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Sample records for alpha-amidating monooxygenase mrna

  1. Reversal of physiological deficits caused by diminished levels of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase by dietary copper.

    PubMed

    Bousquet-Moore, D; Ma, X M; Nillni, E A; Czyzyk, T A; Pintar, J E; Eipper, B A; Mains, R E

    2009-04-01

    Amidated peptides are critically involved in many physiological functions. Genetic deletion of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), the only enzyme that can synthesize these peptides, is embryonically lethal. The goal of the present study was the identification of physiological functions impaired by haploinsufficiency of PAM. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and body temperature, functions requiring contributions from multiple amidated peptides, were selected for evaluation. Based on serum T(4) and pituitary TSH-beta mRNA levels, mice heterozygous for PAM (PAM(+/-)) were euthyroid at baseline. Feedback within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis was impaired in PAM(+/-) mice made hypothyroid using a low iodine/propylthiouracil diet. Despite their normal endocrine response to cold, PAM(+/-) mice were unable to maintain body temperature as well as wild-type littermates when kept in a 4 C environment. When provided with additional dietary copper, PAM(+/-) mice maintained body temperature as well as wild-type mice. Pharmacological activation of vasoconstriction or shivering also allowed PAM(+/-) mice to maintain body temperature. Cold-induced vasoconstriction was deficient in PAM(+/-) mice. This deficit was eliminated in PAM(+/-) mice receiving a diet with supplemental copper. These results suggest that dietary deficiency of copper, coupled with genetic deficits in PAM, could result in physiological deficits in humans.

  2. Kinetic analyses of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase from pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Noe, B D; Katopodis, A G; May, S W

    1991-08-01

    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) plays an important role in the post-translational processing of bioactive neuropeptides by participating in C-terminal amidation. We have examined PAM activity in the pancreatic islets of the anglerfish (AF), Lophius americanus. It was previously demonstrated that the cofactor requirements and pH optimum for the fish PAM are essentially identical to PAM obtained from other tissues and species. The present study was performed to examine the enzymatic characteristics of the fish islet PAM in more detail. One of the questions addressed was the suitability of the AF islet neuropeptide Y-like peptide, aPY-Gly, as a substrate for the islet PAM. Partially purified PAM from AF islet secretory granules was incubated with [125I] aPY-Gly and the resulting products were analyzed by HPLC. The islet PAM readily mediated the formation of aPY-amide from aPY-Gly. PAM purified from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules also catalyzed the amidation of [125I] aPY-Gly. The kinetic parameters of the islet PAM were examined using trinitrophenylated-D-Tyr-Val-Gly (TNP-D-YVG) and 4-nitrohippuric acid (4-NHA). The Km of the islet PAM was 25 +/- 5 microM for TNP-D-YVG and 3.4 +/- 1 mM for 4-NHA. The competitive inhibitor of mammalian PAM activity, 4-methoxybenzoxyacetic acid, proved to be a potent inhibitor of the islet PAM as well, with an apparent KI of 0.06 mM. These results demonstrate that the AF islet PAM exhibits substrate compatibility, kinetic parameters, and inhibitor susceptibility quite similar to the characteristics of PAM from other tissues and species. PMID:1916206

  3. Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase is present in islet secretory granules of the anglerfish, Lophius americanus.

    PubMed

    Mackin, R B; Flacker, J M; Mackin, J A; Noe, B D

    1987-08-01

    Anglerfish islet secretory granules have been examined for the presence of an enzyme which could perform C-terminal amidation of glucagon-like peptide II and possibly anglerfish peptide Y. Using [125I]D-Tyr-Val-Gly as substrate, a peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) was detected in islet secretory granule lysates. The enzyme is active between pH 6.0 and 8.5 and exhibits maximal activity near pH 7.0. The islet PAM requires Cu2+, ascorbate, and molecular oxygen for activity. Other divalent metal ions and redox cofactors were tested and found to be inactive in the assay. Even though added Cu2+ and ascorbate are required for detecting islet PAM activity, when these factors were incubated with substrate in the absence of secretory granule lysate, no activity was observed. It was also found that the addition of higher than optimal concentrations of either Cu2+ or ascorbate inhibited amidating activity. The results demonstrate that a PAM is present in secretory granules of anglerfish islet tissue. The characteristics of the islet PAM are similar to those of PAMs identified and characterized in other tissues which produce bioactive C-terminally amidated peptides. PMID:3305155

  4. Localization of the gene encoding peptidylglycine [alpha]-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) to human chromosome 5q14-5q21

    SciTech Connect

    Ouafik, L.H.; Giraud, P.; Oliver, C. ); Mattei, M.G. ); Eipper, B.A.; Mains, R.E. )

    1993-11-01

    Peptidylglycine [alpha]-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 1.14.17.3) is a multifunctional protein containing two enzymes that act sequentially to catalyze the [alpha]-amidation of neuroendocrine peptides. Southern blot analysis of human placental DNA demonstrated that PAM is encoded by a single gene. The chromosomal localization of the PAM gene was established using in situ hybridization. A 2.2-kb human PAM cDNA hybridized to human metaphase chromosomes revealed a significant clustering of silver grains over chromosome 5 bands q14-q21. The gene encoding another enzyme important in the post-translational processing of neuroendocrine precursors, prohormone convertase 1 (PC1), is localized in the same region (5q15-q21). 14 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Distribution of peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase immunoreactivity in the brain, pituitary and islet organ of the anglerfish (Lophius americanus).

    PubMed

    McDonald, J K; Klein, K; Noe, B D

    1995-04-01

    Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 1.14.17.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of glycine-extended peptides to alpha-amidated bioactive peptides. Two peptides that are processed at their carboxyl-termini by this enzyme are neuropeptide Y and anglerfish peptide Y, both of which possess a C-terminal glycine that is used as a substrate for amidation. Results from previous reports have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y-like and anglerfish peptide Y-like immunoreactivities are present in the brain of anglerfish (Lophius americanus). Furthermore, neuropeptide Y-like peptides, namely anglerfish peptide Y and anglerfish peptide YG (the homologues of pancreatic polypeptide) are present in the islet organ of this species. Neuropeptide Y has also been localized in the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland in a variety of species. In order to learn more about the distribution of the enzyme responsible for alpha amidation of these peptides in the brain and pituitary and to specifically investigate the relationship of this enzyme to peptide synthesizing endocrine cells of the anglerfish islet, we performed an immunohistochemical study using several antisera generated against different peptide sequences of the enzyme. PAM antisera labeled cells in the islet organ, pituitary and brain, and fibers in the brain and pituitary gland. The PAM staining pattern in the brain was remarkably similar to the distribution of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity reported previously. Clusters of cells adjacent to vessels in the anterior pituitary displayed punctate PAM immunoreactivity while varicose fibers were observed in the pituitary stalk and neurohypophysis. Endocrine cells of the islet organ were differentially labeled with different PAM antisera. Comparison of the staining patterns of insulin, glucagon, and anglerfish peptide Y in the islet organ to PAM immunoreactivity suggests a distribution of forms of PAM enzyme in insulin and

  6. mRNA differential display in a microbial enrichment culture: simultaneous identification of three cyclohexanone monooxygenases from three species.

    PubMed

    Brzostowicz, Patricia C; Walters, Dana M; Thomas, Stuart M; Nagarajan, Vasantha; Rouvière, Pierre E

    2003-01-01

    mRNA differential display has been used to identify cyclohexanone oxidation genes in a mixed microbial community derived from a wastewater bioreactor. Thirteen DNA fragments randomly amplified from the total RNA of an enrichment subculture exposed to cyclohexanone corresponded to genes predicted to be involved in the degradation of cyclohexanone. Nine of these DNA fragments are part of genes encoding three distinct Baeyer-Villiger cyclohexanone monooxygenases from three different bacterial species present in the enrichment culture. In Arthrobacter sp. strain BP2 and Rhodococcus sp. strain Phi2, the monooxygenase is part of a gene cluster that includes all the genes required for the degradation of cyclohexanone, while in Rhodococcus sp. strain Phi1 the genes surrounding the monooxygenase are not predicted to be involved in this degradation pathway but rather seem to belong to a biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, in the case of Arthrobacter strain BP2, three other genes flanking the monooxygenase were identified by differential display, demonstrating that the repeated sampling of bacterial operons shown earlier for a pure culture (D. M. Walters, R. Russ, H. Knackmuss, and P. E. Rouvière, Gene 273:305-315, 2001) is also possible for microbial communities. The activity of the three cyclohexanone monooxygenases was confirmed and characterized following their expression in Escherichia coli.

  7. Identification in pituitary tissue of a peptide alpha-amidation activity that acts on glycine-extended peptides and requires molecular oxygen, copper, and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Eipper, B A; Mains, R E; Glembotski, C C

    1983-08-01

    An enzymatic activity capable of producing an alpha-amidated peptide product from its glycine-extended precursor has been identified in secretory granules of rat anterior, intermediate, and neural pituitary and bovine intermediate pituitary. High levels of endogenous inhibitors of this alpha-amidation activity have also been found in tissue homogenates. The alpha-amidation activity is totally inhibited by addition of divalent metal ion chelators such as diethyldithiocarbamate, o-phenanthroline, and EDTA; alpha-amidation activity is restored to above control levels upon addition of copper. The alpha-amidation reaction requires the presence of molecular oxygen. Of the various cofactors tested, ascorbic acid was the most potent stimulator of alpha-amidation. The alpha-amidation activity has a neutral pH optimum and is primarily soluble following several cycles of freezing and thawing. Kinetic studies with the bovine intermediate pituitary granule-associated activity demonstrated a linear Lineweaver-Burk plot when D-Tyr-Val-Gly was the varied substrate; the apparent Km and Vmax varied with the concentration of ascorbic acid. The substrate specificity of the alpha-amidation activity appears to be quite broad; the conversion of D-Tyr-Val-Gly into D-Tyr-Val-NH2 is inhibited by the addition of a variety of glycine-extended peptides.

  8. Bacterial flavin-containing monooxygenase is trimethylamine monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin; Patel, Nisha A.; Crombie, Andrew; Scrivens, James H.; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are one of the most important monooxygenase systems in Eukaryotes and have many important physiological functions. FMOs have also been found in bacteria; however, their physiological function is not known. Here, we report the identification and characterization of trimethylamine (TMA) monooxygenase, termed Tmm, from Methylocella silvestris, using a combination of proteomic, biochemical, and genetic approaches. This bacterial FMO contains the FMO sequence motif (FXGXXXHXXXF/Y) and typical flavin adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-binding domains. The enzyme was highly expressed in TMA-grown M. silvestris and absent during growth on methanol. The gene, tmm, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant protein had high Tmm activity. Mutagenesis of this gene abolished the ability of M. silvestris to grow on TMA as a sole carbon and energy source. Close homologs of tmm occur in many Alphaproteobacteria, in particular Rhodobacteraceae (marine Roseobacter clade, MRC) and the marine SAR11 clade (Pelagibacter ubique). We show that the ability of MRC to use TMA as a sole carbon and/or nitrogen source is directly linked to the presence of tmm in the genomes, and purified Tmm of MRC and SAR11 from recombinant E. coli showed Tmm activities. The tmm gene is highly abundant in the metagenomes of the Global Ocean Sampling expedition, and we estimate that 20% of the bacteria in the surface ocean contain tmm. Taken together, our results suggest that Tmm, a bacterial FMO, plays an important yet overlooked role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. PMID:22006322

  9. Structural biology of heme monooxygenases

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, Thomas L. . E-mail: poulos@uci.edu

    2005-12-09

    Over the past few years the number of crystal structures available for heme monooxygenases has substantially increased. Those most closely related to one another are cytochrome P450, nitric oxide synthase, and heme oxygenase. The present mini-review provides a summary of some recently published work on how crystallography and solution studies have provided new insights on function and especially the oxygen activation process. It now appears that in all three monooxygenases highly ordered solvent in the active site serves as direct proton donors to the iron-linked dioxygen; a requirement for splitting the O-O bond. This is in sharp contrast to the related peroxidase family of enzymes where strategically positioned amino acid side chains serve the function of shuttling protons. The P450cam-oxy-complex as well as various mutants in a complex with either oxygen or carbon monoxide have enabled a fairly detailed picture to be developed on the role of specific amino acids and conformational changes in both electron transfer and oxygen activation.

  10. Cellulose degradation by polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Beeson, William T; Vu, Van V; Span, Elise A; Phillips, Christopher M; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs), also known as lytic PMOs (LPMOs), enhance the depolymerization of recalcitrant polysaccharides by hydrolytic enzymes and are found in the majority of cellulolytic fungi and actinomycete bacteria. For more than a decade, PMOs were incorrectly annotated as family 61 glycoside hydrolases (GH61s) or family 33 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM33s). PMOs have an unusual surface-exposed active site with a tightly bound Cu(II) ion that catalyzes the regioselective hydroxylation of crystalline cellulose, leading to glycosidic bond cleavage. The genomes of some cellulolytic fungi contain more than 20 genes encoding cellulose-active PMOs, suggesting a diversity of biological activities. PMOs show great promise in reducing the cost of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars; however, many questions remain about their reaction mechanism and biological function. This review addresses, in depth, the structural and mechanistic aspects of oxidative depolymerization of cellulose by PMOs and considers their biological function and phylogenetic diversity.

  11. Cellulose degradation by polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Beeson, William T; Vu, Van V; Span, Elise A; Phillips, Christopher M; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs), also known as lytic PMOs (LPMOs), enhance the depolymerization of recalcitrant polysaccharides by hydrolytic enzymes and are found in the majority of cellulolytic fungi and actinomycete bacteria. For more than a decade, PMOs were incorrectly annotated as family 61 glycoside hydrolases (GH61s) or family 33 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM33s). PMOs have an unusual surface-exposed active site with a tightly bound Cu(II) ion that catalyzes the regioselective hydroxylation of crystalline cellulose, leading to glycosidic bond cleavage. The genomes of some cellulolytic fungi contain more than 20 genes encoding cellulose-active PMOs, suggesting a diversity of biological activities. PMOs show great promise in reducing the cost of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars; however, many questions remain about their reaction mechanism and biological function. This review addresses, in depth, the structural and mechanistic aspects of oxidative depolymerization of cellulose by PMOs and considers their biological function and phylogenetic diversity. PMID:25784051

  12. An improved choline monooxygenase assay

    SciTech Connect

    Lafontaine, P.J.; Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Glycine betaine accumulates in leaves of plants from several angiosperm families in response to drought or salinization. Its synthesis, from the oxidation of choline, is mediated by a two step pathway. In spinach the first enzyme of this pathway is a ferredoxin-dependent choline monooxygenase (CMO). In order to purify this enzyme a sensitive and reliable assay is necessary. Two types of modifications were explored to improve the existing assay. (1) Ferredoxin reduction - one way of providing reduced Fd to CMO is by the addition of isolated spinach thylakoids in the assay mixture. In order to optimize the reduction of Fd two different systems were compared: (a) where only PS is active, by adding DCMU to inhibit electron transport from PS II and DAD as electron donor for PS I; (b) where both PS II and PS I are active. (2) Betaine aldehyde estimation - to simplify this, it is possible to couple the CMO reaction with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) from E. coli. BADH converts betaine aldehyde to betaine as it is formed in the assay, eliminating the need for a chemical oxidation step.

  13. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    den Besten, P J

    1998-11-01

    The results of a limited number of studies on echinoderms provide evidence for the presence of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in representatives of three classes of the phylum Echinodermata: the asteroids (sea stars), holothuroids (sea cucumbers) and echinoids (sea urchins). The monooxygenase system has been demonstrated to be involved in the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds, but is assumed to have its primary function in the metabolism of endogenous substrates, such as steroids. Available data on P450 cofactor requirement, P450-dependent metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene, studies with classical inhibitors of P450, specificity of P450 induction by planar compounds, and the changes in the benzo[a]pyrene metabolite profile in induced animals suggest similarities with the MO system present in vertebrates. However, the relatively high capacity of the monooxygenase system in sea stars to catalyse reactions with organic hydroperoxide as donor for activated oxygen, and the low induceability during exposure to xenobiotics indicate also important differences between the echinoderm cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system and that of vertebrates. Some evidence was found for the existence of different forms of cytochrome P450 in sea stars. Catalytic functions of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system of sea stars in the metabolism of steroids may be suppressed as a result of the induction of cytochrome P450 by xenobiotics. PMID:9972455

  14. Starch-degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van V; Marletta, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Polysaccharide degradation by hydrolytic enzymes glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is well known. More recently, polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs, also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs) were found to oxidatively degrade various polysaccharides via a copper-dependent hydroxylation. PMOs were previously thought to be either GHs or carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), and have been re-classified in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZY) database as auxiliary activity (AA) families. These enzymes include cellulose-active fungal PMOs (AA9, formerly GH61), chitin- and cellulose-active bacterial PMOs (AA10, formerly CBM33), and chitin-active fungal PMOs (AA11). These PMOs significantly boost the activity of GHs under industrially relevant conditions, and thus have great potential in the biomass-based biofuel industry. PMOs that act on starch are the latest PMOs discovered (AA13), which has expanded our perspectives in PMOs studies and starch degradation. Starch-active PMOs have many common structural features and biochemical properties of the PMO superfamily, yet differ from other PMO families in several important aspects. These differences likely correlate, at least in part, to the differences in primary and higher order structures of starch and cellulose, and chitin. In this review we will discuss the discovery, structural features, biochemical and biophysical properties, and possible biological functions of starch-active PMOs, as well as their potential application in the biofuel, food, and other starch-based industries. Important questions regarding various aspects of starch-active PMOs and possible economical driving force for their future studies will also be highlighted. PMID:27170366

  15. Tolerance to Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity in the Mouse Model of Autoprotection is Associated with Induction of Flavin-containing Monooxygenase-3 (FMO3) in Hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acetaminophen (APAP) pretreatment with a low hepatotoxic dose in mice results in resistance to a second, higher dose of APAP (APAP autoprotection). Recent microarray work by our group showed a drastic induction of liver flavin containing monooxygenase-3 (Fmo3) mRNA expression in...

  16. Molecular biology and regulation of methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Murrell, J C; Gilbert, B; McDonald, I R

    2000-01-01

    Methanotrophs are ubiquitous in the environment and play an important role in mitigating global warming due to methane. They are also potentially interesting for industrial applications such as production of bulk chemicals or bioremediation. The first step in the oxidation of methane is the conversion to methanol by methane monooxygenase, the key enzyme, which exists in two forms: the cytoplasmic, soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and the membrane-bound, particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). This paper reviews the biochemistry and molecular biology of both forms of MMO. In the past few years there have been many exciting new findings. sMMO components have been expressed in heterologous and homologous hosts. The pMMO has been purified and biochemically studied in some detail and the genes encoding the pMMO have been sequenced. Copper ions have been shown to play a key role in regulating the expression of both MMO enzyme complexes. We also present a model for copper regulation based on results from Northern analysis, primer-extensions and new sequence data, and raise a number of unanswered questions for future studies.

  17. Electron Transfer Control in Soluble Methane Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hydroxylation or epoxidation of hydrocarbons by bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) requires the interplay of three or four protein components. How component protein interactions control catalysis, however, is not well understood. In particular, the binding sites of the reductase components on the surface of their cognate hydroxylases and the role(s) that the regulatory proteins play during intermolecular electron transfer leading to the hydroxylase reduction have been enigmatic. Here we determine the reductase binding site on the hydroxylase of a BMM enzyme, soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). We present evidence that the ferredoxin domain of the reductase binds to the canyon region of the hydroxylase, previously determined to be the regulatory protein binding site as well. The latter thus inhibits reductase binding to the hydroxylase and, consequently, intermolecular electron transfer from the reductase to the hydroxylase diiron active site. The binding competition between the regulatory protein and the reductase may serve as a control mechanism for regulating electron transfer, and other BMM enzymes are likely to adopt the same mechanism. PMID:24937475

  18. Simultaneous identification of two cyclohexanone oxidation genes from an environmental Brevibacterium isolate using mRNA differential display.

    PubMed

    Brzostowicz, P C; Gibson, K L; Thomas, S M; Blasko, M S; Rouvière, P E

    2000-08-01

    The technique of mRNA differential display was used to identify simultaneously two metabolic genes involved in the degradation of cyclohexanone in a new halotolerant Brevibacterium environmental isolate. In a strategy based only on the knowledge that cyclohexanone oxidation was inducible in this strain, the mRNA population of cells exposed to cyclohexanone was compared to that of control cells using reverse transcription-PCR reactions primed with a collection of 81 arbitrary oligonucleotides. Three DNA fragments encoding segments of flavin monooxygenases were isolated with this technique, leading to the identification of the genes of two distinct cyclohexanone monooxygenases, the enzymes responsible for the oxidation of cyclohexanone. Each monooxygenase was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. This work validates the application of mRNA differential display for the discovery of new microbial metabolic genes.

  19. Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases in aroma compound synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fink, Michael J; Rudroff, Florian; Mihovilovic, Marko D

    2011-10-15

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are presented as highly selective and efficient biocatalysts for the synthesis of aroma lactones via kinetic resolution of 2-substituted cycloketones, exemplified with two δ-valerolactones, the jasmine lactones and their ε-caprolactone homologs. Analytical scale screens of our BVMO library ensued by preparative whole-cell biotransformations led to the identification of two enzymes (cyclohexanone monooxygenase from Arthrobacter BP2 and cyclododecanone monooxygenase from Rhodococcus SC1) perfectly suited for the task at hand: easily accessible racemic starting materials were bio-oxidized to almost enantiopure ketones and lactones in good yields (48-74%) and optical purities (ee 93% to >99%, E>100).

  20. Genetics of particulate methane monooxygenase in methanotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Peeples, T.L.; Lebron, J.; Costello, A.Y.

    1995-12-01

    The ability of methanotrophs to co-metabolize halocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) by way of the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) is of interest in the development of bioremediation technologies. The presence and the regulation of expression of soluble (sMMO) and membrane-bound (pMMO) forms is important in the design and optimization of such processing schemes. Because the pMMO is found in all methanotrophic species, this form is relevant to in situ remediation technologies. Recently, multiple copies of genes encoding for pMMO have been identified in several species of methanotrophs. Genes encoding the 45 and 27 kDa subunits of the PMMO have been cloned and sequenced. We will discuss the possible implications of multiple copies of pMMO genes in the regulation of pMMO expression. These data may give insights into how MMO activity in natural environments may be manipulated for increased TCE biodegradation.

  1. Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases in Biomass Conversion.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Johnston, Esther M; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    The derivation of second-generation biofuels from non-edible biomass is viewed as crucial for establishing a sustainable bio-based economy for the future. The inertness of lignocellulosic biomass makes its breakdown for conversion into fuels and other compounds a challenge. Enzyme cocktails can be utilized in the bio-refinery for lignocellulose deconstruction but until recently their costs were regarded as high. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) offer tremendous promise for further process improvements owing to their ability to boost the activity of biomass-degrading enzyme consortia. Combining data from multiple disciplines, progress has been made in understanding the biochemistry of LPMOs. We review the academic literature in this area and highlight some of the key questions that remain.

  2. Purification and characterization of dimethylsulfide monooxygenase from Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans.

    PubMed

    Boden, Rich; Borodina, Elena; Wood, Ann P; Kelly, Donovan P; Murrell, J Colin; Schäfer, Hendrik

    2011-03-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a volatile organosulfur compound which has been implicated in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and in climate control. Microbial degradation is a major sink for DMS. DMS metabolism in some bacteria involves its oxidation by a DMS monooxygenase in the first step of the degradation pathway; however, this enzyme has remained uncharacterized until now. We have purified a DMS monooxygenase from Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans, which was previously isolated from garden soil. The enzyme is a member of the flavin-linked monooxygenases of the luciferase family and is most closely related to nitrilotriacetate monooxygenases. It consists of two subunits: DmoA, a 53-kDa FMNH₂-dependent monooxygenase, and DmoB, a 19-kDa NAD(P)H-dependent flavin oxidoreductase. Enzyme kinetics were investigated with a range of substrates and inhibitors. The enzyme had a K(m) of 17.2 (± 0.48) μM for DMS (k(cat) = 5.45 s⁻¹) and a V(max) of 1.25 (± 0.01) μmol NADH oxidized min⁻¹ (mg protein⁻¹). It was inhibited by umbelliferone, 8-anilinonaphthalenesulfonate, a range of metal-chelating agents, and Hg²(+), Cd²(+), and Pb²(+) ions. The purified enzyme had no activity with the substrates of related enzymes, including alkanesulfonates, aldehydes, nitrilotriacetate, or dibenzothiophenesulfone. The gene encoding the 53-kDa enzyme subunit has been cloned and matched to the enzyme subunit by mass spectrometry. DMS monooxygenase represents a new class of FMNH₂-dependent monooxygenases, based on its specificity for dimethylsulfide and the molecular phylogeny of its predicted amino acid sequence. The gene encoding the large subunit of DMS monooxygenase is colocated with genes encoding putative flavin reductases, homologues of enzymes of inorganic and organic sulfur compound metabolism, and enzymes involved in riboflavin synthesis. PMID:21216999

  3. Dioxygen Activation in Soluble Methane Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Tinberg, Christine E.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The controlled oxidation of methane to methanol is a chemical transformation of great industrial importance that is underutilized because of inefficient and costly synthetic procedures. Methane monooxygenase enzymes (MMOs) from methanotrophic bacteria achieve this chemistry efficiently under ambient conditions. In this Account we discuss the first step in the oxidation of methane at the carboxylate-bridged diiron active site of the soluble MMO (sMMO), namely, the reductive activation of atmospheric O2. The results provide benchmarks against which the dioxygen activation mechanisms of other bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases can be measured. Molecular oxygen reacts rapidly with the reduced, diiron(II) center of the hydroxylase component of sMMO (MMOH). The first spectroscopically characterized intermediate that results from this process is an antiferromagnetically coupled peroxodiiron(III) species, P*, in which the iron atoms have identical environments. P* converts to a second peroxodiiron(III) unit, Hperoxo, in a process accompanied by the transfer of a proton, probably with the assistance of a residue near the active site. Proton-promoted O–O bond scission and rearrangement of the diiron core then leads to a diiron(IV) unit termed Q that is directly responsible for the oxidation of methane to methanol. In the first half of this Account we provide a detailed discussion of these processes, with particular emphasis on possible structures of the intermediates. The geometries of P* and Hperoxo are currently unknown, and recent synthetic modeling chemistry has highlighted the need for further structural characterization of Q, previously assigned as a di(μ-oxo)diiron(IV) `diamond core'. In the second half of the Account, we discuss in detail proton transfer during the O2 activation events. The role of protons in promoting O–O bond cleavage, thereby initiating the conversion of Hperoxo to Q, was previously a controversial topic. Recent studies

  4. Proposed involvement of a soluble methane monooxygenase homologue in the cyclohexane-dependent growth of a new Brachymonas species.

    PubMed

    Brzostowicz, Patricia C; Walters, Dana M; Jackson, Raymond E; Halsey, Kimberly H; Ni, Hao; Rouvière, Pierre E

    2005-02-01

    High-throughput mRNA differential display (DD) was used to identify genes induced by cyclohexane in Brachymonas petroleovorans CHX, a recently isolated beta-proteobacterium that grows on cyclohexane. Two metabolic gene clusters were identified multiple times in independent reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) in the course of this DD experiment. These clusters encode genes believed to be required for cyclohexane metabolism. One gene cluster (8 kb) encodes the subunits of a multicomponent hydroxylase related to the soluble butane of Pseudomonas butanovora and methane monooxygenases (sMMO) of methanotrophs. We propose that this butane monooxygenase homologue carries out the oxidation of cyclohexane into cyclohexanol during growth. A second gene cluster (11 kb) contains almost all the genes required for the oxidation of cyclohexanol to adipic acid. Real-time PCR experiments confirmed that genes from both clusters are induced by cyclohexane. The role of the Baeyer-Villiger cyclohexanone monooxygenase of the second cluster was confirmed by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

  5. Desaturation reactions catalyzed by soluble methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Lipscomb, J D

    2001-09-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) is shown to be capable of catalyzing desaturation reactions in addition to the usual hydroxylation and epoxidation reactions. Dehydrogenated products are generated from MMO-catalyzed oxidation of certain substrates including ethylbenzene and cyclohexadienes. In the reaction of ethylbenzene, desaturation of ethyl C-H occurred along with the conventional hydroxvlations of ethyl and phenyl C-Hs. As a result, styrene is formed together with ethylphenols and phenylethanols. Similarly, when 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadienes were used as substrates, benzene was detected as a product in addition to the corresponding alcohols and epoxides. In all cases, reaction conditions were found to significantly affect the distribution among the different products. This new activity of MMO is postulated to be associated with the chemical properties of the substrates rather than fundamental changes in the nature of the oxygen and C-H activation chemistries. The formation of the desaturated products is rationalized by formation of a substrate cationic intermediate, possibly via a radical precursor. The cationic species is then proposed to partition between recombination (alcohol formation) and elimination (alkene production) pathways. This novel function of MMO indicates close mechanistic kinship between the hydroxylation and desaturation reactions catalyzed by the nonheme diiron clusters.

  6. Towards practical Baeyer-Villiger-monooxygenases: design of cyclohexanone monooxygenase mutants with enhanced oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Diederik J; Reetz, Manfred T

    2010-12-10

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) catalyze the conversion of ketones and cyclic ketones into esters and lactones, respectively. Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) from Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB 9871 is known to show an impressive substrate scope as well as exquisite chemo-, regio-, and enantioselectivity in many cases. Large-scale synthetic applications of CHMO are hampered, however, by the instability of the enzyme. Oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues contributes to this instability. Designed mutations of all the methionine and cysteine residues in the CHMO wild type (WT) showed that the amino acids labile towards oxidation are mostly either surface-exposed or located within the active site, whereas the two methionine residues identified for thermostabilization are buried within the folded protein. Combinatorial mutations gave rise to two stabilized mutants with either oxidative or thermal stability, without compromising the activity or stereoselectivity of the enzyme. The most oxidatively stabilized mutant retained nearly 40 % of its activity after incubation with H(2)O(2) (0.2 M), whereas the wild-type enzyme's activity was completely abolished at concentrations as low as 5 mM H(2)O(2). We propose that oxidation-stable mutants might well be a "prerequisite" for thermostabilization, because laboratory-evolved thermostability in CHMO might be masked by a high degree of oxidation instability.

  7. A nomenclature for the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase gene family based on amino acid sequence identities.

    PubMed

    Lawton, M P; Cashman, J R; Cresteil, T; Dolphin, C T; Elfarra, A A; Hines, R N; Hodgson, E; Kimura, T; Ozols, J; Phillips, I R

    1994-01-01

    A nomenclature based on comparisons of amino acid sequences is proposed for the members of the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) gene family. This nomenclature is based on evidence of a single gene family composed of five genes. The percentage identities of the amino acid sequences of the five known forms of mammalian FMO are between 52 and 57% in rabbit and between 50 and 58% across species lines. The identities of all orthologs are greater than 82%. There is no evidence for multiple, highly related forms of the enzyme or for more than one mammalian FMO gene family. In the proposed system, the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase gene family is designated as "FMO" and the individual genes are distinguished by an Arabic numeral. The FMOs known as the "liver" and "lung" enzymes become FMO1 and FMO2, and the more recently described forms of the enzymes become FMO3, FMO4, and FMO5. Human FMO gene designations, FMO1 and FMO3, remain unchanged, but the gene designated FMO2 becomes FMO4. Following convention, the genes and cDNA designations will be italicized and the mRNA and protein designations will be nonitalicized. The purpose of the proposed nomenclature is to provide for the unambiguous identification of orthologous forms of mammalian FMOs, regardless of the species or tissue in question. The proposed classification considers only members of the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase gene family and has no bearing on the generally accepted definition of a multisubstrate flavin-containing monooxygenase.

  8. Substrate Trafficking And Dioxygen Activation in Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenases

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, L.J.; Lippard, S.J.

    2009-06-03

    Non-heme carboxylate-bridged diiron centers in the hydroxylase components of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases process four substrates during catalysis: electrons, protons, dioxygen, and hydrocarbons. Understanding how protein-protein interactions mediate the transport of these substrates to the diiron center to achieve the selective oxidation of the hydrocarbon is a significant challenge. In this Account, we summarize our current knowledge of these processes with a focus on the methane monooxygenase system. We also describe recent results for the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase and phenol hydroxylase systems from Pseudomonas sporium OX1. The observation in these latter systems of a diiron(III) oxygenated intermediate having different Moessbauer parameters from analogous species in other carboxylate-bridged diiron proteins is discussed. The results indicate that the ability of the protein framework to tune the reactivity of the diiron center at structurally similar active sites is substantially more complex than previously recognized.

  9. Structure of the monooxygenase component of a two-component flavoprotein monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Andrea; Fersini, Francesco; Ruangchan, Nantidaporn; Prongjit, Methinee; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Mattevi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    p-Hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii is a two-component system consisting of a NADH-dependent FMN reductase and a monooxygenase (C2) that uses reduced FMN as substrate. The crystal structures of C2 in the ligand-free and substrate-bound forms reveal a preorganized pocket that binds reduced FMN without large conformational changes. The Phe-266 side chain swings out to provide the space for binding p-hydroxyphenylacetate that is oriented orthogonal to the flavin ring. The geometry of the substrate-binding site of C2 is significantly different from that of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, a single-component flavoenzyme that catalyzes a similar reaction. The C2 overall structure resembles the folding of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. An outstanding feature in the C2 structure is a cavity located in front of reduced FMN; it has a spherical shape with a 1.9-Å radius and a 29-Å3 volume and is interposed between the flavin C4a atom and the substrate atom to be hydroxylated. The shape and position of this cavity are perfectly fit for housing the oxygen atoms of the flavin C4a-hydroperoxide intermediate that is formed upon reaction of the C2-bound reduced flavin with molecular oxygen. The side chain of His-396 is predicted to act as a hydrogen-bond donor to the oxygen atoms of the intermediate. This architecture promotes the nucleophilic attack of the substrate onto the terminal oxygen of the hydroperoxyflavin. Comparative analysis with the structures of other flavoenzymes indicates that a distinctive feature of monooxygenases is the presence of specific cavities that encapsulate and stabilize the crucial hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. PMID:17227849

  10. Two Structures of an N-Hydroxylating Flavoprotein Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Olucha, Jose; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Chilton, Annemarie S.; Lamb, Audrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The ornithine hydroxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PvdA) catalyzes the FAD-dependent hydroxylation of the side chain amine of ornithine, which is subsequently formylated to generate the iron-chelating hydroxamates of the siderophore pyoverdin. PvdA belongs to the class B flavoprotein monooxygenases, which catalyze the oxidation of substrates using NADPH as the electron donor and molecular oxygen. Class B enzymes include the well studied flavin-containing monooxygenases and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases. The first two structures of a class B N-hydroxylating monooxygenase were determined with FAD in oxidized (1.9 Å resolution) and reduced (3.03 Å resolution) states. PvdA has the two expected Rossmann-like dinucleotide-binding domains for FAD and NADPH and also a substrate-binding domain, with the active site at the interface between the three domains. The structures have NADP(H) and (hydroxy)ornithine bound in a solvent-exposed active site, providing structural evidence for substrate and co-substrate specificity and the inability of PvdA to bind FAD tightly. Structural and biochemical evidence indicates that NADP+ remains bound throughout the oxidative half-reaction, which is proposed to shelter the flavin intermediates from solvent and thereby prevent uncoupling of NADPH oxidation from hydroxylated product formation. PMID:21757711

  11. Hydroxylation of methane through component interactions in soluble methane monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-04-01

    Methane hydroxylation through methane monooxygenases (MMOs) is a key aspect due to their control of the carbon cycle in the ecology system and recent applications of methane gas in the field of bioenergy and bioremediation. Methanotropic bacteria perform a specific microbial conversion from methane, one of the most stable carbon compounds, to methanol through elaborate mechanisms. MMOs express particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in most strains and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) under copper-limited conditions. The mechanisms of MMO have been widely studied from sMMO belonging to the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) superfamily. This enzyme has diiron active sites where different types of hydrocarbons are oxidized through orchestrated hydroxylase, regulatory and reductase components for precise control of hydrocarbons, oxygen, protons, and electrons. Recent advances in biophysical studies, including structural and enzymatic achievements for sMMO, have explained component interactions, substrate pathways, and intermediates of sMMO. In this account, oxidation of methane in sMMO is discussed with recent progress that is critical for understanding the microbial applications of C-H activation in one-carbon substrates.

  12. Methane monooxygenase hydroxylase and B component interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyan; Wallar, Bradley J; Popescu, Codrina V; Renner, Daniel B; Thomas, David D; Lipscomb, John D

    2006-03-01

    The interaction of the soluble methane monooxygenase regulatory component (MMOB) and the active site-bearing hydroxylase component (MMOH) is investigated using spin and fluorescent probes. MMOB from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b is devoid of cysteine. Consequently, site-directed mutagenesis was used to incorporate single cysteine residues, allowing specific placement of the probe molecules. Sixteen MMOB Cys mutants were prepared and labeled with the EPR spin probe 4-maleimido-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (MSL). Spectral evaluation of probe mobility and accessibility to the hydrophilic spin-relaxing agent NiEDDA showed that both properties decrease dramatically for a subset of the spin labels as the complex with MMOH forms, thereby defining the likely interaction surface on MMOB. This surface contains MMOB residue T111 thought to play a role in substrate access into the MMOH active site. The surface also contains several hydrophilic residues and is ringed by charged residues. The surface of MMOB opposite the proposed binding surface is highly charged, consistent with solvent exposure. Probes of both of the disordered N- and C-terminal regions remain highly mobile and exposed to solvent in the MMOH complex. Spin-labeling studies show that residue A62 of MMOB is located in a position where it can be used to monitor MMOH-MMOB complex formation without perturbing the process. Accordingly, steady-state kinetic assays show that it can be changed to Cys (A62C) and labeled with the fluorescent probes 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (BADAN) or 5-((((2-iodoacetyl)amino)ethyl)amino)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (1,5-IAEDANS) without loss of the ability of MMOB to promote turnover. The BADAN fluorescence is partially quenched and red shifted as the complex with MMOH forms, allowing affinity measurements. It is shown that the high affinity of labeled MMOB (K(D) = 13.5 nM at pH 6.6, 25 degrees C) for the oxidized MMOH decreases substantially with increasing p

  13. Identification of a flavin-containing S-oxygenating monooxygenase involved in alliin biosynthesis in garlic.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Naoko; Onuma, Misato; Mizuno, Shinya; Sugino, Yuka; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Imai, Shinsuke; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-09-01

    S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides are cysteine-derived secondary metabolites highly accumulated in the genus Allium. Despite pharmaceutical importance, the enzymes that contribute to the biosynthesis of S-alk-(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in Allium plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a flavin-containing monooxygenase, AsFMO1, in garlic (Allium sativum), which is responsible for the S-oxygenation reaction in the biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). Recombinant AsFMO1 protein catalyzed the stereoselective S-oxygenation of S-allyl-l-cysteine to nearly exclusively yield (RC SS )-S-allylcysteine sulfoxide, which has identical stereochemistry to the major natural form of alliin in garlic. The S-oxygenation reaction catalyzed by AsFMO1 was dependent on the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), consistent with other known flavin-containing monooxygenases. AsFMO1 preferred S-allyl-l-cysteine to γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine as the S-oxygenation substrate, suggesting that in garlic, the S-oxygenation of alliin biosynthetic intermediates primarily occurs after deglutamylation. The transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins indicated that AsFMO1 is localized in the cytosol. AsFMO1 mRNA was accumulated in storage leaves of pre-emergent nearly sprouting bulbs, and in various tissues of sprouted bulbs with green foliage leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that AsFMO1 functions as an S-allyl-l-cysteine S-oxygenase, and contributes to the production of alliin both through the conversion of stored γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine to alliin in storage leaves during sprouting and through the de novo biosynthesis of alliin in green foliage leaves.

  14. Isolation of the monooxygenase complex from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus - clues to understanding acaricide resistance.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kirsty M; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Finn, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    The monooxygenase complex is composed of three key proteins, a cytochrome P450 (CYP), the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 and plays a key role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotic substances, including pesticides. In addition, overexpression of these components has been linked to pesticide resistance in several important vectors of disease. Despite this, the monooxygenase complex has not been isolated from the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, a major disease vector in livestock. Using bioinformatics 115 transcriptomic sequences were analyzed to identify putative pesticide metabolizing CYPs. RACE-PCR was used to amplify the full length sequence of one CYP; CYP3006G8 which displays a high degree of homology to members of the CYP6 and 9 subfamilies, known to metabolize pyrethroids. mRNA expression levels of CYP3006G8 were investigated in 11 strains of R. microplus with differing resistance profiles by qPCR, the results of which indicated a correlation with pyrethroid metabolic resistance. In addition to this gene, the sequences for CPR and cytochrome b5 were also identified and subsequently isolated from R. microplus using PCR. CYP3006G8 is only the third CYP gene isolated from R. microplus and the first to putatively metabolize pesticides. The initial results of expression analysis suggest that CYP3006G8 metabolizes pyrethroids but further biochemical characterization is required to confirm this. Differences in the kinetic parameters of human and mosquito CPR in terms of NADPH binding have been demonstrated and could potentially be used to design species specific pesticides. Similar differences in the tick CPR would confirm that this is a characteristic of heamatophagous arthropods. PMID:26850353

  15. Investigating the coenzyme specificity of phenylacetone monooxygenase from Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Hanna M; Torres Pazmiño, Daniel E; Rodríguez, Cristina; de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Gotor, Vicente; Fraaije, Marco W

    2010-11-01

    Type I Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) strongly prefer NADPH over NADH as an electron donor. In order to elucidate the molecular basis for this coenzyme specificity, we have performed a site-directed mutagenesis study on phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) from Thermobifida fusca. Using sequence alignments of type I BVMOs and crystal structures of PAMO and cyclohexanone monooxygenase in complex with NADP(+), we identified four residues that could interact with the 2'-phosphate moiety of NADPH in PAMO. The mutagenesis study revealed that the conserved R217 is essential for binding the adenine moiety of the nicotinamide coenzyme while it also contributes to the recognition of the 2'-phosphate moiety of NADPH. The substitution of T218 did not have a strong effect on the coenzyme specificity. The H220N and H220Q mutants exhibited a ~3-fold improvement in the catalytic efficiency with NADH while the catalytic efficiency with NADPH was hardly affected. Mutating K336 did not increase the activity of PAMO with NADH, but it had a significant and beneficial effect on the enantioselectivity of Baeyer-Villiger oxidations and sulfoxidations. In conclusion, our results indicate that the function of NADPH in catalysis cannot be easily replaced by NADH. This finding is in line with the complex catalytic mechanism and the vital role of the coenzyme in BVMOs.

  16. Methane monooxygenase: functionalizing methane at iron and copper.

    PubMed

    Sazinsky, Matthew H; Lippard, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) catalyze the conversion of methane to methanol as the first committed step in the assimilation of this hydrocarbon into biomass and energy by methanotrophs, thus playing a significant role in the biogeochemistry of this potent greenhouse gas. Two distinct enzymes, a copper-dependent membrane protein, particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), and an iron-dependent cytosolic protein, soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), carry out this transformation using large protein scaffolds that help to facilitate the timely transport of hydrocarbon, O₂, proton, and electron substrates to buried dimetallic active sites. For both enzymes, reaction of the reduced metal centers with O₂leads to intermediates that activate the relatively inert C-H bonds of hydrocarbons to yield oxidized products. Among synthetic and biological catalysts, MMOs are unique because they are the only ones known to hydroxylate methane at ambient temperatures. As a need for new industrial catalysts and green chemical transformations increases, understanding how the different MMO metal centers efficiently accomplish this challenging chemistry has become the focus of intense study. This chapter examines current understanding of the sMMO and pMMO protein structures, their methods for substrate channeling, and mechanisms for the dimetallic activation of O₂and C-H bonds. PMID:25707469

  17. Crystal structure of a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Malito, Enrico; Alfieri, Andrea; Fraaije, Marco W; Mattevi, Andrea

    2004-09-01

    Flavin-containing Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases employ NADPH and molecular oxygen to catalyze the insertion of an oxygen atom into a carbon-carbon bond of a carbonylic substrate. These enzymes can potentially be exploited in a variety of biocatalytic applications given the wide use of Baeyer-Villiger reactions in synthetic organic chemistry. The catalytic activity of these enzymes involves the formation of two crucial intermediates: a flavin peroxide generated by the reaction of the reduced flavin with molecular oxygen and the "Criegee" intermediate resulting from the attack of the flavin peroxide onto the substrate that is being oxygenated. The crystal structure of phenylacetone monooxygenase, a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermobifida fusca, exhibits a two-domain architecture resembling that of the disulfide oxidoreductases. The active site is located in a cleft at the domain interface. An arginine residue lays above the flavin ring in a position suited to stabilize the negatively charged flavin-peroxide and Criegee intermediates. This amino acid residue is predicted to exist in two positions; the "IN" position found in the crystal structure and an "OUT" position that allows NADPH to approach the flavin to reduce the cofactor. Domain rotations are proposed to bring about the conformational changes involved in catalysis. The structural studies highlight the functional complexity of this class of flavoenzymes, which coordinate the binding of three substrates (molecular oxygen, NADPH, and phenylacetone) in proximity of the flavin cofactor with formation of two distinct catalytic intermediates.

  18. Investigating the coenzyme specificity of phenylacetone monooxygenase from Thermobifida fusca

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Hanna M.; Torres Pazmiño, Daniel E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Gotor, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Type I Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) strongly prefer NADPH over NADH as an electron donor. In order to elucidate the molecular basis for this coenzyme specificity, we have performed a site-directed mutagenesis study on phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) from Thermobifida fusca. Using sequence alignments of type I BVMOs and crystal structures of PAMO and cyclohexanone monooxygenase in complex with NADP+, we identified four residues that could interact with the 2′-phosphate moiety of NADPH in PAMO. The mutagenesis study revealed that the conserved R217 is essential for binding the adenine moiety of the nicotinamide coenzyme while it also contributes to the recognition of the 2′-phosphate moiety of NADPH. The substitution of T218 did not have a strong effect on the coenzyme specificity. The H220N and H220Q mutants exhibited a ~3-fold improvement in the catalytic efficiency with NADH while the catalytic efficiency with NADPH was hardly affected. Mutating K336 did not increase the activity of PAMO with NADH, but it had a significant and beneficial effect on the enantioselectivity of Baeyer–Villiger oxidations and sulfoxidations. In conclusion, our results indicate that the function of NADPH in catalysis cannot be easily replaced by NADH. This finding is in line with the complex catalytic mechanism and the vital role of the coenzyme in BVMOs. PMID:20703875

  19. Crystal structure of a Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Malito, Enrico; Alfieri, Andrea; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Flavin-containing Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases employ NADPH and molecular oxygen to catalyze the insertion of an oxygen atom into a carbon–carbon bond of a carbonylic substrate. These enzymes can potentially be exploited in a variety of biocatalytic applications given the wide use of Baeyer–Villiger reactions in synthetic organic chemistry. The catalytic activity of these enzymes involves the formation of two crucial intermediates: a flavin peroxide generated by the reaction of the reduced flavin with molecular oxygen and the “Criegee” intermediate resulting from the attack of the flavin peroxide onto the substrate that is being oxygenated. The crystal structure of phenylacetone monooxygenase, a Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermobifida fusca, exhibits a two-domain architecture resembling that of the disulfide oxidoreductases. The active site is located in a cleft at the domain interface. An arginine residue lays above the flavin ring in a position suited to stabilize the negatively charged flavin-peroxide and Criegee intermediates. This amino acid residue is predicted to exist in two positions; the “IN” position found in the crystal structure and an “OUT” position that allows NADPH to approach the flavin to reduce the cofactor. Domain rotations are proposed to bring about the conformational changes involved in catalysis. The structural studies highlight the functional complexity of this class of flavoenzymes, which coordinate the binding of three substrates (molecular oxygen, NADPH, and phenylacetone) in proximity of the flavin cofactor with formation of two distinct catalytic intermediates. PMID:15328411

  20. The framework of polysaccharide monooxygenase structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Span, Elise A; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Polysaccharide monooxygenases, or PMOs (also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs), are a group of enzymes discovered in recent years to catalyze the oxidative degradation of carbohydrate polymers. The PMO catalytic domain has a β-sandwich fold that bears a strong resemblance to both immunoglobulin (Ig) and fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains. PMOs are secreted by fungi and bacteria, and there is recent evidence for their roles in pathogenesis, in addition to biomass processing. This review addresses the biological origins and functions of emerging PMO families, as well as describes the aspects of PMO structure that support the chemistry of copper-catalyzed, oxidative polysaccharide degradation.

  1. Studies on human phenylalanine Mono-oxygenase. I. Restricted expression.

    PubMed

    Crawfurd, M D; Gibbs, D A; Sheppard, D M

    1981-01-01

    Enzyme assays for phenylalanine mono-oxygenase have been performed on a variety of non-hepatic human cell types under varying conditions. The cell types studied were cultured fibroblasts, short-term lymphocyte cultures, long-term lymphoblastoid cultures, cultured amniotic fluid cells, hair roots and placental extracts. The cultured cells were assayed after growth under standard conditions and in the presence of a high concentration of substrate, a low concentration of end-product, added hydrocortisone or dexamethasone and under combinations of these conditions. In no instance was a significant enzyme activity obtained.

  2. The molecular basis of polysaccharide cleavage by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Kristian E. H.; Simmons, Thomas J.; Dupree, Paul; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Hemsworth, Glyn R.; Ciano, Luisa; Johnston, Esther M.; Tovborg, Morten; Johansen, Katja S.; von Freiesleben, Pernille; Marmuse, Laurence; Fort, Sébastien; Cottaz, Sylvain; Driguez, Hugues; Henrissat, Bernard; Lenfant, Nicolas; Tuna, Floriana; Baldansuren, Amgalanbaatar; Davies, Gideon J.; Leggio, Leila Lo; Walton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-containing enzymes which oxidatively break down recalcitrant polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Since their discovery LPMOs have become integral factors in the industrial utilization of biomass, especially in the sustainable generation of cellulosic bioethanol. We report here the first structural determination of an LPMO–oligosaccharide complex, yielding detailed insights into the mechanism of action of these enzymes. Using a combination of structure and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we reveal the means by which LPMOs interact with saccharide substrates. We further uncover electronic and structural features of the enzyme active site, showing how LPMOs orchestrate the reaction of oxygen with polysaccharide chains. PMID:26928935

  3. The molecular basis of polysaccharide cleavage by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Kristian E H; Simmons, Thomas J; Dupree, Paul; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Ciano, Luisa; Johnston, Esther M; Tovborg, Morten; Johansen, Katja S; von Freiesleben, Pernille; Marmuse, Laurence; Fort, Sébastien; Cottaz, Sylvain; Driguez, Hugues; Henrissat, Bernard; Lenfant, Nicolas; Tuna, Floriana; Baldansuren, Amgalanbaatar; Davies, Gideon J; Lo Leggio, Leila; Walton, Paul H

    2016-04-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-containing enzymes that oxidatively break down recalcitrant polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Since their discovery, LPMOs have become integral factors in the industrial utilization of biomass, especially in the sustainable generation of cellulosic bioethanol. We report here a structural determination of an LPMO-oligosaccharide complex, yielding detailed insights into the mechanism of action of these enzymes. Using a combination of structure and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we reveal the means by which LPMOs interact with saccharide substrates. We further uncover electronic and structural features of the enzyme active site, showing how LPMOs orchestrate the reaction of oxygen with polysaccharide chains.

  4. A novel ketone monooxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia. Purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Britton, L N; Markovetz, A J

    1977-12-10

    A ketone monooxygenase was purified from cells of Pseudomonas cepacia grown on 2-tridecanone as sole carbon source. Enzyme stability is maintained by the addition of ethanol, EDTA, and dithiothreitol. Stoichiometric studies show that for 1 mol of undecyl acetate formed, 1 mol of O2 is consumed and 1 mol of NADPH is oxidized. The monooxygenase, purified to homogeneity, has a molecular weight of approximately 123,000 and consists of two equal subunits with molecular weights of 55,000. The enzyme contains FAD and exhibits absorption maxima at 375 and 488 nm. Enzyme activity is inhibited by thiol-active reagents and the inhibition by the cations, cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury, is reversed by dithiothreitol, indicating the presence of essential sulfhydryl groups. Substrate specificity tests show that acetate esters are formed from methyl ketones from C-7 through C-14. The oxygenase is also active on isomers of 2-tridecanone forming esters from 3- through 7-tridecanone. With 6-tridecanone, two esters are formed, heptyl hexanoate and pentyl octanoate, indicating that oxygen is inserted on either side of the carbonyl group. In addition, the enzyme catalyzes the lactonization of the cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, with the formation of 5-valerolactone. PMID:925012

  5. mRNA imprinting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Following its synthesis in the nucleus, mRNA undergoes various stages that are critical for the proper synthesis, localization and possibly functionality of its encoded protein. Recently, we have shown that two RNA polymerase II (Pol II) subunits, Rpb4p and Rpb7p, associate with the nascent transcript co-transcriptionally. This “mRNA imprinting” lasts throughout the mRNA lifetime and is required for proper regulation of all major stages that the mRNA undergoes. Other possible cases of co-transcriptional imprinting are discussed. Since mRNAs can be transported from the synthesizing cell to other cells, we propose that mRNA imprinting can also affect the phenotype of the recipient cells. This can be viewed as “mRNA-based epigenetics.” PMID:21686103

  6. The Oxygen Dilemma: A Severe Challenge for the Application of Monooxygenases?

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Dirk; Hollmann, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Monooxygenases are promising catalysts because they in principle enable the organic chemist to perform highly selective oxyfunctionalisation reactions that are otherwise difficult to achieve. For this, monooxygenases require reducing equivalents, to allow reductive activation of molecular oxygen at the enzymes' active sites. However, these reducing equivalents are often delivered to O2 either directly or via a reduced intermediate (uncoupling), yielding hazardous reactive oxygen species and wasting valuable reducing equivalents. The oxygen dilemma arises from monooxygenases' dependency on O2 and the undesired uncoupling reaction. With this contribution we hope to generate a general awareness of the oxygen dilemma and to discuss its nature and some promising solutions. PMID:27194219

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  8. Evolving P450pyr Monooxygenase for Regio- and Stereoselective Hydroxylations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    P450pyr monooxygenase from Sphingomonas sp. HXN-200 catalysed the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation at a non-activated carbon atom, a useful but challenging reaction in classic chemistry, with unique substrate specificity for a number of alicyclic compounds. New P450pyr mutants were developed by directed evolution with improved catalytic performance, thus significantly extending the application of the P450pyr monooxygenase family in biohydroxylation to prepare useful and valuable chiral alcohols. Directed evolution of P450pyr created new enzymes with improved S-enantioselectivity or R-enantioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl pyrrolidine, enhanced regioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl pyrrolidinone, and increased enantioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl piperidinone, respectively. Directed evolution of P450pyr generated also mutants with fully altered regioselectivity (from terminal to subterminal) and newly created excellent S-enantioselectivity for the biohydroxylation of n-octane and propylbenzene, respectively, providing new opportunities for the regio- and enantioselective alkane functionalization. New P450pyr mutants were engineered as the first catalyst for highly selective terminal hydroxylation of n-butanol to 1,4-butanediol. Several novel, accurate, sensitive, simple, and HTS assays based on colorimetric or MS detection for measuring the enantio- and/or regioselectivity of hydroxylation were developed and proven to be practical in directed evolution. The P450pyr X-ray structure was obtained and used to guide the evolution. In silico modelling and substrate docking provided some insight into the influence of several important amino acid mutations of the engineered P450pyr mutants on the altered or enhanced regio- and enantioselectivity as well as new substrate acceptance. The obtained information and knowledge is useful for further engineering of P450pyr for other hydroxylations and oxidations. PMID:26507217

  9. Evolving P450pyr Monooxygenase for Regio- and Stereoselective Hydroxylations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    P450pyr monooxygenase from Sphingomonas sp. HXN-200 catalysed the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation at a non-activated carbon atom, a useful but challenging reaction in classic chemistry, with unique substrate specificity for a number of alicyclic compounds. New P450pyr mutants were developed by directed evolution with improved catalytic performance, thus significantly extending the application of the P450pyr monooxygenase family in biohydroxylation to prepare useful and valuable chiral alcohols. Directed evolution of P450pyr created new enzymes with improved S-enantioselectivity or R-enantioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl pyrrolidine, enhanced regioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl pyrrolidinone, and increased enantioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl piperidinone, respectively. Directed evolution of P450pyr generated also mutants with fully altered regioselectivity (from terminal to subterminal) and newly created excellent S-enantioselectivity for the biohydroxylation of n-octane and propylbenzene, respectively, providing new opportunities for the regio- and enantioselective alkane functionalization. New P450pyr mutants were engineered as the first catalyst for highly selective terminal hydroxylation of n-butanol to 1,4-butanediol. Several novel, accurate, sensitive, simple, and HTS assays based on colorimetric or MS detection for measuring the enantio- and/or regioselectivity of hydroxylation were developed and proven to be practical in directed evolution. The P450pyr X-ray structure was obtained and used to guide the evolution. In silico modelling and substrate docking provided some insight into the influence of several important amino acid mutations of the engineered P450pyr mutants on the altered or enhanced regio- and enantioselectivity as well as new substrate acceptance. The obtained information and knowledge is useful for further engineering of P450pyr for other hydroxylations and oxidations.

  10. Electrochemical sensor with flavin-containing monooxygenase for triethylamine solution.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hirokazu; Shirai, Takeshi; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2008-06-01

    A bioelectronic sensor for triethylamine (TEA) was developed with a flavin-containing monooxygenase type 3 (FMO-3). The TEA biosensor consisted of a Clark-type dissolved-oxygen electrode and an FMO-3 immobilized membrane. The FMO-3 solution was mixed with a poly(vinyl alcohol) containing stilbazolium groups (PVA-SbQ), coated on to the dialysis membrane, and the membrane was irradiated with a fluorescent light to immobilize the enzyme. In order to amplify the biosensor output, a substrate regeneration cycle, obtained by coupling the monooxygenase with L-ascorbic acid (AsA) as reducing reagent system, was applied. The effect of pH on the determination of TEA was studied. The maximum response was achieved at pH >9.0. A drop of the phosphate buffer solution with the AsA was put on the sensing area of the oxygen electrode, and the FMO-3 immobilized membrane was placed on the oxygen electrode and covered with a supporting Nylon mesh net which was secured with a silicone O-ring. A measurement system for TEA solution was constructed using the FMO-3 biosensor, a personal computer, a computer-controlled potentiostat, and an A/D converter. The FMO-3 biosensor was used to measure TEA solution from 0.5 to 4.0 mmol L(-1) with 10.0 mmol L(-1) AsA. The biosensor also had good reproducibility, for example a 6.31% coefficient of variation for five measurements, and the output current was maintained over a few hours. In order to improve the selectivity of the TEA biosensor, three type of biosensor with FMO isomer types 1, 3, and 5 were constructed and used to measure nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The outputs of the isomer biosensors indicated individual patterns for each sample solution. The selectivity of TEA biosensor would be improved, and determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds would be possible, by using the different output of biosensors prepared from different FMO isomers. PMID:18157663

  11. Effects of Zinc on Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Activity and Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Sirajuddin, Sarah; Barupala, Dulmini; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. Zinc is a known inhibitor of pMMO, but the details of zinc binding and the mechanism of inhibition are not understood. Metal binding and activity assays on membrane-bound pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) reveal that zinc inhibits pMMO at two sites that are distinct from the copper active site. The 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of Methylocystis species strain Rockwell pMMO reveals two previously undetected bound lipids, and metal soaking experiments identify likely locations for the two zinc inhibition sites. The first is the crystallographic zinc site in the pmoC subunit, and zinc binding here leads to the ordering of 10 previously unobserved residues. A second zinc site is present on the cytoplasmic side of the pmoC subunit. Parallels between these results and zinc inhibition studies of several respiratory complexes suggest that zinc might inhibit proton transfer in pMMO. PMID:24942740

  12. Mechanism of Action of a Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Eswaramoorthy,S.; Bonanno, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Elimination of nonnutritional and insoluble compounds is a critical task for any living organism. Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) attach an oxygen atom to the insoluble nucleophilic compounds to increase solubility and thereby increase excretion. Here we analyze the functional mechanism of FMO from Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the crystal structures of the wild type and protein-cofactor and protein-substrate complexes. The structure of the wild-type FMO revealed that the prosthetic group FAD is an integral part of the protein. FMO needs NADPH as a cofactor in addition to the prosthetic group for its catalytic activity. Structures of the protein-cofactor and protein-substrate complexes provide insights into mechanism of action. We propose that FMOs exist in the cell as a complex with a reduced form of the prosthetic group and NADPH cofactor, readying them to act on substrates. The 4{alpha}-hydroperoxyflavin form of the prosthetic group represents a transient intermediate of the monooxygenation process. The oxygenated and reduced forms of the prosthetic group help stabilize interactions with cofactor and substrate alternately to permit continuous enzyme turnover.

  13. Activation of enzymatic chitin degradation by a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Hamre, Anne Grethe; Eide, Kristine B; Wold, Hanne H; Sørlie, Morten

    2015-04-30

    For decades, the enzymatic conversion of recalcitrant polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin was thought to solely rely on the synergistic action of hydrolytic enzymes, but recent work has shown that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are important contributors to this process. Here, we have examined the initial rate enhancement an LPMO (CBP21) has on the hydrolytic enzymes (ChiA, ChiB, and ChiC) of the chitinolytic machinery of Serratia marcescens through determinations of apparent k(cat) (k(cat)(app)) values on a β-chitin substrate. k(cat)(app) values were determined to be 1.7±0.1 s(-1) and 1.7±0.1 s(-1) for the exo-active ChiA and ChiB, respectively and 1.2±0.1 s(-1) for the endo-active ChiC. The addition of CBP21 boosted the k(cat)(app) values of ChiA and ChiB giving values of 11.1±1.5 s(-1) and 13.9±1.4 s(-1), while there was no effect on ChiC (0.9±0.1 s(-1)).

  14. Structural basis for pregnenolone biosynthesis by the mitochondrial monooxygenase system

    SciTech Connect

    Strushkevich, Natallia; MacKenzie, Farrell; Cherkesova, Tatyana; Grabovec, Irina; Usanov, Sergey; Park, Hee-Won

    2011-09-06

    In humans, the precursor to all steroid hormones, pregnenolone, is synthesized from cholesterol by an enzyme complex comprising adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), adrenodoxin (Adx), and a cytochrome P450 (P450scc or CYP11A1). This complex not only plays a key role in steroidogenesis, but also has long been a model to study electron transfer, multistep catalysis, and C-C bond cleavage performed by monooxygenases. Detailed mechanistic understanding of these processes has been hindered by a lack of structural information. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex of human Adx and CYP11A1 - the first of a complex between a eukaryotic CYP and its redox partner. The structures with substrate and a series of reaction intermediates allow us to define the mechanism underlying sequential hydroxylations of the cholesterol and suggest the mechanism of C-C bond cleavage. In the complex the [2Fe-2S] cluster of Adx is positioned 17.4 {angstrom} away from the heme iron of CYP11A1. This structure suggests that after an initial protein-protein association driven by electrostatic forces, the complex adopts an optimized geometry between the redox centers. Conservation of the interaction interface suggests that this mechanism is common for all mitochondrial P450s.

  15. Architecture and active site of particulate methane monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Megen A.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria, organisms that live on methane gas as their sole carbon source. Understanding pMMO function has important implications for bioremediation applications and for the development of new, environmentally friendly catalysts for the direct conversion of methane to methanol. Crystal structures of pMMOs from three different methanotrophs reveal a trimeric architecture, consisting of three copies each of the pmoB, pmoA, and pmoC subunits. There are three distinct metal centers in each protomer of the trimer, mononuclear and dinuclear copper sites in the periplasmic regions of pmoB and a mononuclear site within the membrane that can be occupied by copper or zinc. Various models for the pMMO active site have been proposed within these structural constraints, including dicopper, tricopper, and diiron centers. Biochemical and spectroscopic data on pMMO and recombinant soluble fragments, denoted spmoB proteins, indicate that the active site involves copper and is located at the site of the dicopper center in the pmoB subunit. Initial spectroscopic evidence for O2 binding at this site has been obtained. Despite these findings, questions remain about the active site identity and nuclearity and will be the focus of future studies. PMID:22725967

  16. A mechanistic structure-activity relationship for hepatic polysubstrate monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hollebone, B.R.; Davis, D.; Michelin, N.; Purdy, D. . Chemistry Dept.); Brownlee, L.J. )

    1995-01-01

    The polysubstrate monooxygenase (PSMO) system response to hydrophobic xenobiotics is both intensive in oxidizing power and extensive in enzyme quantity. Under in vitro pseudo-first-order rate conditions the extensive properties become irrelevant, and the intensive rate-determining step depends on chemical structure. Xenobiotics react with PSMO either as inducers (adaptation domain) or as substrates (reaction domain) to produce intended hydroxylation, but accidental oxidations may also occur. Both the induction of intensive oxidizing power in the adaptation domain and the efficiency of reaction in the reaction domain depend on the strength of the weakest C-H bond in the xenobiotic, consistent with either a free radical or an ionic S[sub E]2 reaction process. Only the ionic S[sub E]2 mechanism is sensitive to the electrical charge on the carbon atom of the weakest C-H bond. In this study systematic treatment of simple hydrocarbon structures by adjacent polarizing heteroatoms N, Cl, and O inhibited substrate metabolism in direct proportion to their polarizing power. With this evidence of preferential S[sub E]2 behavior, a QSAR is proposed that allows prediction of four types of disease end points. These arise as combination of conditions of intended or accidental oxidations combined with release of metabolites into cytosolic or lipid media.

  17. Inhibition of ammonia monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea by carbon disulfide.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, M R; Kim, C Y; Arp, D J

    1990-01-01

    Carbon disulfide has long been recognized as a potent inhibitor of nitrification, and it is the likely active component in several nitrification inhibitors suitable for field use. The effects of this compound on Nitrosomonas europaea have been investigated, and the site of action has been determined. Low concentrations of CS2 (less than 400 microM) produced a time-dependent inhibition of ammonia-dependent O2 uptake but did not inhibit hydrazine-oxidizing activity. CS2 also produced distinct changes in difference spectra of whole cells. These results suggest that ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) is the site of action of CS2. Unlike the case for thiourea and acetylene, saturating concentrations of CS2 did not fully inhibit AMO, and the inhibition resulted in a low but significant rate of ammonia-dependent O2 uptake. The effects of CS2 were not competitive with respect to ammonia concentration, and the inhibition by CS2 did not require the turnover of AMO to take effect. The ability of CS2-treated cells to incorporate [14C]acetylene into the 28-kilodalton polypeptide of AMO was used to demonstrate that the effects of CS2 are compatible with a mode of action which involves a reduction of the rate of turnover of AMO without effects on the catalytic mechanism. It is proposed that CS2 may act on AMO by reversibly reacting with a suitable nucleophilic amino acid in close proximity to the active site copper. Images PMID:2118501

  18. Assay, Purification, and Partial Characterization of Choline Monooxygenase from Spinach.

    PubMed

    Burnet, M.; Lafontaine, P. J.; Hanson, A. D.

    1995-06-01

    The osmoprotectant glycine betaine is synthesized via the path-way choline -> betaine aldehyde -> glycine betaine. In spinach (Spinacia oleracea), the first step is catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO), and the second is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Because betaine aldehyde is unstable and not easily detected, we developed a coupled radiometric assay for CMO. [14C]Choline is used as substrate; NAD+ and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase prepared from Escherichia coli are added to oxidize [14C]betaine aldehyde to [14C]glycine betaine, which is isolated by ion exchange. The assay was used in the purification of CMO from leaves of salinized spinach. The 10-step procedure included polyethylene glycol precipitation, polyethyleneimine precipitation, hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange on choline-Sepharose, dimethyldiethanolamine-Sepharose, and Mono Q, hydroxyapatite, gel filtration, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Following gel filtration, overall purification was about 600-fold and recovery of activity was 0.5%. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 45 kD. Taken with the value of 98 kD estimated for native CMO (R. Brouquisse, P. Weigel, D. Rhodes, C.F. Yocum, A.D. Hanson [1989] Plant Physiol 90: 322-329), this indicates that CMO is a homodimer. CMO preparations were red-brown, showed absorption maxima at 329 and 459 nm, and lost color upon dithionite addition, suggesting that CMO is an iron-sulfur protein.

  19. Mechanism of action of a flavin-containing monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Burley, Stephen K.; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2006-01-01

    Elimination of nonnutritional and insoluble compounds is a critical task for any living organism. Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) attach an oxygen atom to the insoluble nucleophilic compounds to increase solubility and thereby increase excretion. Here we analyze the functional mechanism of FMO from Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the crystal structures of the wild type and protein–cofactor and protein–substrate complexes. The structure of the wild-type FMO revealed that the prosthetic group FAD is an integral part of the protein. FMO needs NADPH as a cofactor in addition to the prosthetic group for its catalytic activity. Structures of the protein–cofactor and protein–substrate complexes provide insights into mechanism of action. We propose that FMOs exist in the cell as a complex with a reduced form of the prosthetic group and NADPH cofactor, readying them to act on substrates. The 4α-hydroperoxyflavin form of the prosthetic group represents a transient intermediate of the monooxygenation process. The oxygenated and reduced forms of the prosthetic group help stabilize interactions with cofactor and substrate alternately to permit continuous enzyme turnover. PMID:16777962

  20. Covalent immobilization of a flavoprotein monooxygenase via its flavin cofactor.

    PubMed

    Krzek, Marzena; van Beek, Hugo L; Permentier, Hjalmar P; Bischoff, Rainer; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-01-01

    A generic approach for flavoenzyme immobilization was developed in which the flavin cofactor is used for anchoring enzymes onto the carrier. It exploits the tight binding of flavin cofactors to their target apo proteins. The method was tested for phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) which is a well-studied and industrially interesting biocatalyst. Also a fusion protein was tested: PAMO fused to phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH-PAMO). The employed flavin cofactor derivative, N6-(6-carboxyhexyl)-FAD succinimidylester (FAD*), was covalently anchored to agarose beads and served for apo enzyme immobilization by their reconstitution into holo enzymes. The thus immobilized enzymes retained their activity and remained active after several rounds of catalysis. For both tested enzymes, the generated agarose beads contained 3 U per g of dry resin. Notably, FAD-immobilized PAMO was found to be more thermostable (40% activity after 1 h at 60 °C) when compared to PAMO in solution (no activity detected after 1 h at 60 °C). The FAD-decorated agarose material could be easily recycled allowing multiple rounds of immobilization. This method allows an efficient and selective immobilization of flavoproteins via the FAD flavin cofactor onto a recyclable carrier.

