectroscopic reduction and analysis pipeline. We present the steps involved in taking the raw two-dimensional spectroscopic images through to flux-calibrated one-dimensional spectra. The resulting GAMA spectra cover an observed wavelength range of 3750 ≲ λ ≲ 8850 Å at a resolution of R ≈ 1300. The final flux calibration is typically accurate to 10-20 per cent, although the reliability is worse at the extreme wavelength ends, and poorer in the blue than the red. We present details of the measurement of emission and absorption features in the GAMA spectra. These measurements are characterized through a variety of quality control analyses detailing the robustness and reliability of the measurements. We illustrate the quality of the measurements with a brief exploration of elementary emission line properties of the galaxies in the GAMA sample. We demonstrate the luminosity dependence of the Balmer decrement, consistent with previously published results, and explore further how Balmer decrement varies with galaxy mass and redshift. We also investigate the mass and redshift dependencies of the [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ spectral diagnostic diagram, commonly used to discriminate between star forming and nuclear activity in galaxies.

  5. Are your Spectroscopic Data Being Used?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Wilzewski, Jonas

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopy is an established and indispensable tool in science, industry, agriculture, medicine, surveillance, etc.. The potential user of spectral data, which is not available in HITRAN or other databases, searches the spectroscopy publications. After finding the desired publication, the user very often encounters the following problems: 1) They cannot find the data described in the paper. There can be many reasons for this: nothing is provided in the paper itself or supplementary material; the authors are not responding to any requests; the web links provided in the paper have long been broken; etc. 2) The data is presented in a reduced form, for instance through the fitted spectroscopic constants. While this is a long-standing practice among spectroscopists, there are numerous serious problems with this practice, such as users getting different energy and intensity values because of different representations of the solution to the Hamiltonian, or even just despairing of trying to generate usable line lists from the published constants. Properly providing the data benefits not only users but also the authors of the spectroscopic research. We will show that this increases citations to the spectroscopy papers and visibility of the research groups. We will also address the quite common issue when researchers obtain the data, but do not feel that they have time, interest or resources to write an article describing it. There are modern tools that would allow one to make these data available to potential users and still get credit for it. However, this is a worst case scenario recommendation, i.e., publishing the data in a peer-reviewed journal is still the preferred way. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, et al. "The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database," JQSRT 113, 4-50 (2013).

  6. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Julia; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Campins, Humberto; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Morate, David; Tanga, Paolo; Cellino, Alberto; Delbo, Marco

    2015-11-01

    NASA OSIRIS-REx and JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample-return missions have targeted two near-Earth asteroids: (101955) Bennu and (162173) 1999 JU3, respectively. These are primitive asteroids that are believed to originate in the inner belt, where five distinct sources have been identified: four primitive collisional families (Polana, Erigone, Sulamitis, and Clarissa), and a population of low-albedo and low-inclination background asteroids. Identifying and characterizing the populations from which these two NEAs might originate will enchance the science return of the two missions.With this main objective in mind, we initiated in 2010 a spectroscopic survey in the visible and the near-infrared to characterize the primitive collisional families in the inner belt and the low-albedo background population. This is the PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS. So far we have obtained more than 200 spectra using telescopes located at different observatories. PRIMASS uses a variety of ground based facilities. Most of the spectra have been obtained using the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), and the 3.6m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), both located at the El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain), and the 3.0m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea (Hawai, USA).We present the first results from our on-going survey (de Leon et al. 2015; Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2015; Morate et al. 2015), focused on the Polana and the Erigone primitive families, with visible and near-infrared spectra of more than 200 objects, most of them with no previous spectroscopic data. Our survey is already the largest database of primitive asteroids spectra, and we keep obtaining data on the Sulamitis and the Clarissa families, as well as on the background low-albedo population.

  7. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A.; Jeffries, R.; Micela, G.; Negueruela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Blomme, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; François, P.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Pancino, E.; Paunzen, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Sacco, G.; Smiljanic, R.; Van Eck, S.; Walton, N.; Aden, D.; Aerts, C.; Affer, L.; Alcala, J.-M.; Altavilla, G.; Alves, J.; Antoja, T.; Arenou, F.; Argiroffi, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Bailer-Jones, C.; Balaguer-Nunez, L.; Bayo, A.; Barbuy, B.; Barisevicius, G.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Battistini, C.; Bellas Velidis, I.; Bellazzini, M.; Belokurov, V.; Bergemann, M.; Bertelli, G.; Biazzo, K.; Bienayme, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Bonito, S.; Boudreault, S.; Bouvier, J.; Brandao, I.; Brown, A.; de Bruijne, J.; Burleigh, M.; Caballero, J.; Caffau, E.; Calura, F.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Caramazza, M.; Carraro, G.; Casagrande, L.; Casewell, S.; Chapman, S.; Chiappini, C.; Chorniy, Y.; Christlieb, N.; Cignoni, M.; Cocozza, G.; Colless, M.; Collet, R.; Collins, M.; Correnti, M.; Covino, E.; Crnojevic, D.; Cropper, M.; Cunha, M.; Damiani, F.; David, M.; Delgado, A.; Duffau, S.; Edvardsson, B.; Eldridge, J.; Enke, H.; Eriksson, K.; Evans, N. W.; Eyer, L.; Famaey, B.; Fellhauer, M.; Ferreras, I.; Figueras, F.; Fiorentino, G.; Flynn, C.; Folha, D.; Franciosini, E.; Frasca, A.; Freeman, K.; Fremat, Y.; Friel, E.; Gaensicke, B.; Gameiro, J.; Garzon, F.; Geier, S.; Geisler, D.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B.; Gomboc, A.; Gomez, A.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J.; Gosset, E.; Grebel, E.; Greimel, R.; Groenewegen, M.; Grundahl, F.; Guarcello, M.; Gustafsson, B.; Hadrava, P.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Hambly, N.; Hammersley, P.; Hansen, C.; Haywood, M.; Heber, U.; Heiter, U.; Held, E.; Helmi, A.; Hensler, G.; Herrero, A.; Hill, V.; Hodgkin, S.; Huelamo, N.; Huxor, A.; Ibata, R.; Jackson, R.; de Jong, R.; Jonker, P.; Jordan, S.; Jordi, C.; Jorissen, A.; Katz, D.; Kawata, D.; Keller, S.; Kharchenko, N.; Klement, R.; Klutsch, A.; Knude, J.; Koch, A.; Kochukhov, O.; Kontizas, M.; Koubsky, P.; Lallement, R.; de Laverny, P.; van Leeuwen, F.; Lemasle, B.; Lewis, G.; Lind, K.; Lindstrom, H. P. E.; Lobel, A.; Lopez Santiago, J.; Lucas, P.; Ludwig, H.; Lueftinger, T.; Magrini, L.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Maldonado, J.; Marconi, G.; Marino, A.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Valpuesta, I.; Matijevic, G.; McMahon, R.; Messina, S.; Meyer, M.; Miglio, A.; Mikolaitis, S.; Minchev, I.; Minniti, D.; Moitinho, A.; Momany, Y.; Monaco, L.; Montalto, M.; Monteiro, M. J.; Monier, R.; Montes, D.; Mora, A.; Moraux, E.; Morel, T.; Mowlavi, N.; Mucciarelli, A.; Munari, U.; Napiwotzki, R.; Nardetto, N.; Naylor, T.; Naze, Y.; Nelemans, G.; Okamoto, S.; Ortolani, S.; Pace, G.; Palla, F.; Palous, J.; Parker, R.; Penarrubia, J.; Pillitteri, I.; Piotto, G.; Posbic, H.; Prisinzano, L.; Puzeras, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Ragaini, S.; Read, J.; Read, M.; Reyle, C.; De Ridder, J.; Robichon, N.; Robin, A.; Roeser, S.; Romano, D.; Royer, F.; Ruchti, G.; Ruzicka, A.; Ryan, S.; Ryde, N.; Santos, N.; Sanz Forcada, J.; Sarro Baro, L. M.; Sbordone, L.; Schilbach, E.; Schmeja, S.; Schnurr, O.; Schoenrich, R.; Scholz, R.-D.; Seabroke, G.; Sharma, S.; De Silva, G.; Smith, M.; Solano, E.; Sordo, R.; Soubiran, C.; Sousa, S.; Spagna, A.; Steffen, M.; Steinmetz, M.; Stelzer, B.; Stempels, E.; Tabernero, H.; Tautvaisiene, G.; Thevenin, F.; Torra, J.; Tosi, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Turon, C.; Walker, M.; Wambsganss, J.; Worley, C.; Venn, K.; Vink, J.; Wyse, R.; Zaggia, S.; Zeilinger, W.; Zoccali, M.; Zorec, J.; Zucker, D.; Zwitter, T.; Gaia-ESO Survey Team

    2012-03-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. The motivation, organisation and implementation of the Gaia-ESO Survey are described, emphasising the complementarity with the ESA Gaia mission. Spectra from the very first observing run of the survey are presented.

  8. Air pollution monitoring by advanced spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Hodgeson, J A; McClenny, W A; Hanst, P L

    1973-10-19

    The monitoring requirements related to air pollution are many and varied. The molecules of concern differ greatly in their chemical and physical properties, in the nature of their environment, and in their concentration ranges. Furthermore, the application may have specific requirements such as rapid response time, ultrasensitivity, multipollutant capability, or capability for remote measurements. For these reasons, no single spectroscopic technique appears to offer a panacea for all monitoring needs. Instead we have attempted to demonstrate in the above discussion that, regardless of the difficulty and complexity of the monitoring problems, spectroscopy offers many tools by which such problems may be solved.

  9. Asiago spectroscopic observation of four transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochner, P.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.

    2015-08-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of PSN J23164332+3359476 in UGC 12474, discovered by C. Emmanouilidi; PS15bom in SDSS J232637.06-001723.0, discovered by the PS1 Science Consortium (Atel #7864); PSN J02484234+1418454 in UGC 2282, discovered by S. Leonini, M. Conti, P. Rosi, L.M. Tinjaca Ramirez and G. Guerrini of the Italian Supernovae Search Project (ISSP); and ASASSN-15mr, discovered by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN; ATel #7811).

  10. Vibrational spectroscopic study of fluticasone propionate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. R. H.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Kendrick, J.; Scowen, I. J.

    2009-03-01

    Fluticasone propionate is a synthetic glucocorticoid with potent anti-inflammatory activity that has been used effectively in the treatment of chronic asthma. The present work reports a vibrational spectroscopic study of fluticasone propionate and gives proposed molecular assignments on the basis of ab initio calculations using BLYP density functional theory with a 6-31G* basis set and vibrational frequencies predicted within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Several spectral features and band intensities are explained. This study generated a library of information that can be employed to aid the process monitoring of fluticasone propionate.

  11. The Spectroscopic study of {sup 33}Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Adimi, N.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Bey, A.; Blank, B.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Matea, I.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Knudsen, H. H.; Suemmerer, K.

    2011-10-28

    The proton-rich nucleus {sup 33}Ar has been produced at the low-energy facility SPIRAL at GANIL. Spectroscopic studies of gamma and p emission of this nucleus were performed with the 'Silicon Cube' detection system. The analysis of proton and gamma singles and coincidence spectra allowed us to establish a complete decay scheme of this nucleus. The comparison of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution deduced from our experiment and the theoretical one obtained with the Shell Model permitted the determination of a quenching factor for the Gamow-Teller strength.

  12. Volcanic glass signatures in spectroscopic survey of newly proposed lunar pyroclastic deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.M.; Gaddis, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectroscopic observations are used to assess the mineralogy of five sites that have recently been proposed to include lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs). Volcanic glasses have, for the first time, clearly been identified at the location of three of the proposed pyroclastic deposits. This is the first time that volcanic glasses have been identified at such a small scale on the lunar surface from remote sensing observations. Deposits at Birt E, Schluter, and Walther A appear to be glassy DMDs. Deposits at Birt E and Schluter show (1) morphological evidence suggesting a likely vent and (2) mineralogical evidence indicative of the presence of volcanic glasses. The Walther A deposits, although they show no morphological evidence of vents, have the spectroscopic characteristics diagnostic of volcanic glasses. The deposits of the Freundlich-Sharonov basin are separated in two areas: (1) the Buys-Ballot deposits lack mineralogical and morphological evidence and thus are found to be associated with mare volcanism not with DMDs and (2) the Anderson crater deposits, which do not exhibit glassy DMD signatures, but they appear to be associated with possible vent structures and so may be classifiable as DMDs. Finally, dark deposits near the crater Kopff are found to be associated with likely mare volcanism and not associated with DMDs. The spectral identification of volcanic glass seen in many of the potential DMDs is a strong indicator of their pyroclastic origin.

  13. The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer: Science and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, A.; McConnachie, A.; MSE Team

    2016-10-01

    MSE is a project to replace the current 3.6 m CFHT with a 10 m class, segmented, wide-field telescope that will feed a dedicated suite of multi-object spectrographs, operating at resolutions from R˜2000 to R>20000, and obtaining >3000 spectra per pointing (>> 5 million spectra/yr). It will use much of the existing infrastructure of the current CFHT, including the pier, and will closely approximate the envelope of the existing facility. MSE will be the only fully dedicated, 10 m class, wide-field spectroscopic telescope at first light in ˜ 2025. It will fill arguably the single biggest "missing link" in the international network of astronomical facilities. At optical wavelengths, LSST, WFIRST, Euclid, and Gaia will identify many millions of astrophysically interesting targets that otherwise lack the dedicated, large aperture, spectroscopic followup facilities required to probe their chemodynamical properties. Elsewhere, SKA, eRosita and others will provide a revolution in our understanding of the multiwavelength Universe. Among this capability, MSE will be an essential tool by providing the optical data that will otherwise be chronically absent.

  14. Spectroscopic Modeling of Single Element Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.; Saboohi, S.; Chan, L. S.

    2011-03-30

    A strategy for spectroscopic analysis of single element plasmas is through modeling. An experimental investigation or generation of a specified emission spectrum can be attempted based on the modeling results which are currently under investigating by many researchers in the world. In the emission spectroscopy, the K-shell emission is more interesting than emissions from other shells due to their unique EUV and SXR frequencies that can be applied in various scientific and industrial applications. Population information of our model is based on a steady state kinetic code which is calculated for a given electron temperature and an estimated electron density. Thus for each single element plasma it needs large amounts of experimental or theoretical database. Depending on the parameter of the plasma, theories based on local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE are considered. In the non-LTE case, the Corona model is used and the total absolute number densities are calculated based on the ion densities that are related to the electron density corresponds to the mean charge of the ions. The spectra generated by the model can then be compared with spectroscopic data obtained experimentally.

  15. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  16. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  17. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: The Next Generation

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging seemingly matured as a technology in the mid-2000s, with commercially successful instrumentation and reports in numerous applications. Recent developments, however, have transformed our understanding of the recorded data, provided capability for new instrumentation, and greatly enhanced the ability to extract more useful information in less time. These developments are summarized here in three broad areas— data recording, interpretation of recorded data, and information extraction—and their critical review is employed to project emerging trends. Overall, the convergence of selected components from hardware, theory, algorithms, and applications is one trend. Instead of similar, general-purpose instrumentation, another trend is likely to be diverse and application-targeted designs of instrumentation driven by emerging component technologies. The recent renaissance in both fundamental science and instrumentation will likely spur investigations at the confluence of conventional spectroscopic analyses and optical physics for improved data interpretation. While chemometrics has dominated data processing, a trend will likely lie in the development of signal processing algorithms to optimally extract spectral and spatial information prior to conventional chemometric analyses. Finally, the sum of these recent advances is likely to provide unprecedented capability in measurement and scientific insight, which will present new opportunities for the applied spectroscopist. PMID:23031693

  18. A spectroscopic investigation of MU SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leediarv, L.

    The results of a spectroscopic study of the binary star Mu Sgr are presented. The spectroscopic observations were carried out using the coude spectrograph attached to the two-meter reflecting telescope at the Bulgarian Astronomical Observatory. Additional photometric data were obtained using the S2/68 telescope on board the TD-1 satellite. The microturbulent velocities and the chemical composition of the atmosphere of the primary component of Mu Sgr were determined according to a growth curve, and the results were found to agree with the observations of Kohl (1932). The color excess E(B-V) was equal to about 0.32 mag, and the magnitude in violet was about 7.8 mag. The radius of the primary component is estimated to be about 105 solar radius, based on the Blackwell-Shallis (1977) method. On the basis of the spectrophotometric data, it is concluded that Mu Sgr should be classified in the B6 spectral class, instead of the B8 class as proposed by Barlow and Cohen (1977).

  19. EPSILON AURIGAE: AN IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC ORBITAL SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo; Lovegrove, Justin; Latham, David W.; Zajac, Joseph; Pera, Vivian E.; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2010-03-15

    A rare eclipse of the mysterious object {epsilon} Aurigae will occur in 2009-2011. We report an updated single-lined spectroscopic solution for the orbit of the primary star based on 20 years of monitoring at the CfA, combined with historical velocity observations dating back to 1897. There are 518 new CfA observations obtained between 1989 and 2009. Two solutions are presented. One uses the velocities outside the eclipse phases together with mid-times of previous eclipses, from photometry dating back to 1842, which provide the strongest constraint on the ephemeris. This yields a period of 9896.0 {+-} 1.6 days (27.0938 {+-} 0.0044 years) with a velocity semi-amplitude of 13.84 {+-} 0.23 km s{sup -1} and an eccentricity of 0.227 {+-} 0.011. The middle of the current ongoing eclipse predicted by this combined fit is JD 2,455,413.8 {+-} 4.8, corresponding to 2010 August 5. If we use only the radial velocities, we find that the predicted middle of the current eclipse is nine months earlier. This would imply that the gravitating companion is not the same as the eclipsing object. Alternatively, the purely spectroscopic solution may be biased by perturbations in the velocities due to the short-period oscillations of the supergiant.

  20. Synergies between spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianning; De Cat, Peter; Ren, An-Bing; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Catanzaro, Giovanni; Corbally, Christopher J.; Frasca, Antonio; Gray, Richard O.; Cecylia Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Shi, Jian-Rong; Ali, Luo; Zhang, Haotong

    2015-08-01

    The NASA Kepler satellite has provided unprecedented high duty-cycle, high-precision light curves for a large number of stars by continuously monitoring a field of view in Cygnus-Lyra region, leading to great progress in both discovering exoplanets and characterizing planet-hosting stars by means of asteroseismic methods. The asteroseismic survey allows the investigation of stars covering the whole H-R diagram. However, the low precision of effective temperatures and surface gravities in the KIC10 catalogue and the lack of information on chemical composition, metallicity and rotation rate prevent asteroseismic modeling, requiring spectroscopic observations for thousands of asteroseismic targets in the Kepler field in a homogeneous way.In 2010, we initiated the LAMOST-Kepler project which aimed at collecting low-resolution spectra for as many objects from the KIC10 catalogue as possible, with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), a 4-m telescope equipped with 4,000 optical fibers. The first round of observations has been completed in fall 2014, covering all the 14 sub-fields at least once, resulting in more than 100,000 low-resolution spectra. The stellar atmospheric parameters are then derived and the results have been confirmed to be consistent with those reported in the literature based on high-resolution spectroscopy.

  1. High-Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rohith K.; Walsh, Michael J.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Carney, P. Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    The quality of images from an infrared (IR) microscope has traditionally been limited by considerations of throughput and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An understanding of the achievable quality as a function of instrument parameters, from first principals is needed for improved instrument design. Here, we first present a model for light propagation through an IR spectroscopic imaging system based on scalar wave theory. The model analytically describes the propagation of light along the entire beam path from the source to the detector. The effect of various optical elements and the sample in the microscope is understood in terms of the accessible spatial frequencies by using a Fourier optics approach and simulations are conducted to gain insights into spectroscopic image formation. The optimal pixel size at the sample plane is calculated and shown much smaller than that in current mid-IR microscopy systems. A commercial imaging system is modified, and experimental data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the developed model. Building on this validated theoretical foundation, an optimal sampling configuration is set up. Acquired data were of high spatial quality but, as expected, of poorer SNR. Signal processing approaches were implemented to improve the spectral SNR. The resulting data demonstrated the ability to perform high-definition IR imaging in the laboratory by using minimally-modified commercial instruments. PMID:23317676

  2. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sahar, M. R. Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-25

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  3. Spectroscopic diagnostics of organic chemistry in the protostellar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kuan, Y. J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical modelling is necessary to determine the organic chemistry of dense molecular clouds. We present spectroscopic evidence for the composition and evolution of organic molecules in protostellar environments. The principal reaction pathways to complex molecule formation by catalysis on dust grains and by reactions in the interstellar gas are described. Protostellar cores, where warming of dust has induced evaporation of icy grain mantles, are excellent sites in which to study the interaction between gas phase and grain-surface chemistries. We investigate the link between organics that are observed as direct products of grain surface reactions and those which are formed by secondary gas phase reactions of evaporated surface products. Theory predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, and also which new organics are viable for detection. We discuss recent infrared observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, laboratory studies of organic molecules, theories of molecule formation, and summarise recent radioastronomical searches for various complex molecules such as ethers, azaheterocyclic compounds, and amino acids.

  4. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of HF treated Si (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Huade; Woollam, John A.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-06-01

    Both ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were employed to investigate the effect of HF cleaning on Si surfaces. The hydrogen-terminated (H-terminated) Si surface was modeled as an equivalent dielectric layer, and monitored in real time by SE measurements. The SE analyses indicate that, after a 20-sec 9:1 HF dip without rinse, the Si (100) surface was passivated by the hydrogen termination and remained chemically stable. Roughness of the HF-etched bare Si (100) surface was observed, in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber (UHV), and analyzed by the in situ SE. Evidence for desorption of the H-terminated Si surface layer, after being heated to about 550 C in the UHV chamber, is presented and discussed. This is the first use of an ex situ and in situ real-time, nondestructive technique capable of showing state of passivation, the rate of reoxidation, and the surface roughness of the H-terminated Si surfaces.

  5. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of HF treated Si (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Huade; Woollam, John A.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-08-01

    Both ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were employed to investigate the effects of HF cleaning on Si surfaces. The hydrogen-terminated (H-terminated) Si surface was modeled as an equivalent dielectric layer, and monitored in real time by SE measurements. The SE analyses indicate that after a 20-s 9:1 HF dip without rinse, the Si(100) surface was passivated by the hydrogen termination and remained chemically stable. Roughness of the HF-etched bare Si(100) surface was observed, in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber, and analyzed by the in situ SE. Evidence for desorption of the H-terminated Si surface-layer, after being heated to approximately 550 C in the UHV chamber, is presented and discussed. This is the first use of an ex situ and in situ real-time, nondestructive technique capable of showing state of passivation, the rate of reoxidation, and the surface roughness of the H-terminated Si surfaces.

  6. Spectroscopic diagnostics of organic chemistry in the protostellar environment.

    PubMed

    Charnley, S B; Ehrenfreund, P; Kuan, Y J

    2001-03-15

    A combination of astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical modelling is necessary to determine the organic chemistry of dense molecular clouds. We present spectroscopic evidence for the composition and evolution of organic molecules in protostellar environments. The principal reaction pathways to complex molecule formation by catalysis on dust grains and by reactions in the interstellar gas are described. Protostellar cores, where warming of dust has induced evaporation of icy grain mantles, are excellent sites in which to study the interaction between gas phase and grain-surface chemistries. We investigate the link between organics that are observed as direct products of grain surface reactions and those which are formed by secondary gas phase reactions of evaporated surface products. Theory predicts observable correlations between specific interstellar molecules, and also which new organics are viable for detection. We discuss recent infrared observations obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory, laboratory studies of organic molecules, theories of molecule formation, and summarise recent radioastronomical searches for various complex molecules such as ethers, azaheterocyclic compounds, and amino acids.

  7. Imaging spectroscopic ellipsometry of MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, S.; Miller, B.; Parzinger, E.; Thiesen, P.; Holleitner, A. W.; Wurstbauer, U.

    2016-09-01

    Micromechanically exfoliated mono- and multilayers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are investigated by spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry. In combination with knife edge illumination, MoS2 flakes can be detected and classified on arbitrary flat and also transparent substrates with a lateral resolution down to 1-2 µm. The complex dielectric functions from mono- and trilayer MoS2 are presented. They are extracted from a multilayer model to fit the measured ellipsometric angles employing an anisotropic and an isotropic fit approach. We find that the energies of the critical points of the optical constants can be treated to be independent of the utilized model, whereas the magnitude of the optical constants varies with the used model. The anisotropic model suggests a maximum absorbance for a MoS2 sheet supported by sapphire of about 14% for monolayer and of 10% for trilayer MoS2. Furthermore, the lateral homogeneity of the complex dielectric function for monolayer MoS2 is investigated with a spatial resolution of 2 µm. Only minor fluctuations are observed. No evidence for strain, for a significant amount of disorder or lattice defects can be found in the wrinkle-free regions of the MoS2 monolayer from complementary µ-Raman spectroscopy measurements. We assume that the minor lateral variation in the optical constants are caused by lateral modification in the van der Waals interaction presumably caused by the preparation using micromechanical exfoliation and viscoelastic stamping.

  8. Imaging spectroscopic ellipsometry of MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, S.; Miller, B.; Parzinger, E.; Thiesen, P.; Holleitner, A. W.; Wurstbauer, U.

    2016-09-01

    Micromechanically exfoliated mono- and multilayers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are investigated by spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry. In combination with knife edge illumination, MoS2 flakes can be detected and classified on arbitrary flat and also transparent substrates with a lateral resolution down to 1–2 µm. The complex dielectric functions from mono- and trilayer MoS2 are presented. They are extracted from a multilayer model to fit the measured ellipsometric angles employing an anisotropic and an isotropic fit approach. We find that the energies of the critical points of the optical constants can be treated to be independent of the utilized model, whereas the magnitude of the optical constants varies with the used model. The anisotropic model suggests a maximum absorbance for a MoS2 sheet supported by sapphire of about 14% for monolayer and of 10% for trilayer MoS2. Furthermore, the lateral homogeneity of the complex dielectric function for monolayer MoS2 is investigated with a spatial resolution of 2 µm. Only minor fluctuations are observed. No evidence for strain, for a significant amount of disorder or lattice defects can be found in the wrinkle-free regions of the MoS2 monolayer from complementary µ-Raman spectroscopy measurements. We assume that the minor lateral variation in the optical constants are caused by lateral modification in the van der Waals interaction presumably caused by the preparation using micromechanical exfoliation and viscoelastic stamping.

  9. Imaging spectroscopic ellipsometry of MoS2.

    PubMed

    Funke, S; Miller, B; Parzinger, E; Thiesen, P; Holleitner, A W; Wurstbauer, U

    2016-09-28

    Micromechanically exfoliated mono- and multilayers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are investigated by spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry. In combination with knife edge illumination, MoS2 flakes can be detected and classified on arbitrary flat and also transparent substrates with a lateral resolution down to 1-2 µm. The complex dielectric functions from mono- and trilayer MoS2 are presented. They are extracted from a multilayer model to fit the measured ellipsometric angles employing an anisotropic and an isotropic fit approach. We find that the energies of the critical points of the optical constants can be treated to be independent of the utilized model, whereas the magnitude of the optical constants varies with the used model. The anisotropic model suggests a maximum absorbance for a MoS2 sheet supported by sapphire of about 14% for monolayer and of 10% for trilayer MoS2. Furthermore, the lateral homogeneity of the complex dielectric function for monolayer MoS2 is investigated with a spatial resolution of 2 µm. Only minor fluctuations are observed. No evidence for strain, for a significant amount of disorder or lattice defects can be found in the wrinkle-free regions of the MoS2 monolayer from complementary µ-Raman spectroscopy measurements. We assume that the minor lateral variation in the optical constants are caused by lateral modification in the van der Waals interaction presumably caused by the preparation using micromechanical exfoliation and viscoelastic stamping.

  10. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of an explanted opacified intraocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, V.; Radu, T.; Vulpoi, A.; Rosca, C.; Eniu, D.

    2015-01-01

    The investigated polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens explanted an year after implantation presented a fine granularity consisting of ring-like grains of about 15 μm in diameter. In order to evidence the changes occurred on intraocular lens relative to morphology, elemental composition and atomic environments, microscopic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results revealed that the grains contain hydroxyapatite mineral phase. A protein layer covers the lens both in opacified and transparent zones. The amide II band is like in basal epithelial cells. The shape and size of the grains, and the XPS depth profiling results indicate the possibility of a cell-mediated process involving lens epithelial cells which fagocitated apoptotic epithelial cells, and in which the debris derived from cell necrosis were calcified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on explanted intraocular lenses using XPS depth profiling in order to examine the inside of the opacifying deposits.

  11. Spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of southern post-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, D. J.; Cottrell, P. L.; Pollard, K. R.; Albrow, M. D.

    2004-05-01

    We present the results of contemporaneous photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 20 post-AGB stars from Mt John University Observatory. Photometric measures were carried our suing Johnson BV and Cousins RI filters, and the radial velocity measurements were acquired using spectra from an echelle spectrograph. Our program spanned five years and the stars covered a range of spectral types from B to K in order to investigate the behavior of post-AGB stars as they evolve away from the AGB. A number of stars proved to be variable inways incompatible with post-AGB models and are reclassified. Periodicities are presented for a number of stars. Photometrically, HD 70379 was found to be pulsating in two modes with periods of 85 and 97 d. The radial velocities also varied, with the peak amplitude occurring when the photometry was also changing most. AI CMi presented three different types of spectra associated with photometric brightness, with varying strengths of narrow emission lines and molecular bandheads. The Hα profiles in almost all of the stars show evidence of emission which varies on time scales of days to months. The Na D line profiles are generally complex showing between 4 and 7 components due to both circumstellar and interstellar material.

  12. A Spectroscopic-Based Laboratory Experiment for Protein Conformational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Carlos Henrique I.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a practical experiment for teaching basic spectroscopic techniques to introduce the topic of protein conformational change to students in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, or structural biology. The spectroscopic methods employed in the experiment are absorbance, for protein concentration measurements, and…

  13. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P.

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  14. Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka

    2008-01-01

    A new type of DVD spectroscope, the periscope type, is described and the numerical analysis of the observed emission and absorption spectra is demonstrated. A small and thin mirror is put inside and an eighth part of a DVD is used as a grating. Using this improved DVD spectroscope, one can observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and…

  15. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  16. Spectroscopic Signature of Aging in (delta)-Pu(Ga)

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Schwartz, A J; Ebbinghaus, B B; Fluss, M J; Haslam, J J; Blobaum, K M; Tobin, J G

    2005-04-15

    Resonant Photoemission, a variant of Photoelectron Spectroscopy, has been demonstrated to have sensitivity to aging of Pu samples. The spectroscopic results are correlated with resistivity measurements and are shown to be the fingerprint of mesoscopic or nanoscale internal damage in the Pu physical structure. This means that a spectroscopic signature of internal damage due to aging in Pu has been established.

  17. Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Slosar, Anze; Abate, Alexandra; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Allam, Sahar; Allen, Steven W.; Ansari, Reza; Bailey, Stephen; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Beers, Timothy C.; Blanton, Michael R.; Brodwin, Mark; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brunner, Robert J.; Carrasco-Kind, Matias; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Colless, Matthew; Comparat, Johan; Coupon, Jean; Cheu, Elliott; Cunha, Carlos E.; de la Macorra, Alex; Dell’Antonio, Ian P.; Frye, Brenda L.; Gawiser, Eric J.; Gehrels, Neil; Grady, Kevin; Hagen, Alex; Hall, Patrick B.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hirata, Christopher M.; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Huterer, Dragan; Ivezic, Zeljko; Kneib, Jean -Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Lahav, Ofer; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Matthews, Daniel J.; Menard, Brice; Miquel, Ramon; Moniez, Marc; Moos, H. W.; Moustakas, John; Papovich, Casey; Peacock, John A.; Park, Changbom; Rhodes, Jason; Sadeh, Iftach; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Stern, Daniel K.; Tyson, J. Anthony; von der Linden, Anja; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Zentner, A.

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing and near-future imaging-based dark energy experiments are critically dependent upon photometric redshifts (a.k.a. photo-z’s): i.e., estimates of the redshifts of objects based only on flux information obtained through broad filters. Higher-quality, lower-scatter photo-z’s will result in smaller random errors on cosmological parameters; while systematic errors in photometric redshift estimates, if not constrained, may dominate all other uncertainties from these experiments. The desired optimization and calibration is dependent upon spectroscopic measurements for secure redshift information; this is the key application of galaxy spectroscopy for imaging-based dark energy experiments. Hence, to achieve their full potential, imaging-based experiments will require large sets of objects with spectroscopically-determined redshifts, for two purposes: Training: Objects with known redshift are needed to map out the relationship between object color and z (or, equivalently, to determine empirically-calibrated templates describing the rest-frame spectra of the full range of galaxies, which may be used to predict the color-z relation). The ultimate goal of training is to minimize each moment of the distribution of differences between photometric redshift estimates and the true redshifts of objects, making the relationship between them as tight as possible. The larger and more complete our “training set” of spectroscopic redshifts is, the smaller the RMS photo-z errors should be, increasing the constraining power of imaging experiments; Requirements: Spectroscopic redshift measurements for ~30,000 objects over >~15 widely-separated regions, each at least ~20 arcmin in diameter, and reaching the faintest objects used in a given experiment, will likely be necessary if photometric redshifts are to be trained and calibrated with conventional techniques. Larger, more complete samples (i.e., with longer exposure times) can improve photo-z algorithms and reduce scatter

  18. Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Slosar, Anze; Abate, Alexandra; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Allam, Sahar; Allen, Steven W.; Ansari, Reza; Bailey, Stephen; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Beers, Timothy C.; et al

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing and near-future imaging-based dark energy experiments are critically dependent upon photometric redshifts (a.k.a. photo-z’s): i.e., estimates of the redshifts of objects based only on flux information obtained through broad filters. Higher-quality, lower-scatter photo-z’s will result in smaller random errors on cosmological parameters; while systematic errors in photometric redshift estimates, if not constrained, may dominate all other uncertainties from these experiments. The desired optimization and calibration is dependent upon spectroscopic measurements for secure redshift information; this is the key application of galaxy spectroscopy for imaging-based dark energy experiments. Hence, to achieve their full potential, imaging-based experiments will require large setsmore » of objects with spectroscopically-determined redshifts, for two purposes: Training: Objects with known redshift are needed to map out the relationship between object color and z (or, equivalently, to determine empirically-calibrated templates describing the rest-frame spectra of the full range of galaxies, which may be used to predict the color-z relation). The ultimate goal of training is to minimize each moment of the distribution of differences between photometric redshift estimates and the true redshifts of objects, making the relationship between them as tight as possible. The larger and more complete our “training set” of spectroscopic redshifts is, the smaller the RMS photo-z errors should be, increasing the constraining power of imaging experiments; Requirements: Spectroscopic redshift measurements for ~30,000 objects over >~15 widely-separated regions, each at least ~20 arcmin in diameter, and reaching the faintest objects used in a given experiment, will likely be necessary if photometric redshifts are to be trained and calibrated with conventional techniques. Larger, more complete samples (i.e., with longer exposure times) can improve photo-z algorithms and reduce

  19. THE SPECTROSCOPIC DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Blondin, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Mandel, K. S.; Challis, P.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Garnavich, P. M.; Jha, S. W.; Modjaz, M.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.