  1. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition in blood ameliorates neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zwilling, Daniel; Huang, Shao-Yi; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Guidetti, Paolo; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Lee, Jason; Truong, Jennifer; Andrews-Zwilling, Yaisa; Hsieh, Eric W.; Louie, Jamie Y.; Wu, Tiffany; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Giorgini, Flaviano; Moussaoui, Saliha; Laue, Grit; Rassoulpour, Arash; Flik, Gunnar; Huang, Yadong; Muchowski, Joseph M.; Masliah, Eliezer; Schwarcz, Robert; Muchowski, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Metabolites in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation are thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Metabolites that cause glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and free radical formation are elevated in the blood and vulnerable brain regions in these diseases, while levels of the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid are often decreased. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of JM6, a novel small-molecule pro-drug inhibitor of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO). JM6 raises kynurenic acid and reduces extracellular glutamate in the brain after chronic oral administration by inhibiting KMO in blood. In a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, JM6 prevented spatial memory deficits, anxiety-related behavior, and synaptic loss. JM6 also extended life span, prevented synaptic loss, and decreased microglial activation in a mouse model of Huntington’s disease. These findings support a critical link between blood cells and neurodegeneration that is mediated by KMO and the kynurenine pathway. PMID:21640374

  2. Versatile biocatalysis of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Pradeepraj; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Yun, Hyungdon

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases, the nature's most versatile biological catalysts have unique ability to catalyse regio-, chemo-, and stereospecific oxidation of a wide range of substrates under mild reaction conditions, thereby addressing a significant challenge in chemocatalysis. Though CYP enzymes are ubiquitous in all biological kingdoms, the divergence of CYPs in fungal kingdom is manifold. The CYP enzymes play pivotal roles in various fungal metabolisms starting from housekeeping biochemical reactions, detoxification of chemicals, and adaptation to hostile surroundings. Considering the versatile catalytic potentials, fungal CYPs has gained wide range of attraction among researchers and various remarkable strategies have been accomplished to enhance their biocatalytic properties. Numerous fungal CYPs with multispecialty features have been identified and the number of characterized fungal CYPs is constantly increasing. Literature reveals ample reviews on mammalian, plant and bacterial CYPs, however, modest reports on fungal CYPs urges a comprehensive review highlighting their novel catalytic potentials and functional significances. In this review, we focus on the diversification and functional diversity of fungal CYPs and recapitulate their unique and versatile biocatalytic properties. As such, this review emphasizes the crucial issues of fungal CYP systems, and the factors influencing efficient biocatalysis. PMID:27431996

  3. Diversity and evolution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Sello, Mopeli Marshal; Jafta, Norventia; Nelson, David R; Chen, Wanping; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Parvez, Mohammad; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Sitheni Mashele, Samson; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as drug targets against pathogens, as well as in valuable chemical production and bioremediation, has been explored. In this study we performed comprehensive comparative analysis of P450s in 13 newly explored oomycete pathogens. Three hundred and fifty-six P450s were found in oomycetes. These P450s were grouped into 15 P450 families and 84 P450 subfamilies. Among these, nine P450 families and 31 P450 subfamilies were newly found in oomycetes. Research revealed that oomycetes belonging to different orders contain distinct P450 families and subfamilies in their genomes. Evolutionary analysis and sequence homology data revealed P450 family blooms in oomycetes. Tandem arrangement of a large number of P450s belonging to the same family indicated that P450 family blooming is possibly due to its members’ duplications. A unique combination of amino acid patterns was observed at EXXR and CXG motifs for the P450 families CYP5014, CYP5015 and CYP5017. A novel P450 fusion protein (CYP5619 family) with an N-terminal P450 domain fused to a heme peroxidase/dioxygenase domain was discovered in Saprolegnia declina. Oomycete P450 patterns suggested host influence in shaping their P450 content. This manuscript serves as reference for future P450 annotations in newly explored oomycetes. PMID:26129850

  4. A family of starch-active polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van V; Beeson, William T; Span, Elise A; Farquhar, Erik R; Marletta, Michael A

    2014-09-23

    The recently discovered fungal and bacterial polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) are capable of oxidatively cleaving chitin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses that contain β(1→4) linkages between glucose or substituted glucose units. They are also known collectively as lytic PMOs, or LPMOs, and individually as AA9 (formerly GH61), AA10 (formerly CBM33), and AA11 enzymes. PMOs share several conserved features, including a monocopper center coordinated by a bidentate N-terminal histidine residue and another histidine ligand. A bioinformatic analysis using these conserved features suggested several potential new PMO families in the fungus Neurospora crassa that are likely to be active on novel substrates. Herein, we report on NCU08746 that contains a C-terminal starch-binding domain and an N-terminal domain of previously unknown function. Biochemical studies showed that NCU08746 requires copper, oxygen, and a source of electrons to oxidize the C1 position of glycosidic bonds in starch substrates, but not in cellulose or chitin. Starch contains α(1→4) and α(1→6) linkages and exhibits higher order structures compared with chitin and cellulose. Cellobiose dehydrogenase, the biological redox partner of cellulose-active PMOs, can serve as the electron donor for NCU08746. NCU08746 contains one copper atom per protein molecule, which is likely coordinated by two histidine ligands as shown by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and sequence analysis. Results indicate that NCU08746 and homologs are starch-active PMOs, supporting the existence of a PMO superfamily with a much broader range of substrates. Starch-active PMOs provide an expanded perspective on studies of starch metabolism and may have potential in the food and starch-based biofuel industries.

  5. Radical Intermediates in Monooxygenase Reactions of Rieske Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Sarmistha; Austin, Rachel N.; Deng, Dayi; Groves, John T.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Rieske dioxygenases catalyze the cis-dihydroxylation of a wide range of aromatic compounds to initiate their biodegradation. The archetypal Rieske dioxygenase naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDOS) catalyzes dioxygenation of naphthalene to form (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. NDOS is composed of three proteins: a reductase, a ferredoxin, and an α3β3 oxygenase (NDO). In each α subunit, NDO contains a Rieske Fe2S2 cluster and a mononuclear iron site where substrate dihydroxylation occurs. NDOS also catalyzes monooxygenase reactions for many substrates. The mechanism of the reaction is unknown for either the mono- or di-oxygenase reactions, but has been postulated to involve either direct reaction of a structurally characterized Fe(III)-hydroperoxy intermediate or the electronically equivalent Fe(V)-oxo-hydroxo intermediate formed by O-O bond cleavage before reaction with substrate. The reaction for the former intermediate is expected to proceed through cationic intermediates while the latter is anticipated to initially form a radical intermediate. Here the monooxygenation reactions of the diagnostic probe molecules norcarane and bicyclohexane are investigated. In each case, a significant amount of the rearrangement product derived from a radical intermediate (lifetime of 11–18 ns) is observed while little or no ring expansion product from a cationic intermediate is formed. Thus, monooxygenation of these molecules appears to proceed via the Fe(V)-oxo-hydroxo intermediate. The formation of this high-valent intermediate shows that it must also be considered as a possible participant in the dioxygenation reaction, in contrast to computational studies but in accord with previous biomimetic studies. PMID:17341076

  6. Targeted Deletion of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Giorgini, Flaviano; Huang, Shao-Yi; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Thomas, Marian A. R.; Tararina, Margarita; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert; Muchowski, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), a pivotal enzyme in the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, has been suggested to play a major role in physiological and pathological events involving bioactive KP metabolites. To explore this role in greater detail, we generated mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Kmo and present here the first biochemical and neurochemical characterization of these mutant animals. Kmo−/− mice lacked KMO activity but showed no obvious abnormalities in the activity of four additional KP enzymes tested. As expected, Kmo−/− mice showed substantial reductions in the levels of its enzymatic product, 3-hydroxykynurenine, in liver, brain, and plasma. Compared with wild-type animals, the levels of the downstream metabolite quinolinic acid were also greatly decreased in liver and plasma of the mutant mice but surprisingly were only slightly reduced (by ∼20%) in the brain. The levels of three other KP metabolites: kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and anthranilic acid, were substantially, but differentially, elevated in the liver, brain, and plasma of Kmo−/− mice, whereas the liver and brain content of the major end product of the enzymatic cascade, NAD+, did not differ between Kmo−/− and wild-type animals. When assessed by in vivo microdialysis, extracellular kynurenic acid levels were found to be significantly elevated in the brains of Kmo−/− mice. Taken together, these results provide further evidence that KMO plays a key regulatory role in the KP and indicate that Kmo−/− mice will be useful for studying tissue-specific functions of individual KP metabolites in health and disease. PMID:24189070

  7. Discovery and industrial applications of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Katja S

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) has opened up a vast area of research covering several fields of application. The biotech company Novozymes A/S holds patents on the use of these enzymes for the conversion of steam-pre-treated plant residues such as straw to free sugars. These patents predate the correct classification of LPMOs and the striking synergistic effect of fungal LPMOs when combined with canonical cellulases was discovered when fractions of fungal secretomes were evaluated in industrially relevant enzyme performance assays. Today, LPMOs are a central component in the Cellic CTec enzyme products which are used in several large-scale plants for the industrial production of lignocellulosic ethanol. LPMOs are characterized by an N-terminal histidine residue which, together with an internal histidine and a tyrosine residue, co-ordinates a single copper atom in a so-called histidine brace. The mechanism by which oxygen binds to the reduced copper atom has been reported and the general mechanism of copper-oxygen-mediated activation of carbon is being investigated in the light of these discoveries. LPMOs are widespread in both the fungal and the bacterial kingdoms, although the range of action of these enzymes remains to be elucidated. However, based on the high abundance of LPMOs expressed by microbes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, the importance of LPMOs in the natural carbon-cycle is predicted to be significant. In addition, it has been suggested that LPMOs play a role in the pathology of infectious diseases such as cholera and to thus be relevant in the field of medicine.

  8. Nonsubstrate induction of a soluble bacterial cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase by phenobarbital and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Fulco, A J; Kim, B H; Matson, R S; Narhi, L O; Ruettinger, R T

    1983-01-01

    A soluble, cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase--epoxidase complex from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 can be induced more than 100-fold by the addition of phenobarbital or one of its analogs (hexobarbital) to the growth medium. These barbiturate inducers are apparently not substrates for the enzyme nor do they activate the monooxygenase in the cell-free system. The induction efficiency of both phenobarbital and hexobarbital can be significantly increased with respect to monooxygenase activity by autoclaving the inducer in the growth medium rather than by adding it to the medium after autoclaving. Turnover numbers of about 3 000 nmoles of substrate oxygenated per min per nmole of P-450 were obtained in crude cell-free preparations obtained from maximally induced cultures. Our data indicate that products formed by heating phenobarbital or hexobarbital in the growth medium are significantly better inducers of monooxygenase activity than are the unaltered drugs. PMID:6413835

  9. The effect of combined exposures to ethanol and xylene on rat hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activities.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska-Knypl, J M; Wrońska-Nofer, T; Jajte, J; Jedlińska, U

    1989-01-01

    Studies on rats treated for 8 months with ethanol (10% solution in drinking water) and simultaneously exposed to xylene vapour (12,000 mg/m3, 5 hr daily) for the last 9 days revealed that the chemicals exert additive stimulatory effect on hepatic microsomal monooxygenase: the activity of aniline p-hydroxylase increased by 380%, microsomal ethanol oxidizing system by 92%, NADPH-cyt. c reductase by 30% and the level of cytochrome P-450 by 70%. The changes were accompanied by a marked proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (a subcellular site of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in the hepatocytes) and an increased NADPH-Fe2+- and ascorbate-Fe2+-driven lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes--a potential toxic mechanism. Interaction of ethanol and xylene with cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases may enhance metabolic capacity of the liver and in consequence modify biological/toxic effects of occupational exposure to solvents in the case of alcohol abuse.

  10. A study of the hepatic microsomal monooxygenase of sea birds and its relationship to organochlorine pollutants.

    PubMed

    Knight, G C; Walker, C H

    1982-01-01

    1. The levels of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase in sea birds were determined using organochlorine substrates. Levels of cytochrome P450 and organochlorine residues were also measured. 2. The razorbill (Alca torda) and puffin (Fratercula arctica) showed highly variable activities which were resolved into multiple peaks on frequency diagrams. 3. The most active individuals amongst razorbills were early season females with large ovaries. 4. The properties of monooxygenase from individuals of low and high activity were compared. 5. The results are discussed in relation to PCB pollution. PMID:6128175

  11. Kinetics of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by monooxygenase-expressing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Shaily; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a probable human carcinogen, and an important emerging water contaminant. In this study, the biodegradation of dioxane by 20 bacterial isolates was evaluated, and 13 were found to be capable of transforming dioxane. Dioxane served as a growth substrate for Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and Pseudonocardia benzenivorans B5, with yields of 0.09 g protein g dioxane(-1) and 0.03 g protein g dioxane(-1), respectively. Cometabolic transformation of dioxane was observed for monooxygenase-expressing strains that were induced with methane, propane, tetrahydrofuran, or toluene including Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, Pseudonocardia K1, Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, and Rhodococcus RR1. Product toxicity resulted in incomplete dioxane degradation for many of the cometabolic reactions. Brief exposure to acetylene, a known monooxygenase inhibitor, prevented oxidation of dioxane in all cases, supporting the hypothesis that monooxygenase enzymes participated in the transformation of dioxane by these strains. Further, Escherichia coli TG1/pBS(Kan) containing recombinant plasmids derived from the toluene-2- and toluene-4-monooxygenases of G4, KR1 and PKO1 were also capable of cometabolic dioxane transformation. Dioxane oxidation rates measured at 50 mg/L ranged from 0.01 to 0.19 mg hr(-1) mg protein(-1) for the metabolic processes, 0.1-0.38 mg hr(-1) mg protein(-1) for cometabolism by the monooxygenase-induced strains, and 0.17-0.60 mg hr(-1) mg protein(-1) for the recombinant strains. Dioxane was not degraded by M. trichosporium OB3b expressing particulate methane monooxygenase, Pseudomonas putida mt-2 expressing a toluene side-chain monooxygenase, and PseudomonasJS150 and Pseudomonas putida F1 expressing toluene-2,3-dioxygenases. This is the first study to definitively show the role of monooxygenases in dioxane degradation using several independent lines of evidence and to describe the

  12. Insights into caerulomycin A biosynthesis: a two-component monooxygenase CrmH-catalyzed oxime formation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yiguang; Zhang, Qingbo; Li, Sumei; Lin, Qinheng; Fu, Peng; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhang, Haibo; Shi, Rong; Zhu, Weiming; Zhang, Changsheng

    2013-12-18

    The immunosuppressive agent caerulomycin A features a unique 2,2'-bipyridine core structure and an unusual oxime functionality. Genetic and biochemical evidence confirms that the oxime formation in caerulomycin A biosynthesis is catalyzed by CrmH, a flavin-dependent two-component monooxygenase that is compatible with multiple flavin reductases, from a primary amine via a N-hydroxylamine intermediate. Structure homologue-guided site-directed mutagenesis studies identify four amino acid residues that are essential for CrmH catalysis. This study provides the first biochemical evidence of a two-component monooxygenase that catalyzes oxime formation.

  13. Characterization of an FMN-containing cyclohexanone monooxygenase from a cyclohexane-grown Xanthobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Trower, M K; Buckland, R M; Griffin, M

    1989-04-15

    A soluble cyclohexanone monooxygenase was purified 16.1-fold to homogeneity from a Xanthobacter sp. grown upon cyclohexane as sole source of carbon and energy. The native enzyme is a 50-kDa single polypeptide chain associated with FMN rather than FAD as flavin prosthetic group in a 1:1 stoichiometric relationship. The monooxygenase catalyses the transformation of cyclohexanone to the lactone 1-oxa-2-oxocycloheptane in an oxygen ring insertion reaction. Only related cycloalkanone substrates are accepted for oxygenation, no activity is shown towards straight-chain alkanones. Enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by sulphydryl-reactive agents, but is relatively insensitive to metal chelators, electron transport inhibitors and the metal ions Fe3+ and Cu2+. Cyclohexanone monooxygenase has Km values for cyclohexanone and NADPH of less than 0.5 microM and 12.5 microM respectively. Kinetic investigations under steady-state conditions demonstrate that the flavoprotein prosthetic group, FMN, is involved in the monooxygenase catalytic mechanism. The systematic name for the enzyme is cyclohexanone, NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating, 1,2-lactonizing) (EC 1.14.13.22).

  14. Identification of a microsomal retinoic acid synthase as a microsomal cytochrome P-450-linked monooxygenase system.

    PubMed

    Tomita, S; Tsujita, M; Matsuo, Y; Yubisui, T; Ichikawa, Y

    1993-12-01

    1. To characterize an enzyme which metabolizes retinal in liver microsomes, several properties of the enzymatic reaction from retinal to retinoic acid were investigated using rabbit liver microsomes. 2. The maximum pH of the reaction in the liver microsomes was 7.6. 3. The Km and Vmax values for all-trans, 9-cis and 13-cis-retinals were determined. 4. The reaction proceeded in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. 5. The incorporation of one atom of molecular oxygen into retinal was confirmed by using oxygen-18, showing that the reaction comprised monooxygenation, not dehydrogenation. 6. The monooxygenase activity was inhibited by carbon monoxide, phenylisocyanide and anti-NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase IgG, but not by anti-cytochrome b5 IgG. 7. The enzymatic activity inhibited by carbon monoxide was photoreversibly restored by light of a wavelength of around 450 nm. 8. The retinal-induced spectra of liver microsomes with three isomeric retinals were type I spectra. 9. The microsomal monooxygenase activity induced by phenobarbital or ethanol were more effective than that by 3-methylcholanthrene, clotrimazole or beta-naphthoflavone. 10. These results showed that the monooxygenase reaction from retinal to retinoic acid in liver microsomes is catalyzed by a cytochrome P-450-linked monooxygenase system. PMID:8138015

  15. Flavoprotein monooxygenases for oxidative biocatalysis: recombinant expression in microbial hosts and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ceccoli, Romina D.; Bianchi, Dario A.; Rial, Daniela V.

    2014-01-01

    External flavoprotein monooxygenases comprise a group of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the insertion of one atom of molecular oxygen into an organic substrate and the second atom is reduced to water. These enzymes are involved in a great number of metabolic pathways both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Flavoprotein monooxygenases have attracted the attention of researchers for several decades and the advent of recombinant DNA technology caused a great progress in the field. These enzymes are subjected to detailed biochemical and structural characterization and some of them are also regarded as appealing oxidative biocatalysts for the production of fine chemicals and valuable intermediates toward active pharmaceutical ingredients due to their high chemo-, stereo-, and regioselectivity. Here, we review the most representative reactions catalyzed both in vivo and in vitro by prototype flavoprotein monooxygenases, highlighting the strategies employed to produce them recombinantly, to enhance the yield of soluble proteins, and to improve cofactor regeneration in order to obtain versatile biocatalysts. Although we describe the most outstanding features of flavoprotein monooxygenases, we mainly focus on enzymes that were cloned, expressed and used for biocatalysis during the last years. PMID:24567729

  16. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Carlin, D A; Bertolani, S J; Siegel, J B

    2015-02-11

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  17. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, DA; Bertolani, SJ; Siegel, JB

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  18. Characterisation of a Trichoderma hamatum monooxygenase gene involved in antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Ridgway, Hayley J; Stringer, Alison M; Hay, Amanda J; Stewart, Alison

    2008-04-01

    A monooxygenase gene was isolated from a biocontrol strain of Trichoderma hamatum and its role in biocontrol was investigated. The gene had homologues in other fungal genomes, but was not closely related to any fully characterised gene. The T. hamatum monooxygenase gene was expressed specifically in response to the plant pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotinia minor and Sclerotium cepivorum, but not in response to Botrytis cinerea or T. hamatum. Expression of the gene did not occur until contact had been made between the two fungal species. Homologues in T. atroviride and T. virens showed similar expression patterns. Expression of the gene in response to S. sclerotiorum was influenced by pH, with a peak of expression at pH 4, and was subject to nitrogen catabolite repression. Disruption of the monooxygenase gene did not affect the growth or morphology of T. hamatum, but caused a decrease in its ability to inhibit the growth and sclerotial production of S. sclerotiorum. The monooxygenase gene had a role in the antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species against specific fungal plant pathogens and is therefore a potentially important factor in biocontrol by Trichoderma species. PMID:18231791

  19. Flavin-containing monooxygenase-3: Induction by 3-methylcholanthrene and complex regulation by xenobiotic chemicals in hepatoma cells and mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Celius, Trine; Pansoy, Andrea; Matthews, Jason; Okey, Allan B.; Henderson, Marilyn C.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Williams, David E.

    2010-08-15

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases often are thought not to be inducible but we recently demonstrated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent induction of FMO mRNAs in mouse liver by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (Celius et al., Drug Metab Dispos 36:2499, 2008). We now evaluated FMO induction by other AHR ligands and xenobiotic chemicals in vivo and in mouse Hepa1c1c7 hepatoma cells (Hepa-1). In mouse liver, 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) induced FMO3 mRNA 8-fold. In Hepa-1 cells, 3MC and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced FMO3 mRNA > 30-fold. Induction by 3MC and BaP was AHR dependent but, surprisingly, the potent AHR agonist, TCDD, did not induce FMO3 mRNA in Hepa-1 cells nor did chromatin immunoprecipitation assays detect recruitment of AHR or ARNT to Fmo3 regulatory elements after exposure to 3MC in liver or in Hepa-1 cells. However, in Hepa-1, 3MC and BaP (but not TCDD) caused recruitment of p53 protein to a p53 response element in the 5'-flanking region of the Fmo3 gene. We tested the possibility that FMO3 induction in Hepa-1 cells might be mediated by Nrf2/anti-oxidant response pathways, but agents known to activate Nrf2 or to induce oxidative stress did not affect FMO3 mRNA levels. The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (which causes 'superinduction' of CYP1A1 mRNA in TCDD-treated cells), by itself caused dramatic upregulation (> 300-fold) of FMO3 mRNA in Hepa-1 suggesting that cycloheximide prevents synthesis of a labile protein that suppresses FMO3 expression. Although FMO3 mRNA is highly induced by 3MC or TCDD in mouse liver and in Hepa-1 cells, FMO protein levels and FMO catalytic function showed only modest elevation.

  20. Molecular cloning of the flavin-containing monooxygenase (form II) cDNA from adult human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Lomri, N; Gu, Q; Cashman, J R

    1992-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the adult human liver flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; dimethylaniline N-oxidase, EC 1.14.13.8) were isolated from lambda gt10 and lambda gt11 libraries. The cDNA libraries were screened with three synthetic 36-mer oligonucleotide probes derived from the nucleic acid sequence of the pig liver FMO cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence for the adult human liver FMO was quite distinct from the pig liver FMO, and adult human liver FMO was designated form II (HLFMO II). The full-length cDNA sequence of HLFMO II [2119 base pairs (bp)] had an open reading frame of 1599 nucleotides, which encoded a 533-amino acid protein of Mr 59,179, a 5'-noncoding region of 136 nucleotides and a 3'-noncoding region of 369 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail. The deduced amino acid sequence of HLFMO II had 80% similarity with the rabbit liver FMO II but only a 52%, 55%, and 53% amino acid similarity with the rabbit liver (form I), the pig liver (form I), and fetal human liver (form I) FMOs, respectively. RNA analysis of adult human liver RNA showed that there was one HLFMO II mRNA species. Analysis of genomic DNA indicated that HLFMO II was the product of a single gene. These results indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence for HLFMO II contained highly conserved residues and suggested that FMO enzymes were closely related and, undoubtedly, derived from the same ancestral gene. Images PMID:1542660

  1. mRNA transcript therapy.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Drew

    2015-02-01

    mRNA is the central molecule of all forms of life. It is generally accepted that current life on Earth descended from an RNA world. mRNA, after its first therapeutic description in 1992, has recently come into increased focus as a method to deliver genetic information. The recent solution to the two main difficulties in using mRNA as a therapeutic, immune stimulation and potency, has provided the basis for a wide range of applications. While mRNA-based cancer immunotherapies have been in clinical trials for a few years, novel approaches; including, in vivo delivery of mRNA to replace or supplement proteins, mRNA-based generation of pluripotent stem cells, or genome engineering using mRNA-encoded meganucleases are beginning to be realized. This review presents the current state of mRNA drug technologies and potential applications, as well as discussing the challenges and prospects in mRNA development and drug discovery. PMID:25359562

  2. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genes encoding a toluene/benzene-2-monooxygenase from pseudomonas sp. strain JS150

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.R.; Olsen, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150 metabolizes benzene and alkyl- and chloro-substituted benzenes by using dioxygenase-initiated pathways coupled with multiple downstream metabolic pathways to accommodate catechol metabolism. By cloning genes encoding benzene-degradative enzymes, strain JS150 was also found to carry genes for a toluene/benzene-2-monooxygenase. The gene cluster encoding a 2-monooxygenase and its cognate regulator was cloned from a plasmid carried by strain JS150. Oxygen ({sup 18}O{sub 2}) incorporation experiments using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains carrying the cloned genes confirmed toluene hydroxylation was catalyzed through an authentic monooxygenase reaction to yield ortho-cresol. Encoding the toluene-2-monooxygenase and regulatory gene product was localized in two regions of the cloned fragment. The nucleotide sequence of the toluene/benzene-2-monooxygenase locus was determined, revealing six open reading frames that were then designated tbmA, tbmB, tbmC, tbmD, tbmE, and tbmF. The deduced amino acid sequences for these genes showed the presence of motifs similar to well-conserved functional domains of multicomponent oxygenases. This analysis allowed the tentative identification of two terminal oxygenase subunits (TbmB and TbmD) and an electron transport protein (TbmF) for the monooxygenase enzyme. All the tbm polypeptides shared significant homology with protein components from other bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases. Overall, the tbm gene products shared greater similarity with polypeptides from the phenol hydroxylases of Pseudomo-KR1 and Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) picketti PKO1. The relationship found between the phenol hydroxlases and a toluene-2-monooxygenase, characterized in this study for the first time at the nucleotide sequence level, suggested DNA probes used for surveys of environmental populations should be carefully selected to reflect DNA sequences corresponding to the metabolic pathway of interest. 58 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A New Biocatalyst for Production of Optically Pure Aryl Epoxides by Styrene Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST

    PubMed Central

    Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Colmegna, Andrea; Galli, Enrica; Sello, Guido; Pelizzoni, Francesca; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    1999-01-01

    We developed a biocatalyst by cloning the styrene monooxygenase genes (styA and styB) from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST responsible for the oxidation of styrene to its corresponding epoxide. Recombinant Escherichia coli was able to oxidize different aryl vinyl and aryl ethenyl compounds to their corresponding optically pure epoxides. The results of bioconversions indicate the broad substrate preference of styrene monooxygenase and its potential for the production of several fine chemicals. PMID:10347083

  4. Effects of salinity acclimation on the pesticide-metabolizing enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lavado, Ramon; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Schlenk, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Thioether-containing pesticides are more toxic in certain anadromous and catadromous fish species that have undergone acclimation to hypersaline environments. Enhanced toxicity has been shown to be mediated through the bioactivation of these xenobiotics by one or more flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), which are induced by hyperosmotic conditions. To better understand the number of FMO genes that may be regulated by hyperosmotic conditions, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were maintained and acclimated to freshwater (<0.5 g/L salinity) and to 18 g/L salinity. The expression of 3 different FMO transcripts (A, B and C) and associated enzymatic activities methyl p-tolyl sulfoxidation (MTSO) and benzydamine N-oxigenation (BZNO) were measured in four tissues. In freshwater-acclimated organisms FMO catalytic activities were as follows: liver>kidney>gills=olfactory tissues; in hypersaline-acclimated animals activities were higher in liver>gills>olfactory tissues>kidney. Acclimation to 18 g/L caused a significant induction in the stereoselective formation of R-MTSO in gill. In olfactory tissues, stereoselective (100%) formation of S-MTSO was observed and was unaltered by acclimation to hypersaline water. When specific transcripts were evaluated, salinity-acclimation increased FMO A in liver (up to 2-fold) and kidney (up to 3-fold) but not in olfactory tissues and gills. FMO B mRNA was significantly down-regulated in all tissues, and FMO C was unchanged by hypersaline acclimation. FMO B and C failed to correlate with any FMO catalytic activity, but FMO A mRNA expression linearly correlated to both FMO catalytic activities (MTSO and BZNO) in liver (r(2)=0.92 and r(2)=0.88) and kidney microsomes (r(2)=0.93 and r(2)=90). FMO A only correlated with MTSO activity in gills (r(2)=0.93). These results indicate unique tissue specific expression of FMO genes in salmonids and are consistent with salinity-mediated enhancement of thioether-containing pesticide bioactivation by

  5. Effects of salinity acclimation on the pesticide-metabolizing enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Lavado, Ramon; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Schlenk, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Thioether-containing pesticides are more toxic in certain anadromous and catadromous fish species that have undergone acclimation to hypersaline environments. Enhanced toxicity has been shown to be mediated through the bioactivation of these xenobiotics by one or more flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), which are induced by hyperosmotic conditions. To better understand the number of FMO genes that may be regulated by hyperosmotic conditions, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were maintained and acclimated to freshwater (<0.5 g/L salinity) and to 18 g/L salinity. The expression of 3 different FMO transcripts (A, B and C) and associated enzymatic activities methyl p-tolyl sulfoxidation (MTSO) and benzydamine N-oxigenation (BZNO) were measured in four tissues. In freshwater-acclimated organisms FMO catalytic activities were as follows: liver>kidney>gills=olfactory tissues; in hypersaline-acclimated animals activities were higher in liver>gills>olfactory tissues>kidney. Acclimation to 18 g/L caused a significant induction in the stereoselective formation of R-MTSO in gill. In olfactory tissues, stereoselective (100%) formation of S-MTSO was observed and was unaltered by acclimation to hypersaline water. When specific transcripts were evaluated, salinity-acclimation increased FMO A in liver (up to 2-fold) and kidney (up to 3-fold) but not in olfactory tissues and gills. FMO B mRNA was significantly down-regulated in all tissues, and FMO C was unchanged by hypersaline acclimation. FMO B and C failed to correlate with any FMO catalytic activity, but FMO A mRNA expression linearly correlated to both FMO catalytic activities (MTSO and BZNO) in liver (r2=0.92 and r2=0.88) and kidney microsomes (r2=0.93 and r2=90). FMO A only correlated with MTSO activity in gills (r2=0.93). These results indicate unique tissue specific expression of FMO genes in salmonids and are consistent with salinity-mediated enhancement of thioether-containing pesticide bioactivation by FMO which

  6. Striking Oxygen Sensitivity of the Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase (PAM) in Neuroendocrine Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Peter D.; Eipper, Betty A.; Katz, Maximiliano J.; Gandara, Lautaro; Wappner, Pablo; Fischer, Roman; Hodson, Emma J.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Masson, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between biological pathways and molecular oxygen require robust mechanisms for detecting and responding to changes in cellular oxygen availability, to support oxygen homeostasis. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) catalyzes a two-step reaction resulting in the C-terminal amidation of peptides, a process important for their stability and biological activity. Here we show that in human, mouse, and insect cells, peptide amidation is exquisitely sensitive to hypoxia. Different amidation events on chromogranin A, and on peptides processed from proopiomelanocortin, manifest similar striking sensitivity to hypoxia in a range of neuroendocrine cells, being progressively inhibited from mild (7% O2) to severe (1% O2) hypoxia. In developing Drosophila melanogaster larvae, FMRF amidation in thoracic ventral (Tv) neurons is strikingly suppressed by hypoxia. Our findings have thus defined a novel monooxygenase-based oxygen sensing mechanism that has the capacity to signal changes in oxygen availability to peptidergic pathways. PMID:26296884

  7. Sampling and storage conditions of rainbow trout liver affects monooxygenase and conjugation enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lindström-Seppä, P; Hänninen, O

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of storage conditions of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) liver on monooxygenase and conjugation enzyme activities was studied. Fish livers or whole fish were frozen and stored for various periods of time at -4, -20 or -80 degrees C. 2. Freezing the whole fish at -20 degrees C affected the biotransformation enzyme activities dramatically. The loss of monooxygenase activity exceeded up to one-tenth of the initial rate in 17 days. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase activity increased 50%. Glutathione S-transferase appeared to be the most durable enzyme. 3. When the whole fish were stored in an ice-bath at -4 degrees C for up to 24 hr the activities measured decreased only half of that when frozen for 3 days. 4. When it is impossible to freeze the tissues studied in liquid nitrogen the activities are best preserved when whole, decapitated, bled fish are kept in an ice-bath for less than 24 hr. PMID:2899000

  8. Discovery, application and protein engineering of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Balke, Kathleen; Kadow, Maria; Mallin, Hendrik; Sass, Stefan; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-08-21

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are useful enzymes for organic synthesis as they enable the direct and highly regio- and stereoselective oxidation of ketones to esters or lactones simply with molecular oxygen. This contribution covers novel concepts such as searching in protein sequence databases using distinct motifs to discover new Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases as well as high-throughput assays to facilitate protein engineering in order to improve BVMOs with respect to substrate range, enantioselectivity, thermostability and other properties. Recent examples for the application of BVMOs in synthetic organic synthesis illustrate the broad potential of these biocatalysts. Furthermore, methods to facilitate the more efficient use of BVMOs in organic synthesis by applying e.g. improved cofactor regeneration, substrate feed and in situ product removal or immobilization are covered in this perspective.

  9. Improved homology model of cyclohexanone monooxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus based on multiple templates.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Eduardo; Ventura, Oscar N; Eriksson, Leif A; Saenz-Méndez, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    A new homology model of cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is derived based on multiple templates, and in particular the crystal structure of CHMO from Rhodococcus sp. The derived model was fully evaluated, showing that the quality of the new structure was improved over previous models. Critically, the nicotinamide cofactor is included in the model for the first time. Analysis of several molecular dynamics snapshots of intermediates in the enzymatic mechanism led to a description of key residues for cofactor binding and intermediate stabilization during the reaction, in particular Arg327 and the well known conserved motif (FxGxxxHxxxW) in Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, in excellent agreement with known experimental and computational data.

  10. Enhancing Indigo Production by Over-Expression of the Styrene Monooxygenase in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Yin, Sheng; Chen, Min; Sun, Baoguo; Hao, Shuai; Wang, Chengtao

    2016-08-01

    As an important traditional blue dye, indigo has been used in food and textile industry for centuries, which can be produced via the styrene oxygenation pathway in Pseudomonas putida. Hence, the styrene monooxygenase gene styAB and oxide isomerase gene styC are over-expressed in P. putida to investigate their roles in indigo biosynthesis. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that transcriptions of styA and styB were increased by 2500- and 750-folds in the styAB over-expressed strain B4-01, compared with the wild-type strain B4, consequently significantly enhancing the indole monooxygenase activity. Transcription of styC was also increased by 100-folds in the styC over-expressed strain B4-02. Besides, styAB over-expression slightly up-regulated the transcription of styC in B4-01, while styC over-expression hardly exerted an effect on the transcriptional levels of styA and styB and indole monooxygenase activity in B4-02. Furthermore, shaking flask experiments showed that indigo production in B4-01 reached 52.13 mg L(-1) after 24 h, which was sevenfold higher than that in B4. But no obvious increase in indigo yield was observed in B4-02. Over-expression of styAB significantly enhanced the indigo production, revealing that the monooxygenase STYAB rather than oxide isomerase STYC probably acted as the key rate-limiting enzyme in the indigo biosynthesis pathway in P. putida. This work provided a new strategy for enhancing indigo production in Pseudomonas. PMID:27154464

  11. Toluene 2-monooxygenase-dependent growth of Burkholderia cepacia G4/PR1 on diethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, H.G.; Newman, L.M.; Wackett, L.P.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    1997-04-01

    There is considerable interest in the biodegradation of solvents and fuel additives such as diethyl ether and tert-butyl methyl either. The present study investigated if toluene 2-monooxygenase would allow Burkholderia cepacia G4/PR1 to grow on either compounds via novel metabolic pathways. In addition, the role of enzyme induction in allowing growth on compounds not resembling toluene or phenol was studied. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 and monooxygenase activity in Tilapia by sediment extract

    SciTech Connect

    Ueng, Y.F.; Ueng, T.H.; Liu, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent monooxygenases of fishes are inducible by a variety of environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Induction of fish monoxygenases may serve as a biological monitor for PAH- and PCB-types of environmental chemicals. Many studies have demonstrated environmental induction of fish monooxygenases using various experimental approaches. However, relatively few studies have been conducted using fish treated with contaminated river sediment extracts. Damsui River is the largest river in the north of Taiwan. The lower section of the river in the Taipei Metropolitan area is heavily polluted by industrial and municipal wastes. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) is one of the few species of fish that occur in the polluted river. Previous field studies showed that the levels of P450 1A1, benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities in tilapia collected at Fu-Ho Bridge, a polluted section of Damsui River, were higher than respective levels in fish collected from an unpolluted section. These results suggested that tilapia caught at the polluted site were exposed to substances similar in action to PAHs and PCBs, because these chemical pollutants are potent inducers of P450 1A1. PAHs and PCBs are persistent compounds that can accumulate in sediment. Tilapia are occasionally associated with the bottom and could ingest chemically contaminated sediment. In the present study, we determined the induction properties of monooxygenases using tilapia treated with extract of sediment collected from a polluted section of Damsui River. The present study demonstrates that Damsui River sediment extract has the ability to induce hepatic P450 1A1 and dependent monooxygenase activities in tilapia. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Phosphorylation-Dependent Interaction of Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein (YWHA) with PADI6 Following Oocyte Maturation in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Alan J.; Puri, Pawan; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan; Kline, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Proteins in the tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein family (YWHA; also known as 14-3-3) are involved in the regulation of many intracellular processes. We have examined the interaction of YWHA with peptidylarginine deiminase type VI (PADI6), an abundant protein in mammalian oocytes, eggs, and early embryos. Peptidylarginine deiminases catalyze the posttranslational modification of peptidylarginine to citrulline. PADI6 is associated with oocyte cytoplasmic sheets, and PADI6-deficient mice are infertile because of disruption of development beyond the two-cell stage. We found that PADI6 undergoes a dramatic developmental change in phosphorylation during oocyte maturation. This change in phosphorylation is linked to an interaction of PADI6 with YWHA in the mature egg. Recombinant glutathione S-transferase YWHA pull-down experiments and transgenic tandem affinity purification with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrate a binding interaction between YWHA and PADI6 in mature eggs. YWHA proteins modulate or complement intracellular events involving phosphorylation-dependent switching or protein modification. These results indicate that phosphorylation and/or YWHA binding may serve as a means of intracellular PADI6 regulation. PMID:18463355

  14. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-10-31

    The first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase reveals a different ring orientation of its FMN cofactor compared with other related bacterial luciferase-family enzymes. The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily.

  15. Two distinct monooxygenases for alkane oxidation in Nocardioides sp. strain CF8.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, N; Yeager, C M; Arp, D J

    2001-11-01

    Alkane monooxygenases in Nocardioides sp. strain CF8 were examined at the physiological and genetic levels. Strain CF8 can utilize alkanes ranging in chain length from C(2) to C(16). Butane degradation by butane-grown cells was strongly inhibited by allylthiourea, a copper-selective chelator, while hexane-, octane-, and decane-grown cells showed detectable butane degradation activity in the presence of allylthiourea. Growth on butane and hexane was strongly inhibited by 1-hexyne, while 1-hexyne did not affect growth on octane or decane. A specific 30-kDa acetylene-binding polypeptide was observed for butane-, hexane-, octane-, and decane-grown cells but was absent from cells grown with octane or decane in the presence of 1-hexyne. These results suggest the presence of two monooxygenases in strain CF8. Degenerate primers designed for PCR amplification of genes related to the binuclear-iron-containing alkane hydroxylase from Pseudomonas oleovorans were used to clone a related gene from strain CF8. Reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analysis showed that this gene encoding a binuclear-iron-containing alkane hydroxylase was expressed in cells grown on alkanes above C(6). These results indicate the presence of two distinct monooxygenases for alkane oxidation in Nocardioides sp. strain CF8. PMID:11679317

  16. Effects of rutin and quercetin on monooxygenase activities in experimental influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Savov, Varban M; Galabov, Angel S; Tantcheva, Lyubka P; Mileva, Milka M; Pavlova, Elitsa L; Stoeva, Emilia S; Braykova, Ana A

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of the flavonoids rutin and quercetin on hepatic monooxygenase activities in experimental influenza virus infection (EIVI). EIVI causes oxidative stress in the whole organism. This is confirmed by the rapidly increased concentrations of thiobarbituric reactive substances in influenza-infected mice: lungs - 290%; blood plasma - more than 320%; liver - 230%; brain - 50%. Although known for their antioxidant activities, rutin and quercetin exhibit prooxidant effect in healthy and antioxidant activity in influenza-infected animals. The pretreatment with both flavonoids (20 mg/kg b.w.) restores oxidative damage mostly in the target organ of the infection as well as in the liver of all infected mice (lungs: rutin - 30%, quercetin - 40%, combination - 45%; liver: rutin - 12%; quercetin - 40%; combination - 50%). As far as EIVI causes oxidative stress, toxicosis and inhibition of the hepatic monooxygenase activity, it is important to study the effects of rutin and quercetin on these systems. Both flavonoids induce the level of cytochrome P-450 (rutin - 13%, quercetin - 30%, combination - 22%) but inactivate NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine N-demethylase and analgin N-demethylase on the 5th day of EIVI. Probably, these flavonoids affect different components of the monooxygenase system. These effects could be explained with oxidative hepatic intoxication on the 5th critical day of EIVI as well as higher dose treatment. More data are needed on the antioxidant/prooxidant effects of rutin and quercetin, probably due to specific metabolic and physiological activities, chemical structure, etc.

  17. Crystal structure of a phenol-coupling P450 monooxygenase involved in teicoplanin biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhi; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G.; Schuler, Mary A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2012-02-08

    The lipoglycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin has proven efficacy against gram-positive pathogens. Teicoplanin is distinguished from the vancomycin-type glycopeptide antibiotics, by the presence of an additional cross-link between the aromatic amino acids 1 and 3 that is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Orf6* (CYP165D3). As a goal towards understanding the mechanism of this phenol-coupling reaction, we have characterized recombinant Orf6* and determined its crystal structure to 2.2-{angstrom} resolution. Although the structure of Orf6* reveals the core fold common to other P450 monooxygenases, there are subtle differences in the disposition of secondary structure elements near the active site cavity necessary to accommodate its complex heptapeptide substrate. Specifically, the orientation of the F and G helices in Orf6* results in a more closed active site than found in the vancomycin oxidative enzymes OxyB and OxyC. In addition, Met226 in the I helix replaces the more typical Gly/Ala residue that is positioned above the heme porphyrin ring, where it forms a hydrogen bond with a heme iron-bound water molecule. Sequence comparisons with other phenol-coupling P450 monooxygenases suggest that Met226 plays a role in determining the substrate regiospecificity of Orf6*. These features provide further insights into the mechanism of the cross-linking mechanisms that occur during glycopeptide antibiotics biosynthesis.

  18. Phenobarbital induction of a soluble cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Narhi, L O; Fulco, A J

    1982-03-10

    A soluble, cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase-epoxidase isolated from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 can be induced about 28-fold by the addition of phenobarbital (8 mM) to the growth medium. Phenobarbital is not a substrate for the enzyme nor does it activate the monooxygenase in the cell-free system. The level of the P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity in cultures harvested during the early stationary phase of growth increased linearly with phenobarbital concentration up to its solubility limit (8 mM) at 35 degrees C. The time course of induction during culture growth in the presence of 4 mM phenobarbital showed an interesting dichotomy. The specific content of cytochrome P-450 increased until the early stationary phase of growth and then leveled off. P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity, however, continued to increase rapidly to midstationary phase and then decreased just as rapidly after this time. At maximum specific activity, a turnover number of about 2,450 was obtained for palmitoleate hydroxylation-epoxidation by the cytochrome P-450 system. PMID:6801029

  19. Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases: structure/function, genetic polymorphisms and role in drug metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Sharon K.; Williams, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) oxygenates drugs and xenobiotics containing a “soft-nucleophile”, usually nitrogen or sulfur. FMO, like cytochrome P450 (CYP), is a monooxygenase, utilizing the reducing equivalents of NADPH to reduce 1 atom of molecular oxygen to water, while the other atom is used to oxidize the substrate. FMO and CYP also exhibit similar tissue and cellular location, molecular weight, substrate specificity, and exist as multiple enzymes under developmental control. The human FMO functional gene family is much smaller (5 families each with a single member) than CYP. FMO does not require a reductase to transfer electrons from NADPH and the catalytic cycle of the 2 monooxygenases is strikingly different. Another distinction is the lack of induction of FMOs by xenobiotics. In general, CYP is the major contributor to oxidative xenobiotic metabolism. However, FMO activity may be of significance in a number of cases and should not be overlooked. FMO and CYP have overlapping substrate specificities, but often yield distinct metabolites with potentially significant toxicological/pharmacological consequences. The physiological function(s) of FMO are poorly understood. Three of the 5 expressed human FMO genes, FMO1, FMO2 and FMO3, exhibit genetic polymorphisms. The most studied of these is FMO3 (adult human liver) in which mutant alleles contribute to the disease known as trimethylaminuria. The consequences of these FMO genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism and human health are areas of research requiring further exploration. PMID:15922018

  20. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily. PMID:26527149

  1. Gene structure and spatiotemporal expression profile of tomato genes encoding YUCCA-like flavin monooxygenases: the ToFZY gene family.

    PubMed

    Expósito-Rodríguez, Marino; Borges, Andrés A; Borges-Pérez, Andrés; Pérez, José A

    2011-07-01

    The flavin monooxygenases (FMO) encoded by plant YUCCA genes are thought to catalyze a rate-limiting step in the tryptamine pathway for indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis. Recent experiments with different plant models have indicate that YUCCA genes play essential roles in growth and development through their contribution to the local pool of free auxin. In this study we have characterized five new genes that encode YUCCA-like FMOs in the tomato genome (ToFZY2 to ToFZY6), including gene structure, conserved motifs and phylogenetic analyses. As a first step towards clarifying the individual functions of ToFZY genes, we have used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to conduct a systematic comparison of the steady-state mRNA levels of 6 ToFZY genes, in 33 samples representing major organs and the entire tomato life cycle. We followed an absolute quantification strategy which allowed us to cross-compare transcript levels among different ToFZY genes in a given spatiotemporal coordinate. Our results indicate that expression of ToFZY genes is temporally and spatially regulated, and that the distinctive expression pattern of each ToFZY gene partially overlaps with other members of the multigenic family. We compare our data with previous results in other plant species and make some predictions about the role of tryptamine pathway in tomato growth and development.

  2. A stopped-flow kinetic study of soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Dalton, H

    1989-01-01

    1. The roles of the three protein components of soluble methane mono-oxygenase were investigated by the use of rapid-reaction techniques. The transfer of electrons through the enzyme complex from NADH to methane/O2 was also investigated. 2. Electron transfer from protein C, the reductase component, to protein A, the hydroxylase component, was demonstrated. Protein C was shown to undergo a three-electron--one-electron catalytic cycle. The interaction of protein C with NADH was investigated. Reduction of protein C was shown to be rapid, and a charge-transfer interaction between reduced FAD and NAD+ was observed; this intermediate was also found in static titration experiments. Thus the binding of NADH, the reduction of protein C and the intramolecular transfer of electrons through protein C were shown to be much more rapid than the turnover rate of methane mono-oxygenase. 3. The rate of transfer of electrons from protein C to protein A was shown to be lower than the reduction of protein C but higher than the turnover rate of methane mono-oxygenase. Association of the proteins was not rate-limiting. The amount of protein A present in the system had a small effect on the rate of reduction of protein C, indicating some co-operativity between the two proteins. 4. Protein B was shown to prevent electron transfer between protein C and protein A in the absence of methane. On addition of saturating concentrations of methane electron transfer was restored. With saturating concentrations of methane and O2 the observed rate constant for the conversion of methane into methanol was 0.26 s-1 at 18 degrees C. 5. By the use of [2H4]methane it was demonstrated that C-H-bond breakage is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the conversion of methane into methanol. PMID:2497729

  3. Metabolism of ketoconazole and deacetylated ketoconazole by rat hepatic microsomes and flavin-containing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R J; Acosta, D

    1997-06-01

    Ketoconazole (KT) has been reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which is probably not mediated through an immunoallergic mechanism. Although KT is extensively metabolized by hepatic microsomal enzymes, the nature, route of formation, and toxicity of suspected metabolites are largely unknown. Recent reports indicate that N-deacetyl ketoconazole (DAK) is a major initial metabolite in mice, which, like lipophilic 4-alkylpiperazines, is susceptible to successive oxidative attacks on the N-1 position producing ring-opened dialdehydes. The rate of formation of DAK from hepatic rat microsomal incubations of KT was determined by HPLC. The rate of disappearance for KT was almost equal to the rate of DAK formation: 5.96 and 5.88 microM/hr, respectively. Also, the potential bioactivation of DAK was evaluated by measuring substrate activity of DAK with purified pig liver flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and rat liver microsomes. Activity was measured by following DAK-dependent oxygen uptake polarographically at 37 degrees C in pyrophosphate buffer (pH 8.8) containing the glucose-6-phosphate NADPH-generating system. The K(M)'s of DAK were 34.6 and 77.4 microM for the purified FMO and rat microsomal FMO, respectively. Lastly, DAK was found to be metabolized by an NADPH-dependent rat liver microsomal monooxygenases at pH 8.8 to two metabolites as determined by HPLC. Heat inactivation of rat liver microsomal FMO abolished the formation of these metabolites from DAK. SKF-525A and anti-rat NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase did not inhibit this reaction. These results suggest that deacetylation of KT yields a major product, DAK, for further metabolism by microsomal monooxygenases that seem to be FMO-related.

  4. Flavin-containing monooxygenase-mediated metabolism of N-deacetyl ketoconazole by rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R J; Proteau, P J; Marquez, B L; Hetherington, C L; Buckholz, C J; O'Connell, K L

    1999-08-01

    Although ketoconazole is extensively metabolized by hepatic microsomal enzymes, the route of formation and toxicity of suspected metabolites are largely unknown. Reports indicate that N-deacetyl ketoconazole (DAK) is a major initial metabolite in mice. DAK may be susceptible to successive oxidative attacks on the N-1 position by flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) producing potentially toxic metabolites. Previous laboratory findings have demonstrated that postnatal rat hepatic microsomes metabolize DAK by NADPH-dependent monooxygenases to two metabolites as determined by HPLC. Our current investigation evaluated DAK's metabolism in adult male and female rats and identified metabolites that may be responsible for ketoconazole's hepatotoxicity. DAK was extensively metabolized by rat liver microsomal monooxygenases at pH 8.8 in pyrophosphate buffer containing the glucose 6-phosphate NADPH-generating system to three metabolites as determined by HPLC. The initial metabolite of DAK was a secondary hydroxylamine, N-deacetyl-N-hydroxyketoconazole, which was confirmed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Extensive metabolism of DAK occurred at pH 8.8 in pyrophosphate buffer (female 29% and male 53% at 0.25 h; female 55% and male 57% at 0.5 h; and female 62% and male 66% at 1.0 h). Significantly less metabolism of DAK occurred at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer (female 11%, male 17% at 0.25 h; female 20%, male 31% at 0.5 h; and female 27%, male 37% at 1 h). Heat inactivation of microsomal-FMO abolished the formation of these metabolites from DAK. SKF-525A did not inhibit this reaction. These results suggest that DAK appears to be extensively metabolized by adult FMO-mediated monooxygenation.

  5. Structural and Catalytic Characterization of a Fungal Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Felix Martin; Tolmie, Carmien; Smit, Martha Sophia; Opperman, Diederik Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are biocatalysts that convert ketones to esters. Due to their high regio-, stereo- and enantioselectivity and ability to catalyse these reactions under mild conditions, they have gained interest as alternatives to chemical Baeyer-Villiger catalysts. Despite their widespread occurrence within the fungal kingdom, most of the currently characterized BVMOs are from bacterial origin. Here we report the catalytic and structural characterization of BVMOAFL838 from Aspergillus flavus. BVMOAFL838 converts linear and aryl ketones with high regioselectivity. Steady-state kinetics revealed BVMOAFL838 to show significant substrate inhibition with phenylacetone, which was more pronounced at low pH, enzyme and buffer concentrations. Para substitutions on the phenyl group significantly improved substrate affinity and increased turnover frequencies. Steady-state kinetics revealed BVMOAFL838 to preferentially oxidize aliphatic ketones and aryl ketones when the phenyl group are separated by at least two carbons from the carbonyl group. The X-ray crystal structure, the first of a fungal BVMO, was determined at 1.9 Å and revealed the typical overall fold seen in type I bacterial BVMOs. The active site Arg and Asp are conserved, with the Arg found in the “in” position. Similar to phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO), a two residue insert relative to cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) forms a bulge within the active site. Approximately half of the “variable” loop is folded into a short α-helix and covers part of the active site entry channel in the non-NADPH bound structure. This study adds to the current efforts to rationalize the substrate scope of BVMOs through comparative catalytic and structural investigation of different BVMOs. PMID:27472055

  6. Structural and Catalytic Characterization of a Fungal Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Felix Martin; Tolmie, Carmien; Smit, Martha Sophia; Opperman, Diederik Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are biocatalysts that convert ketones to esters. Due to their high regio-, stereo- and enantioselectivity and ability to catalyse these reactions under mild conditions, they have gained interest as alternatives to chemical Baeyer-Villiger catalysts. Despite their widespread occurrence within the fungal kingdom, most of the currently characterized BVMOs are from bacterial origin. Here we report the catalytic and structural characterization of BVMOAFL838 from Aspergillus flavus. BVMOAFL838 converts linear and aryl ketones with high regioselectivity. Steady-state kinetics revealed BVMOAFL838 to show significant substrate inhibition with phenylacetone, which was more pronounced at low pH, enzyme and buffer concentrations. Para substitutions on the phenyl group significantly improved substrate affinity and increased turnover frequencies. Steady-state kinetics revealed BVMOAFL838 to preferentially oxidize aliphatic ketones and aryl ketones when the phenyl group are separated by at least two carbons from the carbonyl group. The X-ray crystal structure, the first of a fungal BVMO, was determined at 1.9 Å and revealed the typical overall fold seen in type I bacterial BVMOs. The active site Arg and Asp are conserved, with the Arg found in the "in" position. Similar to phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO), a two residue insert relative to cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) forms a bulge within the active site. Approximately half of the "variable" loop is folded into a short α-helix and covers part of the active site entry channel in the non-NADPH bound structure. This study adds to the current efforts to rationalize the substrate scope of BVMOs through comparative catalytic and structural investigation of different BVMOs. PMID:27472055

  7. Kinetic characterization of the soluble butane monooxygenase from Thauera butanivorans, formerly 'Pseudomonas butanovora'.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Richard B; Dubbels, Bradley L; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Bottomley, Peter J; Arp, Daniel J

    2009-06-01

    Soluble butane monooxygenase (sBMO), a three-component di-iron monooxygenase complex expressed by the C(2)-C(9) alkane-utilizing bacterium Thauera butanivorans, was kinetically characterized by measuring substrate specificities for C(1)-C(5) alkanes and product inhibition profiles. sBMO has high sequence homology with soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and shares a similar substrate range, including gaseous and liquid alkanes, aromatics, alkenes and halogenated xenobiotics. Results indicated that butane was the preferred substrate (defined by k(cat) : K(m) ratios). Relative rates of oxidation for C(1)-C(5) alkanes differed minimally, implying that substrate specificity is heavily influenced by differences in substrate K(m) values. The low micromolar K(m) for linear C(2)-C(5) alkanes and the millimolar K(m) for methane demonstrate that sBMO is two to three orders of magnitude more specific for physiologically relevant substrates of T. butanivorans. Methanol, the product of methane oxidation and also a substrate itself, was found to have similar K(m) and k(cat) values to those of methane. This inability to kinetically discriminate between the C(1) alkane and C(1) alcohol is observed as a steady-state concentration of methanol during the two-step oxidation of methane to formaldehyde by sBMO. Unlike methanol, alcohols with chain length C(2)-C(5) do not compete effectively with their respective alkane substrates. Results from product inhibition experiments suggest that the geometry of the active site is optimized for linear molecules four to five carbons in length and is influenced by the regulatory protein component B (butane monooxygenase regulatory component; BMOB). The data suggest that alkane oxidation by sBMO is highly specialized for the turnover of C(3)-C(5) alkanes and the release of their respective alcohol products. Additionally, sBMO is particularly efficient at preventing methane oxidation during growth on linear alkanes > or =C(2,) despite its high

  8. Dioxygenase- and monooxygenase-catalysed synthesis of cis-dihydrodiols, catechols, epoxides and other oxygenated products.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Louise C; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-11-01

    Oxidoreductases are an emerging class of biotechnologically relevant enzymes due to their regio- and stereo-specificity. The selective oxygenation of aromatic compounds by oxidoreductases has received much attention and a wide range of reactions have been documented using these enzymes from various microbial sources. This review gives an overview of various dioxygenase, monooxygenase and oxidase enzymes that have been manipulated for the synthesis of products such as cis-dihydrodiols, catechols, epoxides and other oxygenated products. The use of protein engineering and its advancement in the synthesis of recombinant enzymes is also discussed.

  9. Kinetic characterization of the soluble butane monooxygenase from Thauera butanivorans, formerly ‘Pseudomonas butanovora’

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Richard B.; Dubbels, Bradley L.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Arp, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Soluble butane monooxygenase (sBMO), a three-component di-iron monooxygenase complex expressed by the C2–C9 alkane-utilizing bacterium Thauera butanivorans, was kinetically characterized by measuring substrate specificities for C1–C5 alkanes and product inhibition profiles. sBMO has high sequence homology with soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and shares a similar substrate range, including gaseous and liquid alkanes, aromatics, alkenes and halogenated xenobiotics. Results indicated that butane was the preferred substrate (defined by kcat : Km ratios). Relative rates of oxidation for C1–C5 alkanes differed minimally, implying that substrate specificity is heavily influenced by differences in substrate Km values. The low micromolar Km for linear C2–C5 alkanes and the millimolar Km for methane demonstrate that sBMO is two to three orders of magnitude more specific for physiologically relevant substrates of T. butanivorans. Methanol, the product of methane oxidation and also a substrate itself, was found to have similar Km and kcat values to those of methane. This inability to kinetically discriminate between the C1 alkane and C1 alcohol is observed as a steady-state concentration of methanol during the two-step oxidation of methane to formaldehyde by sBMO. Unlike methanol, alcohols with chain length C2–C5 do not compete effectively with their respective alkane substrates. Results from product inhibition experiments suggest that the geometry of the active site is optimized for linear molecules four to five carbons in length and is influenced by the regulatory protein component B (butane monooxygenase regulatory component; BMOB). The data suggest that alkane oxidation by sBMO is highly specialized for the turnover of C3–C5 alkanes and the release of their respective alcohol products. Additionally, sBMO is particularly efficient at preventing methane oxidation during growth on linear alkanes ≥C2, despite its high sequence homology with sMMO. These

  10. Partial characterization of a barbiturate-induced cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Narhi, L O; Kim, B H; Stevenson, P M; Fulco, A J

    1983-11-15

    A soluble cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase activity obtained from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 can be induced by at least 13 different barbiturates. In general, the potency of these compounds as inducers increases with their increasing lipophilicity. We have now shown that at least 4 of these barbiturates (phenobarbital, secobarbital, pentobarbital and methohexital) seem to induce the same active cytochrome P-450-containing enzyme by a non-substrate type mechanism. The partially purified enzymes obtained from cultures induced with each of the 4 barbiturates tested were all of similar molecular size (Mr = 130,000 +/- 10,000) and had similar turnover numbers (1400-1800 +/- 300) with either palmitoleate or myristate as substrates. None of the tested barbiturates served as substrates, activators or inhibitors of any of the monooxygenase preparations, nor did they appear to interact in any way with the monooxygenase enzyme or the P-450 component. PMID:6418173

  11. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was fo...

  12. Lactone-bound structures of cyclohexanone monooxygenase provide insight into the stereochemistry of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yachnin, Brahm J; McEvoy, Michelle B; MacCuish, Roderick J D; Morley, Krista L; Lau, Peter C K; Berghuis, Albert M

    2014-12-19

    The Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are microbial enzymes that catalyze the synthetically useful Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction. The available BVMO crystal structures all lack a substrate or product bound in a position that would determine the substrate specificity and stereospecificity of the enzyme. Here, we report two crystal structures of cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) with its product, ε-caprolactone, bound: the CHMO(Tight) and CHMO(Loose) structures. The CHMO(Tight) structure represents the enzyme state in which substrate acceptance and stereospecificity is determined, providing a foundation for engineering BVMOs with altered substrate spectra and/or stereospecificity. The CHMO(Loose) structure is the first structure where the product is solvent accessible. This structure represents the enzyme state upon binding and release of the substrate and product. In addition, the role of the invariant Arg329 in chaperoning the substrate/product during the catalytic cycle is highlighted. Overall, these data provide a structural framework for the engineering of BVMOs with altered substrate spectra and/or stereospecificity.

  13. Stabilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase by a computationally designed disulfide bond spanning only one residue.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Hugo L; Wijma, Hein J; Fromont, Lucie; Janssen, Dick B; Fraaije, Marco W

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme stability is an important parameter in biocatalytic applications, and there is a strong need for efficient methods to generate robust enzymes. We investigated whether stabilizing disulfide bonds can be computationally designed based on a model structure. In our approach, unlike in previous disulfide engineering studies, short bonds spanning only a few residues were included. We used cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) from Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB9871 as the target enzyme. This enzyme has been the prototype BVMO for many biocatalytic studies even though it is notoriously labile. After creating a small library of mutant enzymes with introduced cysteine pairs and subsequent screening for improved thermostability, three stabilizing disulfide bonds were identified. The introduced disulfide bonds are all within 12 Å of each other, suggesting this particular region is critical for unfolding. This study shows that stabilizing disulfide bonds do not have to span many residues, as the most stabilizing disulfide bond, L323C-A325C, spans only one residue while it stabilizes the enzyme, as shown by a 6 °C increase in its apparent melting temperature.

  14. P450monooxygenases (P450ome) of the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2012-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the model white rot fungus, has been the focus of research for the past about four decades for understanding the mechanisms and processes of biodegradation of the natural aromatic polymer lignin and a broad range of environmental toxic chemicals. The ability to degrade this vast array of xenobiotic compounds was originally attributed to its lignin-degrading enzyme system (LDS), mainly the extracellular peroxidases. However, subsequent physiological, biochemical, and/or genetic studies by us and others identified the involvement of a peroxidase-independent oxidoreductase system, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. The whole genome sequence revealed an extraordinarily large P450 contingent (P450ome) with an estimated 149 P450s in this organism. This review focuses on the current status of understanding on the P450 monooxygenase system of P. chrysosporium in terms of pre-genomic and post-genomic identification, structural and evolutionary analysis, transcriptional regulation, redox partners, and functional characterization for its biodegradative potential. Future research on this catalytically diverse oxidoreductase enzyme system and its major role as a newly emerged player in xenobiotic metabolism/degradation is discussed. PMID:22624627

  15. Process development for oxidations of hydrophobic compounds applying cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Brummund, Jan; Müller, Monika; Schmitges, Thomas; Kaluzna, Iwona; Mink, Daniel; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Liese, Andreas

    2016-09-10

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a unique family of enzymes that are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific oxidations for a broad substrate range. However, due to limited enzyme activities and stabilities, hydrophobicity of substrates, as well as the necessity of a continuous electron and oxygen supply the implementation of P450s for industrial processes remains challenging. Aim of this study was to point out key aspects for the development of an efficient synthesis concept for cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidations. In order to regenerate the natural cofactor NADPH, a glucose dehydrogenase was applied. The low water soluble terpene α-ionone was used as substrate for the model reaction system. The studies reveal that an addition of surfactants in combination with low volumetric amounts of co-solvent can significantly increase substrate availability and reaction rates. Furthermore, these additives facilitated a reliable sampling procedure during the process. Another key factor for the process design was the oxygen supply. Based on various investigations, a bubble-aerated stirred tank reactor in batch mode represents a promising reactor concept for P450 oxidations. Main restriction of the investigated reaction system was the low process stability of the P450 monooxygenase, characterized by maximum total turnover numbers of ∼4100molα-ionone/molP450. PMID:27396939

  16. The reduced flavin-dependent monooxygenase SfnG converts dimethylsulfone to methanesulfinate.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Denyce K

    2016-08-15

    The biochemical pathway through which sulfur may be assimilated from dimethylsulfide (DMS) is proposed to proceed via oxidation of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequent conversion of DMSO to dimethylsulfone (DMSO2). Analogous chemical oxidation processes involving biogenic DMS in the atmosphere result in the deposition of DMSO2 into the terrestrial environment. Elucidating the enzymatic pathways that involve DMSO2 contribute to our understanding of the global sulfur cycle. Dimethylsulfone monooxygenase SfnG and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase MsuE from the genome of the aerobic soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 were produced in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. The enzyme MsuE functions as a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent FMN reductase with apparent steady state kinetic parameters of Km = 69 μM and kcat/Km = 9 min(-1) μM (-1) using NADH as the variable substrate, and Km = 8 μM and kcat/Km = 105 min(-1) μM (-1) using FMN as the variable substrate. The enzyme SfnG functions as a flavoprotein monooxygenase and converts DMSO2 to methanesulfinate in the presence of FMN, NADH, and MsuE, as evidenced by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results suggest that methanesulfinate is a biochemical intermediate in sulfur assimilation. PMID:27392454

  17. Inactivation of peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase by cinnamic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Neil R; Lowe, Edward W; Battistini, Matthew R; Leahy, James W; Merkler, David J

    2016-08-01

    Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the final reaction in the maturation of α-amidated peptide hormones. Peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) is the PAM domain responsible for the copper-, ascorbate- and O2-dependent hydroxylation of a glycine-extended peptide. Peptidylamidoglycolate lyase is the PAM domain responsible for the Zn(II)-dependent dealkylation of the α-hydroxyglycine-containing precursor to the final α-amidated peptide. We report herein that cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid analogs are inhibitors or inactivators of PHM. The inactivation chemistry exhibited by the cinnamates exhibits all the attributes of a suicide-substrate. However, we find no evidence for the formation of an irreversible linkage between cinnamate and PHM in the inactivated enzyme. Our data support the reversible formation of a Michael adduct between an active site nucleophile and cinnamate that leads to inactive enzyme. Our data are of significance given that cinnamates are found in foods, perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Process development for oxidations of hydrophobic compounds applying cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Brummund, Jan; Müller, Monika; Schmitges, Thomas; Kaluzna, Iwona; Mink, Daniel; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Liese, Andreas

    2016-09-10

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a unique family of enzymes that are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific oxidations for a broad substrate range. However, due to limited enzyme activities and stabilities, hydrophobicity of substrates, as well as the necessity of a continuous electron and oxygen supply the implementation of P450s for industrial processes remains challenging. Aim of this study was to point out key aspects for the development of an efficient synthesis concept for cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidations. In order to regenerate the natural cofactor NADPH, a glucose dehydrogenase was applied. The low water soluble terpene α-ionone was used as substrate for the model reaction system. The studies reveal that an addition of surfactants in combination with low volumetric amounts of co-solvent can significantly increase substrate availability and reaction rates. Furthermore, these additives facilitated a reliable sampling procedure during the process. Another key factor for the process design was the oxygen supply. Based on various investigations, a bubble-aerated stirred tank reactor in batch mode represents a promising reactor concept for P450 oxidations. Main restriction of the investigated reaction system was the low process stability of the P450 monooxygenase, characterized by maximum total turnover numbers of ∼4100molα-ionone/molP450.

  19. Effects of nutrition and alcohol on the microsomal monooxygenase system (MMS) of rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Ronis, M.; Huang, J.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M.; Badger, T.M. Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Center, Little Rock )

    1991-03-15

    Ethanol is a known inducer of the hepatic cytochrome P450 dependent microsomal monooxygenase system (MMS). As a consequence, ethanol intake affects the clearance and metabolism of many drugs and other xenobiotics including acetaminophen, enflurane, carbon tetrachloride and ethanol itself. The major ethanol inducible cytochrome P450 isozyme in the rat liver, CYP 2E1, has been well characterized. Much less is known concerning extrahepatic effects of ethanol on the monooxygenase system. In the current study, the effects of diet and alcohol were examined on MMS activities and cytochrome P450 expression in the kidneys of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three diets containing no ethanol and two diets containing ethanol at 35% of total calories were studied. Renal MMS activities were measured using enzyme specific substrates and isozyme apoprotein levels were determined by Western blot analysis using antibodies directed against rat hepatic cytochrome P450s CYP 2E1, CYP 2A1 and CYP 3A2. Several diet and alcohol induced effects were observed, including a 5-fold diet-independent ethanol induction of CYP 2E1 cross reactive protein. No diet or ethanol effects were observed in levels of CYP 2A1 or CYP 3A2 cross reactive proteins.

  20. Contribution to catalysis of ornithine binding residues in ornithine N5-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Reeder; Qureshi, Insaf A; Klancher, Catherine A; Rodriguez, Pedro J; Tanner, John J; Sobrado, Pablo

    2015-11-01

    The SidA ornithine N5-monooxygenase from Aspergillus fumigatus is a flavin monooxygenase that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of ornithine. Herein we report a mutagenesis study targeting four residues that contact ornithine in crystal structures of SidA: Lys107, Asn293, Asn323, and Ser469. Mutation of Lys107 to Ala abolishes activity as measured in steady-state oxygen consumption and ornithine hydroxylation assays, indicating that the ionic interaction of Lys107 with the carboxylate of ornithine is essential for catalysis. Mutation of Asn293, Asn323, or Ser469 individually to Ala results in >14-fold increases in Km values for ornithine. Asn323 to Ala also increases the rate constant for flavin reduction by NADPH by 18-fold. Asn323 is unique among the four ornithine binding residues in that it also interacts with NADPH by forming a hydrogen bond with the nicotinamide ribose. The crystal structure of N323A complexed with NADP(+) and ornithine shows that the nicontinamide riboside group of NADP is disordered. This result suggests that the increase in flavin reduction rate results from an increase in conformational space available to the enzyme-bound NADP(H). Asn323 thus facilitates ornithine binding at the expense of hindering flavin reduction, which demonstrates the delicate balance that exists within protein-ligand interaction networks in enzyme active sites. PMID:26375201

  1. Stabilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase by a computationally designed disulfide bond spanning only one residue.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Hugo L; Wijma, Hein J; Fromont, Lucie; Janssen, Dick B; Fraaije, Marco W

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme stability is an important parameter in biocatalytic applications, and there is a strong need for efficient methods to generate robust enzymes. We investigated whether stabilizing disulfide bonds can be computationally designed based on a model structure. In our approach, unlike in previous disulfide engineering studies, short bonds spanning only a few residues were included. We used cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) from Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB9871 as the target enzyme. This enzyme has been the prototype BVMO for many biocatalytic studies even though it is notoriously labile. After creating a small library of mutant enzymes with introduced cysteine pairs and subsequent screening for improved thermostability, three stabilizing disulfide bonds were identified. The introduced disulfide bonds are all within 12 Å of each other, suggesting this particular region is critical for unfolding. This study shows that stabilizing disulfide bonds do not have to span many residues, as the most stabilizing disulfide bond, L323C-A325C, spans only one residue while it stabilizes the enzyme, as shown by a 6 °C increase in its apparent melting temperature. PMID:24649397

  2. Cloning, expression and characterization of a versatile Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Dietzia sp. D5

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel BVMO encoding gene was identified from a draft genome sequence of a newly isolated strain of Dietzia. Analysis of the protein sequence revealed that it belongs to a group of BVMOs whose most characterized member is cyclopentadecanone monooxygenase (CPDMO). The gene was PCR amplified, cloned and successfully expressed in E. coli. The expressed recombinant enzyme was purified using metal affinity chromatography. Characterization of the purified enzyme revealed that it has a broad substrate scope and oxidized different compounds including substituted and unsubstituted alicyclic, bicyclic-, aliphatic-ketones, ketones with an aromatic moiety, and sulfides. The highest activities were measured for 2- and 3-methylcyclohexanone, phenylacetone, bicyclo-[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-6-one and menthone. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.5 and 35°C, a temperature at which its half-life was about 20 hours. The stability studies have shown that this enzyme is more stable than all other reported BVMOs except the phenylacetone monooxygenase from the thermophilic organism Thermobifida fusca. PMID:24949258

  3. Revealing the moonlighting role of NADP in the structure of a flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Andrea; Malito, Enrico; Orru, Roberto; Fraaije, Marco W; Mattevi, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are, after cytochromes P450, the most important monooxygenase system in humans and are involved in xenobiotics metabolism and variability in drug response. The x-ray structure of a soluble prokaryotic FMO from Methylophaga sp. strain SK1 has been solved at 2.6-A resolution and is now the protein of known structure with the highest sequence similarity to human FMOs. The structure possesses a two-domain architecture, with both FAD and NADP(+) well defined by the electron density maps. Biochemical analysis shows that the prokaryotic enzyme shares many functional properties with mammalian FMOs, including substrate specificity and the ability to stabilize the hydroperoxyflavin intermediate that is crucial in substrate oxygenation. On the basis of their location in the structure, the nicotinamide ring and the adjacent ribose of NADP(+) turn out to be an integral part of the catalytic site being actively engaged in the stabilization of the oxygenating intermediate. This feature suggests that NADP(H) has a moonlighting role, in that it adopts two binding modes that allow it to function in both flavin reduction and oxygen reactivity modulation, respectively. We hypothesize that a relative domain rotation is needed to bring NADP(H) to these distinct positions inside the active site. Localization of mutations in human FMO3 that are known to cause trimethylaminuria (fish-odor syndrome) in the elucidated FMO structure provides a structural explanation for their biological effects.

  4. Revealing the moonlighting role of NADP in the structure of a flavin-containing monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Andrea; Malito, Enrico; Orru, Roberto; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are, after cytochromes P450, the most important monooxygenase system in humans and are involved in xenobiotics metabolism and variability in drug response. The x-ray structure of a soluble prokaryotic FMO from Methylophaga sp. strain SK1 has been solved at 2.6-Å resolution and is now the protein of known structure with the highest sequence similarity to human FMOs. The structure possesses a two-domain architecture, with both FAD and NADP+ well defined by the electron density maps. Biochemical analysis shows that the prokaryotic enzyme shares many functional properties with mammalian FMOs, including substrate specificity and the ability to stabilize the hydroperoxyflavin intermediate that is crucial in substrate oxygenation. On the basis of their location in the structure, the nicotinamide ring and the adjacent ribose of NADP+ turn out to be an integral part of the catalytic site being actively engaged in the stabilization of the oxygenating intermediate. This feature suggests that NADP(H) has a moonlighting role, in that it adopts two binding modes that allow it to function in both flavin reduction and oxygen reactivity modulation, respectively. We hypothesize that a relative domain rotation is needed to bring NADP(H) to these distinct positions inside the active site. Localization of mutations in human FMO3 that are known to cause trimethylaminuria (fish-odor syndrome) in the elucidated FMO structure provides a structural explanation for their biological effects. PMID:18443301

  5. Investigation of the enzymology and pharmacology of novel substrates and inhibitors of dopamine beta-monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DBM) was shown to catalyze the selenoxidation of 2-(phenylseleno)ethylamines, selenium-containing analogues of dopamine, by the normal monooxygenase pathway. The compounds 2-(phenylseleno)-ethylamine (PAESe), 2-(4'-hydroxyphenylseleno)ethylamine (pOH PAESe), and 1-(phenylseleno)-2-propylamine (Me PAESe) were synthesized and fully characterized as DBM substrates. Two other classes of compounds were investigated as potential alternate substrates for DBM. The possibility of stereoselective sulfonylation of 2-(phenylsulfenyl)- ethylamine (PAESO) was considered. A unique class of compounds, 2-(phenylthio)ethanols were designed and synthesized as DBM substrates but were found to be a novel class of potent competitive inhibitors of DBM with respect to tyramine. Preliminary experiments were also performed in an effort to demonstrate that the potent antihypertensive and indirect-acting sympathomimetic activity of 2-(phenylthio)ethylamine (PAES) was a result of DBM-oxygenation of this compound in vivo. The specific reserpine-sensitive uptake of (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine into rat brain synaptosomes was demonstrated as was the synaptosomal conversion of (/sup 3/H)-dopamine to (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine.

  6. Characterization of a Novel Rieske-Type Alkane Monooxygenase System in Pusillimonas sp. Strain T7-7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The cold-tolerant bacterium Pusillimonas sp. strain T7-7 is able to utilize diesel oils (C5 to C30 alkanes) as a sole carbon and energy source. In the present study, bioinformatics, proteomics, and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR approaches were used to identify the alkane hydroxylation system present in this bacterium. This system is composed of a Rieske-type monooxygenase, a ferredoxin, and an NADH-dependent reductase. The function of the monooxygenase, which consists of one large (46.711 kDa) and one small (15.355 kDa) subunit, was further studied using in vitro biochemical analysis and in vivo heterologous functional complementation tests. The purified large subunit of the monooxygenase was able to oxidize alkanes ranging from pentane (C5) to tetracosane (C24) using NADH as a cofactor, with greatest activity on the C15 substrate. The large subunit also showed activity on several alkane derivatives, including nitromethane and methane sulfonic acid, but it did not act on any aromatic hydrocarbons. The optimal reaction condition of the large subunit is pH 7.5 at 30°C. Fe2+ can enhance the activity of the enzyme evidently. This is the first time that an alkane monooxygenase system belonging to the Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase family has been identified in a bacterium. PMID:23417490

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Methyloferula stellata AR4, an Obligate Methanotroph Possessing Only a Soluble Methane Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Naumoff, Daniil G; Vorobev, Alexey V; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Shapiro, Nicole; Crombie, Andrew T; Murrell, J Colin; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Smirnova, Angela V; Dunfield, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Methyloferula stellata AR4 is an aerobic acidophilic methanotroph, which, in contrast to most known methanotrophs but similar to Methylocella spp., possesses only a soluble methane monooxygenase. However, it differs from Methylocella spp. by its inability to grow on multicarbon substrates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:25745010

  8. Cytochrome P450 polymorphism--molecular, metabolic and pharmacogenetic aspects. I. Mechanisms of activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Pachecka, Jan; Tomaszewski, Piotr; Kubiak-Tomaszewska, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450, initially perceived as a type of cell pigment, was soon identified as a hemoprotein with an enzymatic activity characteristic for monooxygenases with an affinity for differentiated endo- or exogenous substrates, including drugs. So far in the human organism 58 CYP isoenzymes belonging to 18 families have been described. Most from the CYP monooxygenases superfamily turned out to be integral elements of hepatocytic reticular monooxygenase complexes which also contain NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). Later investigations indicated the possibility of the participation in electron transport for reticular CYP isoenzymes, alternative NADH-dependent reticular system composed of cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR) and cytochrome b5. The demonstration of the activity of some CYP superfamily isoenzymes not only in hepatocytes but also in many other cells of the human organism, numerous plant and animal tissues and even in cells of fungi, protists and prokaryotes has contributed to the significantly increased understanding of the role of CYP in biological systems. In addition, some CYP isoenzymes were found to be characteristic for the inner mitochondrial membrane monooxygenase complexes which contain NADPH-dependent adrenodoxin reductase (AR) and adrenodoxin (Ad), which is identical with ferredoxin-1 (Fd-1) and hepatoredoxin (Hd).

  9. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  10. A copper-methionine interaction controls the pH-dependent activation of peptidylglycine monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew T; Broers, Brenda A; Kline, Chelsey D; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2011-12-20

    The pH dependence of native peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM) and its M314H variant has been studied in detail. For wild-type (WT) PHM, the intensity of the Cu-S interaction visible in the Cu(I) extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data is inversely proportional to catalytic activity over the pH range of 3-8. A previous model based on more limited data was interpreted in terms of two protein conformations involving an inactive Met-on form and an active flexible Met-off form [Bauman, A. T., et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 11140-11150] that derived its catalytic activity from the ability to couple into vibrational modes critical for proton tunneling. The new studies comparing the WT and M314H variant have led to the evolution of this model, in which the Met-on form has been found to be derived from coordination of an additional Met residue, rather than a more rigid conformer of M314 as previously proposed. The catalytic activity of the mutant decreased by 96% because of effects on both k(cat) and K(M), but it displayed the same activity-pH profile with a maximum around pH 6. At pH 8, the reduced Cu(I) form gave spectra that could be simulated by replacement of the Cu(M) Cu-S(Met) interaction with a Cu-N/O interaction, but the data did not unambiguously assign the ligand to the imidazole side chain of H314. At pH 3.5, the EXAFS still showed the presence of a strong Cu-S interaction, establishing that the Met-on form observed at low pH in WT cannot be due to a strengthening of the Cu(M)-methionine interaction but must arise from a different Cu-S interaction. Therefore, lowering the pH causes a conformational change at one of the Cu centers that brings a new S donor residue into a favorable orientation for coordination to copper and generates an inactive form. Cys coordination is unlikely because all Cys residues in PHM are engaged in disulfide cross-links. Sequence comparison with the PHM homologues tyramine β-monooxygenase and dopamine β-monooxygenase

  11. Cell nonautonomous activation of flavin-containing monooxygenase promotes longevity and health span.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Scott F; Miller, Hillary; Rossner, Ryan; Fletcher, Marissa; Leonard, Alison; Primitivo, Melissa; Rintala, Nicholas; Ramos, Fresnida J; Miller, Dana L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2015-12-11

    Stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) increases life span and health span in nematodes through an unknown mechanism. We report that neuronal stabilization of HIF-1 mediates these effects in Caenorhabditis elegans through a cell nonautonomous signal to the intestine, which results in activation of the xenobiotic detoxification enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase-2 (FMO-2). This prolongevity signal requires the serotonin biosynthetic enzyme TPH-1 in neurons and the serotonin receptor SER-7 in the intestine. Intestinal FMO-2 is also activated by dietary restriction (DR) and is necessary for DR-mediated life-span extension, which suggests that this enzyme represents a point of convergence for two distinct longevity pathways. FMOs are conserved in eukaryotes and induced by multiple life span-extending interventions in mice, which suggests that these enzymes may play a critical role in promoting health and longevity across phyla.

  12. Single-domain flavoenzymes trigger lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases for oxidative degradation of cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Garajova, Sona; Mathieu, Yann; Beccia, Maria Rosa; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Biaso, Frédéric; Fanuel, Mathieu; Ropartz, David; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Record, Eric; Rogniaux, Hélène; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic conversion of plant biomass has been recently revolutionized by the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) that carry out oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides. These very powerful enzymes are abundant in fungal saprotrophs. LPMOs require activation by electrons that can be provided by cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs), but as some fungi lack CDH-encoding genes, other recycling enzymes must exist. We investigated the ability of AA3_2 flavoenzymes secreted under lignocellulolytic conditions to trigger oxidative cellulose degradation by AA9 LPMOs. Among the flavoenzymes tested, we show that glucose dehydrogenase and aryl-alcohol quinone oxidoreductases are catalytically efficient electron donors for LPMOs. These single-domain flavoenzymes display redox potentials compatible with electron transfer between partners. Our findings extend the array of enzymes which regulate the oxidative degradation of cellulose by lignocellulolytic fungi. PMID:27312718

  13. Cell Non-Autonomous Activation of Flavin-containing Monooxygenase Promotes Longevity and Healthspan

    PubMed Central

    Leiser, Scott F.; Fletcher, Marissa; Leonard, Alison; Primitivo, Melissa; Rintala, Nicholas; Ramos, Fresnida J.; Miller, Dana L.; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) increases lifespan and healthspan in nematodes through an unknown mechanism. We report that neuronal stabilization of HIF-1 mediates these effects in C. elegans through a cell non-autonomous signal to the intestine resulting in activation of the xenobiotic detoxification enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase-2 (FMO-2). This pro-longevity signal requires the serotonin biosynthetic enzyme TPH-1 in neurons and the serotonin receptor SER-7 in the intestine. Intestinal FMO-2 is also activated by dietary restriction (DR) and necessary for DR-mediated lifespan extension, suggesting that this enzyme represents a point of convergence for two distinct longevity pathways. FMOs are conserved in eukaryotes and induced by multiple lifespan-extending interventions in mice, suggesting that these enzymes may play a critical role in promoting health and longevity across phyla. PMID:26586189

  14. Structure, dynamics, and function of the monooxygenase P450 BM-3: insights from computer simulations studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatano, Danilo

    2015-07-01

    The monooxygenase P450 BM-3 is a NADPH-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase enzyme isolated from soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium. As a pivotal member of cytochrome P450 superfamily, it has been intensely studied for the comprehension of structure-dynamics-function relationships in this class of enzymes. In addition, due to its peculiar properties, it is also a promising enzyme for biochemical and biomedical applications. However, despite the efforts, the full understanding of the enzyme structure and dynamics is not yet achieved. Computational studies, particularly molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have importantly contributed to this endeavor by providing new insights at an atomic level regarding the correlations between structure, dynamics, and function of the protein. This topical review summarizes computational studies based on MD simulations of the cytochrome P450 BM-3 and gives an outlook on future directions.

  15. Toluene 4-Monooxygenase and its Complex with Effector Protein T4moD

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Lucas J.; Fox, Brian G.

    2012-10-16

    Toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) is a multiprotein diiron enzyme complex that catalyzes the regiospecific oxidation of toluene to p-cresol. Catalytic function requires the presence of a small protein, called the effector protein. Effector protein exerts substantial control on the diiron hydroxylase catalytic cycle through protein-protein interactions. High-resolution crystal structures of the stoichometric hydroxylase and effector protein complex described here reveal how protein-protein interactions and reduction of the diiron center produce an active site configuration poised for reaction with O{sub 2}. Further information from crystal structures of mutated isoforms of the hydroxylase and a peroxo adduct is combined with catalytic results to give a fuller picture of the geometry of the enzyme-substrate complex used for the high fidelity oxidation of hydrocarbon substrates.

  16. Structural basis for substrate targeting and catalysis by fungal polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Beeson, William T; Phillips, Christopher M; Marletta, Michael A; Cate, Jamie H D

    2012-06-01

    The use of cellulases remains a major cost in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Fungi secrete copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) that oxidatively cleave crystalline cellulose and improve the effectiveness of cellulases. However, the means by which PMOs recognize and cleave their substrates in the plant cell wall remain unclear. Here, we present structures of Neurospora crassa PMO-2 and PMO-3 at 1.10 and 1.37 Å resolution, respectively. In the structures, dioxygen species are found in the active sites, consistent with the proposed cleavage mechanism. Structural and sequence comparisons between PMOs also reveal that the enzyme substrate-binding surfaces contain highly varied aromatic amino acid and glycosylation positions. The structures reported here provide evidence for a wide range of PMO substrate recognition patterns in the plant cell wall, including binding modes that traverse multiple glucan chains. PMID:22578542

  17. Expression and characterization of a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyan; Zhao, Yong; Cao, Hailong; Mou, Guangqing; Yin, Heng

    2015-08-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are recently discovered oxidative enzymes that are capable of oxidative cleavage of recalcitrant polysaccharides such as chitin or cellulose. Despite the importance of LPMOs in biomass conversion and the large number of lpmo genes in microorganisms, only a few LPMOs have been well studied, and further characterization of these proteins is thus of interest. In this study, a chitin-active AA10 family LPMO from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, BtLPMO10A, is described. This enzyme generates even-numbered oxidized oligosaccharides as the dominated products from crystalline chitin, however, interestingly, when colloidal chitin is used as the substrate, a ladder of oxidized oligosaccharides is observed. These results provide new insights into the action mode of LPMOs that may be affected by the substrates. PMID:25936286

  18. Discovery and characterization of a new family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Henrissat, Bernard; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2014-02-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a recently discovered class of enzymes capable of oxidizing recalcitrant polysaccharides. They are attracting considerable attention owing to their potential use in biomass conversion, notably in the production of biofuels. Previous studies have identified two discrete sequence-based families of these enzymes termed AA9 (formerly GH61) and AA10 (formerly CBM33). Here, we report the discovery of a third family of LPMOs. Using a chitin-degrading exemplar from Aspergillus oryzae, we show that the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme shares some features of the previous two classes of LPMOs, including a copper active center featuring the 'histidine brace' active site, but is distinct in terms of its active site details and its EPR spectroscopy. The newly characterized AA11 family expands the LPMO clan, potentially broadening both the range of potential substrates and the types of reactive copper-oxygen species formed at the active site of LPMOs. PMID:24362702

  19. Crystal Structure of Dicamba Monooxygenase: A Rieske Nonheme Oxygenase that Catalyzes Oxidative Demethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Razvan; Jiang, Wen Zhi; Weeks, Donald P.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2009-08-28

    Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is a widely used herbicide that is efficiently degraded by soil microbes. These microbes use a novel Rieske nonheme oxygenase, dicamba monooxygenase (DMO), to catalyze the oxidative demethylation of dicamba to 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCSA) and formaldehyde. We have determined the crystal structures of DMO in the free state, bound to its substrate dicamba, and bound to the product DCSA at 2.10-1.75 {angstrom} resolution. The structures show that the DMO active site uses a combination of extensive hydrogen bonding and steric interactions to correctly orient chlorinated, ortho-substituted benzoic-acid-like substrates for catalysis. Unlike other Rieske aromatic oxygenases, DMO oxygenates the exocyclic methyl group, rather than the aromatic ring, of its substrate. This first crystal structure of a Rieske demethylase shows that the Rieske oxygenase structural scaffold can be co-opted to perform varied types of reactions on xenobiotic substrates.

  20. Rv1894c is a novel hypoxia-induced nitronate monooxygenase required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Lee G; Karakousis, Petros C

    2013-05-15

    Tuberculosis is difficult to cure, requiring a minimum of 6 months of treatment with multiple antibiotics. Small numbers of organisms are able to tolerate the antibiotics and persist in the lungs of infected humans, but they still require some metabolic activity to survive. We studied the role of the hypoxia-induced Rv1894c gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence in guinea pigs, which develop hypoxic, necrotic granulomas histologically resembling those in humans and found this gene to be necessary for full bacillary growth and survival. We characterized the function of the encoded enzyme as a nitronate monooxygenase, which is needed to prevent the buildup of toxic products during hypoxic metabolism and is negatively regulated by the transcriptional repressor KstR. Future studies will focus on developing small-molecule inhibitors that target Rv1894c and its homologs, with the goal of killing persistent bacteria, thereby shortening the time needed to treat tuberculosis. PMID:23408846

  1. Hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in black-crowned night herons (BCNHS) from the Chesapeake basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Rice, C.P.; Hines, R.K.; Eisemann, J.

    1992-01-01

    In a continuation of our studies on the use of hepatic cytochromes P450 as a biomarker for contaminant exposure, BCNH eggs were collected from Baltimore Harbor (BH) (n = 20), Washington National Zoo (WNZ) (n = 13) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) (reference location) (n = 20). Eggs were artificially incubated and sacrificed at pipping. Livers were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80?C until assay. Hepatic microsomes were prepared by differential centrifugation of homogenates and assayed for protein, benzyloxy-resorufin-O-dealkylase, (BROD) ethoxyresorufinO-dealkylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD). Monooxygenase assays were run in triplicate using a computer-coupled fluorometric microwell plate scanner. Values for EROD and BROD, but not PROD, from BH and WNZ were significantly greater (approximately double) than those from CNWR. Organochlorine pesticide residues were much higher in carcasses from BH and WNZ as compared to CNWR. Carcasses are presently being analyzed for PCB congeners.

  2. Fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases bind starch and β-cyclodextrin similarly to amylolytic hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Nekiunaite, Laura; Isaksen, Trine; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2016-08-01

    Starch-binding modules of family 20 (CBM20) are present in 60% of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) catalyzing the oxidative breakdown of starch, which highlights functional importance in LPMO activity. The substrate-binding properties of starch-active LMPOs, however, are currently unexplored. Affinities and binding-thermodynamics of two recombinant fungal LPMOs toward starch and β-cyclodextrin were shown to be similar to fungal CBM20s. Amplex Red assays showed ascorbate and Cu-dependent activity, which was inhibited in the presence of β-cylodextrin and amylose. Phylogenetically, the clustering of CBM20s from starch-targeting LPMOs and hydrolases was in accord with taxonomy and did not correlate to appended catalytic activity. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the CBM20-binding scaffold is retained in the evolution of hydrolytic and oxidative starch-degrading activities. PMID:27397613

  3. FAD C(4a)-hydroxide stabilized in a naturally fused styrene monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Dirk; Schlömann, Michael; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gassner, George T

    2013-11-29

    StyA2B represents a new class of styrene monooxygenases that integrates flavin-reductase and styrene-epoxidase activities into a single polypeptide. This naturally-occurring fusion protein offers new avenues for studying and engineering biotechnologically relevant enantioselective biochemical epoxidation reactions. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of StyA2B reported here identify reaction intermediates similar to those reported for the separate reductase and epoxidase components of related two-component systems. Our studies identify substrate epoxidation and elimination of water from the FAD C(4a)-hydroxide as rate-limiting steps in the styrene epoxidation reaction. Efforts directed at accelerating these reaction steps are expected to greatly increase catalytic efficiency and the value of StyA2B as biocatalyst.

  4. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: an update on perspectives for synthetic application.

    PubMed

    Urlacher, Vlada B; Girhard, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are versatile biocatalysts that catalyze the regio- and stereospecific oxidation of non-activated hydrocarbons under mild conditions, which is a challenging task for chemical catalysts. Over the past decade impressive advances have been achieved via protein engineering with regard to activity, stability and specificity of P450s. In addition, a large pool of newly annotated P450s has attracted much attention as a source for novel biocatalysts for oxidation. In this review we give a short up-to-date overview of recent results on P450 engineering for technical applications including aspects of whole-cell biocatalysis with engineered recombinant enzymes. Furthermore, we focus on recently identified P450s with novel biotechnologically relevant properties.

  5. The Contribution of Non-catalytic Carbohydrate Binding Modules to the Activity of Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Lucy I.; Labourel, Aurore; Walton, Paul H.; Davies, Gideon J.; Gilbert, Harry J.

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable industrial substrate. Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to the degradation of lignocellulose and increase the efficiency of biofuel production. LPMOs can contain non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), but their role in the activity of these enzymes is poorly understood. Here we explored the importance of CBMs in LPMO function. The family 2a CBMs of two monooxygenases, CfLPMO10 and TbLPMO10 from Cellulomonas fimi and Thermobispora bispora, respectively, were deleted and/or replaced with CBMs from other proteins. The data showed that the CBMs could potentiate and, surprisingly, inhibit LPMO activity, and that these effects were both enzyme-specific and substrate-specific. Removing the natural CBM or introducing CtCBM3a, from the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome scaffoldin CipA, almost abolished the catalytic activity of the LPMOs against the cellulosic substrates. The deleterious effect of CBM removal likely reflects the importance of prolonged presentation of the enzyme on the surface of the substrate for efficient catalytic activity, as only LPMOs appended to CBMs bound tightly to cellulose. The negative impact of CtCBM3a is in sharp contrast with the capacity of this binding module to potentiate the activity of a range of glycoside hydrolases including cellulases. The deletion of the endogenous CBM from CfLPMO10 or the introduction of a family 10 CBM from Cellvibrio japonicus LPMO10B into TbLPMO10 influenced the quantity of non-oxidized products generated, demonstrating that CBMs can modulate the mode of action of LPMOs. This study demonstrates that engineered LPMO-CBM hybrids can display enhanced industrially relevant oxygenations. PMID:26801613

  6. The Contribution of Non-catalytic Carbohydrate Binding Modules to the Activity of Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Lucy I; Labourel, Aurore; Walton, Paul H; Davies, Gideon J; Gilbert, Harry J

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable industrial substrate. Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to the degradation of lignocellulose and increase the efficiency of biofuel production. LPMOs can contain non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), but their role in the activity of these enzymes is poorly understood. Here we explored the importance of CBMs in LPMO function. The family 2a CBMs of two monooxygenases,CfLPMO10 andTbLPMO10 fromCellulomonas fimiandThermobispora bispora, respectively, were deleted and/or replaced with CBMs from other proteins. The data showed that the CBMs could potentiate and, surprisingly, inhibit LPMO activity, and that these effects were both enzyme-specific and substrate-specific. Removing the natural CBM or introducingCtCBM3a, from theClostridium thermocellumcellulosome scaffoldin CipA, almost abolished the catalytic activity of the LPMOs against the cellulosic substrates. The deleterious effect of CBM removal likely reflects the importance of prolonged presentation of the enzyme on the surface of the substrate for efficient catalytic activity, as only LPMOs appended to CBMs bound tightly to cellulose. The negative impact ofCtCBM3a is in sharp contrast with the capacity of this binding module to potentiate the activity of a range of glycoside hydrolases including cellulases. The deletion of the endogenous CBM fromCfLPMO10 or the introduction of a family 10 CBM fromCellvibrio japonicusLPMO10B intoTbLPMO10 influenced the quantity of non-oxidized products generated, demonstrating that CBMs can modulate the mode of action of LPMOs. This study demonstrates that engineered LPMO-CBM hybrids can display enhanced industrially relevant oxygenations.

  7. Monooxygenase, peroxidase and peroxygenase properties and reaction mechanisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hrycay, Eugene G; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the monooxygenase, peroxidase and peroxygenase properties and reaction mechanisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in bacterial, archaeal and mammalian systems. CYP enzymes catalyze monooxygenation reactions by inserting one oxygen atom from O2 into an enormous number and variety of substrates. The catalytic versatility of CYP stems from its ability to functionalize unactivated carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds of substrates through monooxygenation. The oxidative prowess of CYP in catalyzing monooxygenation reactions is attributed primarily to a porphyrin π radical ferryl intermediate known as Compound I (CpdI) (Por•+FeIV=O), or its ferryl radical resonance form (FeIV-O•). CYP-mediated hydroxylations occur via a consensus H atom abstraction/oxygen rebound mechanism involving an initial abstraction by CpdI of a H atom from the substrate, generating a highly-reactive protonated Compound II (CpdII) intermediate (FeIV-OH) and a carbon-centered alkyl radical that rebounds onto the ferryl hydroxyl moiety to yield the hydroxylated substrate. CYP enzymes utilize hydroperoxides, peracids, perborate, percarbonate, periodate, chlorite, iodosobenzene and N-oxides as surrogate oxygen atom donors to oxygenate substrates via the shunt pathway in the absence of NAD(P)H/O2 and reduction-oxidation (redox) auxiliary proteins. It has been difficult to isolate the historically elusive CpdI intermediate in the native NAD(P)H/O2-supported monooxygenase pathway and to determine its precise electronic structure and kinetic and physicochemical properties because of its high reactivity, unstable nature (t½~2 ms) and short life cycle, prompting suggestions for participation in monooxygenation reactions of alternative CYP iron-oxygen intermediates such as the ferric-peroxo anion species (FeIII-OO-), ferric-hydroperoxo species (FeIII-OOH) and FeIII-(H2O2) complex.

  8. Escherichia coli Overexpressing a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase from Acinetobacter radioresistens Becomes Resistant to Imipenem

    PubMed Central

    Minerdi, Daniela; Zgrablic, Ivan; Castrignanò, Silvia; Catucci, Gianluca; Medana, Claudio; Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global issue currently resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people a year worldwide. Data present in the literature illustrate the emergence of many bacterial species that display resistance to known antibiotics; Acinetobacter spp. are a good example of this. We report here that Acinetobacter radioresistens has a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (Ar-BVMO) with 100% amino acid sequence identity to the ethionamide monooxygenase of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. Both enzymes are only distantly phylogenetically related to other canonical bacterial BVMO proteins. Ar-BVMO not only is capable of oxidizing two anticancer drugs metabolized by human FMO3, danusertib and tozasertib, but also can oxidize other synthetic drugs, such as imipenem. The latter is a member of the carbapenems, a clinically important antibiotic family used in the treatment of MDR bacterial infections. Susceptibility tests performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method demonstrate that imipenem-sensitive Escherichia coli BL21 cells overexpressing Ar-BVMO become resistant to this antibiotic. An agar disk diffusion assay proved that when imipenem reacts with Ar-BVMO, it loses its antibiotic property. Moreover, an NADPH consumption assay with the purified Ar-BVMO demonstrates that this antibiotic is indeed a substrate, and its product is identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be a Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation product of the carbonyl moiety of the β-lactam ring. This is the first report of an antibiotic-inactivating BVMO enzyme that, while mediating its usual BV oxidation, also operates by an unprecedented mechanism of carbapenem resistance. PMID:26459905

  9. Cellobiose dehydrogenase and a copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenase potentiate cellulose degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christopher M; Beeson, William T; Cate, Jamie H; Marletta, Michael A

    2011-12-16

    The high cost of enzymes for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is a major barrier to the production of second generation biofuels. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we report that filamentous fungi use oxidative enzymes to cleave glycosidic bonds in cellulose. Deletion of cdh-1, the gene encoding the major cellobiose dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa, reduced cellulase activity substantially, and addition of purified cellobiose dehydrogenases from M. thermophila to the Δcdh-1 strain resulted in a 1.6- to 2.0-fold stimulation in cellulase activity. Addition of cellobiose dehydrogenase to a mixture of purified cellulases showed no stimulatory effect. We show that cellobiose dehydrogenase enhances cellulose degradation by coupling the oxidation of cellobiose to the reductive activation of copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) that catalyze the insertion of oxygen into C-H bonds adjacent to the glycosidic linkage. Three of these PMOs were characterized and shown to have different regiospecifities resulting in oxidized products modified at either the reducing or nonreducing end of a glucan chain. In contrast to previous models where oxidative enzymes were thought to produce reactive oxygen species that randomly attacked the substrate, the data here support a direct, enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of cellulose. Cellobiose dehydrogenases and proteins related to the polysaccharide monooxygenases described here are found throughout both ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, suggesting that this model for oxidative cellulose degradation may be widespread throughout the fungal kingdom. When added to mixtures of cellulases, these proteins enhance cellulose saccharification, suggesting that they could be used to reduce the cost of biofuel production.

  10. Inactivation of Toluene 2-Monooxygenase in Burkholderia cepacia G4 by Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, Chris M.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Arp, Daniel J.; Hyman, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of acetylene (10 to 50% [vol/vol] gas phase) were required to inhibit the growth of Burkholderia cepacia G4 on toluene, while 1% (vol/vol) (gas phase) propyne or 1-butyne completely inhibited growth. Low concentrations of longer-chain alkynes (C5 to C10) were also effective inhibitors of toluene-dependent growth, and 2- and 3-alkynes were more potent inhibitors than their 1-alkyne counterparts. Exposure of toluene-grown B. cepacia G4 to alkynes resulted in the irreversible loss of toluene- and o-cresol-dependent O2 uptake activities, while acetate- and 3-methylcatechol-dependent O2 uptake activities were unaffected. Toluene-dependent O2 uptake decreased upon the addition of 1-butyne in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The loss of activity followed first-order kinetics, with apparent rate constants ranging from 0.25 min−1 to 2.45 min−1. Increasing concentrations of toluene afforded protection from the inhibitory effects of 1-butyne. Furthermore, oxygen, supplied as H2O2, was required for inhibition by 1-butyne. These results suggest that alkynes are specific, mechanism-based inactivators of toluene 2-monooxygenase in B. cepacia G4, although the simplest alkyne, acetylene, was relatively ineffective compared to longer alkynes. Alkene analogs of acetylene and propyne—ethylene and propylene—were not inactivators of toluene 2-monooxygenase activity in B. cepacia G4 but were oxidized to their respective epoxides, with apparent Ks and Vmax values of 39.7 μM and 112.3 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 for ethylene and 32.3 μM and 89.2 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 for propylene. PMID:9925593

  11. Structure and Ligand Binding Properties of the Epoxidase Component of Styrene Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ukaegbu, Uchechi E.; Kantz, Auric; Beaton, Michelle; Gassner, George T.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-07-23

    Styrene monooxygenase (SMO) is a two-component flavoprotein monooxygenase that transforms styrene to styrene oxide in the first step of the styrene catabolic and detoxification pathway of Pseudomonas putida S12. The crystal structure of the N-terminally histidine-tagged epoxidase component of this system, NSMOA, determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, indicates the enzyme exists as a homodimer in which each monomer forms two distinct domains. The overall architecture is most similar to that of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH), although there are some significant differences in secondary structure. Structural comparisons suggest that a large cavity open to the surface forms the FAD binding site. At the base of this pocket is another cavity that likely represents the styrene binding site. Flavin binding and redox equilibria are tightly coupled such that reduced FAD binds apo NSMOA {approx}8000 times more tightly than the oxidized coenzyme. Equilibrium fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetry data using benzene as a substrate analogue indicate that the oxidized flavin and substrate analogue binding equilibria of NSMOA are linked such that the binding affinity of each is increased by 60-fold when the enzyme is saturated with the other. A much weaker {approx}2-fold positive cooperative interaction is observed for the linked binding equilibria of benzene and reduced FAD. The low affinity of the substrate analogue for the reduced FAD complex of NSMOA is consistent with a preferred reaction order in which flavin reduction and reaction with oxygen precede the binding of styrene, identifying the apoenzyme structure as the key catalytic resting state of NSMOA poised to bind reduced FAD and initiate the oxygen reaction.

  12. The Toluene o-Xylene Monooxygenase Enzymatic Activity for the Biosynthesis of Aromatic Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Pizzo, Elio; Notomista, Eugenio; Pezzella, Alessandro; Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lise, Federica; Di Donato, Alberto; Izzo, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Monocyclic phenols and catechols are important antioxidant compounds for the food and pharmaceutic industries; their production through biotransformation of low-added value starting compounds is of major biotechnological interest. The toluene o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas sp. OX1 is a bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) that is able to hydroxylate a wide array of aromatic compounds and has already proven to be a versatile biochemical tool to produce mono- and dihydroxylated derivatives of aromatic compounds. The molecular determinants of its regioselectivity and substrate specificity have been thoroughly investigated, and a computational strategy has been developed which allows designing mutants able to hydroxylate non-natural substrates of this enzyme to obtain high-added value compounds of commercial interest. In this work, we have investigated the use of recombinant ToMO, expressed in cells of Escherichia coli strain JM109, for the biotransformation of non-natural substrates of this enzyme such as 2-phenoxyethanol, phthalan and 2-indanol to produce six hydroxylated derivatives. The hydroxylated products obtained were identified, isolated and their antioxidant potential was assessed both in vitro, using the DPPH assay, and on the rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2. Incubation of H9c2 cells with the hydroxylated compounds obtained from ToMO-catalyzed biotransformation induced a differential protective effect towards a mild oxidative stress induced by the presence of sodium arsenite. The results obtained confirm once again the versatility of the ToMO system for oxyfunctionalization reactions of biotechnological importance. Moreover, the hydroxylated derivatives obtained possess an interesting antioxidant potential that encourages the use of the enzyme for further functionalization reactions and their possible use as scaffolds to design novel bioactive molecules. PMID:25915063

  13. Form Follows Function: Structural and Catalytic Variation in the Class A Flavoprotein Monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Crozier-Reabe, Karen; Moran, Graham R.

    2012-01-01

    Flavoprotein monooxygenases (FPMOs) exhibit an array of mechanistic solutions to a common chemical objective; the monooxygenation of a target substrate. Each FPMO efficiently couples reduction of a flavin cofactor by NAD(P)H to oxygenation of the target substrate via a (hydro)peroxyflavin intermediate. This purpose of this review is to describe in detail the Class A flavoprotein hydroxylases (FPMO) in the context of the other FPMO classes (B–F). Both one and two component FPMOs are found in nature. Two-component enzymes require, in addition to the monooxygenase, the involvement of a reductase that first catalyzes the reduction of the flavin by NAD(P)H. The Class A and B FPMOs are single-component and manage to orchestrate the same net reaction within a single peptide. The Class A enzymes have, by some considerable margin, the most complete research record. These enzymes use choreographed movements of the flavin ring that facilitate access of the organic substrates to the active site, provide a means for interaction of NADPH with the flavin, offer a mechanism to sequester the dioxygen reduction chemistry from solvent and a means to release the product. The majority of the discrete catalytic events of the catalytic cycle can be observed directly in exquisite detail using spectrophotometric kinetic methods and many of the key mechanistic conclusions are further supported by structural data. This review attempts to compile each of the key observations made for both paradigm and newly discovered examples of Class A FPMOs into a complete catalytic description of one enzymatic turnover. PMID:23443084

  14. Methane monooxygenase gene expression mediated by methanobactin in the presence of mineral copper sources.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Charles W; Fowle, David A; Kulczycki, Ezra; Roberts, Jennifer A; Graham, David W

    2007-07-17

    Methane is a major greenhouse gas linked to global warming; however, patterns of in situ methane oxidation by methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs), nature's main biological mechanism for methane suppression, are often inconsistent with laboratory predictions. For example, one would expect a strong relationship between methanotroph ecology and Cu level because methanotrophs require Cu to sustain particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), the most efficient enzyme for methane oxidation. However, no correlation has been observed in nature, which is surprising because methane monooxygenase (MMO) gene expression has been unequivocally linked to Cu availability. Here we provide a fundamental explanation for this lack of correlation. We propose that MMO expression in nature is largely controlled by solid-phase Cu geochemistry and the relative ability of Cu acquisition systems in methanotrophs, such as methanobactins (mb), to obtain Cu from mineral sources. To test this hypothesis, RT-PCR expression assays were developed for Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (which produces mb) to quantify pMMO, soluble MMO (the alternate MMO expressed when Cu is "unavailable"), and 16S-rRNA gene expression under progressively more stringent Cu supply conditions. When Cu was provided as CuCl(2), pMMO transcript levels increased significantly consistent with laboratory work. However, when Cu was provided as Cu-doped iron oxide, pMMO transcript levels increased only when mb was also present. Finally, when Cu was provided as Cu-doped borosilicate glass, pMMO transcription patterns varied depending on the ambient mb:Cu supply ratio. Cu geochemistry clearly influences MMO expression in terrestrial systems, and, as such, local Cu mineralogy might provide an explanation for methane oxidation patterns in the natural environment.

  15. Transformation yields of chlorinated ethenes by a methanotrophic mixed culture expressing particulate methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J E; McCarty, P L

    1997-01-01

    Transformation yields for the aerobic cometabolic degradation of five chlorinated ethenes were determined by using a methanotrophic mixed culture expressing particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Transformation yields (expressed as moles of chlorinated ethene degraded per mole of methane consumed) were 0.57, 0.25, 0.058, 0.0019, and 0.00022 for trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (t-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), respectively. Degradation of t-DCE and VC was observed only in the presence of formate or methane, sources of reducing energy necessary for cometabolism. The t-DCE and VC transformation yields represented 35 and 15%, respectively, of the theoretical maximum yields, based on reducing-energy availability from methane dissimilation to carbon dioxide, exclusive of all other processes that require reducing energy. The yields for t-DCE and VC were 20 times greater than the yields reported by others for cells expressing soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). Transformation yields for c-DCE, TCE, and 1,1-DCE were similar to or less than those for cultures expressing sMMO. Although methanotrophic biotreatment systems have typically been designed to incorporate cultures expressing sMMO, these results suggest that pMMO expression may be highly advantageous for degradation of t-DCE or VC. It may also be much easier to maintain pMMO expression in treatment systems, because pMMO is expressed by all methanotrophs whereas sMMO is expressed only by type II methanotrophs under copper-limited conditions. PMID:9023946

  16. Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases as a Detoxification Mechanism in Insects: New Insights from the Arctiids (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G.; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  17. Crystal Structure of Albaflavenone Monooxygenase Containing a Moonlighting Terpene Synthase Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bin; Lei, Li; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Lin, Xin; Cane, David E.; Kelly, Steven L.; Yuan, Hang; Lamb, David C.; Waterman, Michael R.

    2010-01-08

    Albaflavenone synthase (CYP170A1) is a monooxygenase catalyzing the final two steps in the biosynthesis of this antibiotic in the soil bacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Interestingly, CYP170A1 shows no stereo selection forming equal amounts of two albaflavenol epimers, each of which is oxidized in turn to albaflavenone. To explore the structural basis of the reaction mechanism, we have studied the crystal structures of both ligand-free CYP170A1 (2.6 {angstrom}) and complex of endogenous substrate (epi-isozizaene) with CYP170A1 (3.3 {angstrom}). The structure of the complex suggests that the proximal epi-isozizaene molecules may bind to the heme iron in two orientations. In addition, much to our surprise, we have found that albaflavenone synthase also has a second, completely distinct catalytic activity corresponding to the synthesis of farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate. Within the cytochrome P450 {alpha}-helical domain both the primary sequence and x-ray structure indicate the presence of a novel terpene synthase active site that is moonlighting on the P450 structure. This includes signature sequences for divalent cation binding and an {alpha}-helical barrel. This barrel is unusual because it consists of only four helices rather than six found in all other terpene synthases. Mutagenesis establishes that this barrel is essential for the terpene synthase activity of CYP170A1 but not for the monooxygenase activity. This is the first bifunctional P450 discovered to have another active site moonlighting on it and the first time a terpene synthase active site is found moonlighting on another protein.

  18. Influence of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene polymorphism on cognitive function in schizophrenia✰,✰✰

    PubMed Central

    Wonodi, Ikwunga; McMahon, Robert P.; Krishna, Nithin; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Liu, Judy; Glassman, Matthew; Hong, L. Elliot; Gold, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits compromise quality of life and productivity for individuals with schizophrenia and have no effective treatments. Preclinical data point to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism as a potential target for pro-cognitive drug development. We have previously demonstrated association of a kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene variant with reduced KMO gene expression in postmortem schizophrenia cortex, and neurocognitive endophenotypic deficits in a clinical sample. KMO encodes kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the rate-limiting microglial enzyme of cortical kynurenine metabolism. Aberration of the KMO gene might be the proximal cause of impaired cortical kynurenine metabolism observed in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between KMO variation and cognitive function in schizophrenia is unknown. This study examined the effects of the KMO rs2275163C>T C (risk) allele on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Methods We examined the association of KMO polymorphisms with general neuropsychological performance and P50 gating in a sample of 150 schizophrenia and 95 healthy controls. Results Consistent with our original report, the KMO rs2275163C>T C (risk) allele was associated with deficits in general neuropsychological performance, and this effect was more marked in schizophrenia compared with controls. Additionally, the C (Arg452) allele of the missense rs1053230C>T variant (KMO Arg452Cys) showed a trend effect on cognitive function. Neither variant affected P50 gating. Conclusions These data suggest that KMO variation influences a range of cognitive domains known to predict functional outcome. Extensive molecular characterization of this gene would elucidate its role in cognitive function with implications for vertical integration with basic discovery. PMID:25464917

  19. In situ measurement of methane fluxes and analysis of transcribed particulate methane monooxygenase in desert soils.

    PubMed

    Angel, Roey; Conrad, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    Aerated soils are a biological sink for atmospheric methane. However, the activity of desert soils and the presence of methanotrophs in these soils have hardly been studied. We studied on-site atmospheric methane consumption rates as well as the diversity and expression of the pmoA gene, coding for a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase, in arid and hyperarid soils in the Negev Desert, Israel. Methane uptake was only detected in undisturbed soils in the arid region (approximately 90 mm year(-1)) and vertical methane profiles in soil showed the active layer to be at 0-20 cm depth. No methane uptake was detected in the hyperarid soils (approximately 20 mm year(-1)) as well as in disturbed soils in the arid region (i.e. agricultural field and a mini-catchment). Molecular analysis of the methanotrophic community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning/sequencing of the pmoA gene detected methanotrophs in the active soils, whereas the inactive ones were dominated by sequences of the homologous gene amoA, coding for a subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase. Even in the active soils, methanotrophs (as well as in situ activity) could not be detected in the soil crust, which is the biologically most important layer in desert soils. All pmoA sequences belonged to yet uncultured strains. Transcript analysis showed dominance of sequences clustering within the JR3, formerly identified in Californian grassland soils. Our results show that although active methanotrophs are prevalent in arid soils they seem to be absent or inactive in hyperarid and disturbed arid soils. Furthermore, we postulate that methanotrophs of the yet uncultured JR3 cluster are the dominant atmospheric methane oxidizers in this ecosystem.

  20. The Toluene o-Xylene Monooxygenase Enzymatic Activity for the Biosynthesis of Aromatic Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Giuliana; Sarcinelli, Carmen; Pizzo, Elio; Notomista, Eugenio; Pezzella, Alessandro; Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lise, Federica; Di Donato, Alberto; Izzo, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Monocyclic phenols and catechols are important antioxidant compounds for the food and pharmaceutic industries; their production through biotransformation of low-added value starting compounds is of major biotechnological interest. The toluene o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas sp. OX1 is a bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) that is able to hydroxylate a wide array of aromatic compounds and has already proven to be a versatile biochemical tool to produce mono- and dihydroxylated derivatives of aromatic compounds. The molecular determinants of its regioselectivity and substrate specificity have been thoroughly investigated, and a computational strategy has been developed which allows designing mutants able to hydroxylate non-natural substrates of this enzyme to obtain high-added value compounds of commercial interest. In this work, we have investigated the use of recombinant ToMO, expressed in cells of Escherichia coli strain JM109, for the biotransformation of non-natural substrates of this enzyme such as 2-phenoxyethanol, phthalan and 2-indanol to produce six hydroxylated derivatives. The hydroxylated products obtained were identified, isolated and their antioxidant potential was assessed both in vitro, using the DPPH assay, and on the rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2. Incubation of H9c2 cells with the hydroxylated compounds obtained from ToMO-catalyzed biotransformation induced a differential protective effect towards a mild oxidative stress induced by the presence of sodium arsenite. The results obtained confirm once again the versatility of the ToMO system for oxyfunctionalization reactions of biotechnological importance. Moreover, the hydroxylated derivatives obtained possess an interesting antioxidant potential that encourages the use of the enzyme for further functionalization reactions and their possible use as scaffolds to design novel bioactive molecules.

  1. Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9, 10-monooxygenase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,150-monooxygenase (CMO1) h...

  2. Diflubenzuron tolerance associated with monooxygenase activity in field strain larvae of the Australian sheep blowfly (Diptera:Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Kotze, A C; Sales, N; Barchia, I M

    1997-02-01

    In vitro monooxygenase activity (aldrin epoxidation) in 19 field-collected strains of the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) varied over a 46-fold range. Activities were significantly correlated with toxicological responses to diflubenzuron and diazinon. Relationships between activity and toxicological response were stronger at the LC95 than at the LC50. Toxicological responses to diflubenzuron and diazinon were significantly related, particularly at the LC95. The slope of diflubenzuron concentration-response lines decreased as enzyme activity increased, suggesting that the proportion of the larval population that can tolerate high rates of diflubenzuron increases with increasing mean enzyme levels. Tolerance levels to diflubenzuron among the field strains (relative to a reference susceptible strain) were up to 10-fold at LC50 and 56-fold at LC95. This tolerance appears to be provided, at least in part, by enhanced larval monooxygenase levels.

  3. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-02-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2.

  4. Effects of the chitin synthetase inhibitor plumbagin and its 2-demethyl derivative juglone on insect ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M J; Smith, S L

    1988-12-01

    The chitin synthetase inhibitor plumbagin and its 2-demethyl derivative juglone were found to inhibit in a dose-response fashion the cytochrome P-450 dependent ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity associated with adult female Aedes aegypti, wandering stage larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, and fat body and midgut from last instar larvae of Manduca sexta. The concentration of these naphthoquinones required to elicit a 50% inhibition of the steroid hydroxylase activity in all the insects was approximately 1 x 10(-4) M.

  5. Loss of hepatic monooxygenase activities, glutathione, and 'green pigment' formation after the administration of vinyl-cyclooctane to mice.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, P G; Citti, L; Fassina, G; Testai, E; Turchi, G

    1983-05-01

    Vinylcyclooctane, when administered to mice at 500 mg/kg, produced reduction of microsomal cytochrome P-450, heme, aminopyrine-N-demethylase and ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activities with respect to control values; furthermore the hepatic reduced glutathione level was depleted suggesting that glutathione is involved in the vinylcyclooctane metabolism. The reduction of cytochrome P-450 and monooxygenase activities was accompanied by the formation of abnormal 'green pigments'.

  6. Influence of recipient gender on intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats: cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenase functions.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Rost, Michael; Müller, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern with consecutive differences in P450-mediated monooxygenase activities, which have been shown to be due to a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. Parallel to previous investigations on P450 isoforms expression, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of recipient gender on P450-mediated monooxygenase activities in intrasplenic liver tissue transplants in comparison to orthotopic liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant-recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the vehicles and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. P450-dependent monooxygenase activities were assessed by a series of model reactions for different P450 subtypes in liver and spleen 9000 g supernatants. In spleens of male and female control rats only very low monooxygenase activities were detectable, whereas with most model reactions distinct activities were observed in transplant-containing organs. Livers and transplant-containing spleens from male rats displayed higher basal ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and testosterone 2alpha-, 2beta-, 6beta-, 14alpha-, 15alpha-, 15beta-, 16alpha-, 16beta- and 17-hydroxylase activities than those from females. On the other hand, like the respective livers, spleens from female transplant-recipients demonstrated more pronounced p-nitrophenol- and testosterone 6alpha- and 7alpha-hydroxylase activities than those from male hosts. With nearly all model reactions gender-specific differences in inducibility by BNF, PB or DEX could be demonstrated in livers as well as in transplant-containing spleens. These results further confirm that the P450 system of intrasplenic liver tissue transplants and the respective orthotopic livers is similarly influenced

  7. N-demethylation of cocaine to norcocaine. Evidence for participation by cytochrome P-450 and FAD-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Kloss, M W; Rosen, G M; Rauckman, E J

    1983-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine which microsomal enzymes are involved in the in vitro hepatic oxidative N-demethylation of cocaine to norcocaine, the first step in the biotransformation of cocaine to its ultimate hepatotoxic metabolite. Cocaine was found to undergo conversion to norcocaine by two alternate pathways, one involving only cytochrome P-450 and the other requiring both cytochrome P-450 and FAD-containing monooxygenase. In the first pathway, cocaine was directly N-demethylated to norcocaine by cytochrome P-450; this reaction was enhanced by phenobarbital induction and was inhibited by both n-octylamine and metyrapone. The second route was found to be a two-step reaction involving cocaine N-oxide as an intermediate. In this pathway, cocaine is first oxidized to cocaine N-oxide by FAD-containing monooxygenase, followed by a cytochrome P-450-catalyzed N-demethylation to norcocaine. This latter step was enhanced by phenobarbital treatment and inhibited by n-octylamine. Cocaine N-oxide also exhibited a Type I binding spectrum with mouse hepatic microsomes. In addition, a model system consisting of ferrous sulfate was found to catalyze the N-demethylation of cocaine N-oxide. On the basis of these experiments, it is concluded that cytochrome P-450 and FAD-containing monooxygenase participate in the initial oxidation of cocaine to norcocaine. We also propose a mechanism to account for the conversion of cocaine N-oxide to norcocaine.

  8. Biomaterials for mRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K. G.; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R.; Zetter, Bruce R.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  9. Biomaterials for mRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K G; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R; Zetter, Bruce R; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-12-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  10. Substituted Hippurates and Hippurate Analogs as Substrates and Inhibitors of Peptidylglycine α-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase (PHM)

    PubMed Central

    Merkler, David J.; Asser, Alexander S.; Baumgart, Laura E.; Carballo, Natalie; Carpenter, Sarah E.; Chew, Geoffrey H.; Cosner, Casey C.; Dusi, Jodi; Galloway, Lamar C.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Lowe, Edward W.; King, Lawrence; Kendig, Robert D.; Kline, Paul C.; Malka, Robert; Merkler, Kathleen A.; McIntyre, Neil R.; Romero, Mindy; Wilcox, Benjamin J.; Owen, Terence C.

    2008-01-01

    Peptidyl α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) functions in vivo towards the biosynthesis of α-amidated peptide hormones in mammals and insects. PHM is a potential target for the development of inhibitors as drugs for the treatment of human disease and as insecticides for the management of insect pests. We show here that relatively simple ground state analogs of the PHM substrate hippuric acid (C6H5-CO-NH-CH2-COOH) inhibit the enzyme with Ki values as low as 0.5 μM. Substitution of sulfur atom(s) into the hippuric acid analog increases the affinity of PHM for the inhibitor. Replacement of the acetylglycine moiety, -CO-NH-CH2-COOH with an S-(thioacetyl)thioglycolic acid moiety, -CS-S-CH2-COOH, yields compounds with the highest PHM affinity. Both S-(2-phenylthioacetyl)thioglycolate and S-(4-ethylthiobenzoyl)thioglycolic acid inhibit the proliferation of cultured human prostate cancer cells at concentrations >100-fold excess of their respective Ki values. Comparison of Ki values between mammalian PHM and insect PHM shows differences in potency suggesting that a PHM-based insecticide with limited human toxicity can be developed. PMID:18952446

  11. Switching the Regioselectivity of a Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase toward (+)-trans-Dihydrocarvone by Rational Protein Design.

    PubMed

    Balke, Kathleen; Schmidt, Sandy; Genz, Maika; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2016-01-15

    The regioselectivity of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase-catalyzed oxidation is governed mostly by electronic effects leading to the migration of the higher substituted residue. However, in some cases, substrate binding occurs in a way that the less substituted residue lies in an antiperiplanar orientation to the peroxy bond in the Criegee intermediate yielding in the formation of the "abnormal" lactone product. We are the first to demonstrate a complete switch in the regioselectivity of the BVMO from Arthrobacter sp. (CHMOArthro) as exemplified for (+)-trans-dihydrocarvone by redesigning the active site of the enzyme. In the designed triple mutant, the substrate binds in an inverted orientation leading to a ratio of 99:1 in favor of the normal lactone instead of exclusive formation of the abnormal lactone in case of the wild type enzyme. In order to validate our computational study, the beneficial mutations were successfully transferred to the CHMO from Acinetobacter sp. (CHMOAcineto), again yielding in a complete switch of regioselectivity.

  12. Crystal Structures of Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase Reveal Complex Domain Movements and a Sliding Cofactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, I.; Yachnin, B; Wang, S; Grosse, S; Bergeron, H; Imura, A; Iwaki, H; Hasegawa, Y; Lau, P; Berghuis, A

    2009-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) is a flavoprotein that carries out the archetypical Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of a variety of cyclic ketones into lactones. Using NADPH and O{sub 2} as cosubstrates, the enzyme inserts one atom of oxygen into the substrate in a complex catalytic mechanism that involves the formation of a flavin-peroxide and Criegee intermediate. We present here the atomic structures of CHMO from an environmental Rhodococcus strain bound with FAD and NADP+ in two distinct states, to resolutions of 2.3 and 2.2 {angstrom}. The two conformations reveal domain shifts around multiple linkers and loop movements, involving conserved arginine 329 and tryptophan 492, which effect a translation of the nicotinamide resulting in a sliding cofactor. Consequently, the cofactor is ideally situated and subsequently repositioned during the catalytic cycle to first reduce the flavin and later stabilize formation of the Criegee intermediate. Concurrent movements of a loop adjacent to the active site demonstrate how this protein can effect large changes in the size and shape of the substrate binding pocket to accommodate a diverse range of substrates. Finally, the previously identified BVMO signature sequence is highlighted for its role in coordinating domain movements. Taken together, these structures provide mechanistic insights into CHMO-catalyzed Baeyer-Villiger oxidation.

  13. Carbon Isotope Fractionations Associated with Methanotrophic Growth with the Soluble and Particulate Methane Monooxygenases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Growth experiments with the RuMP-type methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), have demonstrated that biomass and lipid biomarkers are significantly depleted in C-13 compared to the substrate methane and that the extent of fractionation is dependent on whether cells express the soluble (s) or particulate (p) methane monooxygenase (MMO). The presence or absence of the characteristic sMMO subunits was monitored using SDS-polyacrylamide gels. In M. capsulatus grown with no Cu supplementation, the characteristic sMMO subunits were observed in the soluble fraction throughout the entire growth period and biomass was depleted in C-13 by approximately 14,700 relative to substrate methane. In cells grown with 5uM Cu, no sMMO bands were observed and a greater fractionation of approximately 27,700 in resultant biomass was obtained. Methanol growth experiments with M. capsulatus and with a RuMP methylotroph, Methylophilus methylotrophus, in which biomass measurements yielded depletions in C-13 of 9 and 5%(sub o), respectively, suggest that oxidation of methane is the major fractionation step. Growth of M. capsulatus at a low level of oxygen, approximately 0.5%, had no significant effect on carbon isotope fractionation by either sMMO or pMMO. These observations are significant for identification of molecular biomarkers; and methanotrophic contributions to carbon isotope composition in natural environments.

  14. MICAL3 Flavoprotein Monooxygenase Forms a Complex with Centralspindlin and Regulates Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyang; Liu, Fan; Yu, Ka Lou; Tas, Roderick; Grigoriev, Ilya; Remmelzwaal, Sanne; Serra-Marques, Andrea; Kapitein, Lukas C; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna

    2016-09-23

    During cytokinesis, the antiparallel array of microtubules forming the central spindle organizes the midbody, a structure that anchors the ingressed cleavage furrow and guides the assembly of abscission machinery. Here, we identified a role for the flavoprotein monooxygenase MICAL3, an actin disassembly factor, in organizing midbody-associated protein complexes. By combining cell biological assays with cross-linking mass spectrometry, we show that MICAL3 is recruited to the central spindle and the midbody through a direct interaction with the centralspindlin component MKLP1. Knock-out of MICAL3 leads to an increased frequency of cytokinetic failure and a delayed abscission. In a mechanism independent of its enzymatic activity, MICAL3 targets the adaptor protein ELKS and Rab8A-positive vesicles to the midbody, and the depletion of ELKS and Rab8A also leads to cytokinesis defects. We propose that MICAL3 acts as a midbody-associated scaffold for vesicle targeting, which promotes maturation of the intercellular bridge and abscission. PMID:27528609

  15. Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 exerts broad effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shih, Diana M; Wang, Zeneng; Lee, Richard; Meng, Yonghong; Che, Nam; Charugundla, Sarada; Qi, Hannah; Wu, Judy; Pan, Calvin; Brown, J Mark; Vallim, Thomas; Bennett, Brian J; Graham, Mark; Hazen, Stanley L; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-01-01

    We performed silencing and overexpression studies of flavin containing monooxygenase (FMO) 3 in hyperlipidemic mouse models to examine its effects on trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels and atherosclerosis. Knockdown of hepatic FMO3 in LDL receptor knockout mice using an antisense oligonucleotide resulted in decreased circulating TMAO levels and atherosclerosis. Surprisingly, we also observed significant decreases in hepatic lipids and in levels of plasma lipids, ketone bodies, glucose, and insulin. FMO3 overexpression in transgenic mice, on the other hand, increased hepatic and plasma lipids. Global gene expression analyses suggested that these effects of FMO3 on lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis may be mediated through the PPARα and Kruppel-like factor 15 pathways. In vivo and in vitro results were consistent with the concept that the effects were mediated directly by FMO3 rather than trimethylamine/TMAO; in particular, overexpression of FMO3 in the human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B, resulted in significantly increased glucose secretion and lipogenesis. Our results indicate a major role for FMO3 in modulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo, and they suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FMO3 to reduce TMAO levels would be confounded by metabolic interactions. PMID:25378658

  16. Lead discovery for human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase by high-throughput RapidFire mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Denise M; Gee, Michelle; Haslam, Carl; Leavens, Bill; Christodoulou, Erica; Hissey, Paul; Hardwicke, Philip; Argyrou, Argyrides; Webster, Scott P; Mole, Damian J; Wilson, Kris; Binnie, Margaret; Yard, Beverley A; Dean, Tony; Liddle, John; Uings, Iain; Hutchinson, Jonathan P

    2014-04-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a therapeutically important target on the eukaryotic tryptophan catabolic pathway, where it converts L-kynurenine (Kyn) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). We have cloned and expressed the human form of this membrane protein as a full-length GST-fusion in a recombinant baculovirus expression system. An enriched membrane preparation was used for a directed screen of approximately 78,000 compounds using a RapidFire mass spectrometry (RF-MS) assay. The RapidFire platform provides an automated solid-phase extraction system that gives a throughput of approximately 7 s per well to the mass spectrometer, where direct measurement of both the substrate and product allowed substrate conversion to be determined. The RF-MS methodology is insensitive to assay interference, other than where compounds have the same nominal mass as Kyn or 3-HK and produce the same mass transition on fragmentation. These instances could be identified by comparison with the product-only data. The screen ran with excellent performance (average Z' value 0.8) and provided several tractable hit series for further investigation.

  17. Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Catalyze Early Hydroxylation Steps in the Potato Steroid Glycoalkaloid Biosynthetic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayasu, Masaru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Mizutani, Masaharu; Seki, Hikaru; Saito, Kazuki; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2016-08-01

    α-Solanine and α-chaconine, steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) found in potato (Solanum tuberosum), are among the best-known secondary metabolites in food crops. At low concentrations in potato tubers, SGAs are distasteful; however, at high concentrations, SGAs are harmful to humans and animals. Here, we show that POTATO GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PGA1) and PGA2, two genes that encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP72A208 and CYP72A188), are involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway, respectively. The knockdown plants of either PGA1 or PGA2 contained very little SGA, yet vegetative growth and tuber production were not affected. Analyzing metabolites that accumulated in the plants and produced by in vitro enzyme assays revealed that PGA1 and PGA2 catalyzed the 26- and 22-hydroxylation steps, respectively, in the SGA biosynthetic pathway. The PGA-knockdown plants had two unique phenotypic characteristics: The plants were sterile and tubers of these knockdown plants did not sprout during storage. Functional analyses of PGA1 and PGA2 have provided clues for controlling both potato glycoalkaloid biosynthesis and tuber sprouting, two traits that can significantly impact potato breeding and the industry. PMID:27307258

  18. Bacterial dioxygenase- and monooxygenase-catalysed sulfoxidation of benzo[b]thiophenes.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Derek R; Sharma, Narain D; McMurray, Brian; Haughey, Simon A; Allen, Christopher C R; Hamilton, John T G; McRoberts, W Colin; O'Ferrall, Rory A More; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Coulombel, Lydie A; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2012-01-28

    Asymmetric heteroatom oxidation of benzo[b]thiophenes to yield the corresponding sulfoxides was catalysed by toluene dioxygenase (TDO), naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) and styrene monooxygenase (SMO) enzymes present in P. putida mutant and E. coli recombinant whole cells. TDO-catalysed oxidation yielded the relatively unstable benzo[b]thiophene sulfoxide; its dimerization, followed by dehydrogenation, resulted in the isolation of stable tetracyclic sulfoxides as minor products with cis-dihydrodiols being the dominant metabolites. SMO mainly catalysed the formation of enantioenriched benzo[b]thiophene sulfoxide and 2-methyl benzo[b]thiophene sulfoxides which racemized at ambient temperature. The barriers to pyramidal sulfur inversion of 2- and 3-methyl benzo[b]thiophene sulfoxide metabolites, obtained using TDO and NDO as biocatalysts, were found to be ca.: 25-27 kcal mol(-1). The absolute configurations of the benzo[b]thiophene sulfoxides were determined by ECD spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and stereochemical correlation. A site-directed mutant E. coli strain containing an engineered form of NDO, was found to change the regioselectivity toward preferential oxidation of the thiophene ring rather than the benzene ring. PMID:22134441

  19. Localization of genes encoding three distinct flavin-containing monooxygenases to human chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.A.; Fox, M.F.; Povey, S. ); Dolphin, C.T.; Phillips, I.R.; Smith, R. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors have used the polymerase chain reaction to map the gene encoding human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) form II (N. Lomri, Q. Gu, and J. R. Cashman, 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 1685--1689) to chromosome 1. They propose the designation FMO3 for this gene as it is the third FMO gene to be mapped. The two other human FMO genes identified to date, FMO1 and FMO2, are also located on chromosome 1 (C. Dolphin, E. A. Shephard, S. Povey, C. N. A. Palmer, D. M. Ziegler, R. Ayesh, R. L. Smith, and 1. R. Phillips, 1991, J. Biol. Chem. 266: 12379--12385; C. Dolphin, E. A. Shephard, S. F. Povey, R. L. Smith, and I. R. Phillips, 1992, Biochem. J. 286: 261--267). The localization of FMO1, FMO2, and FMO3 has been refined to the long arm of chromosome 1. Analysis of human metaphase chromosomes by in situ hybridization confirmed the mapping of FMO1 and localized this gene more precisely to 1 q23-q25. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Modulation of MICAL Monooxygenase Activity by its Calponin Homology Domain: Structural and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Alqassim, Saif S.; Urquiza, Mauricio; Borgnia, Eitan; Nagib, Marc; Amzel, L. Mario; Bianchet, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    MICALs (Molecule Interacting with CasL) are conserved multidomain enzymes essential for cytoskeletal reorganization in nerve development, endocytosis, and apoptosis. In these enzymes, a type-2 calponin homology (CH) domain always follows an N-terminal monooxygenase (MO) domain. Although the CH domain is required for MICAL-1 cellular localization and actin-associated function, its contribution to the modulation of MICAL activity towards actin remains unclear. Here, we present the structure of a fragment of MICAL-1 containing the MO and the CH domains—determined by X-ray crystallography and small angle scattering—as well as kinetics experiments designed to probe the contribution of the CH domain to the actin-modification activity. Our results suggest that the CH domain, which is loosely connected to the MO domain by a flexible linker and is far away from the catalytic site, couples F-actin to the enhancement of redox activity of MICALMO-CH by a cooperative mechanism involving a trans interaction between adjacently bound molecules. Binding cooperativity is also observed in other proteins regulating actin assembly/disassembly dynamics, such as ADF/Cofilins. PMID:26935886

  1. Catalytic function of the mycobacterial binuclear iron monooxygenase in acetone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Nakao, Tomomi; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium smegmatis strain mc(2)155 and Mycobacterium goodii strain 12523 are able to grow on acetone and use it as a source of carbon and energy. We previously demonstrated by gene deletion analysis that the mimABCD gene cluster, which encodes a binuclear iron monooxygenase, plays an essential role in acetone metabolism in these mycobacteria. In the present study, we determined the catalytic function of MimABCD in acetone metabolism. Whole-cell assays were performed using Escherichia coli cells expressing the MimABCD complex. When the recombinant E. coli cells were incubated with acetone, a product was detected by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Based on the retention time and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) spectrum, the reaction product was identified as acetol (hydroxyacetone). The recombinant E. coli cells produced 1.02 mM of acetol from acetone within 24 h. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MimABCD also was able to convert methylethylketone (2-butanone) to 1-hydroxy-2-butanone. Although it has long been known that microorganisms such as mycobacteria metabolize acetone via acetol, this study provides the first biochemical evidence for the existence of a microbial enzyme that catalyses the conversion of acetone to acetol.

  2. Mechanism of N-hydroxylation catalyzed by flavin-dependent monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Badieyan, Somayesadat; Bach, Robert D; Sobrado, Pablo

    2015-02-20

    Aspergillus fumigatus siderophore (SidA), a member of class B flavin-dependent monooxygenases, was selected as a model system to investigate the hydroxylation mechanism of heteroatom-containing molecules by this group of enzymes. SidA selectively hydroxylates ornithine to produce N(5)-hydroxyornithine. However, SidA is also able to hydroxylate lysine with lower efficiency. In this study, the hydroxylation mechanism and substrate selectivity of SidA were systematically studied using DFT calculations. The data show that the hydroxylation reaction is initiated by homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond in the C(4a)-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate, resulting in the formation of an internal hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl radical (HO(•)). As the HO(•) moves to the ornithine N(5) atom, it rotates and donates a hydrogen atom to form the C(4a)-hydroxyflavin. Oxygen atom transfer yields an aminoxide, which is subsequently converted to hydroxylamine via water-mediated proton shuttling, with the water molecule originating from dehydration of the C(4a)-hydroxyflavin. The selectivity of SidA for ornithine is predicted to be the result of the lower energy barrier for oxidation of ornithine relative to that of lysine (16 vs 24 kcal/mol, respectively), which is due to the weaker stabilizing hydrogen bond between the incipient HO(•) and O3' of the ribose ring of NADP(+) in the transition state for lysine.

  3. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Ammonia Monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea by Allylsulfide

    PubMed Central

    Juliette, Lisa Y.; Hyman, Michael R.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Allylsulfide caused an irreversible inactivation of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) activity (ammonia-dependent O2 uptake) in Nitrosomonas europaea. The hydroxylamine oxidoreductase activity (hydrazine-dependent O2 uptake) of cells was unaffected by allylsulfide. Anaerobic conditions or the presence of allylthiourea, a reversible noncompetitive AMO inhibitor, protected AMO from inactivation by allylsulfide. Ammonia did not protect AMO from inactivation by allylsulfide but instead increased the rate of inactivation. The inactivation of AMO followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, but the observed rates did not saturate with increasing allylsulfide concentrations. The time course of recovery of AMO-dependent nitrite production after complete inactivation by allylsulfide required de novo protein synthesis. Incubation of cells with allylsulfide prevented the 14C label from 14C2H2 (a suicide mechanism-based inactivator of AMO) from being incorporated into the 27-kDa polypeptide of AMO. Some compounds structurally related to allylsulfide were unable to inactivate AMO. We conclude that allylsulfide is a specific, mechanism-based inactivator of AMO in N. europaea. PMID:16349087

  4. Trichloroethylene degradation using recombinant bacteria expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase from methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, D.; Kim, C.; Wood, T.K.

    1995-12-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from M. trichosporium OB3b has the ability to degrade many halogenated aliphatic compounds that are found in contaminated soil and groundwater. For efficient trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in a foreign host, efforts are being made to improve inconsistent and low sMMO activity of the recombinant strain constructed previously (Pseudomonas putida F1/pSMMO20). Additional smmo-containing recombinant strains have been constructed including various Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Rhizobium strains. Recombinant facultative methylotrophs containing the smmo locus were also constructed through electroporation and tri-parental mating using a new plasmid pSMMO50. TCE degradation by these recombinant strains was examined. The effect of metal ions on in vitro sMMO activity was also discerned to optimize the expression medium. Among the metal ions examined, Cu(I), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) inhibited sMMO purified from trichosporium OB3b, and the effect of the metal ions on each of the components of sMMO will also be discussed. In addition, the post-segregational killing locus (hok/sok) from E. coli plasmid R1 was inserted downstream of the smmo locus to stabilize the recombinant plasmid in these host cells, and chemostat cultures were used to optimize expression of active sMMO by varying the growth rate.

  5. A C4-oxidizing Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Cleaving Both Cellulose and Cello-oligosaccharides*

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Trine; Westereng, Bjørge; Aachmann, Finn L.; Agger, Jane W.; Kracher, Daniel; Kittl, Roman; Ludwig, Roland; Haltrich, Dietmar; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Horn, Svein J.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that significantly can substitute fossil resources for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. Efficient saccharification of this biomass to fermentable sugars will be a key technology in future biorefineries. Traditionally, saccharification was thought to be accomplished by mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes. However, recently it has been shown that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to this process by catalyzing oxidative cleavage of insoluble polysaccharides utilizing a mechanism involving molecular oxygen and an electron donor. These enzymes thus represent novel tools for the saccharification of plant biomass. Most characterized LPMOs, including all reported bacterial LPMOs, form aldonic acids, i.e., products oxidized in the C1 position of the terminal sugar. Oxidation at other positions has been observed, and there has been some debate concerning the nature of this position (C4 or C6). In this study, we have characterized an LPMO from Neurospora crassa (NcLPMO9C; also known as NCU02916 and NcGH61–3). Remarkably, and in contrast to all previously characterized LPMOs, which are active only on polysaccharides, NcLPMO9C is able to cleave soluble cello-oligosaccharides as short as a tetramer, a property that allowed detailed product analysis. Using mass spectrometry and NMR, we show that the cello-oligosaccharide products released by this enzyme contain a C4 gemdiol/keto group at the nonreducing end. PMID:24324265

  6. A C4-oxidizing lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase cleaving both cellulose and cello-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Trine; Westereng, Bjørge; Aachmann, Finn L; Agger, Jane W; Kracher, Daniel; Kittl, Roman; Ludwig, Roland; Haltrich, Dietmar; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2014-01-31

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that significantly can substitute fossil resources for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. Efficient saccharification of this biomass to fermentable sugars will be a key technology in future biorefineries. Traditionally, saccharification was thought to be accomplished by mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes. However, recently it has been shown that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to this process by catalyzing oxidative cleavage of insoluble polysaccharides utilizing a mechanism involving molecular oxygen and an electron donor. These enzymes thus represent novel tools for the saccharification of plant biomass. Most characterized LPMOs, including all reported bacterial LPMOs, form aldonic acids, i.e., products oxidized in the C1 position of the terminal sugar. Oxidation at other positions has been observed, and there has been some debate concerning the nature of this position (C4 or C6). In this study, we have characterized an LPMO from Neurospora crassa (NcLPMO9C; also known as NCU02916 and NcGH61-3). Remarkably, and in contrast to all previously characterized LPMOs, which are active only on polysaccharides, NcLPMO9C is able to cleave soluble cello-oligosaccharides as short as a tetramer, a property that allowed detailed product analysis. Using mass spectrometry and NMR, we show that the cello-oligosaccharide products released by this enzyme contain a C4 gemdiol/keto group at the nonreducing end. PMID:24324265

  7. Discovery and characterization of a new family of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Hemsworth, Glyn R.; Henrissat, Bernard; Davies, Gideon J.; Walton, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) are a recently discovered class of enzymes capable of oxidizing recalcitrant polysaccharides. They currently attract much attention due to their potential use in biomass conversion, notably in the production of biofuels. Past work has identified two discrete sequence-based families of these enzymes termed AA9 (formerly GH61) and AA10 (formerly CBM33). Here we report the discovery of a third family of LPMOs. Using a chitin-degrading exemplar from Aspergillus oryzae, we show that the 3-D structure of the enzyme shares some features of the previous two classes of LPMOs, including a copper active centre featuring the histidine brace active site, but is distinct in terms of its active site details and its EPR spectroscopy. The new AA11 family expands the LPMO clan with the potential to broaden both the range of potential substrates and the types of reactive copper-oxygen species formed at the active site of LPMOs. PMID:24362702

  8. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  9. Monooxygenase-mediated 1,2-dichloroethane degradation by Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hage, J.C.; Hartmans, S.