    2012-05-15

    We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), including 2065 previously unpublished spectra, obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. There are on average eight spectra for each of the 313 SNe Ia with at least two spectra. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5 m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making this data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. Using additional data from the literature, we study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SNe Ia with broader lines, although the result is not statistically significant with the present sample. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II {lambda}6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from {approx}0 to {approx}400 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1} considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B - V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties and host galaxy dust. We study the extent of nuclear burning and the presence of unburnt carbon in the outermost layers of the ejecta and report new detections of C II {lambda}6580 in 23 early-time SN Ia spectra. The frequency of C II detections is not higher in SNe Ia with bluer colors or narrower light curves, in conflict with the recent results of Thomas et al. Based on nebular spectra of 27 SNe Ia, we find no relation between the FWHM of the iron emission feature at {approx}4700 A and {Delta}m{sub 15}(B) after removing the two low-luminosity SN 1986G and SN 1991bg, suggesting that the

  20. Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, Juliet; Flynn, Chris; Portinari, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims: This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48 000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods: The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar analogues versus a reference solar reflection spectrum. Results: We derive spectroscopic parameters for 148 solar analogues (about 70 are new entries to the literature) and verify with a-posteriori differential tests that our values are well-centred on the solar values. We use our dataset to assess the two alternative calibrations of the GCS parameters; our methods favour the latest revision. We show that the choice of spectral line list or the choice of asteroid or time of observation does not affect the results. We also identify seven solar twins in our sample, three of which are published here for the first time. Conclusions: Our methods provide an independent means to differentially test the calibration of stellar catalogues around the values of a well-known benchmark star, which makes our work interesting for calibration tests of upcoming Galactic surveys. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 077.D

  1. THE FIRST SPECTROSCOPICALLY RESOLVED SUB-PARSEC ORBIT OF A SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Bon, E.; Jovanovic, P.; Bon, N.; Popovic, L. C.; Marziani, P.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Borka Jovanovic, V.; Borka, D.; Sulentic, J.

    2012-11-10

    One of the most intriguing scenarios proposed to explain how active galactic nuclei are triggered involves the existence of a supermassive binary black hole (BH) system in their cores. Here, we present an observational evidence for the first spectroscopically resolved sub-parsec orbit of a such system in the core of Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Using a method similar to those typically used for spectroscopic binary stars, we obtained radial velocity curves of the supermassive binary system, from which we calculated orbital elements and made estimates about the masses of the components. Our analysis shows that periodic variations in the light and radial velocity curves can be accounted for by an eccentric, sub-parsec Keplerian orbit with a 15.9 year period. The flux maximum in the light curve corresponds to the approaching phase of the secondary component toward the observer. According to the obtained results, we speculate that the periodic variations in the observed H{alpha} line shape and flux are due to shock waves generated by the supersonic motion of the components through the surrounding medium. Given the large observational effort needed to reveal this spectroscopically resolved binary orbital motion, we suggest that many such systems may exist in similar objects even if they are hard to find. Detecting more of them will provide us with insight into the BH mass growth process.

  2. GRB 070714B—Discovery of the Highest Spectroscopically Confirmed Short Burst Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J. F.; Fruchter, A. S.; Levan, A. J.; Melandri, A.; Kewley, L. J.; Levesque, E. M.; Nysewander, M.; Tanvir, N. R.; Dahlen, T.; Bersier, D.; Wiersema, K.; Bonfield, D. G.; Martinez-Sansigre, A.

    2009-06-01

    We detect the optical afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 070714B. Our observations of the afterglow show an initial plateau in the light curve for approximately the first 5-25 minutes, and then steepening to a power-law decay with index α = 0.86 ± 0.10 for the period between 1 and 24 hr postburst. This is consistent with the X-ray light curve which shows an initial plateau followed by a similar subsequent decay. At late time, we detect a host galaxy at the location of the optical transient. Gemini Nod & Shuffle spectroscopic observations of the host show a single emission line at 7167 Å which, based on a griz JHK photometric redshift, we conclude is the 3727 Å [O II] line. We therefore find a redshift of z = 0.923. This redshift, as well as a subsequent probable spectroscopic redshift determination of GRB 070429B at z = 0.904 by two other groups significantly exceeds the previous highest spectroscopically confirmed short burst redshift of z = 0.546 for GRB 051221. This dramatically moves back the time at which we know short bursts were being formed and suggests that the present evidence for an old progenitor population may be observationally biased.

  3. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm—a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra. PMID:27452975

  4. Super-resolution spectroscopic microscopy via photon localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay; Urban, Ben E.; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Khuon, Satya; Chew, Teng-Leong; Backman, Vadim; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-07-01

    Traditional photon localization microscopy analyses only the spatial distributions of photons emitted by individual molecules to reconstruct super-resolution optical images. Unfortunately, however, the highly valuable spectroscopic information from these photons have been overlooked. Here we report a spectroscopic photon localization microscopy that is capable of capturing the inherent spectroscopic signatures of photons from individual stochastic radiation events. Spectroscopic photon localization microscopy achieved higher spatial resolution than traditional photon localization microscopy through spectral discrimination to identify the photons emitted from individual molecules. As a result, we resolved two fluorescent molecules, which were 15 nm apart, with the corresponding spatial resolution of 10 nm--a four-fold improvement over photon localization microscopy. Using spectroscopic photon localization microscopy, we further demonstrated simultaneous multi-colour super-resolution imaging of microtubules and mitochondria in COS-7 cells and showed that background autofluorescence can be identified through its distinct emission spectra.

  5. Spectroscopic Infrared Extinction Mapping as a Probe of Grain Growth in IRDCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Carey, Sean J.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2015-11-01

    We present spectroscopic tests of MIR to FIR extinction laws in IRDC G028.36+00.07, a potential site of massive star and star cluster formation. Lim & Tan developed methods of FIR extinction mapping of this source using Spitzer-MIPS 24 μm and Herschel-PACS 70 μm images, and by comparing to MIR Spitzer-IRAC 3-8 μm extinction maps, found tentative evidence for grain growth in the highest mass surface density regions. Here we present results of spectroscopic infrared extinction mapping using Spitzer-IRS (14-38 μm) data of the same Infrared dark cloud (IRDC). These methods allow us to first measure the SED of the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium that is in the foreground of the IRDC. We then carry out our primary investigation of measuring the MIR to FIR opacity law and searching for potential variations as a function of mass surface density within the IRDC. We find relatively flat, featureless MIR-FIR opacity laws that lack the ˜12 and ˜35 μm features associated with the thick water ice mantle models of Ossenkopf & Henning. Their thin ice mantle models and the coagulating aggregate dust models of Ormel et al. are a generally better match to the observed opacity laws. We also find evidence for generally flatter MIR to FIR extinction laws as mass surface density increases, strengthening the evidence for grain and ice mantle growth in higher density regions.

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING AS A PROBE OF GRAIN GROWTH IN IRDCs

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Wanggi; Carey, Sean J.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2015-11-20

    We present spectroscopic tests of MIR to FIR extinction laws in IRDC G028.36+00.07, a potential site of massive star and star cluster formation. Lim and Tan developed methods of FIR extinction mapping of this source using Spitzer-MIPS 24 μm and Herschel-PACS 70 μm images, and by comparing to MIR Spitzer-IRAC 3–8 μm extinction maps, found tentative evidence for grain growth in the highest mass surface density regions. Here we present results of spectroscopic infrared extinction mapping using Spitzer-IRS (14–38 μm) data of the same Infrared dark cloud (IRDC). These methods allow us to first measure the SED of the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium that is in the foreground of the IRDC. We then carry out our primary investigation of measuring the MIR to FIR opacity law and searching for potential variations as a function of mass surface density within the IRDC. We find relatively flat, featureless MIR–FIR opacity laws that lack the ∼12 and ∼35 μm features associated with the thick water ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. Their thin ice mantle models and the coagulating aggregate dust models of Ormel et al. are a generally better match to the observed opacity laws. We also find evidence for generally flatter MIR to FIR extinction laws as mass surface density increases, strengthening the evidence for grain and ice mantle growth in higher density regions.

  7. Spectroscopic study of sub-barrier quasi-elastic nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pass, C.N.; Evans, P.M.; Smith, A.E.; Stuttge, L.; Betts, R.R.; Lilley, J.S.; Connell, K.A.; Simpson, J.; Smith, J.R.; James, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The technique developed in this paper is particularly well suited to the detailed spectroscopic study of low energy quasi-elastic nuclear reactions and by overcoming the limitations of conventional procedure, the prospect of detailed studies of inclusive reaction mechanism may be realised. With only limited statistics we find evidence for strong multistep character in the transfer of a single nucleon from spherical vibrational target to spherical projectile nuclei. The suggestive measurements reported here may be made definitive through extended runs based on this technique and experiments planned for the future offer the real prospect of developing a quantified interpretation of the reaction process. 9 refs. 5 figs.

  8. Spectroscopic observations of the counterpart of IGR J00291+5934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, G.; Jonker, P. G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M.; Nelemans, G.

    2004-12-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the optical counterpart of the millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 (Atel #352, 353) reported in an Atel by Fox & Kulkarni were obtained (Dec 5 00:29-01:15 UT) with the ISIS spectrograph mounted on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Weather conditions were not optimal with a seeing of ~2" and thin clouds. The spectra show weak evidence for broad emission line features near the HeII line at 4686 Angstrom and near the Halpha line at 6563 Angstrom.

  9. Facile synthesis and spectroscopic elucidation of 4,11-bis(dehydroxy)-bipolaroamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jainta, Manuel; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    A new diketopiperazine was formed by facile condensation of the artificial 2-indoline carboxylic acid. This highly crystalline compound was characterized by NMR-spectroscopy as well as X-ray crystallography. Spectroscopic data of the new pentacyclic diketopiperazine revealed further evidence that the phosphite-promoted coupling used is free of racemization or inversion. These stereochemical results are important for this advanced reaction and may lead to a key step in the total synthesis of many natural products. The dimerized 2-indoline carboxylic acid described herein was chosen to be a model system for structure and reaction studies on route to the favored rostratines.

  10. Spectroscopic sensitive polarimeter for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Nayak, Amritha; Prahl, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    We present the design and calibration of a spectroscopic sensitive polarimeter. The polarimeter can measure the full Stokes vector in the wavelength range 550 to 750 nm with 1-nm resolution and consists of a fiber-based spectrophotometer, a white light emitting diode light source, two liquid crystal retarders, and one polarizer. Calibration of the system is achieved with a scheme that does not require knowledge of the polarizing elements' orientation or retardation. Six intensity spectra are required to calculate the full spectrum Stokes vector. Error in the polarimeter is less than 5%. We report the Stokes vectors for light transmitted through nonscattering polarizing elements as well as a measurement of the depolarizing properties of chicken muscle at several wavelengths. PMID:21529091

  11. Spectroscopic diagnostics of high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-year research program for the development of novel XUV spectroscopic diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is proposed. The new diagnostic system will use layered synthetic microstructures (LSM) coated, flat and curved surfaces as dispersive elements in spectrometers and narrow band XUV filter arrays. In the framework of the proposed program we will develop impurity monitors for poloidal and toroidal resolved measurements on PBX-M and Alcator C-Mod, imaging XUV spectrometers for electron density and temperature fluctuation measurements in the hot plasma core in TEXT or other similar tokamaks and plasma imaging devices in soft x-ray light for impurity behavior studies during RF heating on Phaedrus T and carbon pellet ablation in Alcator C-Mod. Recent results related to use of multilayer in XUV plasma spectroscopy are presented. We also discuss the latest results reviewed to q{sub o} and local poloidal field measurements using Zeeman polarimetry.

  12. Asiago spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16bp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16bp ( = AT 2016adq), discovered by All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae ASAS-SN (see Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48 and http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~assassin/index.shtml ), in CGCG 336-041 (Atel #8666) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm). Name | Discovery UT | Obs. Date UT |z | Type | Phase |Notes ASASSN-16bp | 20160209.61 | 20160211.11 |0.034194 | Ia | ~10d | (1) (1) Also known as SN2016adq in CGCG 336-041 (z=0.034194, d=145 Mpc, via NED).

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of isomerization transition states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, Joshua H.; Changala, P. Bryan; Mellau, Georg Ch.; Stanton, John F.; Merer, Anthony J.; Field, Robert W.

    2015-12-01

    Transition state theory is central to our understanding of chemical reaction dynamics. We demonstrate a method for extracting transition state energies and properties from a characteristic pattern found in frequency-domain spectra of isomerizing systems. This pattern—a dip in the spacings of certain barrier-proximal vibrational levels—can be understood using the concept of effective frequency, ωeff. The method is applied to the cis-trans conformational change in the S1 state of C2H2 and the bond-breaking HCN-HNC isomerization. In both cases, the barrier heights derived from spectroscopic data agree extremely well with previous ab initio calculations. We also show that it is possible to distinguish between vibrational modes that are actively involved in the isomerization process and those that are passive bystanders.

  14. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF THE PISCES OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Simon, Joshua D.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Gould, Andrew; Ivezic, Zeljko; Sesar, Branimir

    2009-11-10

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of the 'Pisces Overdensity', also known as 'Structure J', a photometric overdensity of RR Lyrae stars discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at an estimated photometric distance of approx85 kpc. We measure radial velocities for eight RR Lyrae stars within Pisces. We find that five of the eight stars have heliocentric radial velocities within a narrow range of -87 km s{sup -1} < v{sub r} < -67 km s{sup -1}, suggesting that the photometric overdensity is mainly due to a physically associated system, probably a dwarf galaxy or a disrupted galaxy. Two of the remaining three stars differ from one another by only 9 km s{sup -1}, but it would be premature to identify them as a second system.

  15. Spectroscopic Study of Multiple IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hovhannisyan, L. R.; Sargsyan, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations by the 2.6 m BAO telescope of IRAS galaxies identified on the basis of the First Byurakan Survey (BIG objects) are reported. Slit spectra were obtained for 16 objects, including components of 7 multiple systems and 2 individual galaxies. The red shifts were measured, and the radial velocities, distances, absolute stellar magnitudes, and infrared and far infrared luminosities were calculated. A diagnostic diagram has been constructed based on the intensity ratios of emission lines and the activity types of the objects have been determined. Two LINERs, five galaxies with composite spectra (Comp, one of which has Sy2 features) and seven HII regions were found. Two objects are ultraluminous IR galaxies (ULIG). It is shown that all the multiple systems are physical pairs or groups. The observed high IR luminosity confirms the view that ULIG/HLIGs may be associated with interactions of galaxies.

  16. Laser spectroscopic measurement of helium isotope ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.-B.; Mueller, P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sano, Y.; Sturchio, N.; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Tokyo; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2003-06-13

    A sensitive laser spectroscopic method has been applied to the quantitative determination of the isotope ratio of helium at the level of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He = 10{sup -7}--10{sup -5}. The resonant absorption of 1083 nm laser light by the metastable {sup 3}He atoms in a discharge cell was measured with the frequency modulation saturation spectroscopy technique while the abundance of {sup 4}He was measured by a direct absorption technique. The results on three different samples extracted from the atmosphere and commercial helium gas were in good agreement with values obtained with mass spectrometry. The achieved 3{sigma} detection limit of {sup 3}He in helium is 4 x 10{sup -9}. This demonstration required a 200 {mu}L STP sample of He. The sensitivity can be further improved, and the required sample size reduced, by several orders of magnitude with the addition of cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

  17. Mobile Spectroscopic Instrumentation in Archaeometry Research.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Donais, Mary Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mobile instrumentation is of growing importance to archaeometry research. Equipment is utilized in the field or at museums, thus avoiding transportation or risk of damage to valuable artifacts. Many spectroscopic techniques are nondestructive and micro-destructive in nature, which preserves the cultural heritage objects themselves. This review includes over 160 references pertaining to the use of mobile spectroscopy for archaeometry. Following a discussion of terminology related to mobile instrumental methods, results of a literature survey on their applications for cultural heritage objects is presented. Sections devoted to specific techniques are then provided: Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and less frequently used techniques. The review closes with a discussion of combined instrumental approaches.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  19. Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

  20. Parallel detecting, spectroscopic ellipsometers/polarimeters

    DOEpatents

    Furtak, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    The parallel detecting spectroscopic ellipsometer/polarimeter sensor has no moving parts and operates in real-time for in-situ monitoring of the thin film surface properties of a sample within a processing chamber. It includes a multi-spectral source of radiation for producing a collimated beam of radiation directed towards the surface of the sample through a polarizer. The thus polarized collimated beam of radiation impacts and is reflected from the surface of the sample, thereby changing its polarization state due to the intrinsic material properties of the sample. The light reflected from the sample is separated into four separate polarized filtered beams, each having individual spectral intensities. Data about said four individual spectral intensities is collected within the processing chamber, and is transmitted into one or more spectrometers. The data of all four individual spectral intensities is then analyzed using transformation algorithms, in real-time.

  1. Compact fluorescence spectroscopic tool for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Valerie; Hamdan, Khaled; Hewett, Jacqueline; Makaryceva, Juljia; Tait, Iain; Cuschieri, Alfred; Padgett, Miles J.

    2002-05-01

    We describe a compact fluorescence spectroscopic tool for in vivo point monitoring of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence and autofluorescence, as a non-invasive method of differentiating normal and cancerous tissue. This instrument incorporates a 405nm diode laser with a shutter to prevent exposure of tissue to harmful light doses and reduce photobleaching, a bifurcated optical fibre to allow illumination of tissue and collection of fluorescence with a single fibre, a compact grating spectrometer for collection of spectra and a PC for system control. We present spectra obtained using this system both during routine gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy for cancer detection and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) for monitoring of treatment progress. These results illustrate the potential of the system to be used for fluorescence monitoring in a variety of clinical applications.

  2. Infrared Imaging, Spectroscopic, and Photometric Studies of Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, Robert D.

    1997-01-01

    We have continued our program of infrared (IR) photometric, imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric temporal observations of comets to study the properties of comet dust and comet nuclei. During the first two years we digitized our IR data base on P/Halley and other recent comets to facilitate further analysis and comparison with other data bases, and found compelling evidence for the emission of a burst of small grains from P/Halley's nucleus at perihelion. We reported imaging and photometric observations of Comets Austin 1990 V and Swift-Tuttle 1992. The Swift-Tuttle 1992t observations included IR photometry, several 7-14 micron long-slit spectra of the coma and a time-sequence of more than 150 10 micron broadband images of the coma. An analysis of near-IR images of the inner coma of P/Halley obtained on three consecutive nights in 1986 March showed sunwardjets. We completed our analysis of IR imaging spectrosco-photometric data on comets. We also obtained observations of Comets Hyakutake 1996 B2 and Hale/Bopp 1995 01. We obtained infrared imaging, photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric temporal observations of bright comets using a network of five telescopes, with emphasis on simultaneous observations of comets at many wavelengths with different instruments. Our program offers several unique advantages: 1) rapid observational response to new comets with dedicated infrared telescopes; 2) observations within a few degrees of the sun when comets are near perihelion and 3) access to advanced infrared array imagers and spectrometers. In particular, reduction, analysis, publication and archiving of our Jupiter/sl-9 and Comet Hyakutake infrared data received special emphasis. Instrumentation development included installation of the latest version of the innovative FORTH telescope control and a data acquisition system that enables us to control three telescopes remotely by telephone from anywhere in the world for comet observations in broad daylight. We have

  3. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses

  4. Are your Spectroscopic Data being used?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Wilzewski, Jonas S.

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopy is an established and indispensable tool in science, industry, agriculture, medicine, surveillance, etc.. The potential user of spectral data which is not available in HITRAN1 or other databases, searches the spectroscopy publications. After finding the desired publication, the user very often encounters the following problems: 1) They cannot find the data described in the paper. There can be many reasons for this: nothing is provided in the paper itself or supplementary material; the authors are not responding to any requests; the web links provided in the paper have long been broken, etc.. 2) The data is presented in a reduced form, for instance through the fitted spectroscopic constants. While this is a long-standing practice among spectroscopists, there are numerous serious problems with this practice, such as users getting different energy and intensity values because of different representations of the solution to the Hamiltonian, or even just despairing of trying to generate usable line lists from the published constants. Properly providing the data benefits not only users but also the authors of the spectroscopic research. We will show that this increases citations to the spectroscopy papers and visibility of the research groups. We will also address the quite common issue when researchers obtain the data, but do not feel that they have time, interest or resources to write an article describing it. There are modern tools that allow one to make these data available to potential users and still get credit for it. However, this is a worst case scenario recommendation, i.e., publishing the data in a peer-reviewed journal is still the preferred way.

  5. Spectroscopic detection of chemotherapeutics and antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latka, Ines; Grüner, Roman; Matthäus, Christian; Dietzek, Benjamin; Werncke, W.; Lademann, Jürgen; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    The hand-foot-syndrome presents a severe dermal side-effect of chemotherapeutic cancer treatment. The cause of this side-effect is the elimination of systemically administered chemotherapeutics with the sweat. Transported to the skin surface, the drugs subsequently penetrate into the skin in the manner of topically applied substances. Upon accumulation of the chemotherapeutics in the skin the drugs destroy cells and tissue - in the same way as they are supposed to act in cancer cells. Aiming at the development of strategies to illuminate the molecular mechanism underlying the handfoot- syndrome (and, in a second step, strategies to prevent this severe side-effect), it might be important to evaluate the concentration and distribution of chemotherapeutics and antioxidants in the human skin. The latter can be estimated by the carotenoid concentration, as carotenoids serve as marker substances for the dermal antioxidative status.Following the objectives outlined above, this contribution presents a spectroscopic study aiming at the detection and quantification of carotenoids and selected chemotherapeutics in human skin. To this end, spontaneous Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy are combined with two-photon excited fluorescence. While the latter technique is Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to your MySPIE To Do List at http://myspie.org and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval.restricted to the detection of fluorescent chemotherapeutics, e.g., doxorubicin, the vibrational spectroscopic techniques can - in principle - be applied to any type of analyte molecules. Furthermore, we will present the

  6. Spectroscopic neutron detection using composite scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, I.; Foster, A.; Kukharev, V.; Mayer, M.; Meddeb, A.; Nattress, J.; Ounaies, Z.; Trivelpiece, C.

    2016-09-01

    Shielded special nuclear material (SNM), especially highly enriched uranium, is exceptionally difficult to detect without the use of active interrogation (AI). We are investigating the potential use of low-dose active interrogation to realize simultaneous high-contrast imaging and photofission of SNM using energetic gamma-rays produced by low-energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C and 12C(p,p‧)12C. Neutrons produced via fission are one reliable signature of the presence of SNM and are usually identified by their unique timing characteristics, such as the delayed neutron die-away. Fast neutron spectroscopy may provide additional useful discriminating characteristics for SNM detection. Spectroscopic measurements can be conducted by recoil-based or thermalization and capture-gated detectors; the latter may offer unique advantages since they facilitate low-statistics and event-by-event neutron energy measurements without spectrum unfolding. We describe the results of the development and characterization of a new type of capture-gated spectroscopic neutron detector based on a composite of scintillating polyvinyltoluene and lithium-doped scintillating glass in the form of millimeter-thick rods. The detector achieves >108 neutron-gamma discrimination resulting from its geometric properties and material selection. The design facilitates simultaneous pulse shape and pulse height discrimination, despite the fact that no materials intrinsically capable of pulse shape discrimination have been used to construct the detector. Accurate single-event measurements of neutron energy may be possible even when the energy is relatively low, such as with delayed fission neutrons. Simulation and preliminary measurements using the new composite detector are described, including those conducted using radioisotope sources and the low-dose active interrogation system based on low-energy nuclear reactions.

  7. Structural and spectroscopic changes to natural nontronite induced by experimental impacts between 10 and 40 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Lonia R.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Bish, David L.; Dyar, M. Darby; Sharp, Thomas G.; Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Michalski, Joseph R.

    2015-05-01

    Many phyllosilicate deposits remotely detected on Mars occur within bombarded terrains. Shock metamorphism from meteor impacts alters mineral structures, producing changed mineral spectra. Thus, impacts have likely affected the spectra of remotely sensed Martian phyllosilicates. We present spectral analysis results for a natural nontronite sample before and after laboratory-generated impacts over five peak pressures between 10 and 40 GPa. We conducted a suite of spectroscopic analyses to characterize the sample's impact-induced structural and spectral changes. Nontronite becomes increasingly disordered with increasing peak impact pressure. Every infrared spectroscopic technique used showed evidence of structural changes at shock pressures above ~25 GPa. Reflectance spectroscopy in the visible near-infrared region is primarily sensitive to the vibrations of metal-OH and interlayer H2O groups in the nontronite octahedral sheet. Midinfrared (MIR) spectroscopic techniques are sensitive to the vibrations of silicon and oxygen in the nontronite tetrahedral sheet. Because the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets of nontronite deform differently, impact-driven structural deformation may contribute to differences in phyllosilicate detection between remote sensing techniques sensitive to different parts of the nontronite structure. Observed spectroscopic changes also indicated that the sample's octahedral and tetrahedral sheets were structurally deformed but not completely dehydroxylated. This finding is an important distinction from previous studies of thermally altered phyllosilicates in which dehydroxylation follows dehydration in a stepwise progression preceding structural deformation. Impact alteration may thus complicate mineral-specific identifications based on the location of OH-group bands in remotely detected spectra. This is a key implication for Martian remote sensing arising from our results.

  8. The Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey: Spectroscopic Variability Investigations Within SDSS-IV/eBOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Morganson, Eric; Eracleous, Michael; Shen, Yue; Brandt, W. Niel; Ruan, John J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Badenes, Carles; West, Andrew A.; Ju, Wenhua; Greene, Jenny E.; Tdss, Panstarrs-1, Sdss-Iv

    2015-01-01

    The Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) is an SDSS-IV subproject that began summer 2014 and will continue for 4-6 years. Besides its main program to obtain initial characterization spectra of about 220,000 optical variables selected from PanSTARRS-1, the TDSS includes 9 separate smaller programs to study spectroscopic variability. We describe each of these Few-Epoch Spectroscopy (FES) programs, which target objects with existing SDSS spectroscopy amongst classes of quasars and stars of particular astrophysical interest. These include, in approximate order of decreasing sample size: Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BALQSOs), the most photometrically variable ("HyperVariable") quasars, high S/N normal broad line quasars, quasars with double-peaked or very asymmetric broad emission line profiles, Hypervariable stars, active ultracool (late-M and L-type) dwarf stars with Halpha emission, dwarf carbon stars, white dwarf/M dwarf spectroscopic binaries with Halpha emission, and binary supermassive black hole candidates from MgII broad line velocity shift analysis. We summarize herein the unique and diverse astrophysical investigations facilitated by these TDSS FES programs.

  9. Ultrasonic separation of a suspension for in situ spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogo, Kosuke; Qi, Wei; Mori, Keita; Ogawa, Satoshi; Inohara, Daichi; Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Application of spectroscopic techniques to suspensions is difficult because optical scattering caused by solid particles reduces the accuracy. At the extreme, dense suspensions like blood cannot be analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. In the present study, an ultrasonic standing wave was used to agglomerate fluorescent particles in an aqueous ethanol suspension at the nodes of the standing wave. Relatively clear liquid regions, which contained few particles that could cause optical scattering, appeared around the anti-nodes and were used for spectroscopic imaging. This produced a spectrum that was similar to that of clear aqueous ethanol without any fluorescent particles.

  10. Silicon immersion gratings and their spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Powell, Scott; Fletcher, Adam; Wan, Xiaoke; Chang, Liang; Jakeman, Hali; Koukis, Dimitrios; Tanner, David B.; Ebbets, Dennis; Weinberg, Jonathan; Lipscy, Sarah; Nyquist, Rich; Bally, John

    2012-09-01

    Silicon immersion gratings (SIGs) offer several advantages over the commercial echelle gratings for high resolution infrared (IR) spectroscopy: 3.4 times the gain in dispersion or ~10 times the reduction in the instrument volume, a multiplex gain for a large continuous wavelength coverage and low cost. We present results from lab characterization of a large format SIG of astronomical observation quality. This SIG, with a 54.74 degree blaze angle (R1.4), 16.1 l/mm groove density, and 50x86 mm2 grating area, was developed for high resolution IR spectroscopy (R~70,000) in the near IR (1.1-2.5 μm). Its entrance surface was coated with a single layer of silicon nitride antireflection (AR) coating and its grating surface was coated with a thin layer of gold to increase its throughput at 1.1-2.5 μm. The lab measurements have shown that the SIG delivered a spectral resolution of R=114,000 at 1.55 μm with a lab testing spectrograph with a 20 mm diameter pupil. The measured peak grating efficiency is 72% at 1.55 μm, which is consistent with the measurements in the optical wavelengths from the grating surface at the air side. This SIG is being implemented in a new generation cryogenic IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectrometer (FIRST), to offer broad-band high resolution IR spectroscopy with R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 um under a typical seeing condition in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array at the robotically controlled Tennessee State University 2-meter Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. FIRST is designed to provide high precision Doppler measurements (~4 m/s) for the identification and characterization of extrasolar planets, especially rocky planets in habitable zones, orbiting low mass M dwarf stars. It will also be used for other high resolution IR spectroscopic observations of such as young stars, brown dwarfs, magnetic fields, star formation and interstellar mediums. An optimally designed

  11. Spectroscopic orbits and variations of RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; Quiroga, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Ferrer, O. E.; García, L. G.

    2009-04-01

    Aims: The aims of our study are to improve the orbital elements of the giant and to derive the spectroscopic orbit for the white dwarf companion of the symbiotic system RS Oph. Spectral variations related to the 2006 outburst are also studied. Methods: We performed an analysis of about seventy optical and near infrared spectra of RS Oph that were acquired between 1998 and June 2008. The spectroscopic orbits were obtained by measuring the radial velocities of the cool component absorption lines and the broad Hα emission wings, which seem to be associated with the hot component. A set of cF-type absorption lines were also analyzed for a possible connection with the hot component motion. Results: A new period of 453.6 days and a mass ratio, q = M_g/Mh = 0.59 ± 0.05 were determined. Assuming a massive white dwarf as the hot component (Mh = 1.2-1.4 M⊙) the red giant mass is Mg = 0.68-0.80 M⊙ and the orbit inclination, i = 49°-52°. The cF-type lines are not associated with either binary component, and are most likely formed in the material streaming towards the hot component. We also confirm the presence of the Li I doublet in RS Oph and its radial velocities fit very well to the M-giant radial velocity curve. Regardless of the mechanism involved to produce lithium, its origin is most likely from within the cool giant rather than material captured by the giant at the time of the nova explosion. The quiescent spectra reveal a correlation of the H I and He I emission line fluxes with the monochromatic magnitudes at 4800 Å, indicating that the hot component activity is responsible for those flux variations. We also discuss the spectral characteristics around 54-55 and 240 days after the 2006 outburst. In April 2006 most of the emission lines present a broad pedestal with a strong and narrow component at about -20 km s-1 and two other extended emission components at -200 and +150 km s-1. These components could originate in a bipolar gas outflow supporting the model

  12. Skin hydration by spectroscopic imaging using multiple near-infrared bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attas, E. Michael; Sowa, Michael G.; Posthumus, Trevor B.; Schattka, Bernhard J.; Mantsch, Henry H.; Zhang, Shuliang L.

    2002-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic methods have been developed to determine the degree of hydration of human skin in vivo. Reflectance spectroscopic imaging was used to investigate the distribution of skin moisture as a function of location. A human study in a clinical setting has generated quantitative data showing the effects of a drying agent and a moisturizer on delineated regions of the forearms of eight volunteers. Two digital imaging systems equipped with liquid-crystal tunable filters were used to collect stacks of monochromatic images at 10-nm intervals over the wavelength bands 650-1050 nm and 960-1700 nm. Images generated from measurements of water absorption-band areas at three different near-IR wavelengths (970, 1200, and 1450 nm) showed obvious differences in the apparent distribution of water in skin. Changes resulting from the skin treatments were much more evident in the 1200-nm and 1450-nm images than in the 970-nm ones. The variable sensitivity of the method at different wavelengths has been interpreted as being the result of different penetration depths of the infrared light used in the reflectance studies. Ex-vivo experiments with pigskin have provided evidence supporting the relationship between wavelength and penetration depth. Combining the hydration results from several near-IR water bands allows additional information on hydration depth to be obtained.

  13. Spectroscopic Subsystems in Nearby Wide Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Radial velocity (RV) monitoring of solar-type visual binaries has been conducted at the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5 m telescope to study short-period systems. The data reduction is described, and mean and individual RVs of 163 observed objects are given. New spectroscopic binaries are discovered or suspected in 17 objects, and for some of them the orbital periods could be determined. Subsystems are efficiently detected even in a single observation by double lines and/or by the RV difference between the components of visual binaries. The potential of this detection technique is quantified by simulation and used for statistical assessment of 96 wide binaries within 67 pc. It is found that 43 binaries contain at least one subsystem, and the occurrence of subsystems is equally probable in either primary or secondary components. The frequency of subsystems and their periods matches the simple prescription proposed by the author. The remaining 53 simple wide binaries with a median projected separation of 1300 AU have an RV difference distribution between their components that is not compatible with the thermal eccentricity distribution f (e) = 2e but rather matches the uniform eccentricity distribution.

  14. Highlights of the Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (bss)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Hanumant; Cecatto, José; Meszarosova, Hana; Faria, Claudio; Fernandes, Francisco; Karlicky, Marian; Andrade, Maria

    The digital, decimetric (1000-2500 MHz) Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS) with high time (10- 1000 ms) and frequency (1-10 MHz) resolution is in regular operation since April, 1998, at the National Space Research Institute (INPE) at Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. The BSS has now been upgraded with a new digital data acquisition and data processing system. The new version of the BSS has a 14 bit A/D unit which permits improved combination of the observational parameters with a capability to record up to 200 frequency channels available in a selectable frequency range of 1000-2500 MHz. It permits data acquisition up to 5 ms time resolution with a limited number of frequency channels. The software system of the BSS is composed by two distinct modules: The first, data acquisition system provides a flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows one to choose a number of observational parameters. The second module is the real time visualization system that permits real time visualization of the observed dynamic spectrum and additionally has procedures for visualization and preliminary analysis of the recorded solar spectra. Using the new visualization system, we have realized two new types of dm-radio fine structures: narrow band type III bursts with positive/negative group frequency drift and dots-emissions arranged in zebras and fibers.

  15. New infrared spectroscopic database for bromine nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Georg; Birk, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Fourier transform infrared measurements of bromine nitrate have been performed in the spectral region 675-1400 cm-1 at 0.014 cm-1 spectral resolution. Absorption cross sections were derived from 38 spectra covering the temperature range from 203 to 296 K and air pressure range from 0 to 190 mbar. For line-by-line analysis, further spectra were recorded at 0.00094 cm-1 spectral resolution at 223 and 293 K. The sample was synthesized from ClONO2 and Br2. Band strengths of the bands ν3 around 803 cm-1 and ν2 around 1286 cm-1 were determined from three pure BrONO2 measurements at different temperatures and pressures. Number densities in the absorption cell were derived from pressure measurements of the purified sample taking into account small amounts of impurities determined spectroscopically. Resulting band strengths are Sν3 = 2.872(52) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1 and Sν2 = 3.63(15) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1. Absorption cross sections of all measurements were scaled to these band strengths. Further data reduction was achieved with an interpolation scheme based on two-dimensional polynomials in ln(pressure) and temperature. The database is well-suited for remote-sensing application and should reduce the atmospheric bromine nitrate error budget substantially.

  16. Quadrupole resonance spectroscopic study of narcotic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; West, Rebecca; Garroway, Allen N.; Lyndquist, R.; Yesinowski, James P.

    1997-02-01

    Bulk narcotic detection systems based upon Quadrupole Resonance Analysis (QRA) technology have a major advantage over imaging technologies, in that QRA is chemical-specific and consequently has a lower rate of false alarms. QRA is a magnetic resonance technology which occurs as a result of the inherent molecular properties of the atomic nuclei in crystalline and amorphous solids. The QRA response is characterized by 1) the precessional frequency of the nucleus, and 2) the nature of the electric field gradient experienced by the nucleus,due to its molecular environment. Another important detection parameter is linewidth, resonant quality. All of these parameters depend on sample purity and manufacturing process. Quantum Magnetics recently carried out a study on the QRA signatures of various narcotic materials with the support of the US Army, US Customs, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy. The aim of the study was to fully characterize the variation in QRA spectroscopic parameters of different samples of cocaine base and cocaine hydrochloride. The results from this study ar discussed here.

  17. The X-type asteroids: spectroscopic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Clark, B. E.; Dotto, E.

    2011-10-01

    We have carried out a spectroscopic survey in the 2004-2007 years of X-type asteroids in the visible and near infrared range at the NTT, TNG and IRTF telescopes. In this paper we present new VIS-NIR spectra of 24 asteroids belonging to the X type as defined by Tholen & Barucci [1], that is an "E-M-P" type asteroid for which albedo information was not available at the time of their classification. We find a large variety of near-infrared spectral behaviors within the X class, and we identify weak absorption bands in spectra of 11 asteroids. Our spectra, together with the new albedo values [2], can be used to suggest new Tholen classifications for these objects. To constrain their compositions, we conduct a search for meteorite analogues using the RELAB database, and we model the asteroid surface composition with geographical mixtures of selected minerals when a meteorite match is not satisfactory. In addition, we present an analysis of X complex spectral slope values and class distributions in the asteroid main belt, where we include previously published observations ofMand E-type asteroids obtained during the same survey [3,4].

  18. A spectroscopic refractometer based on plasmonic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jing; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-02-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a spectroscopic refractometer that employs plasmonic interferometry to measure the optical dielectric functions of materials in the visible range. The proposed device, dubbed a plasmonic refractometer, consists of an array of slit-groove plasmonic interferometers etched in a ˜300 nm-thick metal film (silver or gold) with arm lengths varying in steps of 25 nm up to ˜8 μm. The nano-groove in each interferometer is able to generate propagating surface plasmon polaritons efficiently in a broad wavelength range, without requiring prism- or grating-coupling configurations. An integrated microfluidic channel ensures uniform delivery of dielectric materials in liquid phase. Spectrally resolved plasmonic interferograms are generated by measuring light transmission spectra through the slit of each slit-groove plasmonic interferometer and plotting the normalized intensity as a function of arm length (0.26-8.16 μm) and incident wavelength (400-800 nm) for various combinations of metal/dielectric materials. Fits of the plasmonic interferograms with a surface plasmon interference model allow determination of the refractive index dispersion of a broad class of dielectric materials, over a wide range of wavelengths and dielectric constants. As proof of concept, we extract and report the dielectric functions of representative materials, such as silver, gold, water, methanol, and ethanol.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of inductive binding in ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessen, D.; Asher, R. L.; Brucat, P. J.

    1990-12-01

    Molecular ions without conventional covalent bonds have been synthesized via supersonic adiabatic expansion and studied in a tandem time-of-fligth mass spectrometer. Resonant laser photofragmentation of these ions reveal a wealth of vibrational and electronic structure previously unknown. The ground and excited state "bond" strengths of transition-metal rare-gas diatomic ions (MRg+) are determined spectroscopically. The vibrational structure of these diatomics has been analyzed using model metal rare-gas interatomic potential that incorporates only charge induced-dipole as the attractive force. This potential is used to predict the binding energy and structure of the MRg+n, n = 2-14, clusters. V+ is predicted to be four coordinate in its first "solvation shell" with Ar in accord with experimental observation. The dynamic of the MRg+n ions is probed by classical trajectory analysis of a model many-body potential. An example demonstrates that the lowest energy structure of a cluster can be less important to its dynamical structure at finite temperature than higher-lying, lower-symmetry isomers. Resonant photodissociation spectroscopy is used to show the existence of the charge dipole bound V(OH2)+ in both ground and excited states.

  20. Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer: Scientific Rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara; Ninkov, Zoran; Robberto, Massimo; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    GESE is a mission concept consisting of a 1.5-m space telescope and UV multi-object slit spectrograph designed to help understand galaxy evolution in a critical era in the history of the universe, where the rate of star-formation stopped increasing and started to decline. To isolate and identify the various processes driving the evolution of these galaxies, GESE will obtain rest-frame far-UV spectra of 100,000 galaxies at redshifts, z approximately 1-2. To obtain such a large number of spectra, multiplexing over a wide field is an absolute necessity. A slit device such as a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) or a micro-shutter array (MSA) enables spectroscopy of a hundred or more sources in a single exposure while eliminating overlapping spectra of other sources and blocking unwanted background like zodiacal light. We find that a 1.5-m space telescope with a MSA slit device combined with a custom orbit enabling long, uninterrupted exposures (approximately 10 hr) are optimal for this spectroscopic survey. GESE will not be operating alone in this endeavor. Together with x-ray telescopes and optical/near-IR telescopes like Subaru/Prime Focus Spectrograph, GESE will detect "feedback" from young massive stars and massive black holes (AGN's), and other drivers of galaxy evolution.

  1. Integrated Capture and Spectroscopic Detection of Viruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Crystal A.; Wilhelm, Allison A.; Williams, Jeremy; Lucas, Pierre; Reynolds, Kelly A.; Riley, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an online monitoring scheme for detection of viruses in flowing drinking water. The approach applies an electrodeposition process that is similar to the use of charged membrane filters previously employed for collection of viruses from aqueous samples. In the present approach, charged materials are driven onto a robust optical sensing element which has high transparency to infrared light. A spectroscopic measurement is performed using the evanescent wave that penetrates no more than 1 μm from the surface of an infrared optical element in an attenuated total reflectance measurement scheme. The infrared measurement provides quantitative information on the amount and identity of material deposited from the water. Initial studies of this sensing scheme used proteins reversibly electrodeposited onto germanium chips. The results of those studies were applied to design a method for collection of viruses onto an attenuated total reflectance crystal. Spectral signatures can be discriminated between three types of protein and two viruses. There is the potential to remove deposited material by reversing the voltage polarity. This work demonstrates a novel and practical scheme for detection of viruses in water systems with potential application to near-continual, automated monitoring of municipal drinking water. PMID:19700543

  2. SPECTROSCOPIC SUBSYSTEMS IN NEARBY WIDE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-12-15

    Radial velocity (RV) monitoring of solar-type visual binaries has been conducted at the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5 m telescope to study short-period systems. The data reduction is described, and mean and individual RVs of 163 observed objects are given. New spectroscopic binaries are discovered or suspected in 17 objects, and for some of them the orbital periods could be determined. Subsystems are efficiently detected even in a single observation by double lines and/or by the RV difference between the components of visual binaries. The potential of this detection technique is quantified by simulation and used for statistical assessment of 96 wide binaries within 67 pc. It is found that 43 binaries contain at least one subsystem, and the occurrence of subsystems is equally probable in either primary or secondary components. The frequency of subsystems and their periods matches the simple prescription proposed by the author. The remaining 53 simple wide binaries with a median projected separation of 1300 AU have an RV difference distribution between their components that is not compatible with the thermal eccentricity distribution f (e) = 2e but rather matches the uniform eccentricity distribution.

  3. Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittet, Pierre-Yves; Mantz, Ulrich; Weidner, Peter; Stehle, Jean-Louis; Bucchia, Marc; Bourtault, Sophie; Zahorski, Dorian

    2004-05-01

    Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE) metrology is an emerging technology in semiconductor production environment. Infineon Technologies SC300 implemented the first worldwide automated IRSE in a class 1 clean room in 2002. Combining properties of IR light -- large wavelength, low absorption in silicon -- with a short focus optics -- no backside reflection -- which allow model-based analysis, a large number of production applications were developed. Part of Infineon IRSE development roadmap is now focused on depth monitoring for arrays of 3D dry-etched structures. In trench DRAM manufacturing, the areal density is high, and critical dimensions are much lower than mid-IR wavelength. Therefore, extensive use of effective medium theory is made to model 3D structures. IR-SE metrology is not limited by shrinking critical dimensions, as long as the areal density is above a specific cut-off value determined by trenches dimensions, trench-filling and surrounding materials. Two applications for depth monitoring are presented. 1D models were developed and successfully applied to the DRAM trench capacitor structures. Modeling and correlation to reference methods are shown as well as dynamic repeatability and gauge capability results. Limitations of the current tool configuration are reviewed for shallow structures.

  4. Rado Köveslighety's spectroscopic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Lajos G.; Vargha, Magda; Zsoldos, Endre

    2008-07-01

    Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis in 1859 showed that observation of spectra made it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of black body radiation. The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Rado von Kövesligethy (published in 1885 in Hungarian, in 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction. Based on these assumptions, he derived a spectral equation with the following properties: the spectral distribution of radiation depended only on the temperature, the total irradiated energy was finite (fifteen years before Planck!) and the wavelength of the intensity maximum was inversely proportional to the temperature (eight years before Wien!). Using his spectral equation, he estimated the temperature of several celestial bodies, including the Sun. As a byproduct he developed a theory of spectroscopic instruments. He presented a comprehensive discussion on the quantitative relationship between astrophysical spectra and the observer, equipped with some kind of instrument (telescope, spectrograph, detector, etc.). We briefly summarize his main results.

  5. Integrated capture and spectroscopic detection of viruses.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Crystal A; Wilhelm, Allison A; Williams, Jeremy; Lucas, Pierre; Reynolds, Kelly A; Riley, Mark R

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an online monitoring scheme for detection of viruses in flowing drinking water. The approach applies an electrodeposition process that is similar to the use of charged membrane filters previously employed for collection of viruses from aqueous samples. In the present approach, charged materials are driven onto a robust optical sensing element which has high transparency to infrared light. A spectroscopic measurement is performed using the evanescent wave that penetrates no more than 1 mum from the surface of an infrared optical element in an attenuated total reflectance measurement scheme. The infrared measurement provides quantitative information on the amount and identity of material deposited from the water. Initial studies of this sensing scheme used proteins reversibly electrodeposited onto germanium chips. The results of those studies were applied to design a method for collection of viruses onto an attenuated total reflectance crystal. Spectral signatures can be discriminated between three types of protein and two viruses. There is the potential to remove deposited material by reversing the voltage polarity. This work demonstrates a novel and practical scheme for detection of viruses in water systems with potential application to near-continual, automated monitoring of municipal drinking water.

  6. IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC PARAMETERS FOR TRANSITING PLANET HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Guillermo; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fischer, Debra A.; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Buchhave, Lars A.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2012-10-01

    We report homogeneous spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperature, metallicity, and projected rotational velocity for the host stars of 56 transiting planets. Our analysis is based primarily on the stellar parameter classification (SPC) technique. We investigate systematic errors by examining subsets of the data with two other methods that have often been used in previous studies (Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) and MOOG). The SPC and SME results, both based on comparisons between synthetic spectra and actual spectra, show strong correlations between T{sub eff}, [Fe/H], and log g when solving for all three quantities simultaneously. In contrast the MOOG results, based on a more traditional curve-of-growth approach, show no such correlations. To combat the correlations and improve the accuracy of the temperatures and metallicities, we repeat the SPC analysis with a constraint on log g based on the mean stellar density that can be derived from the analysis of the transit light curves. Previous studies that have not taken advantage of this constraint have been subject to systematic errors in the stellar masses and radii of up to 20% and 10%, respectively, which can be larger than other observational uncertainties, and which also cause systematic errors in the planetary mass and radius.

  7. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with Mayall/KOSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Miller, J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with the KOSMOS on the Mayall telescope. Targets were supplied by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST).

  8. Spectroscopic Classification of PS16ccj with Mayall/KOSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the classification of PS16ccj from spectroscopic observation with KOSMOS on the Mayall telescope. The observation was made on 2016 May 05 UT. We classify PS16ccj as a SN Ia near maximum light.

  9. Spectroscopic Classifications of AT2016esx with Mayall/KOSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, C. D.; Siebert, M. R.; Coulter, D. A.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    We report a classification of ASASSN-16io = AT2016esx from spectroscopic observations with KOSMOS on the KPNO Mayall 4-m telescope. Targets were supplied by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN).

  10. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with Mayall/KOSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, C. D.; Siebert, M. R.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with KOSMOS on the KPNO Mayall 4-m telescope. Targets were supplied by Shunsuke Nagata, POSS, and ASAS-SN.

  11. Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media

    DOEpatents

    Strobl, Karlheinz; Bigio, Irving J.; Loree, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media. Subtle differences in materials have been found to be detectable from plots of intensity as a function of wavelength of collected emitted and scattered light versus wavelength of excitation light.

  12. A Comparison of Galaxy Counting Techniques in Spectroscopically Undersampled Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specian, Mike A.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate measures of galactic overdensities are invaluable for precision cosmology. Obtaining these measurements is complicated when members of one’s galaxy sample lack radial depths, most commonly derived via spectroscopic redshifts. In this paper, we utilize the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Main Galaxy Sample to compare seven methods of counting galaxies in cells when many of those galaxies lack redshifts. These methods fall into three categories: assigning galaxies discrete redshifts, scaling the numbers counted using regions’ spectroscopic completeness properties, and employing probabilistic techniques. We split spectroscopically undersampled regions into three types—those inside the spectroscopic footprint, those outside but adjacent to it, and those distant from it. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the preferred counting techniques are a function of region type, cell size, and redshift. We conclude by reporting optimal counting strategies under a variety of conditions.

  13. Asiago spectroscopic classification of PSN J13480490+6149153

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Tomasella, L.

    2015-08-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of PSN J13480490+6149153 in the galaxy UGC 8734 discovered by E. Briggs, D. Post, Jack Newton, and Tim Puckett.

  14. Spectroscopic classification of three supernovae with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattila, S.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Lundqvist, P.; Stritzinger, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Harmanen, J.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Blagorodnova, N.; Davis, S.; Dong, S.; Fraser, M.; Gall, C.; Harrison, D.; Hodgkin, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Jonker, P.; Kangas, T.; Kankare, E.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Nielsen, M.; Ochner, Paolo; Prieto, J. L.; Reynolds, T.; Romero-Canizales, C.; Taddia, F.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    2016-04-01

    The NOT Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS) collaboration reports the spectroscopic classifications of supernovae Gaia16akk, ASASSN-16ek, and ASASSN-16eq in an anonymous host galaxy, GALEXASC J072024.60+325058.8, and UGC 11898 respectively.

  15. Two Remarkable Spectroscopic Categories of Young O Stars from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walborn, N. R.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W. D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Evans, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The spectral and spatial characteristics of two special categories of O stars found in the VFTS dataset are presented. One of them comprises very rapid rotators, including several more extreme than any previously known. These objects are distributed around the peripheries of the main 30 Doradus clusters, suggesting a runaway nature for which their radial velocities already provide preliminary supporting evidence. The other category consists of a large number of Vz stars, previously hypothesized on spectroscopic grounds to be on or very near the ZAMS. Their distribution is the inverse of that of the rapid rotators: the Vz are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters, plus a newly recognized band of recent and current star formation to the north, which provides strong circumstantial evidence for their extreme youth.

  16. Spectroscopic characteristics of chromium doped mullite glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, A.J.; Meng, W.; Lempicki, A.; Beall, G.H.; Hall, D.W.; Chin, T.C.

    1988-06-01

    Characteristics of chromium doped mullite ceramics are discussed with reference to possible laser applications. Dominant features are attributed to large and inherent spectroscopic inhomogeneity of mullite. The spectroscopic data are analyzed using a generalized McCumber theory. The peak stimulated emission cross section is 0.54 x 10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/. This, together with preliminary single-pass measurements, indicate that gain for mullite is about 2.6 times smaller than gain for alexandrite.

  17. High-end spectroscopic diffraction gratings: design and manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Tilman

    2015-02-01

    Diffraction gratings are key components for spectroscopic systems. For high-end applications, they have to meet advanced requirements as, e.g., maximum efficiency, lowest possible scattered light level, high numerical aperture, and minimal aberrations. Diffraction gratings are demanded to allow spectrometer designs with highest resolution, a maximal étendue, and minimal stray light, built within a minimal volume. This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of different high-end spectroscopic gratings, their theoretical design and manufacturing technologies.

  18. Theoretical interpretation of electron energy-loss spectroscopic images

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allen, L. J.; D'Alfonso, Adrian J.; Findlay, Scott D.; Oxley, Mark P.; Bosman, M.; Keast, V. J.; Cossgriff, E. C.; Behan, G.; Nellist, P. D.; Kirkland, Angus I.

    2008-04-10

    In this paper, we discuss the theory of electron energy-loss spectroscopic images in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Three case studies are presented which have as common themes issues of inelastic scattering, coherence and image interpretation. The first is a state-by-state inelastic transitions analysis of a spectroscopic image which does not admit direct visual interpretation. The second compares theory and experiment for two-dimensional mapping. Finally, the third considers imaging in three dimensions via depth sectioning.

  19. [Spectroscopic characteristics of novel Psidium meroterpenoids isolated from guava leaves].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Liu, Xiao-juan; Yie, Shu-min; Zhao, Litchao; Su, Lei; Cao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Recently, novel Psidium meroterpenoids were reported in the guava leaves. According to careful analysis of the spectral data of literatures, the spectroscopic characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of Psidium meroterpenoids were summarized in this paper. The results showed that Psidium meroterpenoids had distinct spectroscopic features and reasonable biosynthetic routines, however the number order of carbon atoms was not consistent in the reported literatures. It was concluded that Psidium meroterpenoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of Psidium guajava Linn.

  20. [Spectroscopic characteristics of novel Psidium meroterpenoids isolated from guava leaves].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Liu, Xiao-juan; Yie, Shu-min; Zhao, Litchao; Su, Lei; Cao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Recently, novel Psidium meroterpenoids were reported in the guava leaves. According to careful analysis of the spectral data of literatures, the spectroscopic characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of Psidium meroterpenoids were summarized in this paper. The results showed that Psidium meroterpenoids had distinct spectroscopic features and reasonable biosynthetic routines, however the number order of carbon atoms was not consistent in the reported literatures. It was concluded that Psidium meroterpenoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of Psidium guajava Linn. PMID:26666047

  1. Whispering Gallery Optical Resonator Spectroscopic Probe and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a spectroscopic probe comprising at least one whispering gallery mode optical resonator disposed on a support, the whispering gallery mode optical resonator comprising a continuous outer surface having a cross section comprising a first diameter and a second diameter, wherein the first diameter is greater than the second diameter. A method of measuring a Raman spectrum and an Infra-red spectrum of an analyte using the spectroscopic probe is also disclosed.

  2. THE zCOSMOS 10k-BRIGHT SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, Simon J.; Maier, Christian; Carollo, Marcella; Caputi, Karina; Le Brun, Vincent; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fevre, Olivier; De la Torre, Sylvain; De Ravel, Loic; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Mignoli, Marco; Zamorani, Gianni; Bardelli, Sandro; Bolzonella, Micol; Coppa, Graziano; Scodeggio, Marco; Contini, Thierry; Bongiorno, Angela; Cucciati, Olga

    2009-10-01

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of a large sample of galaxies with I {sub AB} < 22.5 in the COSMOS field, measured from spectra of 10,644 objects that have been obtained in the first two years of observations in the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey. These include a statistically complete subset of 10,109 objects. The average accuracy of individual redshifts is 110 km s{sup -1}, independent of redshift. The reliability of individual redshifts is described by a Confidence Class that has been empirically calibrated through repeat spectroscopic observations of over 600 galaxies. There is very good agreement between spectroscopic and photometric redshifts for the most secure Confidence Classes. For the less secure Confidence Classes, there is a good correspondence between the fraction of objects with a consistent photometric redshift and the spectroscopic repeatability, suggesting that the photometric redshifts can be used to indicate which of the less secure spectroscopic redshifts are likely right and which are probably wrong, and to give an indication of the nature of objects for which we failed to determine a redshift. Using this approach, we can construct a spectroscopic sample that is 99% reliable and which is 88% complete in the sample as a whole, and 95% complete in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.8. The luminosity and mass completeness levels of the zCOSMOS-bright sample of galaxies is also discussed.

  3. Iridium Ziegler-Type Hydrogenation Catalysts Made from [(1,5-COD)Ir( -O2C8H15)]2 and AlEt3: Spectroscopic and Kinetic Evidence for the Irn Species Present and for Nanoparticles as the Fastest Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, W.; Hamdemir, I; Wang, Q; Frenkel, A; Li, L; Yang, J; Menard, L; Nuzzo, R; Ozkar, S; Finke, R

    2010-01-01

    considering the similar, but not identical results from the different analytical methods; furthermore, (ii) the mean Ir{sub n} species are practically the same regardless of the Al/Ir ratio employed, suggesting that the observed changes in catalytic activity at different Al/Ir ratios are primarily the result of changes in the form or function of the Al-derived component (and not due to significant AlEt{sub 3}-induced changes in initial Ir{sub n} nuclearity). However (iii), during hydrogenation, a shift in the population of Ir species toward roughly 1.0-1.6 nm, fcc Ir(0){sub {approx}40-150}, Ziegler nanoclusters occurs with, significantly, (iv) a concomitant increase in catalytic activity. Importantly, and although catalysis by discrete subnanometer Ir species is not ruled out by this study, (v) the increases in activity with increased nanocluster size, plus Hg(0) poisoning studies, provide the best evidence to date that the approximately 1.0-1.6 nm, fcc Ir(0){sub {approx}40-150}, heterogeneous Ziegler nanoclusters are the fastest catalysts in this industrially related catalytic hydrogenation system (and in the simplest, Ockham's Razor interpretation of the data). In addition, (vi) Ziegler nanoclusters are confirmed to be an unusual, hydrocarbon-soluble, highly coordinatively unsaturated, Lewis-acid containing, and highly catalytically active type of nanocluster for use in other catalytic applications and other areas.

  4. Predicting Future Space-Based Slitless Spectroscopic Surveys Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James W.; Teplitz, H.; Malkan, M.; Atek, H.; Ross, N.; Siana, B.; Henry, A.; McCarthy, P.; Bunker, A.; Scarlata, C.

    2012-01-01

    Future space telescopes are likely to make extensive use of slitless grism spectroscopy in the near-IR over large areas of sky. Both ESA's recently selected Euclid mission and the WFIRST mission being studied by NASA plan slitless spectroscopic surveys to obtain redshifts over thousands of square degrees. The HST WFC3 camera has two near-infrared grisms, G102 and G141, covering 0.8-1.6 microns, making it perfect the perfect laboratory for predicting what these future missions will find. We present results from the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program, which has been taking deep WFC3 observations using both grisms at random locations across the sky in parallel with primary COS observations. The WISP survey presently consists of more than 150 fields, covering 700 square arcminutes, reaching fluxes of 5 x 10-17 ergs/s/cm2. We will present completeness corrected number counts, luminosity functions, and predicted counts for the proposed future missions. We will also discuss the issue of line identification of the emission lines, particularly H-alpha and [OIII]5007 which often have similar fluxes and equivalent widths.

  5. On determining dose rate constants spectroscopically

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate several aspects of the Chen and Nath spectroscopic method of determining the dose rate constants of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds [Z. Chen and R. Nath, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 6089-6104 (2010)] including the accuracy of using a line or dual-point source approximation as done in their method, and the accuracy of ignoring the effects of the scattered photons in the spectra. Additionally, the authors investigate the accuracy of the literature's many different spectra for bare, i.e., unencapsulated {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd sources. Methods: Spectra generated by 14 {sup 125}I and 6 {sup 103}Pd seeds were calculated in vacuo at 10 cm from the source in a 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 0.05 cm{sup 3} voxel using the EGSnrc BrachyDose Monte Carlo code. Calculated spectra used the initial photon spectra recommended by AAPM's TG-43U1 and NCRP (National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements) Report 58 for the {sup 125}I seeds, or TG-43U1 and NNDC(2000) (National Nuclear Data Center, 2000) for {sup 103}Pd seeds. The emitted spectra were treated as coming from a line or dual-point source in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the dose rate constant. The TG-43U1 definition of the dose rate constant was used. These calculations were performed using the full spectrum including scattered photons or using only the main peaks in the spectrum as done experimentally. Statistical uncertainties on the air kerma/history and the dose rate/history were Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.2%. The dose rate constants were also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of the full seed model. Results: The ratio of the intensity of the 31 keV line relative to that of the main peak in {sup 125}I spectra is, on average, 6.8% higher when calculated with the NCRP Report 58 initial spectrum vs that calculated with TG-43U1 initial spectrum. The {sup 103}Pd spectra exhibit an average 6.2% decrease in the 22.9 keV line relative to the main peak when

  6. Spectroscopic studies of microwave plasmas containing hexamethyldisiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-10-01

    Low-pressure microwave discharges containing hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with admixtures of oxygen and nitrogen, used for the deposition of silicon containing films, have been studied spectroscopically. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS). The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and gas mixture at relatively low pressures, up to 50 Pa, and power values, up to 2 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, and of seven stable molecules, HMDSO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CO and CO2, was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ IRLAS using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. To achieve reliable values for the gas temperature inside and outside the plasma bulk as well as for the temperature in the plasma hot and colder zones, which are of great importance for calculation of species concentrations, three different methods based on emission and absorption spectroscopy data of N2, CH3 and CO have been used. In this approach line profile analysis has been combined with spectral simulation methods. The concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in the range between 1011 to 1015 cm-3, are in the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power, pressure and gas mixture on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the HMDSO precursor gas including its fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products was analyzed in detail.

  7. Raman Spectroscopic Investigation of Dyes in Spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, Ute; Ramoji, Anuradha; Rösch, Petra; Da Costa Filho, Paulo Augusto; Robert, Fabien; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a number of synthetic colorants for spices have been investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and surface enhanced (resonance) Raman spectroscopy (SER(S)). The aim of the study was the determination of limits of detection for each dye separately and in binary mixtures of dyes in spiked samples of the spices. Most of the investigated dyes have been azo dyes, some being water-soluble, the other being fat-soluble. Investigating the composition of food preparations is an ongoing and important branch of analytical sciences. On one hand, new ingredients have to be analyzed with regard to their contents, on the other hand, raw materials that have been tampered have to be eliminated from food production processes. In the last decades, the various Raman spectroscopic methods have proven to be successful in many areas of life and materials sciences. The ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish even structural very similar analytes by means of their vibrational fingerprint will also be important in this study. Nevertheless, Raman scattering is a very weak process that is oftentimes overlaid by matrix interferences or fluorescence. In order to achieve limits of detection in the nanomolar range, the signal intensity has to be increased. According to the well-known equations, there are several ways of achieving this increase: •increasing sample concentration •increasing laser power •decreasing the laser wavelength •using electronic resonance •increasing the local electromagnetic field In this study, nearly all of the above-mentioned principles were applied. In a first step, all dyes were investigated in solution at different concentrations to determine a limit of detection. In the second step, spiked spice samples have been extracted with a variety of solvents and process parameters tested. To lower the limit of detection even further, SERS spectroscopy has been used as well in as out of electronic resonance.

  8. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. © 2016 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  10. Soft tissue imaging with photon counting spectroscopic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was experimental investigation of photon counting spectroscopic CT (PCS-CT) imaging of anatomical soft tissue with clinically relevant size. The imaging experiments were performed using a spectroscopic CT system based on CdZnTe photon counting detector with two rows of pixels, 256 pixels in each row, 1  ×  1 mm2 pixel size, and 25.6 cm detector length. The detector could split the x-ray energy spectrum to 5 regions (energy bins), and acquire 5 multi-energy (spectroscopic) CT images in a single CT scan. A sample of round shaped anatomical soft tissue of 14 cm diameter including lean and fat was used for imaging. To avoid the negative effect of anatomical noise on quantitative analysis, a spectroscopic CT phantom with tissue equivalent solid materials was used. The images were acquired at 60, 90, and 120 kVp tube voltages, and spectroscopic image series were acquired with 3 and 5 energy bins. Spectroscopic CT numbers were introduced and used to evaluate an energy selective image series. The anatomical soft tissue with 14 cm diameter was visualized with good quality and without substantial artifacts by the photon counting spectroscopic CT system. The effects of the energy bin crosstalk on spectroscopic CT numbers were quantified and analyzed. The single and double slice PCS-CT images were acquired and compared. Several new findings were observed, including the effect of soft tissue non-uniformity on image artifacts, unique status of highest energy bin, and material dependent visualization in spectroscopic image series. Fat-lean decomposition was performed using dual energy subtraction and threshold segmentation methods, and compared. Using K-edge filtered x-rays improved fat-lean decomposition as compared to conventional x-rays. Several new and important aspects of the PCS-CT were investigated. These include imaging soft tissue with clinically relevant size, single- and double-slice PCS-CT imaging, using spectroscopic CT

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of III-V semiconductor nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crankshaw, Shanna Marie

    III-V semiconductor materials form a broad basis for optoelectronic applications, including the broad basis of the telecom industry as well as smaller markets for high-mobility transistors. In a somewhat analogous manner as the traditional silicon logic industry has so heavily depended upon process manufacturing development, optoelectronics often relies instead on materials innovations. This thesis focuses particularly on III-V semiconductor nanomaterials, detailed characterization of which is invaluable for translating the exhibited behavior into useful applications. Specifically, the original research described in these thesis chapters is an investigation of semiconductors at a fundamental materials level, because the nanostructures in which they appear crystallize in quite atypical forms for the given semiconductors. Rather than restricting the experimental approaches to any one particular technique, many different types of optical spectroscopies are developed and applied where relevant to elucidate the connection between the crystalline structure and exhibited properties. In the first chapters, for example, a wurtzite crystalline form of the prototypical zincblende III-V binary semiconductor, GaAs, is explored through polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy and temperature-dependent photoluminescence, as well as second-harmonic generation (SHG). The altered symmetry properties of the wurtzite crystalline structure are particularly evident in the Raman and SHG polarization dependences, all within a bulk material realm. A rather different but deeply elegant aspect of crystalline symmetry in GaAs is explored in a separate study on zincblende GaAs samples quantum-confined in one direction, i.e. quantum well structures, whose quantization direction corresponds to the (110) direction. The (110) orientation modifies the low-temperature electron spin relaxation mechanisms available compared to the usual (001) samples, leading to altered spin coherence times explored

  12. Effects of molecular conformation on the spectroscopic properties of 4,4‧-disubstituted benzylideneanilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhengjun; Wu, Feng; Yi, Bing; Cao, Chenzhong; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the molecular conformation and spectroscopic properties of unsymmetrical 4,4‧-disubstituted benzylideneanilines, was explored by the combination of experiment and reference data. Crystal structure information and spectroscopic behaviors of the seventeen samples p-X-C6H4CHdbnd NC6H4-p-Y (X = NMe2, OMe, Me, Cl, CN, or NO2, Ydbnd NMe2, OMe, Me, Cl, CN, or NO2) were provided for this study. Among these seventeen compounds, nine ones were synthesized firstly, and five crystal structures were determined and analyzed. It was observed that the twist angle of the aniline ring with respect to the rest of the molecule (τ) is systematically controlled by the substituent at the aromatic ring. The correlation results show that the UV maximum absorption in wavenumbers (υmax) is dependent on the substituent at the aromatic ring and the dihedral angle τ of the titled molecules, and a sine function of τ (sin(τ)) is suitable to modify the substituent effects on the υmax. However, the dihedral angle τ has a limited effect on the values of 13C NMR chemical shifts δC(Cdbnd N). The results indicate that the dihedral angle τ has an significant effect on UV spectra of Schiff bases with different parent structure although there is something different about the parameter metrics. While it has a relatively limited effect on the values of δC(Cdbnd N) in both unsymmetrical and unsymmetrical Schiff bases. This study provides an sufficient evidence of the molecular conformation on spectroscopic properties of Schiff bases.