    1999-06-01

    A bacterial strain, designated Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1, was isolated from a 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA)-degrading biofilm. Strain DCA1 utilizes DCA as the sole carbon and energy source and does not require additional organic nutrients, such as vitamins, for optimal growth. The affinity of strain DCA1 for DCA is very high, with a K{sub m} value below the detection limit of 0.5 {micro}M. Instead of a hydrolytic dehalogenation, as in other DCA utilizers, the first step in DCA degradation in strain DCA1 is an oxidation reaction. Oxygen and NAD(P)H are required for this initial step. Propene was converted to 1,2-epoxypropane by DCA-grown cells and competitively inhibited DCA degradation. The authors concluded that a monooxygenase is responsible for the first step in DCA degradation in strain DCA1. Oxidation of DCA probably results in the formation of the unstable intermediate 1,2-dichloroethanol, which spontaneously releases chloride, yielding chloroacetaldehyde. The DCA degradation pathway is strain DCA1 proceeds from chloroacetaldehyde via chloroacetic acid and presumably glycolic acid, which is similar to degradation routes observed in other DCA-utilizing bacteria.

  10. C. elegans flavin-containing monooxygenase-4 is essential for osmoregulation in hypotonic stress

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Nisha; Westenberg, Marcel; Seed, Paul T.; Petalcorin, Mark I. R.; Dolphin, Colin T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed osmoregulatory systems engaged when worms experience hypertonic conditions, but less is known about measures employed when faced with hypotonic stress. Inactivation of fmo-4, which encodes flavin-containing monooxygenase-4, results in dramatic hypoosmotic hypersensitivity; worms are unable to prevent overwhelming water influx and swell rapidly, finally rupturing due to high internal hydrostatic pressure. fmo-4 is expressed prominently in hypodermis, duct and pore cells but is excluded from the excretory cell. Thus, FMO-4 plays a crucial osmoregulatory role by promoting clearance of excess water that enters during hypotonicity, perhaps by synthesizing an osmolyte that acts to establish an osmotic gradient from excretory cell to duct and pore cells. C. elegans FMO-4 contains a C-terminal extension conserved in all nematode FMO-4s. The coincidently numbered human FMO4 also contains an extended C-terminus with features similar to those of FMO-4. Although these shared sequence characteristics suggest potential orthology, human FMO4 was unable to rescue the fmo-4 osmoregulatory defect. Intriguingly, however, mammalian FMO4 is expressed predominantly in the kidney – an appropriate site if it too is, or once was, involved in osmoregulation. PMID:27010030

  11. Interactions of a fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase with β-glucan substrates and cellobiose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Courtade, Gaston; Wimmer, Reinhard; Røhr, Åsmund K; Preims, Marita; Felice, Alfons K G; Dimarogona, Maria; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Sørlie, Morten; Sandgren, Mats; Ludwig, Roland; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund

    2016-05-24

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes that catalyze oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds using molecular oxygen and an external electron donor. We have used NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to study the interactions of a broad-specificity fungal LPMO, NcLPMO9C, with various substrates and with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), a known natural supplier of electrons. The NMR studies revealed interactions with cellohexaose that center around the copper site. NMR studies with xyloglucans, i.e., branched β-glucans, showed an extended binding surface compared with cellohexaose, whereas ITC experiments showed slightly higher affinity and a different thermodynamic signature of binding. The ITC data also showed that although the copper ion alone hardly contributes to affinity, substrate binding is enhanced for metal-loaded enzymes that are supplied with cyanide, a mimic of O2 (-) Studies with CDH and its isolated heme b cytochrome domain unambiguously showed that the cytochrome domain of CDH interacts with the copper site of the LPMO and that substrate binding precludes interaction with CDH. Apart from providing insights into enzyme-substrate interactions in LPMOs, the present observations shed new light on possible mechanisms for electron supply during LPMO action. PMID:27152023

  12. Production of four Neurospora crassa lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in Pichia pastoris monitored by a fluorimetric assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies demonstrate that enzymes from the glycosyl hydrolase family 61 (GH61) show lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (PMO) activity. Together with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) an enzymatic system capable of oxidative cellulose cleavage is formed, which increases the efficiency of cellulases and put PMOs at focus of biofuel research. Large amounts of purified PMOs, which are difficult to obtain from the native fungal producers, are needed to study their reaction kinetics, structure and industrial application. In addition, a fast and robust enzymatic assay is necessary to monitor enzyme production and purification. Results Four pmo genes from Neurospora crassa were expressed in P. pastoris under control of the AOX1 promoter. High yields were obtained for the glycosylated gene products PMO-01867, PMO-02916 and PMO-08760 (>300 mg L-1), whereas the yield of non-glycosylated PMO-03328 was moderate (~45 mg L-1). The production and purification of all four enzymes was specifically followed by a newly developed, fast assay based on a side reaction of PMO: the production of H2O2 in the presence of reductants. While ascorbate is a suitable reductant for homogeneous PMO preparations, fermentation samples require the specific electron donor CDH. Conclusions P. pastoris is a high performing expression host for N. crassa PMOs. The pmo genes under control of the native signal sequence are correctly processed and active. The novel CDH-based enzyme assay allows fast determination of PMO activity in fermentation samples and is robust against interfering matrix components. PMID:23102010

  13. Oxygenation of Organoboronic Acids by a Nonheme Iron(II) Complex: Mimicking Boronic Acid Monooxygenase Activity.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2015-10-19

    Phenolic compounds are important intermediates in the bacterial biodegradation of aromatic compounds in the soil. An Arthrobacter sp. strain has been shown to exhibit boronic acid monooxygenase activity through the conversion of different substituted phenylboronic acids to the corresponding phenols using dioxygen. While a number of methods have been reported to cleave the C-B bonds of organoboronic acids, there is no report on biomimetic iron complex exhibiting this activity using dioxygen as the oxidant. In that direction, we have investigated the reactivity of a nucleophilic iron-oxygen oxidant, generated upon oxidative decarboxylation of an iron(II)-benzilate complex [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(benzilate)] (Tp(Ph2) = hydrotris(3,5-diphenyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate), toward organoboronic acids. The oxidant converts different aryl/alkylboronic acids to the corresponding oxygenated products with the incorporation of one oxygen atom from dioxygen. This method represents an efficient protocol for the oxygenation of boronic acids with dioxygen as the terminal oxidant.

  14. Evidence for Oxygen Binding at the Active Site of Particulate Methane Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Megen A.; Cutsail, George E.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that converts methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. The enzyme consists of three subunits, pmoB, pmoA, and pmoC, organized in an α3β3γ3 trimer. Studies of intact pMMO and a recombinant soluble fragment of the pmoB subunit, denoted spmoB, indicate that the active site is located within the soluble region of pmoB at the site of a crystallographically modeled dicopper center. In this work, we have investigated the reactivity of pMMO and spmoB with oxidants. Upon reduction and treatment of spmoB with O2 and H2O2 or pMMO with H2O2, an absorbance feature at 345 nm is generated. The energy and intensity of this band are similar to that of the μ-η2:η2-peroxo CuII 2 species formed in several dicopper enzymes and model compounds. The feature is not observed in inactive spmoB variants in which the dicopper center is disrupted, consistent with O2 binding to the proposed active site. Reaction of the 345 nm species with CH4 results in disappearance of the spectroscopic feature, suggesting that this O2 intermediate is mechanistically relevant. Taken together, these observations provide strong new support for the identity and location of the pMMO active site. PMID:22540911

  15. Intermediates in dioxygen activation by methane monooxygenase: A QM/MM study

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldo, David; Philipp, Dean M.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Friesner, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Protein effects in the activation of dioxygen by methane monooxygenase (MMO) were investigated by using combined QM/MM and broken-symmetry Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The effects of a novel empirical scheme recently developed by our group on the relative DFT energies of the various intermediates in the catalytic cycle are investigated. Inclusion of the protein leads to much better agreement between the experimental and computed geometric structures for the reduced form (MMOHred). Analysis of the electronic structure of MMOHred reveals that the two iron atoms have distinct environments. Different coordination geometries tested for the MMOHperoxo intermediate reveal that, in the protein environment, the μ-η2,η2 structure is more stable than the others. Our analysis also shows that the protein helps to drive reactants towards products along the reaction path. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the importance of including the protein environment in our models and the usefulness of the QM/MM approach for accurate modeling of enzymatic reactions. A discrepancy remains in our calculation of the Fe-Fe distance in our model of HQ as compared to EXAFS data obtained several years ago, for which we currently do not have an explanation. PMID:17326634

  16. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation. PMID:26302482

  17. Involvement of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in the response of mosquito larvae to dietary plant xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    David, J P; Boyer, S; Mesneau, A; Ball, A; Ranson, H; Dauphin-Villemant, C

    2006-05-01

    The response of mosquito larvae to plant toxins found in their breeding sites was investigated by using Aedes aegypti larvae and toxic arborescent leaf litter as experimental models. The relation between larval tolerance to toxic leaf litter and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) was examined at the toxicological, biochemical and molecular levels. Larvae pre-exposed to toxic leaf litter show a higher tolerance to those xenobiotics together with a strong increase in P450 activity levels. This enzymatic response is both time- and dose-dependent. The use of degenerate primers from various P450 genes (CYPs) allowed us to isolate 16 new CYP genes belonging to CYP4, CYP6 and CYP9 families. Expression studies revealed a 2.3-fold over-expression of 1 CYP gene (CYP6AL1) after larval pre-exposure to toxic leaf litter, this gene being expressed at a high level in late larval and pupal stages and in fat bodies and midgut. The CYP6AL1 protein has a high level of identity with other insect's CYPs involved in xenobiotic detoxification. The role of CYP genes in tolerance to natural xenobiotics and the importance of such adaptive responses in the capacity of mosquitoes to colonize new habitats and to develop insecticide resistance mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Chopping and Changing: the Evolution of the Flavin-dependent Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Mascotti, Maria Laura; Juri Ayub, Maximiliano; Furnham, Nicholas; Thornton, Janet M; Laskowski, Roman A

    2016-07-31

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases play a variety of key physiological roles and are also very powerful biotechnological tools. These enzymes have been classified into eight different classes (A-H) based on their sequences and biochemical features. By combining structural and sequence analysis, and phylogenetic inference, we have explored the evolutionary history of classes A, B, E, F, and G and demonstrate that their multidomain architectures reflect their phylogenetic relationships, suggesting that the main evolutionary steps in their divergence are likely to have arisen from the recruitment of different domains. Additionally, the functional divergence within in each class appears to have been the result of other mechanisms such as a complex set of single-point mutations. Our results reinforce the idea that a main constraint on the evolution of cofactor-dependent enzymes is the functional binding of the cofactor. Additionally, a remarkable feature of this family is that the sequence of the key flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain is split into at least two parts in all classes studied here. We propose a complex set of evolutionary events that gave rise to the origin of the different classes within this family. PMID:27423402

  19. Kynurenine–3–monooxygenase inhibition prevents multiple organ failure in rodent models of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Webster, Scott P; Uings, Iain; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Binnie, Margaret; Wilson, Kris; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Mirguet, Olivier; Walker, Ann; Beaufils, Benjamin; Ancellin, Nicolas; Trottet, Lionel; Bénéton, Véronique; Mowat, Christopher G; Wilkinson, Martin; Rowland, Paul; Haslam, Carl; McBride, Andrew; Homer, Natalie ZM; Baily, James E; Sharp, Matthew GF; Garden, O James; Hughes, Jeremy; Howie, Sarah EM; Holmes, Duncan S; Liddle, John; Iredale, John P

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating inflammatory condition of the pancreas that is considered to be a paradigm of sterile inflammation leading to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death1,2 Acute mortality from AP-MODS exceeds 20%3 and for those who survive the initial episode, their lifespan is typically shorter than the general population4. There are no specific therapies available that protect individuals against AP-MODS. Here, we show that kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme of tryptophan metabolism5, is central to the pathogenesis of AP-MODS. We created a mouse strain deficient for Kmo with a robust biochemical phenotype that protected against extrapancreatic tissue injury to lung, kidney and liver in experimental AP-MODS. A medicinal chemistry strategy based on modifications of the kynurenine substrate led to the discovery of GSK180 as a potent and specific inhibitor of KMO. The binding mode of the inhibitor in the active site was confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. Treatment with GSK180 resulted in rapid changes in levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in vivo and afforded therapeutic protection against AP-MODS in a rat model of AP. Our findings establish KMO inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AP-MODS and open up a new area for drug discovery in critical illness. PMID:26752518

  20. Reaction Mechanism of the Bicopper Enzyme Peptidylglycine α-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Enrique; Rommel, Judith B.; Kästner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase is a noninteracting bicopper enzyme that stereospecifically hydroxylates the terminal glycine of small peptides for its later amidation. Neuroendocrine messengers, such as oxytocin, rely on the biological activity of this enzyme. Each catalytic turnover requires one oxygen molecule, two protons from the solvent, and two electrons. Despite this enzyme having been widely studied, a consensus on the reaction mechanism has not yet been found. Experiments and theoretical studies favor a pro-S abstraction of a hydrogen atom followed by the rebinding of an OH group. However, several hydrogen-abstracting species have been postulated; because two protons are consumed during the reaction, several protonation states are available. An electron transfer between the copper atoms could play a crucial role for the catalysis as well. This leads to six possible abstracting species. In this study, we compare them on equal footing. We perform quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations, considering the glycine hydrogen abstraction. Our results suggest that the most likely mechanism is a protonation of the abstracting species before the hydrogen abstraction and another protonation as well as a reduction before OH rebinding. PMID:24668808

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase with Broad Substrate Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Borisova, Anna S.; Isaksen, Trine; Dimarogona, Maria; Kognole, Abhishek A.; Mathiesen, Geir; Várnai, Anikó; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Payne, Christina M.; Sørlie, Morten; Sandgren, Mats; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.

    2015-01-01

    The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) carry out oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides and are of major importance for efficient processing of biomass. NcLPMO9C from Neurospora crassa acts both on cellulose and on non-cellulose β-glucans, including cellodextrins and xyloglucan. The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of NcLPMO9C revealed an extended, highly polar substrate-binding surface well suited to interact with a variety of sugar substrates. The ability of NcLPMO9C to act on soluble substrates was exploited to study enzyme-substrate interactions. EPR studies demonstrated that the Cu2+ center environment is altered upon substrate binding, whereas isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed binding affinities in the low micromolar range for polymeric substrates that are due in part to the presence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1). Importantly, the novel structure of NcLPMO9C enabled a comparative study, revealing that the oxidative regioselectivity of LPMO9s (C1, C4, or both) correlates with distinct structural features of the copper coordination sphere. In strictly C1-oxidizing LPMO9s, access to the solvent-facing axial coordination position is restricted by a conserved tyrosine residue, whereas access to this same position seems unrestricted in C4-oxidizing LPMO9s. LPMO9s known to produce a mixture of C1- and C4-oxidized products show an intermediate situation. PMID:26178376

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation to rationalize regioselective hydroxylation of aromatic substrates by soluble methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, Sujan; Hui, Gao; Smith, Thomas J; Murrell, J Colin; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-04-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is a bacterial multicomponent enzyme that oxidizes a diverse range of substrates, including aromatic hydrocarbons. We have investigated enzyme-substrate interactions that govern oxidation regioselectivity at various sites of aromatic compounds using substrate docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Here, we studied the hydroxylation of toluene and ethyl benzene by two forms of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (sMMO), that is, wild-type (WT) and two active site mutants (L110Y/G). The two substrates, toluene and ethyl benzene, were docked into the active site of the WT and the L110Y/G mutant models of M. trichosporium OB3b sMMO using the available X-ray structure (PDB id 1 MHZ). The trends observed in the formation of the experimental product were highly correlated with the results obtained from the relatively short MD simulation. These results show that our approach could be an attractive computational tool to rationalize the prediction of product ratios and specificities. PMID:25724828

  3. Oxygenation of Organoboronic Acids by a Nonheme Iron(II) Complex: Mimicking Boronic Acid Monooxygenase Activity.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2015-10-19

    Phenolic compounds are important intermediates in the bacterial biodegradation of aromatic compounds in the soil. An Arthrobacter sp. strain has been shown to exhibit boronic acid monooxygenase activity through the conversion of different substituted phenylboronic acids to the corresponding phenols using dioxygen. While a number of methods have been reported to cleave the C-B bonds of organoboronic acids, there is no report on biomimetic iron complex exhibiting this activity using dioxygen as the oxidant. In that direction, we have investigated the reactivity of a nucleophilic iron-oxygen oxidant, generated upon oxidative decarboxylation of an iron(II)-benzilate complex [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(benzilate)] (Tp(Ph2) = hydrotris(3,5-diphenyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate), toward organoboronic acids. The oxidant converts different aryl/alkylboronic acids to the corresponding oxygenated products with the incorporation of one oxygen atom from dioxygen. This method represents an efficient protocol for the oxygenation of boronic acids with dioxygen as the terminal oxidant. PMID:26430780

  4. Proteomic and targeted qPCR analyses of subsurface microbial communities for presence of methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Paidisetti, Ravindra; Johnson, Andrew K; Crawford, Ronald L; Colwell, Frederick S; Green, Tonia; Delwiche, Mark; Lee, Hope; Newby, Deborah; Brodie, Eoin L; Conrad, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) site at the Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, USA, sits over a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminant plume in the Snake River Plain fractured basalt aquifer. Past observations have provided evidence that TCE at TAN is being transformed by biological natural attenuation that may be primarily due to co-metabolism in aerobic portions of the plume by methanotrophs. TCE co-metabolism by methanotrophs is the result of the broad substrate specificity of microbial methane monooxygenase which permits non-specific oxidation of TCE in addition to the primary substrate, methane. Arrays of experimental approaches have been utilized to understand the biogeochemical processes driving intrinsic TCE co-metabolism at TAN. In this study, aerobic methanotrophs were enumerated by qPCR using primers targeting conserved regions of the genes pmoA and mmoX encoding subunits of the particulate MMO (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) enzymes, respectively, as well as the gene mxa encoding the downstream enzyme methanol dehydrogenase. Identification of proteins in planktonic and biofilm samples from TAN was determined using reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QToF) mass spectrometer to separate and sequence peptides from trypsin digests of the protein extracts. Detection of MMO in unenriched water samples from TAN provides direct evidence of intrinsic methane oxidation and TCE co-metabolic potential of the indigenous microbial population. Mass spectrometry is also well suited for distinguishing which form of MMO is expressed in situ either soluble or particulate. Using this method, pMMO proteins were found to be abundant in samples collected from wells within and adjacent to the TCE plume at TAN.

  5. Insights into the different dioxygen activation pathways of methane and toluene monooxygenase hydroxylases

    PubMed Central

    Bochevarov, Arteum D.; Li, Jianing; Song, Woon Ju; Friesner, Richard A.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    The methane and toluene monooxygenase hydroxylases (MMOH and TMOH, respectively) have almost identical active sites yet the physical and chemical properties of their oxygenated intermediates, designated P*, Hperoxo, Q and Q* in MMOH and ToMOHperoxo in ToMOH, are substantially different. We review and compare the structural differences in the vicinity of the active sites of these enzymes and discuss which changes could give rise to the different behavior of Hperoxo and Q. In particular, analysis of multiple crystal structures reveals that T213 in MMOH and the analogous T201 in TMOH, located in the immediate vicinity of the active site, have different rotatory configurations. We study the rotation energy profiles of these threonine residues with the use of molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computational methods and put forward a hypothesis according to which T201 and T213 play an important role in the formation of different types of peroxodiiron(III) species in MMOH and ToMOH. The hypothesis is indirectly supported by QM/MM calculations of the peroxodiiron(III) models of ToMOH and the theoretically computed Mössbauer spectra. It also helps explain the formation of two distinct peroxodiiron(III) species in the T201S mutant of ToMOH. Additionally, a role for the ToMOD regulatory protein, which is essential for intermediate formation and the protein functioning in the ToMO system, is advanced. We find that the low quadrupole splitting parameter in the Mössbauer spectrum observed for a ToMOHperoxo intermediate can be explained by protonation of the peroxo moiety, possibly stabilized by the T201 residue. PMID:21517016

  6. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Ammonia Monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kristen; Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.; Yeager, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is an aerobic nitrifying bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2−) through the sequential activities of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (HAO). Many alkynes are mechanism-based inactivators of AMO, and here we describe an activity-based protein profiling method for this enzyme using 1,7-octadiyne (17OD) as a probe. Inactivation of NH4+-dependent O2 uptake by N. europaea by 17OD was time- and concentration-dependent. The effects of 17OD were specific for ammonia-oxidizing activity, and de novo protein synthesis was required to reestablish this activity after cells were exposed to 17OD. Cells were reacted with Alexa Fluor 647 azide using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (click) reaction, solubilized, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and infrared (IR) scanning. A fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was observed for cells previously exposed to 17OD but not for cells treated with either allylthiourea or acetylene prior to exposure to 17OD or for cells not previously exposed to 17OD. The fluorescent polypeptide was membrane associated and aggregated when heated with β-mercaptoethanol and SDS. The fluorescent polypeptide was also detected in cells pretreated with other diynes, but not in cells pretreated with structural homologs containing a single ethynyl functional group. The membrane fraction from 17OD-treated cells was conjugated with biotin-azide and solubilized in SDS. Streptavidin affinity-purified polypeptides were on-bead trypsin-digested, and amino acid sequences of the peptide fragments were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Peptide fragments from AmoA were the predominant peptides detected in 17OD-treated samples. In-gel digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses also confirmed that the fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was AmoA. PMID:26826234

  7. Mutations of an NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein monooxygenase that influence cofactor promiscuity and enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Chantel N; Ali, Sohail T; Allen, Michael J; Grogan, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    The flavoprotein monooxygenase (FPMO) from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMFMO, Uniprot: B2FLR2) catalyses the asymmetric oxidation of thioethers and is unusual amongst FPMOs in its ability to use the non-phosphorylated cofactor NADH, as well as NADPH, for the reduction of the FAD coenzyme. In order to explore the basis for cofactor promiscuity, structure-guided mutation of two residues in the cofactor binding site, Gln193 and His194, in SMFMO were performed in an attempt to imitate the cofactor binding site of the NADPH-dependent FMO from Methylophaga aminisulfidivorans sp. SK1 (mFMO), in which structurally homologous residues Arg234 and Thr235 bind the NADPH 2'-ribose phosphate. Mutation of His194 to threonine proved most significant, with a switch in specificity from NADH to NADPH [(k cat/K m NADH)/k cat/K m NADPH) from 1.5:1 to 1:3.5, mostly as a result of a reduced K m for NADPH of approximately sevenfold in the His194Thr mutant. The structure of the Gln193Arg/His194Thr mutant revealed no substantial changes in the backbone of the enzyme or orientation of side chains resulting from mutation. Mutation of Phe52, in the vicinity of FAD, and which in mFMO is an asparagine thought to be responsible for flavin hydroperoxide stabilisation, is, in SMFMO, a determinant of enantioselectivity in sulfoxidation. Mutation of Phe52 to valine resulted in a mutant that transformed para-tolyl methyl sulfide into the (S)-sulfoxide with 32% e.e., compared to 25% (R)- for the wild type. These results shed further light both on the cofactor specificity of FPMOs, and their determinants of enantioselectivity, with a view to informing engineering studies of FPMOs in the future.

  8. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  9. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Ammonia Monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kristen; Sadler, Natalie C; Wright, Aaron T; Yeager, Chris; Hyman, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is an aerobic nitrifying bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2 (-)) through the sequential activities of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (HAO). Many alkynes are mechanism-based inactivators of AMO, and here we describe an activity-based protein profiling method for this enzyme using 1,7-octadiyne (17OD) as a probe. Inactivation of NH4 (+)-dependent O2 uptake by N. europaea by 17OD was time- and concentration-dependent. The effects of 17OD were specific for ammonia-oxidizing activity, andde novoprotein synthesis was required to reestablish this activity after cells were exposed to 17OD. Cells were reacted with Alexa Fluor 647 azide using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (click) reaction, solubilized, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and infrared (IR) scanning. A fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was observed for cells previously exposed to 17OD but not for cells treated with either allylthiourea or acetylene prior to exposure to 17OD or for cells not previously exposed to 17OD. The fluorescent polypeptide was membrane associated and aggregated when heated with β-mercaptoethanol and SDS. The fluorescent polypeptide was also detected in cells pretreated with other diynes, but not in cells pretreated with structural homologs containing a single ethynyl functional group. The membrane fraction from 17OD-treated cells was conjugated with biotin-azide and solubilized in SDS. Streptavidin affinity-purified polypeptides were on-bead trypsin-digested, and amino acid sequences of the peptide fragments were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Peptide fragments from AmoA were the predominant peptides detected in 17OD-treated samples. In-gel digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses also confirmed that the fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was AmoA. PMID:26826234

  10. Effect of swimming exercise and ethanol on rat liver P450-dependent monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Ardies, C M; Zachman, E K; Koehn, B J

    1994-12-01

    The interactive effects of 6 wk of repeated swimming exercise and chronic ethanol consumption (36% of total calories) on the hepatic cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase system were studied utilizing four groups of male rats in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The sedentary-control (S/C), sedentary-ethanol (S/E), and swim-control (SW/C) groups received the same amount of food that the swim-ethanol (SW/E) group consumed. The swimming groups were trained to swim for 2 h.d-1, 5 d.wk-1. Significant main effects due to ethanol (P < 0.002) and exercise (P < 0.02) were observed for the enhanced cytochrome P450 content and cytochrome P450 reductase activity, respectively. In addition, significant main effects for ethanol (P < 0.001), exercise (P < 0.0001), and significant interaction effects (P < 0.005) on aniline p-hydroxylase activity and significant main effects for ethanol (P < 0.01), exercise (P < 0.01), and interaction effects (P < 0.04) on 7-ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase activity were observed. Because the SW/C treatment had no effect on any of the measured cytochrome P450 activities and the SW/E treatment enhanced P450 activities much more than the S/E treatment, the main effects observed for exercise are accounted for by the alterations produced by combining swimming with the ethanol treatment. Based on these results, repeated exercise combined with ethanol consumption produces a synergistic increase in ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450-dependent activities. PMID:7869878

  11. In vitro activation of ammonia monooxygenase from Nitrosomonas europaea by copper.

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, S A; Hyman, M R; Arp, D J

    1993-01-01

    The effect of copper on the in vivo and in vitro activity of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) from the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea was investigated. The addition of CuCl2 to cell extracts resulted in 5- to 15-fold stimulation of ammonia-dependent O2 consumption, ammonia-dependent nitrite production, and hydrazine-dependent ethane oxidation. AMO activity was further stimulated in vitro by the presence of stabilizing agents, including serum albumins, spermine, or MgCl2. In contrast, the addition of CuCl2 and stabilizing agents to whole-cell suspensions did not result in any stimulation of AMO activity. The use of the AMO-specific suicide substrate acetylene revealed two populations of AMO in cell extracts. The low, copper-independent (residual) AMO activity was completely inactivated by acetylene in the absence of exogenously added copper. In contrast, the copper-dependent (activable) AMO activity was protected against acetylene inactivation in the absence of copper. However, in the presence of copper both populations of AMO were inactivated by acetylene. [14C]acetylene labelling of the 27-kDa polypeptide of AMO revealed the same extent of label incorporation in both whole cells and optimally copper-stimulated cell extracts. In the absence of copper, the label incorporation in cell extracts was proportional to the level of residual AMO activity. Other metal ions tested, including Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cr3+, and Ag+, were ineffective at stimulating AMO activity or facilitating the incorporation of 14C label from [14C]acetylene into the 27-kDa polypeptide. On the basis of these results, we propose that loss of AMO activity upon lysis of N. europaea results from the loss of copper from AMO, generating a catalytically inactive, yet stable and activable, form of the enzyme. Images PMID:8458839

  12. Proteomic and targeted qPCR analyses of subsurface microbial communities for presence of methane monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Andrzej J. Paszczynski; Ravindra Paidisetti; Andrew K. Johnson; Ronald L. Crawford; Frederick S. Colwell; Tonia Green; Mark Delwiche; Hope Lee; Deborah Newby; Eoin L. Brodie; Mark Conrad

    2011-11-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) site at the Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, USA, sits over a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminant plume in the Snake River Plain fractured basalt aquifer. Past observations have provided evidence that TCE at TAN is being transformed by biological natural attenuation that may be primarily due to co-metabolism in aerobic portions of the plume by methanotrophs. TCE co-metabolism by methanotrophs is the result of the broad substrate specificity of microbial methane monooxygenase which permits non-specific oxidation of TCE in addition to the primary substrate, methane. Arrays of experimental approaches have been utilized to understand the biogeochemical processes driving intrinsic TCE co-metabolism at TAN. In this study, aerobic methanotrophs were enumerated by qPCR using primers targeting conserved regions of the genes pmoA and mmoX encoding subunits of the particulate MMO (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) enzymes, respectively, as well as the gene mxa encoding the downstream enzyme methanol dehydrogenase. Identification of proteins in planktonic and biofilm samples from TAN was determined using reverse phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QToF) mass spectrometer to separate and sequence peptides from trypsin digests of the protein extracts. Detection of MMO in unenriched water samples from TAN provides direct evidence of intrinsic methane oxidation and TCE co-metabolic potential of the indigenous microbial population. Mass spectrometry is also well suited for distinguishing which form of MMO is expressed in situ either soluble or particulate. Using this method, pMMO proteins were found to be abundant in samples collected from wells within and adjacent to the TCE plume at TAN.

  13. Two Novel Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Involved in Biosynthesis of Aliphatic Glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wenwen; Li, Jing; Yu, Qingyue; Cang, Wei; Xu, Rui; Wang, Yang; Ji, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites from cruciferous plants, are derived from amino acids and have diverse biological activities, such as in biotic defense, depending on their side chain modification. The first structural modification step in the synthesis of aliphatic (methionine-derived) glucosinolates-S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates-was found to be catalyzed by five flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), FMOGS-OX1-5. Here, we report two additional FMOGS-OX enzymes, FMOGS-OX6, and FMOGS-OX7, encoded by At1g12130 and At1g12160, respectively. The overexpression of both FMOGS-OX6 and FMOGS-OX7 decreased the ratio of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to the sum of methylthioalkyl and methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, suggesting that the introduction of the two genes converted methylthioalkyl glucosinolates into methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. Analysis of expression pattern revealed that the spatial expression of the two genes is quite similar and partially overlapped with the other FMOGS-OX genes, which are primarily expressed in vascular tissue. We further analyzed the responsive expression pattern of all the seven FMOGS-OX genes to exogenous treatment with abscisic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and low and high temperatures. Although these genes showed same tendency toward the changing stimulus, the sensitivity of each gene was quite different. The variety in spatial expression among the FMOGS-OX genes while responding to environmental stimulus indicated a complex and finely tuned regulation of glucosinolates modifications. Identification of these two novel FMOGS-OX enzymes will enhance the understanding of glucosinolates modifications and the importance of evolution of these duplicated genes. PMID:27621741

  14. Structural and functional characterization of a conserved pair of bacterial cellulose-oxidizing lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Zarah; Mackenzie, Alasdair K; Sørlie, Morten; Røhr, Åsmund K; Helland, Ronny; Arvai, Andrew S; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2014-06-10

    For decades, the enzymatic conversion of cellulose was thought to rely on the synergistic action of hydrolytic enzymes, but recent work has shown that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are important contributors to this process. We describe the structural and functional characterization of two functionally coupled cellulose-active LPMOs belonging to auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) that commonly occur in cellulolytic bacteria. One of these LPMOs cleaves glycosidic bonds by oxidation of the C1 carbon, whereas the other can oxidize both C1 and C4. We thus demonstrate that C4 oxidation is not confined to fungal AA9-type LPMOs. X-ray crystallographic structures were obtained for the enzyme pair from Streptomyces coelicolor, solved at 1.3 Å (ScLPMO10B) and 1.5 Å (CelS2 or ScLPMO10C) resolution. Structural comparisons revealed differences in active site architecture that could relate to the ability to oxidize C4 (and that also seem to apply to AA9-type LPMOs). Despite variation in active site architecture, the two enzymes exhibited similar affinities for Cu(2+) (12-31 nM), redox potentials (242 and 251 mV), and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, with only the latter clearly different from those of chitin-active AA10-type LPMOs. We conclude that substrate specificity depends not on copper site architecture, but rather on variation in substrate binding and orientation. During cellulose degradation, the members of this LPMO pair act in synergy, indicating different functional roles and providing a rationale for the abundance of these enzymes in biomass-degrading organisms. PMID:24912171

  15. Two Novel Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Involved in Biosynthesis of Aliphatic Glucosinolates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenwen; Li, Jing; Yu, Qingyue; Cang, Wei; Xu, Rui; Wang, Yang; Ji, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites from cruciferous plants, are derived from amino acids and have diverse biological activities, such as in biotic defense, depending on their side chain modification. The first structural modification step in the synthesis of aliphatic (methionine-derived) glucosinolates—S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates—was found to be catalyzed by five flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), FMOGS-OX1-5. Here, we report two additional FMOGS-OX enzymes, FMOGS-OX6, and FMOGS-OX7, encoded by At1g12130 and At1g12160, respectively. The overexpression of both FMOGS-OX6 and FMOGS-OX7 decreased the ratio of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to the sum of methylthioalkyl and methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, suggesting that the introduction of the two genes converted methylthioalkyl glucosinolates into methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. Analysis of expression pattern revealed that the spatial expression of the two genes is quite similar and partially overlapped with the other FMOGS-OX genes, which are primarily expressed in vascular tissue. We further analyzed the responsive expression pattern of all the seven FMOGS-OX genes to exogenous treatment with abscisic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and low and high temperatures. Although these genes showed same tendency toward the changing stimulus, the sensitivity of each gene was quite different. The variety in spatial expression among the FMOGS-OX genes while responding to environmental stimulus indicated a complex and finely tuned regulation of glucosinolates modifications. Identification of these two novel FMOGS-OX enzymes will enhance the understanding of glucosinolates modifications and the importance of evolution of these duplicated genes.

  16. Oxidation Reactions Performed by Soluble Methane Monooxygenase Hydroxylase Intermediates Hperoxo and Q Proceed by Distinct Mechanisms†

    PubMed Central

    Tinberg, Christine E.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase is a bacterial enzyme that converts methane to methanol at a carboxylate-bridged diiron center with exquisite control. Because the oxidizing power required for this transformation is demanding, it is not surprising that the enzyme is also capable of hydroxylating and epoxidizing a broad range of hydrocarbon substrates in addition to methane. In this work we took advantage of this promiscuity of the enzyme to gain insight into the mechanisms of action of Hperoxo and Q, two oxidants that are generated sequentially during the reaction of reduced protein with O2. Using double-mixing stopped flow spectroscopy, we investigated the reactions of the two intermediate species with a panel of substrates of varying C–H bond strength. Three classes of substrates were identified according to the rate-determining step in the reaction. We show for the first time that an inverse trend exists between the rate constant of reaction with Hperoxo and the C–H bond strength of the hydrocarbon examined for those substrates in which C–H bond activation is rate-determining. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects revealed that reactions performed by Q, but not Hperoxo, involve extensive quantum mechanical tunneling. This difference sheds light on the observation that Hperoxo is not a potent enough oxidant to hydroxylate methane, whereas Q can perform this reaction in a facile manner. In addition, the reaction of Hperoxo with acetonitrile appears to proceed by a distinct mechanism in which a cyanomethide anionic intermediate is generated, bolstering the argument that Hperoxo is an electrophilic oxidant and operates via two-electron transfer chemistry. PMID:20681546

  17. Evaluating cytochrome P450 in birds by monooxygenases and immunohistochemistry: possible nonlethal assessment by skin immunohistochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Kutay, A.L.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Six month old Lesser Scaup and nestling Tree Swallows were injected intraperitoneally with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) or vehicle. Nestling Tree Swallows were also collected from five sites with differing levels of contaminants. Liver samples were taken and stored at -80C until microsome preparation and monooxygenase (MO) assay. Skin and heart samples were placed in buffered formalin until immunohistochemical (IMHC) analysis for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). Scaup treated with BNF at 20 or 100 mg/kg body weight showed approximately 20- to 65-fold increases in four MOs. Responses of two of the four MOs were as high at 20 mg/kg as at 100mg/kg. There was no IMHC response in the vehicle-injected ducks, while in skin the IMHC response was the same for both dose levels of BNF and in heart there was response in two of four samples at 20 mg/kg and in all five samples at 100mg/kg. Tree Swallows injected with BNF at 100, but not at 20 mg/kg showed significant increases (ca.5-fold) in two MO activities. There was no IMHC response in control swallows. In skin and heart there were IMHC responses in one of five swallows at 20 mg/kg and four of five swallows at 100mg/kg. There was poor correlation between individual skin IMHC responses and MO activities and PCB concentrations in 47 field-collected Tree Swallow samples, but 14 of the 16 skin samples with positive IMHC responses were from the location with the highest MO activities and PCB concentrations. Although present data do not allow construction of significant dose response curves, the responses in skin make it well worth continuing study on this potential nonlethal technique for biomonitoring contaminant exposure of birds.

  18. Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase S-Oxygenation of a Series of Thioureas and Thiones

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Marilyn C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Stevens, J. Fred; Kedzie, Karen; Fang, Ken; Heidelbaugh, Todd; Nguyen, Phong; Chow, Ken; Garst, Michael; Gil, Daniel; Williams, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) is active towards many drugs with a heteroatom having the properties of a soft nucleophile. Thiocarbamides and thiones are S-oxygenated to the sulfenic acid which can either react with glutathione and initiate a redox-cycle or be oxygenated a second time to the unstable sulfinic acid. In this study, we utilized LC-MS/MS to demonstrate that the oxygenation by hFMO of the thioureas under test terminated at the sulfenic acid. With thiones, hFMO catalyzed the second reaction and the sulfinic acid rapidly lost sulfite to form the corresponding imidazole. Thioureas are often pulmonary toxicants in mammals and, as previously reported by our laboratory, are excellent substrates for hFMO2. This isoform is expressed at high levels in the lung of most mammals, including non-human primates. Genotyping to date indicates that individuals of African (up to 49%) or Hispanic (2–7%) ancestry have at least one allele for functional hFMO2 in lung, but not Caucasians nor Asians. In this study the major metabolite formed by hFMO2 with thioureas from Allergan, Inc. was the sulfenic acid that reacted with glutathione. The majority of thiones were poor substrates for hFMO3, the major form in adult human liver. However, hFMO1, the major isoform expressed in infant and neonatal liver and adult kidney and intestine, readily S-oxygenated thiones under test, with Kms ranging from 7–160 μM and turnover numbers of 30–40 min−1. The product formed was identified by LC-MS/MS as the imidazole. The activities of the mouse and human FMO1 and FMO3 orthologs were in good agreement with the exception of some thiones for which activity was much greater with hFMO1 than mFMO1. PMID:24727368

  19. Flavin-containing monooxygenase S-oxygenation of a series of thioureas and thiones.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Marilyn C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Stevens, J Fred; Kedzie, Karen; Fang, Wenkui K; Heidelbaugh, Todd; Nguyen, Phong; Chow, Ken; Garst, Michael; Gil, Daniel; Williams, David E

    2014-07-15

    Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) is active towards many drugs with a heteroatom having the properties of a soft nucleophile. Thiocarbamides and thiones are S-oxygenated to the sulfenic acid which can either react with glutathione and initiate a redox-cycle or be oxygenated a second time to the unstable sulfinic acid. In this study, we utilized LC-MS/MS to demonstrate that the oxygenation by hFMO of the thioureas under test terminated at the sulfenic acid. With thiones, hFMO catalyzed the second reaction and the sulfinic acid rapidly lost sulfite to form the corresponding imidazole. Thioureas are often pulmonary toxicants in mammals and, as previously reported by our laboratory, are excellent substrates for hFMO2. This isoform is expressed at high levels in the lung of most mammals, including non-human primates. Genotyping to date indicates that individuals of African (up to 49%) or Hispanic (2-7%) ancestry have at least one allele for functional hFMO2 in lung, but not Caucasians nor Asians. In this study the major metabolite formed by hFMO2 with thioureas from Allergan, Inc. was the sulfenic acid that reacted with glutathione. The majority of thiones were poor substrates for hFMO3, the major form in adult human liver. However, hFMO1, the major isoform expressed in infant and neonatal liver and adult kidney and intestine, readily S-oxygenated thiones under test, with Kms ranging from 7 to 160 μM and turnover numbers of 30-40 min(-1). The product formed was identified by LC-MS/MS as the imidazole. The activities of the mouse and human FMO1 and FMO3 orthologs were in good agreement with the exception of some thiones for which activity was much greater with hFMO1 than mFMO1. PMID:24727368

  20. Polarized ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of the membrane-embedded domains of the particulate methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Vinchurkar, Madhuri S; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Yu, Steve S-F; Kuo, Shan-Jen; Chiu, Hui-Chi; Chien, Shu-Hua; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-10-26

    The particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes the conversion of methane to methanol. To gain some insight into the structure-reactivity pattern of this protein, we have applied attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to investigate the secondary structure of the pMMO. The results showed that ca. 60% of the amino acid residues were structured as alpha-helices. About 80% of the peptide residues were estimated to be protected from the amide (1)H/(2)H exchange during a 21 h exposure to (2)H(2)O. In addition, a significant portion of the protein was shown to be sequestered within the bilayer membrane, protected from trypsin proteolysis. The ATR-FTIR difference spectrum between the intact and the proteolyzed pMMO-enriched membranes revealed absorption peaks only in the spectral regions characteristic for unordered and beta-structures. These observations were corroborated by amino acid sequence analysis of the pMMO subunits using the program TransMembrane topology with a Hidden Markov Model: 15 putative transmembrane alpha-helices were predicted. Finally, an attempt was also made to model the three-dimensional folding of the protein subunits from the sequence using the Protein Fold Recognition Server based on the 3D Position Specific Scoring Matrix Method. The C-terminal solvent-exposed sequence (N255-M414) of the pMMO 45 kDa subunit was shown to match the beta-sheet structure of the multidomain cupredoxins. We conclude on the basis of this ATR-FTIR study that pMMO is an alpha-helical bundle with ca. 15 transmembrane alpha-helices embedded in the bilayer membrane, together with a water-exposed domain comprised mostly of beta-sheet structures similar to the cupredoxins.

  1. Isoform specificity of N-deacetyl ketoconazole by human and rabbit flavin-containing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R J; Miranda, C L

    2000-09-01

    N-Deacetyl ketoconazole (DAK) is the major metabolite of orally administered ketoconazole. This major metabolite has been demonstrated to be further metabolized predominately by the flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) to the secondary hydroxylamine, N-deacetyl-N-hydroxyketoconazole (N-hydroxy-DAK) by adult and postnatal rat hepatic microsomes. Our current investigation evaluated the FMO isoform specificity of DAK in a pyrophosphate buffer (pH 8.8) containing the glucose 6-phosphate NADPH-generating system. cDNA-expressed human FMOs (FMO1, FMO3, and FMO5) and cDNA-expressed rabbit FMOs (FMO1, FMO2, FMO3, and FMO5) were used to assess the metabolism of DAK to its subsequent FMO-mediated metabolites by HPLC analysis. Human and rabbit cDNA-expressed FMO3 resulted in extensive metabolism of DAK in 1 h (71.2 and 64.5%, respectively) to N-hydroxy-DAK (48.2 and 47.7%, respectively) and two other metabolites, metabolite 1 (11.7 and 7.8%, respectively) and metabolite 3 (10.5 and 10.0%, respectively). Previous studies suggest that metabolite 1 is the nitrone formed after successive FMO-mediated metabolism of N-hydroxy-DAK. Moreover, these studies display similar metabolic profiles seen with adult and postnatal rat hepatic microsomes. The human and rabbit FMO1 metabolized DAK predominately to the N-hydroxy-DAK in 1 h (36.2 and 25.3%, respectively) with minimal metabolism to the other metabolites (

  2. Flavin-containing monooxygenase S-oxygenation of a series of thioureas and thiones

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Marilyn C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Stevens, J. Fred; Kedzie, Karen; Fang, Wenkui K.; Heidelbaugh, Todd; Nguyen, Phong; Chow, Ken; Garst, Michael; Gil, Daniel; Williams, David E.

    2014-07-15

    Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) is active towards many drugs with a heteroatom having the properties of a soft nucleophile. Thiocarbamides and thiones are S-oxygenated to the sulfenic acid which can either react with glutathione and initiate a redox-cycle or be oxygenated a second time to the unstable sulfinic acid. In this study, we utilized LC–MS/MS to demonstrate that the oxygenation by hFMO of the thioureas under test terminated at the sulfenic acid. With thiones, hFMO catalyzed the second reaction and the sulfinic acid rapidly lost sulfite to form the corresponding imidazole. Thioureas are often pulmonary toxicants in mammals and, as previously reported by our laboratory, are excellent substrates for hFMO2. This isoform is expressed at high levels in the lung of most mammals, including non-human primates. Genotyping to date indicates that individuals of African (up to 49%) or Hispanic (2–7%) ancestry have at least one allele for functional hFMO2 in lung, but not Caucasians nor Asians. In this study the major metabolite formed by hFMO2 with thioureas from Allergan, Inc. was the sulfenic acid that reacted with glutathione. The majority of thiones were poor substrates for hFMO3, the major form in adult human liver. However, hFMO1, the major isoform expressed in infant and neonatal liver and adult kidney and intestine, readily S-oxygenated thiones under test, with K{sub m}s ranging from 7 to 160 μM and turnover numbers of 30–40 min{sup −1}. The product formed was identified by LC–MS/MS as the imidazole. The activities of the mouse and human FMO1 and FMO3 orthologs were in good agreement with the exception of some thiones for which activity was much greater with hFMO1 than mFMO1.

  3. How pH Modulates the Reactivity and Selectivity of a Siderophore-Associated Flavin Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) catalyze the oxygenation of diverse organic molecules using O2, NADPH, and the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor. The fungal FMO SidA initiates peptidic siderophore biosynthesis via the highly selective hydroxylation of l-ornithine, while the related amino acid l-lysine is a potent effector of reaction uncoupling to generate H2O2. We hypothesized that protonation states could critically influence both substrate-selective hydroxylation and H2O2 release, and therefore undertook a study of SidA’s pH-dependent reaction kinetics. Consistent with other FMOs that stabilize a C4a-OO(H) intermediate, SidA’s reductive half reaction is pH independent. The rate constant for the formation of the reactive C4a-OO(H) intermediate from reduced SidA and O2 is likewise independent of pH. However, the rate constants for C4a-OO(H) reactions, either to eliminate H2O2 or to hydroxylate l-Orn, were strongly pH-dependent and influenced by the nature of the bound amino acid. Solvent kinetic isotope effects of 6.6 ± 0.3 and 1.9 ± 0.2 were measured for the C4a-OOH/H2O2 conversion in the presence and absence of l-Lys, respectively. A model is proposed in which l-Lys accelerates H2O2 release via an acid–base mechanism and where side-chain position determines whether H2O2 or the hydroxylation product is observed. PMID:24490904

  4. Novel Variants of the Human Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) Gene Associated with Trimethylaminuria

    PubMed Central

    Motika, Meike S.; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Xueying; Riedler, Kiersten; Cashman, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The disorder trimethylaminuria (TMAu) often manifests itself in a body odor for individuals affected. TMAu is due to decreased metabolism of dietary-derived trimethylamine (TMA). In a healthy individual, 95% or more of TMA is converted by the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3, EC 1.14.13.8) to non-odorous trimethylamine N-oxide (TMA N-oxide). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FMO3 gene have been described and result in an enzyme with decreased or abolished functional activity for TMA N-oxygenation thus leading to TMAu. Herein, we report two novel mutations observed from phenotyping and genotyping two self-reporting individuals. Sequence analysis of the exon regions of the FMO3 gene of a young woman with severe TMAu revealed heterozygous mutations at positions 187 (V187A), 158 (E158K), 308 (E308G), and 305 (E305X). Familial genetic analysis showed that the E158K/V187A/E308G derived from the same allele from the mother, and the E305X was derived from the father. FMO3 variants V187A and V187A/E158K were characterized for oxygenation of several common FMO3 substrates (i.e., 5- and 8-DPT, mercaptoimidazole (MMI), TMA, and sulindac sulfide) and for its thermal stability. Our findings show that with the combination of V187A/E158K mutations in FMO3, the enzyme activity is severely affected and possibly contributes to the TMAu observed. In another study, genotyping analysis of a 17 year old female revealed a mutation that caused a frame shift after K415 and resulted in a protein variant with only 486 amino acid residues that was associated with severe TMAu. PMID:19321370

  5. Induction of liver monooxygenases by annatto and bixin in female rats.

    PubMed

    De-Oliveira, A C A X; Silva, I B; Manhaes-Rocha, D A; Paumgartten, F J R

    2003-01-01

    Annatto or urucum is an orange-yellow dye obtained from Bixa orellana seeds. It has been used as a natural dye in a variety of food products, drugs and cosmetics, and also in Brazilian cuisine as a condiment ('colorau'). Bixin, a carotenoid devoid of provitamin A activity, is the main pigment found in annatto. Some carotenoids (canthaxanthin, astaxanthin and beta-Apo-8'-carotenal) are known to be potent inducers of CYP1A1, a property not shared by others (beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein). Little is known, however, about the CYP1A1-inducing properties of bixin and annatto. The present study was performed to determine the effects of an annatto extract (28% bixin) and bixin (95% pure) on rat liver monooxygenases. Adult female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with daily doses of annatto (250 mg/kg body weight, which contains approximately 70 mg bixin/kg body weight), bixin (250 mg/kg body weight) or the vehicle only (corn oil, 3.75 g/kg body weight) for 5 consecutive days, or were not treated (untreated control). The activities of aniline-4-hydroxylase (A4H), ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), ethoxy- (EROD), methoxy- (MROD), pentoxy- (PROD) and benzyloxy- (BROD) resorufin-O-dealkylases were measured in liver microsomes. Annatto (250 mg/kg containing 70 mg bixin/kg) induced EROD (3.8x), MROD (4.2x), BROD (3.3x) and PROD (2.4x). Bixin (250 mg/kg) was a weaker inducer of EROD (2.7x), MROD (2.3x) and BROD (1.9x) and did not alter PROD, A4H or ECOD activities. These results suggest that constituents of the extract other than bixin play an important role in the induction of CYP1A and CYP2B observed with annatto food colorings. PMID:12532234

  6. Identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes from the white-rot fungus Phlebia brevispora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Three cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) genes, designated pb-1, pb-2 and pb-3, were isolated from the white-rot fungus, Phlebia brevispora, using reverse transcription PCR with degenerate primers constructed based on the consensus amino acid sequence of eukaryotic CYPs in the O2-binding, meander and heme-binding regions. Individual full-length CYP cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, and the relative nucleotide sequence similarity of pb-1 (1788 bp), pb-2 (1881 bp) and pb-3 (1791 bp) was more than 58%. Alignment of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of pb-1-pb-3 showed that these three CYPs belong to the same family with > 40% aa sequence similarity, and pb-1 and pb-3 are in the same subfamily, with > 55% aa sequence similarity. Furthermore, pb-1-pb-3 appeared to be a subfamily of CYP63A (CYP63A1-CYP63A4), found in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The phylogenetic tree constructed by 500 bootstrap replications using the neighbor-joining method showed that the evolutionary distance between pb-1 and pb-3 was shorter than that between pb-2 and pb-1 (or pb-3). Exon-intron analysis of pb-1 and pb-3 showed that both genes have nearly the same number, size and order of exons and the types of introns, also indicating both genes appear to be evolutionarily close. It is interesting that the transcription level of pb-3 was evidently increased above the pb-1 transcription level by exposure to 12 coplanar PCB congeners and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, though the two genes were evolutionarily close. PMID:22273259

  7. Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases as Reporters for Circadian-Regulated Pathways1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yinghong; Michael, Todd P.; Hudson, Matthew E.; Kay, Steve A.; Chory, Joanne; Schuler, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play important roles in the synthesis of diverse secondary compounds in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Comparison of four data sets analyzing seedlings harvested over a 2-d period of constant conditions after growth with varying photoperiods and thermocycles recorded a total of 98 P450 loci as circadian regulated for at least one of the four conditions. Here, we further describe the circadian-regulated pathways using, as reporters, individual P450 loci that are likely to be rate limiting in secondary metabolic pathways. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction gel blot analyses have confirmed circadian regulation of P450s in phenylpropanoid, carotenoid, oxylipin, glucosinolate, and brassinosteroid biosyntheses and have shown that both P450 and non-P450 genes in the many branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway have similar circadian patterns of expression. In silico analyses of the subsets of coregulated promoters have identified overrepresented promoter elements in various biosynthetic pathway genes, including MYB and MYB4 elements that are significantly more abundant in promoters for the core and lignin sections of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Interactions with these elements important for circadian regulation do not involve the MYB transcription factor PAP1, as previously proposed, since the expression patterns of circadian-regulated P450s are the same in pap1-D mutant seedlings as in wild-type seedlings. Further analysis of circadian-regulated promoters in other biochemical pathways provides us with the opportunity to identify novel promoter motifs that might be important in P450 circadian regulation. PMID:19386812

  8. Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

  9. Two Novel Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Involved in Biosynthesis of Aliphatic Glucosinolates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenwen; Li, Jing; Yu, Qingyue; Cang, Wei; Xu, Rui; Wang, Yang; Ji, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites from cruciferous plants, are derived from amino acids and have diverse biological activities, such as in biotic defense, depending on their side chain modification. The first structural modification step in the synthesis of aliphatic (methionine-derived) glucosinolates—S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates—was found to be catalyzed by five flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), FMOGS-OX1-5. Here, we report two additional FMOGS-OX enzymes, FMOGS-OX6, and FMOGS-OX7, encoded by At1g12130 and At1g12160, respectively. The overexpression of both FMOGS-OX6 and FMOGS-OX7 decreased the ratio of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to the sum of methylthioalkyl and methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, suggesting that the introduction of the two genes converted methylthioalkyl glucosinolates into methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. Analysis of expression pattern revealed that the spatial expression of the two genes is quite similar and partially overlapped with the other FMOGS-OX genes, which are primarily expressed in vascular tissue. We further analyzed the responsive expression pattern of all the seven FMOGS-OX genes to exogenous treatment with abscisic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and low and high temperatures. Although these genes showed same tendency toward the changing stimulus, the sensitivity of each gene was quite different. The variety in spatial expression among the FMOGS-OX genes while responding to environmental stimulus indicated a complex and finely tuned regulation of glucosinolates modifications. Identification of these two novel FMOGS-OX enzymes will enhance the understanding of glucosinolates modifications and the importance of evolution of these duplicated genes. PMID:27621741

  10. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  11. Directed evolution of toluene ortho-monooxygenase for enhanced 1-naphthol synthesis and chlorinated ethene degradation.

    PubMed

    Canada, Keith A; Iwashita, Sachiyo; Shim, Hojae; Wood, Thomas K

    2002-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is the most frequently detected groundwater contaminant, and 1-naphthol is an important chemical manufacturing intermediate. Directed evolution was used to increase the activity of toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) of Burkholderia cepacia G4 for both chlorinated ethenes and naphthalene oxidation. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the variant TOM-Green degraded TCE (2.5 +/- 0.3 versus 1.39 +/- 0.05 nmol/min/mg of protein), 1,1-dichloroethylene, and trans-dichloroethylene more rapidly. Whole cells expressing TOM-Green synthesized 1-naphthol at a rate that was six times faster than that mediated by the wild-type enzyme at a concentration of 0.1 mM (0.19 +/- 0.03 versus 0.029 +/- 0.004 nmol/min/mg of protein), whereas at 5 mM, the mutant enzyme was active (0.07 +/- 0.03 nmol/min/mg of protein) in contrast to the wild-type enzyme, which had no detectable activity. The regiospecificity of TOM-Green was unchanged, with greater than 97% 1-naphthol formed. The beneficial mutation of TOM-Green is the substitution of valine to alanine in position 106 of the alpha-subunit of the hydroxylase, which appears to act as a smaller "gate" to the diiron active center. This hypothesis was supported by the ability of E. coli expressing TOM-Green to oxidize the three-ring compounds, phenanthrene, fluorene, and anthracene faster than the wild-type enzyme. These results show clearly that random, in vitro protein engineering can be used to improve a large multisubunit protein for multiple functions, including environmental restoration and green chemistry.

  12. Coupling mRNA Synthesis and Decay

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun.—Ecclesiastes 1:9 (New International Version) Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression has an important role in defining the phenotypic characteristics of an organism. Well-defined steps in mRNA metabolism that occur in the nucleus—capping, splicing, and polyadenylation—are mechanistically linked to the process of transcription. Recent evidence suggests another link between RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and a posttranscriptional process that occurs in the cytoplasm—mRNA decay. This conclusion appears to represent a conundrum. How could mRNA synthesis in the nucleus and mRNA decay in the cytoplasm be mechanistically linked? After a brief overview of mRNA processing, we will review the recent evidence for transcription-coupled mRNA decay and the possible involvement of Snf1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, in this process. PMID:25154419

  13. Competition between Metals for Binding to Methanobactin Enables Expression of Soluble Methane Monooxygenase in the Presence of Copper

    PubMed Central

    Kalidass, Bhagyalakshmi; Ul-Haque, Muhammad Farhan; Baral, Bipin S.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that copper is a key factor regulating expression of the two forms of methane monooxygenase found in proteobacterial methanotrophs. Of these forms, the cytoplasmic, or soluble, methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is expressed only at low copper concentrations. The membrane-bound, or particulate, methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is constitutively expressed with respect to copper, and such expression increases with increasing copper. Recent findings have shown that copper uptake is mediated by a modified polypeptide, or chalkophore, termed methanobactin. Although methanobactin has high specificity for copper, it can bind other metals, e.g., gold. Here we show that in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, sMMO is expressed and active in the presence of copper if gold is also simultaneously present. Such expression appears to be due to gold binding to methanobactin produced by M. trichosporium OB3b, thereby limiting copper uptake. Such expression and activity, however, was significantly reduced if methanobactin preloaded with copper was also added. Further, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) of transcripts of genes encoding polypeptides of both forms of MMO and SDS-PAGE results indicate that both sMMO and pMMO can be expressed when copper and gold are present, as gold effectively competes with copper for binding to methanobactin. Such findings suggest that under certain geochemical conditions, both forms of MMO may be expressed and active in situ. Finally, these findings also suggest strategies whereby field sites can be manipulated to enhance sMMO expression, i.e., through the addition of a metal that can compete with copper for binding to methanobactin. PMID:25416758

  14. The effect of disulfide bond introduction and related Cys/Ser mutations on the stability of a cyclohexanone monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sandy; Genz, Maika; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2015-11-20

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMO) belong to the class B of flavin-dependent monooxygenases (type I BVMOs) and catalyze the oxidation of (cyclic) ketones into esters and lactones. The prototype BVMO is the cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) from Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB 9871. This enzyme shows an impressive substrate scope with a high chemo-, regio- and/or enantioselectivity. BVMO reactions are often difficult, if not impossible to achieve by chemical approaches and this makes these enzymes thus highly desired candidates for industrial applications. Unfortunately, the industrial use is hampered by several factors related to the lack of stability of these biocatalysts. Thus, the aim of this study was to improve the CHMO's long-term stability, one of the most relevant parameter for biocatalytic processes, and additionally its stability against oxidation. We used an easy computational method for the prediction of stabilizing disulfide bonds in the CHMO-scaffold. The three most promising predicted disulfide pairs were created and biochemically characterized. The most oxidatively stable variant (Y411C-A463C) retained nearly 60% activity after incubation with 25 mM H2O2 whereas the wild type retained only 16%. In addition, one extra disulfide pair (T415C-A463C) was created and tested for increased stability. The melting temperature (Tm) of this variant was increased by 5°C with simultaneous improved long-term stability. After verification by ABD-F labeling that this mutant does not form a disulfide bond, single and double Cys/Ser mutants were prepared and investigated. Subsequent analysis revealed that the T415C single point variant is the most stable variant with a 30-fold increased long-term stability (33% residual activity after 24h incubation at 25°C) showcasing a great achievement for practical applications.

  15. Occurrence of a barbiturate-inducible catalytically self-sufficient 119,000 dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase in bacilli.

    PubMed

    Fulco, A J; Ruettinger, R T

    1987-05-01

    In a recent publication (Narhi, L.O. and Fulco, A.J.[1986] J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7160-7169) we described the characterization of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000 Dalton cytochrome P-450 fatty acid monooxygenase (P-450BM-3) induced by barbiturates in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581. We have now examined cell-free preparations from 12 distinct strains of B. megaterium and from one or two strains each of B. alvei, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. macerans, B. pumilis and B. subtilis for the presence of this inducible enzyme. Using Western blot analyses in combination with assays for fatty acid hydroxylase activity and cytochrome P-450, we were able to show that 11 of the 12 B. megaterium strains contained not only a strongly pentobarbital-inducible fatty acid monooxygenase identical to or polymorphic with P-450BM-3 but also significant levels of two smaller P-450 cytochromes that were the same as or similar to cytochromes P-450BM-1 and P-450BM-2 originally found in ATCC 14581. Unlike the 119,000 Dalton P-450, however, the two smaller P-450s were generally easily detectable in cultures grown to stationary phase in the absence of barbiturates and, with some exceptions, were not strongly induced by pentobarbital. None of the non-megaterium species of Bacillus tested exhibited significant levels of either fatty acid monooxygenase activity or cytochrome P-450. The one strain of B. megaterium that lacked inducible P-450BM-3 was also negative for BM-1 and BM-2. However, this strain (ATCC 13368) did contain a small but significant level of another P-450 cytochrome that others have identified as the oxygenase component of a steroid 15-beta-hydroxylase system. Our evidence suggests that the BM series of P-450 cytochromes is encoded by chromosomal (rather than by plasmid) DNA. PMID:3573977

  16. Identification and treatment of heme depletion attributed to overexpression of a lineage of evolved P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Michener, Joshua K; Nielsen, Jens; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-11-20

    Recent advances in metabolic engineering have demonstrated that microbial biosynthesis can provide a viable alternative to chemical synthesis for the production of bulk and fine chemicals. Introduction of a new biosynthetic pathway typically requires the expression of multiple heterologous enzymes in the production host, which can impose stress on the host cell and, thereby, limit performance of the pathway. Unfortunately, analysis and treatment of the host stress response can be difficult, because there are many sources of stress that may interact in complex ways. We use a systems biological approach to analyze the stress imposed by expressing different enzyme variants from a lineage of soluble P450 monooxygenases, previously evolved for heterologous activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our analysis identifies patterns of stress imposed on the host by heterologous enzyme overexpression that are consistent across the evolutionary lineage, ultimately implicating heme depletion as the major stress. We show that the monooxygenase evolution, starting from conditions of either high or low stress, caused the cellular stress to converge to a common level. Overexpression of rate-limiting enzymes in the endogenous heme biosynthetic pathway alleviates the stress imposed by expression of the P450 monooxygenases and increases the enzymatic activity of the final evolved P450 by an additional 2.3-fold. Heme overexpression also increases the total activity of an endogenous cytosolic heme-containing catalase but not a heterologous P450 that is membrane-associated. This work demonstrates the utility of combining systems and synthetic biology to analyze and optimize heterologous enzyme expression. PMID:23129650

  17. Isolation of Rhodococcus sp. Strain ECU0066, a New Sulfide Monooxygenase-Producing Strain for Asymmetric Sulfoxidation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ai-Tao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Xu, Jian-He; Lu, Wen-Ya; Lin, Guo-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    A new and efficient sulfide monooxygenase-producing strain, ECU0066, was isolated and identified as a Rhodococcus sp. that could transform phenylmethyl sulfide (PMS) to (S)-sulfoxide with 99% enantiomeric excess via two steps of enantioselective oxidations. Its enzyme activity could be effectively induced by adding PMS or phenylmethyl sulfoxide (PMSO) directly to a rich medium at the early log phase (6 h) of fermentation, resulting in over 10-times-higher production of the enzyme. This bacterial strain also displayed fairly good activity and enantioselectivity toward seven other sulfides, indicating a good potential for practical application in asymmetric synthesis of chiral sulfoxides. PMID:18836022

  18. Effect of copper speciation on whole-cell soluble methane monooxygenase activity in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Morton, J D; Hayes, K F; Semrau, J D

    2000-04-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) activity in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was found to be more strongly affected as copper-to-biomass ratios changed in a newly developed medium, M2M, which uses pyrophosphate for metal chelation, than in nitrate mineral salts (NMS), which uses EDTA. When M2M medium was amended with EDTA, sMMO activity was similar to that in NMS medium, indicating that EDTA-bound copper had lower bioavailability than pyrophosphate-bound copper. EDTA did not limit the association of copper with the cells; rather, copper was sequestered in a form which did not affect sMMO activity.

  19. Development of a series of aryl pyrimidine kynurenine monooxygenase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Sherman, Leticia M; Prime, Michael E; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Beconi, Maria G; Beresford, Alan; Brookfield, Frederick A; Brown, Christopher J; Cardaun, Isabell; Courtney, Stephen M; Dijkman, Ulrike; Hamelin-Flegg, Estelle; Johnson, Peter D; Kempf, Valerie; Lyons, Kathy; Matthews, Kimberly; Mitchell, William L; O'Connell, Catherine; Pena, Paula; Powell, Kendall; Rassoulpour, Arash; Reed, Laura; Reindl, Wolfgang; Selvaratnam, Suganathan; Friley, Weslyn Ward; Weddell, Derek A; Went, Naomi E; Wheelan, Patricia; Winkler, Christin; Winkler, Dirk; Wityak, John; Yarnold, Christopher J; Yates, Dawn; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Dominguez, Celia

    2015-02-12

    We report on the development of a series of pyrimidine carboxylic acids that are potent and selective inhibitors of kynurenine monooxygenase and competitive for kynurenine. We describe the SAR for this novel series and report on their inhibition of KMO activity in biochemical and cellular assays and their selectivity against other kynurenine pathway enzymes. We describe the optimization process that led to the identification of a program lead compound with a suitable ADME/PK profile for therapeutic development. We demonstrate that systemic inhibition of KMO in vivo with this lead compound provides pharmacodynamic evidence for modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites both in the periphery and in the central nervous system.

  20. Characterization of a Peroxodiiron(III) Intermediate in the T201S Variant of Toluene/o-Xylene Monooxygenase Hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp. OX1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woon Ju; Behan, Rachel K.; Naik, Sunil G.; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the observation of a novel intermediate in the reaction of a reduced toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOHred) T201S variant, in the presence of a regulatory protein (ToMOD), with dioxygen. This species is the first oxygenated intermediate with an optical band in any toluene monooxygenase. The UV-Vis and Mössbauer spectroscopic properties of the intermediate allowing us to assign it as a peroxodiiron(III) species, T201Speroxo, similar to Hperoxo in methane monooxygenase. Although T201S generates T201Speroxo in addition to optically transparent ToMOHperoxo, previously observed in wild type ToMOH, this conservative variant is catalytically active in steady state catalysis and single turnover experiments, and displays the same regiospecificity for toluene and slightly different regiospecificity for o-xylene oxidation. PMID:19354250

  1. H2-driven biotransformation of n-octane to 1-octanol by a recombinant Pseudomonas putida strain co-synthesizing an O2-tolerant hydrogenase and a P450 monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Thomas H; Lauterbach, Lars; Honda Malca, Sumire; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard; Lenz, Oliver

    2015-11-21

    An in vivo biotransformation system is presented that affords the hydroxylation of n-octane to 1-octanol on the basis of NADH-dependent CYP153A monooxygenase and NAD(+)-reducing hydrogenase heterologously synthesized in a bacterial host. The hydrogenase sustains H2-driven NADH cofactor regeneration even in the presence of O2, the co-substrate of monooxygenase.

  2. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization.

  3. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. PMID:25620012

  4. Mechanistic studies of cyclohexanone monooxygenase: chemical properties of intermediates involved in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, D; Ballou, D P; Massey, V

    2001-09-18

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), a bacterial flavoenzyme, carries out an oxygen insertion reaction on cyclohexanone to form a seven-membered cyclic product, epsilon-caprolactone. The reaction catalyzed involves the four-electron reduction of O2 at the expense of a two-electron oxidation of NADPH and a two-electron oxidation of cyclohexanone to form epsilon-caprolactone. Previous studies suggested the participation of either a flavin C4a-hydroperoxide or a flavin C4a-peroxide intermediate during the enzymatic catalysis [Ryerson, C. C., Ballou, D. P., and Walsh, C. (1982) Biochemistry 21, 2644-2655]. However, there was no kinetic or spectral evidence to distinguish between these two possibilities. In the present work we used double-mixing stopped-flow techniques to show that the C4a-flavin-oxygen adduct, which is formed rapidly from the reaction of oxygen with reduced enzyme in the presence of NADP, can exist in two states. When the reaction is carried out at pH 7.2, the first intermediate is a flavin C4a-peroxide with maximum absorbance at 366 nm; this intermediate becomes protonated at about 3 s(-1) to form what is believed to be the flavin C4a-hydroperoxide with maximum absorbance at 383 nm. These two intermediates can be interconverted by altering the pH, with a pK(a) of 8.4. Thus, at pH 9.0 the flavin C4a-peroxide persists mainly in the deprotonated form. Further kinetic studies also demonstrated that only the flavin C4a-peroxide intermediate could oxygenate the substrate, cyclohexanone. The requirement in catalysis of the deprotonated flavin C4a-peroxide, a nucleophile, is consistent with a Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement mechanism for the enzymatic oxygenation of cyclohexanone. In the course of these studies, the Kd for cyclohexanone to the C4a-peroxyflavin form of CHMO was determined to be approximately 1 microM. The rate-determining step in catalysis was shown to be the release of NADP from the oxidized enzyme.

  5. Molecular cloning and xenobiotic induction of seven novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Wajidi, Mustafa Fadzil Farid; Zairi, Jaal

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) is a superfamily of enzymes that is important in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In insects, these enzymes confer resistance to insecticides through its metabolic activities. Members of P450 from family 6 in insects are known to play a role in such function. In this study, we have isolated seven novel family 6 P450 from Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. Induction profile of these seven genes was studied using several insecticides and xenobiotics. It was found that deltamethrin and permethrin did not induce expression of any genes. Another insecticide, temephos, inhibited expression of CYP6P15 for fivefold and twofold for CYP6N29, CYP6Y7, and CYP6Z18. In addition, copper II sulfate induced expression of CYP6M17 and CYP6N28 for up to sixfold. Benzothiazole (BZT), a tire leachate induced the expression of CYP6M17 by fourfold, CYP6N28 by sevenfold, but inhibited the expression of CYP6P15 for threefold and CYP6Y7 for twofold. Meanwhile, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) induced the expression CYP6N28 (twofold), while it inhibited the expression of CYP6P15 (fivefold) and CYP6Y7 (twofold). Remarkably, all seven genes were induced two- to eightfold by acetone in larval stage, but not adult stage. Expression of CYP6N28 was twofold higher, while expression of CYP6P15 was 15-fold lower in adult than larva. The other five P450s were not differentially expressed between the larvae and adult. This finding showed that acetone can be a good inducer of P450 in Ae. albopictus. On the other hand, temephos can act as good suppressor of P450, which may affect its own bioefficacy because it needs to be bioactivated by P450. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on acetone-inducible P450 in insects. Further study is needed to characterize the mechanisms involved in acetone induction in P450.