  13. The Distance to the Massive Galactic Cluster Westerlund 2 from a Spectroscopic and HST Photometric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Álvarez, Carlos A.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Bradley, David R.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Norris, Mark A.; Cool, Richard J.; Miller, Brendan P.

    2013-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric determination of the distance to the young Galactic open cluster Westerlund 2 using WFPC2 imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical spectroscopy. HST imaging in the F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W filters resolved many sources previously undetected in ground-based observations and yielded photometry for 1136 stars. We identified 15 new O-type stars, along with two probable binary systems, including MSP 188 (O3 + O5.5). We fit reddened spectral energy distributions based on the Padova isochrones to the photometric data to determine individual reddening parameters RV and AV for O-type stars in Wd2. We find average values langRV rang = 3.77 ± 0.09 and langAV rang = 6.51 ± 0.38 mag, which result in a smaller distance than most other spectroscopic and photometric studies. After a statistical distance correction accounting for close unresolved binaries (factor of 1.08), our spectroscopic and photometric data on 29 O-type stars yield that Westerlund 2 has a distance langdrang = 4.16 ± 0.07 (random) +0.26 (systematic) kpc. The cluster's age remains poorly constrained, with an upper limit of 3 Myr. Finally, we report evidence of a faint mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring surrounding the well-known binary candidate MSP 18, which appears to lie at the center of a secondary stellar grouping within Westerlund 2. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  14. THE DISTANCE TO THE MASSIVE GALACTIC CLUSTER WESTERLUND 2 FROM A SPECTROSCOPIC AND HST PHOTOMETRIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas Alvarez, Carlos A.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Bradley, David R.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Norris, Mark A.; Cool, Richard J.; Miller, Brendan P. E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu E-mail: sheila@physics.unc.edu E-mail: rcool@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-05-15

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric determination of the distance to the young Galactic open cluster Westerlund 2 using WFPC2 imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical spectroscopy. HST imaging in the F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W filters resolved many sources previously undetected in ground-based observations and yielded photometry for 1136 stars. We identified 15 new O-type stars, along with two probable binary systems, including MSP 188 (O3 + O5.5). We fit reddened spectral energy distributions based on the Padova isochrones to the photometric data to determine individual reddening parameters R{sub V} and A{sub V} for O-type stars in Wd2. We find average values (R{sub V} ) = 3.77 {+-} 0.09 and (A{sub V} ) = 6.51 {+-} 0.38 mag, which result in a smaller distance than most other spectroscopic and photometric studies. After a statistical distance correction accounting for close unresolved binaries (factor of 1.08), our spectroscopic and photometric data on 29 O-type stars yield that Westerlund 2 has a distance (d) = 4.16 {+-} 0.07 (random) +0.26 (systematic) kpc. The cluster's age remains poorly constrained, with an upper limit of 3 Myr. Finally, we report evidence of a faint mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring surrounding the well-known binary candidate MSP 18, which appears to lie at the center of a secondary stellar grouping within Westerlund 2.

  15. Rapid Flow Analysis Studies with Spectroscopic Detectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalib, Amlius

    A rapid flow analysis study based on segmented flow and flow injection principles is described in this thesis. The main objective of this study was to establish the response characteristics in continuous flow analysis systems in order to improve sampling rates with several types of spectroscopic detectors. It was found from flame photometric studies that non-segmented flowing streams are applicable to rapid flow analysis with automatic sample aspiration. Calcium was used as a typical example and determined at sampling rates up to 360 h('-1) with a detection limit of 0.05 mg L(' -1). A rapid flow system is reported using direct aspiration for AAS analysis with both manual injection and automatic aspiration techniques, and found to give sampling rates of up to 600-720 samples h('-1). Speed of analysis was reduced by about 50% when using an external peristaltic pump in the flow system design, due to increased sample dispersion. A novel aspect of a rapid flow injection approach reported with ICPAES detection includes the method of injecting samples via a peristaltic pump with simultaneous computer data processing. Determination of serum cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) was demonstrated as an example of an application of the technique at sampling rates of 240 h('-1). Precision and detection limits for 13 elements in a single standard solution are reported. The use of automated aspiration sampling is also reported in this method for comparison. Further studies on flow characteristics were carried out by a combination of the rapid flow system with very short sampling times as low as 2 seconds using UV-visible spectrophotometric detection. Analysis of human blood serum samples was used as an example where total protein and inorganic phosphate were determined at sampling rates of 240 h('-1) and 360 h('-1) respectively. The novel aspects of the results from these studies include the very rapid sample throughput developed with simple and inexpensive experimental approaches in

  16. Spectroscopic survey of M-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Clark, B. E.; Dotto, E.; Migliorini, A.; Ockert-Bell, M.; Barucci, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    M-type asteroids, as defined in the Tholen taxonomy (Tholen, D.J. [1984]. Asteroid Taxonomy from Cluster Analysis of Photometry. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson), are medium albedo bodies supposed to have a metallic composition and to be the progenitors both of differentiated iron-nickel meteorites and enstatite chondrites. We carried out a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near infrared wavelength range (0.4-2.5 μm) of 30 asteroids chosen from the population of asteroids initially classified as Tholen M-types, aiming to investigate their surface composition. The data were obtained during several observing runs during the years 2004-2007 at the TNG, NTT, and IRTF telescopes. We computed the spectral slopes in several wavelength ranges for each observed asteroid, and we searched for diagnostic spectral features. We confirm a large variety of spectral behaviors for these objects as their spectra are extended into the near infrared, including the identification of weak absorption bands, mainly of the 0.9 μm band tentatively attributed to orthopyroxene, and of the 0.43 μm band that may be associated to chlorites and Mg-rich serpentines or pyroxene minerals such us pigeonite or augite. A comparison with previously published data indicates that the surfaces of several asteroids belonging to the M-class may vary significantly. We attempt to constrain the asteroid surface compositions of our sample by looking for meteorite spectral analogs in the RELAB database and by modeling with geographical mixtures of selected meteorites/minerals. We confirm that iron meteorites, pallasites, and enstatite chondrites are the best matches to most objects in our sample, as suggested for M-type asteroids. For 22 Kalliope, we demonstrate that a synthetic mixture obtained enriching a pallasite meteorite with small amounts (1-2%) of silicates well reproduce the spectral behavior including the observed 0.9 μm feature. The presence of subtle absorption features on

  17. The Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Legacy of HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has been a spectacularly successful platform for spectroscopy in the diagnostic-rich far-ultraviolet (FUV: 120-170 nm) and near-ultraviolet (NUV: 170-310 nm) regions. HST has hosted four generations of UV instruments, beginning with Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) in the original 1990 payload, followed by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in 1997, and more recently Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) as part of Servicing Mission 4 in 2009. The latter two instruments have contributed by far the lion's share of HST's spectroscopic archive: STIS, because of its longevity (thirteen years in operation so far, although with a hiatus between 2004-2009); and COS because of its high sensitivity, which allows efficient observations, and thus many more targets in a typical GO program. STIS benefits from a compact echelle design, and the sharp stable imaging of HST, to provide high-resolution (3-7 km s-1) spectra of bright objects, including stars, nebulae, quasars, novae, and so forth. COS achieves astounding sensitivity in the FUV by a sophisticated design that compensates for the spherical abberation of HST's primary mirror, disperses the target's light, and focuses the spectral image all with just a single optical element. While the spectral resolution of COS (about 18 km s-1) is not as high as that of STIS, it is adequate for diverse investigations, including faint broad-lined AGN at the edge of the Universe, hot stars in nearby galaxies, and magnetically active planet-hosting red dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. Thanks in part to the "UV Initiative" in recent HST proposal cycles, there have been several large efforts involving both STIS and COS, to assemble important spectral collections, including full UV atlases of representative hot and cool stars at high resolution with STIS; long time series of archetype AGN ("reverberation mapping") with COS; and hundreds of sightlines to distant

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of chromium bioremediation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajan, C.; Nico, P. S.; Yang, L.; Marcus, M. A.; Steefel, C.; Larsen, J. T.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Remediation of chromium contamination frequently involves reducing the toxic and soluble hexavalent form, Cr(VI), to the relatively harmless and mostly immobile trivalent state, Cr(III). The objective of this study is to identify the biogeochemical reactions that control in situ chromium reduction in the presence of different dominant electron acceptors, i.e., NO3-, Fe(III), and SO42-. It was hypothesized that indirect, abiotic reduction of Cr(VI) by reduced metabolic products [Fe(II) and sulfides] would dominate over direct enzymatic reduction by denitrifying, iron-reducing, or sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is further hypothesized that the enzymatic reduction of Cr(VI) would produce relatively pure chromium hydroxide precipitates, whereas indirect reduction would result in mixed Cr-Fe hydroxide solid phases. Flow-through columns containing homogenized sediments from the 100H site at Hanford, WA were subjected to nitrate-, sulfate- or iron-reducing conditions in the presence of 5 µM Cr(VI) and 5 mM lactate. Cr(VI) was depleted in the effluent solutions from the nitrate- and sulfate-reducing columns; however only a small amount of Cr(VI) was removed under iron-reducing conditions. Preliminary analysis of micro X-ray absorption spectra indicate that the untreated and iron-reducing column sediments contained pre-existing Cr in the form of primary minerals, e.g. chromite and/or Cr-bearing micas. However, there was an increase in the relative abundance of mixed-phase Cr-Fe hydroxides, i.e., Cr1-xFex(OH)3 in the nitrate- and sulfate-treated columns. A possible explanation for the observations is that the production of Fe(II) was enhanced under the nitrate- and sulfate- reducing conditions, and was most likely sulfide-driven in the latter case. The Fe(II) was subsequently available for reduction of Cr(VI) resulting in the mixed-phase precipitates. The results from the spectroscopic analysis support the hypothesis that Fe(II)-mediated Cr reduction prevails over direct

  19. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

  20. Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkovic, Jelena; Lau, Condon; McGee, Sasha; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Nazemi, Jonathan; Galindo, Luis; Feng, Victoria; Darragh, Teresa; de Las Morenas, Antonio; Crum, Christopher; Stier, Elizabeth; Feld, Michael; Badizadegan, Kamran

    2009-07-01

    It has long been speculated that underlying variations in tissue anatomy affect in vivo spectroscopic measurements. We investigate the effects of cervical anatomy on reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to guide the development of a diagnostic algorithm for identifying high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) free of the confounding effects of anatomy. We use spectroscopy in both contact probe and imaging modes to study patients undergoing either colposcopy or treatment for HSIL. Physical models of light propagation in tissue are used to extract parameters related to tissue morphology and biochemistry. Our results show that the transformation zone, the area in which the vast majority of HSILs are found, is spectroscopically distinct from the adjacent squamous mucosa, and that these anatomical differences can directly influence spectroscopic diagnostic parameters. Specifically, we demonstrate that performance of diagnostic algorithms for identifying HSILs is artificially enhanced when clinically normal squamous sites are included in the statistical analysis of the spectroscopic data. We conclude that underlying differences in tissue anatomy can have a confounding effect on diagnostic spectroscopic parameters and that the common practice of including clinically normal squamous sites in cervical spectroscopy results in artificially improved performance in distinguishing HSILs from clinically suspicious non-HSILs.

  1. Spectroscopic Fingerprint of Phase-Incoherent Superconductivity in the Underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Davis, J.; Fujita, K.; Schmidt, A.R.; Kim, C.K.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.

    2009-08-28

    A possible explanation for the existence of the cuprate 'pseudogap' state is that it is a d-wave superconductor without quantum phase rigidity. Transport and thermodynamic studies provide compelling evidence that supports this proposal, but few spectroscopic explorations of it have been made. One spectroscopic signature of d-wave superconductivity is the particle-hole symmetric 'octet' of dispersive Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference modulations. Here we report on this octet's evolution from low temperatures to well into the underdoped pseudogap regime. No pronounced changes occur in the octet phenomenology at the superconductor's critical temperature T{sub c}, and it survives up to at least temperature T {approx} 1.5 T{sub c}. In this pseudogap regime, we observe the detailed phenomenology that was theoretically predicted for quasiparticle interference in a phase-incoherent d-wave superconductor. Thus, our results not only provide spectroscopic evidence to confirm and extend the transport and thermodynamics studies, but they also open the way for spectroscopic explorations of phase fluctuation rates, their effects on the Fermi arc, and the fundamental source of the phase fluctuations that suppress superconductivity in underdoped cuprates.

  2. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, B. C.; Biter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.

    2007-07-18

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  3. Spectroscopic Orbits for 15 Late-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmarth, Daryl W.; Fekel, Francis C.; Abt, Helmut A.; Pourbaix, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    Spectroscopic orbital elements are determined for 15 stars with periods from 8 to 6528 days with six orbits computed for the first time. Improved astrometric orbits are computed for two stars and one new orbit is derived. Visual orbits were previously determined for four stars, four stars are members of multiple systems, and five stars have Hipparcos “G” designations or have been resolved by speckle interferometry. For the nine binaries with previous spectroscopic orbits, we determine improved or comparable elements. For HD 28271 and HD 200790, our spectroscopic results support the conclusions of previous authors that the large values of their mass functions and lack of detectable secondary spectrum argue for the secondary in each case being a pair of low-mass dwarfs. The orbits given here may be useful in combination with future interferometric and Gaia satellite observations.

  4. An extragalactic spectroscopic survey of the SSA22 field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, C.; Lehmer, B. D.; Bauer, F. E.; Stern, D.; Gonzales, A.; Rreza, I.; Alexander, D. M.; Matsuda, Y.; Geach, J. E.; Harrison, F. A.; Hayashino, T.

    2015-07-01

    We present Very Large Telescope VIMOS, Keck DEIMOS and Keck LRIS multi-object spectra of 367 sources in the field of the z ≈ 3.09 protocluster SSA22. Sources are spectroscopically classified via template matching, allowing new identifications for 206 extragalactic sources, including 36 z > 2 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) and Lyman α emitters (LAEs), eight protocluster members, and 94 X-ray sources from the ˜400 ks Chandra deep survey of SSA22. Additionally, in the area covered by our study, we have increased by ≈4, 13, and 6 times the number of reliable redshifts of sources at 1.0 < z < 2.0, at z > 3.4, and with X-ray emission, respectively. We compare our results with past spectroscopic surveys of SSA22 to investigate the completeness of the LBGs and the X-ray properties of the new spectroscopically classified sources in the SSA22 field.

  5. A computer method for the automatic reduction of spectroscopic data.

    PubMed

    Ditzel, E F; Giddings, L E

    1967-12-01

    A computer program, written in Fortran IV and for use with an associated spectral comparator, has been developed at The Naval Research Laboratory for the purpose of automatically reducing spectroscopic data. A Datex digitalizing magnetic tape recorder in conjunction with a modified Jarrell-Ash microphotometer allows the reading of spectral information from a photographic plate at the rate of twentyfive data pairs per second. Spectra of local interest analyzed by this method are (1) absorption, (2) emission, (3) plasma type, obtained from time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, and (4) solar echellegrams obtained from rocket probings of the upper atmosphere. Markedly useful features of the program are its capabilities of (a) recognizing spectral peaks from a background of variable density, (b) obtaining absolute values for the radiance or irradiance. An essential characteristic of the method is the saving of significant amounts of time in the reduction of photographic spectroscopic data.

  6. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. III. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits.

  7. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF YOUNG FIELD ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Allers, K. N.; Liu, Michael C.

    2013-08-01

    We present a near-infrared (0.9-2.4 {mu}m) spectroscopic study of 73 field ultracool dwarfs having spectroscopic and/or kinematic evidence of youth ( Almost-Equal-To 10-300 Myr). Our sample is composed of 48 low-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 100) spectra and 41 moderate-resolution spectra (R {approx}> 750-2000). First, we establish a method for spectral typing M5-L7 dwarfs at near-IR wavelengths that is independent of gravity. We find that both visual and index-based classification in the near-IR provides consistent spectral types with optical spectral types, though with a small systematic offset in the case of visual classification at J and K band. Second, we examine features in the spectra of {approx}10 Myr ultracool dwarfs to define a set of gravity-sensitive indices based on FeH, VO, K I, Na I, and H-band continuum shape. We then create an index-based method for classifying the gravities of M6-L5 dwarfs that provides consistent results with gravity classifications from optical spectroscopy. Our index-based classification can distinguish between young and dusty objects. Guided by the resulting classifications, we propose a set of low-gravity spectral standards for the near-IR. Finally, we estimate the ages corresponding to our gravity classifications.

  8. Near-IR spectroscopic imaging for skin hydration: the long and the short of it.

    PubMed

    Attas, E Michael; Sowa, Michael G; Posthumus, Trevor B; Schattka, Bernhard J; Mantsch, Henry H; Zhang, Shuliang L

    2002-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopic methods have been developed to determine the degree of hydration of human skin in vivo. Noncontact reflectance spectroscopic imaging was used to investigate the distribution of skin moisture as a function of location. A human study in a clinical setting has generated quantitative data showing the effects of a drying agent and a moisturizer on delineated regions of the forearms of eight volunteers. Two digital imaging systems equipped with liquid-crystal tunable filters were used to collect stacks of monochromatic images at 10-nm intervals over the 650-1050 and 960-1700 nm wavelength bands. Synthetic images generated from measurements of water absorption band areas at three different near-IR wavelengths (970, 1200, and 1450 nm) showed obvious differences in the apparent distribution of water in the skin. Changes resulting from the skin treatments were much more evident in the long-wavelength images than in the short-wavelength ones. The variable sensitivity of the method at different wavelengths has been interpreted as being the result of different penetration depths of the IR light used in the reflectance studies.

  9. X-ray Spectroscopic Evidence for Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabbiano, G.; Miller, M. C.; Fabian, A. C.

    2003-03-01

    Our analysis of the XMM-Newton spectra of the ultra-luminous X-ray (ULX) sources NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2 reveals cool (kT = 150 eV) accretion disk and hard power-law (coronal) components. These disks are 5-10 times cooler than temperatures measured in Galactic stellar-mass black hole binary systems at high mass accretion rates. X-1 and X-2 were observed at luminosities of 2.0 1040 erg/s and 6.6 1039 erg/s (0.2-10.0 keV), respectively -- well above the Eddington limit for 10 solar-mass black holes. As the inner accretion disk temperature around a black hole is expected to fall with increasing mass (T M-1/4), the observed disk temperatures and luminosities may indicate that NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2 are intermediate mass black holes (100-1000 solar masses). Prior radio and optical observations of X-1 and X-2 indicate that the observed luminosities cannot easily be explained in terms of relativistic beaming or anisotropic emission scenarios. We will discuss our results in terms of prevailing models concerning ULX sources and constraints on models for intermediate-mass black hole formation. Finally, we will discuss other results which indicate that cool accretion disks may be present in ULX sources.

  10. Spectroscopic evidence for the partial dissociation of H2O on ZnO(1010).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Muhler, M; Wöll, Ch

    2006-04-01

    The interaction of water with the non-polar ZnO(1010) surface has been studied by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Adsorption of water at room temperature leads to the partial dissociation of water molecules giving rise to a well defined (2x1) superstructure. This observation was confirmed by the HREELS data which show the water-induced O-H stretching modes at 396 and 460 meV (3193 and 3709 cm-1) as well as the peak at 456 meV (3677 cm-1) arising from the OH species. The large red shift of the loss at 396 meV indicates unusually strong hydrogen bonding interactions of water to both neighbouring adsorbate molecules and the surface O atoms which are responsible for the partial dissociation of water molecules on the perfect ZnO(1010) surface.

  11. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L₃-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.

  12. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots.

    PubMed

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C; Jaffé, Peter R; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G; Segre, Carlo U; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6-5.8) conditions using U L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U-C bond distance at ∼2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was 2 orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was reoxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.

  13. Spectroscopic Evidence for Exceptional Thermal Contribution to Electron-Beam Induced Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Marissa A.; Haynor, Ben; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D. Frank; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2010-11-16

    While electron beam induced fragmentation (EBIF) has been reported to result in the formation of nanocrystals of various compositions, the physical forces driving this phenomenon are still poorly understood. We report EBIF to be a much more general phenomenon than previously appreciated, operative across a wide variety of metals, semiconductors and insulators. In addition, we leverage the temperature dependent bandgap of several semiconductors to quantify -- using in situ cathodoluminescence spectroscopy -- the thermal contribution to EBIF, and find extreme temperature rises upwards of 1000K.

  14. Modeling description and spectroscopic evidence of surface acid-base properties of natural illites.

    PubMed

    Liu, W

    2001-12-01

    The acid-base properties of natural illites from different areas were studied by potentiometric titrations. The acidimetric supernatant was regarded as the system blank to calculate the surface site concentration due to consideration of substrate dissolution during the prolonged acidic titration. The following surface complexation model could give a good interpretation of the surface acid-base reactions of the aqueous illites:

  15. Multiprobe Spectroscopic Evidence for "Hyperpolarity" within 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate Mixtures with Tetraethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Abhra; Trivedi, Shruti; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid, potentially green solvent system composed of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) was investigated across all mole fractions with regard to the solvent properties of the mixture. For this purpose, a suite of absorbance- and fluorescence-based solvatochromic probes were utilized to explore solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions existing within the [bmim][PF6] + TEG system. These studies revealed an interesting and unusual synergistic solvent effect. In particular, a remarkable hyperpolarity was observed in which the ET value, comprising dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) acidity contributions, at intermediate mole fractions of the binary mixture well exceeded that of the most polar pure component (i.e., [bmim][PF6]). Independently determined dipolarity/polarizability ( *) and HBD acidity (R) Kamlet-Taft values for the [bmim][PF6] + TEG mixtures were also observed to be anomalously high at intermediate mole fractions, whereas hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) basicities ( values) were much more in line with the ideal arithmetic values predicted on a mole fraction basis.

  16. Mars: Mariner 9 Spectroscopic Evidence for H2O Ice Clouds.

    PubMed

    Curran, R J; Conrath, B J; Hanel, R A; Kunde, V G; Pearl, J C

    1973-10-26

    Spectral features observed with the Mariner 9 interferometer spectrometer are identified as those of H(2)O ice. The measured spectra are compared with theoretical calculations for the transfer of radiation through clouds of ice particles with variations in size distribution and integrated cloud mass. Comparisons with an observed spectrum from the Tharsis Ridge region indicate H(2)O ice clouds composed of particles with a mean radius of 2.0 micrometers and an integrated cloud mass of 5 x 10(-5) grain per square centimeter.

  17. Spectroscopic evidence of 3-hydroxyflavone sorption within MFI type zeolites: ESIPT and metal complexation.

    PubMed

    Moissette, A; Hureau, M; Kokaislova, A; Le Person, A; Cornard, J P; De Waele, I; Batonneau-Gener, I

    2015-10-21

    Due to its chemical and photochemical properties and potential applications in numerous domains as a molecular probe, 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF) is a molecule of high interest. In particular, the processes of intramolecular proton transfer in the excited state and metallic complexation are known to be dependent on the chemical environment. In this context, the particular properties of zeolites make these microporous materials an environment adapted to study the reactivity of isolated molecules adsorbed in their porous void space. Thus, this report investigates the incorporation without any solvent of 3HF into the internal volume of various channel-type MFI zeolites. Using complementary techniques (diffuse reflectance UV-vis absorption, Raman scattering, FTIR, fluorescence emission and molecular modelling), very different spectral behaviours are observed in totally dealuminated silicalite-1 and in Al rich MZSM-5 (M = H(+), Na(+), Zn(2+)). In silicalite-1, the non-polar and non-protic internal micro-environment does not induce any valuable interaction between 3HF and the channel walls. Therefore, the molecule shows easy tautomer formation upon excitation. Within HZSM-5, 3HF is adsorbed in close proximity of the acid proton of the zeolite which inhibits the intramolecular proton transfer and then, only the normal form is observed at the excited state. For NaZSM-5, the spectral data show an intermediary behaviour due to the aprotic but polar environment, in agreement with 3HF sorption in close proximity of the Na(+) extra framework cation. After mixing 3HF and ZnZSM-5, the spectral features clearly indicate metallic complexation of the guest molecule. The zeolite dependent reactivity reported here demonstrates the adsorption of the guest within the internal volume because the charge balancing cations which clearly control the reaction are principally located in the zeolite channels. The 3HF incorporation into the internal volume is proved by the decrease of the microporous volume observed by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. The experimental data are confirmed by Monte Carlo molecular modelling which also predicts 3HF sorption in the zeolite channels in the proximity of charge compensating cations. Consequently, as the molecule dimensions are assumed to be slightly larger than the channel size, the flexibility of the molecule and the lattice deformation have to be considered to allow 3HF penetration into the zeolite void space.

  18. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; et al

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L₃-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulatingmore » the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.« less

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic evidence for the interaction of HAlOH with water molecules.

    PubMed

    Brunet, François D; Joly, Helen A

    2012-05-01

    The complex HAlOH:(H(2)O) has been detected by matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy. This complex was speculated to be the species responsible for the chemiluminescent glow associated with the explosion of trimethyl aluminum or aluminum grenades in the upper atomosphere. Theoretical studies suggest that HAlOH:(H(2)O)(n) is a critical precursor in the formation of H(2) in the reaction of Al with liquid water. In our study, Al atoms were reacted with mixtures of D(2)O/He or H(2)(17)O/He in an adamantane matrix in a metal-atom reactor, known as a rotating cryostat, maintained at 77 K and at <10(-6) Torr. In addition to DAlOD and HAlOH, which formed from the reaction of Al atoms with adventitious water, EPR analysis of the Al-D(2)O/He reaction mixture from 77 to 290 K showed that HAlOH:(D(2)O) and DAlOD:(D(2)O) formed. The experimental nuclear hyperfine interactions (hfis) for these species were in close agreement with those calculated using the B3LYP density functional method and the 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set. The effect of complexation is to lower the Al hfi of HAlOH and DAlOD by ca. 8%, the H hfi of HAlOH by ca. 28%, and the D hfi of DAlOD by ca. 35%. PMID:22455466

  20. Spectroscopic evidence for ternary surface complexes in the lead(II)-malonic acid-hematite system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenhart, J.J.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements, we examined the sorption of Pb(II) to hematite in the presence of malonic acid. Pb LIII-edge EXAFS measurements performed in the presence of malonate indicate the presence of both Fe and C neighbors, suggesting that a major fraction of surface-bound malonate is bonded to adsorbed Pb(II). In the absence of Pb(II), ATR-FTIR measurements of sorbed malonate suggest the formation of more than one malonate surface complex. The dissimilarity of the IR spectrum of malonate sorbed on hematite to those for aqueous malonate suggest at least one of the sorbed malonate species is directly coordinated to surface Fe atoms in an inner-sphere mode. In the presence of Pb, little change is seen in the IR spectrum for sorbed malonate, indicating that geometry of malonate as it coordinates to sorbed Pb(II) adions is similar to the geometry of malonate as it coordinates to Fe in the hematite surface. Fits of the raw EXAFS spectra collected from pH 4 to pH 8 result in average Pb-C distances of 2.98 to 3.14 A??, suggesting the presence of both four- and six-membered Pb-malonate rings. The IR results are consistent with this interpretation. Thus, our results suggest that malonate binds to sorbed Pb(II) adions, forming ternary metal-bridging surface complexes. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Spectroscopic evidence for a type II Weyl semimetallic state in MoTe2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Lunan; McCormick, Timothy M.; Ochi, Masayuki; Zhao, Zhiying; Suzuki, Michi -To; Arita, Ryotaro; Wu, Yun; Mou, Daixiang; Cao, Huibo; Yan, Jiaqiang; et al

    2016-07-11

    In a type I Dirac or Weyl semimetal, the low-energy states are squeezed to a single point in momentum space when the chemical potential μ is tuned precisely to the Dirac/Weyl point1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Recently, a type II Weyl semimetal was predicted to exist, where the Weyl states connect hole and electron bands, separated by an indirect gap7, 8, 9, 10. This leads to unusual energy states, where hole and electron pockets touch at the Weyl point. Here we present the discovery of a type II topological Weyl semimetal state in pure MoTe2, where two sets ofmore » Weyl points (W±2 , W±3) exist at the touching points of electron and hole pockets and are located at different binding energies above EF. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, modelling, density functional theory and calculations of Berry curvature, we identify the Weyl points and demonstrate that they are connected by different sets of Fermi arcs for each of the two surface terminations. We also find new surface ‘track states’ that form closed loops and are unique to type II Weyl semimetals. Lastly, this material provides an exciting, new platform to study the properties of Weyl fermions.« less

  2. Raman spectroscopic evidence for colinear arrangement in the solid state of thermochromic distibanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürger, H.; Eujen, R.; Becker, G.; Mundt, O.; Westerhausen, M.; Witthauer, C.

    1983-04-01

    The IR and Raman spectra of the compounds (CH 3) 2SbSb(CH 3) 2 (I), [(CH 3) 3Si] 2SbSb[Si(CH 3) 3] 2 (II), [(CH 3) 3Si] 2AsAs[Si(CH 3) 3] 2 (III) and (C 6H 5) 2SbSb(C 6H 5) 2 (IV) have been studied in the liquid and solid states. Given assignments for I to III are based on normal coordinate analyses, and force constants are reported. The solid state Raman spectra of I and II exhibit strong lines near 50 cm -1, which are assigned to the longitudinal acoustic mode of an infinite linear chain of Sb atoms. Intermolecular Sb…Sb force constants, 0.125 and 0.18 N cm -1, are determined for I and II respectively.

  3. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Aharonov-Casher Effect in a Cooper Pair Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. T.; Zhang, W.; Ioffe, L. B.; Gershenson, M. E.

    2016-03-01

    We observe the effect of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) interference on the spectrum of a superconducting system containing a symmetric Cooper pair box (CPB) and a large inductance. By varying the charge ng induced on the CPB island, we observe oscillations of the device spectrum with the period Δ ng=2 e . These oscillations are attributed to the charge-controlled AC interference between the fluxon tunneling processes in the CPB Josephson junctions. The measured phase and charge dependences of the frequencies of the |0 ⟩→|1 ⟩ and |0 ⟩→|2 ⟩ transitions are in good agreement with our numerical simulations. Almost complete suppression of the single fluxon tunneling due to destructive interference is observed for the charge ng=e (2 n +1 ). The CPB in this regime enables fluxon pairing, which can be used for the development of parity-protected superconducting qubits.

  4. Photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a dense ring system around Centaur Chariklo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Sicardy, B.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.; Colazo, C.; Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Braga-Ribas, F.

    2014-08-01

    Context. A stellar occultation observed on 3rd June 2013 revealed the presence of two dense and narrow rings separated by a small gap around the Centaur object (10 199) Chariklo. The composition of these rings is not known. We suspect that water ice is present in the rings, as is the case for Saturn and other rings around the giant planets. Aims: In this work, we aim to determine if the variability in the absolute magnitude of Chariklo and the temporal variation of the spectral ice feature, even when it disappeared in 2007, can be explained by an icy ring system whose aspect angle changes with time. Methods: We explained the variations on the absolute magnitude of Chariklo and its ring by modeling the light reflected by a system as the one described above. Using X-shooter at VLT, we obtained a new reflectance spectra. We compared this new set of data with the ones available in the literature. We showed how the water ice feature is visible in 2013 in accordance with the ring configuration, which had an opening angle of nearly 34° in 2013. Finally, we also used models of light scattering to fit the visible and near-infrared spectra that shows different characteristics to obtain information on the composition of Chariklo and its rings. Results: We showed that absolute photometry of Chariklo from the literature and new photometric data that we obtained in 2013 can be explained by a ring of particles whose opening angle changes as a function of time. We used the two possible pole solutions for the ring system and found that only one of them, α = 151.30 ± 0.5, δ = 41.48 ± 0.2° (λ = 137.9 ± 0.5, β = 27.7 ± 0.2°), provides the right variation of the aspect angle with time to explain the photometry, whereas the other possible pole solution fails to explain the photometry. From spectral modeling, we derived the composition of the Chariklo surface and that of the rings using the result on the pole solution. Chariklo surface is composed with about 60% of amorphous carbon, 30% of silicates and 10% of organics; no water ice was found on the surface. The ring, on the other hand, contains 20% of water ice, 40-70% of silicates, and 10-30% of tholins and small quantities of amorphous carbon. Partially based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile. DDT 291.C-5035(A). Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  5. Spectroscopic evidence of β-turn in N-glycated peptidomimetics related to leucine-enkephalin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vass, E.; Hollósi, M.; Kveder, M.; Kojić-Prodić, B.; Čudić, M.; Horvat, Š.