  6. Crystallographic Analysis of Active Site Contributions to Regiospecificity in the Diiron Enzyme Toluene 4-Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Lucas J.; Acheson, Justin F.; McCoy, Jason G.; Elsen, Nathaniel L.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Fox, Brian G.

    2014-10-02

    Crystal structures of toluene 4-monooxygenase hydroxylase in complex with reaction products and effector protein reveal active site interactions leading to regiospecificity. Complexes with phenolic products yield an asymmetric {mu}-phenoxo-bridged diiron center and a shift of diiron ligand E231 into a hydrogen bonding position with conserved T201. In contrast, complexes with inhibitors p-NH{sub 2}-benzoate and p-Br-benzoate showed a {mu}-1,1 coordination of carboxylate oxygen between the iron atoms and only a partial shift in the position of E231. Among active site residues, F176 trapped the aromatic ring of products against a surface of the active site cavity formed by G103, E104 and A107, while F196 positioned the aromatic ring against this surface via a {pi}-stacking interaction. The proximity of G103 and F176 to the para substituent of the substrate aromatic ring and the structure of G103L T4moHD suggest how changes in regiospecificity arise from mutations at G103. Although effector protein binding produced significant shifts in the positions of residues along the outer portion of the active site (T201, N202, and Q228) and in some iron ligands (E231 and E197), surprisingly minor shifts (<1 {angstrom}) were produced in F176, F196, and other interior residues of the active site. Likewise, products bound to the diiron center in either the presence or absence of effector protein did not significantly shift the position of the interior residues, suggesting that positioning of the cognate substrates will not be strongly influenced by effector protein binding. Thus, changes in product distributions in the absence of the effector protein are proposed to arise from differences in rates of chemical steps of the reaction relative to motion of substrates within the active site channel of the uncomplexed, less efficient enzyme, while structural changes in diiron ligand geometry associated with cycling between diferrous and diferric states are discussed for their potential

  7. Methane and Trichloroethylene Degradation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b Expressing Particulate Methane Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Lontoh, Sonny; Semrau, Jeremy D.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-cell assays of methane and trichloroethylene (TCE) consumption have been performed on Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). From these assays it is apparent that varying the growth concentration of copper causes a change in the kinetics of methane and TCE degradation. For M. trichosporium OB3b, increasing the copper growth concentration from 2.5 to 20 μM caused the maximal degradation rate of methane (Vmax) to decrease from 300 to 82 nmol of methane/min/mg of protein. The methane concentration at half the maximal degradation rate (Ks) also decreased from 62 to 8.3 μM. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for methane, Vmax/Ks, doubled from 4.9 × 10−3 to 9.9 × 10−3 liters/min/mg of protein, however, as the growth concentration of copper increased from 2.5 to 20 μM. TCE degradation by M. trichosporium OB3b was also examined with varying copper and formate concentrations. M. trichosporium OB3b grown with 2.5 μM copper was unable to degrade TCE in both the absence and presence of an exogenous source of reducing equivalents in the form of formate. Cells grown with 20 μM copper, however, were able to degrade TCE regardless of whether formate was provided. Without formate the Vmax for TCE was 2.5 nmol/min/mg of protein, while providing formate increased the Vmax to 4.1 nmol/min/mg of protein. The affinity for TCE also increased with increasing copper, as seen by a change in Ks from 36 to 7.9 μM. Vmax/Ks for TCE degradation by pMMO also increased from 6.9 × 10−5 to 5.2 × 10−4 liters/min/mg of protein with the addition of formate. From these whole-cell studies it is apparent that the amount of copper available is critical in determining the oxidation of substrates in methanotrophs that are expressing only pMMO. PMID:16349516

  8. Differential Reactivity between Two Copper Sites in Peptidylglycine r-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    E Chufan; S Prigge; X Siebert; B Eipper; R Mains; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    Peptidylglycine {alpha}-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) catalyzes the stereospecific hydroxylation of the C{alpha} of C-terminal glycine-extended peptides and proteins, the first step in the activation of many peptide hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters. The crystal structure of the enzyme revealed two nonequivalent Cu sites (Cu{sub M} and Cu{sub H}) separated by {approx}11 {angstrom}. In the resting state of the enzyme, Cu{sub M} is coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral geometry by one methionine, two histidines, and a water molecule. The coordination site of the water molecule is the position where external ligands bind. The Cu{sub H} has a planar T-shaped geometry with three histidines residues and a vacant position that could potentially be occupied by a fourth ligand. Although the catalytic mechanism of PHM and the role of the metals are still being debated, Cu{sub M} is identified as the metal involved in catalysis, while Cu{sub H} is associated with electron transfer. To further probe the role of the metals, we studied how small molecules such as nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}), azide (N{sub 3}{sup -}), and carbon monoxide (CO) interact with the PHM copper ions. The crystal structure of an oxidized nitrite-soaked PHMcc, obtained by soaking for 20 h in mother liquor supplemented with 300 mM NaNO{sub 2}, shows that nitrite anion coordinates Cu{sub M} in an asymmetric bidentate fashion. Surprisingly, nitrite does not bind Cu{sub H}, despite the high concentration used in the experiments (nitrite/protein > 1000). Similarly, azide and carbon monoxide coordinate Cu{sub M} but not Cu{sub H} in the PHMcc crystal structures obtained by cocrystallization with 40 mM NaN{sub 3} and by soaking CO under 3 atm of pressure for 30 min. This lack of reactivity at the Cu{sub H} is also observed in the reduced form of the enzyme: CO binds Cu{sub M} but not Cu{sub H} in the structure of PHMcc obtained by exposure of a crystal to 3 atm CO for 15 min in the presence of 5

  9. Crystal Structure of Baeyer−Villiger Monooxygenase MtmOIV, the Key Enzyme of the Mithramycin Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Beam, Miranda P.; Bosserman, Mary A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Wehenkel, Marie; Rohr, Jurgen; Kentucky

    2009-06-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), mostly flavoproteins, were shown to be powerful biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry applications and were also suggested to play key roles for the biosyntheses of various natural products. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of MtmOIV, a 56 kDa homodimeric FAD- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenase, which catalyzes the key frame-modifying step of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway and currently the only BVMO proven to react with its natural substrate via a Baeyer-Villiger reaction. MtmOIV's structure was determined by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.9 A. MtmOIV cleaves a C-C bond, essential for the conversion of the biologically inactive precursor, premithramycin B, into the active drug mithramycin. The MtmOIV structure combined with substrate docking calculations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identifies several residues that participate in cofactor and substrate binding. Future experimentation aimed at broadening the substrate specificity of the enzyme could facilitate the generation of chemically diverse mithramycin analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis.

  10. Continuous testing system for Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation using recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase encapsulated in polyelectrolyte complex capsules.

    PubMed

    Bučko, Marek; Schenkmayerová, Andrea; Gemeiner, Peter; Vikartovská, Alica; Mihovilovič, Marko D; Lacík, Igor

    2011-08-10

    An original strategy for universal laboratory testing of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases based on continuous packed-bed minireactor connected with flow calorimeter and integrated with bubble-free oxygenation is reported. Model enantioselective Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations of rac-bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one to corresponding lactones (1R,5S)-3-oxabicyclo-[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one and (1S,5R)-2-oxabicyclo-[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one as important chiral synthons for the synthesis of bioactive compounds were performed in the minireactor equipped with a column packed with encapsulated recombinant cells Escherichia coli overexpressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase. The cells were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte complex capsules formed by reaction of oppositely charged polymers utilizing highly reproducible and controlled encapsulation process. Encapsulated cells tested in minireactor exhibited high operational stability with 4 complete substrate conversions to products and 6 conversions above 80% within 14 repeated consecutive biooxidation tests. Moreover, encapsulated cells showed high enzyme stability during 91 days of storage with substrate conversions above 80% up to 60 days of storage. Furthermore, usable thermometric signal of Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation obtained by flow calorimetry using encapsulated cells was utilized for preparatory kinetic study in order to guarantee sub-inhibitory initial substrate concentration for biooxidation tests.

  11. Directed evolution of phenylacetone monooxygenase as an active catalyst for the Baeyer-Villiger conversion of cyclohexanone to caprolactone.

    PubMed

    Parra, Loreto P; Acevedo, Juan P; Reetz, Manfred T

    2015-07-01

    Phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) is an exceptionally robust Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, which makes it ideal for potential industrial applications. However, its substrate scope is limited, unreactive cyclohexanone being a prominent example. Such a limitation is unfortunate, because this particular transformation in an ecologically viable manner would be highly desirable, the lactone and the respective lactam being of considerable interest as monomers in polymer science. We have applied directed evolution in search of an active mutant for this valuable C-C activating reaction. Using iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM), several active mutants were evolved, with only a minimal trade-off in terms of stability. The best mutants allow for quantitative conversion of 2 mM cyclohexanone within 1 h reaction time. In order to circumvent the NADP(+) regeneration problem, whole E. coli resting cells were successfully applied. Molecular dynamics simulations and induced fit docking throw light on the origin of enhanced PAMO activity. The PAMO mutants constitute ideal starting points for future directed evolution optimization necessary for an industrial process.

  12. The structure of ActVA-Orf6, a novel type of monooxygenase involved in actinorhodin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sciara, Giuliano; Kendrew, Steven G.; Miele, Adriana E.; Marsh, Neil G.; Federici, Luca; Malatesta, Francesco; Schimperna, Giuliana; Savino, Carmelinda; Vallone, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    ActVA-Orf6 monooxygenase from Streptomyces coelicolor that catalyses the oxidation of an aromatic intermediate of the actinorhodin biosynthetic pathway is a member of a class of small monooxygenases that carry out oxygenation without the assistance of any of the prosthetic groups, metal ions or cofactors normally associated with activation of molecular oxygen. The overall structure is a ferredoxin-like fold with a novel dimeric assembly, indicating that the widely represented ferredoxin fold may sustain yet another functionality. The resolution (1.3 Å) of the enzyme structure and its complex with substrate and product analogues allows us to visualize the mechanism of binding and activation of the substrate for attack by molecular oxygen, and utilization of two gates for the reaction components including a proton gate and an O2/H2O gate with a putative protein channel. This is the first crystal structure of an enzyme involved in the tailoring of a type II aromatic polyketide and illustrates some of the enzyme–substrate recognition features that may apply to a range of other enzymes involved in modifying a polyketide core structure. PMID:12514126

  13. Inhibition of Ammonia Oxidation in Nitrosomonas europaea by Sulfur Compounds: Thioethers Are Oxidized to Sulfoxides by Ammonia Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Juliette, Lisa Y.; Hyman, Michael R.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Organic sulfur compounds are well-known nitrification inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, and ethanethiol on ammonia oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea were examined. Both dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide were weak inhibitors of ammonia oxidation and exhibited inhibitory characteristics typical of substrates for ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). Depletion of dimethylsulfide required O2 and was prevented with either acetylene or allylthiourea, two inhibitors of AMO. The inhibition of ammonia oxidation by dimethylsulfide was examined in detail. Cell suspensions incubated in the presence of ammonia oxidized dimethylsulfide to dimethyl sulfoxide. Depletion of six other thioethers was also prevented by treating cell suspensions with either allylthiourea or acetylene. The oxidative products of three thioethers were identified as the corresponding sulfoxides. The amount of sulfoxide formed accounted for a majority of the amount of sulfide depleted. By using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, allylmethylsulfide was shown to be oxidized to allylmethylsulfoxide by N. europaea with the incorporation of a single atom of 18O derived from 18O2 into the sulfide. This result supported our conclusion that a monooxygenase was involved in the oxidation of allylmethylsulfide. The thioethers are concluded to be a new class of substrates for AMO. This is the first report of the oxidation of the sulfur atom by AMO in whole cells of N. europaea. The ability of N. europaea to oxidize dimethylsulfide is not unique among the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Nitrosococcus oceanus, a marine nitrifier, was also demonstrated to oxidize dimethylsulfide to dimethyl sulfoxide. PMID:16349086

  14. Expression and characterization of styrene monooxygenases of Rhodococcus sp. ST-5 and ST-10 for synthesizing enantiopure (S)-epoxides.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroshi; Imae, Ryouta; Komio, Tomoko; Itoh, Nobuya

    2012-10-01

    Styrene monooxygenase (StyA, SMOA)- and flavin oxidoreductase (StyB, SMOB)-coding genes of styrene-assimilating bacteria Rhodococcus sp. ST-5 and ST-10 were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Determined amino acid sequences of StyAs and StyBs of ST-5 and ST-10 showed more similarity with those of Pseudomonas than with self-sufficient styrene monooxygenase (StyA2B) of Rhodococcus. Recombinant enzymes were purified from E. coli cells as functional proteins, and their properties were characterized in detail. StyBs (flavin oxidoreductase) of strains ST-5 and ST-10 have similar enzymatic properties to those of Pseudomonas, but StyB of strain ST-10 exhibited higher temperature stability than that of strain ST-5. StyAs of strains ST-5 and ST-10 catalyzed the epoxidation of vinyl side-chain of styrene and its derivatives and produced (S)-epoxides from styrene derivatives and showed high stereoselectivity. Both StyAs showed higher specific activity on halogenated styrene derivatives than on styrene itself. Additionally, the enzymes could catalyze the epoxidation of short-chain 1-alkenes to the corresponding (S)-epoxides. Aromatic compounds including styrene, 3-chlorostyrene, styrene oxide, and benzene exhibited marked inhibition of SMO reaction, although linear 1-alkene showed no inhibition of SMO activity at any concentration. PMID:22258641

  15. Controlled oxidation of aliphatic CH bonds in metallo-monooxygenases: mechanistic insights derived from studies on deuterated and fluorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Sheng; Luo, Wen-I; Yang, Chung-Ling; Tu, Yi-Jung; Chang, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chi-Yao; Chan, Sunney I; Yu, Steve S-F

    2014-05-01

    The control over the regio- and/or stereo-selective aliphatic CH oxidation by metalloenzymes is of great interest to scientists. Typically, these enzymes invoke host-guest chemistry to sequester the substrates within the protein pockets, exploiting sizes, shapes and specific interactions such as hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic forces and/or van der Waals interactions to control the substrate specificity, regio-specificity and stereo-selectivity. Over the years, we have developed a series of deuterated and fluorinated variants of these hydrocarbon substrates as probes to gain insights into the controlled CH oxidations of hydrocarbons facilitated by these enzymes. In this review, we illustrate the application of these designed probes in the study of three monooxygenases: (i) the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), which oxidizes straight-chain C1-C5 alkanes and alkenes to form their corresponding 2-alcohols and epoxides, respectively; (ii) the recombinant alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) from Pseudomonas putida GPo1, which oxidizes the primary CH bonds of C5-C12 linear alkanes; and (iii) the recombinant cytochrome P450 from Bacillus megaterium, which oxidizes C12-C20 fatty acids at the ω-1, ω-2 or ω-3 CH positions.

  16. Directed evolution of phenylacetone monooxygenase as an active catalyst for the Baeyer-Villiger conversion of cyclohexanone to caprolactone.

    PubMed

    Parra, Loreto P; Acevedo, Juan P; Reetz, Manfred T

    2015-07-01

    Phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) is an exceptionally robust Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, which makes it ideal for potential industrial applications. However, its substrate scope is limited, unreactive cyclohexanone being a prominent example. Such a limitation is unfortunate, because this particular transformation in an ecologically viable manner would be highly desirable, the lactone and the respective lactam being of considerable interest as monomers in polymer science. We have applied directed evolution in search of an active mutant for this valuable C-C activating reaction. Using iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM), several active mutants were evolved, with only a minimal trade-off in terms of stability. The best mutants allow for quantitative conversion of 2 mM cyclohexanone within 1 h reaction time. In order to circumvent the NADP(+) regeneration problem, whole E. coli resting cells were successfully applied. Molecular dynamics simulations and induced fit docking throw light on the origin of enhanced PAMO activity. The PAMO mutants constitute ideal starting points for future directed evolution optimization necessary for an industrial process. PMID:25675885

  17. Diiron Oxidation State Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site of Soluble Methane Monooxygenase Mediated by the Regulatory Component

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory component (MMOB) of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) has a unique N-terminal tail not found in regulatory proteins of other bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases. This N-terminal tail is indispensable for proper function, yet its solution structure and role in catalysis remain elusive. Here, by using double electron–electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, we show that the oxidation state of the hydroxylase component, MMOH, modulates the conformation of the N-terminal tail in the MMOH–2MMOB complex, which in turn facilitates catalysis. The results reveal that the N-terminal tail switches from a relaxed, flexible conformational state to an ordered state upon MMOH reduction from the diiron(III) to the diiron(II) state. This observation suggests that some of the crystallographically observed allosteric effects that result in the connection of substrate ingress cavities in the MMOH–2MMOB complex may not occur in solution in the diiron(III) state. Thus, O2 may not have easy access to the active site until after reduction of the diiron center. The observed conformational change is also consistent with a higher binding affinity of MMOB to MMOH in the diiron(II) state, which may allow MMOB to displace more readily the reductase component (MMOR) from MMOH following reduction. PMID:24476336

  18. Isolation and initial characterization of a novel type of Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase activity from a marine microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Willetts, Andrew; Joint, Ian; Gilbert, Jack A.; Trimble, William; Mühling, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Summary A novel type of Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) has been found in a marine strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophila strain PML168 that was isolated from a temperate intertidal zone. The enzyme is able to use NADH as the source of reducing power necessary to accept the atom of diatomic oxygen not incorporated into the oxyfunctionalized substrate. Growth studies have establish that the enzyme is inducible, appears to serve a catabolic role, and is specifically induced by one or more unidentified components of seawater as well as various anthropogenic xenobiotic compounds. A blast search of the primary sequence of the enzyme, recovered from the genomic sequence of the isolate, has placed this atypical BVMO in the context of the several hundred known members of the flavoprotein monooxygenase superfamily. A particular feature of this BVMO lies in its truncated C‐terminal domain, which results in a relatively small protein (357 amino acids; 38.4 kDa). In addition, metagenomic screening has been conducted on DNA recovered from an extensive range of marine environmental samples to gauge the relative abundance and distribution of similar enzymes within the global marine microbial community. Although low, abundance was detected in samples from many marine provinces, confirming the potential for biodiscovery in marine microorganisms. PMID:22414193

  19. Crystal Structure of Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase MtmOIV, the Key Enzyme of the Mithramycin Biosynthetic Pathway†

    PubMed Central

    Beam, Miranda P.; Bosserman, Mary A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Wehenkel, Marie; Rohr, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), mostly flavoproteins, were shown to be powerful biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry applications and were also suggested to play key roles for the biosyntheses of various natural products. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of MtmOIV, a 56 kD homo-dimeric FAD- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenase, which catalyzes the key frame-modifying step of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway and currently the only BVMO proven to react with its natural substrate via a Baeyer-Villiger reaction. MtmOIV’s structure was determined by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.9Å. MtmOIV cleaves a C-C bond, essential for the conversion of the biologically inactive precursor, premithramycin B, into the active drug mithramycin. The MtmOIV structure combined with substrate docking calculations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments implicate several residues to participate in co-factor and substrate binding. Future experimentation aimed at broadening the substrate specificity of the enzyme could facilitate the generation of chemically diverse mithramycin analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:19364090

  20. Monooxygenase activity and contaminant burdens of pipping heron embryos in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) pipping embryos were studied from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildl ife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay WI, and Bair and W. Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) , ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) activities and burdens of organochlorines (embryo + yolk sac - liver) were quantified. AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD were induced up to 100-fold (P<.O5) in embryos from Cat Island compared to the other sites. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p?DDE were detected in Cat Island embryos. Monooxygenase activities (AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD) and PCB concentrations were significantly correlated (r=O.50 to 0.72). These and other data indicate that monooxygenases may be rapid and inexpensive biomarkers of exposure to some PCB congeners. Current efforts include determination of PCB congeners and other contaminants in these embryos, additional characterization of the induced P-450 isozymes, and expanding the study to include heron embryos and nestlings at other estuaries.

  1. Characterization of two cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes of the pyripyropene biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium coprobium.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Okawa, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Oyama, Kazuhiko; Mitomi, Masaaki; Anzai, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    Pyripyropenes are potent inhibitors of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase, which were initially discovered to be produced by Aspergillus fumigatus. Recently, Penicillium coprobium PF1169 has also found to produce pyripyropene A (PyA), which exhibits insecticidal properties. Pyripyropenes are natural hybrid products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. In our research, based on data generated using the Genome Sequencer FLX for P. coprobium PF1169, we predicted the biosynthetic gene cluster of PyA by blast analysis comparing with polyketide synthase and prenyltransferase of other species. By screening the genomic fosmid library, nine open reading frames (ppb1 to ppb9) related to the biosynthesis of PyA were deduced. Among them, two cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes (ppb3 and ppb4) were separately introduced into the model fungus A. oryzae. Bioconversion of certain predicted intermediates in the transformants has elucidated the manner of hydroxylation in the biosynthetic pathway by the expressed products of these two genes (P450-1 and P450-2). That is, P450-1 exhibits monooxygenase activity and plays the hydroxylation role at C-11 of pyripyropene E. While P450-2 plays an active role in the hydroxylation of C-7 and C-13 of pyripyropene O. PMID:21224862

  2. Cloning, Expression, Characterization, and Biocatalytic Investigation of the 4-Hydroxyacetophenone Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida JD1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rehdorf, Jessica; Zimmer, Christian L.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.

    2009-01-01

    While the number of available recombinant Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) has grown significantly over the last few years, there is still the demand for other BVMOs to expand the biocatalytic diversity. Most BVMOs that have been described are dedicated to convert efficiently cyclohexanone and related cyclic aliphatic ketones. To cover a broader range of substrate types and enantio- and/or regioselectivities, new BVMOs have to be discovered. The gene encoding a BVMO identified in Pseudomonas putida JD1 converting aromatic ketones (HAPMO; 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase) was amplified from genomic DNA using SiteFinding-PCR, cloned, and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, four other open reading frames could be identified clustered around this HAPMO. It has been suggested that these proteins, including the HAPMO, might be involved in the degradation of 4-hydroxyacetophenone. Substrate specificity studies revealed that a large variety of other arylaliphatic ketones are also converted via Baeyer-Villiger oxidation into the corresponding esters, with preferences for para-substitutions at the aromatic ring. In addition, oxidation of aldehydes and some heteroaromatic compounds was observed. Cycloketones and open-chain ketones were not or poorly accepted, respectively. It was also found that this enzyme oxidizes aromatic ketones such as 3-phenyl-2-butanone with excellent enantioselectivity (E ≫100). PMID:19251889

  3. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5′ end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363

  4. Oxidation of benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene by toluene 4-monooxygenase of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and toluene 3-monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ying; Fishman, Ayelet; Bentley, William E; Wood, Thomas K

    2004-07-01

    Aromatic hydroxylations are important bacterial metabolic processes but are difficult to perform using traditional chemical synthesis, so to use a biological catalyst to convert the priority pollutant benzene into industrially relevant intermediates, benzene oxidation was investigated. It was discovered that toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, toluene 3-monooxygenase (T3MO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, and toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) of Burkholderia cepacia G4 convert benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene by successive hydroxylations. At a concentration of 165 microM and under the control of a constitutive lac promoter, Escherichia coli TG1/pBS(Kan)T4MO expressing T4MO formed phenol from benzene at 19 +/- 1.6 nmol/min/mg of protein, catechol from phenol at 13.6 +/- 0.3 nmol/min/mg of protein, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene from catechol at 2.5 +/- 0.5nmol/min/mg of protein. The catechol and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene products were identified by both high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. When analogous plasmid constructs were used, E. coli TG1/pBS(Kan)T3MO expressing T3MO formed phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene at rates of 3 +/- 1, 3.1 +/- 0.3, and 0.26 +/- 0.09 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively, and E. coli TG1/pBS(Kan)TOM expressing TOM formed 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene at a rate of 1.7 +/- 0.3 nmol/min/mg of protein (phenol and catechol formation rates were 0.89 +/- 0.07 and 1.5 +/- 0.3 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively). Hence, the rates of synthesis of catechol by both T3MO and T4MO and the 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene formation rate by TOM were found to be comparable to the rates of oxidation of the natural substrate toluene for these enzymes (10.0 +/- 0.8, 4.0 +/- 0.6, and 2.4 +/- 0.3 nmol/min/mg of protein for T4MO, T3MO, and TOM, respectively, at a toluene concentration of 165 microM). PMID:15240250

  5. EXPRESSION OF BRANCHIAL FLAVIN-CONTAINING MONOOXYGENASE IS DIRECTLY CORRELATED WITH SALINITY-INDUCED ALDICARB TOXICITY IN THE EURYHALINE FISH (ORYZIAS LATIPES). (R826109)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Earlier studies in our laboratory have demonstrated a reduction of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) activity when salt-water adapted euryhaline fish were transferred to water of less salinity. Since FMOs have been shown to be responsible for the bioact...

  6. Cloning, sequencing, and analysis of a gene cluster from Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600 encoding nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase and NADH:flavin mononucleotide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y; Mortimer, M W; Fisher, T S; Kahn, M L; Brockman, F J; Xun, L

    1997-01-01

    Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) is an important chelating agent in detergents and has also been used extensively in processing radionuclides. In Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600, biodegradation of NTA is initiated by NTA monooxygenase that oxidizes NTA to iminodiacetate and glyoxylate. The NTA monooxygenase activity requires two component proteins, component A and component B, but the function of each component is unclear. We have cloned and sequenced a gene cluster encoding components A and B (nmoA and nmoB) and two additional open reading frames, nmoR and nmoT, downstream of nmoA. Based on sequence similarities, nmoR and nmoT probably encode a regulatory protein and a transposase, respectively. The NmoA sequence was similar to a monooxygenase that uses reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) as reductant; NmoB was similar to an NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase. On the basis of this information, we tested the function of each component. Purified component B was shown to be an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase, and its activity could be separated from that of component A. When the Photobacterium fischeri NADH:FMN oxidoreductase was substituted for component B in the complete reaction, NTA was oxidized, showing that the substrate specificity of the reaction resides in component A. Component A is therefore an NTA monooxygenase that uses FMNH2 and O2 to oxidize NTA, and component B is an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase that provides FMNH2 for NTA oxidation. PMID:9023192

  7. Mechanism of Cytoplasmic mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692

  8. Advanced Running Performance by Genetic Predisposition in Male Dummerstorf Marathon Mice (DUhTP) Reveals Higher Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) Related mRNA Expression in the Liver and Higher Serum Levels of Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Brenmoehl, Julia; Walz, Christina; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Schwerin, Manfred; Fuellen, Georg; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Long-term-selected DUhTP mice represent a non-inbred model for inborn physical high-performance without previous training. Abundance of hepatic mRNA in 70-day male DUhTP and control mice was analyzed using the Affymetrix mouse array 430A 2.0. Differential expression analysis with PLIER corrected data was performed using AltAnalyze. Searching for over-representation in biochemical pathways revealed cholesterol metabolism being most prominently affected in DUhTP compared to unselected control mice. Furthermore, pathway analysis by AltAnalyze plus PathVisio indicated significant induction of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver of DUhTP mice versus unselected control mice. In contrast, gluconeogenesis was partially inactivated as judged from the analysis of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance in DUhTP mice. Analysis of mRNA transcripts related to steroid hormone metabolism inferred elevated synthesis of progesterone and reduced levels of sex steroids. Abundance of steroid delta isomerase-5 mRNA (Hsd3b5, FC 4.97) was increased and steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase mRNA (Cyp17a1, FC -11.6) was massively diminished in the liver of DUhTP mice. Assessment of steroid profiles by LC-MS revealed increased levels of progesterone and decreased levels of sex steroids in serum from DUhTP mice versus controls. Analysis of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance indicates that sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) may play a major role in metabolic pathway activation in the marathon mouse model DUhTP. Thus, results from bioinformatics modeling of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance correlated with direct steroid analysis by mass spectrometry and further indicated functions of SREBP-1 and steroid hormones for endurance performance in DUhTP mice. PMID:26799318

  9. In Silico Approach to Support that p-Nitrophenol Monooxygenase from Arthrobacter sp. Strain JS443 Catalyzes the Initial Two Sequential Monooxygenations.

    PubMed

    Kallubai, Monika; Amineni, Umamaheswari; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Kadiyala, Venkateswarlu

    2015-06-01

    p-Nitrophenol (PNP), used primarily for manufacturing pesticides and dyes, has been recognized as a priority environmental pollutant. It is therefore important to reduce the input of this toxicant into the environment and to establish approaches for its removal from the contaminated sites. PNP monooxygenase, a novel enzyme from Gram-positive bacteria like Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., that comprises two components, a flavoprotein reductase and an oxygenase, catalyzes the initial two sequential monooxygenations to convert PNP to trihydroxybenzene. Accurate and reliable prediction of this enzyme-substrate interactions and binding affinity are of vital importance in understanding these catalytic mechanisms of the two sequential reactions. As crystal structure of the enzyme has not yet been published, we built a homology model for PNP monooxygenase using crystallized chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 (3HWC) as the template. The model was assessed for its reliability using PROCHECK, ERRAT and ProSA. Molecular docking of the physiological substrates, PNP and 4-nitrocatechol (4-NC), was carried out using Glide v5.7 implemented in Maestro v9.2, and the binding energies were calculated to substantiate the prediction. Docking complexes formed by molecular level interactions of PNP monooxygenase-PNP/4-NC without or with the cofactors, FAD and NADH, showed good correlation with the established experimental evidence that the two-component PNP monooxygenase catalyzes both the hydroxylation of PNP and the oxidative release of nitrite from 4-NC in B. sphaericus JS905. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations performed for docking complexes using Desmond v3.0 showed stable nature of the interactions as well.

  10. Induction of a cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase in Bacillus megaterium by a barbiturate analog, 1-[2-phenylbutyryl]-3-methylurea.

    PubMed

    Wen, L P; Fulco, A J

    1985-05-01

    In previous publications from our laboratory, we reported that a soluble, cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 can be induced by phenobarbital and a variety of other barbiturates. The tested barbiturates showed an excellent correlation between increasing lipophilicity and increasing inducer potency (Kim BH, Fulco AJ; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 116: 843-850, 1983). The only exception proved to be mephobarbital (N-methylphenobarbital) which, although more lipophilic than phenobarbital, is not an inducer of fatty acid monooxygenase activity. We have now found that 1-[2-phenylbutyryl]-3-methylurea (PBMU), an acylurea that can be derived from mephobarbital by hydrolytic cleavage of the barbiturate ring, is an excellent inducer of this activity. Paradoxically, the addition of mephobarbital to the bacterial growth medium containing PBMU significantly enhances the apparent potency of the acylurea to induce fatty acid monooxygenase activity as measured in cell-free extracts. When cell-free extracts of cells grown separately in PBMU or mephobarbital are mixed no enhancement of activity is seen. This finding suggests that the effect of mephobarbital is to somehow increase the efficiency of PBMU as an inducer of the P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase rather than to induce an activator of this enzyme or a rate-limiting component of the monooxygenase system. Finally, both mephobarbital and PBMU induce the synthesis of total cytochrome P-450 in B. megaterium although PBMU is a much more potent P-450 inducer. For cytochrome P-450 induction, however, there is no synergistic or even additive effect when mephobarbital and PBMU are used together in the bacterial growth medium. PMID:3927150

  11. Characterization of a tryptophan 2-monooxygenase gene from Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici involved in auxin biosynthesis and rust pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuntao; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R; Hulbert, Scot H

    2014-03-01

    The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is best known as a regulator of plant growth and development but its production can also affect plant-microbe interactions. Microorganisms, including numerous plant-associated bacteria and several fungi, are also capable of producing IAA. The stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici induced wheat plants to accumulate auxin in infected leaf tissue. A gene (Pgt-IaaM) encoding a putative tryptophan 2-monooxygenase, which makes the auxin precursor indole-3-acetamide (IAM), was identified in the P. graminis f. sp. tritici genome and found to be expressed in haustoria cells in infected plant tissue. Transient silencing of the gene in infected wheat plants indicated that it was required for full pathogenicity. Expression of Pgt-IaaM in Arabidopsis caused a typical auxin expression phenotype and promoted susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

  12. Enhanced production of ε-caprolactone by coexpression of bacterial hemoglobin gene in recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2014-12-28

    Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone in a microbial system expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) can be influenced by not only the efficient regeneration of NADPH but also a sufficient supply of oxygen. In this study, the bacterial hemoglobin gene from Vitreoscilla stercoraria (vhb) was introduced into the recombinant Escherichia coli expressing CHMO to investigate the effects of an oxygen-carrying protein on microbial BV oxidation of cyclohexanone. Coexpression of Vhb allowed the recombinant E. coli strain to produce a maximum epsilon-caprolactone concentration of 15.7 g/l in a fed-batch BV oxidation of cyclohexanone, which corresponded to a 43% improvement compared with the control strain expressing CHMO only under the same conditions.

  13. Simultaneous biocatalyst production and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation for bioconversion of cyclohexanone by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Yong-Cheol; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Kyungmoon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) catalyzing Baeyer-Villiger oxidation converts cyclic ketones into optically pure lactones, which have been used as building blocks in organic synthesis. A recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pMM4 expressing CHMO originated from Acinetobacter sp. NCIB 9871 was used to produce epsilon-caprolactone through a simultaneous biocatalyst production and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation (SPO) process. A fed-batch process was designed to obtain high cell density for improving production of epsilon-caprolactone. The fed-batch SPO process gave the best results, 10.2 g/L of epsilon-caprolactone and 0.34 g/(L.h) of productivity, corresponding to a 10.5- and 3.4-fold enhancement compared with those of the batch SPO, respectively.

  14. Enzymatic production of 5-aminovalerate from l-lysine using l-lysine monooxygenase and 5-aminovaleramide amidohydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pan; Zhang, Haiwei; Lv, Min; Hu, Mandong; Li, Zhong; Gao, Chao; Xu, Ping; Ma, Cuiqing

    2014-01-01

    5-Aminovalerate is a potential C5 platform chemical for synthesis of valerolactam, 5-hydroxyvalerate, glutarate, and 1,5-pentanediol. It is a metabolite of l-lysine catabolism through the aminovalerate pathway in Pseudomonas putida. l-Lysine monooxygenase (DavB) and 5-aminovaleramide amidohydrolase (DavA) play key roles in the biotransformation of l-lysine into 5-aminovalerate. Here, DavB and DavA of P. putida KT2440 were expressed, purified, and coupled for the production of 5-aminovalerate from l-lysine. Under optimal conditions, 20.8 g/L 5-aminovalerate was produced from 30 g/L l-lysine in 12 h. Because l-lysine is an industrial fermentation product, the two-enzyme coupled system presents a promising alternative for the production of 5-aminovalerate. PMID:25012259

  15. Fungal cellulose degradation by oxidative enzymes: from dysfunctional GH61 family to powerful lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase family

    PubMed Central

    Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of fungal cellulose degradation has shifted dramatically in the past few years with the characterization of a new class of secreted enzymes, the lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO). After a period of intense research covering structural, biochemical, theoretical and evolutionary aspects, we have a picture of them as wedge-like copper-dependent metalloenzymes that on reduction generate a radical copper-oxyl species, which cleaves mainly crystalline cellulose. The main biological function lies in the synergism of fungal LPMOs with canonical hydrolytic cellulases in achieving efficient cellulose degradation. Their important role in cellulose degradation is highlighted by the wide distribution and often numerous occurrences in the genomes of almost all plant cell-wall degrading fungi. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest achievements in LPMO research and consider the open questions and challenges that undoubtedly will continue to stimulate interest in this new and exciting group of enzymes. PMID:25217478

  16. Localization of human flavin-containing monooxygenase genes FMO2 and FMO5 to chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    McCombie, R.R.; Shephard, E.A.; Dolphin, C.T.

    1996-06-15

    The human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) gene family comprises at least five distinct members (FMO1 to FMO5) that code for enzymes responsible for the oxidation of a wide variety of soft nucleophilic substrates, including drugs and environmental pollutants. Three of these genes (FMO1, FMO3, and FMO4) have previously been localized to human chromosome 1q, raising the possibility that the entire gene family is clustered in this chromosomal region. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction of DNA isolated from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids demonstrates that the two remaining identified members of the FMO gene family, FMO2 and FMO5, also are located on chromosome 1q. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Identification of the Lomofungin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster and Associated Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase Gene in Streptomyces lomondensis S015

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxiao; Sheng, Chaolan; Wang, Wei; Hu, Hongbo; Peng, Huasong; Zhang, Xuehong

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces lomondensis S015 synthesizes the broad-spectrum phenazine antibiotic lomofungin. Whole genome sequencing of this strain revealed a genomic locus consisting of 23 open reading frames that includes the core phenazine biosynthesis gene cluster lphzGFEDCB. lomo10, encoding a putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase, was also identified in this locus. Inactivation of lomo10 by in-frame partial deletion resulted in the biosynthesis of a new phenazine metabolite, 1-carbomethoxy-6-formyl-4,9-dihydroxy-phenazine, along with the absence of lomofungin. This result suggests that lomo10 is responsible for the hydroxylation of lomofungin at its C-7 position. This is the first description of a phenazine hydroxylation gene in Streptomyces, and the results of this study lay the foundation for further investigation of phenazine metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces. PMID:26305803

  18. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and chloroform by toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.; Wood, T.K.; Barbieri, P.

    1998-08-01

    Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, which oxidizes toluene and o-xylene, was examined for its ability to degrade the environmental pollutants trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, chloroform, dichloromethane, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenol. Escherichia coli JM109 that expressed ToMO from genes on plasmid pBZ1260 under control of the lac promoter degraded TCE, 1,1-DCE, and chloroform at initial rates of 3.1, 3.6, and 1.6 nmol, respectively. Stoichiometric amounts of chloride release were seen, indicating mineralization. Thus, the substrate range of ToMO is extended to include aliphatic chlorinated compounds.

  19. Hydroxylation of Longiborneol by a Clm2-Encoded CYP450 Monooxygenase to Produce Culmorin in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Bahadoor, Adilah; Schneiderman, Danielle; Gemmill, Larissa; Bosnich, Whynn; Blackwell, Barbara; Melanson, Jeremy E; McRae, Garnet; Harris, Linda J

    2016-01-22

    A second structural gene required for culmorin biosynthesis in the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum is described. Clm2 encodes a regio- and stereoselective cytochrome P450 monooxygenase for C-11 of longiborneol (1). Clm2 gene disruptants were grown in liquid culture and assessed for culmorin production via HPLC-evaporative light scattering detection. The analysis indicated a complete loss of culmorin (2) from the liquid culture of the ΔClm2 mutants. Culmorin production resumed in a ΔClm2 complementation experiment. A detailed analysis of the secondary metabolites extracted from the large-scale liquid culture of disruptant ΔClm2D20 revealed five new natural products: 3-hydroxylongiborneol (3), 5-hydroxylongiborneol (4), 12-hydroxylongiborneol (5), 15-hydroxylongiborneol (6), and 11-epi-acetylculmorin (7). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by a combination of HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and X-ray crystallography. PMID:26673640

  20. A chicory cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase CYP71AV8 for the oxidation of (+)-valencene.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Katarina; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Bosch, Dirk; Sonke, Theo; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), which is known to have a variety of terpene-hydroxylating activities, was screened for a P450 mono-oxygenase to convert (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone. A novel P450 cDNA was identified in a chicory root EST library. Co-expression of the enzyme with a valencene synthase in yeast, led to formation of trans-nootkatol, cis-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone. The novel enzyme was also found to catalyse a three step conversion of germacrene A to germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid, indicating its involvement in chicory sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Likewise, amorpha-4,11-diene was converted to artemisinic acid. Surprisingly, the chicory P450 has a different regio-specificity on (+)-valencene compared to germacrene A and amorpha-4,11-diene. PMID:21115006

  1. Use of isolated cyclohexanone monooxygenase from recombinant Escherichia coli as a biocatalyst for Baeyer-Villiger and sulfide oxidations.

    PubMed

    Zambianchi, F; Pasta, P; Carrea, G; Colonna, S; Gaggero, N; Woodley, J M

    2002-06-01

    The performance, in Baeyer-Villiger and heteroatom oxidations, of a partially purified preparation of cyclohexanone monooxygenase obtained from an Escherichia coli strain in which the gene of the enzyme was cloned and overexpressed was investigated. As model reactions, the oxidations of racemic bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one into two regioisomeric lactones and of methyl phenyl sulphide into the corresponding (R)-sulphoxide were used. Enzyme stability and reuse, substrate and product inhibition, product removal, and cofactor recycling were evaluated. Of the various NADPH regeneration systems tested, 2-propanol/alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanerobium brockii appeared the most suitable because of the low cost of the second substrate and the high regeneration rate. Concerning enzyme stability, kosmotropic salts were the only additives able to improve it (e.g., half-life from 1 day in diluted buffer to 1 week in 1 M sodium sulphate) but only under storage conditions. Instead, significant stabilization under working conditions was obtained by immobilization on Eupergit C (half-life approximately 2.5 days), a procedure that made it possible to reuse the catalyst up to 16 times with complete substrate (5 g x L(-1)) conversion at each cycle. Reuse of free enzyme was also achieved in a membrane reactor but with lower efficiency. Water-organic solvent biphasic systems, which would overcome substrate inhibition and remove from the aqueous phase, where reaction takes place, the formed product, were unsuccessful because of their destabilizing effect on cyclohexanone monooxygenase. More satisfactory was continuous substrate feeding, which shortened reaction times and, very importantly, yielded in the case of bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one (10 g x L(-1)) both lactone products with high optical purity (enantiomeric excess > or = 96%), which was not the case when all of the substrate was added in a single batch. PMID:12115117

  2. Catalytic activity of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-02-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylases (HPAHs) of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase family are attractive enzymes that possess the catalytic potential to synthesize valuable ortho-diphenol compounds from simple monophenol compounds. In this study, we investigated the catalytic activity of HPAH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 toward cinnamic acid derivatives. We prepared Escherichia coli cells expressing the hpaB gene encoding the monooxygenase component and the hpaC gene encoding the oxidoreductase component. E. coli cells expressing HpaBC exhibited no or very low oxidation activity toward cinnamic acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid, whereas they rapidly oxidized p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid. Interestingly, after p-coumaric acid was almost completely consumed, the resulting caffeic acid was further oxidized to 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid. In addition, HpaBC exhibited oxidation activity toward 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferaldehyde to produce the corresponding ortho-diphenols. We also investigated a flask-scale production of caffeic acid from p-coumaric acid as the model reaction for HpaBC-catalyzed syntheses of hydroxycinnamic acids. Since the initial concentrations of the substrate p-coumaric acid higher than 40 mM markedly inhibited its HpaBC-catalyzed oxidation, the reaction was carried out by repeatedly adding 20 mM of this substrate to the reaction mixture. Furthermore, by using the HpaBC whole-cell catalyst in the presence of glycerol, our experimental setup achieved the high-yield production of caffeic acid, i.e., 56.6 mM (10.2 g/L) within 24 h. These catalytic activities of HpaBC will provide an easy and environment-friendly synthetic approach to hydroxycinnamic acids.

  3. Spectroscopic and computational insight into the activation of O2 by the mononuclear Cu center in polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Christian H; Qayyum, Munzarin F; Wong, Shaun D; Xu, Feng; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Walton, Daniel J; Young, Nigel A; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Hodgson, Keith O; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I

    2014-06-17

    Strategies for O2 activation by copper enzymes were recently expanded to include mononuclear Cu sites, with the discovery of the copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases, also classified as auxiliary-activity enzymes 9-11 (AA9-11). These enzymes are finding considerable use in industrial biofuel production. Crystal structures of polysaccharide monooxygenases have emerged, but experimental studies are yet to determine the solution structure of the Cu site and how this relates to reactivity. From X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies, we observed a change from four-coordinate Cu(II) to three-coordinate Cu(I) of the active site in solution, where three protein-derived nitrogen ligands coordinate the Cu in both redox states, and a labile hydroxide ligand is lost upon reduction. The spectroscopic data allowed for density functional theory calculations of an enzyme active site model, where the optimized Cu(I) and (II) structures were consistent with the experimental data. The O2 reactivity of the Cu(I) site was probed by EPR and stopped-flow absorption spectroscopies, and a rapid one-electron reduction of O2 and regeneration of the resting Cu(II) enzyme were observed. This reactivity was evaluated computationally, and by calibration to Cu-superoxide model complexes, formation of an end-on Cu-AA9-superoxide species was found to be thermodynamically favored. We discuss how this thermodynamically difficult one-electron reduction of O2 is enabled by the unique protein structure where two nitrogen ligands from His1 dictate formation of a T-shaped Cu(I) site, which provides an open coordination position for strong O2 binding with very little reorganization energy. PMID:24889637

  4. Gene structure and regulation of alkane monooxygenases in propane-utilizing Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Yui; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2006-09-01

    Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7 were isolated from soil samples as propane-utilizing bacteria and were found to be able to utilize various gaseous and liquid n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. One gene cluster, M-prmABCD, and two gene clusters, P-prm1ABCD and P-prm2ABCD, were cloned from the genomes of Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7, respectively. These gene clusters are homologous to the gene cluster encoding the multicomponent propane monooxygenase (prmABCD) of Gordonia sp. TY-5. The expression of prm gene clusters in Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7 was shown to be induced by gaseous n-alkanes (C2-C4) except methane, suggesting that the products of these genes are involved in gaseous n-alkane oxidation. Homologous genes for an alkane hydroxylase system (alk system) involved in liquid n-alkane oxidation were also cloned from the genomic DNA of Mycobacterium sp. TY-6. The alk gene cluster was transcribed in response to liquid n-alkanes (C11-C15). These results indicate that Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 has two distinct gene clusters for multicomponent monooxygenases involved in alkane oxidation. Whole-cell reactions revealed that propane is oxidized to 1-propanol through terminal oxidation in Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and that propane is oxidized to 1-propanol and 2-propanol through both terminal and subterminal oxidations in Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7. This study reveals the diversity of propane metabolism present in microorganisms. PMID:17046531

  5. Structural biology of redox partner interactions in P450cam monooxygenase: a fresh look at an old system.

    PubMed

    Sevrioukova, Irina F; Poulos, Thomas L

    2011-03-01

    The P450cam monooxygenase system consists of three separate proteins: the FAD-containing, NADH-dependent oxidoreductase (putidaredoxin reductase or Pdr), cytochrome P450cam and the 2Fe2S ferredoxin (putidaredoxin or Pdx), which transfers electrons from Pdr to P450cam. Over the past few years our lab has focused on the interaction between these redox components. It has been known for some time that Pdx can serve as an effector in addition to its electron shuttle role. The binding of Pdx to P450cam is thought to induce structural changes in the P450cam active site that couple electron transfer to substrate hydroxylation. The nature of these structural changes has remained unclear until a particular mutant of P450cam (Leu358Pro) was found to exhibit spectral perturbations similar to those observed in wild type P450cam bound to Pdx. The crystal structure of the L358P variant has provided some important insights on what might be happening when Pdx docks. In addition to these studies, many Pdx mutants have been analyzed to identify regions important for electron transfer. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that Pdx residues predicted to be at the P450cam-Pdx interface play different roles in the reduction of ferric P450cam and the ferrous P450-O(2) complex. More recently we have succeeded in obtaining the structure of a chemically cross-linked Pdr-Pdx complex. This fusion protein represents a valid model for the noncovalent Pdr-Pdx complex as it retains the redox activities of native Pdr and Pdx and supports monooxygenase reactions catalyzed by P450cam. The insights gained from these studies will be summarized in this review.

  6. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  7. C4a-hydroperoxyflavin formation in N-hydroxylating flavin monooxygenases is mediated by the 2'-OH of the nicotinamide ribose of NADP⁺.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Reeder; Badieyan, Somayesadat; Sobrado, Pablo

    2013-12-23

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases must stabilize a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate to hydroxylate their respective substrates. Formation and decay of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin were monitored under rapid reaction kinetic conditions in SidA, an N-hydroxylating monooxygenase involved in siderophore biosynthesis. Solvent kinetic isotope effect studies of flavin oxidation indicate that both hydrogen peroxide elimination and water elimination occur via abstraction of hydrogen from the N5 of the flavin. Kinetic isotope effect and density functional theory results are consistent with the transfer of a proton from the 2'-OH of the nicotinamide ribose of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP⁺) to the C4a-peroxyflavin to form the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin. This represents a novel role for NADP⁺ in the reaction of flavin-dependent enzymes.

  8. Identification of a novel Baeyer‐Villiger monooxygenase from Acinetobacter radioresistens: close relationship to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prodrug activator EtaA

    PubMed Central

    Minerdi, Daniela; Zgrablic, Ivan; Sadeghi, Sheila J.; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Summary This work demonstrates that Acinetobacter radioresistens strain S13 during the growth on medium supplemented with long‐chain alkanes as the sole energy source expresses almA gene coding for a Baeyer‐Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) involved in alkanes subterminal oxidation. Phylogenetic analysis placed the sequence of this novel BVMO in the same clade of the prodrug activator ethionamide monooxygenase (EtaA) and it bears only a distant relation to the other known class I BVMO proteins. In silico analysis of the 3D model of the S13 BVMO generated by homology modelling also supports the similarities with EtaA by binding ethionamide to the active site. In vitro experiments carried out with the purified enzyme confirm that this novel BVMO is indeed capable of typical Baeyer‐Villiger reactions as well as oxidation of the prodrug ethionamide. PMID:22862894

  9. Analysis of the Role of the Active Site Residue Arg98 in the Flavoprotein Tryptophan 2-Monooxygenase, a Member of the l-Amino Oxidase Family†

    PubMed Central

    Sobrado, Pablo; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2006-01-01

    The flavoprotein tryptophan 2-monooxygenase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of tryptophan to indoleacetamide. We have previously identified tryptophan 2-monooxygenase as a homologue of l-amino acid oxidase [Sobrado, P., and Fitzpatrick, P. F. (2002) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 402, 24–30]. On the basis of the sequence comparisons of the different LAAO family members, Arg98 of tryptophan 2-monooxygenase can be identified as an active site residue which interacts with the carboxylate of the amino acid substrate. The catalytic properties of R98K and R98A tryptophan 2-monooxygenase have been characterized to evaluate the role of this residue. Mutation of Arg98 to lysine decreases the first-order rate constant for flavin reduction by 180-fold and the second-order rate constant for flavin oxidation by 26-fold, has no significant effect on the Kd value for tryptophan or the Ki value for the competitive inhibitor indoleacetamide, and increases the Ki value for indolepyruvate less than 2-fold. Mutation of this residue to alanine decreases the rate constants for reduction and oxidation an additional 5- and 2-fold, respectively, and increases the Kd value for tryptophan and the Ki value for indolepyruvate by 31- and 17-fold, respectively, while having an only 2-fold effect on the Ki value for indoleacetamide. Both mutations increase the value of the primary deuterium isotope effect with tryptophan as a substrate, consistent with a later transition state. Both mutant enzymes catalyze a simple oxidase reaction, producing indolepyruvate and hydrogen peroxide. The pH dependences of the V/Ktrp values for the mutant enzymes show that the anionic form of the substrate is preferred but that the zwitterionic form is a substrate. The results are consistent with the interaction between Arg98 and the carboxylate of the amino acid substrate being critical for correct positioning of the substrate in the active site for efficient catalysis. PMID:14636049

  10. Developmental changes of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions after transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into spleens of adult syngenic rats.

    PubMed

    Lupp, A; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1998-06-01

    Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. Animals were sacrificed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, and 2, 4 and 6 months after transplantation and cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants were assessed by measuring three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; mainly 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; predominantly 1A, 2A, 2B) and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; mainly 3A). Values of transplant recipients were compared to those of sham operated and age matched control rats. Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls or sham operated animals, but there was no influence of the transplants within the spleens on liver weights. With fetal livers at the 21st day of gestation, the day of transplantation, a weak EROD and ECOD, but no END activity was seen. Spleens of controls or sham operated animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions. In the explant containing spleens a significant and increasing EROD activity was found from 4 weeks after surgery on and an ECOD activity already 2 weeks after transplantation. END was only slightly enhanced at 6 months after surgery. The livers of all three groups of rats displayed normal EROD, ECOD and END activities. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspensions into the spleens did not influence the P450 dependent monooxygenase functions within the livers of the animals. From these results it can be concluded that intrasplenically transplanted liver cells originating from syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions proliferate and differentiate within the host organs. They display P450 dependent monooxygenase functions with some developmental changes during the observed time period of 6 months.

  11. Biocatalyst Engineering by Assembly of Fatty Acid Transport and Oxidation Activities for In Vivo Application of Cytochrome P-450BM-3 Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Silke; Wubbolts, Marcel G.; Sanglard, Dominique; Witholt, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    The application of whole cells containing cytochrome P-450BM-3 monooxygenase [EC 1.14.14.1] for the bioconversion of long-chain saturated fatty acids to ω-1, ω-2, and ω-3 hydroxy fatty acids was investigated. We utilized pentadecanoic acid and studied its conversion to a mixture of 12-, 13-, and 14-hydroxypentadecanoic acids by this monooxygenase. For this purpose, Escherichia coli recombinants containing plasmid pCYP102 producing the fatty acid monooxygenase cytochrome P-450BM-3 were used. To overcome inefficient uptake of pentadecanoic acid by intact E. coli cells, we made use of a cloned fatty acid uptake system from Pseudomonas oleovorans which, in contrast to the common FadL fatty acid uptake system of E. coli, does not require coupling by FadD (acyl-coenzyme A synthetase) of the imported fatty acid to coenzyme A. This system from P. oleovorans is encoded by a gene carried by plasmid pGEc47, which has been shown to effect facilitated uptake of oleic acid in E. coli W3110 (M. Nieboer, Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands, 1996). By using a double recombinant of E. coli K27, which is a fadD mutant and therefore unable to consume substrates or products via the β-oxidation cycle, a twofold increase in productivity was achieved. Applying cytochrome P-450BM-3 monooxygenase as a biocatalyst in whole cells does not require the exogenous addition of the costly cofactor NADPH. In combination with the coenzyme A-independent fatty acid uptake system from P. oleovorans, cytochrome P-450BM-3 recombinants appear to be useful alternatives to the enzymatic approach for the bioconversion of long-chain fatty acids to subterminal hydroxylated fatty acids. PMID:9758800

  12. Biocatalyst engineering by assembly of fatty acid transport and oxidation activities for In vivo application of cytochrome P-450BM-3 monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Wubbolts, M G; Sanglard, D; Witholt, B

    1998-10-01

    The application of whole cells containing cytochrome P-450BM-3 monooxygenase [EC 1.14.14.1] for the bioconversion of long-chain saturated fatty acids to omega-1, omega-2, and omega-3 hydroxy fatty acids was investigated. We utilized pentadecanoic acid and studied its conversion to a mixture of 12-, 13-, and 14-hydroxypentadecanoic acids by this monooxygenase. For this purpose, Escherichia coli recombinants containing plasmid pCYP102 producing the fatty acid monooxygenase cytochrome P-450BM-3 were used. To overcome inefficient uptake of pentadecanoic acid by intact E. coli cells, we made use of a cloned fatty acid uptake system from Pseudomonas oleovorans which, in contrast to the common FadL fatty acid uptake system of E. coli, does not require coupling by FadD (acyl-coenzyme A synthetase) of the imported fatty acid to coenzyme A. This system from P. oleovorans is encoded by a gene carried by plasmid pGEc47, which has been shown to effect facilitated uptake of oleic acid in E. coli W3110 (M. Nieboer, Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands, 1996). By using a double recombinant of E. coli K27, which is a fadD mutant and therefore unable to consume substrates or products via the beta-oxidation cycle, a twofold increase in productivity was achieved. Applying cytochrome P-450BM-3 monooxygenase as a biocatalyst in whole cells does not require the exogenous addition of the costly cofactor NADPH. In combination with the coenzyme A-independent fatty acid uptake system from P. oleovorans, cytochrome P-450BM-3 recombinants appear to be useful alternatives to the enzymatic approach for the bioconversion of long-chain fatty acids to subterminal hydroxylated fatty acids.

  13. Recent innovations in mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Nucleic acid-based vaccines are being developed as a means to combine the positive attributes of both live-attenuated and subunit vaccines. Viral vectors and plasmid DNA vaccines have been extensively evaluated in human clinical trials and have been shown to be safe and immunogenic, although none have yet been licensed for human use. Recently, mRNA based vaccines have emerged as an alternative approach. They promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines, without the need for electroporation, but with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. In addition, they avoid the limitations of anti-vector immunity seen with viral vectors, and can be dosed repeatedly. This review highlights the key papers published over the past few years and summarizes prospects for the near future.

  14. An Unprecedented NADPH Domain Conformation in Lysine Monooxygenase NbtG Provides Insights into Uncoupling of Oxygen Consumption from Substrate Hydroxylation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Binda, Claudia; Robinson, Reeder M.; Martin del Campo, Julia S.; Keul, Nicholas D.; Rodriguez, Pedro J.; Robinson, Howard H.; Mattevi, Andrea; Sobrado, Pablo

    2015-03-23

    N-hydroxylating monooxygenases (NMOs) are involved in the biosynthesis of iron-chelating hydroxamate-containing siderophores that play a role in microbial virulence. These flavoenzymes catalyze the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of amines, such as those found on the side chains of lysine and ornithine. In this work we report the biochemical and structural characterization of Nocardia farcinica Lys monooxygenase (NbtG), which has similar biochemical properties to mycobacterial homologs. NbtG is also active on D-Lys although it binds L-Lys with a higher affinity. Differently from the ornithine monooxygenases PvdA, SidA and KtzI, NbtG can use both NADH and NADPH and is highly uncoupled, producingmore » more superoxide and hydrogen peroxide than hydroxylated Lys. The crystal structure of NbtG solved at 2.4 Å resolution revealed an unexpected protein conformation with a 30° rotation of the NAD(P)H domain with respect to the FAD domain that precludes binding of the nicotinamide cofactor. This “occluded” structure may explain the biochemical properties of NbtG, specifically with regard to the substantial uncoupling and limited stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. We discuss the biological implications of these findings.« less

  15. An Unprecedented NADPH Domain Conformation in Lysine Monooxygenase NbtG Provides Insights into Uncoupling of Oxygen Consumption from Substrate Hydroxylation

    SciTech Connect

    Binda, Claudia; Robinson, Reeder M.; Martin del Campo, Julia S.; Keul, Nicholas D.; Rodriguez, Pedro J.; Robinson, Howard H.; Mattevi, Andrea; Sobrado, Pablo

    2015-03-23

    N-hydroxylating monooxygenases (NMOs) are involved in the biosynthesis of iron-chelating hydroxamate-containing siderophores that play a role in microbial virulence. These flavoenzymes catalyze the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of amines, such as those found on the side chains of lysine and ornithine. In this work we report the biochemical and structural characterization of Nocardia farcinica Lys monooxygenase (NbtG), which has similar biochemical properties to mycobacterial homologs. NbtG is also active on D-Lys although it binds L-Lys with a higher affinity. Differently from the ornithine monooxygenases PvdA, SidA and KtzI, NbtG can use both NADH and NADPH and is highly uncoupled, producing more superoxide and hydrogen peroxide than hydroxylated Lys. The crystal structure of NbtG solved at 2.4 Å resolution revealed an unexpected protein conformation with a 30° rotation of the NAD(P)H domain with respect to the FAD domain that precludes binding of the nicotinamide cofactor. This “occluded” structure may explain the biochemical properties of NbtG, specifically with regard to the substantial uncoupling and limited stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. We discuss the biological implications of these findings.

  16. Recombinant expression and purification of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase from the camphor metabolizing Pseudomonas putida strain NCIMB 10007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Three different Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) were reported to be involved in the camphor metabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007. During (+)-camphor degradation, 2,5-diketocamphane is formed serving as substrate for the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase. This enzyme is encoded on the CAM plasmid and depends on the cofactors FMN and NADH and hence belongs to the group of type II BVMOs. We have cloned and recombinantly expressed the oxygenating subunit of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase (2,5-DKCMO) in E. coli followed by His-tag-based affinity purification. A range of compounds representing different BVMO substrate classes were then investigated, but only bicyclic ketones were converted by 2,5-DKCMO used as crude cell extract or after purification. Interestingly, also (-)-camphor was oxidized, but conversion was about 3-fold lower compared to (+)-camphor. Moreover, activity of purified 2,5-DKCMO was observed in the absence of an NADH-dehydrogenase subunit. PMID:21906366

  17. Cloning and expression of three ladA-type alkane monooxygenase genes from an extremely thermophilic alkane-degrading bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23.

    PubMed

    Boonmak, Chanita; Takahashi, Yasunori; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-05-01

    An extremely thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23, is capable of degrading a broad range of alkanes (with carbon chain lengths ranging between C11 and C32) at 70 °C. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that unlike most alkane-degrading bacteria, strain B23 does not possess an alkB-type alkane monooxygenase gene. Instead, it possesses a cluster of three ladA-type genes, ladAαB23, ladAβB23, and ladB B23, on its chromosome, whose protein products share significant amino acid sequence identities, 49.8, 34.4, and 22.7 %, respectively, with that of ladA alkane monooxygenase gene found on a plasmid of Geobacillus thermodetrificans NG 80-2. Each of the three genes, ladAαB23, ladAβB23, and ladB B23, was heterologously expressed individually in an alkB1 deletion mutant strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens KOB2Δ1. It was found that all three genes were functional in P. fluorescens KOB2Δ1, and partially restored alkane degradation activity. In this study, we suggest that G. thermoleovorans B23 utilizes multiple LadA-type alkane monooxygenases for the degradation of a broad range of alkanes.

  18. Characterization of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000-dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase induced by barbiturates in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Narhi, L O; Fulco, A J

    1986-06-01

    A unique cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 is strongly induced by phenobarbital (Narhi, L. O., and Fulco, A. J. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2147-2150) and many other barbiturates (Kim, B.-H., and Fulco, A. J. (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 116, 843-850). This monooxygenase has now been purified to homogeneity from pentobarbital-induced bacteria as a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 119,000 +/- 5,000 daltons. In the presence of NADPH and O2, it can catalyze the oxygenation of long chain fatty acids without the aid of any other protein. The enzyme has a catalytic center activity of 4,600 nmol of fatty acid oxygenated per nmol of P-450 (the highest activity yet reported for a P-450-dependent monooxygenase) and also functions as a highly active cytochrome c reductase in the presence of NADPH. The purified holoenzyme is a soluble protein containing 40 mol % hydrophobic amino acid residues and 1 mol each of FAD and FMN/mol of heme. It is isolated and purified in the low spin form but is converted to the high spin form in the presence of long chain fatty acids. The enzyme, which catalyzes the omega-2 hydroxylation of saturated fatty acids and the hydroxylation and epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids has its highest affinity (Km = 2 +/- 1 microM) for the C15 and C16 chain lengths. PMID:3086309

  19. Induction by barbiturates of a cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase in Bacillus megaterium: relationship between barbiturate structure and inducer activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, B H; Fulco, A J

    1983-11-15

    In a recent communication (Narhi, L. and Fulco, A.J. [1982] J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2147-2150) we found that a soluble cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase isolated from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 could be induced about 28-fold by phenobarbital. We have now examined 19 barbiturates and found that 13 significantly induce the specific monooxygenase activity. Of these, 11 are more active than phenobarbital and three (secobarbital, thiamylal and methohexital) are more than 30 times as active on a molar basis. The dialkyl barbiturates without exception show an excellent correlation between increasing lipophilicity and increasing potency as inducers as do most of the barbiturates containing an aromatic substituent. Nevertheless, it is apparent that certain structural features involving factors other than lipophilicity are also necessary for induction. Our finding that barbiturates can cause the non-substrate induction of a cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase in a prokaryote represents a unique discovery that may provide a relatively simple model for apparently similar induction systems in higher animals. PMID:6418172

  20. An Unprecedented NADPH Domain Conformation in Lysine Monooxygenase NbtG Provides Insights into Uncoupling of Oxygen Consumption from Substrate Hydroxylation*

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Claudia; Robinson, Reeder M.; Martin del Campo, Julia S.; Keul, Nicholas D.; Rodriguez, Pedro J.; Robinson, Howard H.; Mattevi, Andrea; Sobrado, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    N-Hydroxylating monooxygenases are involved in the biosynthesis of iron-chelating hydroxamate-containing siderophores that play a role in microbial virulence. These flavoenzymes catalyze the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of amines such as those found on the side chains of lysine and ornithine. In this work we report the biochemical and structural characterization of Nocardia farcinica Lys monooxygenase (NbtG), which has similar biochemical properties to mycobacterial homologs. NbtG is also active on d-Lys, although it binds l-Lys with a higher affinity. Differently from the ornithine monooxygenases PvdA, SidA, and KtzI, NbtG can use both NADH and NADPH and is highly uncoupled, producing more superoxide and hydrogen peroxide than hydroxylated Lys. The crystal structure of NbtG solved at 2.4 Å resolution revealed an unexpected protein conformation with a 30° rotation of the NAD(P)H domain with respect to the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain that precludes binding of the nicotinamide cofactor. This “occluded” structure may explain the biochemical properties of NbtG, specifically with regard to the substantial uncoupling and limited stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. Biological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25802330

  1. Role of P450 Monooxygenases in the Degradation of the Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical Nonylphenol by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium▿

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2009-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively degraded the endocrine disruptor chemical nonylphenol (NP; 100% of 100 ppm) in both nutrient-limited cultures and nutrient-sufficient cultures. The P450 enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide caused significant inhibition (∼75%) of the degradation activity in nutrient-rich malt extract (ME) cultures but no inhibition in defined low-nitrogen (LN) cultures, indicating an essential role of P450 monooxygenase(s) in NP degradation under nutrient-rich conditions. A genome-wide analysis using our custom-designed P450 microarray revealed significant induction of multiple P450 monooxygenase genes by NP: 18 genes were induced (2- to 195-fold) under nutrient-rich conditions, 17 genes were induced (2- to 6-fold) in LN cultures, and 3 were induced under both nutrient-rich and LN conditions. The P450 genes Pff 311b (corresponding to protein identification number [ID] 5852) and Pff 4a (protein ID 5001) showed extraordinarily high levels of induction (195- and 167-fold, respectively) in ME cultures. The P450 oxidoreductase (POR), glutathione S-transferase (gst), and cellulose metabolism genes were also induced in ME cultures. In contrast, certain metabolic genes, such as five of the peroxidase genes, showed partial downregulation by NP. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of P450 enzymes in NP degradation by a white rot fungus and the first genome-wide identification of specific P450 genes responsive to an environmentally significant toxicant. PMID:19542331

  2. Rational reprogramming of the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase into a self-hydroxylating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, J; Voegtli, W C; Khidekel, N; Moënne-Loccoz, P; Krebs, C; Pereira, A S; Ley, B A; Huynh, B H; Loehr, T M; Riggs-Gelasco, P J; Rosenzweig, A C; Bollinger, J M

    2001-07-25

    The outcome of O2 activation at the diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli (class I) ribonucleotide reductase has been rationally altered from the normal tyrosyl radical (Y122*) production to self-hydroxylation of a phenylalanine side-chain by two amino acid substitutions that leave intact the (histidine)2-(carboxylate)4 ligand set characteristic of the diiron-carboxylate family. Iron ligand Asp (D) 84 was replaced with Glu (E), the amino acid found in the cognate position of the structurally similar diiron-carboxylate protein, methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). We previously showed that this substitution allows accumulation of a mu-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, which does not accumulate in the wild-type (wt) protein and is probably a structural homologue of intermediate P (H(peroxo)) in O2 activation by MMOH. In addition, the near-surface residue Trp (W) 48 was replaced with Phe (F), blocking transfer of the "extra" electron that occurs in wt R2 during formation of the formally Fe(III)Fe(IV) cluster X. Decay of the mu-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex in R2-W48F/D84E gives an initial brown product, which contains very little Y122* and which converts very slowly (t1/2 approximately 7 h) upon incubation at 0 degrees C to an intensely purple final product. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the purple product indicates that F208 has undergone epsilon-hydroxylation and the resulting phenol has shifted significantly to become a ligand to Fe2 of the diiron cluster. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the purple product generated with 16O2 or 18O2 show appropriate isotopic sensitivity in bands assigned to O-phenyl and Fe-O-phenyl vibrational modes, confirming that the oxygen of the Fe(III)-phenolate species is derived from O2. Chemical analysis, experiments involving interception of the hydroxylating intermediate with exogenous reductant, and Mössbauer and EXAFS characterization of the brown and purple species establish that F208 hydroxylation

  3. Saturation mutagenesis of Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 toluene 4-monooxygenase at alpha-subunit residues proline 101, proline 103, and histidine 214 for regiospecific oxidation of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Yanık-Yıldırım, K Cansu; Vardar-Schara, Gönül

    2014-11-01

    A novel toluene monooxygenase (TMO) six-gene cluster from Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 having an overall 35, 36, and 38 % protein similarity with toluene o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) of Pseudomonas sp. OX1, toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, and toluene-para-monooxygenase (TpMO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, respectively, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli TG1, and its potential activity was investigated for aromatic hydroxylation and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation. The natural substrate toluene was hydroxylated to p-cresol, indicating that the new toluene monooxygenase (T4MO·BTAi1) acts as a para hydroxylating enzyme, similar to T4MO and TpMO. Some shifts in regiospecific hydroxylations were observed compared to the other wild-type TMOs. For example, wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 formed catechol (88 %) and hydroquinone (12 %) from phenol, whereas all the other wild-type TMOs were reported to form only catechol. Furthermore, it was discovered that TG1 cells expressing wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 mineralized TCE at a rate of 0.67 ± 0.10 nmol Cl(-)/h/mg protein. Saturation and site directed mutagenesis were used to generate eight variants of T4MO·BTAi1 at alpha-subunit positions P101, P103, and H214: P101T/P103A, P101S, P101N/P103T, P101V, P103T, P101V/P103T, H214G, and H214G/D278N; by testing the substrates phenol, nitrobenzene, and naphthalene, positions P101 and P103 were found to influence the regiospecific oxidation of aromatics. For example, compared to wild type, variant P103T produced four fold more m-nitrophenol from nitrobenzene as well as produced mainly resorcinol (60 %) from phenol whereas wild-type T4MO·BTAi1 did not. Similarly, variants P101T/P103A and P101S synthesized more 2-naphthol and 2.3-fold and 1.6-fold less 1-naphthol from naphthalene, respectively.

  4. An expanding universe of mRNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2015-01-01

    The fate of mRNA can be regulated by internal base modifications, with the currently known modified bases being N6-methyladenosine, 5-methylcytosine, and inosine. Three new studies show that yeast and human mRNA also contain pseudouridine residues and that pseudouridylation is induced in various stress states, hinting at a new pathway for post-transcriptional control of mRNA. PMID:25372308

  5. A substrate-specific cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP6AB11, from the polyphagous navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella).

    PubMed

    Niu, Guodong; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G; Zangerl, Arthur R; Siegel, Joel P; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2011-04-01

    The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a serious pest of many tree crops in California orchards, including almonds, pistachios, walnuts and figs. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying detoxification of phytochemicals, insecticides and mycotoxins by this species, full-length CYP6AB11 cDNA was isolated from larval midguts using RACE PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of this insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenase established its evolutionary relationship to a P450 that selectively metabolizes imperatorin (a linear furanocoumarin) and myristicin (a natural methylenedioxyphenyl compound) in another lepidopteran species. Metabolic assays conducted with baculovirus-expressed P450 protein, P450 reductase and cytochrome b(5) on 16 compounds, including phytochemicals, mycotoxins, and synthetic pesticides, indicated that CYP6AB11 efficiently metabolizes imperatorin (0.88 pmol/min/pmol P450) and slowly metabolizes piperonyl butoxide (0.11 pmol/min/pmol P450). LC-MS analysis indicated that the imperatorin metabolite is an epoxide generated by oxidation of the double bond in its extended isoprenyl side chain. Predictive structures for CYP6AB11 suggested that its catalytic site contains a doughnut-like constriction over the heme that excludes aromatic rings on substrates and allows only their extended side chains to access the catalytic site. CYP6AB11 can also metabolize the principal insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a synthetic methylenedioxyphenyl compound, albeit slowly, which raises the possibility that resistance may evolve in this species after exposure to synergists under field conditions.

  6. 3-Ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase enzymes: Rieske non-heme monooxygenases essential for bacterial steroid degradation.

    PubMed

    Petrusma, Mirjan; van der Geize, Robert; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-07-01

    Various micro-organisms are able to use sterols/steroids as carbon- and energy sources for growth. 3-Ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase (KSH), a two component Rieske non-heme monooxygenase comprised of the oxygenase KshA and the reductase KshB, is a key-enzyme in bacterial steroid degradation. It initiates opening of the steroid polycyclic ring structure. The enzyme has industrial relevance in the synthesis of pharmaceutical steroids. Deletion of KSH activity in sterol degrading bacteria results in blockage of steroid ring opening and is used to produce valuable C19-steroids such as 4-androstene-3,17-dione and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione. Interestingly, KSH activity is essential for the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Detailed information about KSH thus is of medical relevance, and KSH inhibitory compounds may find application in combatting tuberculosis. In recent years, the 3D structure of the KshA protein of M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been elucidated and various studies report biochemical characteristics and possible physiological roles of KSH. The current knowledge is reviewed here and forms a solid basis for further studies on this highly interesting enzyme. Future work may result in the construction of KSH mutants capable of production of specific bioactive steroids. Furthermore, KSH provides an promising target for drugs against the pathogenic agent M. tuberculosis.

  7. Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Catalyze Early Hydroxylation Steps in the Potato Steroid Glycoalkaloid Biosynthetic Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nakayasu, Masaru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    α-Solanine and α-chaconine, steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) found in potato (Solanum tuberosum), are among the best-known secondary metabolites in food crops. At low concentrations in potato tubers, SGAs are distasteful; however, at high concentrations, SGAs are harmful to humans and animals. Here, we show that POTATO GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PGA1) and PGA2, two genes that encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP72A208 and CYP72A188), are involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway, respectively. The knockdown plants of either PGA1 or PGA2 contained very little SGA, yet vegetative growth and tuber production were not affected. Analyzing metabolites that accumulated in the plants and produced by in vitro enzyme assays revealed that PGA1 and PGA2 catalyzed the 26- and 22-hydroxylation steps, respectively, in the SGA biosynthetic pathway. The PGA-knockdown plants had two unique phenotypic characteristics: The plants were sterile and tubers of these knockdown plants did not sprout during storage. Functional analyses of PGA1 and PGA2 have provided clues for controlling both potato glycoalkaloid biosynthesis and tuber sprouting, two traits that can significantly impact potato breeding and the industry. PMID:27307258

  8. Characterization of human β,β-carotene-15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO1) as a soluble monomeric enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kowatz, Thomas; Babino, Darwin; Kiser, Philip; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The formal first step in in vitamin A metabolism is the conversion of its natural precursor β,β-carotene (C40) to retinaldehyde (C20) This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme β,β-carotene-15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO1). BCMO1 has been cloned from several vertebrate species, including humans. However, knowledge about this protein’s enzymatic and structural properties is scant. Here we expressed human BCMO1 in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 insect cells. Recombinant BCMO1 is a soluble protein that displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a KM of 14 μM for β,β-carotene. Though addition of detergents failed to increase BCMO1 enzymatic activity, short chain aliphatic detergents such as C8E4 and C8E6 decreased enzymatic activity probably by interacting with the substrate binding site. Thus we purified BCMO1 in the absence of detergent. Purified BCMO1 was a monomeric enzymatically active soluble protein that did not require cofactors and displayed a turnover rate of about 8 molecules of β,β-carotene per second. The aqueous solubility of BCMO1 was confirmed in mouse liver and mammalian cells. Establishment of a protocol that yields highly active homogenous BCMO1 is an important step towards clarifying the lipophilic substrate interaction, reaction mechanism and structure of this vitamin A forming enzyme. PMID:23727499

  9. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers. PMID:8415393

  10. Structure of the flavoprotein tryptophan 2-monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the formation of galls in plants.

    PubMed

    Gaweska, Helena M; Taylor, Alexander B; Hart, P John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2013-04-16

    The flavoprotein tryptophan 2-monooxygenase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of tryptophan to yield indole-3-acetamide. This is the initial step in the biosynthesis of the plant growth hormone indole-acetic acid by bacterial pathogens that cause crown gall and related diseases. The structure of the enzyme from Pseudomonas savastanoi has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods to a resolution of 1.95 Å. The overall structure of the protein shows that it has the same fold as members of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins, with the greatest similarities to the l-amino acid oxidases. The location of bound indole-3-acetamide in the active site allows identification of residues responsible for substrate binding and specificity. Two residues in the enzyme are conserved in all members of the monoamine oxidase family, Lys365 and Trp466. The K365M mutation decreases the kcat and kcat/KTrp values by 60000- and 2 million-fold, respectively. The deuterium kinetic isotope effect increases to 3.2, consistent with carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage becoming rate-limiting in the mutant enzyme. The W466F mutation decreases the kcat value <2-fold and the kcat/KTrp value only 5-fold, while the W466M mutation results in an enzyme lacking flavin and detectable activity. This is consistent with a role for Trp466 in maintaining the structure of the flavin-binding site in the more conserved FAD domain. PMID:23521653

  11. Identification of universal selectivity-determining positions in cytochrome P450 monooxygenases by systematic sequence-based literature mining.

    PubMed

    Gricman, Łukasz; Vogel, Constantin; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) are a large, highly diverse protein family with a common fold. The sequences, structures, and functions of CYPs have been extensively studied resulting in more than 53,000 scientific articles. A sequence-based literature mining algorithm was designed to systematically analyze this wealth of information on SNPs, designed mutations, structural interactions, or functional roles of individual residues. Structurally corresponding positions in different CYPs were compared and universal selectivity-determining positions were identified. Based on the Cytochrome P450 Engineering Database (www.CYPED.BioCatNet.de) and a standard numbering scheme for all CYPs, 4000 residues in 168 CYPs mentioned in 2400 articles could be assigned to 440 structurally corresponding standard positions of the CYP fold, covering 96% of all standard positions. Seventeen individual standard positions were mentioned in the context of more than 32 different CYPs. The majority of these most frequently mentioned positions are located on the six substrate recognition sites and are involved in control of selectivity, such as the well-studied position 87 in CYP102A1 (P450(BM-3)) which was mentioned in the articles on 63 different CYPs. The recurrent citation of the 17 frequently mentioned positions for different CYPs suggests their universal functional relevance. PMID:26033392

  12. Dual role of NADP(H) in the reaction of a flavin dependent N-hydroxylating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Romero, Elvira; Fedkenheuer, Michael; Chocklett, Samuel W; Qi, Jun; Oppenheimer, Michelle; Sobrado, Pablo

    2012-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus siderophore A (Af SidA) is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of ornithine, producing N(5)-hydroxyornithine. This is the first step in the biosynthesis of hydroxamate-containing siderophores in A. fumigatus. Af SidA is essential for virulence, validating this enzyme as a drug target. Af SidA can accept reducing equivalents from either NADPH or NADH and displays similar kinetic parameters when using either coenzyme. When the enzyme is reduced with NADPH and reacted with molecular oxygen, a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate is observed. When the enzyme is reduced with NADH, the intermediate is 2-fold less stable. Steady-state kinetic isotope effect values of 3 and 2 were determined for NADPH and NADH, respectively. The difference in the isotope effect values is due to differences in the rate of flavin reduction by these coenzymes. A difference in the binding mode between these coenzymes was observed by monitoring flavin fluorescence. Limited proteolysis studies show that NADP(+), and not NAD(+), protects Af SidA from proteolysis, suggesting that it induces conformational changes upon binding. Together, these results are consistent with NADPH having a role in flavin reduction and in the modulation of conformational changes, which positions NADP(+) to also play a role in stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin.

  13. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers.

  14. Sparteine monooxygenase in brain and liver: Identified by the dopamine uptake blocker ( sup 3 H)GBR-12935

    SciTech Connect

    Kalow, W.; Tyndale, R.F.; Niznik, H.B.; Inaba, T. )

    1990-02-26

    P450IID6 (human sparteine monooxygenase) metabolizes many drugs including neuroleptics, antidepressants, and beta-blockers. The P450IID6 exists in human, bovine, rat and canine brains, but in very low quantities causing methodological difficulties in its assessment. Work with ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935; 1-(2-(diphenylmethoxy) ethyl)-4-(3-phenyl propyl) piperazine has shown that it binds a neuronal/hepatic protein with high affinity ({approximately}7nM) and a rank order of inhibitory potency suggesting that the binding protein is cytochrome P450IID6. The binding was used to predict that d-amphetamine and methamphetamine would interact with P450IID6. Inhibition studies indicated that these compounds were competitive inhibitors of P450IID6. Haloperidol (HAL) and it's metabolite hydroxy-haloperidol (RHAL) are both competitive inhibitors of P450IID6 activity and were found to inhibit ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935 binding. K{sub i} values of twelve compounds (known to interact with the DA transporter or P450IID6) for ({sup 3}H)GRB-12935 binding and P450IID6 activity. The techniques are now available for measurements of cytochrome P450IID6 in healthy and diseased brain/liver tissue using radio-receptor binding assay techniques with ({sup 3}H)GBR-12935.

  15. The Regulatory Domain of Squalene Monooxygenase Contains a Re-entrant Loop and Senses Cholesterol via a Conformational Change.

    PubMed

    Howe, Vicky; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Stevenson, Julian; Brown, Andrew J

    2015-11-13

    Squalene monooxygenase (SM) is an important control point in cholesterol synthesis beyond 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Although it is known to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum, its topology has not been determined. We have elucidated the membrane topology of the sterol-responsive domain of SM comprising the first 100 amino acids fused to GFP (SM N100-GFP) by determining the accessibility of 16 introduced cysteines to the cysteine-reactive, membrane-impermeable reagent PEG-maleimide. We have identified a region integrally associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane that is likely to interact with cholesterol or respond to cholesterol-induced membrane effects. By comparing cysteine accessibility with and without cholesterol treatment, we further present evidence to suggest that cholesterol induces a conformational change in SM N100-GFP. This change is likely to lead to its targeted degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system because degradation is blunted by treatment with the chemical chaperone glycerol, which retains SM N100-GFP in its native conformation. Furthermore, degradation can be disrupted by insertion of two N-terminal myc tags, implicating the N terminus in this process. Together, this information provides new molecular insights into the regulation of this critical control point in cholesterol synthesis.

  16. Identification of structural determinants of NAD(P)H selectivity and lysine binding in lysine N(6)-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Heba; Robinson, Reeder; Rodriguez, Pedro; Adly, Camelia; El-Sohaimy, Sohby; Sobrado, Pablo

    2016-09-15

    l-lysine (l-Lys) N(6)-monooxygenase (NbtG), from Nocardia farcinica, is a flavin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of l-Lys in the presence of oxygen and NAD(P)H in the biosynthetic pathway of the siderophore nocobactin. NbtG displays only a 3-fold preference for NADPH over NADH, different from well-characterized related enzymes, which are highly selective for NADPH. The structure of NbtG with bound NAD(P)(+) or l-Lys is currently not available. Herein, we present a mutagenesis study targeting M239, R301, and E216. These amino acids are conserved and located in either the NAD(P)H binding domain or the l-Lys binding pocket. M239R resulted in high production of hydrogen peroxide and little hydroxylation with no change in coenzyme selectivity. R301A caused a 300-fold decrease on kcat/Km value with NADPH but no change with NADH. E216Q increased the Km value for l-Lys by 30-fold with very little change on the kcat value or in the binding of NAD(P)H. These results suggest that R301 plays a major role in NADPH selectivity by interacting with the 2'-phosphate of the adenine-ribose moiety of NADPH, while E216 plays a role in l-Lys binding.

  17. Quantum mechanical calculations suggest that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases use a copper-oxyl, oxygen-rebound mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonah; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Sandgren, Mats; Paton, Robert S; Beckham, Gregg T

    2014-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) exhibit a mononuclear copper-containing active site and use dioxygen and a reducing agent to oxidatively cleave glycosidic linkages in polysaccharides. LPMOs represent a unique paradigm in carbohydrate turnover and exhibit synergy with hydrolytic enzymes in biomass depolymerization. To date, several features of copper binding to LPMOs have been elucidated, but the identity of the reactive oxygen species and the key steps in the oxidative mechanism have not been elucidated. Here, density functional theory calculations are used with an enzyme active site model to identify the reactive oxygen species and compare two hypothesized reaction pathways in LPMOs for hydrogen abstraction and polysaccharide hydroxylation; namely, a mechanism that employs a η(1)-superoxo intermediate, which abstracts a substrate hydrogen and a hydroperoxo species is responsible for substrate hydroxylation, and a mechanism wherein a copper-oxyl radical abstracts a hydrogen and subsequently hydroxylates the substrate via an oxygen-rebound mechanism. The results predict that oxygen binds end-on (η(1)) to copper, and that a copper-oxyl-mediated, oxygen-rebound mechanism is energetically preferred. The N-terminal histidine methylation is also examined, which is thought to modify the structure and reactivity of the enzyme. Density functional theory calculations suggest that this posttranslational modification has only a minor effect on the LPMO active site structure or reactivity for the examined steps. Overall, this study suggests the steps in the LPMO mechanism for oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds.

  18. Cytochrome P/sub 450/ dependent monooxygenases in nasal epithelial membranes: effect of phenobarbital and benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, W.M.; Dahl, A.R.; Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 content of microsomes isolated from nasal membranes, lungs, and livers of the mouse, rat, guinea pig, hamster, rabbit, and dog was measured. The cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenase activity (MO) was assayed in microsomes from dog nasal membrane, lung, and liver using aniline, p-nitroanisole, aminopyrine and hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) as substrates. Phenobarbital was administered as a saturated drinking water solution for 8 days or as an aerosol for 30 minutes on 4 successive days. Benzo(a)pyrene was administered as an aerosol for 1 h on 4 successive days. The drinking water was removed 12 h before sacrifice and the last aerosol exposure was 24 h before sacrifice. All species nasal membranes contained cytochrome P-450. The hamster nasal membranes contained the highest concentrations. All substrates used were metabolized (as measured by MO activity) by the nasal membrane microsomes except for aminopyrine by the maxilloturbinate microsomes. HMPA was the most rapidly metabolized substrate. Liver cytochrome P-450 was induced more than 2 times by the phenobarbital administered in the drinking water, but no induction of nasal membrane cytochrome P-450 was found. Neither the phenobarbital nor benzo(a)pyrene aerosols induced the liver, lung, or nasal membrane cytochrome P-450 content. (RJC)

  19. Overexpression of human kynurenine-3-monooxygenase protects against 3-hydroxykynurenine-mediated apoptosis through bidirectional nonlinear feedback.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K; Auer, M; Binnie, M; Zheng, X; Pham, N T; Iredale, J P; Webster, S P; Mole, D J

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a critical regulator of inflammation. The preferred KMO substrate, kynurenine, is converted to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), and this product exhibits cytotoxicity through mechanisms that culminate in apoptosis. Here, we report that overexpression of human KMO with orthotopic localisation to mitochondria creates a metabolic environment during which the cell exhibits increased tolerance for exogenous 3HK-mediated cellular injury. Using the selective KMO inhibitor Ro61-8048, we show that KMO enzyme function is essential for cellular protection. Pan-caspase inhibition with Z-VAD-FMK confirmed apoptosis as the mode of cell death. By defining expression of pathway components upstream and downstream of KMO, we observed alterations in other key kynurenine pathway components, particularly tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase upregulation, through bidirectional nonlinear feedback. KMO overexpression also increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These changes in gene expression are functionally relevant, because siRNA knockdown of the pathway components kynureninase and quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase caused cells to revert to a state of susceptibility to 3HK-mediated apoptosis. In summary, KMO overexpression, and importantly KMO activity, have metabolic repercussions that fundamentally affect resistance to cell stress. PMID:27077813

  20. Molecular evolutionary dynamics of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases across kingdoms: Special focus on mycobacterial P450s

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Mohammad; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Bamal, Hans Denis; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Xie, Ting; Yang, Haoran; Chen, Hengye; Theron, Chrispian William; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Salewe, Vuyani; Mongale, Bogadi Lorato; Matowane, Retshedisitswe Godfrey; Abdalla, Sara Mohamed Hasaan; Booi, Wool Isaac; van Wyk, Mari; Olivier, Dedré; Boucher, Charlotte E.; Nelson, David R.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Blackburn, Jonathan Michael; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Chen, Wanping; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s), great progress has been made in understanding their structure-function relationship, diversity and application in producing compounds beneficial to humans. However, the molecular evolution of P450s in terms of their dynamics both at protein and DNA levels and functional conservation across kingdoms still needs investigation. In this study, we analyzed 17 598 P450s belonging to 113 P450 families (bacteria −42; fungi −19; plant −28; animal −22; plant and animal −1 and common P450 family −1) and found highly conserved and rapidly evolving P450 families. Results suggested that bacterial P450s, particularly P450s belonging to mycobacteria, are highly conserved both at protein and DNA levels. Mycobacteria possess the highest P450 diversity percentage compared to other microbes and have a high coverage of P450s (≥1%) in their genomes, as found in fungi and plants. Phylogenetic and functional analyses revealed the functional conservation of P450s despite belonging to different biological kingdoms, suggesting the adherence of P450s to their innate function such as their involvement in either generation or oxidation of steroids and structurally related molecules, fatty acids and terpenoids. This study’s results offer new understanding of the dynamic structural nature of P450s. PMID:27616185

  1. Phylogenetic Diversity of Archaea and the Archaeal Ammonia Monooxygenase Gene in Uranium Mining-Impacted Locations in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Radeva, Galina; Kenarova, Anelia; Bachvarova, Velina; Popov, Ivan; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity. PMID:24711725

  2. Overexpression of human kynurenine-3-monooxygenase protects against 3-hydroxykynurenine-mediated apoptosis through bidirectional nonlinear feedback

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K; Auer, M; Binnie, M; Zheng, X; Pham, N T; Iredale, J P; Webster, S P; Mole, D J

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a critical regulator of inflammation. The preferred KMO substrate, kynurenine, is converted to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), and this product exhibits cytotoxicity through mechanisms that culminate in apoptosis. Here, we report that overexpression of human KMO with orthotopic localisation to mitochondria creates a metabolic environment during which the cell exhibits increased tolerance for exogenous 3HK-mediated cellular injury. Using the selective KMO inhibitor Ro61-8048, we show that KMO enzyme function is essential for cellular protection. Pan-caspase inhibition with Z-VAD-FMK confirmed apoptosis as the mode of cell death. By defining expression of pathway components upstream and downstream of KMO, we observed alterations in other key kynurenine pathway components, particularly tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase upregulation, through bidirectional nonlinear feedback. KMO overexpression also increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These changes in gene expression are functionally relevant, because siRNA knockdown of the pathway components kynureninase and quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase caused cells to revert to a state of susceptibility to 3HK-mediated apoptosis. In summary, KMO overexpression, and importantly KMO activity, have metabolic repercussions that fundamentally affect resistance to cell stress. PMID:27077813

  3. Crystal Structure and Computational Characterization of the Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase GH61D from the Basidiomycota Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miao; Beckham, Gregg T.; Larsson, Anna M.; Ishida, Takuya; Kim, Seonah; Payne, Christina M.; Himmel, Michael E.; Crowley, Michael F.; Horn, Svein J.; Westereng, Bjørge; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Sandgren, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are modified and degraded in the biosphere by a myriad of mostly hydrolytic enzymes. Recently, lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) were discovered as a new class of enzymes for cleavage of recalcitrant polysaccharides that instead employ an oxidative mechanism. LPMOs employ copper as the catalytic metal and are dependent on oxygen and reducing agents for activity. LPMOs are found in many fungi and bacteria, but to date no basidiomycete LPMO has been structurally characterized. Here we present the three-dimensional crystal structure of the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium GH61D LPMO, and, for the first time, measure the product distribution of LPMO action on a lignocellulosic substrate. The structure reveals a copper-bound active site common to LPMOs, a collection of aromatic and polar residues near the binding surface that may be responsible for regio-selectivity, and substantial differences in loop structures near the binding face compared with other LPMO structures. The activity assays indicate that this LPMO primarily produces aldonic acids. Last, molecular simulations reveal conformational changes, including the binding of several regions to the cellulose surface, leading to alignment of three tyrosine residues on the binding face of the enzyme with individual cellulose chains, similar to what has been observed for family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules. A calculated potential energy surface for surface translation indicates that P. chrysosporium GH61D exhibits energy wells whose spacing seems adapted to the spacing of cellobiose units along a cellulose chain. PMID:23525113

  4. Cloning and characterization of the Tribolium castaneum eye-color genes encoding tryptophan oxygenase and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Marcé D; Brown, Susan J; Denell, Robin E; Beeman, Richard W

    2002-01-01

    The use of eye-color mutants and their corresponding genes as scorable marker systems has facilitated the development of transformation technology in Drosophila and other insects. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the only currently available system for germline transformation employs the exogenous marker gene, EGFP, driven by an eye-specific promoter. To exploit the advantages offered by eye-pigmentation markers, we decided to develop a transformant selection system for Tribolium on the basis of mutant rescue. The Tribolium orthologs of the Drosophila eye-color genes vermilion (tryptophan oxygenase) and cinnabar (kynurenine 3-monooxygenase) were cloned and characterized. Conceptual translations of Tc vermilion (Tcv) and Tc cinnabar (Tccn) are 71 and 51% identical to their respective Drosophila orthologs. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to show that T. castaneum larvae lacking functional Tcv or Tccn gene products also lack the pigmented eyespots observed in wild-type larvae. Five available eye-color mutations were tested for linkage to Tcv or Tccn via recombinational mapping. No linkage was found between candidate mutations and Tccn. However, tight linkage was found between Tcv and the white-eye mutation white, here renamed vermilion(white) (v(w)). Molecular analysis indicates that 80% of the Tcv coding region is deleted in v(w) beetles. These observations suggest that the Tribolium eye is pigmented only by ommochromes, not pteridines, and indicate that Tcv is potentially useful as a germline transformation marker. PMID:11805058

  5. Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Substrate Access Channel in the FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase Coq6

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Alexandre; Leroux, Vincent; Smadja, Myriam; Gonzalez, Lucie; Lombard, Murielle; Pierrel, Fabien; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline; Fontecave, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Coq6 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, a polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential to the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase is proposed to hydroxylate the benzene ring of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) precursor at position C5. We show here through biochemical studies that Coq6 is a flavoprotein using FAD as a cofactor. Homology models of the Coq6-FAD complex are constructed and studied through molecular dynamics and substrate docking calculations of 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol (4-HP6), a bulky hydrophobic model substrate. We identify a putative access channel for Coq6 in a wild type model and propose in silico mutations positioned at its entrance capable of partially (G248R and L382E single mutations) or completely (a G248R-L382E double-mutation) blocking access to the channel for the substrate. Further in vivo assays support the computational predictions, thus explaining the decreased activities or inactivation of the mutated enzymes. This work provides the first detailed structural information of an important and highly conserved enzyme of ubiquinone biosynthesis. PMID:26808124

  6. Mechanistic Studies of Reactions of Peroxodiiron(III) Intermediates in T201 Variants of Toluene/o-Xylene Monooxygenase Hydroxylase†

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woon Ju; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis studies of a strictly conserved T201 residue in the active site of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOH) revealed that a single mutation can facilitate kinetic isolation of two distinctive peroxodiiron(III) species, designated T201peroxo and ToMOHperoxo, during dioxygen activation. Previously we characterized both oxygenated intermediates by UV-vis and Mössbauer spectroscopy, proposed structures from DFT and QM/MM computational studies, and elucidated chemical steps involved in dioxygen activation through the kinetic studies of T201peroxo formation. In the current study, we investigated the kinetics of T201peroxo decay to explore the reaction mechanism of the oxygenated intermediates following O2 activation. The decay rates of T201peroxo were monitored in the absence and presence of external (phenol) or internal (tryptophan residue in an I100W variant) substrates under pre-steady-state conditions. Three possible reaction pathways were evaluated and the results demonstrate that T201peroxo is on the pathway of arene oxidation and appears to be in equilibrium with ToMOHperoxo. PMID:21595439

  7. Local Auxin Biosynthesis Mediated by a YUCCA Flavin Monooxygenase Regulates Haustorium Development in the Parasitic Plant Phtheirospermum japonicum.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Juliane K; Wakatake, Takanori; Yoshida, Satoko; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Wafula, Eric; dePamphilis, Claude W; Namba, Shigetou; Shirasu, Ken

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae cause serious agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants develop a multicellular infectious organ called a haustorium after recognition of host-released signals. To understand the molecular events associated with host signal perception and haustorium development, we identified differentially regulated genes expressed during early haustorium development in the facultative parasite Phtheirospermum japonicum using a de novo assembled transcriptome and a customized microarray. Among the genes that were upregulated during early haustorium development, we identified YUC3, which encodes a functional YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenase involved in auxin biosynthesis. YUC3 was specifically expressed in the epidermal cells around the host contact site at an early time point in haustorium formation. The spatio-temporal expression patterns of YUC3 coincided with those of the auxin response marker DR5, suggesting generation of auxin response maxima at the haustorium apex. Roots transformed with YUC3 knockdown constructs formed haustoria less frequently than nontransgenic roots. Moreover, ectopic expression of YUC3 at the root epidermal cells induced the formation of haustorium-like structures in transgenic P. japonicum roots. Our results suggest that expression of the auxin biosynthesis gene YUC3 at the epidermal cells near the contact site plays a pivotal role in haustorium formation in the root parasitic plant P. japonicum. PMID:27385817

  8. Local Auxin Biosynthesis Mediated by a YUCCA Flavin Monooxygenase Regulates Haustorium Development in the Parasitic Plant Phtheirospermum japonicum[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Wafula, Eric; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Namba, Shigetou

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae cause serious agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants develop a multicellular infectious organ called a haustorium after recognition of host-released signals. To understand the molecular events associated with host signal perception and haustorium development, we identified differentially regulated genes expressed during early haustorium development in the facultative parasite Phtheirospermum japonicum using a de novo assembled transcriptome and a customized microarray. Among the genes that were upregulated during early haustorium development, we identified YUC3, which encodes a functional YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenase involved in auxin biosynthesis. YUC3 was specifically expressed in the epidermal cells around the host contact site at an early time point in haustorium formation. The spatio-temporal expression patterns of YUC3 coincided with those of the auxin response marker DR5, suggesting generation of auxin response maxima at the haustorium apex. Roots transformed with YUC3 knockdown constructs formed haustoria less frequently than nontransgenic roots. Moreover, ectopic expression of YUC3 at the root epidermal cells induced the formation of haustorium-like structures in transgenic P. japonicum roots. Our results suggest that expression of the auxin biosynthesis gene YUC3 at the epidermal cells near the contact site plays a pivotal role in haustorium formation in the root parasitic plant P. japonicum. PMID:27385817

  9. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and chloroform by toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Barbieri, P; Wood, T K

    1998-08-01

    Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, which oxidizes toluene and o-xylene, was examined for its ability to degrade the environmental pollutants trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, chloroform, dichloromethane, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,4,5, 6-pentachlorophenol. Escherichia coli JM109 that expressed ToMO from genes on plasmid pBZ1260 under control of the lac promoter degraded TCE (3.3 microM), 1,1-DCE (1.25 microM), and chloroform (6.3 microM) at initial rates of 3.1, 3.6, and 1.6 nmol/(min x mg of protein), respectively. Stoichiometric amounts of chloride release were seen, indicating mineralization (2.6, 1.5, and 2.3 Cl- atoms per molecule of TCE, 1,1-DCE, and chloroform, respectively). Thus, the substrate range of ToMO is extended to include aliphatic chlorinated compounds. PMID:9687467

  10. Cloning, overexpression and biocatalytic exploration of a novel Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Aspergillus fumigatus Af293

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The presence of several putative Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs) encoding genes in Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 was demonstrated for the first time. One of the identified BVMO-encoding genes was cloned and successfully overexpressed fused to the cofactor regenerating enzyme phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH). The enzyme named BVMOAf1 was extensively characterized in terms of its substrate scope and essential kinetic features. It showed high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity not only in the oxidation of asymmetric sulfides, (S)-sulfoxides were obtained with 99% ee, but also in the kinetic resolution of bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one. This kinetic resolution process led to the production of (1S,5R) normal lactone and (1R,5S) abnormal lactone with a regioisomeric ratio of 1:1 and 99% ee each. Besides, different reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature and the presence of organic solvents, have been tested, revealing that BVMOAf1 is a relatively robust biocatalyst. PMID:23767684

  11. Mutation of the Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Enzyme Cytochrome P450 83A1 Monooxygenase Increases Camalexin Accumulation and Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Simu; Bartnikas, Lisa M; Volko, Sigrid M; Ausubel, Frederick M; Tang, Dingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1), which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew.

  12. Mutation of the Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Enzyme Cytochrome P450 83A1 Monooxygenase Increases Camalexin Accumulation and Powdery Mildew Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Simu; Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Volko, Sigrid M.; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Tang, Dingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1), which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew. PMID:26973671

  13. Effects of restricted feeding on daily fluctuations of hepatic functions including p450 monooxygenase activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Jun; Arakawa, Shingo; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ito, Kazumi; Furukawa, Tadashi

    2006-02-10

    Hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities, assessed by measurement of 7-alkoxycoumarin O-dealkylase (ACD) activities, show obvious daily fluctuations in male rats with high values during the dark period and low values during the light period. We have already confirmed that the ACD activities are controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is well known as the oscillator of circadian rhythm. Recently, it is reported that circadian oscillators exist not only in the SCN but also in peripheral organs. To date, it is unclear which circadian oscillators predominantly drive the daily fluctuations of hepatic ACD activities. To address this question, we examined the effects of restricted feeding, which uncouples the circadian oscillators in the liver from the central pacemaker in the SCN, on the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities in male rats. Here we show that restricted feeding inverts the oscillation phase of the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities. Regarding the hepatic P450 content, there were no fluctuations between the light and dark periods under ad libitum and restricted feeding conditions. Therefore, it is considered that the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities are predominantly driven by the circadian factors in peripheral organs rather than by the oscillator in the SCN directly.

  14. Monooxygenase activity of black-crowned night-heron (BCNH) nestlings in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate cytochrome P-450 related parameters as biomarkers of pollutant exposure, rates of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) were studied in 10-day-old BCNHs (Nycticorax nycticorax). Nestlings were collected from Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA ('controls') and from polluted sites including. Cat Island, Green Bay, WI, and Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA. Livers were frozen (-70.C) for monooxygenase assays and SDS-PAGE. Microsomal AHH and BROD activities were greater (P2 standard deviations from the control mean (induced up to 3-fold). EROD, PROD and ECOD did not differ among sites. Absence of an EROD response with AHH and BROD induction in BCNHs is different than responses in other species. The association of pollutant burdens with P-450 parameters is being studied. These biomarkers may serve as a rapid screen of exposure in a national contaminant biomonitoring program and other assessment activities.

  15. Biochemical Characterization of an FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase, the Ornithine Hydroxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Suggests a Novel Reaction Mechanism†

    PubMed Central

    Meneely, Kathleen M.; Lamb, Audrey L.

    2008-01-01

    Pyoverdin is the hydroxamate siderophore produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa under the iron-limiting conditions of the human host. This siderophore includes derivatives of ornithine in the peptide backbone that serve as iron chelators. PvdA is the ornithine hydroxylase, which performs the first enzymatic step in preparation of these derivatives. PvdA requires both FAD and NADPH for activity, and was found to be a soluble monomer most active at pH 8.0. The enzyme demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics using an NADPH oxidation assay, but a hydroxylation assay indicated substrate inhibition at high ornithine concentration. PvdA is highly specific for both substrate and coenzyme, and lysine was shown to be a non-substrate effector and mixed inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to ornithine. Chloride is a mixed inhibitor of PvdA in relation to ornithine but a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH, and a bulky mercurial compound (para-chloromercuribenzoate) is a mixed inhibitor with respect to ornithine. Steady state experiments indicate that PvdA:FAD forms a ternary complex with NADPH and ornithine for catalysis. PvdA in the absence of ornithine shows slow substrate-independent flavin reduction by NADPH. Biochemical comparison of PvdA to para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH from Pseudomonas fluorescens) and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and hog liver microsomes) leads to the hypothesis that PvdA catalysis proceeds by a novel reaction mechanism. PMID:17900176

  16. Cloning and characterization of the Tribolium castaneum eye-color genes encoding tryptophan oxygenase and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Marcé D; Brown, Susan J; Denell, Robin E; Beeman, Richard W

    2002-01-01

    The use of eye-color mutants and their corresponding genes as scorable marker systems has facilitated the development of transformation technology in Drosophila and other insects. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the only currently available system for germline transformation employs the exogenous marker gene, EGFP, driven by an eye-specific promoter. To exploit the advantages offered by eye-pigmentation markers, we decided to develop a transformant selection system for Tribolium on the basis of mutant rescue. The Tribolium orthologs of the Drosophila eye-color genes vermilion (tryptophan oxygenase) and cinnabar (kynurenine 3-monooxygenase) were cloned and characterized. Conceptual translations of Tc vermilion (Tcv) and Tc cinnabar (Tccn) are 71 and 51% identical to their respective Drosophila orthologs. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to show that T. castaneum larvae lacking functional Tcv or Tccn gene products also lack the pigmented eyespots observed in wild-type larvae. Five available eye-color mutations were tested for linkage to Tcv or Tccn via recombinational mapping. No linkage was found between candidate mutations and Tccn. However, tight linkage was found between Tcv and the white-eye mutation white, here renamed vermilion(white) (v(w)). Molecular analysis indicates that 80% of the Tcv coding region is deleted in v(w) beetles. These observations suggest that the Tribolium eye is pigmented only by ommochromes, not pteridines, and indicate that Tcv is potentially useful as a germline transformation marker.

  17. Quantum mechanical calculations suggest that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases use a copper-oxyl, oxygen-rebound mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonah; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Sandgren, Mats; Paton, Robert S.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2014-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) exhibit a mononuclear copper-containing active site and use dioxygen and a reducing agent to oxidatively cleave glycosidic linkages in polysaccharides. LPMOs represent a unique paradigm in carbohydrate turnover and exhibit synergy with hydrolytic enzymes in biomass depolymerization. To date, several features of copper binding to LPMOs have been elucidated, but the identity of the reactive oxygen species and the key steps in the oxidative mechanism have not been elucidated. Here, density functional theory calculations are used with an enzyme active site model to identify the reactive oxygen species and compare two hypothesized reaction pathways in LPMOs for hydrogen abstraction and polysaccharide hydroxylation; namely, a mechanism that employs a η1-superoxo intermediate, which abstracts a substrate hydrogen and a hydroperoxo species is responsible for substrate hydroxylation, and a mechanism wherein a copper-oxyl radical abstracts a hydrogen and subsequently hydroxylates the substrate via an oxygen-rebound mechanism. The results predict that oxygen binds end-on (η1) to copper, and that a copper-oxyl–mediated, oxygen-rebound mechanism is energetically preferred. The N-terminal histidine methylation is also examined, which is thought to modify the structure and reactivity of the enzyme. Density functional theory calculations suggest that this posttranslational modification has only a minor effect on the LPMO active site structure or reactivity for the examined steps. Overall, this study suggests the steps in the LPMO mechanism for oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds. PMID:24344312

  18. Isolation of Homogeneous Polysaccharide Monooxygenases from Fungal Sources and Investigation of Their Synergism with Cellulases when Acting on Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Bulakhov, A G; Gusakov, A V; Chekushina, A V; Satrutdinov, A D; Koshelev, A V; Matys, V Yu; Sinitsyn, A P

    2016-05-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMO) discovered several years ago are enzymes classified as oxidoreductases. In nature, they participate in microbial degradation of cellulose together with cellulases that belong to the hydrolytic type of enzymes (class of hydrolases). Three PMO from ascomycetes - Thielavia terrestris, Trichoderma reesei, and Myceliophthora thermophila - were isolated and purified to homogeneous state using various types of chromatography. The first two enzymes are recombinant proteins heterologously expressed by the Penicillium verruculosum fungus, while the third is a native PMO secreted by M. thermophila. When acting on microcrystalline cellulose, all these PMOs displayed synergism with the cellulase complex of the P. verruculosum fungus. Replacing 10% of cellulases (by protein concentration) with PMO in the presence of 6.25 mM gallic acid or 2.5 µM of cellobiose dehydrogenase from M. thermophila, used as electron donors for PMO, resulted in the 17-31% increase in the yield of reducing sugars after 24-48 h of the enzymatic reaction. PMID:27297903

  19. Molecular evolutionary dynamics of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases across kingdoms: Special focus on mycobacterial P450s.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Mohammad; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Bamal, Hans Denis; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Xie, Ting; Yang, Haoran; Chen, Hengye; Theron, Chrispian William; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Salewe, Vuyani; Mongale, Bogadi Lorato; Matowane, Retshedisitswe Godfrey; Abdalla, Sara Mohamed Hasaan; Booi, Wool Isaac; van Wyk, Mari; Olivier, Dedré; Boucher, Charlotte E; Nelson, David R; Tuszynski, Jack A; Blackburn, Jonathan Michael; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Chen, Wanping; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s), great progress has been made in understanding their structure-function relationship, diversity and application in producing compounds beneficial to humans. However, the molecular evolution of P450s in terms of their dynamics both at protein and DNA levels and functional conservation across kingdoms still needs investigation. In this study, we analyzed 17 598 P450s belonging to 113 P450 families (bacteria -42; fungi -19; plant -28; animal -22; plant and animal -1 and common P450 family -1) and found highly conserved and rapidly evolving P450 families. Results suggested that bacterial P450s, particularly P450s belonging to mycobacteria, are highly conserved both at protein and DNA levels. Mycobacteria possess the highest P450 diversity percentage compared to other microbes and have a high coverage of P450s (≥1%) in their genomes, as found in fungi and plants. Phylogenetic and functional analyses revealed the functional conservation of P450s despite belonging to different biological kingdoms, suggesting the adherence of P450s to their innate function such as their involvement in either generation or oxidation of steroids and structurally related molecules, fatty acids and terpenoids. This study's results offer new understanding of the dynamic structural nature of P450s. PMID:27616185

  20. mRNA Localization and Translational Control in Drosophila Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Localization of an mRNA species to a particular subcellular region can complement translational control mechanisms to produce a restricted spatial distribution of the protein it encodes. mRNA localization has been studied most in asymmetric cells such as budding yeast, early embryos, and neurons, but the process is likely to be more widespread. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of mRNA localization and its functions in early embryonic development, focusing on Drosophila where the relevant knowledge is most advanced. Links between mRNA localization and translational control mechanisms also are examined. PMID:22865893

  1. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs.

    PubMed

    MacNicol, Melanie C; Cragle, Chad E; Arumugam, Karthik; Fosso, Bruno; Pesole, Graziano; MacNicol, Angus M

    2015-01-01

    Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs) but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease. PMID:26197342

  2. Sodium Channel Inhibitors Reduce DMPK mRNA and Protein.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, Luke; O'Reilly, Sean; Hadwen, Jeremiah; Tasnim, Nafisa; MacKenzie, Alex; Farooq, Faraz

    2015-08-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by an expanded trinucleotide (CTG)n tract in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. This results in the aggregation of an expanded mRNA forming toxic intranuclear foci which sequester splicing factors. We believe down-regulation of DMPK mRNA represents a potential, and as yet unexplored, DM1 therapeutic avenue. Consequently, a computational screen for agents which down-regulate DMPK mRNA was undertaken, unexpectedly identifying the sodium channel blockers mexiletine, prilocaine, procainamide, and sparteine as effective suppressors of DMPK mRNA. Analysis of DMPK mRNA in C2C12 myoblasts following treatment with these agents revealed a reduction in the mRNA levels. In vivo analysis of CD1 mice also showed DMPK mRNA and protein down-regulation. The role of DMPK mRNA suppression in the documented efficacy of this class of compounds in DM1 is worthy of further investigation. PMID:26011798

  3. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs.

    PubMed

    MacNicol, Melanie C; Cragle, Chad E; Arumugam, Karthik; Fosso, Bruno; Pesole, Graziano; MacNicol, Angus M

    2015-01-01

    Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs) but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease.

  4. Probing dimensionality beyond the linear sequence of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Cristian; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-05-01

    mRNA is a nexus entity between DNA and translating ribosomes. Recent developments in deep sequencing technologies coupled with structural probing have revealed new insights beyond the classic role of mRNA and place it more centrally as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation, cellular localization, and mRNA degradation. Here, we highlight emerging approaches to probe mRNA secondary structure on a global transcriptome-wide level and compare their potential and resolution. Combined approaches deliver a richer and more complex picture. While our understanding on the effect of secondary structure for various cellular processes is quite advanced, the next challenge is to unravel more complex mRNA architectures and tertiary interactions. PMID:26650615

  5. MicroRNA 648 Targets ET-1 mRNA and is cotranscriptionally regulated with MICAL3 by PAX5.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Gonsalves, Caryn S; Eiymo Mwa Mpollo, Marthe-Sandrine; Malik, Punam; Tahara, Stanley M; Kalra, Vijay K

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with high mortality in sickle cell anemia (SCA). Previously, we showed that elevated levels of placenta growth factor (PlGF) in SCA patients correlate with increased levels of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) and PHT. Moreover, PlGF induced the expression of ET-1 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Here, we show a novel example of ET-1 posttranscriptional regulation by PlGF via action of microRNA 648 (miR-648), which is subject to transcriptional coregulation with its host gene, MICAL3 (microtubule-associated monooxygenase, calponin, and LIM domain containing 3gene). PlGF repressed expression of miR-648 in endothelial cells. Luciferase reporter assays using wild-type and mutant ET-1 3' untranslated region (UTR) constructs, and transfection of miR-648 mimics showed that miR-648 targets the 3' UTR of ET-1 mRNA. Since miR-648 is located in a 5'-proximal intron of MICAL3, we examined which of three potential promoters was responsible for its expression. The MICAL3 distal promoter (P1) was the predominant promoter used for transcription of pre-miR-648, and it was under positive control by PAX5 (paired box protein 5) transcription factor, as demonstrated by the loss and gain of function of PAX5 activity, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These studies provide a novel link wherein PlGF-mediated downregulation of PAX5 attenuates miR-648 expression leading to increased ET-1 levels that are known to induce PHT in SCA.

  6. Protein engineering of toluene 4-monooxygenase of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 for synthesizing 4-nitrocatechol from nitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ayelet; Tao, Ying; Bentley, William E; Wood, Thomas K

    2004-09-20

    After discovering that toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 oxidizes nitrobenzene to 4-nitrocatechol, albeit at a very low rate, this reaction was improved using directed evolution and saturation mutagenesis. Screening 550 colonies from a random mutagenesis library generated by error-prone PCR of tmoAB using Escherichia coli TG1/pBS(Kan)T4MO on agar plates containing nitrobenzene led to the discovery of nitrocatechol-producing mutants. One mutant, NB1, contained six amino acid substitutions (TmoA Y22N, I84Y, S95T, I100S, S400C; TmoB D79N). It was believed that position I100 of the alpha subunit of the hydroxylase (TmoA) is the most significant for the change in substrate reactivity due to previous results in our lab with a similar enzyme, toluene ortho-monooxygenase of Burkholderia cepacia G4. Saturation mutagenesis at this position resulted in the generation of two more nitrocatechol mutants, I100A and I100S; the rate of 4-nitrocatechol formation by I100A was more than 16 times higher than that of wild-type T4MO at 200 microM nitrobenzene (0.13 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.008 +/- 0.001 nmol/min.mg protein). HPLC and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that variants NB1, I100A, and I100S produce 4-nitrocatechol via m-nitrophenol, while the wild-type produces primarily p-nitrophenol and negligible amounts of nitrocatechol. Relative to wild-type T4MO, whole cells expressing variant I100A convert nitrobenzene into m-nitrophenol with a Vmax of 0.61 +/- 0.037 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.071 nmol/min.mg protein and convert m-nitrophenol into nitrocatechol with a Vmax of 3.93 +/- 0.26 vs. 0.58 +/- 0.033 nmol/min.mg protein. Hence, the regiospecificity of nitrobenzene oxidation was changed by the random mutagenesis, and this led to a significant increase in 4-nitrocatechol production. The regiospecificity of toluene oxidation was also altered, and all of the mutants produced 20% m-cresol and 80% p-cresol, while the wild-type produces 96% p-cresol. Interestingly, the rate of

  7. Rational Reprogramming of the R2 Subunit of Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase into a Self-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.; Voegtli, W.C.; Khidekel, N.; Moënne-Loccoz, P.; Krebs, C.; Ley, B.A.; Huynh, B.H.; Loehr, T.M.; Rosenzweig, A.C.; Bollinger, Jr., J.M.

    2010-03-05

    The outcome of O{sub 2} activation at the diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli (class I) ribonucleotide reductase has been rationally altered from the normal tyrosyl radical (Y122) production to self-hydroxylation of a phenylalanine side-chain by two amino acid substitutions that leave intact the (histidine){sub 2}-(carboxylate){sub 4} ligand set characteristic of the diiron-carboxylate family. Iron ligand Asp (D) 84 was replaced with Glu (E), the amino acid found in the cognate position of the structurally similar diiron-carboxylate protein, methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). We previously showed that this substitution allows accumulation of a {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, which does not accumulate in the wild-type (wt) protein and is probably a structural homologue of intermediate P (H{sub peroxo}) in O{sub 2} activation by MMOH. In addition, the near-surface residue Trp (W) 48 was replaced with Phe (F), blocking transfer of the 'extra' electron that occurs in wt R2 during formation of the formally Fe(III)Fe(IV) cluster X. Decay of the {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex in R2-W48F/D84E gives an initial brown product, which contains very little Y122 and which converts very slowly (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 7 h) upon incubation at 0 C to an intensely purple final product. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the purple product indicates that F208 has undergone {epsilon}-hydroxylation and the resulting phenol has shifted significantly to become a ligand to Fe2 of the diiron cluster. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the purple product generated with {sup 16}O{sub 2} or {sub 18}O{sub 2} show appropriate isotopic sensitivity in bands assigned to O-phenyl and Fe-O-phenyl vibrational modes, confirming that the oxygen of the Fe(III)-phenolate species is derived from O{sub 2}. Chemical analysis, experiments involving interception of the hydroxylating intermediate with exogenous reductant, and Moessbauer and EXAFS characterization of the brown

  8. Haploinsufficiency in peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase leads to altered synaptic transmission in the amygdala and impaired emotional responses

    PubMed Central

    Gaier, ED; Rodriguiz, RM; Ma, XM; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Bousquet-Moore, D; Wetsel, WC; Eipper, BA

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian amygdala expresses various neuropeptides whose signaling has been implicated in emotionality. Many neuropeptides require amidation for full activation by peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a transmembrane vesicular cuproenzyme and regulator of the secretory pathway. Mice heterozygous for the Pam gene (PAM+/−) exhibit physiological and behavioral abnormalities related to specific peptidergic pathways. In the present study, we evaluated emotionality and examined molecular and cellular responses that characterize neurophysiological differences in the PAM+/− amygdala. PAM+/− mice presented with anxiety-like behaviors in the zero maze that were alleviated by diazepam. PAM+/− animals were deficient in short- and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning and required higher shock intensities to establish fear-potentiated startle than their wildtype littermates. Immunohistochemical analysis of the amygdala revealed PAM expression in pyramidal neurons and local interneurons that synthesize γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We performed whole-cell recordings of pyramidal neurons in the PAM+/− amygdala to elucidate neurophysiological correlates of the fear behavioral phenotypes. Consistent with these observations, thalamic afferent synapses in the PAM+/− lateral nucleus were deficient in long-term potentiation. This deficit was apparent in the absence and presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin and was abolished when both GABAA and GABAB receptors were blocked. Both evoked and spontaneous excitatory signals were enhanced in the PAM+/− lateral nucleus. Phasic GABAergic signaling was also augmented in the PAM+/− amygdala, and this difference was comprised of activity-independent and activity-dependent components. These physiological findings represent perturbations in the PAM+/− amygdala that may underlie the aberrant emotional responses in the intact animal. PMID:20943906

  9. Identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes and their expression profiles in cyhalothrin-treated Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Shi, Xiao-Qin; Kong, Ye; Zhou, Li-Tao; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Based on a Leptinotarsa decemlineata transcriptome dataset and the GenBank sequences, a total of 74 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes (Cyps) were identified. These genes fell into CYP2 clan, mitochondrial clan, CYP3 clan and CYP4 clan, and were classified into 19 families and 35 subfamilies according to standard nomenclature. Two new families were discovered in CYP4 clan, and were named CYP412 and CYP413 respectively. Four new families that were recently discovered in Tribolium castaneum, including mitochondrial family CYP353, CYP3 clan families CYP345 and CYP347, and CYP4 clan family CYP350, were also found in L. decemlineata. The phylogenetic trees of CYPs from L. decemlineata and other representative insect species were constructed, and these trees provided evolutionary insight for the genetic distance. Our results facilitate further researches to understand the functions and evolution of L. decemlineata Cyp genes. In order to find cyhalothrin-inducible Cyp genes, the expression levels of Cyps belonging to CYP12, CYP6, CYP9 and CYP4 families were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR in cyhalothrin-treated and control fourth-instar larvae. Nine Cyp genes, i.e., Cyp12H2, Cyp6BH2, Cyp6BJ1, Cyp6BQ17, Cyp6EG1, Cyp6EH1, Cyp6EJ1 Cyp4BN13v1 and Cyp4BN15, were highly expressed in cyhalothrin-treated larvae. These CYPs are the candidates that are involved in cyhalothrin detoxification. PMID:24267698

  10. Joint functions of protein residues and NADP(H) in oxygen activation by flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Orru, Roberto; Pazmiño, Daniel E Torres; Fraaije, Marco W; Mattevi, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    The reactivity of flavoenzymes with dioxygen is at the heart of a number of biochemical reactions with far reaching implications for cell physiology and pathology. Flavin-containing monooxygenases are an attractive model system to study flavin-mediated oxygenation. In these enzymes, the NADP(H) cofactor is essential for stabilizing the flavin intermediate, which activates dioxygen and makes it ready to react with the substrate undergoing oxygenation. Our studies combine site-directed mutagenesis with the usage of NADP(+) analogues to dissect the specific roles of the cofactors and surrounding protein matrix. The highlight of this "double-engineering" approach is that subtle alterations in the hydrogen bonding and stereochemical environment can drastically alter the efficiency and outcome of the reaction with oxygen. This is illustrated by the seemingly marginal replacement of an Asn to Ser in the oxygen-reacting site, which inactivates the enzyme by effectively converting it into an oxidase. These data rationalize the effect of mutations that cause enzyme deficiency in patients affected by the fish odor syndrome. A crucial role of NADP(+) in the oxygenation reaction is to shield the reacting flavin N5 atom by H-bond interactions. A Tyr residue functions as backdoor that stabilizes this crucial binding conformation of the nicotinamide cofactor. A general concept emerging from this analysis is that the two alternative pathways of flavoprotein-oxygen reactivity (oxidation versus monooxygenation) are predicted to have very similar activation barriers. The necessity of fine tuning the hydrogen-bonding, electrostatics, and accessibility of the flavin will represent a challenge for the design and development of oxidases and monoxygenases for biotechnological applications.

  11. Possible Peroxo State of the Dicopper Site of Particulate Methane Monooxygenase from Combined Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Calculations.

    PubMed

    Itoyama, Shuhei; Doitomi, Kazuki; Kamachi, Takashi; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2016-03-21

    Enzymatic methane hydroxylation is proposed to efficiently occur at the dinuclear copper site of particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), which is an integral membrane metalloenzyme in methanotrophic bacteria. The resting state and a possible peroxo state of the dicopper active site of pMMO are discussed by using combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations on the basis of reported X-ray crystal structures of the resting state of pMMO by Rosenzweig and co-workers. The dicopper site has a unique structure, in which one copper is coordinated by two histidine imidazoles and another is chelated by a histidine imidazole and primary amine of an N-terminal histidine. The resting state of the dicopper site is assignable to the mixed-valent Cu(I)Cu(II) state from a computed Cu-Cu distance of 2.62 Å from calculations at the B3LYP-D/TZVP level of theory. A μ-η(2):η(2)-peroxo-Cu(II)2 structure similar to those of hemocyanin and tyrosinase is reasonably obtained by using the resting state structure and dioxygen. Computed Cu-Cu and O-O distances are 3.63 and 1.46 Å, respectively, in the open-shell singlet state. Structural features of the dicopper peroxo species of pMMO are compared with those of hemocyanin and tyrosinase and synthetic dicopper model compounds. Optical features of the μ-η(2):η(2)-peroxo-Cu(II)2 state are calculated and analyzed with TD-DFT calculations.

  12. Adaptor Protein-1 Complex Affects the Endocytic Trafficking and Function of Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase, a Luminal Cuproenzyme.

    PubMed

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde L; Bäck, Nils; Duffy, Megan E; Ralle, Martina; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2015-08-28

    The adaptor protein-1 complex (AP-1), which transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, plays a role in the trafficking of Atp7a, a copper-transporting P-type ATPase, and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a copper-dependent membrane enzyme. Lack of any of the four AP-1 subunits impairs function, and patients with MEDNIK syndrome, a rare genetic disorder caused by lack of expression of the σ1A subunit, exhibit clinical and biochemical signs of impaired copper homeostasis. To explore the role of AP-1 in copper homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells, we used corticotrope tumor cells in which AP-1 function was diminished by reducing expression of its μ1A subunit. Copper levels were unchanged when AP-1 function was impaired, but cellular levels of Atp7a declined slightly. The ability of PAM to function was assessed by monitoring 18-kDa fragment-NH2 production from proopiomelanocortin. Reduced AP-1 function made 18-kDa fragment amidation more sensitive to inhibition by bathocuproine disulfonate, a cell-impermeant Cu(I) chelator. The endocytic trafficking of PAM was altered, and PAM-1 accumulated on the cell surface when AP-1 levels were reduced. Reduced AP-1 function increased the Atp7a presence in early/recycling endosomes but did not alter the ability of copper to stimulate its appearance on the plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation of a small fraction of PAM and Atp7a supports the suggestion that copper can be transferred directly from Atp7a to PAM, a process that can occur only when both proteins are present in the same subcellular compartment. Altered luminal cuproenzyme function may contribute to deficits observed when the AP-1 function is compromised.

  13. Regiochemical variations in reactions of methylcubane with tert-butoxyl radical, cytochrome P-450 enzymes, and a methane monooxygenase system

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S.Y.; Hollenberg, P.F.; Newcomb, M.; Putt, D.A.; Eaton, P.E.; Upadhyaya, S.P.; Xiong, Y.; Liu, K.E.; Lippard, S.J.

    1996-07-17

    Reactions of methylcubane (1) with the tert-butoxyl radical (t-BuO{sup .}), with cytochrome P-450 enzymes, and with a methane monooxygenase (MMO) system have been studied. 2-Methylcubanecarboxylic acid (9b) is a new compound prepared from cubanecarboxylic acid. The key synthetic reactions were (1) metalation and subsequent iodination of the 2-position of (diisopropylcarbamoyl)cubane to effect the initial functionalization, (2) lithium-for-iodine exchange and methylation followed by reduction to give 2-methyl-l-[(diisopropylamino)methyl]-cubane, and (3) dimethyldioxirane oxidation of this amine to give 9b. Reaction of 1 with t-BuO{sup .} in the presence of 2,2,5,5-tetramethylisoindole-N-oxyl radical (TMIO{sup .}) at 40-55{degree}C gave mainly cube-substituted products in confirmation of the report that hydrogen atom abstraction by the electrophilic alkoxyl radical at low temperature occurs at the cubyl C-H positions. In a competition experiment at 42{degree}C, methylcubane was at least 3.5 times more reactive toward t-BuO{sup .} than cyclohexane, indicating that the cubyl positions in 1 are >= 40 times more reactive than the methyl positions in 1 (per hydrogen) toward the alkoxyl radical. Oxidation of 1 by enzymes gave alcohol products that were converted to their acetate derivatives for identification and quantitation. Microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzymes from rat and the rat purified P-450 isozyme CYP2B1 hydroxylated 1 at all positions, whereas the reconstituted MMO system from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) hydroxylated l only at the methyl position. 78 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Optimization of trichloroethylene degradation using soluble methane monooxygenase of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressed in recombinant bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, D.; Kim, C.S.; Wood, T.K.; Hanson, R.S.

    1996-08-05

    By complementing cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas putida F1/pSMMO20 with purified soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) components of Methylosinus trichospoirium OB3b, the low cloned-gene sMMO activity in the recombinant strain was found to be due to incomplete activity of the hydroxylase component. To address this incomplete activity, additional sMMO-expressing strains were formed by transferring mmo-containing pSMMO20 and pSMMO50 into various bacterial species including pseudomonads and {alpha}-2 subdivision strains such as methanotrophs, methylotrophs, Agrobacterium tumefaciens A114, and Rhizobium meliloti 102F34 (11 new strains screened); sMMO activity was detected in the last two strains. To increase plasmid segregational stability, the hok/sok locus originally from Escherichia coli plasmid R1 was inserted downstream of the mmo locus of pSMMO20 (resulting in pSMMO40) and found to enhance plasmid stability in P. putida F1 and R. meliloti 102F34 (first report of hok/sok in Rhizobium). To further increase sMMO activity, a modified Whittenbury minimal medium was selected from various minimal and complex media based on trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation and growth rates and was improved by removing the sMMO-inhibiting metal ions [Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)] and chloramphenicol from the medium and by supplementing with an iron source (3.6 {micro}M of ferrous ammonium sulfate). Using chemostat-grown P. putida F1/pSMMO40, it was found that sMMO activity was higher for cells grown at higher dilution rates. These optimization efforts resulted in a twofold increase in the extent of TCE degradation and more consistent sMMO activity.

  15. Possible Peroxo State of the Dicopper Site of Particulate Methane Monooxygenase from Combined Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Calculations.

    PubMed

    Itoyama, Shuhei; Doitomi, Kazuki; Kamachi, Takashi; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2016-03-21

    Enzymatic methane hydroxylation is proposed to efficiently occur at the dinuclear copper site of particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), which is an integral membrane metalloenzyme in methanotrophic bacteria. The resting state and a possible peroxo state of the dicopper active site of pMMO are discussed by using combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations on the basis of reported X-ray crystal structures of the resting state of pMMO by Rosenzweig and co-workers. The dicopper site has a unique structure, in which one copper is coordinated by two histidine imidazoles and another is chelated by a histidine imidazole and primary amine of an N-terminal histidine. The resting state of the dicopper site is assignable to the mixed-valent Cu(I)Cu(II) state from a computed Cu-Cu distance of 2.62 Å from calculations at the B3LYP-D/TZVP level of theory. A μ-η(2):η(2)-peroxo-Cu(II)2 structure similar to those of hemocyanin and tyrosinase is reasonably obtained by using the resting state structure and dioxygen. Computed Cu-Cu and O-O distances are 3.63 and 1.46 Å, respectively, in the open-shell singlet state. Structural features of the dicopper peroxo species of pMMO are compared with those of hemocyanin and tyrosinase and synthetic dicopper model compounds. Optical features of the μ-η(2):η(2)-peroxo-Cu(II)2 state are calculated and analyzed with TD-DFT calculations. PMID:26918461

  16. NMR structure of a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase provides insight into copper binding, protein dynamics, and substrate interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aachmann, Finn L.; Sørlie, Morten; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases currently classified as carbohydrate binding module family 33 (CBM33) and glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61) are likely to play important roles in future biorefining. However, the molecular basis of their unprecedented catalytic activity remains largely unknown. We have used NMR techniques and isothermal titration calorimetry to address structural and functional aspects of CBP21, a chitin-active CBM33. NMR structural and relaxation studies showed that CBP21 is a compact and rigid molecule, and the only exception is the catalytic metal binding site. NMR data further showed that His28 and His114 in the catalytic center bind a variety of divalent metal ions with a clear preference for Cu2+ (Kd = 55 nM; from isothermal titration calorimetry) and higher preference for Cu1+ (Kd ∼ 1 nM; from the experimentally determined redox potential for CBP21-Cu2+ of 275 mV using a thermodynamic cycle). Strong binding of Cu1+ was also reflected in a reduction in the pKa values of the histidines by 3.6 and 2.2 pH units, respectively. Cyanide, a mimic of molecular oxygen, was found to bind to the metal ion only. These data support a model where copper is reduced on the enzyme by an externally provided electron and followed by oxygen binding and activation by internal electron transfer. Interactions of CBP21 with a crystalline substrate were mapped in a 2H/1H exchange experiment, which showed that substrate binding involves an extended planar binding surface, including the metal binding site. Such a planar catalytic surface seems well-suited to interact with crystalline substrates. PMID:23112164

  17. Heterogeneity in the Histidine-brace Copper Coordination Sphere in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10) Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Amanda K; Wilson, Michael T; Hough, Michael A; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Walton, Paul H; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2016-06-10

    Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. The active site copper in LPMOs is coordinated by a histidine-brace. This utilizes the amino group and side chain of the N-terminal His residue with the side chain of a second His residue to create a T-shaped arrangement of nitrogen ligands. We report a structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic appraisal of copper binding to the histidine-brace in an auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) LPMO from Streptomyces lividans (SliLPMO10E). Unexpectedly, we discovered the existence of two apo-SliLPMO10E species in solution that can each bind copper at a single site with distinct kinetic and thermodynamic (exothermic and endothermic) properties. The experimental EPR spectrum of copper-bound SliLPMO10E requires the simulation of two different line shapes, implying two different copper-bound species, indicative of three and two nitrogen ligands coordinating the copper. Amino group coordination was probed through the creation of an N-terminal extension variant (SliLPMO10E-Ext). The kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding to SliLPMO10E-Ext are in accord with copper binding to one of the apo-forms in the wild-type protein, suggesting that amino group coordination is absent in the two-nitrogen coordinate form of SliLPMO10E. Copper binding to SliLPMO10B was also investigated, and again it revealed the presence of two apo-forms with kinetics and stoichiometry of copper binding identical to that of SliLPMO10E. Our findings highlight that heterogeneity exists in the active site copper coordination sphere of LPMOs that may have implications for the mechanism of loading copper in the cell. PMID:27129229

  18. Biochemical evidence for the tyrosine involvement in cationic intermediate stabilization in mouse β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) catalyzes the crucial first step in vitamin A biosynthesis in animals. We wished to explore the possibility that a carbocation intermediate is formed during the cleavage reaction of BCMO1, as is seen for many isoprenoid biosynthesis enzymes, and to determine which residues in the substrate binding cleft are necessary for catalytic and substrate binding activity. To test this hypothesis, we replaced substrate cleft aromatic and acidic residues by site-directed mutagenesis. Enzymatic activity was measured in vitro using His-tag purified proteins and in vivo in a β-carotene-accumulating E. coli system. Results Our assays show that mutation of either Y235 or Y326 to leucine (no cation-π stabilization) significantly impairs the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Moreover, mutation of Y326 to glutamine (predicted to destabilize a putative carbocation) almost eliminates activity (9.3% of wt activity). However, replacement of these same tyrosines with phenylalanine or tryptophan does not significantly impair activity, indicating that aromaticity at these residues is crucial. Mutations of two other aromatic residues in the binding cleft of BCMO1, F51 and W454, to either another aromatic residue or to leucine do not influence the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Our ab initio model of BCMO1 with β-carotene mounted supports a mechanism involving cation-π stabilization by Y235 and Y326. Conclusions Our data are consistent with the formation of a substrate carbocation intermediate and cation-π stabilization of this intermediate by two aromatic residues in the substrate-binding cleft of BCMO1. PMID:20003456

  19. TESTING THE SPECIFICITY OF PRIMERS TO ENVIRONMENTAL AMMONIA MONOOXYGENASE (AMOA) GENES IN GROUNDWATER TREATED WITH UREA TO PROMOTE CALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Freeman; David Reed; Yoshiko Fujita

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes in DNA isolated from microorganisms in groundwater was characterized by amplification of amoA DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and sequencing. The amoA gene is characteristic of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The DNA extracts were acquired from an experiment where dilute molasses and urea were sequentially introduced into a well in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer (ESRPA) in Idaho to examine whether such amendments could stimulate enhanced ureolytic activity. The hydrolysis of urea into ammonium and carbonate serves as the basis for a potential remediation technique for trace metals and radionuclide contaminants that co-precipitate in calcite. The ammonium ion resulting from ureolysis can promote the growth of AOB. The goal of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of primers designed for quantitative PCR of environmental amoA genes and to evaluate the effect of the molasses and urea amendments upon the population diversity of groundwater AOB. PCR primers designed to target a portion of the amoA gene were used to amplify amoA gene sequences in the groundwater DNA extracts. Following PCR, amplified gene products were cloned and the clones were characterized by RFLP, a DNA restriction technique that can distinguish different DNA sequences, to gauge the initial diversity. Clones exhibiting unique RFLP patterns were subjected to DNA sequencing. Initial sequencing results suggest that the primers were successful at specific detection of amoA sequences and the RFLP analyses indicated that the diversity of detected amoA sequences in the ESRPA decreased with the additions of molasses and urea.

  20. PCR-DGGE method to assess the diversity of BTEX mono-oxygenase genes at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Barbara; Dejonghe, Winnie; Faber, Folkert; Boënne, Wesley; Bastiaens, Leen; Verstraete, Willy; Top, Eva M; Springael, Dirk

    2006-02-01

    tmoA and related genes encode the alpha-subunit of the hydroxylase component of the major group (subgroup 1 of subfamily 2) of bacterial multicomponent mono-oxygenase enzyme complexes involved in aerobic benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) degradation. A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was developed to assess the diversity of tmoA-like gene sequences in environmental samples using a newly designed moderately degenerate primer set suitable for that purpose. In 35 BTEX-degrading bacterial strains isolated from a hydrocarbon polluted aquifer, tmoA-like genes were only detected in two o-xylene degraders and were identical to the touA gene of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. The diversity of tmoA-like genes was examined in DNA extracts from contaminated and non-contaminated subsurface samples at a site containing a BTEX-contaminated groundwater plume. Differences in DGGE patterns were observed between strongly contaminated, less contaminated and non-contaminated samples and between different depths, suggesting that the diversity of tmoA-like genes was determined by environmental conditions including the contamination level. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences deduced from the amplified amplicons showed that the diversity of TmoA-analogues in the environment is larger than suggested from described TmoA-analogues from cultured isolates, which was translated in the DGGE patterns. Although different positions on the DGGE gel can correspond to closely related TmoA-proteins, relationships could be noticed between the position of tmoA-like amplicons in the DGGE profile and the phylogenetic position of the deduced protein sequence.

  1. Fusarium Tri4 encodes a key multifunctional cytochrome P450 monooxygenase for four consecutive oxygenation steps in trichothecene biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tokai, Takeshi; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Sato, Masayuki; Fujimura, Makoto; Kimura, Makoto . E-mail: mkimura@riken.jp

    2007-02-09

    Fusarium Tri4 encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) for hydroxylation at C-2 of First committed intermediate trichodiene (TDN) in the biosynthesis of trichothecenes. To examine whether this CYP further participates in subsequent oxygenation steps leading to isotrichotriol (4), we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae for de novo production of the early intermediates by introducing cDNAs of Fusarium graminearum Tri5 (FgTri5 encoding TDN synthase) and Tri4 (FgTri4). From a culture of the engineered yeast grown on induction medium (final pH 2.7), we identified two intermediates, 2{alpha}-hydroxytrichodiene (1) and 12,13-epoxy-9,10-trichoene-2{alpha}-ol (2), and a small amount of non-Fusarium trichothecene 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene (EPT). Other intermediates isotrichodiol (3) and 4 were identified in the transgenic yeasts grown on phosphate-buffered induction medium (final pH 5.5-6.0). When Trichothecium roseum Tri4 (TrTri4) was used in place of FgTri4, 4 was not detected in the culture. The three intermediates, 1, 2, and 3, were converted to 4,15-diacetylnivalenol (4,15-diANIV) when fed to a toxin-deficient mutant of F. graminearum with the FgTri4 {sup +} genetic background (viz., by introducing a FgTri5 {sup -} mutation), but were not metabolized by an FgTri4 {sup -} mutant. These results provide unambiguous evidence that FgTri4 encodes a multifunctional CYP for epoxidation at C-12,13, hydroxylation at C-11, and hydroxylation at C-3 in addition to hydroxylation at C-2.

  2. Adaptor Protein-1 Complex Affects the Endocytic Trafficking and Function of Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase, a Luminal Cuproenzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde L.; Bäck, Nils; Duffy, Megan E.; Ralle, Martina; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptor protein-1 complex (AP-1), which transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, plays a role in the trafficking of Atp7a, a copper-transporting P-type ATPase, and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a copper-dependent membrane enzyme. Lack of any of the four AP-1 subunits impairs function, and patients with MEDNIK syndrome, a rare genetic disorder caused by lack of expression of the σ1A subunit, exhibit clinical and biochemical signs of impaired copper homeostasis. To explore the role of AP-1 in copper homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells, we used corticotrope tumor cells in which AP-1 function was diminished by reducing expression of its μ1A subunit. Copper levels were unchanged when AP-1 function was impaired, but cellular levels of Atp7a declined slightly. The ability of PAM to function was assessed by monitoring 18-kDa fragment-NH2 production from proopiomelanocortin. Reduced AP-1 function made 18-kDa fragment amidation more sensitive to inhibition by bathocuproine disulfonate, a cell-impermeant Cu(I) chelator. The endocytic trafficking of PAM was altered, and PAM-1 accumulated on the cell surface when AP-1 levels were reduced. Reduced AP-1 function increased the Atp7a presence in early/recycling endosomes but did not alter the ability of copper to stimulate its appearance on the plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation of a small fraction of PAM and Atp7a supports the suggestion that copper can be transferred directly from Atp7a to PAM, a process that can occur only when both proteins are present in the same subcellular compartment. Altered luminal cuproenzyme function may contribute to deficits observed when the AP-1 function is compromised. PMID:26170456

  3. Fusarium Tri4 encodes a key multifunctional cytochrome P450 monooxygenase for four consecutive oxygenation steps in trichothecene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokai, Takeshi; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Sato, Masayuki; Fujimura, Makoto; Kimura, Makoto

    2007-02-01

    Fusarium Tri4 encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) for hydroxylation at C-2 of the first committed intermediate trichodiene (TDN) in the biosynthesis of trichothecenes. To examine whether this CYP further participates in subsequent oxygenation steps leading to isotrichotriol (4), we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae for de novo production of the early intermediates by introducing cDNAs of Fusarium graminearum Tri5 (FgTri5 encoding TDN synthase) and Tri4 (FgTri4). From a culture of the engineered yeast grown on induction medium (final pH 2.7), we identified two intermediates, 2alpha-hydroxytrichodiene (1) and 12,13-epoxy-9,10-trichoene-2alpha-ol (2), and a small amount of non-Fusarium trichothecene 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene (EPT). Other intermediates isotrichodiol (3) and 4 were identified in the transgenic yeasts grown on phosphate-buffered induction medium (final pH 5.5-6.0). When Trichothecium roseum Tri4 (TrTri4) was used in place of FgTri4, 4 was not detected in the culture. The three intermediates, 1, 2, and 3, were converted to 4,15-diacetylnivalenol (4,15-diANIV) when fed to a toxin-deficient mutant of F. graminearum with the FgTri4+ genetic background (viz., by introducing a FgTri5- mutation), but were not metabolized by an FgTri4- mutant. These results provide unambiguous evidence that FgTri4 encodes a multifunctional CYP for epoxidation at C-12,13, hydroxylation at C-11, and hydroxylation at C-3 in addition to hydroxylation at C-2. PMID:17188234

  4. Genetic Polymorphisms of Flavin Monooxygenase 3 in Sulindac-Induced Regression of Colorectal Adenomas in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Hisamuddin, Irfan M.; Wehbi, Mohammad A.; Schmotzer, Brian; Easley, Kirk A.; Hylind, Linda M.; Giardiello, Francis M.; Yang, Vincent W.