    2000-11-01

    The conformational differences caused by N-glycation of the amide bond in endogenous opioid pentapeptide leucine-enkephalin (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu) have been explored in solution using FTIR spectroscopy, NMR and molecular modelling. The compounds studied include protected and unprotected enkephalin analogues N-alkylated at the second (Gly 2) amino acid residue with a 6-deoxy- D-galactose moiety ( 1- 3). Comparison of the amide I component bands in the FTIR spectra, measured in trifluoroethanol (TFE), CHCl 3 and DMSO, revealed significant differences in the intensity as well as shifts in component band frequencies for glycopeptides 1- 3. We found that only the FTIR spectrum of the fully protected compound 1 indicated the presence of a higher population of β-turns, while the spectra of the partially protected and unprotected glycopeptides 2 and 3 reflected the dominance of unordered or open structures, with some low population of turns. The observed NOE connectivities in CDCl 3 for both isomers of the fully protected compound 1, the all-trans one and another with Tyr 1-Gly 2 peptide bond in cis conformation, indicate the presence of a β-like turn conformation. Molecular dynamics simulations of the glycopeptide 1 obtained by unconstrained energy minimization of trans- and cis- 1 shows that one of trans form conformations is consistent with β-turn whereas cis isomer has revealed less-compact turn.

  6. Spectroscopic Evidence of Anthropogenic Compounds Extraction from Polymers by Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, M.; Trojzuck, A.; Voss, D.; Gassmann, S.; Zielinski, O.

    2016-04-01

    FDOM is one of the most important carriers of anthropogenic compounds in natural waters. It can combine with environmental contaminants and polymers to form diverse chemical structures. To this end, here a microfluidic chip was designed for the analysis of these changes in fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) fingerprints due to thermal treatment and varying time intervals of exposure. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) approach was utilized to detect and identify the inherent compounds in sampled FDOM. Strong direct correlations were founded, Spearman rank correlation values (ρ = 0.85 at α = 0.1, n = 4) and linear correlation R2 = 0.8359 were noted between thermal treatment pattern 2 and fluorescence intensity of samples. Materials, acrylic based glue and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) polymer, used to design the microfluidic sensor were determined to possess unique spectral features in the ultraviolet to green spectrum using EEMS. The study therefore provides an insight on methods to identify contaminants in natural waters. This underlines the potential of optical sensors providing measurements at fast intervals, enabling environmental monitoring.

  7. Spectroscopic evidence supporting the gravitational lens hypothesis for 1635+267 A,B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Edwin L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Burke, Bernard F.

    1988-01-01

    The gravitational lens hypothesis is tested for 1613+267 A,B by comparing the detailed line widths and shapes of the 2799-A Mg II and semiforbidden 1909-A C-III lines in each component. Following subtraction of an interpolating polynomial fit to the continua and the determination of a single optimum scaling factor (an amplification ratio of 2.83), reasonable agreement between the profiles of both lines in the two composites is obtained. Comparison of these lines to those in an unrelated quasar with a similar redshift and apparent magnitude does not produce a good match. It is suggested that the observed match in the 1635+267 A,B spectra arises from gravitational lensing.

  8. A different mechanism for the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes: Kinetic and spectroscopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lesage, S.; Brown, S.; Millar, K.

    1998-08-01

    Reductive dechlorination is the most common reaction in the remediation of groundwater and soils contaminated with chlorinated compounds. The reaction that occurs in anaerobic bacteria can also be catalyzed by vitamin B12 and titanium citrate. Reductive dechlorination without the release of chlorinated ethene intermediates from the chloroalkylcobalamin complexes is proposed as an alternate reaction pathway for the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. The revised scheme is supported by (a) the identification of several chloroalkylcobalamin intermediates by direct liquid injection of the reaction mixtures into an electrospray mass spectrometer, (b) the simultaneous presence of all the dechlorination intermediates in the mixtures, and (c) gas chromatographic data showing rapid formation of ethene and acetylene in the presence of a large excess of the primary substrates. Homolytic cleavage and titanium-catalyzed elimination are presented as competing mechanisms for the formation of the products from the alkylcobalamin intermediates. The distribution of dechlorination products was dependent on the availability of titanium from different chelating agents. This means that it may be possible to favor the formation of the fully dechlorinated products and to reduce the release of undesirable intermediates such as vinyl chloride by adjusting the amount and type of titanium chelate used.

  9. Spectroscopic Evidence of Uranium Immobilization in Acidic Wetlands by Natural Organic Matter and Plant Roots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah Ri...

  10. Spectroscopic evidence of xanthine compounds fluorescence quenching effect on water-soluble porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    The formation of π-stacked complexes between water-soluble porphyrins: 4,4‧,4″,4″‧-(21H,23H-porphine-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)tetrakis-(benzoic acid) (H2TCPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (H2TPPS4), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H2TTMePP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H2TMePyP), the Cu(II) complexes of H2TTMePP and H2TMePyP, as well as chlorophyll a with xanthine, theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) has been studied analysing their absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra in aqueous (or acetone in case of chlorophyll a) solution. During titration by the compounds from xanthine group the bathochromic effect in the porphyrin absorption spectra as well as the hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret maximum can be noticed. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions in the systems examined suggests the process of static quenching. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 103 - 102 mol-1. The results obtained show that xanthine and its derivatives can quench the fluorescence of the porphyrins according to the number of methyl groups in the molecule of quencher.

  11. Spectroscopic evidence for uranium bearing precipitates in vadose zone sediments at the Hanford 300-area site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Marcus, M.A.; Tamura, N.; Davis, J.A.; Zachara, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium (U) solid-state speciation in vadose zone sediments collected beneath the former North Process Pond (NPP) in the 300 Area of the Hanford site (Washington) was investigated using multi-scale techniques. In 30 day batch experiments, only a small fraction of total U (???7.4%) was released to artificial groundwater solutions equilibrated with 1% pCO2. Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analyses showed that U was distributed among at least two types of species: (i) U discrete grains associated with Cu and (ii) areas with intermediate U concentrations on grains and grain coatings. Metatorbernite (Cu[UO2]2[PO 4]2??8H2O) and uranophane (Ca[UO 2]2[SiO3(OH)]2?? 5H 2O) at some U discrete grains, and muscovite at U intermediate concentration areas, were identified in synchrotron-based micro-X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyses revealed 8-10 ??m size metatorbernite particles that were embedded in C-, Al-, and Si-rich coatings on quartz and albite grains. In ??- and bulk-X-ray absorption structure (??-XAS and XAS) spectroscopy analyses, the structure of metatorbernite with additional U-C and U-U coordination environments was consistently observed at U discrete grains with high U concentrations. The consistency of the ??- and bulk-XAS analyses suggests that metatorbernite may comprise a significant fraction of the total U in the sample. The entrapped, micrometer-sized metatorbernite particles in C-, Al-, and Si-rich coatings, along with the more soluble precipitated uranyl carbonates and uranophane, likely control the long-term release of U to water associated with the vadose zone sediments. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  12. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR A TEMPERATURE INVERSION IN THE DAYSIDE ATMOSPHERE OF HOT JUPITER WASP-33b

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Korey; Mandell, Avi M.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather

    2015-06-20

    We present observations of two occultations of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is the most highly irradiated hot Jupiter discovered to date, and the only exoplanet known to orbit a δ-Scuti star. We observed in spatial scan mode to decrease instrument systematic effects in the data, and removed fluctuations in the data due to stellar pulsations. The rms for our final, binned spectrum is 1.05 times the photon noise. We compare our final spectrum, along with previously published photometric data, to atmospheric models of WASP-33b spanning a wide range in temperature profiles and chemical compositions. We find that the data require models with an oxygen-rich chemical composition and a temperature profile that increases at high altitude. We find that our measured spectrum displays an excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO. If confirmed by additional measurements at shorter wavelengths, this planet would become the first hot Jupiter with a thermal inversion that can be definitively attributed to the presence of TiO in its dayside atmosphere.

  13. Spectroscopic Evidence of Keto-enol Tautomerism in Deliquesced Malonic Acid Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Suman; Laskin, Alexander; Tivanski, Alexei V.

    2011-04-11

    Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy combined with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), and optical microscopy coupled with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (micro-FTIR) have been applied to observe hygroscopic growth and chemical changes in malonic acid particles deposited on substrates. Extent of the hygroscopic growth of particles has been quantified in terms of the corresponding water-to-solute ratios (WSR) based on STXM/NEXAFS and micro-FTIR data sets. WSR values derived separately from two applied methods displayed a remarkable agreement with previous data reported in the literature. Comparison of NEXAFS and FTIR spectra acquired at different relative humidity (RH) shows efficient keto-enol tautomerization of malonic acid, with the enol form dominated at higher RH. The keto-enol equilibrium constants were calculated using relevant peak intensities in the carbon and oxygen K-edge NEXAFS spectra as a function of RH.

  14. Spectroscopic Evidence for an Oxazolone Structure in Anionic b-Type Peptide Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzetic, Josipa; Oomens, Jos

    2012-02-01

    Infrared spectra of anionic b-type fragments generated by collision induced dissociation (CID) from deprotonated peptides are reported. Spectra of the b2 fragments of deprotonated AlaAlaAla and AlaTyrAla have been recorded over the 800-1800 cm-1 spectral range by multiple-photon dissociation (MPD) spectroscopy using an FTICR mass spectrometer in combination with the free electron laser FELIX. Structural characterization of the b-type fragments is accomplished by comparison with density functional theory calculated spectra at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level for different isomeric structures. Although diketopiperazine structures represent the energetically lowest isomers, the IR spectra suggest an oxazolone structure for the b2 fragments of both peptides. Deprotonation is shown to occur on the oxazolone α-carbon, which leads to a conjugated structure in which the negative charge is practically delocalized over the entire oxazolone ring, providing enhanced gas-phase stability.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of gas-phase molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chi-Kin

    Spectroscopic investigations of hydrogen-bonding and van der Waals' interactions in molecular clusters were studied by the techniques of infrared predissociation and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopies (REMPI). Ab initio calculations were applied in conjunction for data interpretation. The infrared predissociation spectroscopy of CN-·(H 2O)n (n = 2--6) clusters was reported in the region of 2950--3850 cm-1. The hydrogen bondings for the C-site and N-site binding, and among the water molecules were identified for n = 2 to 4. A spectral transition was observed for n = 5 and 6, implying that the anion was surface-bound onto the water aggregates in larger clusters. The infrared predissociation spectroscopy of Br-·(NH 3) and I-·(NH3) n (n = 1--3) clusters was reported in the region of 3050--3450 cm-1. For the Br -·(NH3) complex, a dominating ionic NH stretch appeared at 3175 cm-1, and the weaker free NH stretch appeared at 3348 cm-1. The observed spectrum was consistent to the structure in which there was one nearly linear hydrogen bond between Br- and the NH3 moiety. For the I- ·(NH3) complex, five distinct IR absorption bands were observed in the spectrum. The spectrum was not consistent with basic frequency patterns of three geometries considered in the ab initio calculations---complex with one, two and three hydrogen bondings between I- and the NH3 moiety. Substantial inhomogenous broadening were displayed in the spectra for I- ·(NH3)n (n = 2--3), suggesting the presence of multiple isomers. The REMPI spectroscopy of the bound 4p 2pi 1/2 and 2pi3/2 states, and the dissociative 3d 2Sigma+1/2 state in the Al·Ar complex was reported. The dissociative spectrum at Al+ channel suggested the coupling of the 4p 2pi 1/2,3/2 states to the repulsive 3d 2Sigma+1/2 state. The spin-electronic coupling was further manifested in the dissociative Al+ spectrum of the 3d 2Sigma+1/2 state. Using the potential energy curves obtained from ab initio

  16. Infrared laser spectroscopic trace gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Chemical sensing and analyses of gas samples by laser spectroscopic methods are attractive owing to several advantages such as high sensitivity and specificity, large dynamic range, multi-component capability, and lack of pretreatment or preconcentration procedures. The preferred wavelength range comprises the fundamental molecular absorption range in the mid-infared between 3 and 15 μm, whereas the near-infrared range covers the (10-100 times weaker) higher harmonics and combination bands. The availability of near-infrared and, particularly, of broadly tunable mid-infrared sources like external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), interband cascade lasers (ICLs), difference frequency generation (DFG), optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), recent developments of diode-pumped lead salt semiconductor lasers, of supercontinuum sources or of frequency combs have eased the implementation of laser-based sensing devices. Sensitive techniques for molecular absorption measurements include multipass absorption, various configurations of cavity-enhanced techniques such as cavity ringdown (CRD), or of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) including quartz-enhanced (QEPAS) or cantilever-enhanced (CEPAS) techniques. The application requirements finally determine the optimum selection of laser source and detection scheme. In this tutorial talk I shall discuss the basic principles, present various experimental setups and illustrate the performance of selected systems for chemical sensing of selected key atmospheric species. Applications include an early example of continuous vehicle emission measurements with a mobile CO2-laser PAS system [1]. The fast analysis of C1-C4 alkanes at sub-ppm concentrations in gas mixtures is of great interest for the petrochemical industry and was recently achieved with a new type of mid-infrared diode-pumped piezoelectrically tuned lead salt vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) [2]. Another example concerns measurements on short

  17. Quantification of UV-Visible and Laser Spectroscopic Techniques for Materials Accountability and Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, Kenneth; Weck, Phil

    2013-09-13

    UV-Visible spectroscopy studies. The use of TRLFS to examine Cm and U will provide data to evaluate lifetime, peak location, and peak ratios (mainly for U). The bases for the spectroscopic techniques have been investigated, providing fundamental evidence for the application’s utility.

  18. Optical trapping and binding in air: Imaging and spectroscopic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guillon, Marc; Stout, Brian

    2008-02-15

    We report on an experimental study of direct and spectroscopic imaging of optically trapped Mie droplets in air. The scattering of the trapping beams gives glare points at the droplets' azimuths. Spectroscopic measurements involving polarized light are performed to precisely determine both the droplet sizes and refraction index using Mie scattering theory. Experimental pictures are compared to rigorous numerical simulations. We also include some results on imaging of whispering gallery resonances and conclude with a brief discussion on the possibility of efficiently exciting whispering gallery resonances via radiative coupling.

  19. Spectroscopic study of low-lying {sup 16}N levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bardayan, D. W.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pain, S. D.; Smith, M. S.; O'Malley, P. D.; Cizewski, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Peters, W. A.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K. Y.; Jones, K. L.; Moazen, B. H.; Paulauskas, S.; Pittman, S. T.; Schmitt, K. T.; Chipps, K. A.; Kozub, R. L.; Shriner, J. F. Jr.; Matei, C.

    2008-11-15

    The magnitude of the {sup 15}N(n,{gamma}){sup 16}N reaction rate in asymptotic giant branch stars depends directly on the neutron spectroscopic factors of low-lying {sup 16}N levels. A new study of the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N reaction is reported populating the ground and first three excited states in {sup 16}N. The measured spectroscopic factors are near unity as expected from shell model calculations, resolving a long-standing discrepancy with earlier measurements that had never been confirmed or understood. Updated {sup 15}N(n,{gamma}){sup 16}N reaction rates are presented.

  20. Gypsum-hosted endolithic communities of the Lake St. Martin impact structure, Manitoba, Canada: spectroscopic detectability and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhind, T.; Ronholm, J.; Berg, B.; Mann, P.; Applin, D.; Stromberg, J.; Sharma, R.; Whyte, L. G.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that Mars may have once been a habitable environment. Gypsum is targeted in the search for Martian biosignatures because it can host extensive cryptoendolithic communities in extreme terrestrial environments and is widespread on Mars. In this study the viability of using different spectroscopy-based techniques to identify the presence of gypsum endolithic communities was investigated by analysing various cryptoendoliths collected from the Lake St. Martin impact crater (LSM), a Mars analogue site found in Manitoba, Canada. Concurrently, the cryptoendolithic microbial community structure present was also analysed to aid in assigning spectroscopic features to microbial community members. Two main morphologies of endolithic communities were collected from gypsum deposits at LSM: true cryptoendolithic communities and annular deposits on partially buried boulders and cobbles <1 cm below the soil surface. Endolithic communities were found to be visibly present only in gypsum with a high degree of translucency and could occur as deep as 3 cm below the exterior surface. The bacterial community was dominated by a phylum (Chloroflexi) that has not been previously observed in gypsum endoliths. The exterior surfaces of gypsum boulders and cobbles are devoid of spectroscopic features attributable to organic molecules and detectable by reflectance, Raman, or ultraviolet-induced fluorescence spectroscopies. However, exposed interior surfaces show unique endolithic signatures detectable by each spectroscopic technique. This indicates that cryptoendolithic communities can be detected via spectroscopy-based techniques, provided they are either partially or fully exposed and enough photon-target interactions occur to enable detection.

  1. Molecular interactions of flavonoids to pepsin: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hua-Jin; Yang, Ran; Liang, Huili; Qu, Ling-Bo

    2015-01-01

    In the work described on this paper, the inhibitory effect of 10 flavonoids on pepsin and the interactions between them were investigated by a combination of spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The results indicated that all flavonoids could bind with pepsin to form flavonoid-pepsin complexes. The binding parameters obtained from the data at different temperatures revealed that flavonoids could spontaneously interact with pepsin mainly through electrostatic forces and hydrophobic interactions with one binding site. According to synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and molecular docking results, all flavonoids bound directly into the enzyme cavity site and the binding influenced the microenvironment and conformation of the pepsin activity site which resulted in the reduced enzyme activity. The present study provides direct evidence at a molecular level to understand the mechanism of digestion caused by flavonoids.

  2. General approach to the analysis of plasmonic structures using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verre, R.; Modreanu, M.; Ualibek, O.; Fox, D.; Fleischer, K.; Smith, C.; Zhang, H.; Pemble, M.; McGilp, J. F.; Shvets, I. V.

    2013-06-01

    In this article a route to analyze the full optical response of plasmonic structures is developed. First, the simple case of an anisotropic thin plasmonic layer supported on a transparent substrate is analyzed by introducing a quantity named anisotropic surface excess function (ASEF). The spectral features are analyzed in terms of effective dielectric function, demonstrating a more direct relation with the plasmonic response of the layer. The formalism is then generalized using a transfer matrix method. The formalism developed is supported by experimental evidence obtained by measuring the response of anisotropic nanoparticle arrays grown at a glancing angle. The agreement between theory and experiment is clear, suggesting that SE can be conveniently employed to measure the spectroscopic response of plasmonic structures. It is also demonstrated that the figure of merit of the plasmonic resonance for refractive index sensing can be greatly improved, with optimized measurement configurations, using polarized spectroscopy.

  3. Photometric and Spectroscopic Analysis of the delta Scuti Variable V2455 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannard, Marissa; Hintz, Eric G.; Joner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    V2455 Cygni is a high amplitude delta Scuti variable that has received very little attention. This is surprising given its characteristics of an average magnitude of 8.8, with a full-amplitude of 0.44 in the V filter. Plus it has a published period of 0.09421 days. Finally it has been suggested that this is an SX Phe type variable. We present new photometric and spectroscopic observations of this interesting object. From both sets of observations we demonstrate that V2455 Cyg is part of a binary system with an eccentric orbit. We will present supporting evidence for this binary interpretation, show the best binary model for the system and discuss the stability of the pulsational period of the primary star.

  4. Spectroscopic-ellipsometric study of native oxide removal by liquid phase HF process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurhekar, Anil Sudhakar; Apte, Prakash R.

    2013-02-01

    Ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements have been employed to investigate the effect of liquid-phase hydrofluoric acid (HF) cleaning on Si<100> surfaces for microelectromechanical systems application. The hydrogen terminated (H-terminated) Si surface was realized as an equivalent dielectric layer, and SE measurements are performed. The SE analyses indicate that after a 20-s 100:5 HF dip with rinse, the Si (100) surface was passivated by the hydrogen termination and remained chemically stable. Roughness of the HF-etched bare Si (100) surface was observed and analyzed by the ex-situ SE. Evidence for desorption of the H-terminated Si surface layer is studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry, and discussed. This piece of work explains the usage of an ex situ, non-destructive technique capable of showing state of passivation, the H-termination of Si<100> surfaces.

  5. Spectroscopic properties of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefowicz, M.; Aleksiejew, M.; Heldt, J. R.; Bajorek, A.; Pączkowski, J.; Heldt, J.

    2007-09-01

    The luminescence properties of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate (EAADCy) have been studied using steady-state, time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, electrochemical measurements and semiempirical calculations. A series of photophysical measurements and quantum-chemical calculations were carried out with EAADCy in search of an evidence of the occurrence of the aniline group rotation. Studies in different solvents, as well as semiempirical calculations, indicate that conformations with donor and acceptor groups coplanar absorb and emit at wavelengths that are longer than those observed for donor-acceptor groups oriented orthogonally. The values of the dipole moments of planar and perpendicular form of molecule under study were estimated from solvatochromic shifts of absorption and fluorescence spectra as a function of the solvent dielectric constant and refractive index. Experimentally calculated changes of the dipole moment values are in fair agreement with semiempirical computational predictions.

  6. Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopic study of pigments in native American Indian rock art: Seminole Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Drummond, L.; Russ, J.

    1998-10-01

    Samples of rock art (ca. 3000-4200 years BP) from the Lower Pecos region of Texas, near the confluences of the Pecos and Devils rivers with the Rio Grande, have been analysed using Raman microscopy. This rock art represents some of the finest pictographs known in North America. The red pigment is confirmed to be red ochre (iron (III) oxide and clay) whereas the black pigment is manganese (IV) oxide. White areas of the paintings are identified as calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite), whose presence could indicate the previous colonisation of the shelter walls by lichens. The black pigmented areas only contained Raman spectroscopic evidence for organic matter which was probably used as a binding agent.

  7. Raman spectroscopic study of “The Malatesta”: A Renaissance painting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J.

    2015-02-01

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research.

  8. A Raman spectroscopic study of lead and zinc acetate complexes in hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.M.; Crerar, D.A. ); Irish, D.E. )

    1989-02-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and bandfitting techniques were applied to Raman spectra of lead acetate and zinc acetate solutions measured at 25{degree}C. These results reveal the presence of strong, covalent Zn(Ac){sup +}, Zn(AC){sub 2}, Zn(Ac){sup {minus}}{sub 3} and Pb(Ac){sup +}, Pb(Ac){sub 2} and possibly Pb(Ac){sup {minus}}{sub 3} complexes in solution where (Ac) refers to the acetate ion, CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}. Ligation numbers of the different complexes were obtained up to 250{degree}C and species of low-to-neutral charge were found to predominant at the higher temperatures. The spectroscopic evidence shows that the type of complex formed is a function of pH, ligand-to-metal ratio and temperature.

  9. Spectroscopic study of antileishmanial drug incubated in the promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, J.; Castillo, J.; Jiménez, G.; Hasegawa, M.; Rodriguez, M.

    2003-11-01

    In this work we present spectroscopic study of Boldine (aporphine alkaloid) that possesses important biological activities, in particular, in interaction with the promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana. The results show the applicability of autofluorescence of this drug to determinate the possible mechanism of its biological action. The blue shift and hyperchromic effect in the emission spectrum of the drug in interaction with the parasite cells indicate an energy transference process between them. The morphological change of cell shape of the promastigotes treated with the drug is observed using confocal microscopy. This morphological cell-shape transformation evidences an important interaction between the drug studied and some protein of the parasite cell. Here we describe for the first time the fluorescence properties of the Boldine in the promastigotes of L. mexicana.

  10. Positron surface state as a spectroscopic probe for characterizing surfaces of topological insulator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callewaert, Vincent; Shastry, K.; Saniz, Rolando; Makkonen, Ilja; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Assaf, Badih A.; Heiman, Donald; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Partoens, Bart; Bansil, Arun; Weiss, A. H.

    2016-09-01

    Topological insulators are attracting considerable interest due to their potential for technological applications and as platforms for exploring wide-ranging fundamental science questions. In order to exploit, fine-tune, control, and manipulate the topological surface states, spectroscopic tools which can effectively probe their properties are of key importance. Here, we demonstrate that positrons provide a sensitive probe for topological states and that the associated annihilation spectrum provides a technique for characterizing these states. Firm experimental evidence for the existence of a positron surface state near Bi2Te2Se with a binding energy of Eb=2.7 ±0.2 eV is presented and is confirmed by first-principles calculations. Additionally, the simulations predict a significant signal originating from annihilation with the topological surface states and show the feasibility to detect their spin texture through the use of spin-polarized positron beams.

  11. Spectroscopic-ellipsometric study of native oxide removal by liquid phase HF process

    PubMed Central

    Kurhekar, Anil Sudhakar; Apte, Prakash R

    2014-01-01

    Ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements have been employed to investigate the effect of liquid-phase hydrofluoric acid (HF) cleaning on Si<100> surfaces for microelectromechanical systems application. The hydrogen terminated (H-terminated) Si surface was realized as an equivalent dielectric layer, and SE measurements are performed. The SE analyses indicate that after a 20-s 100:5 HF dip with rinse, the Si (100) surface was passivated by the hydrogen termination and remained chemically stable. Roughness of the HF-etched bare Si (100) surface was observed and analyzed by the ex-situ SE. Evidence for desorption of the H-terminated Si surface layer is studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry, and discussed. This piece of work explains the usage of an ex situ, non-destructive technique capable of showing state of passivation, the H-termination of Si<100> surfaces. PMID:24619506

  12. FT-Raman spectroscopic analysis of pigments from an Augustinian friary.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Newton, Emma M; O'Connor, Sonia; Evans, D

    2010-08-01

    The Raman spectroscopic analysis of several stone samples with applied red pigments obtained from an archaeological excavation of an Augustinian friary discovered during the construction of an extension to Hull Magistrates Court in 1994 has revealed a surprising diversity of composition. Cinnabar, red lead and haematite have all been identified alone or in admixture; the cinnabar is exceptional in that it has only been found heavily adulterated with red ochre and red lead, as the other two pigments are found alone. There are signatures of limewash putty, which has been applied to the stone substrate prior to the painting, which is characteristic of the Roman method of wall painting, and there are no traces of gypsum found in the specimens studied. This evidence indicates an early mediaeval method of stone decoration. PMID:20225060

  13. Pollution Police: How to Determine Spectroscopic Selection Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selco, Jodye I.; Beery, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Students employ mathematics and physical chemistry in a project called Pollution Police to establish spectroscopic selection rules, and apply them to detect environmental contaminants from infrared spectra. This interdisciplinary project enables students to gain multiple information on molecular symmetry, and its role in the development of…

  14. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-15tx as a CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, D.; Copperwheat, C.

    2015-12-01

    We report a spectroscopic observation of ASASSN-15tx (ATel #8400) obtained with the 2m robotic Liverpool Telescope (+SPRAT low-resolution spectrograph) on 2015 Dec 11.9078 UT. The spectrum, covering the 400-800 nm range, is blue and nearly featureless.

  15. Spectroscopic classification of four SNe with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Mattila, S.; Lundqvist, P.; Stritzinger, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Harmanen, J.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Blagorodnova, N.; Davis, S.; Dong, S.; Fraser, M.; Gall, C.; Harrison, D.; Hodgkin, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Jonker, P.; Kangas, T.; Kankare, E.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Nielsen, M.; Ochner, P.; Prieto, J. L.; Reynolds, T.; Romero-Canizales, C.; Taddia, F.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    2016-10-01

    The NOT Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS; ATel #8992) reports spectroscopic classification of: ASASSN-16lg in Ark 530 (Atel# 9601); ASASSN-16ll in IRAS F18594+5429 (Atel# 9602); AT 2016gsd (discovered by Itagaki) and AT 2016ghu (= Gaia16bhj, discovered by the Gaia Photometric Science survey in MCG-01-12-008).

  16. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.R.

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  17. The spectroscopic foundation of CO2 climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Daniels, T.; Kratz, D. P.; Collins, W.; Feldman, D.; Lawler, J. E.; Anderson, L. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Hunt, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing (RF) of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the leading contribution to climate change from anthropogenic activities. Calculating CO2 RF requires detailed knowledge of spectral line parameters and lineshape functions for thousands of infrared absorption lines. A reliable spectroscopic characterization of CO2 forcing is therefore a critical input to scientific and policy-oriented assessments of present climate and future climate change. Our study is partly motivated by a recent assertion that CO2 RF values, and hence predictions of climate sensitivity to elevated CO2, have a significant high bias because the CO2 spectroscopic parameters being used are incorrect. Our results show that CO2 RF in a variety of atmospheres is remarkably insensitive to known uncertainties in the three main CO2 spectroscopic parameters: the line strengths, half widths, and line shapes. We demonstrate that this is due largely to the definition of CO2 RF, which is the difference between the CO2 longwave net flux at the tropopause for doubled CO2 concentrations from the preindustrial era. We also assess the effects of sub-Lorentzian wings of CO2 lines and find that the computed RF is largely insensitive to the spectral lineshape function. Overall, the spectroscopic uncertainty in present-day CO2 RF is less than a few percent. Our study highlights the basics and subtleties of RF calculations, addressing interests of the expert and non-expert.

  18. Spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-14ew and ASASSN-14fa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takats, K.; Bufano, F.; Pignata, G.; Prieto, J. L.

    2014-08-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-14ew (ATel #6367) and ASASSN-14fa (ATel #6372). The optical spectra (range 450-880 nm) were obtained on August 11.2 and 11.3 UT, respectively, with the SOAR telescope (+ Goodman Spectrograph).

  19. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with SOAR/Goodman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. A.; Hounsell, R. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    We report a classification of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. Targets were supplied by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST).

  20. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with Mayall/KOSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-06-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with KOSMOS on the KPNO Mayall 4-m telescope. Targets were supplied by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST), All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and MASTER.

  1. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with Mayall/KOSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Siebert, M. R.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with KOSMOS on the KPNO Mayall 4-m telescope. Targets were supplied by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST) and the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN).

  2. Spectroscopic Classification of PS16chs with SOAR/Goodman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. A.; Hounsell, R. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the classification of PS16chs from spectroscopic observation with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The observation was made on 2016 May 08 UT. We classify PS16chs as a SN Ia near maximum light at z = 0.19.

  3. Contribution to the Wednesday afternoon discussion on spectroscopic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, C.

    2005-10-14

    This part of the discussion would like to review the concept of spectroscopic factors and how they relate to measured cross sections and nuclear correlations. A profound knowledge of how correlations affect the spectral function can help to better understand transfer reactions. Nowadays, we have a fairly complete picture for protons in stable nuclei but a lot remain to be learned regarding exotic species.

  4. Ultraminiature one-shot Fourier-spectroscopic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shun; Qi, Wei; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nogo, Kosuke; Hosono, Satsuki; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    We propose one-shot Fourier-spectroscopic tomography as a method of ultraminiature spectroscopic imaging. The apparatus used in this technique consists solely of a glass slab with a portion of its surface polished at a certain inclination angle-a device we term a relative-inclination phase shifter-simply mounted on an infinite-distance-corrected optical imaging system. For this reason, the system may be ultraminiaturized to sizes on the order of a few tens of millimeters. Moreover, because our technique uses a near-common-path wavefront-division phase-shift interferometer and has absolutely no need for a mechanical drive unit, it is highly robust against mechanical vibrations. In addition, because the proposed technique uses Fourier-transform spectroscopy, it offers highly efficient light utilization and an outstanding signal-to-noise ratio compared to devices that incorporate distributed or hyperspectral acousto-optical tunable filters. The interferogram, which is a pattern formed by interference of waves at all wavelengths, reflects the spatial variation in the intensity of the interference depending on the magnitude of the phase shift. We first discuss the design of the phase shifter and the results of tests to validate the principles underlying one-shot Fourier-spectroscopic tomography. We then report the results of one-dimensional spectroscopic imaging using this technique.

  5. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16bx and ASASSN-16cy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, S.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2016-03-01

    We report optical spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-16bx (ATel #8712) and ASASSN-16cy (ATel #8801) obtained by S. Frank on UT 2016 March 14-15 with OSMOS (range 398-686 nm) mounted on the MDM 2.4m telescope at KPNO.

  6. Arsenate Adsorption On Ruthenium Oxides: A Spectroscopic And Kinetic Investigation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenate adsorption on amorphous (RuO2•1.1H2O) and crystalline (RuO2) ruthenium oxides was evaluated using spectroscopic and kinetic methods to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) was ...

  7. Supramolecular Inclusion in Cyclodextrins: A Pictorial Spectroscopic Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldar, Basudeb; Mallick, Arabinda; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    A spectroscopic experiment is presented that reveals that the hydrophobically end-modified water-soluble polymeric fluorophore, pyrene end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (PYPY), interacts differently with [alpha], [beta], and [gamma]-cyclodextrins (CD) to form supramolecular inclusion complexes. The emission spectrum of PYPY in aqueous solution shows…

  8. NIST laboratory program on atomic spectroscopic data for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, W. C.; Dalton, G. R.; Fuhr, J. R.; Kelleher, D. E.; Kramida, A.; Mohr, P. J.; Musgrove, A.; Reader, J.; Saloman, E. B.; Sansonetti, C. J.; Sugar, J.; Wiersma, G. G.; Wiese, W. L.; Zucker, D.; Blaise, J.; Wyart, J.-F.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.

    Our research program includes the observation and energy-level analysis of several heavy-element spectra of astrophysical interest, as well as the experimental determination of transition probabilities for numerous lines of C I, N I, N II, and O II. Current NIST work on critical compilation of atomic spectroscopic data and on electronic databases is also outlined (37 Refs.)

  9. LEAD SORPTION ON RUTHENIUM OXIDE: A MACROSCOPIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption and desorption of Pb on RuO2 xH2O were examined kinetically and thermodynamically via spectroscopic and macroscopic investigations. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was employed to determine the sorption mechanism with regard to identity of nearest atomic neighbo...

  10. Extraction, Purification, and Spectroscopic Characterization of a Mixture of Capsaicinoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Carl E.; Cahill, Thomas M.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory experiment provides a safe and effective way to instruct undergraduate organic chemistry students about natural-product extraction, purification, and NMR spectroscopic characterization. On the first day, students extract dried habanero peppers with toluene, perform a pipet silica gel column to separate carotenoids from…

  11. Spectroscopic ellipsometric and Raman spectroscopic investigations of pulsed laser treated glassy carbon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csontos, J.; Pápa, Z.; Gárdián, A.; Füle, M.; Budai, J.; Toth, Z.

    2015-05-01

    In this study spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and Raman spectroscopy are applied to study structural modification of glassy carbon, due to high intensity laser ablation. Two KrF lasers with different pulse durations (480 fs and 18 ns), an ArF (20 ns), and a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (8 ns) were applied to irradiate the surface of glassy carbon targets. The main characteristics of the different laser treatments are compared by introducing the volumetric fluence which takes into account the different absorption values at different wavelengths. SE showed the appearance of a modified layer on the ablated surfaces. In the case of the ns lasers the thickness of this layer was in the range of 10-60 nm, while in the case of fs laser it was less than 20 nm. In all cases the average refractive index (n) of the modified layers slightly decreased compared to the refractive index of glassy carbon. Increase in extinction coefficient (k) was observed in the cases of ArF and fs KrF laser treatment, while the k values decreased significantly in the cases of nanosecond pulse duration KrF and Nd:YAG laser treatments. In the Raman spectra of the ablated areas the characteristic D and G peaks were widened due to appearance of an amorphous phase. Both Raman spectroscopy and SE indicate that the irradiated areas show carbon nanoparticle formation in all cases.

  12. THE X-RAY VARIABILITY OF A LARGE, SERENDIPITOUS SAMPLE OF SPECTROSCOPIC QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Robert R.; Brandt, W. N.

    2012-02-10

    We analyze the X-ray variability of 264 Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic quasars using the Chandra public archive. This data set consists of quasars with spectroscopic redshifts out to z Almost-Equal-To 5 and covers rest-frame timescales up to {Delta}t{sub sys} Almost-Equal-To 2000 days, with three or more X-ray observations available for 82 quasars. It therefore samples longer timescales and higher luminosities than previous large-scale analyses of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability. We find significant ({approx}>3{sigma}) variation in Almost-Equal-To 30% of the quasars overall; the fraction of sources with detected variability increases strongly with the number of available source counts up to Almost-Equal-To 70% for sources with {>=}1000 counts per epoch. Assuming that the distribution of fractional variation is Gaussian, its standard deviation is Almost-Equal-To 16% on {approx}>1 week timescales, which is not enough to explain the observed scatter in quasar X-ray-to-optical flux ratios as being due to variability alone. We find no evidence in our sample that quasars are more variable at higher redshifts (z > 2), as has been suggested in previous studies. Quasar X-ray spectra vary similarly to some local Seyfert AGNs in that they steepen as they brighten, with evidence for a constant, hard spectral component that is more prominent in fainter stages. We identify one highly variable Narrow Line Seyfert 1-type spectroscopic quasar in the Chandra Deep Field-North. We constrain the rate of kilosecond-timescale flares in the quasar population using Almost-Equal-To 8 months of total exposure and also constrain the distribution of variation amplitudes between exposures; extreme changes (>100%) are quite rare, while variation at the 25% level occurs in <25% of observations. [O III] {lambda}5007 A emission may be stronger in sources with lower levels of X-ray variability; if confirmed, this would represent an additional link between small-scale (corona) and

  13. The GEISA Spectroscopic Database System in its latest Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquinet-Husson, N.; Crépeau, L.; Capelle, V.; Scott, N. A.; Armante, R.; Chédin, A.

    2009-04-01

    GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques: Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information)[1] is a computer-accessible spectroscopic database system, designed to facilitate accurate forward planetary radiative transfer calculations using a line-by-line and layer-by-layer approach. It was initiated in 1976. Currently, GEISA is involved in activities related to the assessment of the capabilities of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer on board the METOP European satellite -http://earth-sciences.cnes.fr/IASI/)) through the GEISA/IASI database[2] derived from GEISA. Since the Metop (http://www.eumetsat.int) launch (October 19th 2006), GEISA/IASI is the reference spectroscopic database for the validation of the level-1 IASI data, using the 4A radiative transfer model[3] (4A/LMD http://ara.lmd.polytechnique.fr; 4A/OP co-developed by LMD and Noveltis with the support of CNES). Also, GEISA is involved in planetary research, i.e.: modelling of Titan's atmosphere, in the comparison with observations performed by Voyager: http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/, or by ground-based telescopes, and by the instruments on board the Cassini-Huygens mission: http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Cassini-Huygens/index.html. The updated 2008 edition of GEISA (GEISA-08), a system comprising three independent sub-databases devoted, respectively, to line transition parameters, infrared and ultraviolet/visible absorption cross-sections, microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols, will be described. Spectroscopic parameters quality requirement will be discussed in the context of comparisons between observed or simulated Earth's and other planetary atmosphere spectra. GEISA is implemented on the CNES/CNRS Ether Products and Services Centre WEB site (http://ether.ipsl.jussieu.fr), where all archived spectroscopic data can be handled through general and user friendly associated management software facilities. More than 350 researchers are

  14. Inventory Control: A Simple Diffraction Grating Spectroscope: Its Construction and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortel, Adolf; Fernandez, Luis

    1986-01-01

    The construction of a diffraction grating spectroscope has been previously reported. A procedure to fit a linear scale to this spectroscope is described (allowing measurement on wavelength of spectral lines without increasing cost of the assembly). Also described are some applications of this modified spectroscope for secondary school laboratory…

  15. Mediaeval cantorals in the Valladolid Biblioteca: FT-Raman spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H G; Farwell, D W; Rull Perez, F; Medina Garcia, J

    2001-03-01

    Raman spectroscopic studies of three mediaeval cantorals in the Biblioteca of the University of Valladolid has revealed information about the pigments used on these large manuscripts. Although executed in a simple colour palette, very pure cinnabar was used as the major colourant, offsetting the carbon black of the verses and script. A dark blue colour was achieved using a mixture of azurite (basic copper carbonate) and carbon, whereas a light blue colour was azurite alone. A grey colour was achieved using azurite, carbon particles and a calcareous 'limewash'. A yellow pigment, used sparely in the cantorals was ascribed to saffron; unusually, there was no evidence for the presence of the yellow mineral pigments orpiment, realgar and massicot. In several regions of the vellum specimens, evidence for biodeterioration was observed through the signatures of hydrated calcium oxalate. We report for the first time the Raman spectra of pigment in situ on a vellum fragment, which also shows evidence of substrate bands; comparison of black and red pigmented regions of vellum specimens has shown the presence of calcium oxalate in the black pigmented script but not in the red pigment regions, which suggests that the cinnabar in the red-pigmented regions acts as a toxic protectant for the vellum substrate against biological colonisation processes.

  16. Interpretation of Spectroscopic Markers of Hydrogen Bonds.

    PubMed

    Scheiner, Steve

    2016-07-18

    Quantum calculations are used to examine whether an AH⋅⋅⋅D H-bond is unambiguously verified by a downfield shift of the bridging proton's NMR signal or a red (or blue) shift of the AH stretching frequency in the IR spectrum. It is found that such IR band shifts will occur even if the two groups experience weak or no attractive force, or if they are drawn in so close together that their interaction is heavily repulsive. The mere presence of a proton-acceptor molecule can affect the chemical shielding of a position occupied by a protondonor by virtue of its electron density, even if there is no H-bond present. This density-induced shielding is heavily dependent on position around the proton-acceptor atom, and varies from one group to another. Evidence of a hydrogen bond rests on the measurement of a proton deshielding in excess of what is caused purely by the presence of the proton acceptor species.

  17. Nonlinear spectroscopic studies of interfacial molecular ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Superfine, R.

    1991-07-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful new probes of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the nonlinear susceptibility. In particular, infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) can obtain the vibrational spectrum of sub-monolayer coverages of molecules. In this thesis, we explore the unique information that can be obtained from SFG. We take advantage of the sensitivity of SFG to the conformation of alkane chains to study the interaction between adsorbed liquid crystal molecules and surfactant treated surfaces. The sign of the SFG susceptibility depends on the sign of the molecular polarizability and the orientation, up or down, of the molecule. We experimentally determine the sign of the susceptibility and use it to determine the absolute orientation to obtain the sign of the molecular polarizability and show that this quantity contains important information about the dynamics of molecular charge distributions. Finally, we study the vibrational spectra and the molecular orientation at the pure liquid/vapor interface of methanol and water and present the most detailed evidence yet obtained for the structure of the pure water surface. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Spectroscopic properties and stability of hemocyanins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova, Rumijana; Dolashka, Pavlina; Stoeva, Stanka; Voelter, Wolfgang; Salvato, Benedetto; Genov, Nicolay

    1997-03-01

    The stability towards thermal and chemical (guanidine hydrochloride) denaturation of oxy- and apo-hemocyanins from the arthropodan organisms Homarus americanus, Maia squinado, Palinurus vulgaris and Carcinus maenas as well as from the molluscs Rapana thomasiana and Viviparus ater have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The H. americanus hemocyanin showed an extreme thermostability in comparison to the other investigated hemocyanins. The critical temperature of deviation from linearity ( Tc) of the Arrhenius plot, ln( Q-1 - 1) vs. 1/T, where Q is the protein quantum yield of fluorescence, was calculated to be 87°C for this respiratory protein. The Tc-values for the other hemocyanins range between 63 and 76°C. The respective activation energies for the radiationless thermal deactivation of the excited indole chromophores were calculated to be 37.0-50.5 kJ mol -1. Guanidine hydrochloride is an efficient denaturant for hemocyanins. The protein unfolding was monitored by circular dichroism. The free energy of stabilization in water, Δ GDH 2O , at 25°C and pH 7.5, was calculated to be in the range 8.0-21.6 kJ mol -1. The highest Δ GDH 2O -values were calculated for the Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin. Upon excitation at 295 or 280 nm the fluorescence emission of the investigated hemocyanins is dominated by 'buried' tryptophyl chromophores. The removal of the copper-dioxygen system from the active site led to 3.8-7.9-fold increase of the protein fluorescence quantum yield and to a red shift of the emission maximum position. Evidently, the tryptophyl fluorescence is significantly quenched in the oxy-hemocyanins.

  19. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. PMID:27400510

  20. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science.

  1. Spectroscopic characteristics of chromium-doped mullite glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, A.J.; Meng, W.; Lempicki, A.; Beall, G.H.; Hall, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    The chromium (3+) ion has been widely used as an optical activator in solid-state, tunable laser materials. High octahedral field-stabilization energy and resistance against both oxidation and reduction minimize the dependence of chromium (3+) on the solid-state host matrix. However, the high sensitivity of electronic structure on crystal field strength makes the appropriate choice of host the condition for success. Characteristics of chromium-doped mullite ceramics are discussed with reference to possible laser applications. Dominant features are attributed to large and inherent spectroscopic inhomogeneity of mullite. The spectroscopic data are analyzed using a generalized McCumber theory. The peak-stimulated emission cross section is 0.54 x 10 to the -20 sq cm. This together with preliminary single-pass measurements, indicate that gain for mullite is about 2.6 times smaller than gain for alexandrite.

  2. Spectroscopic Constants of the Known Electronic States of Lead Monofluoride

    SciTech Connect

    McRaven, C.P.; Sivakumar, P.; Shafer-Ray, N.E.; Hall, G.E.; Sears, T.J.

    2010-08-01

    Based on measurements made by mass-resolved 1 + 1{prime} + 1{double_prime} resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy, we have determined new molecular constants describing the rotational and fine structure levels of the B, D, E, and F states of the most abundant isotopic variant {sup 208}Pb{sup 19}F, and we summarize the spectroscopic constants for all the know electronic states of the radical. Many spectroscopic constants for the isotopologues {sup 206}Pb{sup 19}F and {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F have also been determined. The symmetry of the D-state is found to be {sup 2}{pi}{sub 1/2}, and the F-state is found to be an {Omega} = 3/2 state.

  3. Spectroscopic and Interferometric Measurements of Nine K Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Ellyn K.; Döllinger, Michaela P.; Guenther, Eike W.; Hatzes, Artie P.; Hrudkovu, Marie; van Belle, Gerard T.

    2016-09-01

    We present spectroscopic and interferometric measurements for a sample of nine K giant stars. These targets are of particular interest because they are slated for stellar oscillation observations. Our improved parameters will directly translate into reduced errors in the final masses for these stars when interferometric radii and asteroseismic densities are combined. Here, we determine each star’s limb-darkened angular diameter, physical radius, luminosity, bolometric flux, effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and mass. When we compare our interferometric and spectroscopic results, we find no systematic offsets in the diameters and the values generally agree within the errors. Our interferometric temperatures for seven of the nine stars are hotter than those determined from spectroscopy with an average difference of about 380 K.

  4. The magnetic field of the hot spectroscopic binary HD 5550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.

    2015-12-01

    HD 5550 is a spectroscopic binary composed of two A stars observed with Narval at TBL in the frame of the BinaMIcS (Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars) Large Program. One component of the system is found to be an Ap star with a surprisingly weak dipolar field of ˜65 G. The companion is an Am star for which no magnetic field is detected, with a detection threshold on the dipolar field of ˜40 G. The system is tidally locked, the primary component is synchronised with the orbit, but the system is probably not completely circularised yet. This work is only the second detailed study of magnetic fields in a hot short-period spectroscopic binary. More systems are currently being observed with both Narval at TBL and ESPaDOnS at CFHT within the BinaMIcS project, with the goal of understanding how magnetism can impact binary evolution and vice versa.

  5. Toward proton MR spectroscopic imaging of stimulated brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-08-01

    With the objective of complementing local cerebral metabolic studies of PET, and as a prelude to spectroscopic imaging, the authors have performed the first localized proton spectroscopic study of the stimulated human auditory cortex. Water suppressed localized spectroscopy (voxel size 3cm [times] 3cm [times] 3cm enclosing the auditory cortex, Te = 272ms, Tr = 3s) was performed on a 1.5T MRI/MRS system and spectra were acquired during stimulation with a 1kHz tone presented at 2Hz. Measurements were conducted for 30-40 min with a temporal resolution of 3.2 min (64 averages per time block). Results included in this paper from six subjects show a lactate peak which increases during stimulation compared to baseline values. These results suggest an increase in anaerobic glycolysis during stimulation and provide unique and valuable information that should complement glucose metabolism and flood flow studies of PET.

  6. Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tunnell, J W; Desjardins, A E; Galindo, L; Georgakoudi, I; McGee, S A; Mirkovic, J; Mueller, M G; Nazemi, J; Nguyen, F T; Wax, A; Zhang, Q; Dasari, R R; Feld, M S

    2003-12-01

    Reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies have shown great promise for early detection of epithelial dysplasia. We have developed a clinical reflectance spectrofluorimeter for multimodal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia. This clinical instrument, the FastEEM, collects white light reflectance and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM's) within a fraction of a second. In this paper we describe the FastEEM instrumentation, designed for collection of multi-modal spectroscopic data. We illustrate its performance using tissue phantoms with well defined optical properties and biochemicals of known fluorescence properties. In addition, we discuss our plans to develop a system that combines a multi-spectral imaging device for wide area surveillance with this contact probe device. PMID:14640762

  7. Analysis of variance in spectroscopic imaging data from human tissues.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Reddy, Rohith; Sinha, Saurabh; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-01-17

    The analysis of cell types and disease using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is promising. The approach lacks an appreciation of the limits of performance for the technology, however, which limits both researcher efforts in improving the approach and acceptance by practitioners. One factor limiting performance is the variance in data arising from biological diversity, measurement noise or from other sources. Here we identify the sources of variation by first employing a high throughout sampling platform of tissue microarrays (TMAs) to record a sufficiently large and diverse set data. Next, a comprehensive set of analysis of variance (ANOVA) models is employed to analyze the data. Estimating the portions of explained variation, we quantify the primary sources of variation, find the most discriminating spectral metrics, and recognize the aspects of the technology to improve. The study provides a framework for the development of protocols for clinical translation and provides guidelines to design statistically valid studies in the spectroscopic analysis of tissue.

  8. A modified potential for HO2 with spectroscopic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Brandão, João; Rio, Carolina M A; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2009-04-01

    Seven ground state potential energy surfaces for the hydroperoxyl radical are compared. The potentials were determined from either high-quality ab initio calculations, fits to spectroscopic data, or a combination of the two approaches. Vibration-rotation calculations are performed on each potential and the results compared with experiment. None of the available potentials is entirely satisfactory although the best spectroscopic results are obtained using the Morse oscillator rigid bender internal dynamics potential [Bunker et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 155, 44 (1992)]. We present modifications of the double many-body expansion IV potential of Pastrana et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8093 (1990)]. These new potentials reproduce the observed vibrational levels and observed vibrational levels and rotational constants, respectively, while preserving the good global properties of the original potential. PMID:19355734

  9. Spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anadi; Bylund, Quentin; Prasanna, Manu; Margalit, Yotam; Tihan, Tarik

    2013-03-01

    First measurements of biomedical imaging using quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are presented. We report spectroscopic imaging of serum proteins using QCLs as an example for monitoring surface biocontamination. We found that dry smears of human serum can be spectroscopically imaged, identified, and quantified with high sensitivity and specificity. The core parts of the imaging platform consist of optically multiplexing three QCLs and an uncooled microbolometer camera. We show imaging of human serum proteins at 6.1, 9.25, and 9.5 μm QCLs with high sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity limit of 3  μg/cm² of the human serum spot was measured at an S/N=3.The specificity of human serum detection was measured at 99% probability at a threshold of 77  μg/cm². We anticipate our imaging technique to be a starting point for more sophisticated biomolecular diagnostic applications.

  10. Spectroscopic studies of the several isomers of UO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Reilly, Dallas D.; Abrecht, David G.; Buck, Edgar C.; Meier, David E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Szecsody, James E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2013-10-01

    Uranium trioxide is known to adopt seven different structural forms. While these structural forms have been well characterized using x-ray or neutron diffraction techniques, little work has been done to characterize their spectroscopic properties, particularly of the pure phases. Since the structural isomers of UO3 all have similar thermodynamic stabilities and most tend to hydrolyze under open atmospheric conditions, mixtures of UO3 phases and the hydrolysis products are common. Much effort went into isolating pure phases of UO3. Utilizing x-ray diffraction as a sample identification check, UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopic signatures of α-UO3, β-UO3, γ-UO3 and α-UO2(OH)2 products were obtained. The spectra of the pure phases can now be used to characterize typical samples of UO3, which are often mixtures of isomers.

  11. Spectroscopic Studies of the Several Isomers of UO3

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Reilly, Dallas D.; Abrecht, David G.; Buck, Edgar C.; Meier, David E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Szecsody, James E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2013-09-26

    Uranium trioxide is known to adopt seven different structural forms. While these structural forms have been well characterized using x-ray or neutron diffraction techniques, little work has been done to characterize their spectroscopic properties, particularly of the pure phases. Since the structural isomers of UO3 all have similar thermodynamic stabilities and most tend to hydrolyze under open atmospheric conditions, mixtures of UO3 phases and the hydrolysis products are common. Much effort went into isolating pure phases of UO3. Utilizing x-ray diffraction as a sample identification check, UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopic signatures of α-UO3, β-UO3, γ-UO3 and UO2(OH)2 products were obtained. The spectra of the pure phases can now be used to characterize typical samples of UO3, which are often mixtures of isomers.

  12. A modified potential for HO2 with spectroscopic accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, João; Rio, Carolina M. A.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2009-04-01

    Seven ground state potential energy surfaces for the hydroperoxyl radical are compared. The potentials were determined from either high-quality ab initio calculations, fits to spectroscopic data, or a combination of the two approaches. Vibration-rotation calculations are performed on each potential and the results compared with experiment. None of the available potentials is entirely satisfactory although the best spectroscopic results are obtained using the Morse oscillator rigid bender internal dynamics potential [Bunker et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 155, 44 (1992)]. We present modifications of the double many-body expansion IV potential of Pastrana et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8093 (1990)]. These new potentials reproduce the observed vibrational levels and observed vibrational levels and rotational constants, respectively, while preserving the good global properties of the original potential.

  13. Photo-induced force for spectroscopic imaging at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahng, Junghoon; Tork Ladani, Faezeh; Khan, Ryan M.; Potma, Eric O.

    2016-03-01

    Photo-induced force microscopy (PiFM) is a new scan probe method that enables imaging with spectroscopic contrast at the nanoscale. The operating principle of PiFM is based on the coupling between a sharp atomic tip and a polarizable object, as mediated by the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the tip-sample junction. In this contribution, we develop a description of the photo-induced force in the limit where the tip and object can be approximated as dipoles. This description provides an insightful picture of the forces at play in the tip-sample junction in terms of the gradient and scattering forces. We consider various approximations that are relevant to experimental conditions. The theoretical approach described here successfully explains the previous spectroscopic PiFM measurements in the visible and in the near-IR range, and the anticipated spectral information that can be retrieved under mid infrared illumination.

  14. Site-Directed Spectroscopic Probes of Actomyosin Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, David D.; Kast, David; Korman, Vicci L.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopy of myosin and actin has entered a golden age. High-resolution crystal structures of isolated actin and myosin have been used to construct detailed models for the dynamic actomyosin interactions that move muscle. Improved protein mutagenesis and expression technologies have facilitated site-directed labeling with fluorescent and spin probes. Spectroscopic instrumentation has achieved impressive advances in sensitivity and resolution. Here we highlight the contributions of site-directed spectroscopic probes to understanding the structural dynamics of myosin II and its actin complexes in solution and muscle fibers. We emphasize studies that probe directly the movements of structural elements within the myosin catalytic and light-chain domains, and changes in the dynamics of both actin and myosin due to their alternating strong and weak interactions in the ATPase cycle. A moving picture emerges in which single biochemical states produce multiple structural states, and transitions between states of order and dynamic disorder power the actomyosin engine. PMID:19416073

  15. Spectroscopic studies of cold, gas-phase biomolecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Thomas R.; Stearns, Jaime A.; Boyarkin, Oleg V.

    While the marriage of mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy is not new, developments over the last few years in this relationship have opened up new horizons for the spectroscopic study of biological molecules. The combination of electrospray ionisation for producing large biological molecules in the gas phase together with cooled ion traps and multiple-resonance laser schemes are allowing spectroscopic investigation of individual conformations of peptides with more than a dozen amino acids. Highly resolved infrared spectra of single conformations of such species provide important benchmarks for testing the accuracy of theoretical calculations. This review presents a number of techniques employed in our laboratory and in others for measuring the spectroscopy of cold, gas-phase protonated peptides. We show examples that demonstrate the power of these techniques and evaluate their extension to still larger biological molecules.

  16. Spectroscopic methods for the photodiagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Drakaki, Eleni; Vergou, Theognosia; Dessinioti, Clio; Stratigos, Alexander J; Salavastru, Carmen; Antoniou, Christina

    2013-06-01

    The importance of dermatological noninvasive imaging techniques has increased over the last decades, aiming at diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Technological progress has led to the development of various analytical tools, enabling the in vivo/in vitro examination of lesional human skin with the aim to increase diagnostic accuracy and decrease morbidity and mortality. The structure of the skin layers, their chemical composition, and the distribution of their compounds permits the noninvasive photodiagnosis of skin diseases, such as skin cancers, especially for early stages of malignant tumors. An important role in the dermatological diagnosis and disease monitoring has been shown for promising spectroscopic and imaging techniques, such as fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We review the use of these spectroscopic techniques as noninvasive tools for the photodiagnosis of NMSC.

  17. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor Cycle 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, Rachel

    2010-09-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Obtain exposures in each of the 2 low-resolution MAMA spectroscopic modes every 4 months, in each of the 2 medium-resolution modes once a year, and in each of the 4 echelle modes every 3 months,using unique calibration standards for each mode, and ratio the results to the firstobservations to detect any trends. In addition, each L-mode sequence will be preceded by twospectroscopic ACQ/PEAKs with the CCD/G230LB and crossed linear patterns, with the purpose of measuringthe focus {PSF across the dispersion as a function of UV wavelength}; and each M-mode sequence will be preceded by aCCD/F28X50OII direct image also to monitor the focus.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  18. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor Cycle 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Obtain exposures in each of the 2 low-resolution MAMA spectroscopic modes every 4 months, in each of the 2 medium-resolution modes once a year, and in each of the 4 echelle modes every 3 months,using unique calibration standards for each mode, and ratio the results to the firstobservations to detect any trends. In addition, each L-mode sequence will be preceded by twospectroscopic ACQ/PEAKs with the CCD/G230LB and crossed linear patterns, with the purpose of measuringthe focus {PSF across the dispersion as a function of UV wavelength}; and each M-mode sequence will be preceded by aCCD/F28X50OII direct image also to monitor the focus.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  19. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Obtain exposures in each of the 2 low-resolution MAMA spectroscopic modes every 4 months, in each of the 2 medium-resolution modes once a year, and in each of the 4 echelle modes every 3 months,using unique calibration standards for each mode, and ratio the results to the firstobservations to detect any trends. In addition, each L-mode sequence will be preceded by twospectroscopic ACQ/PEAKs with the CCD/G230LB and crossed linear patterns, with the purpose of measuringthe focus {PSF across the dispersion as a function of UV wavelength}; and each M-mode sequence will be preceded by aCCD/F28X50OII direct image also to monitor the focus.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  20. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor Cycle 19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostroem, Azalee

    2011-10-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Obtain exposures in each of the 2 low-resolution MAMA spectroscopic modes every 4 months, in each of the 2 medium-resolution modes once a year, and in each of the 4 echelle modes every 3 months,using unique calibration standards for each mode, and ratio the results to the firstobservations to detect any trends. In addition, each L-mode sequence will be preceded by twospectroscopic ACQ/PEAKs with the CCD/G230LB and crossed linear patterns, with the purpose of measuringthe focus {PSF across the dispersion as a function of UV wavelength}; and each M-mode sequence will be preceded by aCCD/F28X50OII direct image also to monitor the focus.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  1. Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Yeon; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Cho, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Kyu-Rae; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2011-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopic imaging technique was applied to classify the tumor region in the rabbit liver with VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma. Within the measurement range of 0.1-2 THz, the average reflectance values for all tumor samples were more than 4% higher than those for healthy cells, and the terahertz measurements correlated well with histological analysis results. This study on paraffin-embedded tissues showed the alteration of cell density and protein content in tumors, excluding the effect of water.

  2. Spectroscopic Factors and Barrier Penetrabilities in Cluster Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklin, S.N.; Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-09-01

    The cold cluster decay model is presented in the framework of a dinuclear system concept. Spectroscopic factors are extracted from barrier penetrabilities and measured half-lives. The deformation of the light cluster and residual nucleus is shown to affect the nucleus-nucleus potential and decay characteristics. Half-lives are predicted for neutron-deficient actinides and intermediate-mass nuclei. The connection between spontaneous fission and cluster radioactivity is discussed.

  3. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Thaddeus, P.; Gottlieb, C.

    1992-05-01

    This document details activities during this reporting period topics discussed are: The first spectroscopic identification of the HCCCO and DCCCO radicals; detection of new vibrationally excited states of the carbon chain radicals CCH and CCD and the three-membered carbene ring, cyclopropenylidene; determination of an accurate structure of the cumulene carbene H{sub 2}CCC; analysis the hyperfine structure in the SiC radical; and the undertaking of a systematic search for new sulfur bearing radicals.

  4. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of novel nanostructured transparent conducting oxide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroabadi, Akram A.; Norwood, R. A.

    2013-02-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to find the optical constants, including refractive index, extinction coefficient, thickness and volume fraction of nanostructured transparent conducting oxides including indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium zinc oxide (IZO). We observed sharp features in the ellipsometry data, with the spectral peaks and positions depending on the nanostructure dimensions and material. A superposition of Lorentzian oscillators and the effective medium approximation has been applied to determine the volume ratio of voids and nanopillars, thereby providing the effective optical constants.

  5. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Southern Galactic O and WN Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamen, R.; Barbá, R. H.; Morrell, N. I.; Arias, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2008-08-01

    We are conducting a spectroscopic monitoring of O- and WN-type stars for which there is no indication of multiplicity in the Galactic O-Stars Catalog (Maíz-Apellániz et al. 2004) or in the VIIth Catalog of Galactic Wolf-Rayet Stars (van der Hucht 2001). We search for radial-velocity (RV) variations indicative of orbital motion.

  6. Spectroscopic classification of three SNe Ia at Asiago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of Gaia15agj in FGC 0955 discovered by Gaia satellite on 2015 Jun 03.05 UT (ATel #7615); ASASSN-15kx (ATel #7621) in PGC 068459 discovered by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and PSN J14432601+5725412 (= MASTER OT J144326.01+572541.2) discovered by MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system (ATel #7618).

  7. Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Filer, Elizabeth D.; Naranjo, Felipe L.; Rodriguez, Waldo J.; Kokta, Milan R.

    1993-01-01

    Ho:Tm:LuAG has been grown, examined spectroscopically, and lased at 2.1 microns. Ho:Tm:LuAG was selected for this experimental investigation when quantum-mechanical modeling predicted that it would be a good laser material for Ho laser operation on one of the 5I7 to 5I8 transitions. Lasing was achieved at 2.100 microns, one of the three wavelengths predicted to be most probable for laser action.

  8. TLUSTY: Stellar Atmospheres, Accretion Disks, and Spectroscopic Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry

    2011-09-01

    TLUSTY is a user-oriented package written in FORTRAN77 for modeling stellar atmospheres and accretion disks and wide range of spectroscopic diagnostics. In the program's maximum configuration, the user may start from scratch and calculate a model atmosphere of a chosen degree of complexity, and end with a synthetic spectrum in a wavelength region of interest for an arbitrary stellar rotation and an arbitrary instrumental profile. The user may also model the vertical structure of annuli of an accretion disk.

  9. Structural, spectroscopic and theoretical study of novel ephedrinum salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, B.; Kolev, T.; Lamshöft, M.; Mayer-Figge, H.; Seidel, R.; Sheldrick, W. S.; Spiteller, M.

    2010-05-01

    Ephedrinum violurate dihydrate was synthesized, spectroscopically and structural elucidated. The data are compared with those of the free-base ephedrine hemihydrate. Discussion on the stable conformer of the ephedrinum cation is carried out. Quantum chemical calculations were performed for the theoretical elucidation of the conformational preference of the ephedrinum cation and its vibrational properties. The model systems neutral ephedrine hemihydrate ( 1) and violurate salt dihydrate ( 2) are elucidated.

  10. Spectroscopic confirmation of the dwarf nova nature of GR Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Akira; Nogami, Daisaku

    2013-02-01

    We spectroscopically observed GR Ori with the 2.0-m Nayuta Telescope at Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory on 2013 February 13. This observation was carried out with the low resolution mode (R~1,000) of the optical spectrograph MALLS which covers the wavelength of 4,000-6,800 A. GR Ori was discovered as a possible nova in 1916 (Thiele 1916, Astron. Nachr., 202, 213), but has long been suspected to be a dwarf nova (e.g.

  11. THE TIME DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: VARIABLE SELECTION AND ANTICIPATED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J.; Myers, Adam D.; Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William Nielsen; Kelly, Brandon; Badenes, Carlos; Bañados, Eduardo; Blanton, Michael R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Borissova, Jura; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth; and others

    2015-06-20

    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg{sup 2} selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  12. The Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey: Variable Selection and Anticipated Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J.; Myers, Adam D.; Eracleous, Michael; Kelly, Brandon; Badenes, Carlos; Bañados, Eduardo; Blanton, Michael R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Borissova, Jura; Nielsen Brandt, William; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth; Draper, Peter W.; Davenport, James R. A.; Flewelling, Heather; Garnavich, Peter; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Isler, Jedidah C.; Kaiser, Nick; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Pâris, Isabelle; Parvizi, Mahmoud; Poleski, Radosław; Price, Paul A.; Salvato, Mara; Shanks, Tom; Schlafly, Eddie F.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shen, Yue; Stassun, Keivan; Tonry, John T.; Walter, Fabian; Waters, Chris Z.

    2015-06-01

    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg2 selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  13. Interactions of Isophorone Derivatives with DNA: Spectroscopic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Deiana, Marco; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Massin, Julien; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Andraud, Chantal; Samoc, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of three new isophorone derivatives, Isoa Isob and Isoc with salmon testes DNA have been investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. All the studied compounds interact with DNA through intercalative binding mode. The stoichiometry of the isophorone/DNA adducts was found to be 1:1. The fluorescence quenching data revealed a binding interaction with the base pairs of DNA. The CD data indicate that all the investigated isophorones induce DNA modifications. PMID:26069963

  14. jSIPRO - analysis tool for magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Filip; Skoch, Antonin; Wagnerova, Dita; Dezortova, Monika; Hajek, Milan

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) involves a huge number of spectra to be processed and analyzed. Several tools enabling MRSI data processing have been developed and widely used. However, the processing programs primarily focus on sophisticated spectra processing and offer limited support for the analysis of the calculated spectroscopic maps. In this paper the jSIPRO (java Spectroscopic Imaging PROcessing) program is presented, which is a java-based graphical interface enabling post-processing, viewing, analysis and result reporting of MRSI data. Interactive graphical processing as well as protocol controlled batch processing are available in jSIPRO. jSIPRO does not contain a built-in fitting program. Instead, it makes use of fitting programs from third parties and manages the data flows. Currently, automatic spectra processing using LCModel, TARQUIN and jMRUI programs are supported. Concentration and error values, fitted spectra, metabolite images and various parametric maps can be viewed for each calculated dataset. Metabolite images can be exported in the DICOM format either for archiving purposes or for the use in neurosurgery navigation systems. PMID:23870172

  15. Plant roots and spectroscopic methods - analyzing species, biomass and vitality.

    PubMed

    Rewald, Boris; Meinen, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand plant functioning, plant community composition, and terrestrial biogeochemistry, it is decisive to study standing root biomass, (fine) root dynamics, and interactions belowground. While most plant taxa can be identified by visual criteria aboveground, roots show less distinctive features. Furthermore, root systems of neighboring plants are rarely spatially segregated; thus, most soil horizons and samples hold roots of more than one species necessitating root sorting according to taxa. In the last decades, various approaches, ranging from anatomical and morphological analyses to differences in chemical composition and DNA sequencing were applied to discern species' identity and biomass belowground. Among those methods, a variety of spectroscopic methods was used to detect differences in the chemical composition of roots. In this review, spectroscopic methods used to study root systems of herbaceous and woody species in excised samples or in situ will be discussed. In detail, techniques will be reviewed according to their usability to discern root taxa, to determine root vitality, and to quantify root biomass non-destructively or in soil cores holding mixtures of plant roots. In addition, spectroscopic methods which may be able to play an increasing role in future studies on root biomass and related traits are highlighted.