    2008-01-01

    Sulindac is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug with a chemopreventive effect in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In vivo, the active form of sulindac is sulindac sulfide, which is inactivated by the hepatic microsomal enzyme, flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). In humans, numerous polymorphisms exist in FMO3, which alter enzymatic activity and subsequent substrate metabolism. We recently showed that certain polymorphic forms of FMO3 with reduced activity were associated with a more favorable response to sulindac in preventing the formation of adenomas in patients with FAP without polyps at baseline. Here, we determined whether these FMO3 polymorphisms correlated with the ability of sulindac to regress polyposis in patients with FAP who had polyps prior to treatment. Nineteen patients were treated with 150 mg sulindac twice a day for 6 months. The size and number of polyps in each patient was assessed at baseline (prior to the administration of sulindac), and at 3 and 6 months. Genotyping was done on seven established FMO3 polymorphisms with functional significance—M66I, E158K, P153L, V257M, E305X, E308G, and R492W. Statistical analyses were done with Wilcoxon rank sum test. Of the loci examined, only E158K and E308G showed polymorphic changes. Six patients exhibited polymorphisms in both E158K and E308G loci and were designated as genotype combination 1. The remaining patients were designated as genotype combination 2. Over the course of treatment, patients with genotype combination 1 had a greater reduction in both the size and number of polyps than those with genotype combination 2. These results suggest that combined polymorphic changes in the E158K and E308G alleles may protect against polyposis in patients with FAP treated with sulindac. PMID:16214918

  5. Identification of the Valence and Coordination Environment of the Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Copper Centers by Advanced EPR Characterization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) catalyzes the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. As a copper-containing enzyme, pMMO has been investigated extensively by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, but the presence of multiple copper centers has precluded correlation of EPR signals with the crystallographically identified monocopper and dicopper centers. A soluble recombinant fragment of the pmoB subunit of pMMO, spmoB, like pMMO itself, contains two distinct copper centers and exhibits methane oxidation activity. The spmoB protein, spmoB variants designed to disrupt one or the other or both copper centers, as well as native pMMO have been investigated by EPR, ENDOR, and ESEEM spectroscopies in combination with metal content analysis. The data are remarkably similar for spmoB and pMMO, validating the use of spmoB as a model system. The results indicate that one EPR-active Cu(II) ion is present per pMMO and that it is associated with the active-site dicopper center in the form of a valence localized Cu(I)Cu(II) pair; the Cu(II), however, is scrambled between the two locations within the dicopper site. The monocopper site observed in the crystal structures of pMMO can be assigned as Cu(I). 14N ENDOR and ESEEM data are most consistent with one of these dicopper-site signals involving coordination of the Cu(II) ion by residues His137 and His139, the other with Cu(II) coordinated by His33 and the N-terminal amino group. 1H ENDOR measurements indicate there is no aqua (HxO) ligand bound to the Cu(II), either terminally or as a bridge to Cu(I). PMID:25059917

  6. Biochemical characterization of a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent monooxygenase, ornithine hydroxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggests a novel reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Meneely, Kathleen M; Lamb, Audrey L

    2007-10-23

    Pyoverdin is the hydroxamate siderophore produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa under the iron-limiting conditions of the human host. This siderophore includes derivatives of ornithine in the peptide backbone that serve as iron chelators. PvdA is the ornithine hydroxylase, which performs the first enzymatic step in preparation of these derivatives. PvdA requires both flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for activity; it was found to be a soluble monomer most active at pH 8.0. The enzyme demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics in an NADPH oxidation assay, but a hydroxylation assay indicated substrate inhibition at high ornithine concentration. PvdA is highly specific for both substrate and coenzyme, and lysine was shown to be a nonsubstrate effector and mixed inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to ornithine. Chloride is a mixed inhibitor of PvdA with respect to ornithine but a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH, and a bulky mercurial compound (p-chloromercuribenzoate) is a mixed inhibitor with respect to ornithine. Steady-state experiments indicate that PvdA/FAD forms a ternary complex with NADPH and ornithine for catalysis. PvdA in the absence of ornithine shows slow substrate-independent flavin reduction by NADPH. Biochemical comparison of PvdA to p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH, from Pseudomonas fluorescens) and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs, from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and hog liver microsomes) leads to the hypothesis that PvdA catalysis proceeds by a novel reaction mechanism. PMID:17900176

  7. High-yield expression and purification of isotopically labeled cytochrome P450 monooxygenases for solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G.; Duan, Hui; Frericks Schmidt, Heather L.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Rienstra, Chad M.; Schuler, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), which represent the major group of drug metabolizing enzymes in humans, also catalyze important synthetic and detoxicative reactions in insects, plants and many microbes. Flexibilities in their catalytic sites and membrane associations are thought to play central roles in substrate binding and catalytic specificity. To date, E. coli expression strategies for structural analysis of eukaryotic membrane-bound P450s by X-ray crystallography have necessitated full or partial removal of their N-terminal signal anchor domain (SAD) and, often, replacement of residues more peripherally associated with the membrane (such as the F-G loop region). Even with these modifications, investigations of P450 structural flexibility remain challenging with multiple single crystal conditions needed to identify spatial variations between substrate-free and different substrate-bound forms. To overcome these limitations, we have developed methods for the efficient expression of 13C- and 15N-labeled P450s and analysis of their structures by magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy. In the presence of co-expressed GroEL and GroES chaperones, full-length (53 kDa) Arabidopsis 13C,15N-labeled CYP98A3 is expressed at yields of 2–4 mg per liter of minimal media without the necessity of generating side chain modifications or N-terminal deletions. Precipitated CYP98A3 generates high quality SSNMR spectra consistent with a homogeneous, folded protein. These data highlight the potential of these methodologies to contribute to the structural analysis of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:18005930

  8. Identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes and their expression profiles in cyhalothrin-treated Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Shi, Xiao-Qin; Kong, Ye; Zhou, Li-Tao; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Based on a Leptinotarsa decemlineata transcriptome dataset and the GenBank sequences, a total of 74 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes (Cyps) were identified. These genes fell into CYP2 clan, mitochondrial clan, CYP3 clan and CYP4 clan, and were classified into 19 families and 35 subfamilies according to standard nomenclature. Two new families were discovered in CYP4 clan, and were named CYP412 and CYP413 respectively. Four new families that were recently discovered in Tribolium castaneum, including mitochondrial family CYP353, CYP3 clan families CYP345 and CYP347, and CYP4 clan family CYP350, were also found in L. decemlineata. The phylogenetic trees of CYPs from L. decemlineata and other representative insect species were constructed, and these trees provided evolutionary insight for the genetic distance. Our results facilitate further researches to understand the functions and evolution of L. decemlineata Cyp genes. In order to find cyhalothrin-inducible Cyp genes, the expression levels of Cyps belonging to CYP12, CYP6, CYP9 and CYP4 families were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR in cyhalothrin-treated and control fourth-instar larvae. Nine Cyp genes, i.e., Cyp12H2, Cyp6BH2, Cyp6BJ1, Cyp6BQ17, Cyp6EG1, Cyp6EH1, Cyp6EJ1 Cyp4BN13v1 and Cyp4BN15, were highly expressed in cyhalothrin-treated larvae. These CYPs are the candidates that are involved in cyhalothrin detoxification.

  9. Mechanistic studies on the flavin-dependent N⁶-lysine monooxygenase MbsG reveal an unusual control for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Reeder M; Rodriguez, Pedro J; Sobrado, Pablo

    2014-05-15

    The mechanism of Mycobacterium smegmatis G (MbsG), a flavin-dependent l-lysine monooxygenase, was investigated under steady-state and rapid reaction conditions using primary and solvent kinetic isotope effects, substrate analogs, pH and solvent viscosity effects as mechanistic probes. The results suggest that l-lysine binds before NAD(P)H, which leads to a decrease in the rate constant for flavin reduction. l-lysine binding has no effect on the rate of flavin oxidation, which occurs in a one-step process without the observation of a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. Similar effects were determined with several substrate analogs. Flavin oxidation is pH independent while the kcat/Km and kred/KD pH profiles for NAD(P)H exhibit single pKa values of ∼6.0, with increasing activity as the pH decreases. At lower pH, the enzyme becomes more uncoupled, producing more hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. Hydride transfer is partially rate-limiting at neutral pH and becomes more rate-limiting at low pH. An inverse solvent viscosity effect on kcat/Km for NAD(P)H was observed at neutral pH whereas a normal solvent viscosity effect was observed at lower pH. Together, the results indicate a unique mechanism where a rate-limiting and pH-sensitive conformational change occurs in the reductive half-reaction, which affects the efficiency of lysine hydroxylation.

  10. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the anti-tuberculosis drug ethionamide in a flavin-containing monooxygenase null mouse.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Amy L; Leykam, Virginia L; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K; Phillips, Ian R; Shephard, Elizabeth A; Williams, David E

    2012-01-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB), the causative agent for tuberculosis (TB), has led to increased use of second-line drugs, including ethionamide (ETA). ETA is a prodrug bioactivated by mycobacterial and mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs). FMO2 is the major isoform in the lungs of most mammals, including primates. In humans a polymorphism exists in the expression of FMO2. FMO2.2 (truncated, inactive) protein is produced by the common allele, while the ancestral allele, encoding active FMO2.1, has been documented only in individuals of African and Hispanic origin, at an incidence of up to 50% and 7%, respectively. We hypothesized that FMO2 variability in TB-infected individuals would yield differences in concentrations and ratios of ETA prodrug and metabolites. In this study we assessed the impact of the FMO2 genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of ETA after administration of a single oral dose of ETA (125 mg/kg) to wild type and triple Fmo1/2/4-null mice, measuring levels of prodrug vs. metabolites in plasma collected from 0 to 3.5 h post-gavage. All mice metabolized ETA to ETA S-oxide (ETASO) and 2-ethyl-4-amidopyridine (ETAA). Wild type mice had higher plasma concentrations of metabolites than of parent compound (p = 0.001). In contrast, Fmo1/2/4-null mice had higher plasma concentrations of parent compound than of metabolites (p = 0.0001). Thus, the human FMO2 genotype could impact the therapeutic efficacy and/or toxicity of ETA. PMID:23580869

  11. Arg279 is the key regulator of coenzyme selectivity in the flavin-dependent ornithine monooxygenase SidA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Reeder; Franceschini, Stefano; Fedkenheuer, Michael; Rodriguez, Pedro J; Ellerbrock, Jacob; Romero, Elvira; Echandi, Maria Paulina; Martin Del Campo, Julia S; Sobrado, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    Siderophore A (SidA) is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the NAD(P)H- and oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of ornithine in the biosynthesis of siderophores in Aspergillus fumigatus and is essential for virulence. SidA can utilize both NADPH or NADH for activity; however, the enzyme is selective for NADPH. Structural analysis shows that R279 interacts with the 2'-phosphate of NADPH. To probe the role of electrostatic interactions in coenzyme selectivity, R279 was mutated to both an alanine and a glutamate. The mutant proteins were active but highly uncoupled, oxidizing NADPH and producing hydrogen peroxide instead of hydroxylated ornithine. For wtSidA, the catalytic efficiency was 6-fold higher with NADPH as compared to NADH. For the R279A mutant the catalytic efficiency was the same with both coenyzmes, while for the R279E mutant the catalytic efficiency was 5-fold higher with NADH. The effects are mainly due to an increase in the KD values, as no major changes on the kcat or flavin reduction values were observed. Thus, the absence of a positive charge leads to no coenzyme selectivity while introduction of a negative charge leads to preference for NADH. Flavin fluorescence studies suggest altered interaction between the flavin and NADP⁺ in the mutant enzymes. The effects are caused by different binding modes of the coenzyme upon removal of the positive charge at position 279, as no major conformational changes were observed in the structure for R279A. The results indicate that the positive charge at position 279 is critical for tight binding of NADPH and efficient hydroxylation.

  12. Structural characterization by EXAFS spectroscopy of the binuclear iron center in protein A of methane monooxygenase from methylococcus capsulatus (bath)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, A.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Green, J.; Dalton, H.; Bentsen, J.G.; Beer, R.H.; Lippard, S.J.

    1988-03-30

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) activates dioxygen for incorporation into a remarkable variety of substrates including methane, which is required for bacterial growth (eq 1). MMO is a three component CH/sub 4/ + NADH + H/sup +/ + O/sub 2/ /sup MMO/ ..-->.. CH/sub 3/OH + NAD/sup +/ + H/sub 2/O (1) enzyme. Protein A (M/sub r/ 210,000), believed to be the oxygenase component, contains two iron atoms. Protein B (M/sub r/ 15,700) serves a regulatory function and lacks prosthetic groups, while protein C, the reductase component of the enzyme, is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein (M/sub r/ 42,000) responsible for electron transfer from NADH to protein A. Recently, a binuclear iron center was postulated to occur in protein A based on the finding that one-electron reduction gives rise to electron spin resonance (ESR) signals (g 1.95, 1.88, 1.78) very similar to those observed for the binuclear mixed-valence Fe/sub 2/(III,II) centers in semimet hemerythrin (Hr) and purple acid phosphatase (PAP). In conjunction with model studies, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful method for identifying bridged binuclear iron centers in Hr, ribonucleotide reductase (RR), and PAP. Here the authors report iron K-edge EXAFS results on semireduced protein A of MMO which support the occurrence of a binuclear iron center (Fe-Fe distance, 3.41 A), with no short ..mu..-oxo bridge.

  13. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into the spleens of adult syngenic rats: inducibility of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Lupp, A; Lau, K; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the effects of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB) and dexamethasone (DEX) on cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions were investigated in intrasplenic liver cell explants in comparison to adult liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of 60-90 days old adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. 2, 4 or 6 months after surgery, transplant recipients and age matched controls were orally treated with BNF (1x50 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.)), PB (1x50 mg/kg b.wt.), DEX (for 3 days 4 mg/kg b.wt. per day), or the respective solvents (dimethylsulfoxide or 0.9% NaCl). The animals were sacrificed 24 (BNF, DEX) or 48 (PB) hours after the last treatment. P450 mediated monooxygenase functions were measured in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants by three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; 1A, 2A, 2B), and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; 3A). Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls, at all three time points after surgery. Induction with PB or DEX, and in some cases also with BNF, lead to a significant increase in liver weights of transplant recipients and control rats independent of the time after transplantation. In contrast, there was no influence on spleen weights due to BNF or PB. At all time points after surgery, with DEX a marked decrease in body weights, weights of adrenal glands and of lymphatic organs like thymus glands and spleens was observed, with the weights of the transplant containing spleens being still higher in comparison to control organs. Spleens of control animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions neither without nor with induction. After transplantation, however, significant EROD and ECOD, but hardly any END activities were seen in the host organs at all three time points after surgery. In transplant containing spleens

  14. Functional Analysis of the Small Component of the 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-Monooxygenase of Escherichia coli W: a Prototype of a New Flavin:NAD(P)H Reductase Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Beatriz; Díaz, Eduardo; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli W uses the aromatic compound 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (4-HPA) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. The monooxygenase which converts 4-HPA into 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate, the first intermediate of the pathway, consists of two components, HpaB (58.7 kDa) and HpaC (18.6 kDa), encoded by the hpaB and hpaC genes, respectively, that form a single transcription unit. Overproduction of the small HpaC component in E. coli K-12 cells has facilitated the purification of the protein, which was revealed to be a homodimer that catalyzes the reduction of free flavins by NADH in preference to NADPH. Subsequently, the reduced flavins diffuse to the large HpaB component or to other electron acceptors such as cytochrome c and ferric ion. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that the HpaC reductase could be considered the prototype of a new subfamily of flavin:NAD(P)H reductases. The construction of a fusion protein between the large HpaB oxygenase component and the choline-binding domain of the major autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae allowed us to develop a rapid method to efficiently purify this highly unstable enzyme as a chimeric CH-HpaB protein, which exhibited a 4-HPA hydroxylating activity only when it was supplemented with the HpaC reductase. These results suggest the 4-HPA 3-monooxygenase of E. coli W as a representative member of a novel two-component flavin-diffusible monooxygenase (TC-FDM) family. Relevant features on the evolution and structure-function relationships of these TC-FDM proteins are discussed. PMID:10633095

  15. In vitro characterization of an enzymatic redox cascade composed of an alcohol dehydrogenase, an enoate reductases and a Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Oberleitner, Nikolin; Peters, Christin; Rudroff, Florian; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Mihovilovic, Marko D.

    2014-01-01

    An artificial enzyme cascade composed of an alcohol dehydrogenase, an enoate reductase and a Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase was investigated in vitro to gain deeper mechanistic insights and understand the assets and drawbacks of this multi-step biocatalysis. Several substrates composed of different structural motifs were examined and provided access to functionalized chiral compounds in high yields (up to >99%) and optical purities (up to >99%). Hence, the applicability of the presented enzymatic cascade was exploited for the synthesis of biorenewable polyesters. PMID:24746588

  16. Initial reaction(s) in biotransformation of CL-20 is catalyzed by salicylate 1-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 29352.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim C; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-07-01

    CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) (C(6)H(6)N(12)O(12)), a future-generation high-energy explosive, is biodegradable by Pseudomonas sp. strain FA1 and Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71; however, the nature of the enzyme(s) involved in the process was not understood. In the present study, salicylate 1-monooxygenase, a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing purified enzyme from Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 29352, biotransformed CL-20 at rates of 0.256 +/- 0.011 and 0.043 +/- 0.003 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The disappearance of CL-20 was accompanied by the release of nitrite ions. Using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in the negative electrospray ionization mode, we detected a metabolite with a deprotonated mass ion [M - H](-) at 345 Da, corresponding to an empirical formula of C(6)H(6)N(10)O(8), produced as a result of two sequential N denitration steps on the CL- 20 molecule. We also detected two isomeric metabolites with [M - H](-) at 381 Da corresponding to an empirical formula of C(6)H(10)N(10)O(10). The latter was a hydrated product of the metabolite C(6)H(6)N(10)O(8) with addition of two H(2)O molecules, as confirmed by tests using (18)O-labeled water. The product stoichiometry showed that each reacted CL-20 molecule produced about 1.7 nitrite ions, 3.2 molecules of nitrous oxide, 1.5 molecules of formic acid, and 0.6 ammonium ion. Diphenyliodonium-mediated inhibition of salicylate 1-monooxygenase and a comparative study between native, deflavo, and reconstituted enzyme(s) showed that FAD site of the enzyme was involved in the biotransformation of CL-20 catalyzed by salicylate 1-monooxygenase. The data suggested that salicylate 1-monooxygenase catalyzed two oxygen-sensitive single-electron transfer steps necessary to release two nitrite ions from CL-20 and that this was followed by the secondary decomposition of this energetic chemical. PMID:15240281

  17. Initial Reaction(s) in Biotransformation of CL-20 Is Catalyzed by Salicylate 1-Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain ATCC 29352

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Bharat; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) (C6H6N12O12), a future-generation high-energy explosive, is biodegradable by Pseudomonas sp. strain FA1 and Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71; however, the nature of the enzyme(s) involved in the process was not understood. In the present study, salicylate 1-monooxygenase, a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing purified enzyme from Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 29352, biotransformed CL-20 at rates of 0.256 ± 0.011 and 0.043 ± 0.003 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The disappearance of CL-20 was accompanied by the release of nitrite ions. Using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in the negative electrospray ionization mode, we detected a metabolite with a deprotonated mass ion [M − H]− at 345 Da, corresponding to an empirical formula of C6H6N10O8, produced as a result of two sequential N denitration steps on the CL- 20 molecule. We also detected two isomeric metabolites with [M − H]− at 381 Da corresponding to an empirical formula of C6H10N10O10. The latter was a hydrated product of the metabolite C6H6N10O8 with addition of two H2O molecules, as confirmed by tests using 18O-labeled water. The product stoichiometry showed that each reacted CL-20 molecule produced about 1.7 nitrite ions, 3.2 molecules of nitrous oxide, 1.5 molecules of formic acid, and 0.6 ammonium ion. Diphenyliodonium-mediated inhibition of salicylate 1-monooxygenase and a comparative study between native, deflavo, and reconstituted enzyme(s) showed that FAD site of the enzyme was involved in the biotransformation of CL-20 catalyzed by salicylate 1-monooxygenase. The data suggested that salicylate 1-monooxygenase catalyzed two oxygen-sensitive single-electron transfer steps necessary to release two nitrite ions from CL-20 and that this was followed by the secondary decomposition of this energetic chemical. PMID:15240281

  18. Effects of DNA replication on mRNA noise

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph R.; Cole, John A.; Fei, Jingyi; Ha, Taekjip; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A.

    2015-01-01

    There are several sources of fluctuations in gene expression. Here we study the effects of time-dependent DNA replication, itself a tightly controlled process, on noise in mRNA levels. Stochastic simulations of constitutive and regulated gene expression are used to analyze the time-averaged mean and variation in each case. The simulations demonstrate that to capture mRNA distributions correctly, chromosome replication must be realistically modeled. Slow relaxation of mRNA from the low copy number steady state before gene replication to the high steady state after replication is set by the transcript’s half-life and contributes significantly to the shape of the mRNA distribution. Consequently both the intrinsic kinetics and the gene location play an important role in accounting for the mRNA average and variance. Exact analytic expressions for moments of the mRNA distributions that depend on the DNA copy number, gene location, cell doubling time, and the rates of transcription and degradation are derived for the case of constitutive expression and subsequently extended to provide approximate corrections for regulated expression and RNA polymerase variability. Comparisons of the simulated models and analytical expressions to experimentally measured mRNA distributions show that they better capture the physics of the system than previous theories. PMID:26669443

  19. Primary structure of chicken muscle pyruvate kinase mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lonberg, N; Gilbert, W

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the cDNA sequence corresponding to chicken muscle pyruvate kinase mRNA; the predicted coding region spans 529 amino acids and establishes the complete amino acid sequence for the vertebrate enzyme. We demonstrate that the level of mRNA for this enzyme is under developmental control and suggest a structural model for the protein kinase-mediated regulation of the mammalian liver isozyme. We report a method for the direct analysis of, and the preparation of cDNA probes from, mRNA which has been fractionated on methylmercury/agarose gels. Images PMID:6574503

  20. Signaling Pathways That Control mRNA Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa; Denmon, Andria P.

    2013-01-01

    Cells regulate their genomes mainly at the level of transcription and at the level of mRNA decay. While regulation at the level of transcription is clearly important, the regulation of mRNA turnover by signaling networks is essential for a rapid response to external stimuli. Signaling pathways result in posttranslational modification of RNA binding proteins by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, methylation, acetylation etc. These modifications are important for rapid remodeling of dynamic ribonucleoprotein complexes and triggering mRNA decay. Understanding how these posttranslational modifications alter gene expression is therefore a fundamental question in biology. In this review we highlight recent findings on how signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints involving phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and arginine methylation affect mRNA turnover. PMID:23602935

  1. Polyadenylation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    1974-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) mRNA isolated from infected cell polysomes contains polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] sequences. Detergent-activated purified virions in vitro can transcribe complementary RNA, which has sedimentation properties similar to mRNA, and this RNA also contains poly(A) sequences. Digestion of virion RNA with U2 RNase under conditions where hydrolysis is specific for purine linkages leaves no sequences of polyuridylic acid corresponding in length to the poly(A) on the transcripts. Growth of infectious virus is not inhibited by 3-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin) under conditions in which it inhibits polyadenylation of cellular mRNA. The virus-specific mRNA produced in the presence of cordycepin has poly(A) sequences of the same size distribution as that synthesized in the absence of cordycepin. PMID:4363251

  2. Multiple crosstalks between mRNA biogenesis and SUMO.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Jérôme O; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Palancade, Benoit

    2013-10-01

    mRNA metabolism involves the orchestration of multiple nuclear events, including transcription, processing (e.g., capping, splicing, polyadenylation), and quality control. This leads to the accurate formation of messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) that are finally exported to the cytoplasm for translation. The production of defined sets of mRNAs in given environmental or physiological situations relies on multiple regulatory mechanisms that target the mRNA biogenesis machineries. Among other regulations, post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO, whose prominence in several cellular processes has been largely demonstrated, also plays a key role in mRNA biogenesis. Analysis of the multiple available SUMO proteomes and functional validations of an increasing number of sumoylated targets have revealed the key contribution of SUMO-dependent regulation in nuclear mRNA metabolism. While sumoylation of transcriptional activators and repressors is so far best documented, SUMO contribution to other stages of mRNA biogenesis is also emerging. Modification of mRNA metabolism factors by SUMO determine their subnuclear targeting and biological activity, notably by regulating their molecular interactions with nucleic acids or protein partners. In particular, sumoylation of DNA-bound transcriptional regulators interfere with their association to target sequences or chromatin modifiers. In addition, the recent identification of enzymes of the SUMO pathway within specialized mRNA biogenesis machineries may provide a further level of regulation to their specificity. These multiple crosstalks between mRNA metabolism and SUMO appear therefore as important players in cellular regulatory networks.

  3. Stopped-Flow Studies of the Reduction of the Copper Centers Suggest a Bifurcated Electron Transfer Pathway in Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shefali; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2016-04-01

    Peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM) is a dicopper enzyme that plays a vital role in the amidation of glycine-extended pro-peptides. One of the crucial aspects of its chemistry is the transfer of two electrons from an electron-storing and -transferring site (CuH) to the oxygen binding site and catalytic center (CuM) over a distance of 11 Å during one catalytic turnover event. Here we present our studies of the first electron transfer (ET) step (reductive phase) in wild-type (WT) PHM as well as its variants. Stopped flow was used to record the reduction kinetic traces using the chromophoric agent N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) as the reductant. The reduction was found to be biphasic in the WT PHM with an initial fast phase (17.2 s(-1)) followed by a much slower phase (0.46 s(-1)). We were able to ascribe the fast and slow phase to the CuH and CuM sites, respectively, by making use of the H242A and H107AH108A mutants that contain only the CuH site and CuM site, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the redox potentials determined by cyclic voltammetry were 270 mV (CuH site) and -15 mV (CuM site), but binding of substrate (Ac-YVG) was found to alter both potentials so that they converged to a common value of 83 mV. Substrate binding also accelerated the slow reductive phase by ~10-fold, an effect that could be explained at least partially by the equalization of the reduction potential of the copper centers. Studies of H108A showed that the ET to the CuM site is blocked, highlighting the role of the H108 ligand as a component of the reductive ET pathway. Strikingly, the rate of reduction of the H172A variant was unaffected despite the rate of catalysis being 3 orders of magnitude slower than that of the WT PHM. These studies strongly indicate that the reductive phase and catalytic phase ET pathways are different and suggest a bifurcated ET pathway in PHM. We propose that H172 and Y79 form part of an alternate pathway for the catalytic phase

  4. Genome-Wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Basidiomycete Biotrophic Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuxin; Letsimo, Elizabeth Mpholoseng; Parvez, Mohammad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are an exceptional source of diverse and novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), heme-thiolate proteins, with catalytic versatility. Agaricomycotina saprophytes have yielded most of the available information on basidiomycete P450s. This resulted in observing similar P450 family types in basidiomycetes with few differences in P450 families among Agaricomycotina saprophytes. The present study demonstrated the presence of unique P450 family patterns in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens that could possibly have originated from the adaptation of these species to different ecological niches (host influence). Systematic analysis of P450s in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens belonging to three different orders, Agaricomycotina (Armillaria mellea), Pucciniomycotina (Melampsora laricis-populina, M. lini, Mixia osmundae and Puccinia graminis) and Ustilaginomycotina (Ustilago maydis, Sporisorium reilianum and Tilletiaria anomala), revealed the presence of numerous putative P450s ranging from 267 (A. mellea) to 14 (M. osmundae). Analysis of P450 families revealed the presence of 41 new P450 families and 27 new P450 subfamilies in these biotrophic plant pathogens. Order-level comparison of P450 families between biotrophic plant pathogens revealed the presence of unique P450 family patterns in these organisms, possibly reflecting the characteristics of their order. Further comparison of P450 families with basidiomycete non-pathogens confirmed that biotrophic plant pathogens harbour the unique P450 families in their genomes. The CYP63, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5137 and CYP5341 P450 families were expanded in A. mellea when compared to other Agaricomycotina saprophytes and the CYP5221 and CYP5233 P450 families in P. graminis and M. laricis-populina. The present study revealed that expansion of these P450 families is due to paralogous evolution of member P450s. The presence of unique P450 families in these organisms serves as evidence of how a host

  5. The HHM Motif at the CuH-site of Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase is a pH-Dependent Conformational Switch†

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Chelsey D.; Mayfield, Mary; Blackburn, Ninian J.

    2013-01-01

    Peptidylglycine monooxygenase is a copper-containing enzyme which catalyzes the amidation of neuropeptide hormones, the first step of which is the conversion of a glycine-extended pro-peptide to its α-hydroxyglcine intermediate. The enzyme contains two mononuclear Cu centers termed CuM (ligated to imidazole nitrogens of H242, H244 and the thioether S of M314) and CuH (ligated to imidazole nitrogens of H107, H108 and H172) with a Cu-Cu separation of 11 Å. During catalysis, the M site binds oxygen and substrate and the H site donates the second electron required for hydroxylation. The WT enzyme shows maximum catalytic activity at pH 5.8, and undergoes loss of activity at lower pHs due to a protonation event with a pKA of 4.6. Low pH also causes a unique structural transition in which a new S ligand coordinates to copper with an identical pKA, manifest by a large increase in Cu-S intensity in the XAS. In previous work (Bauman, A. T., Broers, B. A., Kline, C. D., and Blackburn, N. J. (2011) Biochemistry 50, 10819–10828) we tentitively assigned the new Cu-S interaction to binding of M109 to the H-site (part of an HHM conserved motif common to all but one member of the family). Here we follow up on these findings via studies on the catalytic activity, pH-activity profiles, and spectroscopic (EPR, XAS and FTIR) properties of a number of H-site variants, including H107A, H108A, H172A and M109I. Our results establish that M109 is indeed the coordinating ligand, and confirm the prediction that the low pH structural transition with associated loss of activity is abrogated when the M109 thioether is absent. The histidine mutants show more complex behavior, but the almost complete lack of activity in all three variants coupled with only minor differences in their spectroscopic properties suggests that unique structural elements at H are critical for functionality. The data suggest a more general utility for the HHM motif as a copper- and pH-dependent conformational switch

  6. The Lumenal Loop M672-P707 of the Menkes Protein (ATP7A) Transfers Copper to Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Otoikhian, Adenike; Barry, Amanda N.; Mayfield, Mary; Nilges, Mark; Huang, Yiping; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian J.

    2012-01-01

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump. PMID:22577880

  7. The lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Otoikhian, Adenike; Barry, Amanda N.; Mayfield, Mary; Nilges, Mark; Huang, Yiping; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian

    2012-05-14

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump.

  8. Species Differences in the Oxidative Desulfurization of a Thiouracil-Based Irreversible Myeloperoxidase Inactivator by Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Eng, Heather; Sharma, Raman; Wolford, Angela; Di, Li; Ruggeri, Roger B; Buckbinder, Leonard; Conn, Edward L; Dalvie, Deepak K; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2016-08-01

    N1-Substituted-6-arylthiouracils, represented by compound 1 [6-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-4(1H)-one], are a novel class of selective irreversible inhibitors of human myeloperoxidase. The present account is a summary of our in vitro studies on the facile oxidative desulfurization in compound 1 to a cyclic ether metabolite M1 [5-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-7H-oxazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-7-one] in NADPH-supplemented rats (t1/2 [half-life = mean ± S.D.] = 8.6 ± 0.4 minutes) and dog liver microsomes (t1/2 = 11.2 ± 0.4 minutes), but not in human liver microsomes (t1/2 > 120 minutes). The in vitro metabolic instability also manifested in moderate-to-high plasma clearances of the parent compound in rats and dogs with significant concentrations of M1 detected in circulation. Mild heat deactivation of liver microsomes or coincubation with the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) inhibitor imipramine significantly diminished M1 formation. In contrast, oxidative metabolism of compound 1 to M1 was not inhibited by the pan cytochrome P450 inactivator 1-aminobenzotriazole. Incubations with recombinant FMO isoforms (FMO1, FMO3, and FMO5) revealed that FMO1 principally catalyzed the conversion of compound 1 to M1. FMO1 is not expressed in adult human liver, which rationalizes the species difference in oxidative desulfurization. Oxidation by FMO1 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Michaelis-Menten constant, maximum rate of oxidative desulfurization, and intrinsic clearance values of 209 μM, 20.4 nmol/min/mg protein, and 82.7 μl/min/mg protein, respectively. Addition of excess glutathione essentially eliminated the conversion of compound 1 to M1 in NADPH-supplemented rat and dog liver microsomes, which suggests that the initial FMO1-mediated S-oxygenation of compound 1 yields a sulfenic acid intermediate capable of redox cycling to the parent compound in a glutathione-dependent fashion or undergoing further oxidation to a more

  9. Insights Into the P-To-Q Conversion in the Catalytic Cycle of Methane Monooxygenase From a Synthetic Model System

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, G.; Fiedler, A.T.; Martinho, M.; Munck, E.; Que, L.; Jr.

    2009-05-28

    For the catalytic cycle of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), it has been proposed that cleavage of the O-O bond in the ({mu}-peroxo)diiron(III) intermediate P gives rise to the diiron(IV) intermediate Q with an Fe{sub 2}({mu}-O){sub 2} diamond core, which oxidizes methane to methanol. As a model for this conversion, ({mu}-oxo) diiron(III) complex 1 ([Fe{sup III}{sub 2}({mu}-O)({mu}-O{sub 2}H{sub 3})(L){sub 2}]{sup 3+}, L = tris(3,5-dimethyl-4-methoxypyridyl-2-methyl)amine) has been treated consecutively with one eq of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and one eq of HClO{sub 4} to form 3 ([Fe{sup IV}{sub 2}({mu}-O){sub 2}(L){sub 2}]{sup 4+}). In the course of this reaction a new species, 2, can be observed before the protonation step; 2 gives rise to a cationic peak cluster by ESI-MS at m/z 1,399, corresponding to the [Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}L{sub 2}H](OTf){sub 2}{sup +} ion in which 1 oxygen atom derives from 1 and the other two originate from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Moessbauer studies of 2 reveal the presence of two distinct, exchange coupled iron(IV) centers, and EXAFS fits indicate a short Fe-O bond at 1.66 {angstrom} and an Fe-Fe distance of 3.32 {angstrom}. Taken together, the spectroscopic data point to an HO-Fe{sup IV}-O-Fe{sup IV} = O core for 2. Protonation of 2 results in the loss of H{sub 2}O and the formation of 3. Isotope labeling experiments show that the [Fe{sup IV}{sub 2}({mu}-O){sub 2}] core of 3 can incorporate both oxygen atoms from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The reactions described here serve as the only biomimetic precedent for the conversion of intermediates P to Q in the sMMO reaction cycle and shed light on how a peroxodiiron(III) unit can transform into an [Fe{sup IV}{sub 2}({mu}-O){sub 2}] core.

  10. Diversity of flavin-binding monooxygenase genes (almA) in marine bacteria capable of degradation long-chain alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2012-06-01

    Many bacteria have been reported as degraders of long-chain (LC) n-alkanes, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Flavin-binding monooxygenase (AlmA) was recently found to be involved in LC-alkane degradation in bacteria of the Acinetobacter and Alcanivorax genera. However, the diversity of this gene and the role it plays in other bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we surveyed the diversity of almA in marine bacteria and in bacteria found in oil-enrichment communities. To identify the presence of this gene, a pair of degenerate PCR primers were was designed based on conserved motifs of the almA gene sequences in public databases. Using this approach, we identified diverse almA genes in the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and in bacterial communities from the surface seawater of the Xiamen coastal area, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, almA was positively detected in 35 isolates belonging to four genera, and a total of 39 different almA sequences were obtained. Five isolates were confirmed to harbor two to three almA genes. From the Xiamen coastal area and the Atlantic Ocean oil-enrichment communities, a total of 60 different almA sequences were obtained. These sequences mainly formed two clusters in the phylogenetic tree, named Class I and Class II, and these shared 45-56% identity at the amino acid level. Class I contained 11 sequences from bacteria represented by the Salinisphaera and Parvibaculum genera. Class II was larger and more diverse, and it was composed of 88 sequences from Proteobacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and the enriched bacterial communities. These communities were represented by the Alcanivorax and Marinobacter genera, which are the two most popular genera hosting the almA gene. AlmA was also detected across a wide geographical range, as determined by the origin of the bacterial host. Our results demonstrate the diversity of almA and confirm its high rate of occurrence in hydrocarbon

  11. Stopped-Flow Studies of the Reduction of the Copper Centers Suggest a Bifurcated Electron Transfer Pathway in Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shefali; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2016-04-01

    Peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM) is a dicopper enzyme that plays a vital role in the amidation of glycine-extended pro-peptides. One of the crucial aspects of its chemistry is the transfer of two electrons from an electron-storing and -transferring site (CuH) to the oxygen binding site and catalytic center (CuM) over a distance of 11 Å during one catalytic turnover event. Here we present our studies of the first electron transfer (ET) step (reductive phase) in wild-type (WT) PHM as well as its variants. Stopped flow was used to record the reduction kinetic traces using the chromophoric agent N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) as the reductant. The reduction was found to be biphasic in the WT PHM with an initial fast phase (17.2 s(-1)) followed by a much slower phase (0.46 s(-1)). We were able to ascribe the fast and slow phase to the CuH and CuM sites, respectively, by making use of the H242A and H107AH108A mutants that contain only the CuH site and CuM site, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the redox potentials determined by cyclic voltammetry were 270 mV (CuH site) and -15 mV (CuM site), but binding of substrate (Ac-YVG) was found to alter both potentials so that they converged to a common value of 83 mV. Substrate binding also accelerated the slow reductive phase by ~10-fold, an effect that could be explained at least partially by the equalization of the reduction potential of the copper centers. Studies of H108A showed that the ET to the CuM site is blocked, highlighting the role of the H108 ligand as a component of the reductive ET pathway. Strikingly, the rate of reduction of the H172A variant was unaffected despite the rate of catalysis being 3 orders of magnitude slower than that of the WT PHM. These studies strongly indicate that the reductive phase and catalytic phase ET pathways are different and suggest a bifurcated ET pathway in PHM. We propose that H172 and Y79 form part of an alternate pathway for the catalytic phase

  12. Thyroid hormone-induced changes in the hepatic monooxygenase system, heme oxygenase activity and epoxide hydrolase activity in adult male, female and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Leakey, J E; Mukhtar, H; Fouts, J R; Bend, J R

    1982-07-01

    In 8-day-old rat pups, pretreatment with a single injection of L-triiodothyronine or L-thyroxine decreased hepatic cytochrome P-450 content, aminopyrine N-demethylase activity and epoxide hydrolase activity but increased hepatic microsomal cytochrome c reductase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and heme oxygenase activities without significantly altering UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity (towards o-aminophenol) or the microsomal yield. In adult rats of either sex such single injections of L-triiodothyronine failed to significantly alter these enzyme activities. However, multiple injections evoked changes similar to those observed in the pups, in all these enzyme activities, except that 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was slightly decreased rather than increased. These findings demonstrate that: (1) The hepatic monooxygenase system in the rat pup is more responsive to thyroid hormones than that in adult. (2) Thyroid hormones can decrease rat liver cytochrome P-450 content and its dependent monooxygenase activity independently of sexual maturity. (3) Thyroid hormones also decrease hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity in both pups and adults. Thus, hyperthyroidism could render the rat pup more susceptible to hepatotoxicity from electrophilic epoxides which utilize microsomal epoxide hydrolase as the major detoxication pathway.

  13. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of FAD-dependent monooxygenase PhzS, a phenazine-modifying enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gohain, Neelakshi; Thomashow, Linda S.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2006-10-01

    PhzS, an FAD-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes a reaction involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa, was cloned, overexpressed and crystallized. Data collection from native and seleno-l-methionine-labelled crystals is reported. The blue chloroform-soluble bacterial metabolite pyocyanin (1-hydroxy-5-methyl-phenazine) contributes to the survival and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals. Little is known about the two enzymes, designated PhzM and PhzS, that function in the synthesis of pyocyanin from phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. In this study, the FAD-dependent monooxygenase PhzS was purified and crystallized from lithium sulfate/ammonium sulfate/sodium citrate pH 5.5. Native crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 144.2, b = 96.2, c = 71.7 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 110.5°. They contain two monomers of PhzS in the asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Seleno-l-methionine-labelled PhzS also crystallizes in space group C2, but the unit-cell parameters change to a = 70.6, b = 76.2, c = 80.2 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 110.5° and the diffraction limit is 2.7 Å.

  14. para-Nitrophenol 4-monooxygenase and hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase catalyze sequential transformation of 4-nitrocatechol in Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. PnpA (PNP 4-monooxygenase) and PnpB (para-benzoquinone reductase) were shown to be involved in the initial steps of PNP catabolism via hydroquinone. We demonstrated here that PnpA also catalyzed monooxygenation of 4-nitrocatechol (4-NC) to hydroxyquinol, probably via hydroxyquinone. It was the first time that a single-component PNP monooxygenase has been shown to catalyze this conversion. PnpG encoded by a gene located in the PNP degradation cluster was purified as a His-tagged protein and identified as a hydroxyquinol dioxygenase catalyzing a ring-cleavage reaction of hydroxyquinol. Although all the genes necessary for 4-NC metabolism seemed to be present in the PNP degradation cluster in strain WBC-3, it was unable to grow on 4-NC as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. This was apparently due to the substrate's inability to trigger the expression of genes involved in degradation. Nevertheless, strain WBC-3 could completely degrade both PNP and 4-NC when PNP was used as the inducer, demonstrating its potential in bioremediation of the environment polluted by both 4-NC and PNP.

  15. In vitro conversion of ß-carotene to retinal in bovine rumen fluid by a recombinant ß-carotene- 15, 15'-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    García-López, Esperanza; González-Gallardo, Adriana; Antaramián, Anaid; González-Dávalos, María Laura; Shimada, Armando; Varela-Echavarria, Alfredo; Mora, Ofelia

    2012-04-01

    Pasture-fed cattle yield carcasses with yellow fat; consumers often reject the resulting meat products because they assume they come from old and/or culled animals. Recombinant bacteria expressing beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, introduced into the rumen of the animal, might help to reduce the coloration since this enzyme converts carotene to retinal, thereby eliminating the source of yellowness. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of a recombinant beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) from Gallus gallus, expressed in Escherichia coli. The genetically modified microbe was introduced into ruminal fluid, and carotene conversion to retinal was measured. Under optimum conditions the enzyme produced 6.8 nmol of retinal per 1 mg of protein in 1 hour at 37 °C. The data on in vitro digestibility in ruminal fluid showed no differences in beta-carotene breakdown or in retinal production (p > 0.1) between E. coli with pBAD vector alone and E. coli with pBAD/BCMO1. The pBAD/BCMO1 plasmid was stable in E. coli for 750 generations. These results indicate that the protein did not break beta-carotene into retinal in ruminal fluid, perhaps due to its location in the periplasmic space in E. coli. Future research must consider strategies to release the enzyme into the rumen environment. PMID:23065834

  16. Discrimination of the prochiral hydrogens at the C-2 position of n-alkanes by the methane/ammonia monooxygenase family proteins.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Miyoshi, Teppei; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2015-08-14

    The selectivity of ammonia monooxygenase from Nitrosomonas europaea (AMO-Ne) for the oxidation of C4-C8n-alkanes to the corresponding alcohol isomers was examined to show the ability of AMO-Ne to recognize the n-alkane orientation within the catalytic site. AMO-Ne in whole cells produces 1- and 2-alcohols from C4-C8n-alkanes, and the regioselectivity is dependent on the length of the carbon chain. 2-Alcohols produced from C4-C7n-alkanes were predominantly either the R- or S-enantiomers, while 2-octanol produced from n-octane was racemic. These results indicate that AMO-Ne can discriminate between the prochiral hydrogens at the C-2 position, with the degree of discrimination varying according to the n-alkane. Compared to the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and that of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, AMO-Ne showed a distinct ability to discriminate between the orientation of n-butane and n-pentane in the catalytic site.

  17. Purification and characterization of a Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 involved in three different monocyclic monoterpene degradation pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Werf, M J

    2000-01-01

    A Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase (BVMO), catalysing the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent oxidation of the monocyclic monoterpene ketones 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, dihydrocarvone and menthone, was purified to homogeneity from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14. Monocyclic monoterpene ketone mono-oxygenase (MMKMO) is a monomeric enzyme of molecular mass 60 kDa. It contains 1 mol of FAD/monomer as the prosthetic group. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed homology with many other NADPH-dependent and FAD-containing (Type 1) BVMOs. Maximal enzyme activity was measured at pH 9 and 35 degrees C. MMKMO has a broad substrate specificity, catalysing the lactonization of a large number of monocyclic monoterpene ketones and substituted cyclohexanones. The natural substrates 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, dihydrocarvone and menthone were converted stoichiometrically into 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate (the spontaneous rearrangement product of the lactone formed by MMKMO), 4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone and 7-isopropyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone respectively. The MMKMO-catalysed conversion of iso-dihydrocarvone showed an opposite regioselectivity to that of dihydrocarvone; in this case, 6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone was formed as the product. MMKMO converted all enantiomers of the natural substrates with almost equal efficiency. MMKMO is involved in the conversion of the monocyclic monoterpene ketone intermediates formed in the degradation pathways of all stereoisomers of three different monocyclic monoterpenes, i.e. limonene, (dihydro)carveol and menthol. PMID:10769172

  18. Development of a fed-batch process for the production of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Simon; Richter, Sven M; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2007-05-01

    A fed-batch process utilizing a pET-based expression system (pET28a+ derivative) and E. coli BL21(DE3) as production strain for the heterologous expression of recombinant cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium was developed. In a first step the expression was optimized during a series of flask experiments testing several parameters for their influence on the expression level, activity and solubility of the recombinant protein. The optimal process parameters found in the flask experiments were transferred to a cultivation process in a 5l (operating volume) bioreactor with a special focus on the feeding strategy and the aeration during expression. Glycerol feeding proved to be superior over glucose as carbon source since the formation of larger amounts of acetate was prevented. Expression levels exceeding 12,500nmoll(-1), corresponding to approximately 1.5gl(-1) of product in culture medium ( approximately 11% of CDW) could be demonstrated. The P450 enzyme showed high activity and high solubility. The findings now can be transferred to other enzyme variants and different P450 monooxygenases to increase production of recombinant proteins.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LysR PA4203 Regulator NmoR Acts as a Repressor of the PA4202 nmoA Gene, Encoding a Nitronate Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, Ken; Wei, Qing; Charlier, Daniel; Dötsch, Andreas; Haüssler, Susanne; Schulz, Sebastian; Salvi, Francesca; Gadda, Giovanni; Spain, Jim; Rybtke, Morten Levin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Dingemans, Jozef; Ye, Lumeng

    2014-01-01

    The PA4203 gene encodes a LysR regulator and lies between the ppgL gene (PA4204), which encodes a periplasmic gluconolactonase, and, in the opposite orientation, the PA4202 (nmoA) gene, coding for a nitronate monooxygenase, and ddlA (PA4201), encoding a d-alanine alanine ligase. The intergenic regions between PA4203 and ppgL and between PA4203 and nmoA are very short (79 and 107 nucleotides, respectively). Here we show that PA4203 (nmoR) represses its own transcription and the expression of nmoA. A chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed the presence of a single NmoR binding site between nmoA and nmoR, which was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with the purified NmoR protein. Despite this observation, a transcriptome analysis revealed more genes to be affected in an nmoR mutant, including genes known to be part of the MexT LysR activator regulon. The PA1225 gene, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase, was the most highly upregulated gene in the nmoR deletion mutant, independently of MexT. Finally, deletion of the nmoA gene resulted in an increased sensitivity of the cells to 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), confirming the role of the nitronate monooxygenase protein in the detoxification of nitronate. PMID:25384477

  20. Messenger RNA (mRNA) Nanoparticle Tumour Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kyle K.L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-01-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA’s biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research. PMID:24904987

  1. Mechanisms of endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Endonuclease cleavage was one of the first identified mechanisms of mRNA decay but until recently it was thought to play a minor role to the better-known processes of deadenylation, decapping, and exonuclease-catalyzed decay. Most of the early examples of endonuclease decay came from studies of a particular mRNA whose turnover changed in response to hormone, cytokine, developmental, or nutritional stimuli. Only a few of these examples of endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay progressed to the point where the enzyme responsible for the initiating event was identified and studied in detail. The discovery of microRNAs and RISC-catalyzed endonuclease cleavage followed by the identification of PIN (pilT N-terminal) domains that impart endonuclease activity to a number of the proteins involved in mRNA decay has led to a resurgence of interest in endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay. PIN domains show no substrate selectivity and their involvement in a number of decay pathways highlights a recurring theme that the context in which an endonuclease function is a primary factor in determining whether any given mRNA will be targeted for decay by this or the default exonuclease-mediated decay processes.

  2. mRNA modifications: Dynamic regulators of gene expression?

    PubMed Central

    Hoernes, Thomas Philipp; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Erlacher, Matthias David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The expression of a gene is a tightly regulated process and is exerted by a myriad of different mechanisms. Recently, RNA modifications located in coding sequences of mRNAs, have been identified as potential regulators of gene expression. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C), pseudouridine (Ψ) and N1-methyladenosine (m1A) have been found within open reading frames of mRNAs. The presence of these mRNA modifications has been implicated to modulate the fate of an mRNA, ranging from maturation to its translation and even degradation. However, many aspects concerning the biological functions of mRNA modifications remain elusive. Recently, systematic in vitro studies allowed a first glimpse of the direct interplay of mRNA modifications and the efficiency and fidelity of ribosomal translation. It thereby became evident that the effects of mRNA modifications were, astonishingly versatile, depending on the type, position or sequence context. The incorporation of a single modification could either prematurely terminate protein synthesis, reduce the peptide yield or alter the amino acid sequence identity. These results implicate that mRNA modifications are a powerful mechanism to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. PMID:27351916

  3. Conventional and unconventional mechanisms for capping viral mRNA.

    PubMed

    Decroly, Etienne; Ferron, François; Lescar, Julien; Canard, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    In the eukaryotic cell, capping of mRNA 5' ends is an essential structural modification that allows efficient mRNA translation, directs pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export from the nucleus, limits mRNA degradation by cellular 5'-3' exonucleases and allows recognition of foreign RNAs (including viral transcripts) as 'non-self'. However, viruses have evolved mechanisms to protect their RNA 5' ends with either a covalently attached peptide or a cap moiety (7-methyl-Gppp, in which p is a phosphate group) that is indistinguishable from cellular mRNA cap structures. Viral RNA caps can be stolen from cellular mRNAs or synthesized using either a host- or virus-encoded capping apparatus, and these capping assemblies exhibit a wide diversity in organization, structure and mechanism. Here, we review the strategies used by viruses of eukaryotic cells to produce functional mRNA 5'-caps and escape innate immunity. PMID:22138959

  4. A novel mRNA 3' untranslated region translational control sequence regulates Xenopus Wee1 mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi Ying; Charlesworth, Amanda; Byrd, Shannon M; Gregerson, Robert; MacNicol, Melanie C; MacNicol, Angus M

    2008-05-15

    Cell cycle progression during oocyte maturation requires the strict temporal regulation of maternal mRNA translation. The intrinsic basis of this temporal control has not been fully elucidated but appears to involve distinct mRNA 3' UTR regulatory elements. In this study, we identify a novel translational control sequence (TCS) that exerts repression of target mRNAs in immature oocytes of the frog, Xenopus laevis, and can direct early cytoplasmic polyadenylation and translational activation during oocyte maturation. The TCS is functionally distinct from the previously characterized Musashi/polyadenylation response element (PRE) and the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE). We report that TCS elements exert translational repression in both the Wee1 mRNA 3' UTR and the pericentriolar material-1 (Pcm-1) mRNA 3' UTR in immature oocytes. During oocyte maturation, TCS function directs the early translational activation of the Pcm-1 mRNA. By contrast, we demonstrate that CPE sequences flanking the TCS elements in the Wee1 3' UTR suppress the ability of the TCS to direct early translational activation. Our results indicate that a functional hierarchy exists between these distinct 3' UTR regulatory elements to control the timing of maternal mRNA translational activation during oocyte maturation.

  5. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

  6. [A comparative study of the antenatal action of inducers of the mono-oxygenase system and of dexamethasone on the body indices of full-term newborn rat pups].

    PubMed

    Nadzhimutdinov, K N; Mavlianov, I R; Kabulov, Sh M; Lopatko, O V; Umarova, Z F; Babikova, R Kh

    1993-01-01

    Experiments on newborn rats demonstrated that hepatic monooxygenase system inductors, such as phenobarbital, benzonal, zixorin, increased their body weight, absolute and relative mass of newborn lungs when applied antenatally in contrast to dexamethasone which decreased the above parameters. The inductors increased pulmonary and hepatic phospholipid levels, which suggests that they are superior to dexamethasone in this respect. PMID:8111296

  7. Nebulisation of IVT mRNA Complexes for Intrapulmonary Administration

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Shan; Rosenecker, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    During the last years the potential role of in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA as a vehicle to deliver genetic information has come into focus. IVT mRNA could be used for anti-cancer therapies, vaccination purposes, generation of pluripotent stem cells and also for genome engineering or protein replacement. However, the administration of IVT mRNA into the target organ is still challenging. The lung with its large surface area is not only of interest for delivery of genetic information for treatment of e.g. for cystic fibrosis or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, but also for vaccination purposes. Administration of IVT mRNA to the lung can be performed by direct intratracheal instillation or by aerosol inhalation/nebulisation. The latter approach shows a non-invasive tool, although it is not known, if IVT mRNA is resistant during the process of nebulisation. Therefore, we investigated the transfection efficiency of non-nebulised and nebulised IVT mRNA polyplexes and lipoplexes in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). A slight reduction in transfection efficiency was observed for lipoplexes (Lipofectamine 2000) in the nebulised part compared to the non-nebulised which can be overcome by increasing the amount of Lipofectamine. However, Lipofectamine was more than three times more efficient in transfecting 16HBE than DMRIE and linear PEI performed almost 10 times better than its branched derivative. By contrast, the nebulisation process did not affect the cationic polymer complexes. Furthermore, aerosolisation of IVT mRNA complexes did neither affect the protein duration nor the toxicity of the cationic complexes. Taken together, these data show that aerosolisation of cationic IVT mRNA complexes constitute a potentially powerful means to transfect cells in the lung with the purpose of protein replacement for genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency or for infectious disease vaccines, while bringing along the advantages of IVT mRNA as

  8. SURVIV for survival analysis of mRNA isoform variation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shihao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chengyang; Wu, Ying Nian; Xing, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid accumulation of clinical RNA-seq data sets has provided the opportunity to associate mRNA isoform variations to clinical outcomes. Here we report a statistical method SURVIV (Survival analysis of mRNA Isoform Variation), designed for identifying mRNA isoform variation associated with patient survival time. A unique feature and major strength of SURVIV is that it models the measurement uncertainty of mRNA isoform ratio in RNA-seq data. Simulation studies suggest that SURVIV outperforms the conventional Cox regression survival analysis, especially for data sets with modest sequencing depth. We applied SURVIV to TCGA RNA-seq data of invasive ductal carcinoma as well as five additional cancer types. Alternative splicing-based survival predictors consistently outperform gene expression-based survival predictors, and the integration of clinical, gene expression and alternative splicing profiles leads to the best survival prediction. We anticipate that SURVIV will have broad utilities for analysing diverse types of mRNA isoform variation in large-scale clinical RNA-seq projects. PMID:27279334

  9. Effects of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase oxidation on cellulose structure and binding of oxidized cellulose oligomers to cellulases.

    PubMed

    Vermaas, Josh V; Crowley, Michael F; Beckham, Gregg T; Payne, Christina M

    2015-05-21

    In nature, polysaccharide glycosidic bonds are cleaved by hydrolytic enzymes for a vast array of biological functions. Recently, a new class of enzymes that utilize an oxidative mechanism to cleave glycosidic linkages was discovered; these enzymes are called lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO). These oxidative enzymes are synergistic with cocktails of hydrolytic enzymes and are thought to act primarily on crystalline regions, in turn providing new sites of productive attachment and detachment for processive hydrolytic enzymes. In the case of cellulose, the homopolymer of β-1,4-d-glucose, enzymatic oxidation occurs at either the reducing end or the nonreducing end of glucose, depending on enzymatic specificity, and results in the generation of oxidized chemical substituents at polymer chain ends. LPMO oxidation of cellulose is thought to produce either a lactone at the reducing end of glucose that can spontaneously or enzymatically convert to aldonic acid or 4-keto-aldose at the nonreducing end that may further oxidize to a geminal diol. Here, we use molecular simulation to examine the effect of oxidation on the structure of crystalline cellulose. The simulations highlight variations in behaviors depending on the chemical identity of the oxidized species and its location within the cellulose fibril, as different oxidized species introduce steric effects that disrupt local crystallinity and in some cases reduce the work needed for polymer decrystallization. Reducing-end oxidations are easiest to decrystallize when located at the end of the fibril, whereas nonreducing end oxidations readily decrystallize from internal cleavage sites despite their lower solvent accessibility. The differential in decrystallization free energy suggests a molecular mechanism consistent with experimentally observed LPMO/cellobiohydrolase synergy. Additionally, the soluble oxidized cellobiose products released by hydrolytic cellulases may bind to the active sites of cellulases with

  10. Bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 by lipoxygenases, prostaglandin H synthase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in guinea-pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Massey, T E

    1992-04-01

    In the present investigation, we have examined the role of lipoxygenases in the bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. The enzyme activities were evaluated by determining [3H]AFB1-DNA adduct formation. The results demonstrated that both purified soybean lipoxygenase and guinea-pig tissue cytosolic lipoxygenases were able to activate AFB1 to form [3H]AFB1-DNA adduct(s). The reaction was completely inhibited by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, 0.1 mM), a lipoxygenase inhibitor and an antioxidant, but not by indomethacin (0.1 mM), an inhibitor of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS), indicating that this reaction is associated with lipoxygenase activity, and/or is involved in a peroxyl radical process. While purified lipoxygenase showed arachidonic acid (AA)-dependent properties, the omission of AA did not diminish guinea-pig tissue cytosolic [3H]AFB1-DNA adduct formation, possibly because AA was released from lipid particles by AFB1. Within the range of hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations found in lung, kidney and liver cytosols (1.4-11.1 microM) and microsomes (0-0.5 microM), neither pure Hb, nor Hb of cytosols or microsomes from whole blood caused detectable AA-dependent AFB1-DNA binding. This indicates that Hb, as a contaminant with quasi-lipoxygenase activity, did not contribute to AFB1 activation attributed to guinea-pig tissue lipoxygenases. [3H]AFB1 concentrations at half-maximal DNA binding rate of pulmonary cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) and lipoxygenases were similar, though P450 had a much higher maximum DNA binding rate. Pulmonary microsomal PHS activity for AFB1 activation was too low for its half-maximal binding concentrations of [3H]AFB1 and maximum rate to be accurately determined. In kidney, maximum rates for lipoxygenase, PHS and P450 were similar, whereas half-maximal binding concentrations for reactions by lipoxygenase and P450 were lower compared to that of PHS. The half-maximal binding concentration of hepatic

  11. Effect of ribosome shielding on mRNA stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneke, Carlus; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Valleriani, Angelo

    2013-08-01

    Based on the experimental evidence that translating ribosomes stabilize the mRNAs, we introduce and study a theoretical model for the dynamic shielding of mRNA by ribosomes. We present an improved fitting of published decay assay data in E. coli and show that only one third of the decay patterns are exponential. Our new transcriptome-wide estimate of the average lifetimes and mRNA half-lives shows that these timescales are considerably shorter than previous estimates. We also explain why there is a negative correlation between mRNA length and average lifetime when the mRNAs are subdivided in classes sharing the same degradation parameters. As a by-product, our model indicates that co-transcriptional translation in E. coli may be less common than previously believed.

  12. mRNA stability and control of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Cristina; Falcone, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Most of the studies on cell proliferation examine the control of gene expression by specific transcription factors that act on transcriptional initiation. In the last few years, it became evident that mRNA stability/turnover provides an important mechanism for post-transcriptional control of gene expression. In eukaryotes, mRNAs are mainly degraded after deadenylation by decapping and exosome pathways. Mechanisms of mRNA surveillance comprise deadenylation-independent pathways such as NMD (nonsense-mediated decay), when mRNAs harbour a PTC (premature termination codon), NSD (non-stop decay, when mRNAs lack a termination codon, and NGD (no-go decay), when mRNA translation elongation stalls. Many proteins involved in these processes are conserved from bacteria to yeast and humans. Recent papers showed the involvement of proteins deputed to decapping in controlling cell proliferation, virus replication and cell death. In this paper, we will review the newest findings in this field.

  13. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay - mechanisms of substrate mRNA recognition and degradation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Schweingruber, Christoph; Rufener, Simone C; Zünd, David; Yamashita, Akio; Mühlemann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway is well known as a translation-coupled quality control system that recognizes and degrades aberrant mRNAs with truncated open reading frames (ORF) due to the presence of a premature termination codon (PTC). However, a more general role of NMD in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression is indicated by transcriptome-wide mRNA profilings that identified a plethora of physiological mRNAs as NMD targets. In this review, we focus on mechanistic aspects of target mRNA identification and degradation in mammalian cells, based on the available biochemical and genetic data, and point out knowledge gaps. Translation termination in a messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) environment lacking necessary factors for proper translation termination emerges as a key determinant for subjecting an mRNA to NMD, and we therefore review recent structural and mechanistic insight into translation termination. In addition, the central role of UPF1, its crucial phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle and dynamic interactions with other NMD factors are discussed. Moreover, we address the role of exon junction complexes (EJCs) in NMD and summarize the functions of SMG5, SMG6 and SMG7 in promoting mRNA decay through different routes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA Decay mechanisms.

  14. Post-transcriptional regulation tends to attenuate the mRNA noise and to increase the mRNA gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Changhong; Wang, Shuqiang; Zhou, Tianshou; Jiang, Yiguo

    2015-10-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is ubiquitous in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but how it impacts gene expression remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze a simple gene model in which we assume that mRNAs are produced in a constitutive manner but are regulated post-transcriptionally by a decapping enzyme that switches between the active state and the inactive state. We derive the analytical mRNA distribution governed by a chemical master equation, which can be well used to analyze the mechanism of how post-transcription regulation influences the mRNA expression level including the mRNA noise. We demonstrate that the mean mRNA level in the stochastic case is always higher than that in the deterministic case due to the stochastic effect of the enzyme, but the size of the increased part depends mainly on the switching rates between two enzyme states. More interesting is that we find that in contrast to transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation tends to attenuate noise in mRNA. Our results provide insight into the role of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling the transcriptional noise.

  15. A steady-state kinetic study of the reaction catalysed by the secondary-amine mono-oxygenase of Pseudomonas aminovorans.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, D F; Large, P J

    1976-01-01

    1. Secondary-amine mono-oxygenase (proposed EC group 1.14.99.-) was partially purified from trimethylamine-grown Pseudomonas aminovorans by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography on 5-aminopentylamino-Sepharose, and affinity chromatography on Sepharose-bound NADH. 2. Some problems in the affinity-chromatography step are discussed. 3. A steady-state kinetic analysis varying substrate, oxygen and electron-donor concentrations was performed, which, over the concentration range studied, gave a series of families of approximately parallel double-reciprocal plots. From secondary and tertiary plots, Michaelis constants of 0.160 mM, 0.086 mM and 0.121 mM were obtained for dimethylamine, NADPH and oxygen respectively. 4. Product-inhibition studies supported the postulated Hexa Uni Ping Pong (triple-transfer) reaction mechanism. PMID:962855

  16. Comparative in silico analysis of PCR primers suited for diagnostics and cloning of ammonia monooxygenase genes from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Junier, Pilar; Kim, Ok-Sun; Molina, Verónica; Limburg, Petra; Junier, Thomas; Imhoff, Johannes F; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2008-04-01

    Over recent years, several PCR primers have been described to amplify genes encoding the structural subunits of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Most of them target amoA, while amoB and amoC have been neglected so far. This study compared the nucleotide sequence of 33 primers that have been used to amplify different regions of the amoCAB operon with alignments of all available sequences in public databases. The advantages and disadvantages of these primers are discussed based on the original description and the spectrum of matching sequences obtained. Additionally, new primers to amplify the almost complete amoCAB operon of AOB belonging to Betaproteobacteria (betaproteobacterial AOB), a primer pair for DGGE analysis of amoA and specific primers for gammaproteobacterial AOB, are also described. The specificity of these new primers was also evaluated using the databases of the sequences created during this study. PMID:18248438

  17. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the dinuclear iron center in methane monooxygenase and the sulfure and chlorine centers in photographic materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    The dinuclear iron center of the hydroxylase component of soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporiwn has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of the Fe K-edge EXAFS revealed that the first shell coordination of the Fe(HI)Fe(IH) oxidized state of the hydroxylase from M. capsulatus consists of approximately 6 N and 0 atoms at an average distance of 2.04 {Angstrom}. The Fe-Fe distance was determined to be 3.4 {Angstrom}. No evidence for the presence of a short oxo bridge in the iron center of the oxidized hydroxylase was found, suggesting that the active site of MMO is significantly different from the active sites of the dinuclear iron proteins hemery and ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, the results of the first shell fits suggest that there are more oxygen than nitrogen donor ligands.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the dinuclear iron center in methane monooxygenase and the sulfure and chlorine centers in photographic materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    The dinuclear iron center of the hydroxylase component of soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporiwn has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of the Fe K-edge EXAFS revealed that the first shell coordination of the Fe(HI)Fe(IH) oxidized state of the hydroxylase from M. capsulatus consists of approximately 6 N and 0 atoms at an average distance of 2.04 [Angstrom]. The Fe-Fe distance was determined to be 3.4 [Angstrom]. No evidence for the presence of a short oxo bridge in the iron center of the oxidized hydroxylase was found, suggesting that the active site of MMO is significantly different from the active sites of the dinuclear iron proteins hemery and ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, the results of the first shell fits suggest that there are more oxygen than nitrogen donor ligands.

  19. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction properties of Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase MtmOIV from the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces argillaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Gibson, Miranda; Rohr, Jurgen; Oliveira, Marcos A.

    2005-01-01

    The Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase MtmOIV from Streptomyces argillaceus is a 56 kDa FAD-dependent and NADPH-dependent enzyme that is responsible for the key frame-modifying step in the biosynthesis of the natural product mithramycin. Crystals of MtmOIV were flash-cooled and diffracted to 2.69 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation on beamline SER-CAT 22-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. Crystals of MtmOIV are monoclinic and light-scattering data reveal that the enzyme forms dimers in solution. The rotation function suggests the presence of two dimers in the asymmetric unit. l-­Selenomethionine-incorporated MtmOIV has been obtained. Structural solution combining molecular-replacement phases and anomalous phases from selenium is in progress. PMID:16511225

  20. Conversion of α-chitin substrates with varying particle size and crystallinity reveals substrate preferences of the chitinases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase of Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuko S; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Totani, Kazuhide; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2013-11-20

    Industrial depolymerization of chitinous biomass generally requires numerous steps and the use of deleterious substances. Enzymatic methods provide an alternative, but fundamental knowledge that could direct potential development of industrial enzyme cocktails is scarce. We have studied the contribution of monocomponent chitinases (ChiA, -B, and -C) and the lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) from Serratia marcescens on depolymerization of α-chitin substrates with varying particle size and crystallinity that were generated using a converge mill. For all chitinases activity was positively correlated to a decline in particle size and crystallinity. Especially ChiC, the only nonprocessive endochitinase from the S. marcescens chitinolytic machinery, benefited from mechanical pretreatment. Combining the chitinases revealed clear synergies for all substrates tested. CBP21, the chitin-active LPMO from S. marcescens, increased solubilization of substrates with high degrees of crystallinity when combined with each of the three chitinases, but this synergy was reduced upon decline in crystallinity.

  1. Cavity residue leucine 95 and channel residues glutamine 204, aspartic acid 211, and phenylalanine 269 of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase influence catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Cansu; Sönmez, Burcu; Vardar, Nurcan; Yanık-Yıldırım, K Cansu; Vardar-Schara, Gönül

    2016-09-01

    Structural analysis of toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) hydroxylase revealed the presence of three hydrophobic cavities, a channel, and a pore leading from the protein surface to the active site. Here, saturation mutagenesis was used to investigate the catalytic roles of alpha-subunit (TouA) second cavity residue L95 and TouA channel residues Q204, D211, and F269. By testing the substrates toluene, phenol, nitrobenzene, and/or naphthalene, these positions were found to influence the catalytic activity of ToMO. Several regiospecific variants were identified from TouA positions Q204, F269, and L95. For example, TouA variant Q204H had the regiospecificity of nitrobenzene changed significantly from 30 to 61 % p-nitrophenol. Interestingly, a combination of mutations at Q204H and A106V altered the regiospecificity of nitrobenzene back to 27 % p-nitrophenol. TouA variants F269Y, F269P, Q204E, and L95D improved the meta-hydroxylating capability of nitrobenzene by producing 87, 85, 82, and 77 % m-nitrophenol, respectively. For naphthalene oxidation, TouA variants F269V, Q204A, Q204S/S222N, and F269T had the regiospecificity changed from 16 to 9, 10, 23, and 25 % 2-naphthol, respectively. Here, two additional TouA residues, S222 and A106, were also identified that may have important roles in catalysis. Most of the isolated variants from D211 remained active, whereas having a hydrophobic residue at this position appeared to diminish the catalytic activity toward naphthalene. The mutational effects on the ToMO regiospecificity described here suggest that it is possible to further fine tune and engineer the reactivity of multicomponent diiron monooxygenases toward different substrates at positions that are relatively distant from the active site. PMID:27311562

  2. DFT calculations of isomer shifts and quadrupole splitting parameters in synthetic iron-oxo complexes: applications to methane monooxygenase and ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiqing; Lovell, Timothy; Han, Wen-Ge; Noodleman, Louis

    2003-08-25

    To predict isomer shifts and quadrupole splitting parameters of Fe atoms in the protein active sites of methane monooxygenase and ribonucleotide reductase, a correlation between experimental isomer shifts ranging 0.1-1.5 mm s(-)(1) for Fe atoms in a training set with the corresponding density functional theory (DFT) calculated electron densities at the Fe nuclei in those complexes is established. The geometries of the species in the training set, consisting of synthetic polar monomeric and dimeric iron complexes, are taken from the Cambridge structural database. A comparison of calculated Mössbauer parameters for Fe atoms from complexes in the training set with their corresponding experimental values shows very good agreement (standard deviation of 0.11 mm/s, correlation coefficient of -0.94). However, for the Fe atoms in the active sites of the structurally characterized proteins of methane monooxygenase and ribonucleotide reductase, the calculated Mössbauer parameters deviate more from their experimentally measured values. The high correlation that exists between calculated and observed quadrupole splitting and isomer shift parameters for the synthetic complexes leads us to conclude that the main source of the error arising for the protein active sites is due to the differing degrees of atomic-level resolution for the protein structural data, compared to the synthetic complexes in the training set. Much lower X-ray resolutions associated with the former introduce uncertainty in the accuracy of several bond lengths. This is ultimately reflected in the calculated isomer shifts and quadrupole splitting parameters of the Fe sites in the proteins. For the proteins, the closest correspondence between predicted and observed Mössbauer isomer shifts follows the order MMOH(red), RNR(red), MMOH(ox), and RNR(ox), with average deviations from experiment of 0.17, 0.17, 0.17-0.20, and 0.32 mm/s, but this requires DFT geometry optimization of the iron-oxo dimer complexes.