  16. Spectroscopic features of cytochrome P450 reaction intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Abhinav; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Preface Cytochromes P450 constitute a broad class of heme monooxygenase enzymes with more than 11,500 isozymes which have been identified in organisms from all biological kingdoms [1]. These enzymes are responsible for catalyzing dozens chemical oxidative transformations such as hydroxylation, epoxidation, N-demethylation, etc., with very broad range of substrates [2-3]. Historically these enzymes received their name from ‘pigment 450’ due to the unusual position of the Soret band in UV-Vis absorption spectra of the reduced CO-saturated state [4-5]. Despite detailed biochemical characterization of many isozymes, as well as later discoveries of other ‘P450-like heme enzymes’ such as nitric oxide synthase and chloroperoxidase, the phenomenological term ‘cytochrome P450’ is still commonly used as indicating an essential spectroscopic feature of the functionally active protein which is now known to be due to the presence of a thiolate ligand to the heme iron [6]. Heme proteins with an imidazole ligand such as myoglobin and hemoglobin as well as an inactive form of P450 are characterized by Soret maxima at 420 nm [7]. This historical perspective highlights the importance of spectroscopic methods for biochemical studies in general, and especially for heme enzymes, where the presence of the heme iron and porphyrin macrocycle provides rich variety of specific spectroscopic markers available for monitoring chemical transformations and transitions between active intermediates of catalytic cycle. PMID:21167809

  17. Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, S. L.; West, A. A.; Walkowicz, L. M.; Covey, K. R.

    2004-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of nearly 8000 late-type dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using the H-alpha emission line as an activity indicator, we investigate the fraction of active stars as a function of spectral type and find a peak near type M8, confirming previous results. In contrast to past findings, we find that not all M7-M8 stars are active. We show that this may be a selection effect of the distance distributions of previous samples, as the active stars appear to be concentrated near the Galactic Plane. We also examine the activity strength (ratio of the luminosity emitted in H-alpha to the bolometric luminosity) for each star, and find that the mean activity strength is constant over the range M0-M5 and declines at later types. The decline begins at a slightly earlier spectral type than previously found. We explore the effect that activity has on the broadband photometric colors and find no significant differences between active and inactive stars. We also carry out a search for subdwarfs using spectroscopic metallicity indicators, and find 60 subdwarf candidates. Several of these candidates are near the extreme subdwarf boundary. The spectroscopic subdwarf candidates are redder by approx. 0.2 magnitudes in (g-r) compared to disk dwarfs at the same (r-i) color. A paper describing these results is scheduled for the June 2004 issue of the Astronomical Journal. This work is supported by NSF grant AST 02-05875.

  18. Parallel multithread computing for spectroscopic analysis in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, Michal; Kraszewski, Maciej; Strakowski, Marcin; Pluciński, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) is an extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). It allows gathering spectroscopic information from individual scattering points inside the sample. It is based on time-frequency analysis of interferometric signals. Such analysis requires calculating hundreds of Fourier transforms while performing a single A-scan. Additionally, further processing of acquired spectroscopic information is needed. This significantly increases the time of required computations. During last years, application of graphical processing units (GPU's) was proposed to reduce computation time in OCT by using parallel computing algorithms. GPU technology can be also used to speed-up signal processing in SOCT. However, parallel algorithms used in classical OCT need to be revised because of different character of analyzed data. The classical OCT requires processing of long, independent interferometric signals for obtaining subsequent A-scans. The difference with SOCT is that it requires processing of multiple, shorter signals, which differ only in a small part of samples. We have developed new algorithms for parallel signal processing for usage in SOCT, implemented with NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). We present details of the algorithms and performance tests for analyzing data from in-house SD-OCT system. We also give a brief discussion about usefulness of developed algorithm. Presented algorithms might be useful for researchers working on OCT, as they allow to reduce computation time and are step toward real-time signal processing of SOCT data.

  19. Single-particle spectroscopic factors for spherical nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gnezdilov, N. V.; Saperstein, E. E. Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2015-01-15

    Within the self-consistent theory of finite Fermi systems, the total single-particle spectroscopic factors for seven doubly magic nuclei of {sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 56}Ni, {sup 78}Ni, {sup 100}Sn, {sup 132}Sn, and {sup 208}Pb and for the {sup 188–212}Pb chain of semimagic even lead isotopes are calculated by the energy-density-functional method implemented with a functional in the form proposed by Fayans and his coauthors. The spectroscopic factor is expressed in terms of the Z factor, which is the residue of the single-particle Green’s function at the single-particle pole. The total Z factor calculated in the present study involves both effects of coupling to phonons and the volume Z factor, which is due to the fact that the mass operator features an energy dependence not associated with surface phonons. The volume Z factor is on the same order of magnitude as the phonon-coupling contribution. The volume effect depends only slightly on the nuclear species and on the single-particle state λ. On the contrary, the phonon contribution to the total spectroscopic factor changes upon going over from one state to another and from one nuclear species to another.

  20. Characterization of semicrystalline polymers after nanoimprint by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si; Rond, Johannes; Steinberg, Christian; Papenheim, Marc; Scheer, Hella-Christin

    2016-02-01

    Semicrystalline Reg-P3HT (regio-regular poly-3-hexylthiophene) is a promising material for organic electronics. It features relatively high charge mobility and enables easy preparation because of its solubility. Due to its high optical and electrical anisotropy, the size, number and orientation of the ordered domains are important for applications. To control these properties without limitation from crystalline domains existing after spin coating, thermal nanoimprint is performed beyond the melting point. The state of the art of measurement to analyze the complex morphology is X-ray diffraction (XRD). We address an alternative measurement method to characterize the material by its optical properties, spectroscopic ellipsometry. It provides information on the degree of order from the typical fingerprint absorption spectrum. In addition, when the material is modeled as a uniaxial layer, an anisotropy factor can be derived. The results obtained from spectroscopic ellipsometry are in accordance with those from XRD. In particular, spectroscopic ellipsometry is able to distinguish between order along the backbone and order in π- π stacking direction, which is important with respect to conductivity.

  1. HIPPARCOS PHOTOCENTRIC ORBITS OF 72 SINGLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Shulin; Fu Yanning E-mail: fyn@pmo.ac.cn

    2013-03-15

    By fitting the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (HIAD), photocentric orbits can be obtained for the single-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB1s). In previous work, a simplifying approximation used in the fitting process was that the photocenter coincides with the primary, but simple arguments based on a mass-luminosity relation show that this approximation will introduce non-negligible deviation into photocentric orbits of a few SB1s. By fitting the revised HIAD without the approximation, the present paper tries to provide reliable photocentric orbits for those SB1s in the 9th Catalogue of Orbits of Spectroscopic Binaries having a reliable spectroscopic orbit of period between 50 days and 3.2 years. After a stringent assessment and screening process, we finally accept the photocentric orbits of 72 systems. Among these results, 37 orbits are obtained here for the first time. So far, only three of these systems are resolved with a known relative orbit. For each of them, the paired photocentric and relative orbits are in reasonably good agreement. For the 25 systems with a main-sequence primary, the masses of component stars and the semimajor axes of relative orbits are estimated for the purpose of planning ground-based observations.

  2. Spectroscopic Characterization of Streptavidin Functionalized Quantum dots1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yang; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Sklar, Larry A.; Buranda, Tione

    2007-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of quantum dots can be strongly influenced by the conditions of their synthesis. In this work we have characterized several spectroscopic properties of commercial, streptavidin functionalized quantum dots (QD525, lot#1005-0045 and QD585, Lot#0905-0031 from Invitrogen). This is the first step in the development of calibration beads, to be used in a generalizable quantification scheme of multiple fluorescent tags in flow cytometry or microscopy applications. We used light absorption, photoexcitation, and emission spectra, together with excited-state lifetime measurements to characterize their spectroscopic behavior, concentrating on the 400-500nm wavelength ranges that are important in biological applications. Our data show an anomalous dependence of emission spectrum, lifetimes, and quantum yield (QY) on excitation wavelength that is particularly pronounced in the QD525. For QD525, QY values ranged from 0.2 at 480nm excitation up to 0.4 at 450nm and down again to 0.15 at 350nm. For QD585, QY values were constant at 0.2 between 500nm and 400nm, but dropped to 0.1 at 350nm. We attribute the wavelength dependences to heterogeneity in size and surface defects in the QD525, consistent with characteristics previously described in the chemistry literature. The results are discussed in the context of bridging the gap between what is currently known in the physical chemistry literature of quantum dots, and the quantitative needs of assay development in biological applications. PMID:17368555

  3. Does DFT-SAPT method provide spectroscopic accuracy?

    SciTech Connect

    Shirkov, Leonid; Makarewicz, Jan

    2015-02-14

    Ground state potential energy curves for homonuclear and heteronuclear dimers consisting of noble gas atoms from He to Kr were calculated within the symmetry adapted perturbation theory based on the density functional theory (DFT-SAPT). These potentials together with spectroscopic data derived from them were compared to previous high-precision coupled cluster with singles and doubles including the connected triples theory calculations (or better if available) as well as to experimental data used as the benchmark. The impact of midbond functions on DFT-SAPT results was tested to study the convergence of the interaction energies. It was shown that, for most of the complexes, DFT-SAPT potential calculated at the complete basis set (CBS) limit is lower than the corresponding benchmark potential in the region near its minimum and hence, spectroscopic accuracy cannot be achieved. The influence of the residual term δ(HF) on the interaction energy was also studied. As a result, we have found that this term improves the agreement with the benchmark in the repulsive region for the dimers considered, but leads to even larger overestimation of potential depth D{sub e}. Although the standard hybrid exchange-correlation (xc) functionals with asymptotic correction within the second order DFT-SAPT do not provide the spectroscopic accuracy at the CBS limit, it is possible to adjust empirically basis sets yielding highly accurate results.

  4. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopic identification of dispersant/particle bonding mechanisms in functional inks.

    PubMed

    Deiner, L Jay; Farjami, Elaheh

    2015-05-08

    In additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, material is deposited drop by drop, to create micron to macroscale layers. A typical inkjet ink is a colloidal dispersion containing approximately ten components including solvent, the nano to micron scale particles which will comprise the printed layer, polymeric dispersants to stabilize the particles, and polymers to tune layer strength, surface tension and viscosity. To rationally and efficiently formulate such an ink, it is crucial to know how the components interact. Specifically, which polymers bond to the particle surfaces and how are they attached? Answering this question requires an experimental procedure that discriminates between polymer adsorbed on the particles and free polymer. Further, the method must provide details about how the functional groups of the polymer interact with the particle. In this protocol, we show how to employ centrifugation to separate particles with adsorbed polymer from the rest of the ink, prepare the separated samples for spectroscopic measurement, and use Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for accurate determination of dispersant/particle bonding mechanisms. A significant advantage of this methodology is that it provides high level mechanistic detail using only simple, commonly available laboratory equipment. This makes crucial data available to almost any formulation laboratory. The method is most useful for inks composed of metal, ceramic, and metal oxide particles in the range of 100 nm or greater. Because of the density and particle size of these inks, they are readily separable with centrifugation. Further, the spectroscopic signatures of such particles are easy to distinguish from absorbed polymer. The primary limitation of this technique is that the spectroscopy is performed ex-situ on the separated and dried particles as opposed to the particles in dispersion. However, results from attenuated total reflectance spectra of the wet separated

  5. The white dwarfs within 25 pc of the Sun: Kinematics and spectroscopic subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Sion, Edward M.; McCook, George P.; Wasatonic, Richard; Myszka, Janine; Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, Terry D. E-mail: george.mccook@villanova.edu E-mail: janine.myszka@villanova.edu E-mail: toswalt@fit.edu

    2014-06-01

    We present the fractional distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, range and distribution of surface temperatures, and kinematical properties of the white dwarfs (WDs) within 25 pc of the Sun. There is no convincing evidence of halo WDs in the total 25 pc sample of 224 WDs. There is also little to suggest the presence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 25 pc. It appears that the entire 25 pc sample likely belongs to the thin disk. We also find no significant kinematic differences with respect to spectroscopic subtypes. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 25 pc sample is 1.8, a manifestation of deepening envelope convection, which transforms DA stars with sufficiently thin H surface layers into non-DAs. We compare this ratio with the results of other studies. We find that at least 11% of the WDs within 25 pc of the Sun (the DAZ and DZ stars) have photospheric metals that likely originate from accretion of circumstellar material (debris disks) around them. If this interpretation is correct, then it suggests the possibility that a similar percentage have planets, asteroid-like bodies, or debris disks orbiting them. Our volume-limited sample reveals a pileup of DC WDs at the well-known cutoff in DQ WDs at T {sub eff} ∼ 6000 K. Mindful of small number statistics, we speculate on its possible evolutionary significance. We find that the incidence of magnetic WDs in the 25 pc sample is at least 8% in our volume-limited sample, dominated by cool WDs. We derive approximate formation rates of DB and DQ degenerates and present a preliminary test of the evolutionary scenario that all cooling DB stars become DQ WDs via helium convective dredge-up with the diffusion tail of carbon extending upward from their cores.

  6. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopic identification of dispersant/particle bonding mechanisms in functional inks.

    PubMed

    Deiner, L Jay; Farjami, Elaheh

    2015-01-01

    In additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, material is deposited drop by drop, to create micron to macroscale layers. A typical inkjet ink is a colloidal dispersion containing approximately ten components including solvent, the nano to micron scale particles which will comprise the printed layer, polymeric dispersants to stabilize the particles, and polymers to tune layer strength, surface tension and viscosity. To rationally and efficiently formulate such an ink, it is crucial to know how the components interact. Specifically, which polymers bond to the particle surfaces and how are they attached? Answering this question requires an experimental procedure that discriminates between polymer adsorbed on the particles and free polymer. Further, the method must provide details about how the functional groups of the polymer interact with the particle. In this protocol, we show how to employ centrifugation to separate particles with adsorbed polymer from the rest of the ink, prepare the separated samples for spectroscopic measurement, and use Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for accurate determination of dispersant/particle bonding mechanisms. A significant advantage of this methodology is that it provides high level mechanistic detail using only simple, commonly available laboratory equipment. This makes crucial data available to almost any formulation laboratory. The method is most useful for inks composed of metal, ceramic, and metal oxide particles in the range of 100 nm or greater. Because of the density and particle size of these inks, they are readily separable with centrifugation. Further, the spectroscopic signatures of such particles are easy to distinguish from absorbed polymer. The primary limitation of this technique is that the spectroscopy is performed ex-situ on the separated and dried particles as opposed to the particles in dispersion. However, results from attenuated total reflectance spectra of the wet separated

  7. [Tri-Level Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Hot Melting Reflective Road Marking Paint].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-qin

    2015-12-01

    In order to detect the road marking paint from the trace evidence in traffic accident scene, and to differentiate their brands, we use Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification, which employs the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy(SD-IR), two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2D-IR) to identify three different domestic brands of hot melting reflective road marking paints and their raw materials in formula we Selected. The experimental results show that three labels coatings in ATR and FTIR spectrograms are very similar in shape, only have different absorption peak wave numbers, they have wide and strong absorption peaks near 1435 cm⁻¹, and strong absorption peak near 879, 2955, 2919, 2870 cm⁻¹. After enlarging the partial areas of spectrograms and comparing them with each kind of raw material of formula spectrograms, we can distinguish them. In the region 700-970 and 1370-1 660 cm⁻¹ the spectrograms mainly reflect the different relative content of heavy calcium carbonate of three brands of the paints, and that of polyethylene wax (PE wax), ethylene vinyl acetate resin (EVA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in the region 2800-2960 cm⁻¹. The SD-IR not only verify the result of the FTIR analysis, but also further expand the microcosmic differences and reflect the different relative content of quartz sand in the 512-799 cm-1 region. Within the scope of the 1351 to 1525 cm⁻¹, 2D-IR have more significant differences in positions and numbers of automatically peaks. Therefore, the Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification is a fast and effective method to distinguish the hot melting road marking paints with a gradually improvement in apparent resolution.

  8. [Tri-Level Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Hot Melting Reflective Road Marking Paint].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-qin

    2015-12-01

    In order to detect the road marking paint from the trace evidence in traffic accident scene, and to differentiate their brands, we use Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification, which employs the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy(SD-IR), two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2D-IR) to identify three different domestic brands of hot melting reflective road marking paints and their raw materials in formula we Selected. The experimental results show that three labels coatings in ATR and FTIR spectrograms are very similar in shape, only have different absorption peak wave numbers, they have wide and strong absorption peaks near 1435 cm⁻¹, and strong absorption peak near 879, 2955, 2919, 2870 cm⁻¹. After enlarging the partial areas of spectrograms and comparing them with each kind of raw material of formula spectrograms, we can distinguish them. In the region 700-970 and 1370-1 660 cm⁻¹ the spectrograms mainly reflect the different relative content of heavy calcium carbonate of three brands of the paints, and that of polyethylene wax (PE wax), ethylene vinyl acetate resin (EVA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in the region 2800-2960 cm⁻¹. The SD-IR not only verify the result of the FTIR analysis, but also further expand the microcosmic differences and reflect the different relative content of quartz sand in the 512-799 cm-1 region. Within the scope of the 1351 to 1525 cm⁻¹, 2D-IR have more significant differences in positions and numbers of automatically peaks. Therefore, the Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification is a fast and effective method to distinguish the hot melting road marking paints with a gradually improvement in apparent resolution. PMID:26964206

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of a novel Nd3+-activated barium borate glass for broadband laser amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, G. V.; Muñoz H., G.; Camarillo, I.; Falcony, C.; Caldiño, U.; Lira, A.

    2015-08-01

    Spectroscopic parameters of a novel Nd3+-activated barium borate (BBONd) glass have been analyzed for broadband laser amplification. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were determined through a systematic analysis of the absorption spectrum of Nd3+ ions in the BBONd glass. High values of the JO intensity parameters reveal a great centro-symmetrical loss of the Nd3+ sites and high covalency degree of the ligand field. The very high Ω6 intensity parameter value makes evident both a great structural distortion of the Nd3+ sites and a strong electron-phonon coupling between Nd3+ and free OH- ions, which is consistent with the phonon energy maximum (3442.1 cm-1) recorded by Raman spectroscopy. This strong electron-phonon coupling favors high effective bandwidth and gain bandwidth values of the laser emission (4F3/2 → 4I11/2) of Nd3+ ions. The electric-dipole oscillator strengths of all the Nd3+ absorption transitions, and in particular that of the hypersensitive transition (4I9/2 → 4G5/2), are enhanced by this great structural distortion of the host. Broadband laser amplification of the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 emission (1062 nm) of Nd3+ ions in the BBONd glass pumped at 805 nm (4I9/2 → 4F5/2 + 2H9/2) is evaluated through the main fluorescent parameters in competition with non-radiative processes. In general, the BBONd glass exhibits spectroscopic parameters comparable with those reported in the literature for broadband laser amplification into the IR region.

  10. Chromophore-labelled, luminescent platinum complexes: syntheses, structures, and spectroscopic properties.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Oliver J; Ward, Benjamin D; Coles, Simon J; Horton, Peter N; Pope, Simon J A

    2016-06-21

    Ligands based upon 4-carboxamide-2-phenylquinoline derivatives have been synthesised with solubilising octyl hydrocarbon chains and tethered aromatic chromophores to give naphthyl (), anthracenyl () and pyrenyl () ligand variants, together with a non-chromophoric analogue () for comparison. (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies of the ligands showed that two non-interchangeable isomers exist for and while only one isomer exists for and . Supporting DFT calculations on suggest that the two isomers may be closely isoenergetic with a relatively high barrier to exchange of ca. 100 kJ mol(-1). These new ligands were cyclometalated with Pt(ii) to give complexes [Pt()(acac)] (acac = acetylacetonate). The spectroscopically characterised complexes were studied using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy including (195)Pt{(1)H} NMR studies which revealed δPtca. -2785 ppm for [Pt()(acac)]. X-ray crystallographic studies were undertaken on [Pt()(acac)] and [Pt()(acac)], each showing the weakly distorted square planar geometry at Pt(ii); the structure of [Pt()(acac)] showed evidence for intermolecular Pt-Pt interactions. The UV-vis. absorption studies show that the spectral profiles for [Pt()(acac)] are a composite of the organic chromophore centred bands and a broad (1)MLCT (5d → π*) band (ca. 440 nm) associated with the complex. Luminescence studies showed that complexes [Pt()(acac)] are dual emissive with fluorescence characteristic of the tethered fluorophore and long-lived phosphorescence attributed to (3)MLCT emission. In the case of the pyrenyl derivative, [Pt()(acac)], the close energetic matching of the (3)MLCT and (3)LCpyr excited states led to an elongation of the (3)MLCT emission lifetime (τ = 42 μs) under degassed solvent conditions, suggestive of energy transfer processes between the two states. PMID:27241625

  11. An in situ infrared spectroscopic investigation of the pyrolysis of ethylene glycol encapsulated in silica sodalite.

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, V. A.; Epperson, S. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Tulsa

    2001-11-29

    The thermal stability and pyrolysis of ethylene glycol (EG) encapsulated in the sodalite cages of all-silica sodalite were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and transmission infrared spectroscopy. Evidence for the presence of encapsulated CO2 formed as a result of partial decomposition of EG molecules was observed starting at about 600 K. Complete, irreversible pyrolysis of the EG occurred between 675 and 775 K. After treatment at 775 K, the CO2 remained encapsulated in the sodalite framework, even though there were spectroscopic indications that the pyrolysis caused a disordering of the sodalite framework. There appeared to be a temperature dependence of the conformational interactions of the EG O---H groups up to 600 K, which was mainly manifested as a weakening of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The only detectable encapsulated products of the EG decomposition in an inert (N2 or Ar) environment were CO2 and a carbonaceous (coke- or soot-like) residue. There was no evidence of other encapsulated products, such as CO, H2, H2O, or light hydrocarbons.

  12. Direct visualization of both DNA and RNA quadruplexes in human cells via an uncommon spectroscopic method

    PubMed Central

    Laguerre, Aurélien; Wong, Judy M. Y.; Monchaud, David

    2016-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA or RNA sequences can fold into higher-order, four-stranded structures termed quadruplexes that are suspected to play pivotal roles in cellular mechanisms including the control of the genome integrity and gene expression. However, the biological relevance of quadruplexes is still a matter of debate owing to the paucity of unbiased evidences of their existence in cells. Recent reports on quadruplex-specific antibodies and small-molecule fluorescent probes help dispel reservations and accumulating evidences now pointing towards the cellular relevance of quadruplexes. To better assess and comprehend their biology, developing new versatile tools to detect both DNA and RNA quadruplexes in cells is essential. We report here a smart fluorescent probe that allows for the simple detection of quadruplexes thanks to an uncommon spectroscopic mechanism known as the red-edge effect (REE). We demonstrate that this effect could open avenues to greatly enhance the ability to visualize both DNA and RNA quadruplexes in human cells, using simple protocols and fluorescence detection facilities. PMID:27535322

  13. Spectroscopic Studies on Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile Bones, Upper Silesia, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Surmik, Dawid; Boczarowski, Andrzej; Balin, Katarzyna; Dulski, Mateusz; Szade, Jacek; Kremer, Barbara; Pawlicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Fossil biomolecules from an endogenous source were previously identified in Cretaceous to Pleistocene fossilized bones, the evidence coming from molecular analyses. These findings, however, were called into question and an alternative hypothesis of the invasion of the bone by bacterial biofilm was proposed. Herewith we report a new finding of morphologically preserved blood-vessel-like structures enclosing organic molecules preserved in iron-oxide-mineralized vessel walls from the cortical region of nothosaurid and tanystropheid (aquatic and terrestrial diapsid reptiles) bones. These findings are from the Early/Middle Triassic boundary (Upper Roetian/Lowermost Muschelkalk) strata of Upper Silesia, Poland. Multiple spectroscopic analyses (FTIR, ToF-SIMS, and XPS) of the extracted "blood vessels" showed the presence of organic compounds, including fragments of various amino acids such as hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine as well as amides, that may suggest the presence of collagen protein residues. Because these amino acids are absent from most proteins other than collagen, we infer that the proteinaceous molecules may originate from endogenous collagen. The preservation of molecular signals of proteins within the "blood vessels" was most likely made possible through the process of early diagenetic iron oxide mineralization. This discovery provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic molecules in vertebrate remains in a marine environment. PMID:26977600

  14. Spectroscopic Studies on Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile Bones, Upper Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Surmik, Dawid; Boczarowski, Andrzej; Balin, Katarzyna; Dulski, Mateusz; Szade, Jacek; Kremer, Barbara; Pawlicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Fossil biomolecules from an endogenous source were previously identified in Cretaceous to Pleistocene fossilized bones, the evidence coming from molecular analyses. These findings, however, were called into question and an alternative hypothesis of the invasion of the bone by bacterial biofilm was proposed. Herewith we report a new finding of morphologically preserved blood-vessel-like structures enclosing organic molecules preserved in iron-oxide-mineralized vessel walls from the cortical region of nothosaurid and tanystropheid (aquatic and terrestrial diapsid reptiles) bones. These findings are from the Early/Middle Triassic boundary (Upper Roetian/Lowermost Muschelkalk) strata of Upper Silesia, Poland. Multiple spectroscopic analyses (FTIR, ToF-SIMS, and XPS) of the extracted "blood vessels" showed the presence of organic compounds, including fragments of various amino acids such as hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine as well as amides, that may suggest the presence of collagen protein residues. Because these amino acids are absent from most proteins other than collagen, we infer that the proteinaceous molecules may originate from endogenous collagen. The preservation of molecular signals of proteins within the "blood vessels" was most likely made possible through the process of early diagenetic iron oxide mineralization. This discovery provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic molecules in vertebrate remains in a marine environment.

  15. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic studies establish that heparanase is a retaining glycosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Jennifer C.; Laloo, Andrew Elohim; Singh, Sanjesh; Ferro, Vito

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts of fondaparinux were fully assigned by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. •Hydrolysis of fondaparinux by heparanase was monitored by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. •Heparanase is established to be a retaining glycosidase. -- Abstract: Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans in basement membranes and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Heparanase is implicated in several diverse pathological processes associated with ECM degradation such as metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis and is thus an important target for anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drug discovery. Heparanase has been classed as belonging to the clan A glycoside hydrolase family 79 based on sequence analysis, secondary structure predictions and mutagenic analysis, and thus it has been inferred that it is a retaining glycosidase. However, there has been no direct experimental evidence to support this conclusion. Herein we describe {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic studies of the hydrolysis of the pentasaccharide substrate fondaparinux by heparanase, and provide conclusive evidence that heparanase hydrolyses its substrate with retention of configuration and is thus established as a retaining glycosidase. Knowledge of the mechanism of hydrolysis may have implications for future design of inhibitors for this important drug target.

  16. Structural studies of E. coli ribosomes by spectroscopic techniques: A specialized review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicontro, Adalberto; Risuleo, Gianfranco

    2005-12-01

    We present a review on our interdisciplinary line of research based on strategies of molecular biology and biophysics. These have been applied to the study of the prokaryotic ribosome of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Our investigations on this organelle have continued for more than a decade and we have adopted different spectroscopic biophysical techniques such as: dielectric and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as light scattering (photon correlation spectroscopy). Here we report studies on the whole 70S ribosomes and on the separated subunits 30S and 50S. Our results evidence intrinsic structural features of the subunits: the small shows a more "floppy" structure, while the large one appears to be more rigid. Also, an inner "kernel" formed by the RNA/protein association is found within the ribosome. This kernel is surrounded by a ribonucleoprotein complex more exposed to the solvent. Initial analyses were done on the so called Kaldtschmit-Wittmann ribosome: more recently we have extended the studies to the "tight couple" ribosome known for its better functional performance in vitro. Data evidence a phenomenological correlation between the differential biological activity and the intrinsic structural properties of the two-ribosome species. Finally, investigations were also conducted on particles treated at sub-denaturing temperatures and on ribosomes partially deproteinized by salt treatment (ribosomal cores). Results suggest that the thermal treatment and the selective removal of proteins cause analogous structural alterations.

  17. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic investigation of interactions between reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 anionic dyes and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) cationic surfactant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Mansha, Asim; Rasool, Nasir; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Siddiq, Mohammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the conductometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of reactive anionic dyes, namely, reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). In a systematic investigation, the electrical conductivity data was used to calculate various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and the entropy (ΔS) of solubilization. The trend of change in these thermodynamic quantities indicates toward the entropy driven solubilization process. Moreover, the results from spectroscopic data reveal high degree of solubilization, with strong interactions observed in the cases of both dyes and the CTAB. The spontaneous nature of solubilization and binding was evident from the observed negative values of free energies (ΔG p and ΔG b).

  18. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic investigation of interactions between reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 anionic dyes and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) cationic surfactant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Mansha, Asim; Rasool, Nasir; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Siddiq, Mohammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the conductometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of reactive anionic dyes, namely, reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). In a systematic investigation, the electrical conductivity data was used to calculate various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and the entropy (ΔS) of solubilization. The trend of change in these thermodynamic quantities indicates toward the entropy driven solubilization process. Moreover, the results from spectroscopic data reveal high degree of solubilization, with strong interactions observed in the cases of both dyes and the CTAB. The spontaneous nature of solubilization and binding was evident from the observed negative values of free energies (ΔG p and ΔG b). PMID:25243216

  19. Phase composition analysis of hydrous aluminium oxides by thermal analysis and infrared spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Z; Kántor, E; Bélafi, K; Péterfy, L; Farkas, L P

    1992-12-01

    A general method for determination of the phase composition of hydrous aluminium oxides by thermal analysis and infrared spectrometry, and determination of the transformation temperature of mixtures of Al(OH)(3) and AlOOH into alpha-Al(2)O(3) are described.

  20. Observation of high enantioselectivity for the gas phase hydrogenation of methyl pyruvate using supported Pt catalysts pre-modified with cinchonidine.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Matthias; Dummer, Nicholas; Willock, David J; Taylor, Stuart H; Wells, Richard P K; Wells, Peter B; Hutchings, Graham J

    2003-08-01

    Pt supported on alpha-Al2O3, gamma-Al2O3 and SiO2 pre-modified with cinchonidine gives over 50% ee in the hydrogenation of methyl pyruvate to methyl lactate using gas phase reactants at 40 degrees C giving the first clear observation of high enantioselection at the gas/solid interface.

  1. The galaxy population of Abell 1367: photometric and spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriwattanawong, W.; Moss, C.; James, P. A.; Carter, D.

    2011-03-01

    Aims: Photometric and spectroscopic observations of the galaxy population of the galaxy cluster Abell 1367 have been obtained, over a field of 34' × 90', covering the cluster centre out to a radius of ~2.2 Mpc. Optical broad- and narrow-band imaging was used to determine galaxy luminosities, diameters and morphologies, and to study current star formation activity of a sample of cluster galaxies. Near-infrared imaging was obtained to estimate integrated stellar masses, and to aid the determination of mean stellar ages and metallicities for the future investigation of the star formation history of those galaxies. Optical spectroscopic observations were also taken, to confirm cluster membership of galaxies in the sample through their recession velocities. Methods.U, B and R broad-band and Hα narrow-band imaging observations were carried out using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, covering the field described above. J and K near-infrared imaging was obtained using the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) on the 3.8 m UK Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea, covering a somewhat smaller field of 0.75 square degrees on the cluster centre. The spectroscopic observations were carried out using a multifibre spectrograph (WYFFOS) on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telecope on La Palma, over the same field as the optical imaging observations. Results: Our photometric data give optical and near-infrared isophotal magnitudes for 303 galaxies in our survey regions, down to stated diameter and B-band magnitude limits, determined within R24 isophotal diameters. Our spectroscopic data of 328 objects provide 84 galaxies with detections of emission and/or absorption lines. Combining these with published spectroscopic data gives 126 galaxies within our sample for which recession velocities are known. Of these, 72 galaxies are confirmed as cluster members of Abell 1367, 11 of which are identified in this study and 61 are reported in the literature. Hα equivalent

  2. Spectroscopic Methods of Remote Sensing for Vegetation Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging spectroscopy (IS), often referred to as hyperspectral remote sensing, is one of the latest innovations in a very long history of spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods have been used for understanding the composition of the world around us, as well as, the solar system and distant parts of the universe. Continuous sampling of the electromagnetic spectrum in narrow bands is what separates IS from previous forms of remote sensing. Terrestrial imaging spectrometers often have hundreds of channels that cover the wavelength range of reflected solar radiation, including the visible, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) regions. In part due to the large number of channels, a wide variety of methods have been applied to extract information from IS data sets. These can be grouped into several broad classes, including: multi-channel indices, statistical procedures, full spectrum mixing models, and spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic methods carry on the more than 150 year history of laboratory-based spectroscopy applied to material identification and characterization. Spectroscopic methods of IS relate the positions and shapes of spectral features resolved by airborne and spaceborne sensors to the biochemical and physical composition of vegetation in a pixel. The chlorophyll 680nm, water 980nm, water 1200nm, SWIR 1700nm, SWIR 2100nm, and SWIR 2300nm features have been the subject of study. Spectral feature analysis (SFA) involves isolating such an absorption feature using continuum removal (CR) and calculating descriptors of the feature, such as center position, depth, width, area, and asymmetry. SFA has been applied to quantify pigment and non-pigment biochemical concentrations in leaves, plants, and canopies. Spectral feature comparison (SFC) utilizes CR of features in each pixel's spectrum and linear regression with continuum-removed features in reference spectra in a library of known vegetation types to map vegetation species and communities. SFC has

  3. Three-dimensional Raman spectroscopic imaging of protein crystals deposited on a nanodroplet.

    PubMed

    Nitahara, Satoshi; Maeki, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Kenichi; Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki

    2012-12-21

    Confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging has been used to find the location of protein crystals deposited in a nanodroplet. The depth of the protein crystal has been clearly identified by comparing the three-dimensional Raman spectroscopic images of the protein with those of water. Additionally, the low concentration region around a growing protein crystal in the nanodroplet was visualized using two-dimensional Raman spectroscopic imaging.

  4. Hard X-Ray Flare Source Sizes Measured with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Pernak, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations of 18 double hard X-ray sources seen at energies above 25 keV are analyzed to determine the spatial extent of the most compact structures evident in each case. The following four image reconstruction algorithms were used: Clean, Pixon, and two routines using visibilities maximum entropy and forward fit (VFF). All have been adapted for this study to optimize their ability to provide reliable estimates of the sizes of the more compact sources. The source fluxes, sizes, and morphologies obtained with each method are cross-correlated and the similarities and disagreements are discussed. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the major axes of the sources with assumed elliptical Gaussian shapes are generally well correlated between the four image reconstruction routines and vary between the RHESSI resolution limit of approximately 2" up to approximately 20" with most below 10". The FWHM of the minor axes are generally at or just above the RHESSI limit and hence should be considered as unresolved in most cases. The orientation angles of the elliptical sources are also well correlated. These results suggest that the elongated sources are generally aligned along a flare ribbon with the minor axis perpendicular to the ribbon. This is verified for the one flare in our list with coincident Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images. There is evidence for significant extra flux in many of the flares in addition to the two identified compact sources, thus rendering the VFF assumption of just two Gaussians inadequate. A more realistic approximation in many cases would be of two line sources with unresolved widths. Recommendations are given for optimizing the RHESSI imaging reconstruction process to ensure that the finest possible details of the source morphology become evident and that reliable estimates can be made of the source dimensions.

  5. A SPECTROSCOPIC CENSUS OF THE M82 STELLAR CLUSTER POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Westmoquette, M. S.; Bastian, N.; Smith, L. J.; Trancho, G.

    2009-08-20

    We present a spectroscopic study of the stellar cluster population of M82, the archetype starburst galaxy, based primarily on new Gemini-North multi-object spectroscopy of 49 star clusters. These observations constitute the largest to date spectroscopic data set of extragalactic young clusters, giving virtually continuous coverage across the galaxy; we use these data to deduce information about the clusters as well as the M82 post-starburst disk and nuclear starburst environments. Spectroscopic age dating places clusters in the nucleus and disk between (7, 15) and (30, 270) Myr, with distribution peaks at {approx}10 and 140 Myr, respectively. We find cluster radial velocities (RVs) in the range v{sub R} in (-160, 220)km s{sup -1} (with respect to the galaxy center), and line-of-sight Na I D interstellar absorption line velocities v {sup NaID}{sub R} in (-75, 200) km s{sup -1}, in many cases entirely decoupled from the clusters. As the disk cluster RVs lie on the flat part of the galaxy rotation curve, we conclude that they comprise a regularly orbiting system. Our observations suggest that the largest part of the population was created as a result of the close encounter with M81 {approx}220 Myr ago. Clusters in the nucleus are found in solid body rotation on the bar. The possible detection of Wolf-Rayet features in their spectra indicates that cluster formation continues in the central starburst zone. We also report the potential discovery of two old populous clusters in the halo of M82, aged {approx}>8 Gyr. Using these measurements and simple dynamical considerations, we derive a toy model for the invisible physical structure of the galaxy, and confirm the existence of two dominant spiral arms.

  6. New Developments of Broadband Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, A.; Zhao, D.; Linnartz, H.; Ubachs, W.

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, cavity enhanced spectroscopic techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), and broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS), have been widely employed as ultra-sensitive methods for the measurement of weak absorptions and in the real-time detection of trace species. In this contribution, we introduce two new cavity enhanced spectroscopic concepts: a) Optomechanical shutter modulated BBCEAS, a variant of BBCEAS capable of measuring optical absorption in pulsed systems with typically low duty cycles. In conventional BBCEAS applications, the latter substantially reduces the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), consequently also reducing the detection sensitivity. To overcome this, we incorporate a fast optomechanical shutter as a time gate, modulating the detection scheme of BBCEAS and increasing the effective duty cycle reaches a value close to unity. This extends the applications of BBCEAS into pulsed samples and also in time-resolved studies. b) Cavity enhanced self-absorption spectroscopy (CESAS), a new spectroscopic concept capable of studying light emitting matter (plasma, flames, combustion samples) simultaneously in absorption and emission. In CESAS, a sample (plasma, flame or combustion source) is located in an optically stable cavity consisting of two high reflectivity mirrors, and here it acts both as light source and absorbing medium. A high detection sensitivity of weak absorption is reached without the need of an external light source, such as a laser or broadband lamp. The performance is illustrated by the first CESAS result on a supersonically expanding hydrocarbon plasma. We expect CESAS to become a generally applicable analytical tool for real time and in situ diagnostics. A. Walsh, D. Zhao, W. Ubachs, H. Linnartz, J. Phys. Chem. A, {dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp310392n}, in press, 2013. A. Walsh, D. Zhao, H. Linnartz Rev. Sci. Instrum. {84}(2), 021608 2013. A. Walsh, D. Zhao

  7. THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF SDSS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Kyle S.; Ahn, Christopher P.; Bolton, Adam S.; Schlegel, David J.; Bailey, Stephen; Anderson, Scott F.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Aubourg, Eric; Bautista, Julian E.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Borde, Arnaud; Brandt, W. N.; and others

    2013-01-01

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) is designed to measure the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the clustering of matter over a larger volume than the combined efforts of all previous spectroscopic surveys of large-scale structure. BOSS uses 1.5 million luminous galaxies as faint as i = 19.9 over 10,000 deg{sup 2} to measure BAO to redshifts z < 0.7. Observations of neutral hydrogen in the Ly{alpha} forest in more than 150,000 quasar spectra (g < 22) will constrain BAO over the redshift range 2.15 < z < 3.5. Early results from BOSS include the first detection of the large-scale three-dimensional clustering of the Ly{alpha} forest and a strong detection from the Data Release 9 data set of the BAO in the clustering of massive galaxies at an effective redshift z = 0.57. We project that BOSS will yield measurements of the angular diameter distance d{sub A} to an accuracy of 1.0% at redshifts z = 0.3 and z = 0.57 and measurements of H(z) to 1.8% and 1.7% at the same redshifts. Forecasts for Ly{alpha} forest constraints predict a measurement of an overall dilation factor that scales the highly degenerate D{sub A} (z) and H {sup -1}(z) parameters to an accuracy of 1.9% at z {approx} 2.5 when the survey is complete. Here, we provide an overview of the selection of spectroscopic targets, planning of observations, and analysis of data and data quality of BOSS.

  8. Application of optical spectroscopic techniques for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anushree

    Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical

  9. Vegetation's red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Seager, S; Turner, E L; Schafer, J; Ford, E B

    2005-06-01

    Earth's deciduous plants have a sharp order-of-magnitude increase in leaf reflectance between approximately 700 and 750 nm wavelength. This strong reflectance of Earth's vegetation suggests that surface biosignatures with sharp spectral features might be detectable in the spectrum of scattered light from a spatially unresolved extrasolar terrestrial planet. We assess the potential of Earth's step-function-like spectroscopic feature, referred to as the "red edge," as a tool for astrobiology. We review the basic characteristics and physical origin of the red edge and summarize its use in astronomy: early spectroscopic efforts to search for vegetation on Mars and recent reports of detection of the red edge in the spectrum of Earthshine (i.e., the spatially integrated scattered light spectrum of Earth). We present Earthshine observations from Apache Point Observatory (New Mexico) to emphasize that time variability is key to detecting weak surface biosignatures such as the vegetation red edge. We briefly discuss the evolutionary advantages of vegetation's red edge reflectance, and speculate that while extraterrestrial "light-harvesting organisms" have no compelling reason to display the exact same red edge feature as terrestrial vegetation, they might have similar spectroscopic features at different wavelengths than terrestrial vegetation. This implies that future terrestrial-planet-characterizing space missions should obtain data that allow time-varying, sharp spectral features at unknown wavelengths to be identified. We caution that some mineral reflectance edges are similar in slope and strength to vegetation's red edge (albeit at different wavelengths); if an extrasolar planet reflectance edge is detected care must be taken with its interpretation. PMID:15941381

  10. Preliminary evaluation of hydrocarbon removal power of Caulerpa racemosa in seawater by means of infrared and visible spectroscopic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroletti, Marco; Capobianchi, Alfredo; Ragosta, Emanuela; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2010-10-01

    spectroscopic evidences suggested that the removal power of C. racemosa depends on its metabolic activities and not only on a simple adsorption process.

  11. Small spectroscopic factors of low-lying positive parity states in 31Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Nobu; Mukai, Momo; Cederkall, Joakim; Aghai, Hossein; Golubev, Pavel; Johansson, Haakan; Kahl, Daid; Kurcewics, Jan; Teranishi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    The single particle structures of even-odd nuclei around the so-called ``island of inversion'' would give us the direct evidence of such a shell evolution in this region. We measured the proton resonance elastic scattering on 30Mg re-accelerated upto 2.92 MeV/nucleon by REX-ISOLDE to study the isobarig analog resonances (IARs) of the low-lying bound states in 31Mg. The proton resonance elastic scattering is a complementary method of (d,p) reaction. We observed three resonances which can be regarded as the IARs of 31Mg. The proton widths of the first two resonances give a rise to the spectroscopic factors for the two positive parity states in 31Mg which were found to be strongly quenched compared to those for the 35S and 37Ar. Comparison with a modern shell model calculation suggests that the degrees of the ν(2p-2h) configuration in 30Mg would be less than considered. The single particle structures of even-odd nuclei around the so-called ``island of inversion'' would give us the direct evidence of such a shell evolution in this region. We measured the proton resonance elastic scattering on 30Mg re-accelerated upto 2.92 MeV/nucleon by REX-ISOLDE to study the isobarig analog resonances (IARs) of the low-lying bound states in 31Mg. The proton resonance elastic scattering is a complementary method of (d,p) reaction. We observed three resonances which can be regarded as the IARs of 31Mg. The proton widths of the first two resonances give a rise to the spectroscopic factors for the two positive parity states in 31Mg which were found to be strongly quenched compared to those for the 35S and 37Ar. Comparison with a modern shell model calculation suggests that the degrees of the ν(2p-2h) configuration in 30Mg would be less than considered. The present work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (20244306, 23740215) by Japan Society Promotion of Science and by grants from the Swedish Research Council and the Royal Physiographical Society in Lund.

  12. The HyperLeda spectroscopic archive in the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prugniel, Ph.

    2008-10-01

    The spectroscopic archive in HyperLeda is a compilation of 1D spectra of stars and galaxies to be used as references or templates and to help for calibrations. The spectra were collected from many different sources, they were re-documented and transformed into a format proper for the Virtual Observatory. The archive is part of the HyperLeda project, and can be searched through the web interface: http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr It is also registered as a Virtual Observatory service (SSA).

  13. Spectroscopic evaluation of photodynamic therapy of the intraperitoneal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Jarod C.; Sandell, Julia L.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Lewis, Robert; Cengel, Keith A.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic measurements of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence before and after photodynamic therapy of healthy canine peritoneal cavity. Animals were treated intra-operatively after iv injection of the benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD). The small bowel was treated using a uniform light field projected by a microlens-tipped fiber. The cavity was then filled with scattering medium and the remaining organs were treated using a moving diffuser. Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence measurements were made using a multi-fiber optical probe positioned on the surface of various tissues within the cavity before and after illumination. The measured data were analyzed to quantify hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation and sensitizer concentration.

  14. Resonance Raman spectroscopic studies of enzymesubstrate intermediates at 5 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Munsok; Carey, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    A simple and versatile system for resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic analysis of enzymesubstrate complexes at liquid helium temperatures is described. The system allows us to record high-quality RR spectra for dithioacyl papain intermediates (MeO-Phe-Gly- and MeO-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-C (dbnd S)S-papain) in ice matrices at 5 K. Based on established structure-spectra correlations, it is concluded that the active-site conformation of the intermediates about the φ', ψ' glycinic linkages and cysteine-25 side chain is B-G+-PH both in ice matrices at 5 K and in solution at room temperature.

  15. Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Silbey, R.J.

    1993-12-01

    The authors have initiated a program to perform spectroscopic and dynamic studies of small molecules. Large amplitude motions in excited acetylene were discussed along with plans to record the dispersed fluorescence (DF) and the stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra. SEP spectra were reported for the formyl radical. A Fourier transform spectrometer was discussed with respect to its ability to probe the structure of radicals. This instrument is capable of performing studies using various techniques such as magnetic rotation spectroscopy and sub-Doppler sideband-OODR Zeman (SOODRZ) spectroscopy.

  16. Spectroscopic survey telescope design. I - Primary mirror structure and support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, F. B.; Krishnamachari, S. V.

    1988-09-01

    The present design for a spectroscopic survey telescope uses a spherical primary mirror whose figure requires that a secondary focus assembly be driven at the tracking rate in an attitude normal to the spherical focal surface, while the telescope, being tilted at a predetermined angular zenith distance, need only be 'set' (and clamped) occasionally in azimuth. The spherical primary mirror segments are configured to an identical radius-of-curvature and supported on a fully triangulated stainless steel space frame; a structural analysis using finite elements indicates that the expected static performance of both the individual segments and the overall space frame present reasonable goals for current engineering practice.

  17. Spectroscopically Accurate Calculations of the Rovibrational Energies of Diatomic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Jason

    2005-05-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation has been used to calculate the rotational and vibrational states of diatomic hydrogen. Because it is an approximation, our group now wants to use a Born-Oppenheimer potential to calculate the electronic energy that has been corrected to match closely with spectroscopic results. We are using a code that has corrections for adiabatic, relativistic, radiative, and non-adiabatic effects. The rovibrational energies have now been calculated for both bound and quasi-bound states. We also want to compute quadrupole transition probabilities for diatomic hydrogen. These calculations aspire to investigate diatomic hydrogen in astrophysical environments.

  18. Combining weak-lensing tomography and spectroscopic redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yan -Chuan; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-05-11

    Redshift space distortion (RSD) is a powerful way of measuring the growth of structure and testing General Relativity, but it is limited by cosmic variance and the degeneracy between galaxy bias b and the growth rate factor f. The cross-correlation of lensing shear with the galaxy density field can in principle measure b in a manner free from cosmic variance limits, breaking the f-b degeneracy and allowing inference of the matter power spectrum from the galaxy survey. We analyze the growth constraints from a realistic tomographic weak lensing photo-z survey combined with a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey over the same sky area. For sky coverage fsky = 0.5, analysis of the transverse modes measures b to 2-3% accuracy per Δz = 0.1 bin at z < 1 when ~10 galaxies arcmin–2 are measured in the lensing survey and all halos with M > Mmin = 1013h–1M have spectra. For the gravitational growth parameter parameter γ (f = Ωγm), combining the lensing information with RSD analysis of non-transverse modes yields accuracy σ(γ) ≈ 0.01. Adding lensing information to the RSD survey improves \\sigma(\\gamma) by an amount equivalent to a 3x (10x) increase in RSD survey area when the spectroscopic survey extends down to halo mass 1013.5 (1014) h–1 M. We also find that the σ(γ) of overlapping surveys is equivalent to that of surveys 1.5-2 times larger if they are separated on the sky. This gain is greatest when the spectroscopic mass threshold is 1013 -1014 h–1 M, similar to LRG surveys. The gain of overlapping surveys is reduced for very deep or very shallow spectroscopic surveys, but any practical surveys are more powerful when overlapped than when separated. As a result, the gain of overlapped surveys is larger in the case when the primordial power spectrum normalization is

  19. Spectroscopic Feedback for High Density Data Storage and Micromachining

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Christopher W.; Demos, Stavros; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.

    2008-09-16

    Optical breakdown by predetermined laser pulses in transparent dielectrics produces an ionized region of dense plasma confined within the bulk of the material. Such an ionized region is responsible for broadband radiation that accompanies a desired breakdown process. Spectroscopic monitoring of the accompanying light in real-time is utilized to ascertain the morphology of the radiated interaction volume. Such a method and apparatus as presented herein, provides commercial realization of rapid prototyping of optoelectronic devices, optical three-dimensional data storage devices, and waveguide writing.

  20. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  1. ITER perspective on fusion reactor diagnostics—A spectroscopic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bock, M. F. M.; Barnsley, R.; Bassan, M.; Bertalot, L.; Brichard, B.; Bukreev, I. M.; Drevon, J. M.; Le Guern, F.; Hutton, R.; Ivantsivskiy, M.; Lee, H. G.; Leipold, F.; Maquet, P.; Marot, L.; Martin, V.; Mertens, P.; Mokeev, A.; Moser, L.; Mukhin, E. E.; Pak, S.; Razdobarin, A. G.; Reichle, R.; Seon, C. R.; Seyvet, F.; Simrock, S.; Udintsev, V.; Vayakis, G.; Vorpahl, C.

    2016-08-01

    The ITER tokamak requires diagnostics that on the one hand have a high sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolution and a high dynamic range, while on the other hand are robust enough to survive in a harsh environment. In recent years significant progress has been made in addressing critical challenges to the development of spectroscopic (but also other) diagnostics. This contribution presents an overview of recent achievements in 4 topical areas: • First mirror protection and cleaning • Nuclear confinement • Radiation mitigation strategy for optical and electronic components • Calibration strategies

  2. Picosecond flash spectroscopic studies on ultraviolet stabilizers and stabilized polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Spectroscopic and excited state decay kinetics are reported for monomeric and polymeric forms of ultraviolet stabilizers in the 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-benzotriazole and 2-hydroxybenzophenone classes. For some of these molecules in various solvents at room temperature, (1) ground state absorption spectra, (2) emission spectra, (3) picosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectra, (4) ground state absorption recovery kinetics, (5) emission kinetics, and (6) transient absorption kinetics are reported. In the solid state at low temperatures, emission spectra and their temperature dependent kinetics up to approximately 200K as well as, in one case, the 12K excitation spectra of the observed dual emission are also reported.

  3. Multivariate Chemical Image Fusion of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging Modalities.

    PubMed

    Gowen, Aoife A; Dorrepaal, Ronan M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical image fusion refers to the combination of chemical images from different modalities for improved characterisation of a sample. Challenges associated with existing approaches include: difficulties with imaging the same sample area or having identical pixels across microscopic modalities, lack of prior knowledge of sample composition and lack of knowledge regarding correlation between modalities for a given sample. In addition, the multivariate structure of chemical images is often overlooked when fusion is carried out. We address these challenges by proposing a framework for multivariate chemical image fusion of vibrational spectroscopic imaging modalities, demonstrating the approach for image registration, fusion and resolution enhancement of chemical images obtained with IR and Raman microscopy. PMID:27384549

  4. Combining weak-lensing tomography and spectroscopic redshift surveys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cai, Yan -Chuan; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-05-11

    Redshift space distortion (RSD) is a powerful way of measuring the growth of structure and testing General Relativity, but it is limited by cosmic variance and the degeneracy between galaxy bias b and the growth rate factor f. The cross-correlation of lensing shear with the galaxy density field can in principle measure b in a manner free from cosmic variance limits, breaking the f-b degeneracy and allowing inference of the matter power spectrum from the galaxy survey. We analyze the growth constraints from a realistic tomographic weak lensing photo-z survey combined with a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey over the samemore » sky area. For sky coverage fsky = 0.5, analysis of the transverse modes measures b to 2-3% accuracy per Δz = 0.1 bin at z < 1 when ~10 galaxies arcmin–2 are measured in the lensing survey and all halos with M > Mmin = 1013h–1M⊙ have spectra. For the gravitational growth parameter parameter γ (f = Ωγm), combining the lensing information with RSD analysis of non-transverse modes yields accuracy σ(γ) ≈ 0.01. Adding lensing information to the RSD survey improves \\sigma(\\gamma) by an amount equivalent to a 3x (10x) increase in RSD survey area when the spectroscopic survey extends down to halo mass 1013.5 (1014) h–1 M⊙. We also find that the σ(γ) of overlapping surveys is equivalent to that of surveys 1.5-2 times larger if they are separated on the sky. This gain is greatest when the spectroscopic mass threshold is 1013 -1014 h–1 M⊙, similar to LRG surveys. The gain of overlapping surveys is reduced for very deep or very shallow spectroscopic surveys, but any practical surveys are more powerful when overlapped than when separated. As a result, the gain of overlapped surveys is larger in the case when the primordial power spectrum normalization is uncertain by > 0.5%.« less

  5. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Dufek

    2014-08-01

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF6 shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  6. Spectroscopic properties of vitamin E models in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. B. A.; Colherinhas, G.; Fonseca, T. L.; Castro, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the first absorption band and the 13C and 17O magnetic shieldings of vitamin E models in chloroform and in water using the S-MC/QM methodology in combination with the TD-DFT and GIAO approaches. The results show that the solvent effects on these spectroscopic properties are small but a proper description of the solvent shift for 17O magnetic shielding of the hydroxyl group in water requires the use of explicit solute-solvent hydrogen bonds. In addition, the effect of the replacement of hydrogen atoms by methyl groups in the vitamin E models only affects magnetic shieldings.

  7. A spectroscopic transfer standard for accurate atmospheric CO measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaboh, Javis A.; Li, Gang; Serdyukov, Anton; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor of essential climate variables and has an indirect effect for enhancing global warming. Accurate and reliable measurements of atmospheric CO concentration are becoming indispensable. WMO-GAW reports states a compatibility goal of ±2 ppb for atmospheric CO concentration measurements. Therefore, the EMRP-HIGHGAS (European metrology research program - high-impact greenhouse gases) project aims at developing spectroscopic transfer standards for CO concentration measurements to meet this goal. A spectroscopic transfer standard would provide results that are directly traceable to the SI, can be very useful for calibration of devices operating in the field, and could complement classical gas standards in the field where calibration gas mixtures in bottles often are not accurate, available or stable enough [1][2]. Here, we present our new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor capable of performing absolute ("calibration free") CO concentration measurements, and being operated as a spectroscopic transfer standard. To achieve the compatibility goal stated by WMO for CO concentration measurements and ensure the traceability of the final concentration results, traceable spectral line data especially line intensities with appropriate uncertainties are needed. Therefore, we utilize our new high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy CO line data for the 2-0 band, with significantly reduced uncertainties, for the dTDLAS data evaluation. Further, we demonstrate the capability of our sensor for atmospheric CO measurements, discuss uncertainty calculation following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) principles and show that CO concentrations derived using the sensor, based on the TILSAM (traceable infrared laser spectroscopic amount fraction measurement) method, are in excellent agreement with gravimetric values. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been

  8. Spectroscopic investigations of HBV 475 in optical regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Shinichi )

    1989-03-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic analyses of HBV 475 are presented based on emission-line profiles of H-alpha, H-gamma, He I 4921-A, He I 5016-A, forbidden O III 4959-A, 5007-A, Fe II 5018-A, and Fe II 4924-A. Radial-velocity analyses show that only a part of the line components coincides well with previous measurements. Other remarkable components are found which are shifted to either the violet or red sides, depending on the indicated phase. Highly resolved emission-line profiles reveal that they are not compatible with the calculated profiles of proposed theoretical models. 21 refs.

  9. vpguess: Fitting multiple Voigt profiles to spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liske, Jochen

    2014-08-01

    vpguess facilitates the fitting of multiple Voigt profiles to spectroscopic data. It is a graphical interface to VPFIT (ascl:1408.015). Originally meant to simplify the process of setting up first guesses for a subsequent fit with VPFIT, it has developed into a full interface to VPFIT. It may also be used independently of VPFIT for displaying data, playing around with data and models, "chi-by-eye" fits, displaying the result of a proper fit, pretty plots, etc. vpguess is written in C, and the graphics are based on PGPLOT (ascl:1103.002).

  10. Overdetermined broadband spectroscopic Mueller matrix polarimeter designed by genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Ellingsen, Pål Gunnar; Fladmark, Bent Even; Letnes, Paul Anton; Kildemo, Morten

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports on the design and implementation of a liquid crystal variable retarder based overdetermined spectroscopic Mueller matrix polarimeter, with parallel processing of all wavelengths. The system was designed using a modified version of a recently developed genetic algorithm [Letnes et al. Opt. Express 18, 22, 23095 (2010)]. A generalization of the eigenvalue calibration method is reported that allows the calibration of such overdetermined polarimetric systems. Out of several possible designs, one of the designs was experimentally implemented and calibrated. It is reported that the instrument demonstrated good performance, with a measurement accuracy in the range of 0.1% for the measurement of air. PMID:23571964

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of Venus at the single molecule level.

    PubMed

    David, Charlotte C; Dedecker, Peter; De Cremer, Gert; Verstraeten, Natalie; Kint, Cyrielle; Michiels, Jan; Hofkens, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Venus is a recently developed, fast maturating, yellow fluorescent protein that has been used as a probe for in vivo applications. In the present work the photophysical characteristics of Venus were analyzed spectroscopically at the bulk and single molecule level. Through time-resolved single molecule measurements we found that single molecules of Venus display pronounced fluctuations in fluorescence emission, with clear fluorescence on- and off-times. These fluorescence intermittencies were found to occupy a broad range of time scales, ranging from milliseconds to several seconds. Such long off-times can complicate the analysis of single molecule counting experiments or single-molecule FRET experiments.

  12. Spectroscopic study of the extremely fast rotating star 44 Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliev, L.; Vennes, S.; Kawka, A.; Kubat, J.; Nemeth, P.; Borisov, G.; KRaus, M.

    Stars with extremely fast rotation represent interesting challenge to modern understanding of the stellar evolution. The reasons why such a spin-up process should occur during the evolution to otherwise normal star are still not well understood. Already in the beginning of the XX century Otto Struve proposed that fast rotation of the group of stars spectroscopically classified as Be could be the main reason for the formation of observed disks of circumstellar material around them. This circumstellar material is responsible for the emission lines observed in the spectrum of Be-stars as well as for the whole complex of spectral and photometrical patterns called in general Be-phenomenon.

  13. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dufek, Eric J.

    2014-08-28

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF₆ shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  14. The Young Solar Analogs Project. I. Spectroscopic and Photometric Methods and Multi-year Timescale Spectroscopic Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, R. O.; Saken, J. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Briley, M. M.; Lambert, R. A.; Fuller, V. A.; Newsome, I. M.; Seeds, M. F.; Kahvaz, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This is the first in a series of papers presenting methods and results from the Young Solar Analogs Project, which began in 2007. This project monitors both spectroscopically and photometrically a set of 31 young (300-1500 Myr) solar-type stars with the goal of gaining insight into the space environment of the Earth during the period when life first appeared. From our spectroscopic observations we derive the Mount Wilson S chromospheric activity index (SMW), and describe the method we use to transform our instrumental indices to SMW without the need for a color term. We introduce three photospheric indices based on strong absorption features in the blue-violet spectrum—the G-band, the Ca i resonance line, and the Hydrogen-γ line—with the expectation that these indices might prove to be useful in detecting variations in the surface temperatures of active solar-type stars. We also describe our photometric program, and in particular our "Superstar technique" for differential photometry which, instead of relying on a handful of comparison stars, uses the photon flux in the entire star field in the CCD image to derive the program star magnitude. This enables photometric errors on the order of 0.005-0.007 magnitude. We present time series plots of our spectroscopic data for all four indices, and carry out extensive statistical tests on those time series demonstrating the reality of variations on timescales of years in all four indices. We also statistically test for and discover correlations and anti-correlations between the four indices. We discuss the physical basis of those correlations. As it turns out, the "photospheric" indices appear to be most strongly affected by emission in the Paschen continuum. We thus anticipate that these indices may prove to be useful proxies for monitoring emission in the ultraviolet Balmer continuum. Future papers in this series will discuss variability of the program stars on medium (days-months) and short (minutes to hours

  15. Denoising Stimulated Raman Spectroscopic Images by Total Variation Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chien-Sheng; Choi, Joon Hee; Zhang, Delong; Chan, Stanley H.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-01-01

    High-speed coherent Raman scattering imaging is opening a new avenue to unveiling the cellular machinery by visualizing the spatio-temporal dynamics of target molecules or intracellular organelles. By extracting signals from the laser at MHz modulation frequency, current stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has reached shot noise limited detection sensitivity. The laser-based local oscillator in SRS microscopy not only generates high levels of signal, but also delivers a large shot noise which degrades image quality and spectral fidelity. Here, we demonstrate a denoising algorithm that removes the noise in both spatial and spectral domains by total variation minimization. The signal-to-noise ratio of SRS spectroscopic images was improved by up to 57 times for diluted dimethyl sulfoxide solutions and by 15 times for biological tissues. Weak Raman peaks of target molecules originally buried in the noise were unraveled. Coupling the denoising algorithm with multivariate curve resolution allowed discrimination of fat stores from protein-rich organelles in C. elegans. Together, our method significantly improved detection sensitivity without frame averaging, which can be useful for in vivo spectroscopic imaging. PMID:26955400

  16. Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, F.; Schnell, M.; Wittborn, J.; Ocelic, N.; Hillenbrand, R.

    2011-05-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a widely used analytical tool for chemical identification of inorganic, organic and biomedical materials, as well as for exploring conduction phenomena. Because of the diffraction limit, however, conventional FTIR cannot be applied for nanoscale imaging. Here we demonstrate a novel FTIR system that allows for infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging of dielectric properties (nano-FTIR). Based on superfocusing of thermal radiation with an infrared antenna, detection of the scattered light, and strong signal enhancement employing an asymmetric FTIR spectrometer, we improve the spatial resolution of conventional infrared spectroscopy by more than two orders of magnitude. By mapping a semiconductor device, we demonstrate spectroscopic identification of silicon oxides and quantification of the free-carrier concentration in doped Si regions with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm. We envisage nano-FTIR becoming a powerful tool for chemical identification of nanomaterials, as well as for quantitative and contact-free measurement of the local free-carrier concentration and mobility in doped nanostructures.

  17. Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunlong; Chen, Daqin; Ma, En; Wang, Yuansheng; Hu, Zhongjian

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the spectroscopic properties of Nd(3+) doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing LaF(3) nano-crystals were systematically studied. The formation and distribution of LaF(3) nano-crystals in the glass matrix were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on Judd-Ofelt theory, the intensity parameters Omega(t) (t=2, 4, 6), spontaneous emission probability, radiative lifetime, radiative quantum efficiency, width of the emission line and stimulated emission cross-section of Nd(3+) were evaluated. Particularly, the effect of Nd(3+) doping level on them was discussed. With the increase of Nd(3+) concentration in the glass ceramic, the experimental luminescence lifetime, radiative quantum efficiency and stimulated emission cross-section vary from 353.4 micros, 78.3% and 1.86 x 10(-20)cm(2) to 214.7 micros, 39.9% and 1.52 x 10(-20)cm(2), respectively. The comparative study of Nd(3+) spectroscopic parameters in different hosts suggests that the investigated glass ceramic system is potentially applicable as laser materials for 1.06 microm emission.

  18. Characterization by spectroscopic Ellipsometry, the physical properties of silver nanoparticles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coanga, Jean-Maurice

    2013-04-01

    Physicists are able to change their minds through their experiments. I think it is time to go kick the curse and go further in research if we want a human future. I work in the Nano-Optics and Plasmonics research. I defined with ellipsomètrie the structure of new type of Nano particles of silver. It's same be act quickly to replace the old dirty leaded electronic-connexion chip and by the other hand to find a new way for the heath care of cancer disease by nanoparticles the next killers of bad cells. Silver nanoparticle layers are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering are investigated as an alternative to lead alloy based material for solder joint in power mechatronics modules. These layers are characterized by mean of conventional techniques that is the dilatometry technique, the resistivity measurement through the van der Pauw method, and the flash laser technique. Furthermore, the nanoparticles of silver layer are deeply studied by UV-Visible spectroscopic ellipsometry. Spectroscopic angles parameters are determined in function of temperature and dielectric constants are deduced and analyzed through an optical model which takes into account a Drude and a Lorentz component within the Bruggeman effective medium approximation (EMA). The relaxation times and the electrical conductivity are plot in function of temperature. The obtained electrical conductivity give significant result in good agreement to those reported by four points electrical measurement method.

  19. Spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis: Measured vs. calculated quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a very powerful technique for optical characterization of thin-film and bulk materials, but the technique measures functions of complex reflection coefficients, which are usually not of interest per se. The interesting characteristics such as film thickness, surface roughness thickness, and optical functions can be determined only by modeling the near-surface region of the sample. However, the measured quantities are not equivalent to those determined from the modeling. Ellipsometry measurements determine elements of the sample Mueller matrix, but the usual result of modeling calculations are elements of the sample. Often this difference is academic, but if the sample depolarizes the light, it is not. Ellipsometry calculations also include methods for determining the optical functions of materials. Data for bulk materials are usually accurate for substrates, but are not appropriate for most thin films. Therefore, reasonable parameterizations are quite useful in performing spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis. Recently, there has been an increased interest in anisotropic materials, both in thin-film and bulk form. A generalized procedure will be presented for calculating the elements of the Jones matrix for any number of layers, any one of which may or may not be uniaxial.

  20. NOSD-1000, the high-temperature nitrous oxide spectroscopic databank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.; Lavrentieva, N. N.

    2016-07-01

    We present a high-temperature version, NOSD-1000, of the nitrous oxide spectroscopic databank. The databank contains the line parameters (positions, intensities, air- and self-broadened half-widths and coefficients of temperature dependence of air- and self-broadened half-widths) of the most abundant isotopologue 14N216O of the nitrous oxide molecule. The reference temperature is Tref=1000 K and the intensity cutoff is Icut=10-25 cm-1/(molecule cm-2). More than 1.4 million lines covering the 260-8310 cm-1 spectral range are included in NOSD-1000. The databank has been generated within the framework of the method of effective operators and based on the global fittings of spectroscopic parameters (parameters of the effective Hamiltonian and effective dipole moment operators) to observed data collected from the literature. Line-by-line simulation of a medium-resolution high-temperature (T=873 K) spectrum has been performed in order to validate the databank. NOSD-1000 is freely accessible via the Internet.