  3. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Praveen; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Gandhi, Sumit G.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3′ monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc.) from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C), exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin), while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of flavonoids in C

  4. Evaluating cytochrome p450 in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) by monooxygenase activity and immunohistochemistry: Possible nonlethal assessment by skin immunohistochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Kutay, A.L.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Six-month-old lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were injected intraperitoneally with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) in corn oil or in vehicle alone. Liver samples were taken and stored at -80 degrees C until microsome preparation and monooxygenase assay. Skin samples were placed in buffered formalin for subsequent immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). Lesser scaup treated with BNF at 20 or 100 mg/kg body weight showed approximately 6- to 18-fold increases in four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase). No IHC response was observed for CYP1A in the skin of vehicle-injected ducks, whereas in the skin from BNF-treated ducks, the positive IHC response was of similar magnitude for both dose levels of BNF. Tree swallows injected with BNF at 100 mg/kg, but not at. 20 mg/kg, showed significant increases (approximately fivefold) in hepatic microsomal O-dealkylase activities. Cytochrome P4501A was undetectable by IHC response in skin from corn oil-treated swallows, but positive IHC responses were observed in the skin of one of five swallows at 20 mg/kg and four of five swallows at 100 mg/kg. Although these data do not allow construction of significant dose-response curves, the IHC responses for CYP1A in skin support the possible use of this nonlethal approach for biomonitoring contaminant exposure of birds. In addition, the CYP1A signal observed at the bases of emerging feathers suggest that these might provide less invasive sampling sites for IHC analysis of CYP1A.

  5. The Divergent AmoC3 Subunit of Ammonia Monooxygenase Functions as Part of a Stress Response System in Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Berube, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The ammonia monooxygenase of chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) catalyzes the first step in ammonia oxidation by converting ammonia to hydroxylamine. The monooxygenase of Nitrosomonas europaea is encoded by two nearly identical operon copies (amoCAB1,2). Several AOB, including N. europaea, also possess a divergent monocistronic copy of amoC (amoC3) of unknown function. Previous work suggested a possible functional role for amoC3 as part of the σE stress response regulon during the recovery of N. europaea from extended ammonia starvation, thus indicating its importance during the exit of cells from starvation. We here used global transcription analysis to show that expression of amoC3 is part of a general poststarvation cellular response system in N. europaea. We also found that amoC3 is required for an efficient response to some stress conditions, as deleting this gene impaired growth at elevated temperatures and recovery following starvation under high oxygen tensions. Deletion of the σ32 global stress response regulator demonstrated that the heat shock regulon plays a significant role in mediating the recovery of N. europaea from starvation. These findings provide the first described phenotype associated with the divergent AmoC3 subunit which appears to function as a stress-responsive subunit capable of maintaining ammonia oxidation activity under stress conditions. While this study was limited to starvation and heat shock, it is possible that the AmoC3 subunit may be responsive to other membrane stressors (e.g., solvent or osmotic shocks) that are prevalent in the environments of AOB. PMID:22544266

  6. Enzymatic Formation of Apo-Carotenoids from the Xanthophyll Carotenoids Lutein, Zeaxanthin and β-Cryptoxanthin by Ferret Carotene-9’,10’-Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Mein, Jonathan R.; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Ernst, Hansgeorg; Russell, Robert M.; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase (CMO1) has been shown to be involved in vitamin A formation, while recent studies suggest that carotene-9’,10’-monooxygenase (CMO2) may have a broader substrate specificity than previously recognized. In this in vitro study, we investigated baculovirus-generated recombinant ferret CMO2 cleavage activity towards the carotenoid substrates zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Utilizing HPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS, we identified both volatile and non-volatile apocarotenoid products including 3-OH-β-ionone, 3-OH-α-ionone, β-ionone, 3-OH-α-apo-10’-carotenal, 3-OH-β-apo-10’-carotenal, and β-apo-10’-carotenal, indicating cleavage at both the 9,10 and 9’,10’ carbon-carbon double bond. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein are preferentially cleaved over β-cryptoxanthin, indicating a key role of CMO2 in non-provitamin A carotenoid metabolism. Furthermore, incubation of 3-OH-β-apo-10’-carotenal with CMO2 lysate resulted in the formation of 3-OH-β-ionone. In the presence of NAD+, in vitro incubation of 3-OH-β-apo-10’-carotenal with ferret hepatic homogenates formed 3-OH-β-apo-10’-carotenoic acid. Since apo-carotenoids serve as important signaling molecules in a variety of biological processes, enzymatic cleavage of xanthophylls by mammalian CMO2 represents a new avenue of research regarding vertebrate carotenoid metabolism and biological function. PMID:21081106

  7. Constitutive Expression of the Cytochrome P450 EthABCD Monooxygenase System Enables Degradation of Synthetic Dialkyl Ethers in Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Purswani, Jessica; Breuer, Uta; Pozo, Clementina; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2013-01-01

    In Rhodococcus ruber IFP 2001, Rhodococcus zopfii IFP 2005, and Gordonia sp. strain IFP 2009, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase EthABCD catalyzes hydroxylation of methoxy and ethoxy residues in the fuel oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The expression of the IS3-type transposase-flanked eth genes is ETBE dependent and controlled by the regulator EthR (C. Malandain et al., FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 72:289–296, 2010). In contrast, we demonstrated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) that the betaproteobacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, which possesses the ethABCD genes but lacks ethR, constitutively expresses the P450 system at high levels even when growing on nonether substrates, such as glucose. The mutant strain A. tertiaricarbonis L10, which is unable to degrade dialkyl ethers, resulted from a transposition event mediated by a rolling-circle IS91-type element flanking the eth gene cluster in the wild-type strain L108. The constitutive expression of Eth monooxygenase is likely initiated by the housekeeping sigma factor σ70, as indicated by the presence in strain L108 of characteristic −10 and −35 binding sites upstream of ethA which are lacking in strain IFP 2001. This enables efficient degradation of diethyl ether, diisopropyl ether, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) without any lag phase in strain L108. However, ethers with larger residues, n-hexyl methyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and alkyl aryl ethers, were not attacked by the Eth system at significant rates in resting-cell experiments, indicating that the residue in the ether molecule which is not hydroxylated also contributes to the determination of substrate specificity. PMID:23354715

  8. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Praveen; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3' monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc.) from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C), exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin), while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of flavonoids in C

  9. Imino-Oxy Acetic Acid Dealkylation as Evidence for an Inner-Sphere Alcohol Intermediate in the Reaction Catalyzed by Peptidylglycine α-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase (PHM)

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Neil R.; Lowe, Edward W.; Merkler, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM, EC 1.14.17.3) catalyzes the stereospecific hydroxylation of a glycyl α-carbon in a reaction that requires O2 and ascorbate. Subsequent dealkylation of the α-hydroxyglycine by another enzyme, peptidylamidoglycolate lyase (PAL. EC 4.3.2.5), yields a bioactive amide and glyoxylate. PHM is a non-coupled, type II dicopper monooxygenase which activates O2 at only a single copper atom, CuM. In this study, the PHM mechanism was probed using a non-natural substrate, benzaldehyde imino-oxy acetic acid (BIAA). PHM catalyzes the O-oxidative dealkylation of BIAA to benzaldoxime and glyoxylate with no involvement of PAL. The minimal kinetic mechanism for BIAA was shown to be steady-state ordered using primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects. The D(V/K)APPARENT, BIAA decreased from 14.7 ± 1.0 as [O2] → 0 to 1.0 ± 0.2 as [O2] → ∞ suggesting the dissociation rate constant from the PHM·BIAA complex decreases as [O2] increases; thereby, reducing the steady-state concentration of [PHM]free. BIAA was further used to differentiate between potential oxidative Cu/O species using a QM/MM reaction coordinate simulation to determine which species could yield product O-dealkylation that matched our experimental data. The results of this study provided compelling evidence for the presence of a covalently linked CuII-alkoxide intermediate with a quartet spin state responsible BIAA oxidation. PMID:19569683

  10. mRNA stability changes precede changes in steady-state mRNA amounts during hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Molin, Claes; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Warringer, Jonas; Nerman, Olle; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2009-04-01

    Under stress, cells need to optimize the activity of a wide range of gene products during the response phases: shock, adaptation, and recovery. This requires coordination of several levels of regulation, including turnover and translation efficiencies of mRNAs. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways are implicated in many aspects of the environmental stress response, including initiation of transcription, translation efficiency, and mRNA turnover. In this study, we analyze mRNA turnover rates and mRNA steady-state levels at different time points following mild hyperosmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The regulation of mRNA stability is transient and affects most genes for which there is a change in transcript level. These changes precede and prepare for the changes in steady-state levels, both regarding the initial increase and the later decline of stress-induced mRNAs. The inverse is true for stress-repressed genes, which become stabilized during hyperosmotic stress in preparation of an increase as the cells recover. The MAP kinase Hog1 affects both steady-state levels and stability of stress-responsive transcripts, whereas the Hog1-activated kinase Rck2 influences steady-state levels without a major effect on stability. Regulation of mRNA stability is a wide-spread, but not universal, effect on stress-responsive transcripts during transient hyperosmotic stress. By destabilizing stress-induced mRNAs when their steady-state levels have reached a maximum, the cell prepares for the subsequent recovery phase when these transcripts are to return to normal levels. Conversely, stabilization of stress-repressed mRNAs permits their rapid accumulation in the recovery phase. Our results show that mRNA turnover is coordinated with transcriptional induction.

  11. Glucocorticoids enhance stability of human growth hormone mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Paek, I; Axel, R

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the control of expression of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene introduced into the chromosomes of mouse fibroblasts. Cell lines transformed with the hGH gene expressed low levels of intact hGH mRNA and secreted hGH protein into the medium. Although the level of expression of hGH mRNA was low, the gene remained responsive to induction by glucocorticoid hormones. To localize the sequences responsible for induction and to determine the mechanism by which these cis-acting sequences enhance gene expression, we have constructed a series of fusion genes between the hGH gene and the herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (tk) gene. We have demonstrated that a fusion gene in which hGH cDNA is flanked at its 5' terminus by an HSV tk promoter and is flanked at its 3' terminus by 3' HSV tk DNA remains inducible by glucocorticoids. Our studies indicate that the hGH exons contain sequences which are responsible for glucocorticoid hormone induction. Pulse-chase experiments, in vitro nuclear transcription, and approach to steady-state measurements indicate that the mechanisms responsible for induction of the hGH cDNA fusion gene operate posttranscriptionally to enhance the stability of hGH mRNA. Moreover, this increased stability was associated with an increase in the length of the 3' poly(A) tail on hGH mRNA. Images PMID:3037323

  12. Influenza virus mRNA trafficking through host nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Mor, Amir; White, Alexander; Zhang, Ke; Thompson, Matthew; Esparza, Matthew; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Koide, Kazunori; Lynch, Kristen W; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fontoura, Beatriz M A

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a human pathogen with a genome composed of eight viral RNA segments that replicate in the nucleus. Two viral mRNAs are alternatively spliced. The unspliced M1 mRNA is translated into the matrix M1 protein, while the ion channel M2 protein is generated after alternative splicing. These proteins are critical mediators of viral trafficking and budding. We show that the influenza virus uses nuclear speckles to promote post-transcriptional splicing of its M1 mRNA. We assign previously unknown roles for the viral NS1 protein and cellular factors to an intranuclear trafficking pathway that targets the viral M1 mRNA to nuclear speckles, mediates splicing at these nuclear bodies and exports the spliced M2 mRNA from the nucleus. Given that nuclear speckles are storage sites for splicing factors, which leave these sites to splice cellular pre-mRNAs at transcribing genes, we reveal a functional subversion of nuclear speckles to promote viral gene expression. PMID:27572970

  13. Influenza virus mRNA trafficking through host nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Mor, Amir; White, Alexander; Zhang, Ke; Thompson, Matthew; Esparza, Matthew; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Koide, Kazunori; Lynch, Kristen W; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fontoura, Beatriz M A

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a human pathogen with a genome composed of eight viral RNA segments that replicate in the nucleus. Two viral mRNAs are alternatively spliced. The unspliced M1 mRNA is translated into the matrix M1 protein, while the ion channel M2 protein is generated after alternative splicing. These proteins are critical mediators of viral trafficking and budding. We show that the influenza virus uses nuclear speckles to promote post-transcriptional splicing of its M1 mRNA. We assign previously unknown roles for the viral NS1 protein and cellular factors to an intranuclear trafficking pathway that targets the viral M1 mRNA to nuclear speckles, mediates splicing at these nuclear bodies and exports the spliced M2 mRNA from the nucleus. Given that nuclear speckles are storage sites for splicing factors, which leave these sites to splice cellular pre-mRNAs at transcribing genes, we reveal a functional subversion of nuclear speckles to promote viral gene expression.

  14. Localization of histidine decarboxylase mRNA in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Wang, Y M; Zahnow, C A; Joseph, D R; Millhorn, D E

    1990-08-01

    The recent cloning of a cDNA encoding fetal rat liver histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the synthesizing enzyme for histamine, allows the study of the central histaminergic system at the molecular level. To this end, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses were used to determine the regional and cellular distribution of neurons which express HDC mRNA in rat brain. Three hybridizing species which migrate as 1.6-, 2.6-, and 3.5-kb RNA were identified with Northern blots. The major (2.6 kb) and minor (3.5 kb) species, characteristic of HDC mRNA in fetal liver, were expressed at high levels in diencephalon and at just detectable levels in hippocampus, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, the 1.6-kb species was present in all brain regions examined except the olfactory bulb. Cells which contain HDC mRNA were found by in situ hybridization in the hypothalamus; HDC mRNA-containing cells were not detected in other areas, including the hippocampus. Hypothalamic neurons which express HDC mRNA were localized to all aspects of the tuberomammillary nucleus, a result consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings. PMID:19912749

  15. Molecular cloning of human ornithine aminotransferase mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Inana, G.; Totsuka, S.; Redmond, M.; Dougherty, T.; Nagle, J.; Shiono, T.; Ohura, T. Kominami, E.; Katunuma, N.

    1986-03-01

    The isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for the mRNA of human ornithine aminotransferase (OATase; ornithine-oxo-acid aminotransferase; L-ornithine:2-oxo-acid aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.13), a nonabundant mitochondrial matrix enzyme that is severely deficient in a hereditary chorioretinal degenerative disease (gyrate atrophy), is described. Human liver, retina, and retinoblastoma (Y79) mRNAs were prepared and tested for the OATase mRNA content by in vitro translation, immunoprecipitation, and NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. The retinoblastoma cells were found to be expressing this enzyme at a relatively high level. The primary translation product of the OATase mRNA is larger than the pure OATase protein on NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. lambdagt11 cDNA libraries were prepared from the human mRNAs, and the recombinant clones were immunoscreened as plaques with two different preparations of rabbit anti-human OATase antibodies. The amino acid sequences of seven tryptic peptides (115 amino acid residues) of the pure human OATase were obtained by microsequencing. When the tryptic peptide and cDNA-derived amino acid sequences were compared, homologies in 111 of 115 residues, including a match of 20 consecutive residues, were observed. An RNA blot hybridization of /sup 32/P-labeled OATase cDNA to normal human retina and retinoblastoma mRNAs demonstrated an OATase mRNA species of approx. = 2.2 kilobases.

  16. Regulation of mRNA trafficking by nuclear pore complexes.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Amandine; Palancade, Benoit

    2014-09-02

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have explored the mechanisms governing mRNA export out of the nucleus, a crucial step in eukaryotic gene expression. During transcription and processing, mRNAs are assembled into messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs). mRNPs are then exported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are large multiprotein assemblies made of several copies of a limited number of nucleoporins. A considerable effort has been put into the dissection of mRNA export through NPCs at both cellular and molecular levels, revealing the conserved contributions of a subset of nucleoporins in this process, from yeast to vertebrates. Several reports have also demonstrated the ability of NPCs to sort out properly-processed mRNPs for entry into the nuclear export pathway. Importantly, changes in mRNA export have been associated with post-translational modifications of nucleoporins or changes in NPC composition, depending on cell cycle progression, development or exposure to stress. How NPC modifications also impact on cellular mRNA export in disease situations, notably upon viral infection, is discussed.

  17. Regulation of mRNA Trafficking by Nuclear Pore Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Amandine; Palancade, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have explored the mechanisms governing mRNA export out of the nucleus, a crucial step in eukaryotic gene expression. During transcription and processing, mRNAs are assembled into messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs). mRNPs are then exported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are large multiprotein assemblies made of several copies of a limited number of nucleoporins. A considerable effort has been put into the dissection of mRNA export through NPCs at both cellular and molecular levels, revealing the conserved contributions of a subset of nucleoporins in this process, from yeast to vertebrates. Several reports have also demonstrated the ability of NPCs to sort out properly-processed mRNPs for entry into the nuclear export pathway. Importantly, changes in mRNA export have been associated with post-translational modifications of nucleoporins or changes in NPC composition, depending on cell cycle progression, development or exposure to stress. How NPC modifications also impact on cellular mRNA export in disease situations, notably upon viral infection, is discussed. PMID:25184662

  18. Inducing effect of oxfendazole on cytochrome P450IA2 in rabbit liver. Consequences on cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Gleizes, C; Eeckhoutte, C; Pineau, T; Alvinerie, M; Galtier, P

    1991-06-15

    Male New Zealand rabbits were dosed with either 0.9, 4.5 or 22.5 mg/kg/day of oxfendazole by gastric intubation for 10 days. Oxfendazole administered at the therapeutic dose (4.5 mg/kg) and at the highest dose (22.5 mg/kg) increased 1.54- and 2.36-fold the total liver microsomal cytochrome P450 and more particularly the isoenzyme P450IA2 (95 and 184% increases) as demonstrated by western blotting. Increases in ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and hydroxylations of benzopyrene and acetanilide occurred in livers of the same animals without any change in N-demethylation of aminopyrine, benzphetamine or erythromycin. Because of the unchanged level of mRNA specific to cytochrome P450IA2, as shown by northern blot analysis of poly mRNA, an enzyme stabilization rather than a transcriptional activation of IA2 genes should be involved in the P450IA2 regulation mechanisms. Oxfendazole bound strongly to cytochrome P450, giving rise to a type II spectrum, and inhibited noncompetitively the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and acetanilide hydroxylase activities, this confirmed that oxfendazole interacts only with the P450IA2 family. On the basis of a comparison of the enzymatic activities induced by various imidazole drugs, it was concluded that oxfendazole, like omeprazole and albendazole, behaved as a 3-methylcholanthrene-type inducer. These three benzimidazoles did not all belong to the same category of cytochrome P450 inducers as the antifungal drugs miconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole.

  19. Connections Underlying Translation and mRNA Stability.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Green, Rachel

    2016-09-11

    Gene expression and regulation in organisms minimally depends on transcription by RNA polymerase and on the stability of the RNA product (for both coding and non-coding RNAs). For coding RNAs, gene expression is further influenced by the amount of translation by the ribosome and by the stability of the protein product. The stabilities of these two classes of RNA, non-coding and coding, vary considerably: tRNAs and rRNAs tend to be long lived while mRNAs tend to be more short lived. Even among mRNAs, however, there is a considerable range in stability (ranging from seconds to hours in bacteria and up to days in metazoans), suggesting a significant role for stability in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we review recent experiments from bacteria, yeast and metazoans indicating that the stability of most mRNAs is broadly impacted by the actions of ribosomes that translate them. Ribosomal recognition of defective mRNAs triggers "mRNA surveillance" pathways that target the mRNA for degradation [Shoemaker and Green (2012) ]. More generally, even the stability of perfectly functional mRNAs appears to be dictated by overall rates of translation by the ribosome [Herrick et al. (1990), Presnyak et al. (2015) ]. Given that mRNAs are synthesized for the purpose of being translated into proteins, it is reassuring that such intimate connections between mRNA and the ribosome can drive biological regulation. In closing, we consider the likelihood that these connections between protein synthesis and mRNA stability are widespread or whether other modes of regulation dominate the mRNA stability landscape in higher organisms. PMID:27261255

  20. Hfq affects mRNA levels independently of degradation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The bacterial Lsm protein, Hfq, is an RNA chaperone involved in many reactions related to RNA metabolism, such as replication and stability, control of small RNA activity and polyadenylation. Despite this wide spectrum of known functions, the global role of Hfq is almost certainly undervalued; its capacity to bind DNA and to interact with many other proteins are only now beginning to be taken into account. Results The role of Hfq in the maturation and degradation of the rpsO mRNA of E. coli was investigated in vivo. The data revealed a decrease in rpsO mRNA abundance concomitant to an increase in its stability when Hfq is absent. This indicates that the change in mRNA levels in hfq mutants does not result from its modification of RNA stability. Moreover, a series of independent experiments have revealed that the decrease in mRNA level is not a consequence of a reduction of translation efficiency and that Hfq is not directly implicated in translational control of rpsO expression. Reduced steady-state mRNA levels in the absence of Hfq were also shown for rpsT, rpsB and rpsB-tsf, but not for lpp, pnp or tRNA transcripts. The abundance of chimeric transcripts rpsO-lacZ and rpsB-lacZ, whose expression was driven by rpsO and rpsB promoters, respectively, was also lower in the hfq null-mutants, while the β-galactosidase yield remained about the same as in the parent wild-type strain. Conclusions The data obtained suggest that alteration of rpsO, rpsT and rpsB-tsf transcript levels observed under conditions of Hfq deficiency is not caused by the post-transcriptional events, such as mRNA destabilization or changes in translation control, and may rather result from changes in transcriptional activity. So far, how Hfq affects transcription remains unclear. We propose that one of the likely mechanisms of Hfq-mediated modulation of transcription might operate early in the elongation step, when interaction of Hfq with a nascent transcript would help to overcome

  1. UIF, a New mRNA export adaptor that works together with REF/ALY, requires FACT for recruitment to mRNA.

    PubMed

    Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Hung, Ming-Lung; Walsh, Matthew J; Snijders, Ambrosius P L; Chang, Chung-Te; Jones, Rachel; Ponting, Chris P; Dickman, Mark J; Wilson, Stuart A

    2009-12-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) export adaptors play an important role in the transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. They couple early mRNA processing events such as 5' capping and 3' end formation with loading of the TAP/NXF1 export receptor onto mRNA. The canonical adaptor REF/ALY/Yra1 is recruited to mRNA via UAP56 and subsequently delivers the mRNA to NXF1 [1]. Knockdown of UAP56 [2, 3] and NXF1 [4-7] in higher eukaryotes efficiently blocks mRNA export, whereas knockdown of REF only causes a modest reduction, suggesting the existence of additional adaptors [8-10]. Here we identify a new UAP56-interacting factor, UIF, which functions as an export adaptor, binding NXF1 and delivering mRNA to the nuclear pore. REF and UIF are simultaneously found on the same mRNA molecules, and both proteins are required for efficient export of mRNA. We show that the histone chaperone FACT specifically binds UIF, but not REF, via the SSRP1 subunit, and this interaction is required for recruitment of UIF to mRNA. Together the results indicate that REF and UIF represent key human adaptors for the export of cellular mRNAs via the UAP56-NXF1 pathway.

  2. Screening of mRNA Chemical Modification to Maximize Protein Expression with Reduced Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Itaka, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of nucleosides in mRNA is an important technology to regulate the immunogenicity of mRNA. In this study, various previously reported mRNA formulations were evaluated by analyzing in vitro protein expression and immunogenicity in multiple cell lines. For the macrophage-derived cell line, RAW 264.7, modified mRNA tended to have reduced immunogenicity and increased protein expression compared to the unmodified mRNA. In contrast, in some cell types, such as hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HuH-7) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), protein expression was decreased by mRNA modification. Further analyses revealed that mRNA modifications decreased translation efficiency but increased nuclease stability. Thus, mRNA modification is likely to exert both positive and negative effects on the efficiency of protein expression in transfected cells and optimal mRNA formulation should be determined based on target cell types and transfection purposes. PMID:26213960

  3. Screening of mRNA Chemical Modification to Maximize Protein Expression with Reduced Immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Itaka, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of nucleosides in mRNA is an important technology to regulate the immunogenicity of mRNA. In this study, various previously reported mRNA formulations were evaluated by analyzing in vitro protein expression and immunogenicity in multiple cell lines. For the macrophage-derived cell line, RAW 264.7, modified mRNA tended to have reduced immunogenicity and increased protein expression compared to the unmodified mRNA. In contrast, in some cell types, such as hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HuH-7) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), protein expression was decreased by mRNA modification. Further analyses revealed that mRNA modifications decreased translation efficiency but increased nuclease stability. Thus, mRNA modification is likely to exert both positive and negative effects on the efficiency of protein expression in transfected cells and optimal mRNA formulation should be determined based on target cell types and transfection purposes. PMID:26213960

  4. Molecular cloning of seal myoglobin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D; Blanchetot, A; Jeffreys, A J

    1982-01-01

    Grey seal skeletal muscle containing high levels of myoglobin was used to prepare poly(A)+ RNA. In vitro translation of this RNA produced a range of polypeptides including myoglobin. cDNA was prepared by reverse transcription of muscle poly(A)+ RNA and cloned into the plasmid pAT 153. 4% of cDNA recombinants were shown to contain myoglobin cDNA inserts. DNA sequence analysis of one clone (pSM 178) which contained a relatively large myoglobin cDNA insert showed an incomplete cDNA comprising the terminal 293 nucleotides of 3' non-translated mRNA sequences. Hybridization experiments using this myoglobin cDNA indicated that seal myoglobin is coded by a single gene which is transcribed to give a 1400 nucleotide mRNA considerably longer than related haemoglobin mRNAs. Images PMID:6185919

  5. Peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin by mRNA display

    SciTech Connect

    Yiadom, Kwabena P.A.B.; Muhie, Seid; Yang, David C.H. . E-mail: yangdc@georgetown.edu

    2005-10-07

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely toxic. The metalloproteases associated with the toxins cleave proteins essential for neurotransmitter secretion. Inhibitors of the metalloprotease are currently sought to control the toxicity of BoNTs. Toward that goal, we produced a synthetic cDNA for the expression and purification of the metalloprotease of BoNT/A in Escherichia coli as a biotin-ubiquitin fusion protein, and constructed a combinatorial peptide library to screen for BoNT/A light chain inhibitors using mRNA display. A protease assay was developed using immobilized intact SNAP-25 as the substrate. The new peptide inhibitors showed a 10-fold increase in affinity to BoNT/A light chain than the parent peptide. Interestingly, the sequences of the new peptide inhibitors showed abundant hydrophobic residues but few hydrophilic residues. The results suggest that mRNA display may provide a general approach in developing peptide inhibitors of BoNTs.

  6. The Current Status of Vertebrate Cellular mRNA IRESs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites/segments (IRESs) were first discovered over 20 years ago in picornaviruses, followed by the discovery of two other types of IRES in hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the dicistroviruses, which infect invertebrates. In the meantime, reports of IRESs in eukaryotic cellular mRNAs started to appear, and the list of such putative IRESs continues to grow to the point in which it now stands at ∼100, 80% of them in vertebrate mRNAs. Despite initial skepticism from some quarters, there now seems universal agreement that there is genuine internal ribosome entry on the viral IRESs. However, the same cannot be said for cellular mRNA IRESs, which continue to be shrouded in controversy. The aim of this article is to explain why vertebrate mRNA IRESs remain controversial, and to discuss ways in which these controversies might be resolved. PMID:23378589

  7. Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Vincent, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3E1) cells were subjected to a vibrational force modeled by NASA to simulate a space shuttle launch (7.83 G rms). The mRNA levels for eight genes were investigated to determine the effect of vibrational force on mRNA expression. The mRNA levels of two growth-related protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were up-regulated significantly within 30 min after vibration, whereas those of osteocalcin as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 were decreased significantly within 3 h after vibration. No changes were detected in the levels of beta-actin, histone H4, or cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 after vibration. No basal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were detected. In addition, the extracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in bone, were not significantly altered after vibration most likely due to the serum deprivation state of the osteoblasts. In comparison with the gravitational launch profile, vibrational-induced changes in gene expression were greater both in magnitude and number of genes activated. Taken together, these data suggest that the changes in mRNA expression are due to a direct mechanical effect of the vibrational force on the osteoblast cells and not to changes in the local PGE2 concentrations. The finding that launch forces induce gene expression is of utmost importance since many of the biological experiments do not dampen vibrational loads on experimental samples. This lack of dampening of vibrational forces may partially explain why 1-G onboard controls sometimes do not reflect 1-G ground controls. These data may also suggest that scientists use extra ground controls that are exposed to launch forces, have these forces dampened on launched samples, or use facilities such as Biorack that provide an onboard 1-G centrufuge in order to control for space shuttle launch forces.

  8. Body Fluid Identification Using mRNA Profiling.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Amy D; Haas, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    RNA analysis is a valuable tool for the identification of the forensically relevant body fluids, saliva, blood, menstrual blood, cervicovaginal fluid, and semen. Multiple human mRNA and bacterial RNA markers have been identified for each of these body fluids. RNA and DNA can be coextracted from the same portion of a sample and RNA markers for different body fluids can be multiplexed in a single PCR, thereby maximizing the number of analyses that can be performed with limited sample material.

  9. The utility of protein and mRNA correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic measurements are revolutionizing the way we model and predict cellular behavior, and multi-omic comparisons are being published with increased regularity. Some have expected a trivial and predictable correlation between mRNA and protein; however the manifest complexity of biological regulation suggests a more nuanced relationship. Indeed, observing this lack of strict correlation provides clues for new research topics, and has the potential for transformative biological insight.

  10. Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Vincent, V L; Hughes-Fulford, M

    1997-05-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3E1) cells were subjected to a vibrational force modeled by NASA to simulate a space shuttle launch (7.83 G rms). The mRNA levels for eight genes were investigated to determine the effect of vibrational force on mRNA expression. The mRNA levels of two growth-related protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were up-regulated significantly within 30 min after vibration, whereas those of osteocalcin as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 were decreased significantly within 3 h after vibration. No changes were detected in the levels of beta-actin, histone H4, or cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 after vibration. No basal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were detected. In addition, the extracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in bone, were not significantly altered after vibration most likely due to the serum deprivation state of the osteoblasts. In comparison with the gravitational launch profile, vibrational-induced changes in gene expression were greater both in magnitude and number of genes activated. Taken together, these data suggest that the changes in mRNA expression are due to a direct mechanical effect of the vibrational force on the osteoblast cells and not to changes in the local PGE2 concentrations. The finding that launch forces induce gene expression is of utmost importance since many of the biological experiments do not dampen vibrational loads on experimental samples. This lack of dampening of vibrational forces may partially explain why 1-G onboard controls sometimes do not reflect 1-G ground controls. These data may also suggest that scientists use extra ground controls that are exposed to launch forces, have these forces dampened on launched samples, or use facilities such as Biorack that provide an onboard 1-G centrufuge in order to control for space shuttle launch forces.

  11. Local Translation and mRNA Trafficking in Axon Pathfinding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Axons and their growth cones are specialized neuronal sub-compartments that possess translation machinery and have distinct messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Several classes of mRNAs have been identified using candidate-based, as well as unbiased genome-wide-based approaches. Axonal mRNA localization serves to regulate spatially the protein synthesis; thereby, providing axons with a high degree of functional autonomy from the soma during axon pathfinding. Importantly, de novo protein synthesis in navigating axonal growth cones is necessary for chemotropic responses to various axon guidance cues. This chapter discusses the molecular components involved in regulating axonal mRNA trafficking, targeting, and translation, and focuses on RNA binding proteins (RNBPs) and microRNAs. The functional significance of local mRNA translation in the directional response of growth cones to a gradient is highlighted along with the downstream signaling events that mediate local protein synthesis. The view that emerges is that local translation is tightly coupled to extracellular cues, enabling growth cones to respond to new signals with exquisite adaptability and spatiotemporal control. PMID:19343311

  12. Exaptive origins of regulated mRNA decay in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Fursham M.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is extensively controlled at the level of mRNA stability and the mechanisms underlying this regulation are markedly different from their archaeal and bacterial counterparts. We propose that two such mechanisms, nonsense‐mediated decay (NMD) and motif‐specific transcript destabilization by CCCH‐type zinc finger RNA‐binding proteins, originated as a part of cellular defense against RNA pathogens. These branches of the mRNA turnover pathway might have been used by primeval eukaryotes alongside RNA interference to distinguish their own messages from those of RNA viruses and retrotransposable elements. We further hypothesize that the subsequent advent of “professional” innate and adaptive immunity systems allowed NMD and the motif‐triggered mechanisms to be efficiently repurposed for regulation of endogenous cellular transcripts. This scenario explains the rapid emergence of archetypical mRNA destabilization pathways in eukaryotes and argues that other aspects of post‐transcriptional gene regulation in this lineage might have been derived through a similar exaptation route. PMID:27438915

  13. Leptin mRNA expresses in the bull reproductive organ.

    PubMed

    Abavisani, A; Baghbanzadeh, A; Shayan, P; Tajik, P; Dehghani, H; Mirtorabi, M

    2009-12-01

    Leptin, a 167-amino acid hormone, is secreted mainly by fat tissue. It has some powerful effects on the regulation of metabolism and reproductive function through endocrine and probably paracrine mechanisms. The contribution rate of leptin function on the male reproductive system is not still clear. Characterization of leptin expression in reproductive organs will suggest that in addition to its endocrine action, leptin has also paracrine/autocrine effects on reproduction. The expression of functional leptin receptor mRNA has been already recognized in testis of rodents, human and cattle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of leptin mRNA in the bovine testis, because it will be the first step for understanding of its paracrine/autocrine effects on the male reproductive organs in cattle. The present study was the first to showed leptin mRNA expression in the testis of Holstein cattle using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. RT-PCR products were amplified with nested PCR using inner leptin primer pairs to emphasis the first results. Besides, bovine beta actin gene was acted as an internal positive control as well as RNA purification marker. Our findings suggest that in addition to its endocrine actions at the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leptin can has an autocrine and/or paracrine role in bull testicular function.

  14. Decreased albumin mRNA in immunodeficient wasted' mice

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Buczek, N.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.E. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1991-03-15

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive gene wst (wst/wst) develop a wasting syndrome' that leads to death by 28-32 days of age. These mice have faulty repair of damage induced by ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency at secretory sites, and neurologic abnormalities. In addition to a progressively more apparent wasted phenotype, wst/wst mice show other features of failure to thrive and malnutrition. Daily body weights of the animals revealed a loss in weight between 25 and 30 days of age, a time during which normal littermates were progressively and rapidly gaining weight. Albumin mRNA levels were measured by dilution dot blot hybridizations of liver-derived RNA preparations from wasted mice, littermates, and parental controls. In all wasted mice, albumin mRNA levels were reduced 5 to 10 fold compared to controls. Northern blots revealed that the albumin mRNA present in wasted mice was normal in length though reduced in amount. These results suggest there may be a relationship between low albumin synthesis and the wasting syndrome of the wst/wst mouse.

  15. mRNA capping: biological functions and applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Anand; Robb, G Brett; Chan, Siu-Hong

    2016-09-19

    The 5' m7G cap is an evolutionarily conserved modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Decades of research have established that the m7G cap serves as a unique molecular module that recruits cellular proteins and mediates cap-related biological functions such as pre-mRNA processing, nuclear export and cap-dependent protein synthesis. Only recently has the role of the cap 2'O methylation as an identifier of self RNA in the innate immune system against foreign RNA has become clear. The discovery of the cytoplasmic capping machinery suggests a novel level of control network. These new findings underscore the importance of a proper cap structure in the synthesis of functional messenger RNA. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the biological roles of mRNA caps in eukaryotic cells. We will also discuss different means that viruses and their host cells use to cap their RNA and the application of these capping machineries to synthesize functional mRNA. Novel applications of RNA capping enzymes in the discovery of new RNA species and sequencing the microbiome transcriptome will also be discussed. We will end with a summary of novel findings in RNA capping and the questions these findings pose. PMID:27317694

  16. Sequence and expression of ferredoxin mRNA in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.; Funder, P.M.; Ling, V. )

    1990-05-01

    We have isolated and structurally characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding ferredoxin from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library prepared from barley leaf mRNA. The ferredoxin clone (pBFD-1) was fused head-to-head with a partial-length cDNA clone encoding calmodulin, and was fortuitously isolated by screening the library with a calmodulin-specific oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA sequence from which pBFD-1 was derived is expressed exclusively in the leaf tissues of 7-d old barley seedlings. Barley pre-ferredoxin has a predicted size of 15.3 kDal, of which 4.6 kDal are accounted for by the transit peptide. The polypeptide encoded by pBFD-1 is identical to wheat ferredoxin, and shares slightly more amino acid sequence similarity with spinach ferredoxin I than with ferredoxin II. Ferredoxin mRNA levels are rapidly increased 10-fold by white light in etiolated barley leaves.

  17. mRNA capping: biological functions and applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Anand; Robb, G Brett; Chan, Siu-Hong

    2016-09-19

    The 5' m7G cap is an evolutionarily conserved modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Decades of research have established that the m7G cap serves as a unique molecular module that recruits cellular proteins and mediates cap-related biological functions such as pre-mRNA processing, nuclear export and cap-dependent protein synthesis. Only recently has the role of the cap 2'O methylation as an identifier of self RNA in the innate immune system against foreign RNA has become clear. The discovery of the cytoplasmic capping machinery suggests a novel level of control network. These new findings underscore the importance of a proper cap structure in the synthesis of functional messenger RNA. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the biological roles of mRNA caps in eukaryotic cells. We will also discuss different means that viruses and their host cells use to cap their RNA and the application of these capping machineries to synthesize functional mRNA. Novel applications of RNA capping enzymes in the discovery of new RNA species and sequencing the microbiome transcriptome will also be discussed. We will end with a summary of novel findings in RNA capping and the questions these findings pose.

  18. Stochastic mRNA synthesis in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Raj, Arjun; Peskin, Charles S; Tranchina, Daniel; Vargas, Diana Y; Tyagi, Sanjay

    2006-10-01

    Individual cells in genetically homogeneous populations have been found to express different numbers of molecules of specific proteins. We investigated the origins of these variations in mammalian cells by counting individual molecules of mRNA produced from a reporter gene that was stably integrated into the cell's genome. We found that there are massive variations in the number of mRNA molecules present in each cell. These variations occur because mRNAs are synthesized in short but intense bursts of transcription beginning when the gene transitions from an inactive to an active state and ending when they transition back to the inactive state. We show that these transitions are intrinsically random and not due to global, extrinsic factors such as the levels of transcriptional activators. Moreover, the gene activation causes burst-like expression of all genes within a wider genomic locus. We further found that bursts are also exhibited in the synthesis of natural genes. The bursts of mRNA expression can be buffered at the protein level by slow protein degradation rates. A stochastic model of gene activation and inactivation was developed to explain the statistical properties of the bursts. The model showed that increasing the level of transcription factors increases the average size of the bursts rather than their frequency. These results demonstrate that gene expression in mammalian cells is subject to large, intrinsically random fluctuations and raise questions about how cells are able to function in the face of such noise. PMID:17048983

  19. mRNA capping: biological functions and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Anand; Robb, G. Brett; Chan, Siu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The 5′ m7G cap is an evolutionarily conserved modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Decades of research have established that the m7G cap serves as a unique molecular module that recruits cellular proteins and mediates cap-related biological functions such as pre-mRNA processing, nuclear export and cap-dependent protein synthesis. Only recently has the role of the cap 2′O methylation as an identifier of self RNA in the innate immune system against foreign RNA has become clear. The discovery of the cytoplasmic capping machinery suggests a novel level of control network. These new findings underscore the importance of a proper cap structure in the synthesis of functional messenger RNA. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the biological roles of mRNA caps in eukaryotic cells. We will also discuss different means that viruses and their host cells use to cap their RNA and the application of these capping machineries to synthesize functional mRNA. Novel applications of RNA capping enzymes in the discovery of new RNA species and sequencing the microbiome transcriptome will also be discussed. We will end with a summary of novel findings in RNA capping and the questions these findings pose. PMID:27317694

  20. Crystal Structures of SgcE6 and SgcC, the Two-Component Monooxygenase That Catalyzes Hydroxylation of a Carrier Protein-Tethered Substrate during the Biosynthesis of the Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotic C-1027 in Streptomyces globisporus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Yuan; Lohman, Jeremy R; Cao, Hongnan; Tan, Kemin; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Ma, Ming; Xu, Weijun; Bingman, Craig A; Yennamalli, Ragothaman M; Bigelow, Lance; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Yan, Xiaohui; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N; Shen, Ben

    2016-09-13

    C-1027 is a chromoprotein enediyne antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces globisporus. In the last step of biosynthesis of the (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-β-tyrosine moiety of the C-1027 enediyne chromophore, SgcE6 and SgcC compose a two-component monooxygenase that hydroxylates the C-5 position of (S)-3-chloro-β-tyrosine. This two-component monooxygenase is remarkable for two reasons. (i) SgcE6 specifically reacts with FAD and NADH, and (ii) SgcC is active with only the peptidyl carrier protein (PCP)-tethered substrate. To address the molecular details of substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structures of SgcE6 and SgcC at 1.66 and 2.63 Å resolution, respectively. SgcE6 shares a similar β-barrel fold with the class I HpaC-like flavin reductases. A flexible loop near the active site of SgcE6 plays a role in FAD binding, likely by providing sufficient space to accommodate the AMP moiety of FAD, when compared to that of FMN-utilizing homologues. SgcC shows structural similarity to a few other known FADH2-dependent monooxygenases and sheds light on some biochemically but not structurally characterized homologues. The crystal structures reported here provide insights into substrate specificity, and comparison with homologues provides a catalytic mechanism of the two-component, FADH2-dependent monooxygenase (SgcE6 and SgcC) that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a PCP-tethered substrate. PMID:27560143

  1. Protein engineering of toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 for oxidizing nitrobenzene to 3-nitrocatechol, 4-nitrocatechol, and nitrohydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Gönül; Ryu, Kang; Wood, Thomas K

    2005-01-26

    Toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 was found to oxidize nitrobenzene (NB) to form m-nitrophenol (m-NP, 72%) and p-NP (28%) with an initial rate of 0.098 and 0.031 nmol/(min mg protein), respectively. It was also discovered that wild-type ToMO forms 4-nitrocatechol (4-NC) from m-NP and p-NP with an initial rate of 0.15 and 0.0082 nmol/(min mg protein), respectively, and 3-NC (12%) and nitrohydroquinone (NHQ, 88%) from o-NP with an initial rate of 0.11 and 0.8 nmol/(min mg protein), respectively. To increase the oxidation rate and alter the oxidation regiospecificity of nitro aromatics as well as to study the role of the active site residues I100, Q141, T201, and F205 of the alpha hydroxylase fragment of ToMO (TouA), DNA shuffling and saturation mutagenesis were used to generate random mutants. The mutants were initially identified by screening via a rapid agar plate assay and then were further examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Several mutants with higher rates of activities and with different regiospecificities were identified; for example, Escherichia coli TG1 cells expressing either TouA mutant M180T/E284G or E214G/D312N/M399V produce 4-NC 4.5- and 20-fold faster than wild-type ToMO (0.037 and 0.16 nmol/min mg protein from p-NP, respectively). TouA mutant A107T/E214A had the regiospecificity of NB changed significantly from 28% to 79% p-NP. From 200 microM NB, TouA variants A101T/M114T, A110T/E392D, M180T/E284G, and E214G/D312N/M399V produce 4-NC whereas wild-type ToMO does not. From m-NP, TouA mutant I100Q produces 4-NC (37%) and NHQ (63%), whereas wild-type ToMO produces only 4-NC (100%). Variant A107T/E214A acts like a para enzyme and forms p-cresol as the major product (93%) from toluene with enhanced activity (2.3-fold), whereas wild-type ToMO forms 32%, 21%, and 47% of o-, m-, and p-cresol, respectively. Hence, the non-specific ToMO was converted into a regiospecific enzyme

  2. Dynamics of tRNA translocation, mRNA translocation and tRNA dissociation during ribosome translation through mRNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping

    2014-07-01

    The ribosome can translate through the duplex region or secondary structure of mRNA. Recent single-molecule experimental data showed that downstream mRNA secondary structures have more sensitive effects on deacylated tRNA dissociation from the E site than on tRNA translocation in the 50S subunit. However, it is unclear how the downstream mRNA secondary structure can affect the tRNA dissociation from the E site, which is distant from the secondary structure. Here, based on our proposed ribosomal translocation model, we theoretically study the dynamics of tRNA translocation in the 50S subunit, mRNA translocation and tRNA dissociation, giving quantitative explanations of the single-molecule experimental data. It is shown that the effect of the downstream mRNA secondary structure on tRNA dissociation is via the effect on mRNA translocation, while the mRNA secondary structure has no effect on the rate of deacylated tRNA dissociation from the posttranslocation state. The slow mRNA translocation, which results in slow tRNA dissociation, derives from the occurrence of the futile transition, which is induced by the energy barrier from base pair unwinding to resist the forward translocation. The reduced translation rate through the mRNA secondary structure is induced by the slow mRNA translocation rather than the slow tRNA dissociation.

  3. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes.

    PubMed

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Porollo, Aleksey; Lam, Ying Wai; Grimmett, Paul E; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons, albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was found to possess a broad oxidizing capability toward structurally diverse hydrocarbons belonging to mutagenic/carcinogenic fused-ring higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs), endocrine-disrupting long-chain alkylphenols (APs), and crude oil aliphatic hydrocarbon n-alkanes. A homology-based three-dimensional (3D) model revealed the presence of an extraordinarily large active-site cavity in CYP63A2 compared to the mammalian PAH-oxidizing (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) and bacterial aliphatic-hydrocarbon-oxidizing (CYP101D and CYP102A1) P450s. This structural feature in conjunction with ligand docking simulations suggested potential versatility of the enzyme. Experimental characterization using recombinantly expressed CYP63A2 revealed its ability to oxidize HMW-PAHs of various ring sizes, including 4 rings (pyrene and fluoranthene), 5 rings [benzo(a)pyrene], and 6 rings [benzo(ghi)perylene], with the highest enzymatic activity being toward the 5-ring PAH followed by the 4-ring and 6-ring PAHs, in that order. Recombinant CYP63A2 activity yielded monohydroxylated PAH metabolites. The enzyme was found to also act as an alkane ω-hydroxylase that oxidized n-alkanes with various chain lengths (C9 to C12 and C15 to C19), as well as alkyl side chains (C3 to C9) in alkylphenols (APs). CYP63A2 showed preferential oxidation of long-chain APs and alkanes. To our knowledge, this is the first P450 identified from any of the biological kingdoms that possesses such broad substrate specificity toward structurally diverse xenobiotics (PAHs, APs, and alkanes), making it a potent enzyme biocatalyst candidate to handle mixed pollution (e.g., crude oil spills).

  4. X-ray Structure of a Hydroxylase–Regulatory Protein Complex from a Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Multicomponent Monooxygenase, Pseudomonas sp. OX1 Phenol Hydroxylase†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Sazinsky, Matthew H.; Dunten, Pete W.; McCormick, Michael S.; DiDonato, Alberto; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Phenol hydroxylase (PH) belongs to a family of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) with carboxylate-bridged diiron active sites. Included are toluene/o-xylene (ToMO) and soluble methane (sMMO) monooxygenase. PH hydroxylates aromatic compounds, but unlike sMMO, it cannot oxidize alkanes despite having a similar dinuclear iron active site. Important for activity is formation of a complex between the hydroxylase and a regulatory protein component. To address how structural features of BMM hydroxylases and their component complexes may facilitate the catalytic mechanism and choice of substrate, we determined X-ray structures of native and SeMet forms of the PH hydroxylase (PHH) in complex with its regulatory protein (PHM) to 2.3 Å resolution. PHM binds in a canyon on one side of the (αβγ)2 PHH dimer, contacting α-subunit helices A, E, and F ∼12 Å above the diiron core. The structure of the dinuclear iron center in PHH resembles that of mixed-valent MMOH, suggesting an Fe(II)Fe(III) oxidation state. Helix E, which comprises part of the iron-coordinating four-helix bundle, has more π-helical character than analogous E helices in MMOH and ToMOH lacking a bound regulatory protein. Consequently, conserved active site Thr and Asn residues translocate to the protein surface, and an ∼6 Å pore opens through the four-helix bundle. Of likely functional significance is a specific hydrogen bond formed between this Asn residue and a conserved Ser side chain on PHM. The PHM protein covers a putative docking site on PHH for the PH reductase, which transfers electrons to the PHH diiron center prior to O2 activation, suggesting that the regulatory component may function to block undesired reduction of oxygenated intermediates during the catalytic cycle. A series of hydrophobic cavities through the PHH α-subunit, analogous to those in MMOH, may facilitate movement of the substrate to and/or product from the active site pocket. Comparisons between the ToMOH and PHH

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic transport: the influenza virus NS1 protein regulates the transport of spliced NS2 mRNA and its precursor NS1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Caplen, F V; Nemeroff, M E; Qiu, Y; Krug, R M

    1992-02-01

    Influenza virus unspliced NS1 mRNA, like retroviral pre-mRNAs, is efficiently exported from the nucleus and translated in the cytoplasm of infected cells. With human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the transport of viral pre-mRNAs is facilitated by the viral Rev protein. We tested the possibility that the influenza virus NS1 protein, a nuclear protein that is encoded by unspliced NS1 mRNA, has the same function as the HIV Rev protein. Surprisingly, using transient transfection assays, we found that rather than facilitating the nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced NS1 mRNA, the NS1 protein inhibited the transport of NS2 mRNA, the spliced mRNA generated from NS1 mRNA. The efficient transport of NS2 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm occurred only when the synthesis of the NS1 protein was abrogated by amber mutations. The NS1 protein down-regulated the export of NS2 mRNA whether or not it was generated by splicing, indicating that the NS1 protein acted directly on transport. Actinomycin D chase experiments verified that the NS1 protein acted on the transport and not on the differential stability of NS2 mRNA in the nucleus as compared to the cytoplasm. In addition, the NS1 protein inhibited the transport of NS1 mRNA itself, which contains all of the sequences in NS2 mRNA, particularly when NS1 mRNA was released from the splicing machinery by mutating its 3'-splice site. Our results indicate that the NS1 protein-mediated inhibition of transport requires sequences in NS2 mRNA. The transport of the viral PB1 protein, nucleocapsid protein, hemagglutinin, membrane protein, and M2 mRNAs was not affected by the NS1 protein. When the NS2 mRNA sequence was covalently attached to the PB1 mRNA, the transport of the chimeric mRNA was inhibited by the NS1 protein. Our results identify a novel function of the influenza virus NS1 protein and demonstrate that post-transcriptional control of gene expression can also occur at the level of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a

  6. Procollagen mRNA metabolism during the fibroblast cell cycle and its synthesis in transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, I; Fitschen, W

    1980-06-25

    Procollagen mRNA was isolated from mouse embryos and used for the synthesis of a highly labelled cDNA probe complementary to collagen mRNA. This probe was used for the investigation of procollagen mRNA metabolism during the cell cycle of 3T6 mouse embryo fibroblasts in culture. Titration hybridization experiments revealed that procollagen mRNA was present throughout the cell cycle following stumulation of confluent monolayers. Procollagen mRNA levels of sparse cultures appeared similar to those of unstimulated monolayers. The fluctuating levels of collagen synthesis during the cell cycle can be ascribed to changes in the amount of collagen mRNA present. In mouse sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells only 20--30% of the amount of procollagen mRNA in 3T3 cells is present indicating that the decline in collagen synthesis is due to mRNA availability.

  7. Polysome analysis for determining mRNA and ribosome association in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenqian; Coller, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The control of mRNA translation is vital for gene expression and it is regulated under various physiological and pathological conditions (Groppo and Richter, 2009). For example, under some physiological conditions, translational initiation is impaired. Therefore, the association of mRNA with ribosomes and/or ribosomal subunits can provide a powerful means to dissect specific aspects of posttranscriptional mRNA regulation. This protocol describes a technique used to determine ribosome occupancy on mRNA.

  8. Conceptual Modeling of mRNA Decay Provokes New Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Somekh, Judith; Haimovich, Gal; Guterman, Adi; Dori, Dov; Choder, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    Biologists are required to integrate large amounts of data to construct a working model of the system under investigation. This model is often informal and stored mentally or textually, making it prone to contain undetected inconsistencies, inaccuracies, or even contradictions, not much less than a representation in free natural language. Using Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a formal yet visual and humanly accessible conceptual modeling language, we have created an executable working model of the mRNA decay process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the import of its components to the nucleus following mRNA decay. We show how our model, which incorporates knowledge from 43 articles, can reproduce outcomes that match the experimental findings, evaluate hypotheses, and predict new possible outcomes. Moreover, we were able to analyze the effects of the mRNA decay model perturbations related to gene and interaction deletions, and predict the nuclear import of certain decay factors, which we then verified experimentally. In particular, we verified experimentally the hypothesis that Rpb4p, Lsm1p, and Pan2p remain bound to the RNA 3′-untralslated region during the entire process of the 5′ to 3′ degradation of the RNA open reading frame. The model has also highlighted erroneous hypotheses that indeed were not in line with the experimental outcomes. Beyond the scientific value of these specific findings, this work demonstrates the value of the conceptual model as an in silico vehicle for hypotheses generation and testing, which can reinforce, and often even replace, risky, costlier wet lab experiments. PMID:25255440

  9. Cistanches Herba aqueous extract affecting serum BGP and TRAP and bone marrow Smad1 mRNA, Smad5 mRNA, TGF-β1 mRNA and TIEG1 mRNA expression levels in osteoporosis disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Dong; Yu, Fang; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Liang, Wu

    2013-02-01

    We studied molecular mechanism of Cistanches Herba aqueous extract (CHAE) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, as an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female rats were either sham-operated or bilaterally OVX; and at 60 days postoperatively. The OVX group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy and treatment with normal saline for 90 days commencing from 20th post ovariectomy day. The ovariectomized +CHAE (OVX + CHAE) group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy and were treated with Cistanches Herba aqueous extract of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 22nd post ovariectomy day. The ovariectomy +CHAE (OVX + CHAE) group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy, and were treated with the of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 20th post ovariectomy day. Serum BGP and TRAP, E2, FSH and LH level, bone marrow Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA expression levels were examined. Results showed that serum BGP and TRAP, FSH and LH levels were significantly increased, whereas E2, Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA and proteins expression levels were significantly decreased in OVX rats compared to sham rats. 90 days of CHAE treatment could significantly decrease serum BGP and TRAP, FSH and LH levels, and increase E2, Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA and proteins expression levels in OVX rats. It can be concluded that CHAE play its protective effect against OVX-induced bone degeneration partly by regulating some bone metabolism related genes, e.g. Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1.

  10. The Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Gene and Essential Hypertension: The Joint Effect of Polymorphism E158K and Cigarette Smoking on Disease Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bushueva, Olga; Solodilova, Maria; Churnosov, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir; Polonikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Gene encoding flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), a microsomal antioxidant defense enzyme, has been suggested to contribute to essential hypertension (EH). The present study was designed to investigate whether common functional polymorphism E158K (rs2266782) of the FMO3 gene is associated with EH susceptibility in a Russian population. A total of 2 995 unrelated subjects from Kursk (1 362 EH patients and 843 healthy controls) and Belgorod (357 EH patients and 422 population controls) regions of Central Russia were recruited for this study. DNA samples from all study participants were genotyped for the FMO3 gene polymorphism through PCR followed by RFLP analysis. We found that the polymorphism E158K is associated with increased risk of essential hypertension in both discovery population from Kursk region (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.09-1.69, P = 0.01) and replication population from Belgorod region (OR 1.54 95% CI 1.07-1.89, P = 0.02) after adjustment for gender and age using logistic regression analysis. Further analysis showed that the increased hypertension risk in carriers of genotype 158KK gene occurred in cigarette smokers, whereas nonsmoker carriers of this genotype did not show the disease risk. This is the first study reporting the association of the FMO3 gene polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:25243081

  11. Metabolism of methoxychlor by the P450-monooxygenase CYP6G1 involved in insecticide resistance of Drosophila melanogaster after expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Joussen, Nicole; Schuphan, Ingolf; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6G1 of Drosophila melanogaster was heterologously expressed in a cell suspension culture of Nicotiana tabacum. This in vitro system was used to study the capability of CYP6G1 to metabolize the insecticide methoxychlor (=1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, 1) against the background of endogenous enzymes of the corresponding non-transgenic culture. The Cyp6g1-transgenic cell culture metabolized 96% of applied methoxychlor (45.8 microg per assay) within 24 h by demethylation and hydroxylation mainly to trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor (16 and 17%, resp.). About 34% of the metabolism and the distinct formation of trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor were due to foreign enzyme CYP6G1. Furthermore, methoxychlor metabolism was inhibited by 43% after simultaneous addition of piperonyl butoxide (458 microg), whereas inhibition in the non-transgenic culture amounted to 92%. Additionally, the rate of glycosylation was reduced in both cultures. These results were supported by the inhibition of the metabolism of the insecticide imidacloprid (6; 20 microg, 24 h) in the Cyp6g1-transgenic culture by 82% in the presence of piperonyl butoxide (200 microg). Due to CYP6G1 being responsible for imidacloprid resistance of Drosophila or being involved in DDT resistance, it is likely that CYP6G1 conveys resistance to methoxychlor (1). Furthermore, treating Drosophila with piperonyl butoxide could weaken the observed resistance phenomena.

  12. Enhanced production of epsilon-caprolactone by overexpression of NADPH-regenerating glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in recombinant Escherichia coli harboring cyclohexanone monooxygenase gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Jin-Byung; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2007-08-01

    Whole-cell conversion of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone was attempted by recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIMB 9871. High concentrations of cyclohexanone and epsilon-caprolactone reduced CHMO-mediated bioconversion of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone in the resting recombinant E. coli cells. Metabolically active cells were employed by adopting a fed-batch culture to improve the production of epsilon-caprolactone from cyclohexanone. A glucose-limited fed-batch Baeyer-Villiger oxidation where a cyclohexanone level was maintained less than 6 g/l resulted in a maximum epsilon-caprolactone concentration of 11.0 g/l. The maximum epsilon-caprolactone concentration was improved further to 15.3 g/l by coexpression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an NADPH-generating enzyme encoded by the zwf gene which corresponded to a 39% enhancement in epsilon-caprolactone concentration compared with the control experiment performed under the same conditions.

  13. Role of active oxygen species in the photodestruction of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and associated monooxygenases by hematoporphyrin derivative in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Das, M.; Dixit, R.; Mukhtar, H.; Bickers, D.R.

    1985-02-01

    The cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with hematoporphyrin derivative was shown to be rapidly destroyed in the presence of long-wave ultraviolet light. The photocatalytic destruction of the heme-protein was dependent on both the dose of ultraviolet light and of hematoporphyrin derivative administered to the animals. The destructive reaction was accompanied by increased formation of cytochrome P-420, loss of microsomal heme content, and diminished catalytic activity of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases such as aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase. The specificity of the effect on cytochrome P-450 was confirmed by the observation that other heme-containing moieties such as myoglobin and cytochrome c were not susceptible to photocatalytic destruction. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 was a photodynamic process requiring oxygen since quenchers of singlet oxygen, including 2,5-dimethylfuran, histidine, and beta-carotene, each substantially diminished the reaction. Scavengers of superoxide anion such as superoxide dismutase and of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ such as catalase did not protect against photodestruction of cytochrome P-450, whereas inhibitors of the hydroxyl radical, including benzoate, mannitol, and ethyl alcohol, did afford protection. These results indicate that lipid-rich microsomal membranes and the heme-protein cytochrome P-450 embedded therein are potential targets of injury in cells exposed to hematoporphyrin derivative photosensitization.

  14. Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction, an Herbal Preparation, Inhibits Clozapine Metabolism via Cytochrome P450s, but Not Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase in In Vitro Models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tian, Dan-Dan; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Di; Tan, Qing-Rong; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Our previous studies have shown the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanisms of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD), an herbal preparation, in treating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in cultured cells, animal models, and human subjects. In the present study, we further evaluated pharmacokinetic interactions of PGD with clozapine (CLZ) in human liver microsomes (HLM), recombinantly expressed cytochrome P450s (P450s), and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs). CLZ metabolites, N-demethyl-clozapine and clozapine-N-oxide, were measured. PGD, individual peony and glycyrrhiza preparations, and the two individual preparations in combination reduced production of CLZ metabolites to different extents in HLM. While the known bioactive constituents of PGD play a relatively minor role in the kinetic effects of PGD on P450 activity, PGD as a whole had a weak-to-moderate inhibitory potency toward P450s, in particular CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. FMOs are less actively involved in mediating CLZ metabolism and the PGD inhibition of CLZ. These results suggest that PGD has the capacity to suppress CLZ metabolism in the human liver microsomal system. This suppression is principally associated with the inhibition of related P450 activity but not FMOs. The present study provides in vitro evidence of herb-antipsychotic interactions.

  15. The small-scale production of [U-14C]acetylene from Ba14CO3: application to labeling of ammonia monooxygenase in autotrophic nitrifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hyman, M R; Arp, D J

    1990-11-01

    A small-scale method has been adapted from an established procedure for the generation of [U-14C]acetylene from inexpensive and commonly available precursors. The method involves the fusing of Ba14CO3 with excess barium metal to produce Ba14C2. The BaC2 is reacted with water to generate acetylene which is then selectively dissolved into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results presented demonstrate the effect of Ba:BaCO3 ratio on the concentrations of various gases released during the hydrolysis reaction and quantify the selectivity of the DMSO-trapping process for each gas. [U-14C]Acetylene generated by this method has been used to inactivate ammonia monooxygenase in three species of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrosococcus oceanus, and Nitrosolobus multiformis. Our results demonstrate that acetylene inactivation of this enzyme in all three species results in the covalent incorporation of radioactive label into a polypeptide of apparent Mr of 25,000-27,000, as determined by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. PMID:2291478

  16. The Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Gene and Essential Hypertension: The Joint Effect of Polymorphism E158K and Cigarette Smoking on Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bushueva, Olga; Solodilova, Maria; Churnosov, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir; Polonikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Gene encoding flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), a microsomal antioxidant defense enzyme, has been suggested to contribute to essential hypertension (EH). The present study was designed to investigate whether common functional polymorphism E158K (rs2266782) of the FMO3 gene is associated with EH susceptibility in a Russian population. A total of 2 995 unrelated subjects from Kursk (1 362 EH patients and 843 healthy controls) and Belgorod (357 EH patients and 422 population controls) regions of Central Russia were recruited for this study. DNA samples from all study participants were genotyped for the FMO3 gene polymorphism through PCR followed by RFLP analysis. We found that the polymorphism E158K is associated with increased risk of essential hypertension in both discovery population from Kursk region (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.09–1.69, P = 0.01) and replication population from Belgorod region (OR 1.54 95% CI 1.07–1.89, P = 0.02) after adjustment for gender and age using logistic regression analysis. Further analysis showed that the increased hypertension risk in carriers of genotype 158KK gene occurred in cigarette smokers, whereas nonsmoker carriers of this genotype did not show the disease risk. This is the first study reporting the association of the FMO3 gene polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:25243081

  17. Molecular Insight into Substrate Recognition and Catalysis of Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase MtmOIV, the Key Frame-Modifying Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of Anticancer Agent Mithramycin

    SciTech Connect

    Bosserman, Mary A.; Downey, Theresa; Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan K.; Rohr, Jürgen

    2014-02-14

    Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) have been shown to play key roles for the biosynthesis of important natural products. MtmOIV, a homodimeric FAD- and NADPH-dependent BVMO, catalyzes the key frame-modifying steps of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway, including an oxidative C–C bond cleavage, by converting its natural substrate premithramycin B into mithramycin DK, the immediate precursor of mithramycin. The drastically improved protein structure of MtmOIV along with the high-resolution structure of MtmOIV in complex with its natural substrate premithramycin B are reported here, revealing previously undetected key residues that are important for substrate recognition and catalysis. Kinetic analyses of selected mutants allowed us to probe the substrate binding pocket of MtmOIV and also to discover the putative NADPH binding site. This is the first substrate-bound structure of MtmOIV providing new insights into substrate recognition and catalysis, which paves the way for the future design of a tailored enzyme for the chemo-enzymatic preparation of novel mithramycin analogues.

  18. Expression of an alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene and methyl tert-butyl ether co-metabolic oxidation in Pseudomonas citronellolis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Ana Luisa; Sigala, Juan Carlos; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Morales, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas citronellolis UAM-Ps1 co-metabolically transforms methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to tert-butyl alcohol with n-pentane (2.6 mM), n-octane (1.5 mM) or dicyclopropylketone (DCPK) (4.4 mM), a gratuitous inducer of alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) activity. The reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify the alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene expression. The alkB gene was expressed in the presence of n-alkanes and DCPK and MTBE oxidation occurred only in cultures when alkB was transcribed. A correlation between the number of alkB transcripts and MTBE consumption was found (ΜΤΒΕ consumption in μmol = 1.44e(-13) x DNA copies, R(2) = 0.99) when MTBE (0.84 mM) was added. Furthermore, alkB was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli and the recombinant AlkB had a molecular weight of 42 kDa. This is the first report where the expression of alkB is related to the co-metabolic oxidation of MTBE. PMID:25432418

  19. Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases EthA and MymA Are Required for Activation of Replicating and Non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Grant, Sarah Schmidt; Wellington, Samantha; Kawate, Tomohiko; Desjardins, Christopher A; Silvis, Melanie R; Wivagg, Carl; Thompson, Matthew; Gordon, Katherine; Kazyanskaya, Edward; Nietupski, Raymond; Haseley, Nathan; Iwase, Noriaki; Earl, Ashlee M; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hung, Deborah T

    2016-06-23

    Successful treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection typically requires a complex regimen administered over at least 6 months. Interestingly, many of the antibiotics used to treat M. tuberculosis are prodrugs that require intracellular activation. Here, we describe three small molecules, active against both replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis, that require activation by Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs). Two molecules require BVMO EthA (Rv3854c) for activation and the third molecule requires the BVMO MymA (Rv3083). While EthA is known to activate the antitubercular drug ethionamide, this is the first description of MymA as an activating enzyme of a prodrug. Furthermore, we found that MymA also plays a role in activating ethionamide, with loss of MymA function resulting in ethionamide-resistant M. tuberculosis. These findings suggest overlap in function and specificity of the BVMOs in M. tuberculosis. PMID:27321573

  20. Formaldehyde production promoted by rat nasal cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases with nasal decongestants, essences, solvents, air pollutants, nicotine, and cocaine as substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Hadley, W.M.

    1983-02-01

    To identify compounds which might be metabolized to formaldehyde in the nasal cavity, 32 potential substrates for cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases were screened with rat nasal and, for comparison, liver microsomes. Tested substrates included 6 nasal decongestants, cocaine, nicotine, 9 essences, 3 potential air pollutants, and 12 solvents. Each test substrate, with the possible exception of the air pollutants, contained one or more N-methyl, O-methyl, or S-methyl groups. Eighteen of the tested materials were metabolized to produce formaldehyde by nasal microsomes. Five substrates, namely, the solvents HMPA and dimethylaniline, cocaine, and the essences dimethyl anthranilate and p-methoxyacetophenone, were metabolized to produce formaldehyde at rates exceeding 1000 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min by nasal microsomes. Eight substrates, including four nasal decongestants, nicotine, and an extract of diesel exhaust particles, were metabolized to produce formaldehyde at rates of 200 to 1000 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min. Five other substrates were metabolized to formaldehyde at detectable rates. The results indicate that a variety of materials which often come in contact with the nasal mucosa can be metabolized to formaldehyde by nasal enzymes. The released formaldehyde may influence the irritancy of inhaled compounds and has been suggested to play a role in the tumorigenicity of some compounds.

  1. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-W.; Melancon, M.J.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3 and 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD) and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD and PROD were not elevated at doses ? 0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05), but were significantly increased at doses ? 2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). The increased activity of these four enzymes ranged from 3to 6.4fold relative to control levels. The increased activities were maintained for at least four weeks. Due to a lack of induction at low doses of PCB 126, which were still relatively high compared to currentlyknown environmental concentrations, we suspect that EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD activities are not sensitive biomarkers for coplanar PCB exposure in leopard frogs.

  2. Salicylic acid-independent ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 signaling in Arabidopsis immunity and cell death is regulated by the monooxygenase FMO1 and the Nudix hydrolase NUDT7.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Michael; Gobbato, Enrico; Bednarek, Pawel; Debey, Svenja; Schultze, Joachim L; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E

    2006-04-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) controls defense activation and programmed cell death conditioned by intracellular Toll-related immune receptors that recognize specific pathogen effectors. EDS1 is also needed for basal resistance to invasive pathogens by restricting the progression of disease. In both responses, EDS1, assisted by its interacting partner, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), regulates accumulation of the phenolic defense molecule salicylic acid (SA) and other as yet unidentified signal intermediates. An Arabidopsis whole genome microarray experiment was designed to identify genes whose expression depends on EDS1 and PAD4, irrespective of local SA accumulation, and potential candidates of an SA-independent branch of EDS1 defense were found. We define two new immune regulators through analysis of corresponding Arabidopsis loss-of-function insertion mutants. FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1) positively regulates the EDS1 pathway, and one member (NUDT7) of a family of cytosolic Nudix hydrolases exerts negative control of EDS1 signaling. Analysis of fmo1 and nudt7 mutants alone or in combination with sid2-1, a mutation that severely depletes pathogen-induced SA production, points to SA-independent functions of FMO1 and NUDT7 in EDS1-conditioned disease resistance and cell death. We find instead that SA antagonizes initiation of cell death and stunting of growth in nudt7 mutants.

  3. An assessment of cadmium toxicity on cytochrome P-450 and flavin monooxygenase-mediated metabolic pathways of dimethylaniline in male rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Anjum, F.; Raman, A.; Shakoori, A.R.; Gorrod, J.W. )

    1992-07-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant and its effect on the in vitro metabolism of N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) using male rabbits was investigated. Activities of cytochrome P-450 and FMO-dependent monooxygenases were studied using hepatic microsomes. Following CdCl2 (i.p.) administration (6 mg/kg/day for 6 days), both DMA-N-oxidation and DMA-N-demethylation decreased by 86%. The effects of CdCl2 on the phenobarbitone (PB)-induced form of P-450 were also studied. Intraperitoneal pretreatment of rabbits with PB (5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) increased N-demethylation by 82%, while N-oxidation decreased by 49%. Both reactions decreased significantly on additional treatment with CdCl2. Promethazine (5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) did not produce any change in the activities of either enzyme. The enzymes remained unaffected by CdCl2 treatment in promethazine-pretreated animals thus confirming its role as a hepatoprotective agent.

  4. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    In the past decade, biochemical and physiological characteristics such as hepatic detoxifying system. DNA adducts, thyroid malfunction, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition have been used extensively as biomarkers for contaminant exposure. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 m corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD), and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD were not elevated at doses {le}0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05) but were significantly increased at doses {ge}2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). The increased activities of these four enzymes were 3 to 6.4 times those in the control groups. The increased activities were maintained for at least 4 weeks. Because of a lack of induction at low doses of PCB 126, which were still relatively high compared to currently known environmental concentration, the authors suspect that EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD activities are not sensitive biomarkers for coplanar PCB exposure in leopard frogs.

  5. Monitoring the alkane monooxygenase gene alkB in different soil interfaces during plant litter degradation of C3 and C4 plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, S.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrocarbons like n-alkanes are ubiquitous in the environment as a result of anthropogenic contamination (e.g. oil spills) as well as a part of an ecosystem's biomass. For example n-alkanes become released during plant litter degradation; consequently they become a high abundant carbon source for microorganism. One possibility for the prokaryotic hydrocarbon metabolisation is an aerobic degradation pathway where the initial step is catalysed by the membrane bound alkane monooxygenase alkB. We analyse